Sample records for relief tornado alley

  1. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    DeBusk, Wesley M.


    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  2. Alley Farming in Thailand

    Teerapol Silakul


    Full Text Available Poverty alleviation and environmental preservation are very important issues to many governments. Alley farming is beneficial to the environment because it conserves soil and sustains yields over time. Specifically, alley farming reduces soil erosion, which is a major problem in Thailand. Alley farming was conducted on a farmer’s field at Khaokwan Thong, a village in Uthaithani Province, Northern Thailand. We did a two-by-two factorial with and without alley farming, and with and without fertilizer. From this study, we observed that the two species used, Leucaena leucocephala and Acacia auriculiformis, grow well in Thailand, and that alley farming is suitable for Thailand. Few Thai farmers have heard about alley farming. However, it is nevertheless useful to know that there is potential for alley farming in Thailand using the two species. These plants, based upon the diameter and height measurements provided, grew well.

  3. Tornado lift

    Ivanchin, Alexander


    It is shown that one of the causes for tornado is Tornado Lift. At increasing vortex diameter its kinetic energy decreases to keep the moment of momentum constant. A kinetic energy gradient of such vortex is Tornado Lift. Evaluation shows that contribution of Tornado Lift in air lifting in a tornado is comparable to buoyancy according to the order of magnitude.

  4. Okla. Tornado Renews Debate on Storm Safety

    Shah, Nirvi


    As soon as the winds that left seven students in Moore, Okla., dead last month had calmed, and more storms blew through the same area less than two weeks later, questions about the safety of schools in a region labeled Tornado Alley rose amid the rubble. While better design of new schools and thorough emergency training and practice may be in…

  5. The Tornado.

    Snow, John T.


    Although tornadoes have been one of the most elusive phenomena in meteorology, new observation techniques are now revealing how they are spawned by thunderstorms. Tornado structure and formation, thunderstorms, tornadic thunderstorms, and the evolution and structure of such thunderstorms are considered. Why the Midwest has frequent tornadoes is…

  6. Introduction of Alley Cropping

    Sugeng Parmadi


    Full Text Available One of the efforts to preserve the sources of vegetarian, soil, and water is to rehabilitate the land and soil conservation. The aim of this rehabilitation is increasing and maintaining the produtivity of the land, so it can be preserved and used optimally. Therefore, it is necessary to a  develop a variety of good soil conservation, such as vegetative method and civil engineering. To find an appropriate technology, so it is necessary to develop some alternatives of soil conservation technique that are mainly implemented at dry land with its slope of more than 15% in the upstream area of discharge. One of the most suitable soil conservation technique today is Alley Cropping. Based on the research (trial and error in some areas, Alley Cropping could really provide a positive result in terms of erotion controlling and running off and maintain the land productivity. In addition, the technique is more easly operated and spends a cheaper cost than making a bench terrace.

  7. Tornado Chasing.

    Faidley, Warren


    Presents the rationale and purposes behind the phenomenon known as storm chasing, as well as the contributions that tornado chasers have made to both scientific knowledge and public safety. Provides statistical information on tornado frequencies and locations and contact addresses for storm chasers. (JJK)

  8. Tornado Mechanics


    The Nimbus and other weather satellites are helping determine why and how tornadoes form their structure and dynamics and ultimately how they can be prevented or artificially dissipated. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is also planning a cooperative research program later this year with the University of Arkansas to investigate how tornado damage occurs, and to develop tornado resistant building designs. Hardware and field-data collection are funded by the Technology Utilization Office while data reduction is being performed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

  9. Touchable Tornadoes

    Gilhousen, David


    In this article, the author discusses a tornado-producing machine that he used in teacher-led, student assisted demonstrations in order to reinforce concepts learned during a unit on weather. The machine, or simulator, was powered by a hair dryer, fan, and cool-mist humidifier. The machine consists of a demonstration table containing a plenum box,…

  10. Tame a Tornado

    Cronin, Jim


    The author was looking for a demonstration that actually used wind shear forces to set up the tornado effect when he saw a video produced by The Tornado Project called "Secrets of the Tornado". This video not only shows dozens of actual tornadoes, but also gives construction techniques for several different styles of tornado boxes that are…

  11. Alfvenic tornadoes

    Shukla, P K


    It is shown that a three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (m-KAWs) can propagate in the form of Alfv\\'enic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). By using the two fluid model, together with Amp\\`ere's law, we derive the wave equation for a 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with $m_e/m_i \\ll \\beta \\ll 1$, where $m_e$ $(m_i)$ is the electron (ion) mass, $\\beta =4 \\pi n_0 k_B (T_e + T_i)/B_0^2$, $n_0$ the unperturbed plasma number density, $k_B$ the Boltzmann constant, $T_e (T_e)$ the electron (ion) temperature, and $B_0$ the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The 3D m-KAW equation admits solutions in the form of a Laguerre-Gauss (LG) Alfv\\'enic vortex beam or Alfv\\'enic tornadoes with plasma density whirls that support the dynamics of Alfv\\'en magnetic flux ropes.

  12. Alfvenic tornadoes

    Shukla, P. K.


    It is shown that a three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfv\\'en waves (m-KAWs) can propagate in the form of Alfv\\'enic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). By using the two fluid model, together with Amp\\`ere's law, we derive the wave equation for a 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with $m_e/m_i \\ll \\beta \\ll 1$, where $m_e$ $(m_i)$ is the electron (ion) mass, $\\beta =4 \\pi n_0 k_B (T_e + T_i)/B_0^2$, $n_0$ the unpert...

  13. On the temporal and spatial characteristics of tornado days in the United States

    Moore, Todd W.


    More tornadoes are produced per year in the United States than in any other country, and these tornadoes have produced tremendous losses of life and property. Understanding how tornado activity will respond to climate change is important if we wish to prepare for future changes. Trends in various tornado and tornado day characteristics, including their annual frequencies, their temporal variability, and their spatial distributions, have been reported in the past few years. This study contributes to this body of literature by further analyzing the temporal and spatial characteristics of tornado days in the United States. The analyses performed in this study support previously reported findings in addition to providing new perspectives, including that the temporal trends are observed only in low-frequency and high-frequency tornado days and that the eastward shift in tornado activity is produced, in part, by the increasing number of high-frequency tornado days, which tend to occur to the east of the traditionally depicted tornado alley in the Great Plains.

  14. Weather Advisory: Tornados | Poster

    Summer months carry the threat of severe storms and tornados in our area. Take a few moments to consider how well you are prepared in the event of a tornado warning. The time to prepare for a tornado is before it happens. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) provides information on how to prepare and what to do in the event of a tornado. Take a few moments to read the important safety information FEMA has assembled: Sign Up for Text Alerts from Frederick County You can also sign up for text alerts to your cell phone from Frederick County at

  15. Tornadoes of china

    Zixiu, Xu; Pengyun, Wang; Xuefang, Lin

    While the most important severe convective weather phenomenon in China is hail, the occasional tornadoes that do occur can inflict considerable damage. For example, on March 26, 1967, a family of 13 tornadoes occurred near Shanghai and North Zhejiang province. Along the path of this tornado outbreak, more than 10,000 homes were damaged. Several steel high-voltage power transmission towers, including some built to withstand Beaufort force 12 winds, were blown down or severely damaged.

  16. Tornado-Shaped Curves

    Martínez, Sol Sáez; de la Rosa, Félix Martínez; Rojas, Sergio


    In Advanced Calculus, our students wonder if it is possible to graphically represent a tornado by means of a three-dimensional curve. In this paper, we show it is possible by providing the parametric equations of such tornado-shaped curves.

  17. Mexico tornado climatology

    Manuel Macías Medrano


    Full Text Available A brief introduction on some features of tornado database in Mexico is exposed showing its substantive criteria. We resent a brief analysis about main Mexican tornadoes´ characteristics, based on data collected between 2000 to 2010, talking about spatial and temporal expressions (historical, seasonal and horary in order to show the importance of it destruction capacity and also the people´s vulnerability in Mexico.

  18. In Fond Memory of Rewi Alley



    Rewi Alley passed away on December 27, 1987 at the age of ninety. News of his demise came as a great shock to me, then on a diplomatic assignment in Washington, D.C. where I was serving as press counsellor of the Chinese Embassy.Even to this day I still deeply regret for not being able to attend his funeral service to bid final farewell to this great New Zealander who was not only an unflinching peace fighter but also a true internationalist who dedicated almost his entire life and who cherished boundless sympathy and love for China and the Chinese people.

  19. Condensational theory of stationary tornadoes

    Makarieva, Anastassia M; Nefiodov, Andrei V; 10.1016/j.physleta.2011.04.023


    Using the Bernoulli integral for air streamline with condensing water vapor a stationary axisymmetric tornado circulation is described. The obtained profiles of vertical, radial and tangential velocities are in agreement with observations for the Mulhall tornado, world's largest on record and longest-lived among the three tornadoes for which 3D velocity data are available. Maximum possible vortex velocities are estimated.

  20. What's Left After a Tornado.

    Lawrence Inst. of Tech., Southfield, MI.

    Following recent tornadoes, terms of specially trained architectural and engineering faculty conducted onsite examinations and research of building damage. It was concluded that tornado damage to buildings is predictable. A trained architect or engineer can establish, before a tornado strikes, those portions of the building that will offer the…

  1. Tornado from Texas.

    Vail, Kathleen


    Santa Fe School Superintendent Yvonne Gonzales, the "Texas Tornado," was hired to fix a 40% student-dropout rate and a white/Hispanic gap in achievement test scores. Gonzales is an avid integrationist; relies on humor, appeasement, and persuasion tactics; and has alienated some school employees by increasing central office…

  2. Chaotic Financial Tornadoes

    Jakimowicz, Aleksander

    In contemporary economies classic business cycles are increasingly changing their form undergoing a transformation into phenomena that have been nicknamed financial tornados. A generalization of the Lotka-Volterra model can be used to describe these fast-changing processes. Economically speaking, the most useful are such dynamical systems in which wormholes appear. This article features application of a model with one population of prey and two populations of predators in order to explain the global financial crisis and the consequent phenomena.

  3. Statistics of severe tornadoes and severe tornado outbreaks

    B. D. Malamud


    Full Text Available The standard measures of the intensity of a tornado in the USA and many other countries are the Fujita and Enhanced Fujita scales. These scales are based on the damage that a tornado causes. Another measure of the strength of a tornado is its path length of touchdown, L. In this study we consider severe tornadoes, which we define as L≥10 km, in the continental USA (USA Storm Prediction Center Severe Weather Database. We find that for the period 1982–2011, for individual severe tornadoes (L≥10 km: (i There is a strong linear scaling between the number of severe tornadoes in a year and their total path length in that year. (ii The cumulative frequency path length data suggests that, not taking into account any changing trends over time, we would expect in a given year (on average one severe tornado with a path length L≥115 km and in a decade (on average one severe tornado with a path length L≥215 km. (iii The noncumulative frequency-length statistics of severe tornado touchdown path lengths, 20<L<200 km, is well approximated by an inverse power-law relationship with exponent near 3. We then take the total path length of severe tornadoes in a convective day (12:00–12:00 UTC, LD, as a measure of the strength of a 24-h USA tornado outbreak. We find that: (i For 1982–2011, the number of severe tornadoes in a USA convective day outbreak has a strong power-law relationship (exponent 0.80 on the convective day total path length, LD. (ii For 1952–2011, the cumulative frequency path length data for severe tornado outbreaks suggests that we would expect in a given year (on average one daily severe tornado outbreak with total path length LD≥480 km and in a decade (on average one daily severe tornado outbreak with a total path length LD≥1200 km. (iii For 1982–2011, the noncumulative frequency-length statistics of tornado

  4. Statistics of severe tornadoes and severe tornado outbreaks

    B. D. Malamud


    Full Text Available The standard measures of the intensity of a tornado in the USA and many other countries are the Fujita and Enhanced Fujita scales. These scales are based on the damage that a tornado causes. Another measure of the strength of a tornado is its path length of touchdown, L. In this study we consider 4061 severe tornadoes (defined as L≥10 km in the continental USA for the time period 1981–2010 (USA Storm Prediction Center Severe Weather Database. We find for individual severe tornadoes: (i The noncumulative frequency-length statistics of severe tornado touchdown path lengths, 20 < L < 200 km, is well approximated by an inverse power-law relationship with exponent near 3. (ii There is a strong linear scaling between the number of severe tornadoes in a year and their total path lengths in that year. We then take the total path length of severe tornadoes in a day, LD, as a measure of the strength of a 24-hour USA tornado outbreak. We find that: (i On average, the number of days per year with at least one continental USA severe tornado (path length L≥10 km has increased 16% in the 30-year period 1981–2010. (ii The daily numbers of severe tornadoes in a USA outbreak have a strong power-law relationship (exponent 0.87 on their daily total path lengths, LD, over the range 20 < LD < 1000 km dy−1. (iii The noncumulative frequency-length statistics of tornado outbreaks, 10 < LD < 1000 km dy−1, is well approximated by an inverse power-law relationship with exponent near 1.7. We believe that our robust scaling results provide evidence that touchdown path lengths can be used as quantitative measures of the systematic properties of severe tornadoes and severe tornado outbreaks.

  5. Excitation of seismic waves by a tornado

    Valovcin, A.; Tanimoto, T.; Twardzik, C.


    Tornadoes are among the most common natural disasters to occur in the United States. Various methods are currently used in tornado forecasting, including surface weather stations, weather balloons and satellite and Doppler radar. These methods work for detecting possible locations of tornadoes and funnel clouds, but knowing when a tornado has touched down still strongly relies on reports from spotters. Studying tornadoes seismically offers an opportunity to know when a tornado has touched down without requiring an eyewitness report. With the installation of Earthscope's Transportable Array (TA), there have been an increased number of tornadoes that have come within close range of seismometers. We have identified seismic signals corresponding to three tornadoes that occurred in 2011 in the central US. These signals were recorded by the TA station closest to each of the tornado tracks. For each tornado, the amplitudes of the seismic signals increase when the storm is in contact with the ground, and continue until the tornado lifts off some time later. This occurs at both high and low frequencies. In this study we will model the seismic signal generated by a tornado at low frequencies (below 0.1 Hz). We will begin by modeling the signal from the Joplin tornado, an EF5 rated tornado which occurred in Missouri on May 22, 2011. By approximating the tornado as a vertical force, we model the generated signal as the tornado moves along its track and changes in strength. By modeling the seismic waveform generated by a tornado, we can better understand the seismic-excitation process. It could also provide a way to quantitatively compare tornadoes. Additional tornadoes to model include the Calumet-El Reno-Piedmont-Guthrie (CEPG) and Chickasa-Blanchard-Newcastle (CBN) tornadoes, both of which occurred on May 24, 2011 in Oklahoma.

  6. Physically based modeling and animation of tornado

    LIU Shi-guang; WANG Zhang-ye; GONG Zheng; CHEN Fei-fei; PENG Qun-sheng


    Realistic modeling and rendering of dynamic tornado scene is recognized as a challenging task for researchers of computer graphics. In this paper a new physically based method for simulating and animating tornado scene is presented. We first propose a Two-Fluid model based on the physical theory of tornado, then we simulate the flow of tornado and its interaction with surrounding objects such as debris, etc. Taking the scattering and absorption of light by the participating media into account, the illumination effects of the tornado scene can be generated realistically. With the support of graphics hardware, various kinds of dynamic tornado scenes can be rendered at interactive rates.

  7. Tornado type wind turbines

    Hsu, Cheng-Ting


    A tornado type wind turbine has a vertically disposed wind collecting tower with spaced apart inner and outer walls and a central bore. The upper end of the tower is open while the lower end of the structure is in communication with a wind intake chamber. An opening in the wind chamber is positioned over a turbine which is in driving communication with an electrical generator. An opening between the inner and outer walls at the lower end of the tower permits radially flowing air to enter the space between the inner and outer walls while a vertically disposed opening in the wind collecting tower permits tangentially flowing air to enter the central bore. A porous portion of the inner wall permits the radially flowing air to interact with the tangentially flowing air so as to create an intensified vortex flow which exits out of the top opening of the tower so as to create a low pressure core and thus draw air through the opening of the wind intake chamber so as to drive the turbine.

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic Models of Molecular Tornadoes

    Au, Kelvin; Fiege, Jason D.


    Recent observations near the Galactic Center (GC) have found several molecular filaments displaying striking helically wound morphology that are collectively known as molecular tornadoes. We investigate the equilibrium structure of these molecular tornadoes by formulating a magnetohydrodynamic model of a rotating, helically magnetized filament. A special analytical solution is derived where centrifugal forces balance exactly with toroidal magnetic stress. From the physics of torsional Alfvén waves we derive a constraint that links the toroidal flux-to-mass ratio and the pitch angle of the helical field to the rotation laws, which we find to be an important component in describing the molecular tornado structure. The models are compared to the Ostriker solution for isothermal, nonmagnetic, nonrotating filaments. We find that neither the analytic model nor the Alfvén wave model suffer from the unphysical density inversions noted by other authors. A Monte Carlo exploration of our parameter space is constrained by observational measurements of the Pigtail Molecular Cloud, the Double Helix Nebula, and the GC Molecular Tornado. Observable properties such as the velocity dispersion, filament radius, linear mass, and surface pressure can be used to derive three dimensionless constraints for our dimensionless models of these three objects. A virial analysis of these constrained models is studied for these three molecular tornadoes. We find that self-gravity is relatively unimportant, whereas magnetic fields and external pressure play a dominant role in the confinement and equilibrium radial structure of these objects.

  9. Pneumonia cases following an EF-5 tornado.

    Forshee-Hakala, Beth A


    Infections following a natural disaster such as an EF-5 tornado can be atypical and difficult to treat. Studies have looked at illness following several natural disasters, but few have studied respiratory illness following a tornado. A review of patients with pneumonia admitted during the period from May 22, 2009, through May 21, 2012, was completed. The Tornado Zone Group included adult patients who lived or worked in the tornado zone during the year following the tornado. Data were isolated by number of pneumonia cases within and outside the tornado zone per month per year. An analysis of variance comparing the number of pneumonia cases from the tornado zone per month per year was significant at F2,38 = 12.93 and P Tornado Zone Group (P Tornado Zone patients to be younger than controls (t390 = 5.14; P Tornado Zone Group included uncommon pathogens not isolated during the 2 years prior. The number of pneumonia cases may increase following tornadoes. Although current guidelines recommend narrow-spectrum antibiotics for community-acquired pneumonia, results of this study suggest the possible need for broader antimicrobial coverage after tornadoes. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spatial-temporal clustering of tornadoes

    Malamud, Bruce D.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Brooks, Harold E.


    The standard measure of the intensity of a tornado is the Enhanced Fujita scale, which is based qualitatively on the damage caused by a tornado. An alternative measure of tornado intensity is the tornado path length, L. Here we examine the spatial-temporal clustering of severe tornadoes, which we define as having path lengths L ≥ 10 km. Of particular concern are tornado outbreaks, when a large number of severe tornadoes occur in a day in a restricted region. We apply a spatial-temporal clustering analysis developed for earthquakes. We take all pairs of severe tornadoes in observed and modelled outbreaks, and for each pair plot the spatial lag (distance between touchdown points) against the temporal lag (time between touchdown points). We apply our spatial-temporal lag methodology to the intense tornado outbreaks in the central United States on 26 and 27 April 2011, which resulted in over 300 fatalities and produced 109 severe (L ≥ 10 km) tornadoes. The patterns of spatial-temporal lag correlations that we obtain for the 2 days are strikingly different. On 26 April 2011, there were 45 severe tornadoes and our clustering analysis is dominated by a complex sequence of linear features. We associate the linear patterns with the tornadoes generated in either a single cell thunderstorm or a closely spaced cluster of single cell thunderstorms moving at a near-constant velocity. Our study of a derecho tornado outbreak of six severe tornadoes on 4 April 2011 along with modelled outbreak scenarios confirms this association. On 27 April 2011, there were 64 severe tornadoes and our clustering analysis is predominantly random with virtually no embedded linear patterns. We associate this pattern with a large number of interacting supercell thunderstorms generating tornadoes randomly in space and time. In order to better understand these associations, we also applied our approach to the Great Plains tornado outbreak of 3 May 1999. Careful studies by others have associated

  11. Spatial-Temporal Clustering of Tornadoes

    Malamud, Bruce D.; Turcotte, Donald L.; Brooks, Harold E.


    The standard measure of the intensity of a tornado is the Enhanced Fujita scale, which is based qualitatively on the damage caused by a tornado. An alternative measure of tornado intensity is the tornado path length, L. Here we examine the spatial-temporal clustering of severe tornadoes, which we define as having path lengths L ≥ 10 km. Of particular concern are tornado outbreaks, when a large number of severe tornadoes occur in a day in a restricted region. We apply a spatial-temporal clustering analysis developed for earthquakes. We take all pairs of severe tornadoes in observed and modelled outbreaks, and for each pair plot the spatial lag (distance between touchdown points) against the temporal lag (time between touchdown points). We apply our spatial-temporal lag methodology to the intense tornado outbreaks in the central United States on 26 and 27 April 2011, which resulted in over 300 fatalities and produced 109 severe (L ≥ 10 km) tornadoes. The patterns of spatial-temporal lag correlations that we obtain for the 2 days are strikingly different. On 26 April 2011, there were 45 severe tornadoes and our clustering analysis is dominated by a complex sequence of linear features. We associate the linear patterns with the tornadoes generated in either a single cell thunderstorm or a closely spaced cluster of single cell thunderstorms moving at a near-constant velocity. Our study of a derecho tornado outbreak of six severe tornadoes on 4 April 2011 along with modelled outbreak scenarios confirms this association. On 27 April 2011, there were 64 severe tornadoes and our clustering analysis is predominantly random with virtually no embedded linear patterns. We associate this pattern with a large number of interacting supercell thunderstorms generating tornadoes randomly in space and time. In order to better understand these associations, we also applied our approach to the Great Plains tornado outbreak of 3 May 1999. Careful studies by others have associated



    Tornado codes have been used in the error control of data transmission in IP network. The efficiency of this erasure codes is critically affected by the short cycles in its bipartite graph. To remove this effect,two algorithms are introduced: (1) while generating the graph, the cycle eliminating algorithm is used to reduce the number of the short cycles in it; (2) in the decoding algorithm, cycles that are inevitably in the graph are used to remove decoding efficiency degradation. The simulation results show that they have a better performance than that of general tornado codes.

  13. Economics and societal impacts of tornadoes

    Bluestein, Howard B.


    During the spring of 2011, there were a record number of unusually strong and devastating tornadoes in the United States, which killed more than 500 people, the most in the country since 1953. Tornadoes are responsible for more than $1 billion annually (adjusted to 2007 U.S. dollars) in property damage and for disrupting thousands of lives and businesses. The most notable tornado this past spring devastated Joplin, Mo.; tornadoes also struck such diverse locations as Springfield, Mass.; Tuscaloosa, Ala.; Raleigh, N. C.; communities near Oklahoma City, Okla.; Minneapolis, Minn.; central and east Texas; Philadelphia, Pa.; and St. Louis, Mo. It is therefore timely to assess the economic and societal impacts of tornadoes. In this book the authors use various statistical techniques to evaluate the cost of tornadoes to society. They begin by reviewing the methodologies of formulating a tornado climatology across diverse regions according to tornado intensity, deaths, injuries, and property damage, and they then provide a history of the U.S. National Weather Service's (NWS) public warning efforts, describe tornado shelters and how the public responds to warnings, and suggest ways to reduce tornado risk.

  14. The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak: Overview of the Tornadoes and their Parent Storms

    Knupp, Kevin R.; Coleman, Tim; Carey, Larry; Petersen, Walt


    The cold-season Tornado outbreak that occurred over the Southeast on 5-6 February 2008 was significant for the following reasons: about 84 tornadoes were documented over a 15 h period between late afternoon on 5 February and early morning on 6 February 2008; a wide variety of parent storms were associated with the tornadoes; a total of five EF-4 tornadoes occurred, with two forming over Alabama during the early morning hours prior to sunrise; there was a significant lull period between the initial convective and the early morning activity over Alabama 10 hours later; and, a wide spectrum of storm types, ranging from isolated supercell storms to QLCS bow echoes, accompanied the tornadoes. The goal of this paper is to provide a general description of the outbreak including the distribution of tornadoes and supercell storms over the region, a detailed map of the tornado tracks, time series of tornadoes and parent storms, and general characteristics of all parent tornado storms. The total number of major storms (duration greater than 3 h, at least three tornadoes produced) was seven. Several noteworthy storms are described: a long track (198 km long) tornado and its parent storm over Arkansas; a prolific supercell storm persisted for 7-8 hours and produced 16 tornadoes from north-central Mississippi to southern KY; and, bow echo storms (QLCS's) were simultaneous over KY and produced 16 tornadoes.

  15. Genesis of tornadoes associated with hurricanes

    Gentry, R. C.


    The climatological history of hurricane-tornadoes is brought up to date through 1982. Most of the tornadoes either form near the center of the hurricane, from the outer edge of the eyewall outward, or in an area between north and east-southeast of the hurricane center. The blackbody temperatures of the cloud tops which were analyzed for several hurricane-tornadoes that formed in the years 1974, 1975, and 1979, did not furnish strong precursor signals of tornado formation, but followed one of two patterns: either the temperatures were very low, or the tornado formed in areas of strong temperature gradients. Tornadoes with tropical cyclones most frequently occur at 1200-1800 LST, and although most are relatively weak, they can reach the F3 intensity level. Most form in association with the outer rainbands of the hurricane.

  16. Numerical Simulation of a Tornado Generating Supercell

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.; LimonDuparcmeur, Fanny M.


    The development of tornadoes from a tornado generating supercell is investigated with a large eddy simulation weather model. Numerical simulations are initialized with a sounding representing the environment of a tornado producing supercell that affected North Carolina and Virginia during the Spring of 2011. The structure of the simulated storm was very similar to that of a classic supercell, and compared favorably to the storm that affected the vicinity of Raleigh, North Carolina. The presence of mid-level moisture was found to be important in determining whether a supercell would generate tornadoes. The simulations generated multiple tornadoes, including cyclonic-anticyclonic pairs. The structure and the evolution of these tornadoes are examined during their lifecycle.

  17. A solar tornado triggered by flares?

    Panesar, N K; Tiwari, S K; Low, B C


    Solar tornados are dynamical, conspicuously helical magnetic structures mainly observed as a prominence activity. We investigate and propose a triggering mechanism for the solar tornado observed in a prominence cavity by SDO/AIA on September 25, 2011. High-cadence EUV images from the SDO/AIA and the Ahead spacecraft of STEREO/EUVI are used to correlate three flares in the neighbouring active-region (NOAA 11303), and their EUV waves, with the dynamical developments of the tornado. The timings of the flares and EUV waves observed on-disk in 195\\AA\\ are analyzed in relation to the tornado activities observed at the limb in 171\\AA. Each of the three flares and its related EUV wave occurred within 10 hours of the onset of the tornado. They have an observed causal relationship with the commencement of activity in the prominence where the tornado develops. Tornado-like rotations along the side of the prominence start after the second flare. The prominence cavity expands with acceleration of tornado motion after the ...

  18. Mathematical modeling of tornadoes and squall storms

    Sergey A. Arsen’yev


    Full Text Available Recent advances in modeling of tornadoes and twisters consist of significant achievements in mathematical calculation of occurrence and evolution of a violent F5-class tornado on the Fujita scale, and four-dimensional mathematical modeling of a tornado with the fourth coordinate time multiplied by its characteristic velocity. Such a tornado can arise in a thunderstorm supercell filled with turbulent whirlwinds. A theory of the squall storms is proposed. The squall storm is modeled by running perturbation of the temperature inversion on the lower boundary of cloudiness. This perturbation is induced by the action of strong, hurricane winds in the upper and middle troposphere, and looks like a running solitary wave (soliton; which is developed also in a field of pressure and velocity of a wind. If a soliton of a squall storm gets into the thunderstorm supercell then this soliton is captured by supercell. It leads to additional pressure fall of air inside a storm supercell and stimulate amplification of wind velocity here. As a result, a cyclostrophic balance inside a storm supercell generates a tornado. Comparison of the radial distribution of wind velocity inside a tornado calculated by using the new formulas and equations with radar observations of the wind velocity inside Texas Tornado Dummit in 1995 and inside the 3 May 1999 Oklahoma City Tornado shows good correspondence.

  19. Chemical Characteristics of Six Woody Species for Alley Cropping

    Mosango, M.


    Full Text Available Leaves of six woody species (Leguminosae for alley cropping have been chemically analysed in order to evaluate their potentiality in the restoration of soil fertility. These species are : Acacia mangium, Cajanus cajan, Flemingia grahamiana, F. macrophylla, Leucaena leucocephala and Sesbania sesban. Nitrogen, carbon, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, active fraction and ash contents were determined as well as C/N and L/N ratios. AH these species appear to be rich in N and C. Fiber contents (cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are globally low but variable from one species to another. C/N and L/N ratios are globally low. Among these species, Leucaena leucocephala and Senna spectabilis show the lowest C/N and LIN ratios. Such low values of C/N and L/N are normally found in species with rapid decomposition of organic matter.

  20. Prevention of child injuries during tornadoes: cases from the 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama.

    Campbell, Christine M; Baker, Mark D; Monroe, Kathy W


    Tornadoes and violent weather pose a hazard to children, yet little is known about the use of personal protective devices during storms. An outbreak of tornadoes on April 27, 2011, resulted in the deaths of 23 children in Alabama. Records from 60 patients seen in a pediatric emergency department for tornado-related injuries were reviewed to identify the use of injury prevention devices. Three children directly exposed to a violent tornado (Enhanced Fujita Scale 4) were using safety equipment, specifically, a helmet and infant car seats. These 3 children sustained only minor injuries. Personal protective devices may have played a role in preventing child injuries from tornadoes. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the medical literature on helmet and infant car seat use as child protective devices during tornadoes.

  1. Soil carbon stabilization and turnover at alley-cropping systems, Eastern Germany

    Medinski, T.; Freese, D.


    Alley-cropping system is seen as a viable land-use practice for mitigation of greenhouse gas CO2, energy-wood production and soil carbon sequestration. The extent to which carbon is stored in soil varies between ecosystems, and depends on tree species, soil types and on the extent of physical protection of carbon within soil aggregates. This study investigates soil carbon sequestration at alley-cropping systems presented by alleys of fast growing tree species (black locust and poplar) and maize, in Brandenburg, Eastern Germany. Carbon accumulation and turnover are assessed by measuring carbon fractions differing in decomposition rates. For this purpose soil samples were fractionated into labile and recalcitrant soil-size fractions by wet-sieving: macro (>250 µm), micro (53-250 µm) and clay + silt (water extractable OC, and microbial C. Litter decomposition was evaluated by litter bags experiment. Soil CO2 flux was measured by LiCor automated device LI-8100A. No differences for the total and stable (clay+silt, treatment. While cold water-extractable carbon was significantly higher at maize alley compared to black locust alley. This may indicate faster turnover of organic matter at maize alley due to tillage, which influenced greater incorporation of plant residues into the soil, greater soil respiration and microbial activity.

  2. Tornado

    Dorine; Houston


    Dear Xiao Lan, As you know, we Americans are very busy these days ; Jews are celebrating theirgreat feast of Passover, and Christians are observing the most solemn Good Fridaytoday, with the joyful Easter to come on Sunday. In the midst of these busy days offestival preparations, nature has gone crazy and ravaged entire towns in two southern

  3. Tornadoes

    ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ... Landslides & Debris Flow Nuclear Blast Nuclear Power Plants Power Outages Pandemic Radiological Dispersion Device Severe Weather Snowstorms & Extreme ...

  4. Proposed characterization of tornadoes and hurricanes by area and intensity

    Fujita, T. T.


    Results of the 1968 through 1970 Tornado Watch Experiment conducted jointly by NASA and NOAA suggested the necessity of characterizing individual tornadoes in order to improve the identity of tornado-producing nephsystems. An attempt was made, therefore, to categorize each tornado by its intensity and area. Fujita-scale wind and corresponding damage categories were devised to classify tornadoes as Gale (F0), Weak (F1), Strong (F2), Severe (F3), Devastating (F4), and Incredible (F5). Additionally, individual tornado areas were also categorized as Trace (TR), Decimicro (DM), Micro (MI), Meso (ME), Marco (MA), Giant (GI), and Decagiant (DG), thus permitting characterizing of a tornado by a combination of intensity and area, such as weak decimicro tornado, severe meso tornado, or incredible giant tornado. A test characterization of 156 Japanese tornadoes in 1950-69 was accomplished for comparison with 893 U.S. tornadoes in 1965. Unexpectedly, the percentage distribution of intensity and individual area of U.S. and Japanese tornadoes is very similar except for large and/or intense ones. Intensity distribution within the Dallas and Fargo tornadoes of 1957 was also studied in detail. It was also found that the F-scale variation along the paths of family tornadoes shows an intensity oscillation with a 45-min interval.

  5. Assessment of Carbon Sequestration in German Alley Cropping Systems

    Tsonkova, P. B.; Quinkenstein, A.; Böhm, C.; Freese, D.


    Alley cropping systems (ACS) are agroforestry practices in which perennial trees or shrubs are grown in wide rows and arable crops are cultivated in the alleys between the tree rows. Recently, ACS which integrate stripes of short rotation coppices into conventional agricultural sites have gained interest in Germany. These systems can be used for simultaneous production of crops and woody biomass which enables farmers to diversify the provision of market goods. Adding trees into the agricultural landscape creates additional benefits for the farmer and society also known as ecosystem services. An ecosystem service provided by land use systems is carbon sequestration. The literature indicates that ACS are able to store more carbon compared to agriculture and their implementation may lead to greater benefits for the environment and society. Moreover, carbon sequestration in ACS could be included in carbon trading schemes and farmers rewarded additionally for the provision of this ecosystem service. However, methods are required which are easy to use and provide reliable information regarding change in carbon sequestration with change of the land use practice. In this context, our aim was to develop a methodology to assess carbon sequestration benefit provided by ACS in Germany. Therefore, the change of carbon in both soil and biomass had to be considered. To predict the change in soil carbon our methodology combined the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories and the soil organic carbon balance recommended by the Association of German Agricultural Investigation and Research Centers (VDLUFA). To reflect the change in biomass carbon average annual yields were adopted. The results showed that ACS established on agricultural sites can increase the carbon stored because in the new soil-plant system carbon content is higher compared to agriculture. ACS have been recommended as suitable land use systems for marginal sites, such as post-mining areas. In

  6. Multifactorial biogeochemical monitoring of linden alley in Moscow

    Ermakov, Vadim; Khushvakhtova, Sabsbakhor; Tyutikov, Sergey; Danilova, Valentina; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume


    The ecological and biogeochemical assessment of the linden alley within the Kosygin Street was conducted by means of an integrated comparative study of soils, their chemical composition and morphological parameters of leaf linden. For this purpose 5 points were tested within the linden alley and 5 other points outside the highway. In soils, water extract of soil, leaf linden the content of Cu, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co Mo, Cr and Se were determined by AAS and spectrofluorimetric method [1]. Macrocomponents (Ca, Mg, K, Na, P, sulphates, chlorides), pH and total mineralization of water soil extract were measured by generally accepted methods. Thio-containing compounds in the leaves were determined by HPLC-NAM spectrofluorometry [2]. On level content of trace elements the soils of "contaminated" points different from background more high concentrations of lead, manganese, iron, selenium, strontium and low level of zinc. Leaf of linden from contaminated sites characterized by an increase of lead, copper, iron, zinc, arsenic, chromium, and a sharp decrease in the level of manganese and strontium. Analysis of the aqueous extracts of the soil showed a slight decrease in the pH value in the "control" points and lower content of calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium and total mineralization of the water soil extract. The phytochelatins test in the leaves of linden was weakly effective and the degree of asymmetry of leaf lamina too. The most differences between the variants were marked by the degree of pathology leaves (chlorosis and necrosis) and the content of pigments (chlorophyll and carotene). The data obtained reflect the impact of the application of de-icing salts and automobile emissions. References 1. Ermakov V.V., Danilova V.N., Khyshvakhtova S.D. Application of HPLC-NAM spectrofluorimtry to determination of sulfur-containing compounds in the environmental objects// Science of the biosphere: Innovation. Moscow State University by M.V. Lomonosov, 2014. P. 10

  7. Optimism following a tornado disaster.

    Suls, Jerry; Rose, Jason P; Windschitl, Paul D; Smith, Andrew R


    Effects of exposure to a severe weather disaster on perceived future vulnerability were assessed in college students, local residents contacted through random-digit dialing, and community residents of affected versus unaffected neighborhoods. Students and community residents reported being less vulnerable than their peers at 1 month, 6 months, and 1 year after the disaster. In Studies 1 and 2, absolute risk estimates were more optimistic with time, whereas comparative vulnerability was stable. Residents of affected neighborhoods (Study 3), surprisingly, reported less comparative vulnerability and lower "gut-level" numerical likelihood estimates at 6 months, but later their estimates resembled the unaffected residents. Likelihood estimates (10%-12%), however, exceeded the 1% risk calculated by storm experts, and gut-level versus statistical-level estimates were more optimistic. Although people believed they had approximately a 1-in-10 chance of injury from future tornadoes (i.e., an overestimate), they thought their risk was lower than peers.

  8. Annihilation and Reanimation of a Tornado in the Improved Tornado Tube

    Bednarek, Stanislaw


    Some new experiments using an improved version of the "tornado tube" are described here. The improved tornado tube consists of two plastic transparent bottles whose openings are connected with a ball valve, available at most hardware stores. After being filled with fluid and inverting, this tube allows demonstration of the generation,…

  9. Annihilation and Reanimation of a Tornado in the Improved Tornado Tube

    Bednarek, Stanislaw


    Some new experiments using an improved version of the "tornado tube" are described here. The improved tornado tube consists of two plastic transparent bottles whose openings are connected with a ball valve, available at most hardware stores. After being filled with fluid and inverting, this tube allows demonstration of the generation,…

  10. More tornadoes in the most extreme U.S. tornado outbreaks

    Tippett, Michael K.; Lepore, Chiara; Cohen, Joel E.


    Tornadoes and severe thunderstorms kill people and damage property every year. Estimated U.S. insured losses due to severe thunderstorms in the first half of 2016 were $8.5 billion (US). The largest U.S. effects of tornadoes result from tornado outbreaks, which are sequences of tornadoes that occur in close succession. Here, using extreme value analysis, we find that the frequency of U.S. outbreaks with many tornadoes is increasing and that it is increasing faster for more extreme outbreaks. We model this behavior by extreme value distributions with parameters that are linear functions of time or of some indicators of multidecadal climatic variability. Extreme meteorological environments associated with severe thunderstorms show consistent upward trends, but the trends do not resemble those currently expected to result from global warming.

  11. The successive alleys test of anxiety in mice and rats.

    Deacon, Robert M J


    The plus-maze was derived from the early work of Montgomery. He observed that rats tended to avoid the open arms of a maze, preferring the enclosed ones. Handley, Mithani and File et al. performed the first studies on the plus-maze design we use today, and in 1987 Lister published a design for use with mice. Time spent on, and entries into, the open arms are an index of anxiety; the lower these indices, the more anxious the mouse is. Alternatively, a mouse that spends most of its time in the closed arms is classed as anxious. One of the problems of the plus-maze is that, while time spent on, and entries into, the open arms is a fairly unambiguous measure of anxiety, time in the central area is more difficult to interpret, although time spent here has been classified as "decision making". In many tests central area time is a considerable part of the total test time. Shepherd et al. produced an ingenious design to eliminate the central area, which they called the "zero maze". However, although used by several groups, it has never been as widely adopted as the plus-maze. In the present article I describe a modification of the plus-maze design that not only eliminates the central area but also incorporates elements from other anxiety tests, such as the light-dark box and emergence tests. It is a linear series of four alleys, each having increasing anxiogenic properties. It has given similar results to the plus-maze in general. Although it may not be more sensitive than the plus-maze (more data is needed before a firm conclusion can be reached on this point), it provides a useful confirmation of plus-maze results which would be useful when, for example, only a single example of a mutant mouse was available, as, for example, in ENU-based mutagenesis programs.

  12. Tornado intensity estimated from damage path dimensions.

    Elsner, James B; Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, Ian J


    The Newcastle/Moore and El Reno tornadoes of May 2013 are recent reminders of the destructive power of tornadoes. A direct estimate of a tornado's power is difficult and dangerous to get. An indirect estimate on a categorical scale is available from a post-storm survery of the damage. Wind speed bounds are attached to the scale, but the scale is not adequate for analyzing trends in tornado intensity separate from trends in tornado frequency. Here tornado intensity on a continuum is estimated from damage path length and width, which are measured on continuous scales and correlated to the EF rating. The wind speeds on the EF scale are treated as interval censored data and regressed onto the path dimensions and fatalities. The regression model indicates a 25% increase in expected intensity over a threshold intensity of 29 m s(-1) for a 100 km increase in path length and a 17% increase in expected intensity for a one km increase in path width. The model shows a 43% increase in the expected intensity when fatalities are observed controlling for path dimensions. The estimated wind speeds correlate at a level of .77 (.34, .93) [95% confidence interval] with a small sample of wind speeds estimated independently from a doppler radar calibration. The estimated wind speeds allow analyses to be done on the tornado database that are not possible with the categorical scale. The modeled intensities can be used in climatology and in environmental and engineering applications. Research is needed to understand the upward trends in path length and width.

  13. Self-organization in the tornado: the new approach in the tornado description

    Bystrai, G P


    For the mathematical modeling of highly non-equilibrium and nonlinear processes in a tornado in this paper a new approach based on nonlinear equations of momentum transfer with function of sources and sinks is suggested. In constructing the model thermodynamic description is used, which is not entered before and allows discovering new principles of self-organization in a tornado. This approach gives fairly consistent physical results. This is an attempt to answer some fundamental questions concerning the existence of a tornado based on the created model and numerical results.

  14. Tornado structure interaction: a numerical simulation

    Wilson, T.


    The effects of tornadoes on buildings are examined to determine the wind forces on structures. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has developed guidelines for building code requirements for the minimum wind loads a building must be designed to withstand. The conservatism or nonconservatism on the ANSI approach is evaluated by simulating tornado-structure interaction numerically with a two-dimensional fluid dynamics computer code and a vortex model. Only external pressures are considered. The computer calculations yield the following percentages of the ANSI design pressures: rigid frame, 50 to 90%; individual wall panels, 75 to 200%; and wall corners, 50 to 75%.

  15. Depth relief

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van


    A study is reported of the depth relief in a simple three-dimensional scene consisting of a white, rough sphere on a planar support, illuminated in a natural manner. Viewing conditions included monocular and binocular as well as 'synoptical' viewing. In the synoptical condition the eyes are

  16. Solar Tornadoes Triggered by Interaction between Filaments and EUV Jets

    Chen, Huadong; Zhang, Jun; Ma, Suli; Yan, Xiaoli; Xue, Jianchao


    We investigate the formations and evolutions of two successive solar tornadoes in/near AR 12297 during 2015 March 19-20. Recurrent EUV jets close to two filaments were detected along a large-scale coronal loop prior to the appearances of the tornadoes. Under the disturbances from the activities, the filaments continually ascended and finally interacted with the loops tracked by the jets. Subsequently, the structures of the filaments and the loop were merged together, probably via magnetic reconnections, and formed tornado-like structures with a long spiral arm. Our observations suggest that solar tornadoes can be triggered by the interaction between filaments and nearby coronal jets, which has rarely been reported before. At the earlier development phase of the first tornado, about 30 small-scale sub-jets appeared in the tornado’s arm, accompanied by local EUV brightenings. They have an ejection direction approximately vertical to the axis of the arm and a typical maximum speed of ˜280 km s-1. During the ruinations of the two tornadoes, fast plasma outflows from the strong EUV brightenings inside tornadoes are observed, in company with the untangling or unwinding of the highly twisted tornado structures. These observational features indicate that self reconnections probably occurred between the tangled magnetic fields of the tornadoes and resulted in the rapid disintegrations and disappearances of the tornadoes. According to the reconnection theory, we also derive the field strength of the tornado core to be ˜8 G.

  17. Soil quality indicators of a mature alley-cropping agroforestry system in temperate North America

    Although agroforestry practices are believed to improve soil quality, reports on long-term effects of alley cropping on soils within agroforestry in the temperate zone are limited. The objective of this study was to examine effects of management, landscape, and soil depth of an established agrofores...

  18. Nutrient cycling in an agroforestry alley cropping system receiving poultry litter or nitrogen fertilizer

    Optimal utilization of animal manures as a plant nutrient source should also prevent adverse impacts on water quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate long-term poultry litter and N fertilizer application on nutrient cycling following establishment of an alley cropping system with easter...

  19. Increased variability of tornado occurrence in the United States.

    Brooks, Harold E; Carbin, Gregory W; Marsh, Patrick T


    Whether or not climate change has had an impact on the occurrence of tornadoes in the United States has become a question of high public and scientific interest, but changes in how tornadoes are reported have made it difficult to answer it convincingly. We show that, excluding the weakest tornadoes, the mean annual number of tornadoes has remained relatively constant, but their variability of occurrence has increased since the 1970s. This is due to a decrease in the number of days per year with tornadoes combined with an increase in days with many tornadoes, leading to greater variability on annual and monthly time scales and changes in the timing of the start of the tornado season. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. Tornado Emergency Readiness Planning for Schools.

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    A place of safe refuge in the event of violent natural forces or a tornado should be included in the design of all new school buildings. Existing a school buildings should be analyzed by the architect, contractor, or engineer to determine if a safe place exists or if one can be readily adapted. Most criteria for fallout shelters are the same for…

  1. School interventions after the Joplin tornado.

    Kanter, Robert K; Abramson, David


    To qualitatively describe interventions by schools to meet children's needs after the May 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Qualitative exploratory study conducted six months after the tornado. Key informant interviews with school staff (teachers, psychologists, guidance counselor, nurse, principal), public health official, and physicians. After the tornado, school staff immediately worked to contact every enrolled child to provide assistance and coordinate recovery services. Despite severe damage to half of the city's schools, the decision was made to reopen schools at the earliest possible time to provide a safe, reassuring environment and additional services. An expanded summer school session emphasized child safety and emotional wellbeing. The 2011-2012 school year began on time, less than three months after the disaster, using temporary facilities. Displaced children were bused to their usual schools regardless of their new temporary residence locations. In just-in-time training sessions, teachers developed strategies to support students and staff experiencing anxiety or depression. Certified counselors conducted school-based, small-group counseling for students. Selective referrals were made to community mental health providers for children with greatest needs. Evidence from Joplin adds to a small body of empirical experience demonstrating the important contribution of schools to postdisaster community recovery. Despite timely and proactive services, many families and children struggled after the tornado. Improvements in the effectiveness of postdisaster interventions at schools will follow from future scientific evidence on optimal approaches.

  2. Utilizing Tornado Data for Classroom Exercises.

    Kohler, Fred

    Exercises were developed using tornado statistics to provide students with a better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these phenomena in the United States. Four categories of exercises were considered beginning with the simplest and progressing to the more complex. The first set of exercises required students to…

  3. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    Noorduijn, S. L.; Smettem, K. R. J.; Vogwill, R.; Ghadouani, A.


    Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width) for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (agroforestry system. It is concluded that declining annual rainfall is the principal control on hydrograph response at the site, whilst perennial biomass development has a lesser impact on water table depth.

  4. Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes

    Pop, Elena


    Latest climate changes in Romania :tornadoes As climate change has been considered a research priority in the European Strategy for enduring development , I have done a detailed research with my students of the new climate change that has been going on in Romania for the past decade. More precisely I have studied together with my students the phenomenon of tornadoes that have seriously affected on some occasions some our our country's locations, such as Facaeni, in the county of Ialomita, in August 2002. A quite unusual phenomenon occurred on that location situated at 44.56 degrees northern latitude and at 27.89 degrees eastern longitude, that caused severe damage to the local environment and three persons lost their lives in the process, as well as other thirty people suffering from bad injuries. The magnitude of that strong phenomenon rose on the Fujita scale at level F3 which implied wing gusts between 252-300 km/ hour . A main cause of occurrence of such a severe weather was the difference in temperature of two huge air masses, one of Polar origin, and other coming from tropical latitudes . Their crossroads was on that precise territory of Romania. The duration of the worst part of the tornado path lasted only for two minutes, but the consequences of its passage were colossal : total destruction of 33 households, and other 395 were partially damaged, 1,000 people afflicted by the devastation and 100 acres of acacia tree forest ripped off the ground. The first ever recorded tornado phenomenon in Romania was around 1894-1896, considered at that time " a freak of nature" was seen as a cloud formation abnormality , an uncontrolled force of nature that had a huge impact , and at the same time, it vanished into "thin air " fast. The most affected areas in Romania by tornadoes are the south-eastern planes where the cloud formations can create fast columns of air rotating up to 500 km/hour. The local people compared the cloud funnels created on the planes to "serpents

  5. Torsional wave propagation in solar tornadoes

    Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Ghanbari, E.; Ghaffari, G.; Safari, H.


    Aims: We investigate the propagation of torsional waves in coronal structures together with their collimation effects in the context of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The interplay of the equilibrium twist and rotation of the structure, e.g. jet or tornado, together with the density contrast of its internal and external media is studied to shed light on the nature of torsional waves. Methods: We consider a rotating magnetic cylinder embedded in a plasma with a straight magnetic field. This resembles a solar tornado. In order to express the dispersion relations and phase speeds of the axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic waves, the second-order thin flux tube approximation is implemented for the internal medium and the ideal MHD equations are implemented for the external medium. Results: The explicit expressions for the phase speed of the torsional wave show the modification of the torsional wave speed due to the equilibrium twist, rotation, and density contrast of the tornado. The speeds could be either sub-Alfvénic or ultra-Alfvénic depending on whether the equilibrium twist or rotation is dominant. The equilibrium twist increases the phase speed while the equilibrium rotation decreases it. The good agreement between the explicit versions for the phase speed and that obtained numerically proves adequate for the robustness of the model and method. The density ratio of the internal and external media also play a significant role in the speed and dispersion. Conclusions: The dispersion of the torsional wave is an indication of the compressibility of the oscillations. When the cylinder is rotating or twisted, in contrast to when it only possesses a straight magnetic field, the torsional wave is a collective mode. In this case its phase speed is determined by the Alfvén waves inside and outside the tornado.

  6. Level 1 Tornado PRA for the High Flux Beam Reactor

    Bozoki, G.E.; Conrad, C.S.


    This report describes a risk analysis primarily directed at providing an estimate for the frequency of tornado induced damage to the core of the High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), and thus it constitutes a Level 1 Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) covering tornado induced accident sequences. The basic methodology of the risk analysis was to develop a ``tornado specific`` plant logic model that integrates the internal random hardware failures with failures caused externally by the tornado strike and includes operator errors worsened by the tornado modified environment. The tornado hazard frequency, as well as earlier prepared structural and equipment fragility data, were used as input data to the model. To keep modeling/calculational complexity as simple as reasonable a ``bounding`` type, slightly conservative, approach was applied. By a thorough screening process a single dominant initiating event was selected as a representative initiator, defined as: ``Tornado Induced Loss of Offsite Power.`` The frequency of this initiator was determined to be 6.37E-5/year. The safety response of the HFBR facility resulted in a total Conditional Core Damage Probability of .621. Thus, the point estimate of the HFBR`s Tornado Induced Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was found to be: (CDF){sub Tornado} = 3.96E-5/year. This value represents only 7.8% of the internal CDF and thus is considered to be a small contribution to the overall facility risk expressed in terms of total Core Damage Frequency. In addition to providing the estimate of (CDF){sub Tornado}, the report documents, the relative importance of various tornado induced system, component, and operator failures that contribute most to (CDF){sub Tornado}.

  7. "Medical Alley": the rise of the medical device industry in Minnesota.

    Rhees, David J


    This paper analyzes the factors that led to the establishment in Minnesota of a thriving network of advanced medical device firms sometimes referred to as "Medical Alley." Factors examined include a favorable "business-technology infrastructure" that included the University of Minnesota, the migration of high-tech professionals from other industries, the emergence of specialized services and suppliers, the availability of capital, government encouragement, and support from trade associations. The seminal role of Medtronic, Inc., founded in 1949, is examined, particularly the invention of the first wearable cardiac pacemaker by the company's co-founder Earl Bakken in 1957 and Medtronic's licensing of the first fully implantable pacemaker developed by Wilson Greatbatch and William Chardack in 1960. Some of the major spin-off's from Medtronic will be examined, particularly CPI (now part of Boston Scientific) and St. Jude Medical. The paper will broadly characterize the evolution of "Medical Alley to the present.

  8. Buoyancy and shear characteristics of hurricane-tornado environments

    Mccaul, Eugene W., Jr.


    This study presents detailed composite profiles of temperature, moisture, and wind constructed for tornado environments in tropical cyclones that affected the U.S. between 1948 and 1986. Winds are composited in components radial and tangential to the tropical cyclone center at observation time. Guided by observed patterns of tornado occurrence, composites are constructed for a variety of different stratifications of the data, including proximity to tornadoes, position relative to the cyclone center, time of day, time after cyclone landfall, cyclone translation speed, and landfall location. The composites are also compared to composite soundings from Great Plains tornado environments. A variety of sounding parameters are examined to see which are most closely related to the tornado distribution patterns. Lower-tropospheric vertical shears are found to be stronger in the tropical cyclone tornado environments than on the Great Plains. Buoyancy for the tropical cyclone tornado cases is much smaller than that seen with Great Plains tornado events and exhibits a weak negative correlation with tornado outbreak severity.

  9. Kinetic Energy of Tornadoes in the United States.

    Fricker, Tyler; Elsner, James B


    Tornadoes can cause catastrophic destruction. Here total kinetic energy (TKE) as a metric of destruction is computed from the fraction of the tornado path experiencing various damage levels and a characteristic wind speed for each level. The fraction of the path is obtained from a model developed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission that combines theory with empirical data. TKE is validated as a useful metric by comparing it to other indexes and loss indicators. Half of all tornadoes have TKE exceeding 62.1 GJ and a quarter have TKE exceeding 383.2 GJ. One percent of the tornadoes have TKE exceeding 31.9 TJ. April has more energy than May with fewer tornadoes; March has more energy than June with half as many tornadoes. September has the least energy but November and December have the fewest tornadoes. Alabama ranks number one in terms of tornado energy with 2.48 PJ over the period 2007-2013. TKE can be used to help better understand the changing nature of tornado activity.

  10. Dynamics and thermodynamics of a tornado: Rotation effects

    Ben-Amots, N.


    This paper investigates the relevant processes in the tornado including the dynamics of rotation and thermodynamics as well as condensation. The main novelty of this paper is the explanation of the phenomena occurring in the central downflow. The reduced pressure in the tornado's funnel sucks air and water vapor from the cloud above the tornado. The latent heat of condensation is released in the funnel. The centrifugal force drives the generated water drops out of the funnel. The latent heat of condensation released is also transferred out of the funnel, and supplies the helically ascending air flow surrounding the tornado with additional buoyancy energy. This process gives the tornado increased strength compared to the dust devil type of flow, thus explaining why tornadoes occur always under a cloud, and why the tornado pipe can reach a height of a kilometer and more. To sustain a tornado, the temperature of water vapor at the cloud's base should be higher than the surroundings by a certain minimal value. Remote infrared temperature measurements of clouds' bases may provide indications of the probability that a cloud can spawn a tornado, which may increase the lead time.

  11. Framework for studying the hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system

    Hallema, Dennis W.; Rousseau, Alain N.; Gumiere, Silvio J.; Périard, Yann; Hiemstra, Paul H.; Bouttier, Léa; Fossey, Maxime; Paquette, Alain; Cogliastro, Alain; Olivier, Alain


    Alley cropping is an agroforestry practice whereby crops are grown between hedgerows of trees planted at wide spacings. The local climate and the physiological adaptation mechanisms of the trees are key factors in the growth and survival of the trees and intercrops, because they directly affect the soil moisture distribution. In order to evaluate the long-term hydrological impact of climate change in an alley cropping system in eastern Canada, we developed a framework that combines local soil moisture data with local projections of climate change and a model of soil water movement, root uptake and evapotranspiration. Forty-five frequency domain reflectometers (FDR) along a transect perpendicular to the tree rows generated a two-year dataset that we used for the parameterization and evaluation of the model. An impact study with simulations based on local projections of three global and one regional climate simulation suggest that the soil becomes drier overall in the period between 2041 and 2070, while the number of critically wet periods with a length of one day increases slightly with respect to the reference period between 1967 and 1996. Hydrological simulations based on a fourth climate scenario however point toward wetter conditions. In all cases the changes are minor. Although our simulations indicate that the experimental alley cropping system will possibly suffer drier conditions in response to higher temperatures and increased evaporative demand, these conditions are not necessarily critical for vegetation during the snow-free season.

  12. A Statistical Model for Regional Tornado Climate Studies.

    Jagger, Thomas H; Elsner, James B; Widen, Holly M


    Tornado reports are locally rare, often clustered, and of variable quality making it difficult to use them directly to describe regional tornado climatology. Here a statistical model is demonstrated that overcomes some of these difficulties and produces a smoothed regional-scale climatology of tornado occurrences. The model is applied to data aggregated at the level of counties. These data include annual population, annual tornado counts and an index of terrain roughness. The model has a term to capture the smoothed frequency relative to the state average. The model is used to examine whether terrain roughness is related to tornado frequency and whether there are differences in tornado activity by County Warning Area (CWA). A key finding is that tornado reports increase by 13% for a two-fold increase in population across Kansas after accounting for improvements in rating procedures. Independent of this relationship, tornadoes have been increasing at an annual rate of 1.9%. Another finding is the pattern of correlated residuals showing more Kansas tornadoes in a corridor of counties running roughly north to south across the west central part of the state consistent with the dryline climatology. The model is significantly improved by adding terrain roughness. The effect amounts to an 18% reduction in the number of tornadoes for every ten meter increase in elevation standard deviation. The model indicates that tornadoes are 51% more likely to occur in counties served by the CWAs of DDC and GID than elsewhere in the state. Flexibility of the model is illustrated by fitting it to data from Illinois, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Ohio.

  13. A Statistical Model for Regional Tornado Climate Studies.

    Thomas H Jagger

    Full Text Available Tornado reports are locally rare, often clustered, and of variable quality making it difficult to use them directly to describe regional tornado climatology. Here a statistical model is demonstrated that overcomes some of these difficulties and produces a smoothed regional-scale climatology of tornado occurrences. The model is applied to data aggregated at the level of counties. These data include annual population, annual tornado counts and an index of terrain roughness. The model has a term to capture the smoothed frequency relative to the state average. The model is used to examine whether terrain roughness is related to tornado frequency and whether there are differences in tornado activity by County Warning Area (CWA. A key finding is that tornado reports increase by 13% for a two-fold increase in population across Kansas after accounting for improvements in rating procedures. Independent of this relationship, tornadoes have been increasing at an annual rate of 1.9%. Another finding is the pattern of correlated residuals showing more Kansas tornadoes in a corridor of counties running roughly north to south across the west central part of the state consistent with the dryline climatology. The model is significantly improved by adding terrain roughness. The effect amounts to an 18% reduction in the number of tornadoes for every ten meter increase in elevation standard deviation. The model indicates that tornadoes are 51% more likely to occur in counties served by the CWAs of DDC and GID than elsewhere in the state. Flexibility of the model is illustrated by fitting it to data from Illinois, Mississippi, South Dakota, and Ohio.

  14. Teacher Guidelines for Helping Students after a Tornado

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2013


    Being in a tornado can be very frightening, and the days, weeks, and months following the storm can be very stressful. Most families recover over time, especially with the support of relatives, friends, and their community. But different families may have different experiences during and after a tornado, and how long it takes them to recover will…

  15. Community Post-Tornado Support Groups: Intervention and Evaluation.

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    Post-tornado support groups were organized by the Greene County, North Carolina disaster coordinators and the Pitt County outreach workers from the Community Mental Health Center sponsored tornado follow-up project. The most significant intervention used was the emphasis on creating a climate of group support by establishing a forum for…

  16. Apophysomyces trapeziformis infection associated with a tornado-related injury.

    Weddle, Gina; Gandy, Kimberly; Bratcher, Denise; Pahud, Barbara; Jackson, Mary Anne


    This report defines the role of Apophysomyces as an aggressive fungal pathogen seen after a tornado injury. Clinical and laboratory manifestations of infections after environmentally contaminated wounds incurred during a tornado are outlined, emphasizing mechanism of injury, comorbidities, and diagnostic and treatment challenges. Therapy with systemic antifungal therapy and aggressive serial tissue debridement was successful in achieving cure.

  17. Exploring the Experiences of Special Educators Following the Joplin Tornado

    Palmer, Allyson


    On May 22, 2011, an EF5 tornado ripped through Joplin, MO, leaving many residents without homes and destroying or damaging several school buildings. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how special education teachers responded to the needs of their students with disabilities following the Joplin tornado. Purposeful sampling was…

  18. A Bayesian modelling framework for tornado occurrences in North America.

    Cheng, Vincent Y S; Arhonditsis, George B; Sills, David M L; Gough, William A; Auld, Heather


    Tornadoes represent one of nature's most hazardous phenomena that have been responsible for significant destruction and devastating fatalities. Here we present a Bayesian modelling approach for elucidating the spatiotemporal patterns of tornado activity in North America. Our analysis shows a significant increase in the Canadian Prairies and the Northern Great Plains during the summer, indicating a clear transition of tornado activity from the United States to Canada. The linkage between monthly-averaged atmospheric variables and likelihood of tornado events is characterized by distinct seasonality; the convective available potential energy is the predominant factor in the summer; vertical wind shear appears to have a strong signature primarily in the winter and secondarily in the summer; and storm relative environmental helicity is most influential in the spring. The present probabilistic mapping can be used to draw inference on the likelihood of tornado occurrence in any location in North America within a selected time period of the year.

  19. Review of worldwide occurrence of tornadoes

    Goliger, Adam M


    Full Text Available USSR (Baltic Republics, Ukraine, White Russia and part of the Russian Republic). As the information on the geographical distribution given in Ref. [16] is very limited, only an approximate analysis of the mean rates of occurrence for various republics... was possible. This analysis revealed rates of occurrence of between 2 and 4]10~6/yr/km2 for Ukraine, White Russia and Moldavia. 5.7. Other countries Tornadoes have been reported in Scandinavia and several Swedish events have been documented. Although...

  20. The environment associated with significant tornadoes in Bangladesh

    Bikos, Dan; Finch, Jonathan; Case, Jonathan L.


    This paper investigates the environmental parameters favoring significant tornadoes in Bangladesh through a simulation of ten high-impact events. A climatological perspective is first presented on classifying significant tornadoes in Bangladesh, noting the challenges since reports of tornadoes are not documented in a formal manner. The statistical relationship between United States and Bangladesh tornado-related deaths suggests that significant tornadoes do occur in Bangladesh so this paper identifies the most significant tornadic events and analyzes the environmental conditions associated with these events. Given the scarcity of observational data to assess the near-storm environment in this region, high-resolution (3-km horizontal grid spacing) numerical weather prediction simulations are performed for events identified to be associated with a significant tornado. In comparison to similar events over the United States, significant tornado environments in Bangladesh are characterized by relatively high convective available potential energy, sufficient deep-layer vertical shear, and a propensity for deviant (i.e., well to the right of the mean flow) storm motion along a low-level convergence boundary.

  1. Giant tornadoes as rotating legs of solar prominences

    Wedemeyer, Sven; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; Bosnjak, Antonija; Antolin, Patrick


    Observations in the 171 AA channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly of the space-borne Solar Dynamics Observatory show tornadoes-like features in the atmosphere of the Sun. These giant tornadoes appear as dark, elongated and apparently rotating structures in front of a brighter background. This phenomenon is thought to be produced by rotating magnetic field structures that extend throughout the atmosphere. We characterize giant tornadoes through a statistical analysis of properties like spatial distribution, lifetimes, and sizes. A total number of 201 giant tornadoes are detected in a period of 25 days, suggesting that on average about 30 events are present across the whole Sun at a time close to solar maximum. Most tornadoes appear in groups and seem to form the legs of prominences, thus serving as plasma sources/sinks. Additional Halpha observations with the Swedish 1-m Solar Telescope imply that giant tornadoes rotate as a structure although clearly exhibiting a thread-like structure. We observe tornado...

  2. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya


    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  3. Variability of tornado occurrence over the continental United States since 1950

    Guo, Li; Wang, Kaicun; Bluestein, Howard B.


    The United States experiences the most tornadoes of any country in the world. Given the catastrophic impact of tornadoes, concern has arisen regarding the variation in climatology of U.S. tornadoes under the changing climate. A recent study claimed that the temporal variability of tornado occurrence over the continental U.S. has increased since the 1970s. However, that study ignored the highly regionalized climatology of U.S. tornadoes. To address this issue, we examined the long-term trend of tornado temporal variability in each continental U.S. state. Based on the 64 year tornado records (1950-2013), we found that the trends in tornado temporal variability varied across the U.S., with only one third of the continental area or three out of 10 contiguous states (mostly from the Great Plains and Southeast, but where the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is greater) displaying a significantly increasing trend. The other two-thirds area, where 60% of the U.S. tornadoes were reported (but the frequency of occurrence of tornadoes is less), however, showed a decreasing or a near-zero trend in tornado temporal variability. Furthermore, unlike the temporal variability alone, the combined spatial-temporal variability of U.S. tornado occurrence has remained nearly constant since 1950. Such detailed information on the climatological variability of U.S. tornadoes refines the claim of previous study and can be helpful for local mitigation efforts toward future tornado risks.

  4. United States Tornado Touchdown Points 1950-2004 - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer shows tornado touchdown points in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, from 1950 to 2004. Statistical data were obtained from...

  5. Beijing Alley



    There are many distinguished artists with work in residence at Beijing's Creation Gallery, but there is one worthy of particular mention - gallery founder Li Xiaoke. Through his work, Li successfully unites elements of western art with traditional Chinese ideas and art theories. His favorite places of inspiration are old Beijing, Tibet, and southern China.

  6. Coupling Between Doppler Radar Signatures and Tornado Damage Tracks

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Carey, Lawrence; Carcione, Brian; Smith, Matthew; Schultz, Elise V.; Schultz, Christopher; Lafontaine, Frank


    On April 27, 2011, the southeastern United States was raked with several episodes of severe weather. Numerous tornadoes caused extensive damage, and tragically, the deaths of over 300 people. In Alabama alone, there were 61 confirmed tornados, 4 of them produced EF5 damage, and several were on the ground an hour or more with continuous damage tracks exceeding 80km. The use of Doppler radars covering the region provided reflectivity and velocity signatures that allowed forecasters to monitors the severe storms from beginning to end issuing hundreds of severe weather warnings throughout the day. Meteorologists from the the NWS performed extensive surveys to assess the intensity, duration, and ground track of tornadoes reported during the event. Survey activities included site visits to the affected locations, analysis of radar and satellite data, aerial surveys, and interviews with eyewitnesses. Satellite data from NASA's MODIS and ASTER instruments played a helpful role in determining the location of tornado damage paths and in the assessment. High resolution multispectral and temporal composites helped forecasters corroborate their damage assessments, determine starting and ending points for tornado touchdowns, and helped to provide forecasters with a better big-picture view of the damage region. The imagery also helped to separate damage from the April 27th tornados from severe weather that occurred earlier that month. In a post analysis of the outbreak, tornado damage path signatures observed in the NASA satellite data have been correlated to "debris ball" signatures in the NWS Doppler radars and a special ARMOR dual-polarization radar operated by the University of Alabama Huntsville during the event. The Doppler radar data indicates a circular enhanced reflectivity signal and rotational couplet in the radial velocity likely associated with the tornado that is spatially correlated with the damage tracks in the observed satellite data. An algorithm to detect and

  7. Predictors of compliance with tornado warnings issued in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011.

    Paul, Bimal Kanti; Stimers, Mitchel; Caldas, Marcellus


    Joplin, a city in the southwest corner of Missouri, United States, suffered an EF-5 tornado in the late afternoon of 22 May 2011. This event, which claimed the lives of 162 people, represents the deadliest single tornado to strike the US since modern record-keeping began in 1950. This study examines the factors associated with responses to tornado warnings. Based on a post-tornado survey of survivors in Joplin, it reveals that tornado warnings were adequate and timely. Multivariate logistic regression identified four statistically significant determinants of compliance with tornado warnings: number of warning sources, whether respondents were at home when the tornado struck, past tornado experience, and gender. The findings suggest several recommendations, the implementation of which will further improve responses to tornado warnings. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  8. Simply obtained global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Kenya

    Mungai, D.N.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, C.L.; Ng'ang'a, J.K.


    Global radiation, soil temperature and soil moisture data were obtained from a 4-6 year old Cassia siamea/maize (CM) alley cropping (or hedgerow intercropping) system, at a semi-arid site at Machakos, Kenya, in the late eighties. With the growing need to explore and manage variations in agro-ecosyst

  9. Vegetation barrier and tillage effects on runoff and sediment in an alley crop system on a Luvisol in Burkina Faso

    Spaan, W.P.; Sikking, A.F.S.; Hoogmoed, W.B.


    The effects of vegetation barriers and tillage on runoff and soil loss were evaluated in an alley crop system at a research station in central Burkina Faso. On a 2% slope of a sandy loam various local species (grasses, woody species and a succulent) were planted as conservation barriers in order to

  10. Determinants of Flemingia congesta and Dactyladenia barteri mulch decomposition in alley-cropping systems in the humid tropics.

    Henrot, J.; Brussaard, L.


    Effects of soil macrofauna, micro-environment and mulch quantity were investigated on an acid Ultisol in a high-rainfall area in S.E. Nigeria, using litterbags or littertubes with leaves from the trees of an alley cropping system with t Flemingia congesta or t Dactyladenia barteri as hedgerow specie

  11. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... your ability to function, you don't find relief from OTC drugs, or you experience allergy symptoms ...

  12. Hα Doppler shifts in a tornado in the solar corona

    Schmieder, B.; Mein, P.; Mein, N.; Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N.; Ofman, L.


    Context. High resolution movies in 193 Å from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) show apparent rotation in the leg of a prominence observed during a coordinated campaign. Such structures are commonly referred to as tornadoes. Time-distance intensity diagrams of the AIA data show the existence of oscillations suggesting that the structure is rotating. Aims: The aim of this paper is to understand if the cool plasma at chromospheric temperatures inside the tornado is rotating around its central axis. Methods: The tornado was also observed in Hα with a cadence of 30 s by the MSDP spectrograph, operating at the Solar Tower in Meudon. The MSDP provides sequences of simultaneous spectra in a 2D field of view from which a cube of Doppler velocity maps is retrieved. Results: The Hα Doppler maps show a pattern with alternatively blueshifted and redshifted areas of 5 to 10'' wide. Over time the blueshifted areas become redshifted and vice versa, with a quasi-periodicity of 40 to 60 min. Weaker amplitude oscillations with periods of 4 to 6 min are superimposed onto these large period oscillations. Conclusions: The Doppler pattern observed in Hα cannot be interpreted as rotation of the cool plasma inside the tornado. The Hα velocity observations give strong constraints on the possible interpretations of the AIA tornado.

  13. Mortality from a tornado outbreak, Alabama, April 27, 2011.

    Chiu, Cindy H; Schnall, Amy H; Mertzlufft, Caitlin E; Noe, Rebecca S; Wolkin, Amy F; Spears, Jeanne; Casey-Lockyer, Mary; Vagi, Sara J


    We describe the demographics of the decedents from the tornado outbreak in Alabama on April 27, 2011; examine the circumstances of death surrounding these fatalities; and identify measures to prevent future tornado-related fatalities. We collected information about the decedents from death certificates, disaster-related mortality surveillance, and interview data collected by American Red Cross volunteers from the decedent's families. We describe demographic characteristics, circumstances and causes of death, and sheltering behaviors before death. Of the 247 fatalities, females and older adults were at highest risk for tornado-related deaths. Most deaths were directly related to the tornadoes, on scene, and trauma-related. The majority of the deceased were indoors in single-family homes. Word of mouth was the most common warning mechanism. This tornado event was the third deadliest in recent US history. Our findings support the need for local community shelters, enhanced messaging to inform the public of shelter locations, and encouragement of word-of-mouth warnings and personal and family preparedness planning, with a special focus on assisting vulnerable individuals in taking shelter.

  14. Perceptions and Expected Immediate Reactions to Tornado Warning Polygons

    Lindell, M. K.; Huang, S. K.; Wei, H. L.; Samuelson, C. D.


    To provide people with more specific information about tornado threats, the National Weather Service has replaced its county-wide warnings with smaller warning polygons that more specifically indicate the risk area. However, tornado warning polygons do not have a standardized definition regarding tornado strike probabilities (ps) so it is unclear how warning recipients interpret them. To better understand this issue, 155 participants responded to 15 hypothetical warning polygons. After viewing each polygon, they rated the likelihood of a tornado striking their location and the likelihood that they would take nine different response actions ranging from continuing normal activities to getting in a car and driving somewhere safer. The results showed participants inferred that the ps was highest at the polygon's centroid, lower just inside the edges of the polygon, still lower (but not zero) just outside the edges of the polygon, and lowest in locations beyond that. Moreover, higher ps values were associated with lower expectations of continuing normal activities and higher expectations of seeking information from social sources (but not environmental cues) and higher expectations of seeking shelter (but not evacuating in their cars). These results indicate that most people make some errors in their ps judgments but are likely to respond appropriately to the ps they infer from the warning polygons. Overall, the findings from this study and other research can help meteorologists to better understand how people interpret the uncertainty associated with warning polygons and, thus, improve tornado warning systems.

  15. Schools in Kansas with Tornado Protection. Shawnee Mission Public Schools--District No. 512.

    Ward, Delbert B.

    Kansas and nearby Missouri are among the half-dozen states in America having the greatest frequency of tornadoes of any region in the world. This booklet describes a districtwide approach of designing and constructing tornado-resistant shelters as integrated parts of the school facilities. The design criteria for tornado protection also resulted…

  16. Conceptions of Tornado Wind Speed and Land Surface Interactions among Undergraduate Students in Nebraska

    Van Den Broeke, Matthew S.; Arthurs, Leilani


    To ascertain novice conceptions of tornado wind speed and the influence of surface characteristics on tornado occurrence, 613 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory science courses at a large state university in Nebraska were surveyed. Our findings show that students lack understanding of the fundamental concepts that (1) tornadoes are…

  17. 76 FR 70971 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Societal Response to Tornado Warnings


    ... Response to Tornado Warnings AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). ACTION: Notice... examine the societal impacts of tornado warnings, specifically the methods of receipt, response, and the... Following a particularly deadly year of tornadoes in the United States despite the existence of adequate...

  18. On the magnetism and dynamics of prominence legs hosting tornadoes

    Gonzalez, M J Martinez; Arregui, I; Collados, M; Beck, C; Rodriguez, J de la Cruz


    Solar tornadoes are dark vertical filamentary structures observed in the extreme ultraviolet associated with prominence legs and filament barbs. Their true nature and relationship to prominences requires understanding their magnetic structure and dynamic properties. Recently, a controversy has arisen: is the magnetic field organized forming vertical, helical structures or is it dominantly horizontal? And concerning their dynamics, are tornadoes really rotating or is it just a visual illusion? Here, we analyze four consecutive spectropolarimetric scans of a prominence hosting tornadoes on its legs which help us shed some light on their magnetic and dynamical properties. We show that the magnetic field is very smooth in all the prominence, probably an intrinsic property of the coronal field. The prominence legs have vertical helical fields that show slow temporal variation probably related to the motion of the fibrils. Concerning the dynamics, we argue that 1) if rotation exists, it is intermittent, lasting no ...

  19. Tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (1950–2009

    M. Gayà


    Full Text Available This paper presents a preliminary climatology of tornadoes and waterspouts in Catalonia (NE Iberian Peninsula. A database spanning 60 yr (1950–2009 has been developed on the basis of information collected from various sources such as weather reports, insurance companies, newspapers and damage surveys. This database has been subjected to a rigorous validation process, and the climatology describes its main features: timing, spatial pattern, and trends in the tornado and waterspout distribution. Results show the highest concentration of tornadoes from August to October, the highest density in the heavily populated coastal areas and a growing positive trend that is likely more closely linked to an increase in observation and perception rather than a real climatic trend.

  20. Why do Tornados and Hail Storms Rest on Weekends?

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Bell, Thomas L.


    When anthropogenic aerosols over the eastern USA during summertime are at their weekly mid-week peak, tornado and hail storm activity there is also near its weekly maximum. The weekly cycle in storm activity is statistically significant and unlikely to be due to natural variability. The pattern of variability supports the hypothesis that air pollution aerosols invigorate deep convective clouds in a moist, unstable atmosphere, to the extent of inducing production of large hailstones and tornados. This is caused by the effect of aerosols on cloud-drop nucleation, making cloud drops smaller, delaying precipitation-forming processes and their evaporation, and hence affecting cloud dynamics.

  1. Correlating simulated surface marks with near-surface tornado structure

    Zimmerman, Michael I.

    Tornadoes often leave behind patterns of debris deposition, or "surface marks", which provide a direct signature of their near surface winds. The intent of this thesis is to investigate what can be learned about near-surface tornado structure and intensity through the properties of surface marks generated by simulated, debris-laden tornadoes. Earlier work showed through numerical simulations that the tornado's structure and intensity is highly sensitive to properties of the near-surface flow and can change rapidly in time for some conditions. The strongest winds often occur within tens of meters of the surface where the threat to human life and property is highest, and factors such as massive debris loadings and asymmetry of the main vortex have proven to be critical complications in some regimes. However, studying this portion of the flow in the field is problematic; while Doppler radar provides the best tornado wind field measurements, it cannot probe below about 20 m, and interpretation of Doppler data requires assumptions about tornado symmetry, steadiness in time, and correlation between scatterer and air velocities that are more uncertain near the surface. As early as 1967, Fujita proposed estimating tornado wind speeds from analysis of aerial photography and ground documentation of surface marks. A handful of studies followed but were limited by difficulties in interpreting physical origins of the marks, and little scientific attention has been paid to them since. Here, Fujita's original idea is revisited in the context of three-dimensional, large-eddy simulations of tornadoes with fully-coupled debris. In this thesis, the origins of the most prominent simulated marks are determined and compared with historical interpretations of real marks. The earlier hypothesis that cycloidal surface marks were directly correlated with the paths of individual vortices (either the main vortex or its secondary vortices, when present) is unsupported by the simulation results

  2. Phenotypic nutrient up-take differences in an alley cropping system in semi-arid Machakos, Kenya


    Alley cropping of Cassia siamea and maize was studied insemi-arid Kenya for soil fertility improvement. Katumani composite maize was planted except in the short rains of 1988 (SR88) when a hybrid variety was sown. Therefore the grain yield per row increased differently in the alley cropped maize (CM). Sole maize (SM) and CM yields were higher in SR88 than in the long rains of 1988 (LR88) by 62% and 38%, while yields from the same treatments in LR89 were only 21% and 45% of those in SR88. These differences in relative maize yields are attributed to differences between the two maize varieties in competition under nutrient stress conditions.

  3. Tornado outbreak variability follows Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling and increases dramatically with severity.

    Tippett, Michael K; Cohen, Joel E


    Tornadoes cause loss of life and damage to property each year in the United States and around the world. The largest impacts come from 'outbreaks' consisting of multiple tornadoes closely spaced in time. Here we find an upward trend in the annual mean number of tornadoes per US tornado outbreak for the period 1954-2014. Moreover, the variance of this quantity is increasing more than four times as fast as the mean. The mean and variance of the number of tornadoes per outbreak vary according to Taylor's power law of fluctuation scaling (TL), with parameters that are consistent with multiplicative growth. Tornado-related atmospheric proxies show similar power-law scaling and multiplicative growth. Path-length-integrated tornado outbreak intensity also follows TL, but with parameters consistent with sampling variability. The observed TL power-law scaling of outbreak severity means that extreme outbreaks are more frequent than would be expected if mean and variance were independent or linearly related.

  4. "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties" on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin

    Kochemasov, G. G.


    "Storm Alley" on Saturn and "Roaring Forties' on Earth: two bright phenomena of the same origin. G. Kochemasov IGEM of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Persisting swirling storms around 35 parallel of the southern latitude in the Saturnian atmosphere and famous "Roaring Forties" of the terrestrial hydro- and atmosphere are two bright phenomena that should be explained by the same physical law. The saturnian "Storm Alley" (as it is called by the Cassini scientists) is a stable feature observed also by "Voyager". The Earth's "Roaring Forties" are well known to navigators from very remote times. The wave planetology [1-3 & others] explains this similarity by a fact that both atmospheres belong to rotating globular planets. This means that the tropic and extra-tropic belts of these bodies have differing angular momenta. Belonging to one body these belts, naturally, tend to equilibrate their angular momenta mainly by redistribution of masses and densities [4]. But a perfect equilibration is impossible as long as a rotating body (Saturn or Earth or any other) keeps its globular shape due to mighty gravity. So, a contradiction of tropics and extra-tropics will be forever and the zone mainly between 30 to 50 degrees in both hemispheres always will be a zone of friction, turbulence and strong winds. Some echoes of these events will be felt farther poleward up to 70 degrees. On Earth the Roaring Forties (40˚-50˚) have a continuation in Furious Fifties (50˚-60˚) and Shrieking (Screaming) Sixties (below 60˚, close to Antarctica). Below are some examples of excited atmosphere of Saturn imaged by Cassini. PIA09734 - storms within 46˚ south; PIA09778 - monitoring the Maelstrom, 44˚ north; PIA09787 - northern storms, 59˚ north; PIA09796 - cloud details, 44˚ north; PIA10413 - storms of the high north, 70˚ north; PIA10411 - swirling storms, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10457 - keep it rolling, "Storm Alley", 35˚ south; PIA10439 - dance

  5. Electrical Characteristics of Simulated Tornadoes and Dust Devils

    Zimmerman, Michael I.; Farrell, William M.; Barth, E. L.; Lewellen, W. S.; Perlongo, N. J.; Jackson, T. L.


    It is well known that tornadoes and dust devils have the ability to accumulate significant, visible clouds of debris. Collisions between sand-like debris species produce different electric charges on different types of grains, which convect along different trajectories around the vortex. Thus, significant charge separations and electric currents are possible, which as the vortex fluctuates over time are thought to produce ULF radiation signatures that have been measured in the field. These electric and magnetic fields may contain valuable information about tornado structure and genesis, and may be critical in driving electrochemical processes within dust devils on Mars. In the present work, existing large eddy simulations of debris-laden tornadoes performed at West Virginia University are coupled with a new debris-charging and advection code developed at Goddard Space Flight Center to investigate the detailed (meter-resolution) fluid-dynamic origins of electromagnetic fields within terrestrial vortices. First results are presented, including simulations of the electric and magnetic fields that would be observed by a near-surface, instrument-laden probe during a direct encounter with a tornado.

  6. Tornadoes & Hurricanes. The Natural Disaster Series. Grades 4-8.

    Deery, Ruth

    The topics of tornadoes and hurricanes are important to children but are often missing from elementary textbooks. This document is a part of "The Natural Disaster Series" and is an attempt to supplement elementary science and social studies programs with lessons and student activities. Reasoning skills are emphasized throughout the…

  7. Prominence and tornado dynamics observed with IRIS and THEMIS

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Levens, Peter; Labrosse, Nicolas; Mein, Pierre; Lopez Ariste, Arturo; Zapior, Maciek


    Several prominences were observed during campaigns in September 2013 and July 2014 with the IRIS spectrometer and the vector magnetograph THEMIS (Tenerife). SDO/AIA and IRIS provided images and spectra of prominences and tornadoes corresponding to different physical conditions of the transition region between the cool plasma and the corona. The vector magnetic field was derived from THEMIS observations by using the He D3 depolarisation due to the magnetic field. The inversion code (PCA) takes into account the Hanle and Zeeman effects and allows us to compute the strength and the inclination of the magnetic field which is shown to be mostly horizontal in prominences as well as in tornadoes. Movies from SDO/AIA in 304 A and Hinode/SOT in Ca II show the highly dynamic nature of the fine structures. From spectra in Mg II and Si IV lines provided by IRIS and H-alpha observed by the Multi-channel Subtractive Double Pass (MSDP) spectrograph in the Meudon Solar Tower we derived the Doppler shifts of the fine structures and reconstructed the 3D structure of tornadoes. We conclude that the apparent rotation of AIA tornadoes is due to large-scale quasi-periodic oscillations of the plasma along more or less horizontal magnetic structures.

  8. Emotional Reactions of Rescue Workers Following a Tornado.

    McCammon, Susan L.; And Others

    Rescue and medical workers may be at risk for negative emotional experience following intervention efforts in disaster situations. To examine this possibility, 120 rescue and hospital personnel responded to a survey of their emotional reactions and coping behaviors 3 months after a devastating tornado. Twenty-eight subjects had been involved in…

  9. The February 21, 1993 tornadoes of East Tennessee

    Fricke, K.E.; Kornegay, F.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    A series of tornadoes struck the east Tennessee area on Sunday afternoon, February 21, 1993 around Knoxville, Lenoir City, and Oak Ridge causing millions of dollars worth of damage to both homes and businesses in the area, killing one, injuring a number of persons, and leaving a large area without power for many hours or even days due to damage to the local TVA transmission line network. One tornado touched down in the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation near the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, continued through the Union Valley business district located just east of the plant, through the adjacent University of Tennessee Arboretum and then continued into the communities of Claxton and Powell. The path length of the tornado was approximately 13 miles. Damage to the Y-12 Plant was minimal, but the Union Valley business district was seriously damaged, including the Fusion Energy Design Center (FEDC) which houses a number of DOE related projects. The preliminary cost estimate of the damage to DOE facilities (both at Y-12 and at the FEDC) was around $520,000. This paper describes the local meteorological data, the tornado that struck near the Y-12 plant, the resulting damage both to the DOE facilities and to the surrounding communities, the plant emergency response and recovery activities, and the current hazard analyses being undertaken at the plant.

  10. Creativity...The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner.

    Johnson, Mark M.


    Presents background information on the artist Ginny Ruffner who was a "flameworker." Includes information on the exhibition entitled "Creativity: The Flowering Tornado, Art by Ginny Ruffner" and the accompanying art pop-up book. Provides photographs of some of her artwork. (CMK)

  11. Relative impacts of key drivers on the response of the water table to a major alley farming experiment

    A. Ghadouani


    Full Text Available Widespread clearing of native vegetation in Southwest Western Australia has led to land degradation associated with rising groundwater, secondary salinisation and waterlogging. Re-establishing deep-rooted perennial vegetation across parts of the landscape is one technique for managing land degradation. Alley farming is an agroforestry practice where multiple perennial tree belts are planted in alternation with traditional agricultural crops. To identify the best configuration (belt width versus alley width for controlling rising groundwater levels and providing viable economic returns, a large scale experiment was established in 1995. The experiment contains seven different alley farming designs, each with transects of piezometers running across tree belts into adjacent alleys to monitor changes in the groundwater level. Two control piezometers were also installed in an adjacent paddock. Groundwater at the site is shallow (<3 m and of poor quality (pH 3–5, Ec 2.1–45.9 mS cm−1 so root water uptake from the saturated zone is limited.

    Simple hydrograph analysis could not separate treatment effects on the water table response. Subsequent statistical analysis revealed that 20–30% of the variability in the water table data over the 12 year study period was attributable to the alley farming experiment. To futher investigate the effect of the experiment on groundwater response, additional hydrograph analysis was conducted to compare the trends in the control piezometers in relation to those located within the belts. A difference of 0.9 m was observed between the mean groundwater levels in the control piezometers and the mean levels in the perennial belt piezometers. For a mean specific yield of 0.03 m3 m−3 (standard deviation of 0.03 m3 m−3 this equates to an additional average annual water use of 27 mm yr−1 (standard deviation of 33 mm yr−1 by the

  12. Number of warning information sources and decision making during tornadoes.

    Luo, Jianjun; Cong, Zhen; Liang, Daan


    Taking proper protective action upon receiving tornado warnings is critical to reducing casualties. With more warning information sources becoming available, how the number of such information sources affects decision making should be quantitatively investigated. To examine how the number of warning information sources affected individuals' decisions to take protective action during tornadoes. A telephone survey using random sampling was conducted in 2012 with residents in Tuscaloosa AL and Joplin MO, resulting in a working sample of 782 respondents. Both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (Enhanced Fujita Scale [EF]4 and EF5) in 2011. The analysis was conducted in 2013. Logistic regression analysis showed that relative to having only one warning information source, having two and three or more warning information sources significantly increased the odds of taking protective action in Joplin but not in Tuscaloosa; having three or more sources had a significantly stronger effect on taking protective action in Joplin than in Tuscaloosa. Having an emergency preparation plan in both cities and being white in Tuscaloosa significantly increased the odds of taking protective action, whereas being divorced in Joplin reduced these odds. Receiving warnings from more warning information sources might be more beneficial in places with less previous exposure to tornadoes and for populations with lower awareness of a potential tornado and higher probability of receiving no warnings. Emergency management agencies and public health officials should give priority to these places and populations when formulating disaster mitigation decisions and policies. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado nebula

    Sakai, D. [Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Oka, T.; Tanaka, K.; Matsumura, S.; Miura, K.; Takekawa, S., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Institute of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)


    We report the results of millimeter-wave molecular line observations of the Tornado Nebula (G357.7-0.1), which is a bright radio source behind the Galactic center region. A 15' × 15' area was mapped in the J = 1-0 lines of CO, {sup 13}CO, and HCO{sup +} with the Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope. The Very Large Array archival data of OH at 1720 MHz were also reanalyzed. We found two molecular clouds with separate velocities, V{sub LSR} = –14 km s{sup –1} and +5 km s{sup –1}. These clouds show rough spatial anti-correlation. Both clouds are associated with OH 1720 MHz emissions in the area overlapping with the Tornado Nebula. The spatial and velocity coincidence indicates violent interaction between the clouds and the Tornado Nebula. Modestly excited gas prefers the position of the Tornado 'head' in the –14 km s{sup –1} cloud, also suggesting the interaction. Virial analysis shows that the +5 km s{sup –1} cloud is more tightly bound by self-gravity than the –14 km s{sup –1} cloud. We propose a formation scenario for the Tornado Nebula; the +5 km s{sup –1} cloud collided into the –14 km s{sup –1} cloud, generating a high-density layer behind the shock front, which activates a putative compact object by Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion to eject a pair of bipolar jets.

  14. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    ... Submit Home > Menopause > Menopause symptom relief and treatments Menopause Menopause symptom relief and treatments Working with your doctor ... on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not need treatment ...

  15. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Signatures and Paths Associated with Tornadoes Over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedloved, Gary J.; Carcione, Brian C.; Darden, Christopher B.; Crowe, Christina C.


    A historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by 40 tornadoes, including 6 that reached EF-4 to EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Many of these tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures in 6 tornadoes in North Alabama on April 27, 2011. Several of these debris signatures were disseminated in real-time to the NWS Huntsville and local media to confirm storm spotter reports, confidence to enhance wording within warnings, and accurately pinpoint the locations of tornadoes for residents downstream of the storm. Also, the debris signature locations were used in post-event storm surveys to help locate areas of damage in regions where damage went unreported, or to help separate tornado tracks that were in close proximity to each other. Furthermore, the relative locations of the debris and damage paths for long track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys.

  16. Adjustable safety relief valve

    Taylor, W.L.


    This patent describes a pressure relief valve having a relief set pressure. It comprises: a valve body having a fluid inlet and outlet, a spherical, metal valve seat associated with the inlet and a valve member comprising at least a portion of a spherical,metal ball attached to a ball holding element, the valve member being biased against the valve seat and thus providing a metal-to-metal seal preventing the passage of fluids past the valve seat when the fluid pressure in the inlet is below the relief pressure setting of the valve.

  17. Vulnerability Assessment of the nuclear power plant Vandellos II before a tornado; Evaluacion de vulnerabilidad de C.N. Vandellos II ante tornado

    Fernandez, A.; Encabo, J.; Vaz-Romero, A.; Moran, M. A.; Roch, M.; Nicolas, P.; Barrera, N.


    The purpose of this work was the study of vulnerability to tornado event Vandellos II NPP. To do this, we have evaluated all structures (buildings), security systems and components to the installation of wind stresses, depression and impact of projectiles, generated by a tornado on the site.

  18. Dual-Polarimetric Radar-Based Tornado Debris Paths Associated with EF-4 and EF-5 Tornadoes over Northern Alabama During the Historic Outbreak of 27 April 2011

    Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chrstopher J.; Schultz, Elise V.; Petersen, Walter A.; Gatlin, Patrick N.; Knupp, Kevin R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Darden, Christopher B.


    An historic tornado and severe weather outbreak devastated much of the southeastern United States between 25 and 28 April 2011. On 27 April 2011, northern Alabama was particularly hard hit by a large number of tornadoes, including several that reached EF-4 and EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita damage scale. In northern Alabama alone, there were approximately 100 fatalities and hundreds of more people who were injured or lost their homes during the havoc caused by these violent tornadic storms. Two long-track and violent (EF-4 and EF-5) tornadoes occurred within range of the University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAHuntsville) Advanced Radar for Meteorological and Operational Research (ARMOR, C-band dual-polarimetric). A unique capability of dual-polarimetric radar is the near-real time identification of lofted debris associated with ongoing tornadoes on the ground. The focus of this paper is to analyze the dual-polarimetric radar-inferred tornado debris signatures and identify the associated debris paths of the long-track EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes near ARMOR. The relative locations of the debris and damage paths for each tornado will be ascertained by careful comparison of the ARMOR analysis with NASA MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) and ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) satellite imagery of the tornado damage scenes and the National Weather Service tornado damage surveys. With the ongoing upgrade of the WSR-88D (Weather Surveillance Radar 1988 Doppler) operational network to dual-polarimetry and a similar process having already taken place or ongoing for many private sector radars, dual-polarimetric radar signatures of tornado debris promise the potential to assist in the situational awareness of government and private sector forecasters and emergency managers during tornadic events. As such, a companion abstract (Schultz et al.) also submitted to this conference explores The use of dual-polarimetric tornadic debris

  19. Comprehensive analysis of tornado statistics in comparison to earthquakes: intensity and temporal behaviour

    L. Schielicke


    Full Text Available Tornadoes and earthquakes are characterised by a high variability in their properties concerning intensity, geometric properties and temporal behaviour. Earthquakes are known for power-law behaviour in their intensity (Gutenberg–Richter law and temporal statistics (e.g. Omori law and interevent waiting times. The observed similarity of high variability of these two phenomena motivated us to compare the statistical behaviour of tornadoes using seismological methods and quest for power-law behaviour. In general, the statistics of tornadoes show power-law behaviour partly coextensive with characteristic scales when the temporal resolution is high (10 to 60 min. These characteristic scales match with the typical diurnal behaviour of tornadoes, which is characterised by a maximum of tornado occurrences in the late afternoon hours. Furthermore, the distributions support the observation that tornadoes cluster in time. Finally, we shortly discuss a possible similar underlying structure composed of heterogeneous, coupled, interactive threshold oscillators that possibly explains the observed behaviour.

  20. Climatología de tornados en México

    Jesús Manuel Macías Medrano


    Full Text Available Se presenta una introducción a las características de la base de datos de tornados México, mostrando los crite- rios sustantivos de su construcción, así como los elementos de su estructura. Se ofrece un análisis de las características de los tornados, con base en los datos reunidos del periodo del 2000 al 2012, discurriendo sobre sus expresiones espa- ciales y temporales (históricas, estacionales y horarias, para mostrar la importancia de sus capacidades de destrucción y al mismo tiempo de la vulnerabilidad a la que están sujetos los habitantes del país frente a esos fenómenos.

  1. Thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes in a tornado: synergistic approach

    Bystrai, G P; Okhotnikov, S A


    In the mathematical modeling of strongly nonequilibrium and nonlinear processes in a tornado approach based on the momentum transfer equations with a model function of sources and sinks is used, which puts this approach to the sharpening problems, where the maximum velocity distribution over the space of indefinitely growing for a limited time. Nonlinear momentum source in the medium leads to a blow-up regime, and the development of the regime, itself generated by a nonlinear medium, leads to self-organization, which is described by numerical methods. In this case, the competition between processes of the increasing due to nonlinear source and pulse propagation taking into account the viscosity of the medium leads to the appearance of new medium characteristic - some linear size - the spatial diameter of the tornado, on which these processes "balance" each other. The approach allows to obtain equations that describe the physical effects observed and explain nonlinear transfer mechanisms of layering momentum i...

  2. Magnetic field in atypical prominence structures: Bubble, tornado and eruption

    Levens, P J; Ariste, A López; Labrosse, N; Dalmasse, K; Gelly, B


    Spectropolarimetric observations of prominences have been obtained with the THEMIS telescope during four years of coordinated campaigns. Our aim is now to understand the conditions of the cool plasma and magnetism in `atypical' prominences, namely when the measured inclination of the magnetic field departs, to some extent, from the predominantly horizontal field found in `typical' prominences. What is the role of the magnetic field in these prominence types? Are plasma dynamics more important in these cases than the magnetic support? We focus our study on three types of `atypical' prominences (tornadoes, bubbles and jet-like prominence eruptions) that have all been observed by THEMIS in the He I D_3 line, from which the Stokes parameters can be derived. The magnetic field strength, inclination and azimuth in each pixel are obtained by using the Principal Component Analysis inversion method on a model of single scattering in the presence of the Hanle effect. The magnetic field in tornadoes is found to be more ...

  3. Water table response to an experimental alley farming trial: dissecting the spatial and temporal structure of the data.

    Noorduijn, S L; Ghadouani, A; Vogwill, R; Smettem, K R J; Legendre, P


    Clearing vegetation for traditional agriculture diminishes native habitat and reduces plant transpiration, leading to increased groundwater recharge and onset of dryland salinization due to rising groundwater and mobilization of salt stores in the soil profile. This change in hydrology and salinity can also negatively affect biodiversity in many semiarid regions. Alternating native perennial tree belts with mono-species agriculture within the tree belt alleys is one possible system that can provide recharge control and recover some of the ecosystem services of degraded agricultural landscapes. To assess the effect of this agroforestry technique on groundwater levels, an alley farming trial was established in 1995, incorporating different combinations of belt width, alley width, and revegetation density. Transects of piezometers within each design have been monitored from October 1995 to January 2008. The data set consisted of 70 piezometers monitored on 39 dates. Two trends were observed within the raw data: An increase in water table depth with time and an increase in the range of depths monitored at the site were clearly discernible. However, simple hydrograph analysis of the data has proved unsuccessful at distinguishing the effect of the tree belts on the water table morphology. The statistical techniques employed in this paper to show the effect of the experiment on the water table were variation partitioning, principal coordinates of neighbor matrices (PCNM), and canonical redundancy analysis (RDA). The environmental variables (alley farming design, distance of piezometer from the tree belt, and percentage vegetation cover including edge effect) explained 20-30% of the variation of the transformed and detrended data for the entire site. The spatial PCNM variables explained a further 20-30% of the variation. Partitioning of the site into a northern and southern block increased the proportion of explained variation for the plots in the northern block. The

  4. After the storm: personal experiences following an EF4 tornado.

    May, Olivia W; Bigham, Amy B


    In April of 2011, an EF4 tornado ripped through the city of Tuscaloosa, AL, leaving in its wake thousands of destroyed homes and businesses. In the hours and days that followed, the health care community of this city, as well as the entire state of Alabama and the southeastern United States, came together to provide care to hundreds of victims, recovery workers, and volunteers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 冷巷的被动降温原理及其启示%The Principles of Passive-cooling Alley and Its Inspiration

    陈晓扬; 仲德崑


    A field study of thermal environment is carried out on narrow alleys of three residential buildings to analyze the principles of passive-cooling alley. The main technical strategies can be concluded as: narrow alley with sunshade and ventilation, the ground and wall as heat sink, and night ventilation. Its inspiration on architectural design is also discussed.%通过对三处民居的窄巷进行热环境实测.剖析冷巷的被动降温原理,总结其主要技术策略为:遮阳通风的窄通道、蓄冷墙及地面、夜间通风.同时论述了这些技术策略对建筑设计的启示.

  6. Expert System for the Tornado Ground-Based Check-Out System,

    demonstrator, supporting the TORNADO check-out system, has been developed and tested. The expert system , called TORRES (TORNADO Radar Readiness Expert ...flight. The expert system is also able to exclude errors, that were generated by other systems capable of changing the state of the radar system and... System ), supports debriefing staff with various levels of experience. The scope of the error detection encompasses the TORNADO Terrain Following and

  7. Annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the global wind oscillation

    Moore, Todd W.


    Previous studies have searched for relationships between tornado activity and atmospheric teleconnections to provide insight on the relationship between tornadoes, their environments, and larger scale patterns in the climate system. Knowledge of these relationships is practical because it can improve seasonal and sub-seasonal predictions of tornado probability and, therefore, help mitigate tornado-related losses. This study explores the relationships between the annual and seasonal tornado activity in the United States and the Global Wind Oscillation. Time series herein show that phases of the Global Wind Oscillation, and atmospheric angular momentum anomalies, vary over a period of roughly 20-25 years. Rank correlations indicate that tornado activity is weakly correlated with phases 2, 3, and 4 (positive) and 6, 7, and 8 (negative) of the Global Wind Oscillation in winter, spring, and fall. The correlation is not as clear in summer or at the annual scale. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney U tests indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 and fewer phase 6, 7, and 8 days tend to have more tornadoes. Lastly, logistic regression models indicate that winters and springs with more phase 2, 3, and 4 days have greater likelihoods of having more than normal tornado activity. Combined, these analyses suggest that seasons with more low atmospheric angular momentum days, or phase 2, 3, and 4 days, tend to have greater tornado activity than those with fewer days, and that this relationship is most evident in winter and spring.

  8. [Quantitative Evaluation of Intracardiac Blood Flow by Left Ventricle Dynamic Anatovy Based On Exact Solutions of Non-Stationary Navier-Stocks Equations for Selforganized tornado-Like Flows of Viscous Incompresssible Fluid].

    Talygin, E A; Zazybo, N A; Zhorzholiany, S T; Krestinich, I M; Mironov, A A; Kiknadze, G I; Bokerya, L A; Gorodkov, A Y; Makarenko, V N; Alexandrova, S A


    New approach to intracardiac blood flow condition analysis based on geometric parameters of left ventricle flow channel has been suggested. Parameters, that used in this method, follow from exact solutions of nonstationary Navier-Stocks equations for selforganized tornado-like flows of viscous incompressible fluid. The main advantage of this method is considering dynamic anatomy of intracardiac cavity and trabeculae relief of left ventricle streamlined surface, both registered in a common mri-process, as flow condition indicator. Calculated quantity options that characterizes blood flow condition can be use as diagnostic criterias for estimation of violation in blood circulation function which entails heart ejection reduction. Developed approach allows to clarify heart jet organization mechanism and estimate the share of the tornado-like flow self-organization in heart ejection structure.

  9. Relief Aid Carefully Audited


    In a recent interview with the national TV broadcaster CCTV,Wang Zhongxin,Director of the Social Security Audit Department at the National Audit Office,talks about the procedures that are in effect to ensure relief supplies for the Wenchuan earthquake victims reach the end users. Excerpts of

  10. Paper relief architecture

    Latka, J.F.


    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which wa

  11. Vent Relief Valve Test


    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  12. Tornadoes and related damage costs: statistical modeling with a semi-Markov approach

    Corini, Chiara; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio; Manca, Raimondo


    We propose a statistical approach to tornadoes modeling for predicting and simulating occurrences of tornadoes and accumulated cost distributions over a time interval. This is achieved by modeling the tornadoes intensity, measured with the Fujita scale, as a stochastic process. Since the Fujita scale divides tornadoes intensity into six states, it is possible to model the tornadoes intensity by using Markov and semi-Markov models. We demonstrate that the semi-Markov approach is able to reproduce the duration effect that is detected in tornadoes occurrence. The superiority of the semi-Markov model as compared to the Markov chain model is also affirmed by means of a statistical test of hypothesis. As an application we compute the expected value and the variance of the costs generated by the tornadoes over a given time interval in a given area. he paper contributes to the literature by demonstrating that semi-Markov models represent an effective tool for physical analysis of tornadoes as well as for the estimati...

  13. Numerical study of the effects of rotating forced downdraft in reproducing tornado-like vortices

    Zhu, Jinwei; Cao, Shuyang; Tamura, Tetsuro; Tokyo Institute of Technology Collaboration; Tongji Univ Collaboration


    Appropriate physical modeling of a tornado-like vortex is a prerequisite to studying near-surface tornado structure and tornado-induced wind loads on structures. Ward-type tornado simulator modeled tornado-like flow by mounting guide vanes around the test area to provide angular momentum to converging flow. Iowa State University, USA modified the Ward-type simulator by locating guide vanes at a high position to allow vertical circulation of flow that creates a rotating forced downdraft in the process of generating a tornado. However, the characteristics of the generated vortices have not been sufficiently investigated till now. In this study, large-eddy simulations were conducted to compare the dynamic vortex structure generated with/without the effect of rotating forced downdraft. The results were also compared with other CFD and experimental results. Particular attention was devoted to the behavior of vortex wander of generated tornado-like vortices. The present study shows that the vortex center wanders more significantly when the rotating forced downdraft is introduced into the flow. The rotating forced downdraft is advantageous for modeling the rear flank downdraft phenomenon of a real tornado.

  14. The recollective qualities of adolescents' and adults' narratives about a long-ago tornado.

    Bauer, Patricia J; Stark, Emily N; Ackil, Jennifer K; Larkina, Marina; Merrill, Natalie; Fivush, Robyn


    The recollective qualities of autobiographical memory are thought to develop over the course of the first two decades of life. We used a 9-year follow-up test of recall of a devastating tornado and of non-tornado-related events from before and after the storm, to compare the recollective qualities of adolescents' (n = 20, ages 11 years, 11 months to 20 years, 8 months) and adults' (n = 14) autobiographical memories. At the time of the tornado, half of the adolescents had been younger than age 6. Nine years after the event, all participants provided evidence that they recall the event of the tornado. Adults also had high levels of recall of the non-tornado-related events. Adolescents recalled proportionally fewer non-tornado-related events; adolescents younger than 6 at the time of the events recalled the fewest non-tornado-related events. Relative to adolescents, adults produced longer narratives. With narrative length controlled, there were few differences in the recollective qualities of adolescents' and adults' narrative reports, especially in the case of the tornado; the recollective qualities were stronger among adolescents older at the time of the events. Overall, participants in both age groups provided evidence of the qualities of recollection that are characteristic of autobiographical memory.

  15. Structure and Prevalence of PTSD Symptomology in Children Who Have Experienced a Severe Tornado

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy


    Children served by school psychologists are frequently impacted by natural disasters. In the United States, tornadoes are a particular threat but have been studied very little. The current investigation developed a scale for assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children in Kindergarten to Grade 6 impacted by a severe tornado. Six…

  16. Structure and Prevalence of PTSD Symptomology in Children Who Have Experienced a Severe Tornado

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy


    Children served by school psychologists are frequently impacted by natural disasters. In the United States, tornadoes are a particular threat but have been studied very little. The current investigation developed a scale for assessing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children in Kindergarten to Grade 6 impacted by a severe tornado. Six…

  17. Statistical Models for Tornado Climatology: Long and Short-Term Views

    Elsner, James B; Fricker, Tyler


    This paper estimates local tornado risk from records of past events using statistical models. First, a spatial model is fit to the tornado counts aggregated in counties with terms that control for changes in observational practices over time. Results provide a long-term view of risk that delineates the main tornado corridors in the United States where the expected annual rate exceeds two tornadoes per 10,000 square km. A few counties in the Texas Panhandle and central Kansas have annual rates that exceed four tornadoes per 10,000 square km. Refitting the model after removing the least damaging tornadoes from the data (EF0) produces a similar map but with the greatest tornado risk shifted south and eastward. Second, a space-time model is fit to the counts aggregated in raster cells with terms that control for changes in climate factors. Results provide a short-term view of risk. The short-term view identifies the shift of tornado activity away from the Ohio Valley under El Ni\\~no conditions and away from the S...

  18. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose ...

  19. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... action for patients who have had inadequate symptom relief with antihistamines and topical nasal steroids. Through injection ...

  20. System performance analysis of an alley-cropping system in Western Kenya and its explanation by nutrient balances and uptake processes

    Radersma, S.; Otieno, H.; Atta-Krah, A.N.; Niang, A.I.


    Alley-cropping has successively been overestimated and despised, due to unrealistic expectations of this ¿more natural¿ type of agriculture and the disappointment thereafter, when the negative effects of trees on crops became evident over time. In this paper we examine the performance and underlying

  1. l tornado che colpì la laguna di Venezia I ' l l Settembre 1970 Qualche considerazione intorno alla teoria elettrica dei tornado



    Full Text Available After a short description of the disastrous effects of the
    tornado which struck the Venice lagoon on September 11, 1970, the principal
    theories which in the centuries tried to account for the origin of such
    terrible vortexes, are reviewed. In particular, some remarks are given about
    the electrical theory of the tornadoes. It seems to the author that some features
    would be explained in a simple way by considering the tornado as a
    convectivo cell with electric currents of high intensity. Finally, after recalling
    the meteorological conditions preceding the tornado of September 11,
    its chief features are described.

  2. The occurrence of a tornado in Serbia on 31 march 2013

    Pavlovic-Berdon Nada


    Full Text Available Tornado occurs very rarely in the territory of Serbia. The occurrence of a tornado above Torda (Vojvodina, Serbia on 31 March 2013 indicted the importance of monitoring such a dangerous weather phenomenon, knowing its characteristics and forecasting it. This paper analyzes the synoptic conditions and vertical structure of the atmosphere that prevailed during the development of a supercell with a tornado. Changes in temperature and air pressure are presented on mesoscale maps. The analysis was performed by using the Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model (NMM. The tornado occurrence was monitored via satellite images and radar characteristics of a supercell. The cause of tornadogenesis has been ascertained. According to the EF scale, the tornado reached F0 intensity. Damages to roofs, power lines, trees and cars caused by the wind (>35ms-1 are also presented.

  3. Improved understanding of near-ground winds in hurricanes and tornadoes

    Karstens, Christopher Daniel

    Hurricanes and tornadoes contain the most destructive and life threatening winds on the planet. Combined, they are responsible for approximately $11 billion in damage in the U.S. annually. To compose a set of effective mitigation techniques, a comprehensive understanding of hurricane and tornado winds is needed. However, our understanding of these winds in the lowest 30 meters AGL, particularly their interaction with complex terrain, is lacking. This thesis includes two studies that address this issue. In the first study, a representative wind profile extracted from WRF simulations of hurricanes is used to initialize CFD modeled flow interaction with built structures using Fluent. The magnitude of structurally-induced modifications to the wind profile is presented. In the second study, recent tornado pressure and wind measurements are compared to laboratory and numerical simulations of tornado-like vortices. In addition, a comparative range of minimum pressures from a wide variety of tornadoes with different size and intensities is presented.

  4. Wind Field of a Nonmesocyclone Anticyclonic Tornado Crossing the Hong Kong International Airport

    Karen A. Kosiba


    Full Text Available A nonmesocyclone tornado traversed the Hong Kong International Airport on September 6, 2004 directly impacting a surface weather station. This allowed for 1-second 10-meter above ground level (AGL wind observations through the core of the tornado. Integration of these 10-meter AGL wind data with Ground-Based Velocity Track (GBVTD wind retrievals derived from LIDAR data provided a time history of the three-dimensional wind field of the tornado. These data indicate a progressive decrease in radial inflow with time and little to no radial inflow near the time the tornado crosses the surface weather station. Anemometer observations suggest that the tangential winds approximate a modified-Rankine vortex outside the radius of maximum winds, suggesting that frictionally induced radial inflow was confined below 10 m AGL. The radial-height distribution of angular momentum depicts an increase in low-level angular momentum just prior to the tornado reaching its maximum intensity.

  5. An experimental investigation of flow around a vehicle passing through a tornado

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Obara, Kouhei; Okura, Nobuyuki


    Flow around a vehicle running through a tornado was investigated experimentally. A tornado simulator was developed to generate a tornado-like swirl flow. PIV study confirmed that the simulator generates two-celled vortices which are observed in the natural tornadoes. A moving test rig was developed to run a 1/40 scaled train-shaped model vehicle under the tornado simulator. The car contained pressure sensors, a data logger with an AD converter to measure unsteady surface pressures during its run through the swirling flow. Aerodynamic forces acting on the vehicle were estimated from the pressure data. The results show that the aerodynamic forces change its magnitude and direction depending on the position of the car in the swirling flow. The asymmetry of the forces about the vortex centre suggests the vehicle itself may deform the flow field.

  6. Structures of Mesocirculations Producing Tornadoes Associated with Tropical Cyclone Frances (1998)

    Rao, Gandikota V.; Scheck, Joshua W.; Edwards, Roger; Schaefer, Joseph T.


    Radar structures of one mesocyclone and one mesocirculation (the term mesocirculation refers to a class of rotating updrafts, which may or may not be as spatially and temporally large as a typical mesocyclone) that developed a total of four tornadoes in association with Tropical Cyclone (TC) Frances 1998 are presented. One tornado developed within an inner rainband near the time of landfall while three of the other tornadoes developed within an outer rainband nearly 24 hours after the landfall. Radar reflectivities of the tornadic circulations averaged upwards of 40 dBZ while Doppler radar wind components directed toward the radar averaged 11 m s-1. It is realized that although TC Frances was a minimal hurricane it spawned several tornadoes (four of which were studied) causing damage exceeding 2 million. These tornadoes were not all located close to the TC center, serving as a caution to forecasters and emergency personnel that the immediate landfalling area is not the only place to watch.

  7. Doppler-radar wind-speed measurements in tornadoes: A comparison of real and simulated spectra

    Bluestein, H.B.; LaDue, J.G.; Stein, H.; Speheger, D. (Oklahoma Univ., Norman, OK (United States)); Unruh, W.P. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))


    Bluestein and Unruh have discussed the advantages of using a portable doppler radar to map the wind field in tornadoes. during the spring of 1991 a storm-intercept team from the University of Oklahoma (OU) collected data near five supercell tornadoes in Oklahoma and Kansas. Details about the 1-W, 3-cm, 5-deg half-power beamwidth, CW/FM-CW Doppler radar we used and the methods of data collection and analysis are found in Bluestein and Unruh and Bluestein et al. Using the portable radar, we approximately doubled in only one year the number of tornado spectra that had been collected over a period of almost 20 years by NSSL's fixed-site Doppler radar. In this paper we will compare observed tornado wind spectra with simulated wind spectra (Zmic and Doviak 1975) in order to learn more about tornado structure.

  8. Numerical Modelling of Electromagnetic Field in a Tornado

    Pavel Fiala


    Full Text Available This study deals with the numerical model of both the physical and the chemical processes in the tornado. Within the paper, a basic theoretical model and a numerical solution are presented. We prepared numerical models based on the combined finite element method (FEM and the finite volume method (FVM. The model joins the magnetic, electric and current fields, the flow field and a chemical nonlinear ion model. The results were obtained by means of the FEM/FVM as a main application in ANSYS software.

  9. Tornado-related fatalities--five states, Southeastern United States, April 25-28, 2011.


    During April 25-28, 2011, a massive storm system generated 351 tornadoes (including 15 registering 4 or 5 on the Enhanced Fujita [EF] scale*), killing 338 persons in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, and Tennessee. This was the third-deadliest tornado event in the United States, surpassing an April 1974 event that resulted in 315 fatalities. This event also was historic because of the record number of fatalities that occurred despite modern advances in tornado forecasting, advanced warning times, and media coverage. Risk factors for death and injury from tornadoes are sheltering in mobile homes, proximity to an EF-4 or EF-5 tornado, being an older adult (aged ≥65 years), lack of accessibility to safe rooms (e.g., basements or reinforced shelters), and a night-time tornado impact. To describe the fatalities by demographic characteristics, type of shelter used, cause of death, and tornado severity and location, CDC reviewed data from the American Red Cross (Red Cross), death certificates, and the National Weather Service (NWS). This report summarizes the results of that review. Among the 338 decedents, median age was 55.0 years (range: 4 days-97 years); approximately one third were older adults. On tornado impact, 46.7% of decedents were in single-family homes, and 26.6% were in mobile homes. The leading cause of death was traumatic injury, including 21.9% with head injuries. Half of the deadly tornadoes were rated EF-4 or EF-5 and were responsible for 89.5% of the deaths. To prevent tornado-related deaths, health messaging should encourage the public (especially older adults and residents of mobile/manufactured homes) to pre-identify an accessible safe room, prepare the room with personal protection items (e.g., blankets and helmets), and monitor local weather.

  10. Hawkmoth flight performance in tornado-like whirlwind vortices.

    Ortega-Jimenez, Victor Manuel; Mittal, Rajat; Hedrick, Tyson L


    Vertical vortex systems such as tornadoes dramatically affect the flight control and stability of aircraft. However, the control implications of smaller scale vertically oriented vortex systems for small fliers such as animals or micro-air vehicles are unknown. Here we examined the flapping kinematics and body dynamics of hawkmoths performing hovering flights (controls) and maintaining position in three different whirlwind intensities with transverse horizontal velocities of 0.7, 0.9 and 1.2 m s(-1), respectively, generated in a vortex chamber. The average and standard deviation of yaw and pitch were respectively increased and reduced in comparison with hovering flights. Average roll orientation was unchanged in whirlwind flights but was more variable from wingbeat to wingbeat than in hovering. Flapping frequency remained unchanged. Wingbeat amplitude was lower and the average stroke plane angle was higher. Asymmetry was found in the angle of attack between right and left wings during both downstroke and upstroke at medium and high vortex intensities. Thus, hawkmoth flight control in tornado-like vortices is achieved by a suite of asymmetric and symmetric changes to wingbeat amplitude, stroke plane angle and principally angle of attack.

  11. Predictors for the Number of Warning Information Sources During Tornadoes.

    Cong, Zhen; Luo, Jianjun; Liang, Daan; Nejat, Ali


    People may receive tornado warnings from multiple information sources, but little is known about factors that affect the number of warning information sources (WISs). This study examined predictors for the number of WISs with a telephone survey on randomly sampled residents in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and Joplin, Missouri, approximately 1 year after both cities were struck by violent tornadoes (EF4 and EF5) in 2011. The survey included 1006 finished interviews and the working sample included 903 respondents. Poisson regression and Zero-Inflated Poisson regression showed that older age and having an emergency plan predicted more WISs in both cities. Education, marital status, and gender affected the possibilities of receiving warnings and the number of WISs either in Joplin or in Tuscaloosa. The findings suggest that social disparity affects the access to warnings not only with respect to the likelihood of receiving any warnings but also with respect to the number of WISs. In addition, historical and social contexts are important for examining predictors for the number of WISs. We recommend that the number of WISs should be regarded as an important measure to evaluate access to warnings in addition to the likelihood of receiving warnings. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:168-172).

  12. Tornado type closed magnetic trap for an ECR source

    Abramova, K B; Voronin, A V; Zorin, V G


    We propose to use a Tornado type closed magnetic trap for creation of a source of mul-ticharged ions with plasma heating by microwave radiation. Plasma loss in closed traps is deter-mined by diffusion across the magnetic field, which increases substantially plasma confinement time as compared to the classical mirror trap [1]. We propose to extract ions with the aid of additional coils which partially destroy the closed structure of the magnetic lines in the trap, but don not influence the total confinement time. This allows for producing a controlled plasma flux that depends on the magnetic field of the additional coil. The Tornado trap also possesses merits such as an opportunity to produce high magnetic fields up to 3 T, which makes possible heating and confinement of plasma with a high density of electrons; plasma stability to magneto-hydrodynamic perturbations because the magnetic field structure corresponds to the "min B" configuration; and relatively low costs. All estimates and calculations were carrie...

  13. Untwisting the Tornado: X-ray Imaging and Spectroscopy of G357.7-0.1

    Gaensler, B M; Slane, P O; Miller, J M; Wijnands, R; Eikenberry, S S; Lewin, W H G


    We report on the detection of X-ray emission from the unusual Galactic radio source G357.7-0.1 (the "Tornado"). Observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory demonstrate the presence of three sources of X-ray emission from the Tornado: a relatively bright region of dimensions 2'x1' coincident with and interior to the brightest radio emission at the "head" of the Tornado, plus two fainter extended regions located in the Tornado's "tail". No X-ray point sources associated with the Tornado are seen down to a 3-sigma luminosity (0.5-10 keV) of 1e33 erg/s, for a distance to the system of 12 kpc. The spectrum of the brightest region of X-rays is consistent with a heavily absorbed (N_H ~ 1e23 cm^-2) thermal plasma of temperature kT ~ 0.6 keV; an absorbed power law can also fit the data, but implies an extremely steep photon index. From these data we tentatively conclude that the Tornado is a supernova remnant (SNR), although we are unable to rule out the possibility that the Tornado is powered either by outfl...

  14. Systematic Study of the Failure of a Light-Frame Wood Roof in a Tornado

    Christine Standohar-Alfano


    Full Text Available Tornadoes are a particularly devastating natural hazard that affect communities across the United States, particularly the Midwest and South. They are unique from an engineering point-of-view due to their very low probability of occurrence but often highly destructive consequences. The 2011 season was particularly devastating to the Southeastern portion of the U.S. This paper presents a single case study of a 2012 tornado that struck a single large rural light-frame wood house with an unconventional roof system. A fragility methodology was used as a tool to probabilistically study the loss of the roof system, and bound an Enhanced Fujita (EF scale rating of the tornado. The tornado was initially rated as an EF3 tornado by the U.S. National Weather Service. However, following a detailed site inspection verified with numerical structural models, the tornado was downgraded to an EF2 tornado. As expected, the use of nail connections in a roof-to-wall connection resulted in a weaker link compared to a hurricane clip. The approach presented in this paper can be used as a supplement to the EF rating provided by U.S. National Weather Service meteorologists when unusual conditions in either the structure or surroundings exists.

  15. Mucormycosis: a rare fungal infection in tornado victims.

    Austin, Cindy L; Finley, Phillip J; Mikkelson, Debbie R; Tibbs, Brian


    This article reviews four immunocompetent patients who developed a rare fungal infection, mucormycosis, secondary to multiple traumatic injuries sustained during an EF-5 tornado in Joplin, MO. Commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter, mucorales are fungi associated with soft tissue and cutaneous infections. Onset of this fungal infection can occur without clinical signs, presenting several days to several weeks after injury, delaying diagnosis. A multidisciplinary treatment approach including aggressive antifungal therapy and aggressive surgical debridement is critical. This diagnosis should be considered in all patients presenting with injuries sustained from high-velocity embedment of debris such as natural disasters or explosions. We present four cases of mucormycosis, species Apophysomyces trapeziformis. Data reported includes predisposing factors, number of days between injury and diagnosis of mucormycosis, surgical treatment, antifungal therapy, outcomes, and potential risk factors that may have contributed to the development of mucormycosis.

  16. Plasmonics with a Twist: Taming Optical Tornadoes on the Nanoscale

    Boriskina, Svetlana V


    This chapter discusses a hydrodynamics-inspired approach to trap and manipulate light in plasmonic nanostructures, which is based on steering optical powerflow around nano-obstacles. New insights into plasmonic nanofocusing mechanisms are obtained by invoking an analogy of the 'photon fluid' (PF). By proper nanostructure design, PF kinetic energy can be locally increased via convective acceleration and then converted into 'pressure' energy to generate localized areas of high field intensity. In particular, trapped light can be molded into optical vortices -tornado-like areas of circular motion of power flux - connected into transmission-like sequences. In the electromagnetic theory terms, this approach is based on radiationless electromagnetic interference of evanescent fields rather than on interference of propagating waves radiated by the dipoles induced in nanoparticles. The resulting ability to manipulate optical powerflow well beyond the diffraction limit helps to reduce dissipative losses, to increase t...

  17. 全新贵族Benelli Tornado Tre 1130

    王宏; Garfield


    @@ 朴实的型面兽心者 未见其人,先闻其声.Tornado(龙卷风)Tre 1130巨大的吼声从它那独特的三缸引擎中进发而出,让你禁不住诱惑要走近它.它那略带沙哑的隆隆声是如此地性感,以至于让你觉得根本不需要再用它的配置来判断你的选择是否正确.你只需要启动龙卷风,预热它的引擎,你就会了解,尽管穿了件新外衣,但是TnT(引擎)的威力还是一点不减.

  18. Permanent record. Electronic records aid in the aftermath of Joplin tornado.

    Russell, Matthew


    When a tornado struck St. John's Regional Medical Center in May 2011, its patient records were stored in a newly launched electronic health record system, helping prevent a bad situation from being worse.

  19. Toward better assessment of tornado potential in typhoons: Significance of considering entrainment effects for CAPE

    Sueki, Kenta; Niino, Hiroshi


    The characteristics of typhoons that spawned tornadoes (tornadic typhoons: TTs) in Japan from 1991 to 2013 were investigated by composite analysis using the Japanese 55 year Reanalysis and compared with those of typhoons that did not spawn tornadoes (nontornadic typhoons: NTs). We found that convective available potential energy (CAPE), which considers the effects of entrainment (entraining CAPE: E-CAPE), and storm-relative environmental helicity (SREH) are significantly large in the northeast quadrant of TTs where tornadoes frequently occur and that E-CAPE and SREH in that quadrant for TTs are larger than those for NTs. On the other hand, ordinary CAPE without entrainment does not account for the spatial distribution of tornado occurrences nor does it distinguish TTs from NTs. E-CAPE is sensitive to humidity in the midtroposphere; thus, it is effective for detecting a conditionally unstable layer up to about 550 hPa, which is distinctive of TTs.

  20. Assessment of Structural Resistance of building 4862 to Earthquake and Tornado Forces [SEC 1 and 2



    This report presents the results of work done for Hanford Engineering Laboratory under contract Y213-544-12662. LATA performed an assessment of building 4862 resistance to earthquake and tornado forces.

  1. Understanding yields in alley cropping maize (Zea mays L. ) and Cassia siamea Lam. under semi-arid conditions in Machakos,Eastern Kenya


    Six seasons of experiments in Machakos, Kenya, revealed that above about 150 mm of rainfall, maize yields per row in alley cropped “replacement” agroforestry (AF) plots, of Cassia siamea Lam. and maize (Zea mays, cv. Katumani Composite B), may be expected to exceed those in the control (sole maize) plots. Such yields were insufficient to compensate for the area “lost” to the hedgerows. Below about 150 mm the control plots may be expected to perform better. This result was due to competition for water. Greater association of the fine roots of Cassia and maize was observed in the middle of the alleys than near the hedgerows. Photosynthetic consequences of shading were insignificant relative to other factors. In the alleys, reductions of soil temperature due to shade in the western and eastern maize rows were higher than in the middle row. Soil moisture extraction was higher in the AF than in the control plots. In the AF plots, moisture extraction was greater under the central maize rows than under those nearest the Cassia. Yield patterns followed such soil temperature and soil moisture patterns. Maize transpiration and photosynthetic rates were significantly higher in the control than in the AF plots during a below-average rainy season but not during above-average rainy seasons. It is concluded that alley cropping under semi-arid conditions should be approached differently from the system worked on. It must at least provide strong physical protection of crops and/or soils and have a strong economic incentive to be of interest to the farmers.

  2. Phytotherapy for pain relief.

    Zareba, Grazyna


    Pain is considered the third most common healthcare problem disabling more individuals than heart disease and cancer together. Although pharmacological pain management offers a significant relief in several pain-related diseases, many patients turn to its supplementation with complementary and alternative medicine. Botanicals used in pain therapy can contribute to restoring the quality of life to a patient and may effect and enhance conventional pain management. Herbal analgesic use in several pain-related diseases such as rheumatologic diseases, back pain, cancer, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and migraine will be discussed. In addition, this review describes botanicals with known analgesic activity for which randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials assessing their efficacy in different pain-related diseases have been published and which have been recently evaluated in many systematic reviews with well-described methodology.

  3. Condensation-induced kinematics and dynamics of cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes

    Makarieva, A. M.; Gorshkov, V. G.


    A universal equation is obtained for air pressure and wind velocity in cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes as dependent on the distance from the center of the considered wind pattern driven by water vapor condensation. The obtained theoretical estimates of the horizontal profiles of air pressure and wind velocity, eye and wind wall radius in hurricanes and tornadoes and maximum values of the radial, tangential and vertical velocity components are in good agreement with empirical evidence.

  4. Reconstruction of a Tornado Disaster Employing Remote Sensing Techniques: A Case Study of the 1999 Moore, Oklahoma Tornado

    Wagner, Melissa A.

    Remote sensing has demonstrated to be an instrumental tool in monitoring land changes as a result of anthropogenic change or natural disasters. Most disaster studies have focused on large-scale events with few analyzing small-scale disasters such as tornadoes. These studies have only provided a damage assessment perspective with the continued need to assess reconstruction. This study attempts to fill that void by examining recovery from the 1999 Moore, Oklahoma Tornado utilizing Landsat TM and ETM+ imagery. Recovery was assessed for 2000, 2001 and 2002 using spectral enhancements (vegetative and urban indices and a combination of the two), a recovery index and different statistical thresholds. Classification accuracy assessments were performed to determine the precision of recovery and select the best results. This analysis proved that medium resolution imagery could be used in conjunction with geospatial techniques to capture recovery. The new indices, Shortwave Infrared Index (SWIRI) and Coupled Vegetation and Urban Index (CVUI), developed for disaster management, were the most effective at discerning reconstruction using the 1.5 standard deviation threshold. Recovery rates for F-scale damages revealed that the most incredibly damaged areas associated with an F5 rating were the slowest to recover, while the lesser damaged areas associated with F1-F3 ratings were the quickest to rebuild. These findings were consistent for 2000, 2001 and 2002 also exposing that complete recovery was never attained in any of the F-scale damage zones by 2002. This study illustrates the significance the biophysical impact has on recovery as well as the effectiveness of using medium resolution imagery such as Landsat in future research.

  5. Regional Health System Response to the 2007 Greensburg, Kansas, EF5 Tornado.

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Tinius, Annie M; Konda, Kurt; Synovitz, Carolyn; Subbarao, Italo


    On May 4, 2007 an EF5 tornado hit the rural community of Greensburg, KS, destroying 95% of the town and resulting in 12 fatalities. Data was requested from the emergency medical services units that initially responded and the regional hospitals that received people injured in the tornado within 24 hours following the tornado. Requested data included patient age and sex, and injury severity score or ICD-9 codes. Critical mortality, or the number of deaths of critically injured patients, was also calculated. The extensive damage caused by the tornado effectively destroyed the infrastructure of the community and created enormous challenges for emergency medical services responders, who were unable to record any triage data. Area hospitals treated 90 patients, who had an average injury severity score of 6.4. Age was found to be related to injury severity, but no relationship between sex and injury severity was found. Critical mortality was found to be 18% for this event. Injury severity score has seldom been used to analyze natural disasters, especially tornadoes, although such analysis is helpful for understanding the magnitude of the disaster, comparing to other disasters, and preparing for future incidents. Advanced warning and personal preparedness are important factors in reducing tornado-related injuries and deaths.

  6. An evaluation method for tornado missile strike probability with stochastic correction

    Eguchi, Yuzuru; Murakami, Takahiro; Hirakuchi, Hiromaru; Sugimoto, Soichiro; Hattori, Yasuo [Nuclear Risk Research Center (External Natural Event Research Team), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Abiko (Japan)


    An efficient evaluation method for the probability of a tornado missile strike without using the Monte Carlo method is proposed in this paper. A major part of the proposed probability evaluation is based on numerical results computed using an in-house code, Tornado-borne missile analysis code, which enables us to evaluate the liftoff and flight behaviors of unconstrained objects on the ground driven by a tornado. Using the Tornado-borne missile analysis code, we can obtain a stochastic correlation between local wind speed and flight distance of each object, and this stochastic correlation is used to evaluate the conditional strike probability, QV(r), of a missile located at position r, where the local wind speed is V. In contrast, the annual exceedance probability of local wind speed, which can be computed using a tornado hazard analysis code, is used to derive the probability density function, p(V). Then, we finally obtain the annual probability of tornado missile strike on a structure with the convolutional integration of product of QV(r) and p(V) over V. The evaluation method is applied to a simple problem to qualitatively confirm the validity, and to quantitatively verify the results for two extreme cases in which an object is located just in the vicinity of or far away from the structure.

  7. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele


    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  8. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section... relief. Requests for relief from surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-purchased utilities, or from... appropriate. The PHA's criteria for granting such relief, and procedures for requesting such relief, shall be...

  9. Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    IN Abdullahi


    Full Text Available The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm, number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2, yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28 per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm though not significantly (p>0.05 different from others. Higher percent survival (88% of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2 while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2 although highest root yield (1.2t/ha was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer. DOI: International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 24-35

  10. An Analysis of Operational Total Lightning Data During Long-Track Tornadoes

    Carcione, Brian C.; Stano, Geoffrey T.


    The 27 April 2011 tornado outbreak brought three distinct waves of tornadic thunderstorms to portions of Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia, striking the Tennessee Valley of north Alabama and southern Tennessee particularly hard. A total of 42 tornado paths were surveyed across the fourteen county area covered by the National Weather Service (NWS) forecast office in Huntsville, Alabama. Ten of these tornadoes were on the ground for at least 20 miles, two had total path lengths over 130 miles, and six tornadoes were classified as violent (EF-4 or EF-5 on the Enhanced Fujita Scale). Many of these tornadoes occurred within the domain of the North Alabama Lightning Mapping Array (NALMA), a ground-based total lightning detection network owned and operated by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. Since 2003, the NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition Center has supplied data from NALMA in real time to NWS forecast offices in Huntsville, Knoxville/Tri-Cities, Birmingham, and Nashville. Previous research has documented the utility of total lightning information in predicting tornadogenesis, particularly when combined with other remote sensing tools. Basic warning decision-making during events such as 27 April is not the most difficult part of the process; instead, the focus of warning meteorologists shifts to looking for changes in intensity or possible particularly dangerous situations, since doppler radar velocity data often cannot distinguish between weak and strong tornadoes. To that end, this research attempts to determine if any correlation exists between flash densities of the longest-tracked tornadoes over time, and the surveyed wind speeds of the tornadoes. The long-track EF-5 tornado which struck the Hackleburg, Phil Campbell, and Tanner communities in north Alabama was the primary focus of this research due to its intensity and extended life cycle. However, not all tornadoes were available for total lightning analysis due to widespread

  11. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  12. Quick-Relief Medications for Lung Diseases

    ... relief medications are used to treat asthma, other lung disease symptoms or an acute episode (such as an ... about the following quick-relief asthma and other lung disease medications: Anticholinergics Anticholinergics are quick-relief asthma and ...

  13. Dynamics of a solar prominence tornado observed by SDO/AIA on 2012 November 7-8

    Mghebrishvili, I; Kukhianidze, V; Ramishvili, G; Shergelashvili, B; Veronig, A; Poedts, S


    We study the detailed dynamics of a solar prominence tornado using time series of 171, 304, 193 and 211 {\\AA} spectral lines obtained by Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Atmospheric Imaging Assembly during 2012 November 7-8. The tornado first appeared at 08:00 UT, November 07, near the surface, gradually rose upwards with the mean speed of $\\sim$ 1.5 km s$^{-1}$ and persisted over 30 hr. Time-distance plots show two patterns of quasi-periodic transverse displacements of the tornado axis with periods of 40 and 50 minute at different phases of the tornado evolution. The first pattern occurred during the rising phase and can be explained by the upward motion of the twisted tornado. The second pattern occurred during the later stage of evolution when the tornado already stopped rising and could be caused either by MHD kink waves in the tornado or by the rotation of two tornado threads around a common axis. The later hypothesis is supported by the fact that the tornado sometimes showed a double structure during the qua...

  14. Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert


    Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300 watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere.

  15. Alfvénic tornadoes in a magnetized plasma

    Shukla, P. K.


    It is shown that three-dimensional (3D) modified-kinetic Alfvén waves (m-KAWs) in a magnetized plasma can propagate in the form of Alfvénic tornadoes characterized by plasma density whirls or magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum. By using the two-fluid model, together with Ampère's law, we derive the wave equation for 3D m-KAWs in a magnetoplasma with me/mi ≪ β ≪ 1, where me (mi) is the electron (ion) mass, β=4πn0kB (Te+Ti)/B02, n0 the unperturbed plasma number density, kB the Boltzmann constant, Te(Te) the electron (ion) temperature, and B0 the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The 3D m-KAW equation admits solutions in the form of a Laguerre-Gauss Alfvénic vortex beam or a twisted kinetic Alfvénic wave with plasma density whirls that support the dynamics of shear Alfvénic magnetic flux ropes in plasmas.

  16. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  17. Post-disaster climatology for hurricanes and tornadoes in the United States: 2000-2009

    Eakins, Benjamin James

    Natural disasters can be very devastating to the public during their impact phase. After a natural disaster impacts a region, the response and recovery phases begin immediately. Weather conditions may interrupt emergency response and recovery in the days following the disaster. This study analyzes the climatology of weather conditions during the response and recovery phases of hurricanes and tornadoes to understand how weather may impact both environment and societal needs. Using specific criteria, 66 tornadoes and 16 hurricane cases were defined. National Weather Service (NWS) recognized weather stations were used to provide temperature, precipitation, snowfall, relative humidity, wind speed, and wind direction data. Regional and temporal groups were defined for tornado cases, but only one group was defined for hurricanes. By applying statistical analysis to weather observations taken in the week following the disasters, a climatology was developed for the response and recovery phase. Tornado and hurricane post-disaster climate closely mimicked their synoptic climatology with cooler and drier weather prevailing in days 2-4 after a disaster until the next weather system arrived about 5 days later. Winter tornadoes trended to occur in the Southeast and were associated with more extreme temperature differences than in other regions and season. The results of this study may help governmental and non-governmental organizations prepare for weather conditions during the post-disaster phase.

  18. The effects of the April 2011 tornado outbreak on personal preparedness in Jefferson County, Alabama.

    McCormick, Lisa C; Pevear, Jesse; Rucks, Andrew C; Ginter, Peter M


    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a tornado disaster on the personal preparedness of local residents to determine (1) to what extent the tornado outbreak experience had altered preparedness awareness, willingness to act, and levels of personal preparedness of residents as measured by possession of a preparedness kit; and (2) what effect this experience had on the variables associated with having a complete disaster preparedness kit. Two random digit-dialed surveys were completed following the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System protocols. The pre-tornado survey was conducted between October and December 2010 and the post-tornado survey was conducted between January and March 2012. After the April 2011 tornado outbreak, 86.08% of the respondents (n = 1364) reported that they had thought more about personal or family preparedness and 59.65% (n = 907) reported that they had taken actions to increase their level of preparedness. Overall, general awareness of preparedness media campaigns increased significantly (almost 24%; P < .0001), as did the percentage of those having a complete disaster preparedness kit (a 66% increase, not quite doubled from 2010 to 2012; P < .0001). Findings of the study indicate that the disaster had a significant impact on the local residents' (1) awareness of preparedness campaigns, (2) awareness of the need to be prepared, (3) willingness to become better prepared, and (4) possession of a disaster and emergency preparedness kit and its associated items.

  19. Growth and yield of maize and cassava cultivars as affected by mycorrhizal inoculation and alley cropping regime

    Salami Olusola Abiodun


    Full Text Available Effect of myeorrhizal inoculation and two pruning regimes in experimental alley cropping treatments on the leaf biomass and nutrient yield of sole and mixed Gliricidica septum (a Modulating plant ami Senna siamea (a non-nodulating plant were investigated both in the greenhouse and in the field. The impact of the mixtures of these legumes as hedgerows on maize and one cultivar of cassava was also studied on the Held. Gliricidia sepiuni prunnings were found to have high nutrient yields, notably 358.4 kg ha-1 of N and 14.7 kg ha-1 of P as well as fast decomposition and nutrient release. In both Giricidia and Senna. there was similar leaf dry matter values in sole and mixed inoculated or non-inoculated trees for either of the pruning regime and for most of the pruning harvests, although significant differences occurred between inoculated and non-inoculated mixed or sole trees. There was no difference between the total leaf dry matter of the two- and three-month pruning regimes in G. sepium. However, in contrast to G. sepium, the total leaf dry matter of the two-month pruning regime of iS'. sianica was lower than its three-month pruning regime, except for sole non-inoculated trees. Generally, inoculation and mixing of trees in the same hedgerows significantly increased the total N and P yield in G. sepium and S. siantea with greater values in the former than the latter. In G. sephium and except for mixed inoculated trees, while total N yield in the leaf was higher in three-monthly primed than two-monthly pruned trees, the converse was the case for P. For S. siamea the total N and P yield were higher in three-monthly than two-monthly pruned trees. Myeorrhizal inoculations consistently increased the yield of the cassava root tuber and maize grain over their non-inoculated counterparts.

  20. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760.106 Agriculture... Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by... accordance with the FCIA (7 U.S.C. 1501-1524) or (ii) Application closing date for NAP. (b) Equitable relief...

  1. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes.

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan


    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. 77 FR 4389 - In the Matter of Tornado Gold International Corp., Twin Faces East Entertainment Corp., Universal...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION In the Matter of Tornado Gold International Corp., Twin Faces East Entertainment Corp., Universal... that there is a lack of current and accurate information concerning the securities of Tornado Gold...

  3. Are tornado-like magnetic structures able to support solar prominence plasma?

    Luna, Manuel; Priest, Eric


    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloida...

  4. Insights into Tornadoes and Hurricanes from High-Resolution Numerical Simulations

    Bryan, G. H.; Cione, J.; Dahl, N.; Kalina, E.; Lundquist, J. K.; Nolan, D. S.; Rotunno, R.; Stern, D. P.; Worsnop, R.


    Comprehensive measurements of wind speed in tornadoes and hurricanes are rare because these phenomena are infrequent, turbulent, and (of course) very hazardous. However, detailed knowledge of the distribution of winds would be useful for a variety of applications such as structural engineering, societal awareness, and weather forecasting. To help fill in gaps in this knowledge, numerical model simulations can play a crucial role. The NCAR Yellowstone supercomputer has been used to conduct idealized simulations of tornadoes and hurricanes with grid spacing as small as 1 m. The simulations provide insight into the maximum wind speeds that may be possible in nature and provide guidance for interpreting present-day and future observational platforms. To this end, we have built code into a numerical model to produce "mock" observational datasets from hypothetical airplanes, dropsondes, and instrumented towers. Results are currently being used to help design offshore wind turbines, evaluate tornado intercept strategies, and develop flight paths for unmanned aerial systems.

  5. Facebook and Twitter, communication and shelter, and the 2011 Tuscaloosa tornado.

    Stokes, Courtney; Senkbeil, Jason C


    This paper represents one of the first attempts to analyse the many ways in which Facebook and Twitter were used during a tornado disaster. Comparisons between five randomly selected campus samples and a city of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, sample revealed that campus samples used Facebook and Twitter significantly more both before and after the tornado, but Facebook usage was not significantly different after the event. Furthermore, differences in social media usage and other forms of communication before the tornado were found for age, education, and years lived in Tuscaloosa. Generally, age and education were inversely proportionate to social media usage. Influences on shelter-seeking actions varied between social media users and three random samples of non-social media users; however, it appears that social media respondents were likely to be using a smartphone simultaneously to access warning polygon information, to receive text message alerts, and to listen or respond to environmental cues.

  6. Tornado wind-loading requirements based on risk assessment techniques (For specific reactor safety Class 1 coolant system features)

    Deobald, Theodore L.; Coles, Garill A.; Smith, Gary L.


    Regulations require that nuclear power plants be protected from tornado winds. If struck by a tornado, a plant must be capable of safely shutting down and removing decay heat. Probabilistic techniques are used to show that risk to the public from the U.S. Department of Energy SP-100 reactor is acceptable without tornado hardening parts of the secondary system. Relaxed requirements for design wind loadings will result in significant cost savings. To demonstrate an acceptable level of risk, this document examines tornado-initiated accidents. The two tornado-initiated accidents examined in detail are loss of cooling resulting in core damage and loss of secondary system boundary integrity leading to sodium release. Loss of core cooling is analyzed using fault/event tree models. Loss of secondary system boundary integrity is analyzed by comparing the consequences to acceptance criteria for the release of radioactive material or alkali metal aerosol.

  7. Tornado Warning Perception and Response: Integrating the Roles of Visual Design, Demographics, and Hazard Experience.

    Schumann, Ronald L; Ash, Kevin D; Bowser, Gregg C


    Recent advancements in severe weather detection and warning dissemination technologies have reduced, but not eliminated, large-casualty tornado hazards in the United States. Research on warning cognition and behavioral response by the public has the potential to further reduce tornado-related deaths and injuries; however, less research has been conducted in this area compared to tornado research in the physical sciences. Extant research in this vein tends to bifurcate. One branch of studies derives from classic risk perception, which investigates cognitive, affective, and sociocultural factors in relation to concern and preparation for uncertain risks. Another branch focuses on psychological, social, and cultural factors implicated in warning response for rapid onset hazards, with attention paid to previous experience and message design. Few studies link risk perceptions with cognition and response as elicited by specific examples of warnings. The present study unites risk perception, cognition, and response approaches by testing the contributions of hypothesized warning response drivers in one set of path models. Warning response is approximated by perceived fear and intended protective action as reported by survey respondents when exposed to hypothetical tornado warning scenarios. This study considers the roles of hazard knowledge acquisition, information-seeking behaviors, previous experience, and sociodemographic factors while controlling for the effects of the visual warning graphic. Findings from the study indicate the primacy of a user's visual interpretation of a warning graphic in shaping tornado warning response. Results also suggest that information-seeking habits, previous tornado experience, and local disaster culture play strong influencing roles in warning response. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Pre-Post Tornado Effects on Aggressive Children's Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment Through One-Year Postdisaster.

    Lochman, John E; Vernberg, Eric; Powell, Nicole P; Boxmeyer, Caroline L; Jarrett, Matthew; McDonald, Kristina; Qu, Lixin; Hendrickson, Michelle; Kassing, Francesca


    Using a risk-resilience framework, this study examined how varying levels of exposure to a natural disaster (EF-4 tornado) and children's characteristics (sex; anxiety) influenced the behavioral and psychological adjustment of children who shared a common risk factor predisaster (elevated aggression) prior to exposure through 1-year postdisaster. Participants included 360 children in Grades 4-6 (65% male; 78% African American) and their parents from predominantly low-income households who were already participating in a longitudinal study of indicated prevention effects for externalizing outcomes when the tornado occurred in 2011. Fourth-grade children who were screened for overt aggressive behavior were recruited in 3 annual cohorts (120 per year, beginning in 2009). Parent-rated aggression and internalizing problems were assessed prior to the tornado (Wave 1), within a half-year after the tornado (Wave 2), and at a 1-year follow-up (Wave 3). Children and parents rated their exposure to aspects of tornado-related traumatic experiences at Wave 3. Children displayed less reduction on aggression and internalizing problems if the children had experienced distress after the tornado or fears for their life, in combination with their pre-tornado level of anxiety. Higher levels of children's and parents' exposure to the tornado interacted with children's lower baseline child anxiety to predict less reduction in aggression and internalizing problems 1 year after the tornado. Higher levels of disaster exposure negatively affected at-risk children's level of improvement in aggression and internalizing problems, when life threat (parent- and child-reported) and child-reported distress after the tornado were moderated by baseline anxiety.

  9. Pressure relief valve/safety relief valve testing

    Murray, W.A.; Hamm, E.R.; Barber, J.R.


    Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonconformances found by third parties Westinghouse Hanford Company initiated a task team to develop a pressure safety program. This paper reveals their findings.

  10. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    М.В. Карускевич


    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  11. Stress relief of transition zones

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.


    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  12. Sounding-derived parameters associated with large hail and tornadoes in the Netherlands

    Groenemeijer, P.H.; van Delden, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072670703


    A study is presented focusing on the potential value of parameters derived from radiosonde data or data from numerical atmospheric models for the forecasting of severe weather associated with convective storms. Parameters have been derived from soundings in the proximity of large hail, tornadoes (in

  13. A long-lived tornado on 7 December 2010 in mainland Portugal

    Belo-Pereira, Margarida; Andrade, Cristina; Pinto, Paulo


    On 7 December 2010 a long lived convective storm formed southwest of Lisbon in an instability line that developed in a very moist and unstable airmass, in the circulation of an extra-tropical cyclone propagating north-eastwards. This storm crossed the Lisbon district and spawned an F3 tornado a few dozens of kilometers to the northeast. Several parameters evaluating buoyancy, available moisture and vertical wind shear, were derived from Lisbon rawinsonde and ECMWF analyses, highlighting an environment that is favourable for tornadic development. The tornado touchdown occurred by 14:15 UTC, lasting for about 45 min and producing an exceptionally long damage path of around 54 km, according to the damage survey. It caused about 18 million Euros damage, > 40 injured people, but no fatalities. This storm had a very long lifetime of at least 5 h, intensified inland, sustained strong updrafts during, at least, 1 h and hold large hail cores as observed on radar. Exhibiting several supercell like features, it also produced intense lightning, with a predominance of cloud-to-ground flashes before the tornado touchdown and intra-cloud flashes during the tornado lifetime. Furthermore, in high resolution visible satellite imagery, a pattern of feeder clouds was identified one hour before tornadogenesis. This pattern has been associated to storm intensification and the onset of severe weather.

  14. Impact of dual-polarization radar technology and Twitter on the Hattiesburg, Mississippi tornado.

    Cates, Alexis L; Arnold, Brent W; Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Stake, Josh; Ali, Mohammed; Calderone, Richard C; Wilkinson, James; Hsu, Edbert; Parrillo, Steven; Piper, Steven; Subbarao, Italo


    Dual-Polarization Radar and Twitter were analyzed to determine the impact on injuries sustained by the Hattiesburg EF-4 tornado. Tracking data provided from the Dual-Pol radar systems in National Weather Service Jackson were reviewed. Twitter data from four local Twitter handles were obtained. The change in tweets and followers for the day of the storm were compared to historical averages. A Student t-test was utilized in determining statistical significance (ptornado. An Injury Severity Score (ISS) was calculated for trauma records related to the tornado. Radar detection of the tornado gave approximately 30 minutes of advanced warning time. Statistical significance in follower growth was seen in all four Twitter handles. Out of 50 patients, the average ISS was 3.9 with a range of 1 to 29. There were zero fatalities. An ISS average of 3.9 was significantly less than two previous tornadoes of similar strength that occurred prior to increased usage of Dual-pol radar and Twitter as a means for communicating severe weather information. Early detection from Dual-pol radar improved warning time. Tweets informed citizens to seek appropriate shelter. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2013;7:585-592).

  15. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.


    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  16. Massive pediatric neurosurgical injuries and lessons learned following a tornado disaster in Alabama.

    Chern, Joshua J; Miller, Joseph H; Tubbs, R Shane; Whisenhunt, Thomas R; Johnston, James M; Wellons, John C; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Blount, Jeffrey P; Oakes, W Jerry


    A large volume of patients presented to a Level I pediatric trauma center during and after a recent tornado disaster. Injuries of the central and peripheral nervous systems and the medical responses of a pediatric neurosurgical team are reviewed. The clinical courses of patients who suffered cranial, spinal, and peripheral nerve injuries due to the tornado storm are reported. The clinical actions taken by the neurosurgical team during and after the event are reviewed and the lessons learned are discussed. The tornado storm system moved through the Tuscaloosa and Birmingham metropolitan areas on the early evening hours of April 27, 2011. Twenty-four patients received care from the neurosurgical team. A total of 11 cranial (including placement of an external ventricular drain), 2 spine, and 2 peripheral procedures were performed for the victims. Nine procedures were performed within the first 12 hours of the event, and an additional 6 surgeries were performed in the following 24 hours. Injuries of the peripheral nervous system often presented in a delayed fashion. Several key components were identified that enabled adequate neurosurgical care for a large influx of acute patients. Massive casualties due to tornados are rare. A well-organized physician team working with the hospital administration may decrease the mortality and morbidity of such events.

  17. Prevalence and Predictors of PTSD and Depression among Adolescent Victims of the Spring 2011 Tornado Outbreak

    Adams, Zachary W.; Sumner, Jennifer A.; Danielson, Carla Kmett; McCauley, Jenna L.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Grös, Kirstin; Paul, Lisa A.; Welsh, Kyleen E.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.


    Background: Relatively few studies have examined prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE) in disaster-affected adolescents. Fewer still have administered diagnostic measures or studied samples exposed to tornadoes, a common type of disaster. Further, methodologic problems limit the…

  18. Sounding-derived parameters associated with large hail and tornadoes in the Netherlands

    Groenemeijer, P.H.; van Delden, A.J.


    A study is presented focusing on the potential value of parameters derived from radiosonde data or data from numerical atmospheric models for the forecasting of severe weather associated with convective storms. Parameters have been derived from soundings in the proximity of large hail, tornadoes (in

  19. Pedologic and geomorphic impacts of a tornado blowdown event in a mixed pine-hardwood forest

    Jonathan D. Phillips; Daniel A. Marion; Alice V. Turkington


    Biomechanical effects of trees on soils and surface processes may be extensive in forest environments. Two blowdown sites caused by a November 2005 tornado in the Ouachita National Forest, Arkansas allowed a case study examination of bioturbation associated with a specific forest blowdown event, as well as detailed examination of relationships between tree root systems...

  20. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian


    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  1. Role of Central American biomass burning smoke in increasing tornado severity in the US

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S.; Pierce, R.; Otkin, J.; Rabin, R.; Schaack, T.; Heidinger, A. K.; da Silva, A.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.


    Violent tornadoes in the Southeast and Central US during spring are often accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. We analyzed the effect of smoke on a historic severe weather outbreak that occurred 27 April 2011 using a coupled aerosol, chemistry and weather model (WRF-Chem) and a suite of satellite and ground-based observations. Smoke from Central American biomass burning was present in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere before and during the storm outbreak. Simulations show that adding smoke to the environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development increases the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence, which is assessed by analyzing effects of smoke on meteorological conditions (tornado parameters) used by prediction centers to forecast tornado occurrence and severity. Smoke effects generate slightly lower rain rates and cloud top heights, indicating no evidence of storm invigoration for these storms and instead pointing towards convection inhibition. Further analysis shows that there are two mechanisms responsible for the parameter intensification: First, through indirect effects, stratiform clouds present during and before the outbreak became optically thicker, which reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground and produced more stable conditions and higher low-level shear in the mixed layer. Second, through semi-direct effects, soot contained in the smoke heated the aerosol layer stabilizing the atmosphere and enhancing cloud cover below the aerosol layer, producing a more stable boundary layer and conditions leading to higher probability of violent tornadoes. The inclusion of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in weather forecasts may help improve the predictability of these extreme events, which can improve the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather alerts within future operational forecast systems. Left panel: Back trajectories from the beginning of violent tornado tracks, with circles

  2. Working after a tornado: a survey of hospital personnel in Joplin, Missouri.

    Charney, Rachel; Rebmann, Terri; Flood, Robert G


    In 2011, an EF5 tornado hit Joplin, MO, requiring complete evacuation of 1 hospital and a patient surge to another. We sought to assess the resilience of healthcare workers in these hospitals as measured by number reporting to work, willingness to work, personal disaster preparedness, and childcare responsibilities following the disaster. In May 2013, a survey was distributed to healthcare workers at both Joplin hospitals that asked them to report their willingness to work and personal disaster preparedness following various disaster scenarios. For those with childcare responsibilities, scheduling, costs, and impact of hypothetical alternative childcare programs were considered in the analyses. A total of 1,234 healthcare workers completed the survey (response rate: 23.4%). Most (87.8%) worked the week following the Joplin tornado. Healthcare workers report more willingness to work during a future earthquake or tornado compared to their pre-Joplin tornado attitudes (86.2 vs 88.4%, t=-4.3, ptornado personal disaster preparedness, but only preevent preparedness was a significant predictor of postevent preparedness. Nearly half (48.5%, n=598) had childcare responsibilities; 61% (n=366) had childcare needs the week of the tornado, and 54% (n=198) required the use of alternative childcare. If their hospital had provided alternative childcare, 51% would have used it and 42% felt they would have been more willing to report to work. Most healthcare workers reported to work following this disaster, demonstrating true resilience. Disaster planners should be aware of these perceptions as they formulate their own emergency operation plans.

  3. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    ... Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... with her quality of life, and acupuncture brought relief from severe shoulder pain. "I'm functional again. ...

  4. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.


    ... similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap LEC excludes all contract tariff offerings from price... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in §§ 69.709(c) or 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I...

  5. 7 CFR 1465.33 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1465.33 Section 1465.33 Agriculture... § 1465.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of any authorized NRCS... participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635, section 635.3. The financial or...

  6. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relief. 36.504 Section 36.504 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including...

  7. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  8. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster exists...

  9. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim relief. 1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the agency appeals and the case... interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of paragraph (a)(1...

  10. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture... Injunctive relief. (a) General. If FNS determines that a State agency has failed to comply with the Food... Secretary may seek injunctive relief against the State agency to require compliance. The Secretary may...

  11. 20 CFR 627.803 - Relief.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief. 627.803 Section 627.803 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING PROGRAMS... Relief. In ordering relief, the ALJ shall have the full authority of the Secretary under section 164 of...

  12. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44... § 7.44 Interim relief. (a) When the Department appeals and the case involves removal, separation, or... outcome of the Department appeal. The employee may decline the offer of interim relief. (b) Service under...

  13. 7 CFR 1466.33 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1466.33 Section 1466.33 Agriculture... Administration § 1466.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of any... relief, to the extent it is deemed desirable by NRCS, to provide a fair and equitable treatment because...

  14. 7 CFR 1470.34 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1470.34 Section 1470.34 Agriculture... § 1470.34 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of NRCS and did not... be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635. The financial or technical liability for any...

  15. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the Board appeals... offer of interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of...

  16. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 636.20 Section 636.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a... as meeting program requirements and grant relief because of the good-faith reliance on the part of...

  17. 7 CFR 795.24 - Relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relief. 795.24 Section 795.24 Agriculture Regulations... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.24 Relief. If a producer relied... reviewing authority makes a more restrictive determination, the Deputy Administrator may grant relief only...

  18. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Injunctive relief. 516.19 Section 516.19 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs... injunctive relief: (1) Plaintiff's likelihood of success on the merits. (2) Whether plaintiff will be...

  19. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional relief. 281... Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under § 281.210 or otherwise) a request for... aggrieved by such action may file a request for relief from curtailment under § 385.206 of this chapter. The...

  20. 49 CFR 1108.4 - Relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 1108.4 Section 1108.4 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.4 Relief. (a) Subject to specification in the complaint, as provided in § 1108.7 herein, an Arbitrator may grant the following types of relief: (1) Monetary damages, to the extent...

  1. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Donna J. Duerst


    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  2. Measuring Evapotranspiration of five Alley Cropping systems in Germany using the Eddy-Covariance- and Bowen-Ratio Energy-Balance methods

    Markwitz, Christian; Knohl, Alexander; Siebicke, Lukas


    The inclusion of trees into the agricultural landscape of Europe is gaining popularity as a source for energy production. Fast growing tree species such as poplar or willow are included as short rotation coppice or alley cropping systems, which consist of tree alleys interleaved by annual rotating crops or perennial grasslands. Estimating turbulent fluxes of those systems using the eddy-covariance- (ECEB) and bowen-ratio energy-balance (BREB) method is challenging due to the methods limitation to horizontally homogeneous terrain and steady state conditions. As the conditions are not fulfilled for those systems the energy-balance is commonly not fully closed, with the non-closure being site specific. An underestimation of measured heat fluxes leads to an overestimation of the latent heat fluxes inferred from the ECEB method. The aim of our study is to 1) quantify the site specific non-closure of the energy-balance and 2) characterize the performance of both methods, compared to direct eddy-covariance measurements using a high frequency infra-red gas analyzer (LI-7200, Licor Inc.). To assess continuous evapotranspiration (ET) rates on a 30-minute time scale we installed a combined ECEB and BREB system at five alley cropping and five agricultural reference sites across Germany. For time periods of four weeks we performed direct eddy covariance flux measurements for H2O and CO2 over one crop- and one grassland alley cropping- and their respective reference systems during the growing season of 2016. We found a non-closure between 21 and 26 % for all sites, considering all day- and night-time data. The residual energy was highest during the morning and lowest in the afternoon. Related to that the energy-balance ratio (EBR), i.e. the ratio between the turbulent heat fluxes and available energy, was below one in the morning hours and increased slightly during the day up to 1.8, until the EBR decreased sharply after sunset. The EBR correlated to the daily cycle of solar

  3. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Siti Yuhaeni


    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  4. Tornado funnel-shaped cloud as convection in a cloudy layer

    M. V. Zavolgenskiy


    Full Text Available Analytical model of convection in a thick horizontal cloud layer with free upper and lower boundaries is constructed. The cloud layer is supposed to be subjected to the Coriolis force due to the cloud rotation, which is a typical condition for tornado formation. It is obtained that convection in such system can look as just one rotating cell in contrast to the usual many-cells Benard convection. The tornado-type vortex is different from spatially periodic convective cells because their amplitudes vanish with distance from the vortex axis. The lower boundary at this convection can substantially move out of the initially horizontal cloud layer forming a single vertical vortex with intense upward and downward flows. The results are also applicable to convection in water layer with negative temperature gradient.

  5. Modified esophagogastrostomy in laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy: A reverse-Tornado anastomosis.

    Kubota, Keisuke; Suzuki, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Aoi; Watanabe, Takayuki; Sekido, Yuki; Shiozaki, Hironori; Taketa, Takashi; Shimada, Gen; Ohigashi, Seiji; Sakurai, Shintaro; Kishida, Akihiro


    The aim of this study was to introduce and examine a modified mechanical end-to-side esophagogastrostomy method ("reverse-Tornado" anastomosis) in laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy. Five patients with gastric cancer who underwent laparoscopy-assisted proximal gastrectomy were analyzed retrospectively. Esophagogastrostomy in the anterior wall was performed in three patients, and esophagogastrostomy in the posterior wall was performed in two patients. Clinicopathological features, operative outcomes (operative time, operative blood loss), and postoperative outcomes (complications, postoperative hospital stay, reflux esophagitis) were evaluated. Operative time was normal (278 min). There was no marked operative blood loss, postoperative complications, prolonged hospital stay, or reflux esophagitis. Esophagogastrostomy was completed in a normal time with reverse-Tornado anastomosis. This method can be safe and can enable good postoperative quality of life. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Tornado occurrence nearby Valjevo on 27 may 2014: Analysis of weather situation

    Mihajlović Jovan


    Full Text Available This study shows the case of a tornado on 27 May 2014 in the vicinity of Valjevo. According to its characteristics and considering that this is a mesocyclonic severe weather event, accompanied with heavy rain, violent wind, hail and thunderstorm, it belongs to extraordinary dangerous meteorological events. The aim of this study is to determine and examine the cause of tornado occurrence in this area using the methods of synoptic and mesoscale analysis, as well as radar analysis. That could contribute to better understanding of this phenomenon in Serbia as well as to improving the forecast methods and models. Contrary to the previous researches, the capacities of the meteorological radar MRL - 5 have been presented in this study.

  7. Observation of gravity waves during the extreme tornado outbreak of 3 April 1974

    Hung, R. J.; Phan, T.; Smith, R. E.


    A continuous wave-spectrum high-frequency radiowave Doppler sounder array was used to observe upper-atmospheric disturbances during an extreme tornado outbreak. The observations indicated that gravity waves with two harmonic wave periods were detected at the F-region ionospheric height. Using a group ray path computational technique, the observed gravity waves were traced in order to locate potential sources. The signals were apparently excited 1-3 hours before tornado touchdown. Reverse ray tracing indicated that the wave source was located at the aurora zone with a Kp index of 6 at the time of wave excitation. The summation of the 24-hour Kp index for the day was 36. The results agree with existing theories (Testud, 1970; Titheridge, 1971; Kato, 1976) for the excitation of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbances associated with geomagnetic activity in the aurora zone.

  8. An observational study of the 7 September 2005 Barcelona tornado outbreak

    J. Bech


    Full Text Available This paper presents an observational study of the tornado outbreak that took place on the 7 September 2005 in the Llobregat delta river, affecting a densely populated and urbanised area and the Barcelona International airport (NE Spain. The site survey confirmed at least five short-lived tornadoes. Four of them were weak (F0, F1 and the other one was significant (F2 on the Fujita scale. They started mostly as waterspouts and moved later inland causing extensive damage estimated in 9 million Euros, three injured people but fortunately no fatalities. Large scale forcing was provided by upper level diffluence and low level warm air advection. Satellite and weather radar images revealed the development of the cells that spawned the waterspouts along a mesoscale convergence line in a highly sheared and relatively low buoyant environment. Further analysis indicated characteristics that could be attributed indistinctively to non-supercell or to mini-supercell thunderstorms.

  9. EDs in the Midwest and South activate disaster plans as deadly tornadoes sweep through the region.


    Hospitals in the Midwest and South activated their disaster plans in early March to deal with a phalanx of powerful tornadoes that leveled several small towns and killed at least two dozen people. Some hospitals had to activate plans for both internal and external disasters as their own facilities were threatened. One small critical-access hospital in West Liberty, KY, sustained significant damage and had to evacuate its patients to another facility. All the hospitals credit their disaster plans and practice drills with helping them to manage the crisis as efficiently as possible. Morgan County ARH Hospital in West Liberty, KY, went for several days without an operational lab or radiology department, but staff kept the ED open for absolute emergencies. Margaret Mary Community Hospital (MMCH) in Batesville, IN, received six tornado victims, but it was prepared for many more. Administrators credit advanced warning of the storms with helping them to prepare effectively, as well as to coordinate their response with other hospitals in the area. As a level 1 trauma center, the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, KY, received all the most seriously injured patients in the region, even while the facility itself was under a tornado warning. Staff had to route families away from the glassed-in waiting room to the basement until the tornado warning had passed. At one point during the crisis, there were 90 patients in the hospital's ED even though the department is only equipped with 29 beds. Administrators at Huntsville Hospital in Huntsville, AL, encouraged colleagues to take advantage of smaller-scale emergencies to activate parts of their disaster plans, and to focus disaster preparation drills on their hospital's top hazard vulnerabilities.

  10. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011.

    Neblett Fanfair, Robyn; Benedict, Kaitlin; Bos, John; Bennett, Sarah D; Lo, Yi-Chun; Adebanjo, Tolu; Etienne, Kizee; Deak, Eszter; Derado, Gordana; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Drew, Clifton; Zaki, Sherif; Sugerman, David; Gade, Lalitha; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Sutton, Deanna A; Engelthaler, David M; Schupp, James M; Brandt, Mary E; Harris, Julie R; Lockhart, Shawn R; Turabelidze, George; Park, Benjamin J


    Mucormycosis is a fungal infection caused by environmentally acquired molds. We investigated a cluster of cases of cutaneous mucormycosis among persons injured during the May 22, 2011, tornado in Joplin, Missouri. We defined a case as a soft-tissue infection in a person injured during the tornado, with evidence of a mucormycete on culture or immunohistochemical testing plus DNA sequencing. We conducted a case-control study by reviewing medical records and conducting interviews with case patients and hospitalized controls. DNA sequencing and whole-genome sequencing were performed on clinical specimens to identify species and assess strain-level differences, respectively. A total of 13 case patients were identified, 5 of whom (38%) died. The patients had a median of 5 wounds (range, 1 to 7); 11 patients (85%) had at least one fracture, 9 (69%) had blunt trauma, and 5 (38%) had penetrating trauma. All case patients had been located in the zone that sustained the most severe damage during the tornado. On multivariate analysis, infection was associated with penetrating trauma (adjusted odds ratio for case patients vs. controls, 8.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1 to 69.2) and an increased number of wounds (adjusted odds ratio, 2.0 for each additional wound; 95% CI, 1.2 to 3.2). Sequencing of the D1-D2 region of the 28S ribosomal DNA yielded Apophysomyces trapeziformis in all 13 case patients. Whole-genome sequencing showed that the apophysomyces isolates were four separate strains. We report a cluster of cases of cutaneous mucormycosis among Joplin tornado survivors that were associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Increased awareness of fungi as a cause of necrotizing soft-tissue infections after a natural disaster is warranted.

  11. Comparison of remote sensing image processing techniques to identify tornado damage areas from Landsat TM data

    Myint, S.W.; Yuan, M.; Cerveny, R.S.; Giri, C.P.


    Remote sensing techniques have been shown effective for large-scale damage surveys after a hazardous event in both near real-time or post-event analyses. The paper aims to compare accuracy of common imaging processing techniques to detect tornado damage tracks from Landsat TM data. We employed the direct change detection approach using two sets of images acquired before and after the tornado event to produce a principal component composite images and a set of image difference bands. Techniques in the comparison include supervised classification, unsupervised classification, and objectoriented classification approach with a nearest neighbor classifier. Accuracy assessment is based on Kappa coefficient calculated from error matrices which cross tabulate correctly identified cells on the TM image and commission and omission errors in the result. Overall, the Object-oriented Approach exhibits the highest degree of accuracy in tornado damage detection. PCA and Image Differencing methods show comparable outcomes. While selected PCs can improve detection accuracy 5 to 10%, the Object-oriented Approach performs significantly better with 15-20% higher accuracy than the other two techniques. ?? 2008 by MDPI.

  12. Experimental Study on Effects of Ground Roughness on Flow Characteristics of Tornado-Like Vortices

    Wang, Jin; Cao, Shuyang; Pang, Weichiang; Cao, Jinxin


    The three-dimensional wind velocity and dynamic pressure for stationary tornado-like vortices that developed over ground of different roughness categories were investigated to clarify the effects of ground roughness. Measurements were performed for various roughness categories and two swirl ratios. Variations of the vertical and horizontal distributions of velocity and pressure with roughness are presented, with the results showing that the tangential, radial, and axial velocity components increase inside the vortex core near the ground under rough surface conditions. Meanwhile, clearly decreased tangential components are found outside the core radius at low elevations. The high axial velocity inside the vortex core over rough ground surface indicates that roughness produces an effect similar to a reduced swirl ratio. In addition, the pressure drop accompanying a tornado is more significant at elevations closer to the ground under rough compared with smooth surface conditions. We show that the variations of the flow characteristics with roughness are dependent on the vortex-generating mechanism, indicating the need for appropriate modelling of tornado-like vortices.

  13. Tornado-like Evolution of a Kink-unstable Solar Prominence

    Wang, Wensi; Liu, Rui; Wang, Yuming


    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly, transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ˜150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the original dark prominence material emitted in the Fe ix 171 Å passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in the EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriad thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path constituting approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruction, into the cavity of the stable, western section of the prominence. We suggest that the tornado-like evolution of the prominence was governed by the helical kink instability, and that the CLS formed through magnetic reconnections between the prominence field and the overlying coronal field.

  14. Our new tornado-compatible aortic valve prosthesis: notable results of hydrodynamic testing and experimental trials

    Leo A. Bockeria


    Full Text Available Aims A shortcoming common to all existing designs of mechanical cardiac valve prostheses is an increased trombogenicity caused, among other factors, by the lack of hydrodynamic compatibility between the luminal part of the prosthesis and the patterned blood flow. The aim of the study is to design and test our new mechanical aortic valve prosthesis to exclude life-long anticoagulation treatment. Materials and methods Standard hydrodynamic tests of the new prosthetic valve have been carried out for comparing with the other existing valve designs. A new method for the heart valve prosthesis testing in a tornado-like flow has been developed. The valve function has been verified in a swine excluding the anticoagulation treatment during the period of time exceeding six months. Results The significant advantage of the new prosthesis in the standard hydrodynamic tests has been demonstrated. The tests in the tornado-like flow have shown that only this prosthesis allows maintaining the pattern, the head and flow rate characteristics of the tornado-like jet. Upon implanting the new prosthesis in the aortic position in a swine, the good performance of the valve without anticoagulation therapy has been confirmed in the course of more than six months. Conclusion Obtained has been the evidence of the merits of the new mechanical aortic valve owing to the due consideration of the hydrodynamic peculiarities of the aortic blood flow and the creation of the design providing the proper hydrodynamic compatibility.

  15. Epidemiology of tornado destruction in rural northern Bangladesh: risk factors for death and injury.

    Sugimoto, Jonathan D; Labrique, Alain B; Ahmad, Salahuddin; Rashid, Mahbubur; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Ullah, Barkat; Klemm, Rolf D W; Christian, Parul; West, Keith P


    The epidemiology of tornado-related disasters in the developing world is poorly understood. An August 2005 post-tornado cohort study in rural Bangladesh identified elevated levels of death and injury among the elderly (≥ 60 years of age) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 8.9 (95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 3.9-20.2) and AOR = 1.6 (95 per cent CI: 1.4-1.8), respectively), as compared to 15-24 year-olds, and among those outdoors versus indoors during the tornado (AOR = 10.4 (95 per cent CI: 5.5-19.9) and AOR = 6.6 (95 per cent CI: 5.8-7.5), respectively). Females were 1.24 times (95 per cent CI: 1.15-1.33) more likely to be injured than males. Elevated risk of injury was significantly associated with structural damage to the house and tin construction materials. Seeking treatment was protective against death among the injured, odds ratio = 0.08 (95 per cent CI: 0.03-0.21). Further research is needed to develop injury prevention strategies and to address disparities in risk between age groups and between men and women. © 2011 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2011.


    Luna, M.; Moreno-Insertis, F. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Priest, E. [Mathematics Institute, University of St Andrews, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)


    Recent high-resolution and high-cadence observations have surprisingly suggested that prominence barbs exhibit apparent rotating motions suggestive of a tornado-like structure. Additional evidence has been provided by Doppler measurements. The observations reveal opposite velocities for both hot and cool plasma on the two sides of a prominence barb. This motion is persistent for several hours and has been interpreted in terms of rotational motion of prominence feet. Several authors suggest that such barb motions are rotating helical structures around a vertical axis similar to tornadoes on Earth. One of the difficulties of such a proposal is how to support cool prominence plasma in almost-vertical structures against gravity. In this work we model analytically a tornado-like structure and try to determine possible mechanisms to support the prominence plasma. We have found that the Lorentz force can indeed support the barb plasma provided the magnetic structure is sufficiently twisted and/or significant poloidal flows are present.

  17. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief


    Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief Mark Roberts1, Thomas Apker2, Benjamin Johnson1, Bryan Auslander3, Briana Wellman4 & David W...for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief operations. We demonstrate that the SDP responds to a dynamic, open world while ensuring that vehicles...facilitate such information gathering tasks, freeing humans to perform more critical tasks in Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR

  18. Simulation of the Tornado Event of 22 March, 2013 over Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh using WRF Model with 3DVar DA techniques

    M N Ahasan; M M Alam; S K Debsarma


    A severe thunderstorm produced a tornado (F2 on the enhanced Fujita–Pearson scale), which affected the Brahmanbaria district of Bangladesh during 1100–1130 UTC of 22 March, 2013. The tornado consumed 38, injured 388 and caused a huge loss of property. The total length travelled by the tornado was about 12–15 km and about 1728 households were affected. An attempt has been made to simulate this rare event using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The model was run in a single domain at 9 km resolution for a period of 24 hrs, starting at 0000 UTC on 22 March, 2013. The meteorological conditions that led to form this tornado have been analyzed. The model simulated meteorological conditions are compared with that of a ‘no severe thunderstorm observed day’ on 22 March, 2012. Thus, the model also ran in the same domain at same resolution for 24 hrs, starting at 0000 UTC on 22 March, 2012. The model simulated meteorological parameters are consistent with each other, and all are in good agreement with the observation in terms of the region of occurrence of the tornado activity. The model has efficiently captured the common favourable synoptic conditions for the occurrence of severe tornadoes though there are some spatial and temporal biases in the simulation. The wind speed is not in good agreement with the observation as it has shown the strongest wind of only 15–20 ms−1, against the estimated wind speed of about 55 ms−1. The spatial distributions as well as intensity of rainfall are also in good agreement with the observation. The results of these analyses demonstrated the capability of high-resolution WRF model with 3DVar Data Assimilation (DA) techniques in simulation of tornado over Brahmanbaria, Bangladesh.

  19. Using Satellite Imagery to Identify Tornado Damage Tracks and Recovery from the April 27, 2011 Severe Weather Outbreak

    Cole, Tony A.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Bell, Jordan R.


    Emergency response to natural disasters requires coordination between multiple local, state, and federal agencies. Single, relatively weak tornado events may require comparatively simple response efforts; but larger "outbreak" events with multiple strong, long-track tornadoes can benefit from additional tools to help expedite these efforts. Meteorologists from NOAA's National Weather Service conduct field surveys to map tornado tracks, assess damage, and determine the tornado intensity following each event. Moderate and high resolution satellite imagery can support these surveys by providing a high-level view of the affected areas. Satellite imagery could then be used to target areas for immediate survey or to corroborate the results of the survey after it is completed. In this study, the feasibility of using satellite imagery to identify tornado damage tracks was determined by comparing the characteristics of tracks observed from low-earth orbit to tracks assessed during the official NWS storm survey process. Of the 68 NWS confirmed centerlines, 24 tracks (35.3%) could be distinguished from other surface features using satellite imagery. Within each EF category, 0% of EF-0, 3% of EF-1, 50% of EF-2, 77.7% of EF-3, 87.5% of EF-4 and 100% of EF-5 tornadoes were detected. It was shown that satellite data can be used to identify tornado damage tracks in MODIS and ASTER NDVI imagery, where damage to vegetation creates a sharp drop in values though the minimum EF-category which can be detected is dependent upon the type of sensor used and underlying vegetation. Near-real time data from moderate resolution sensors compare favorably to field surveys after the event and suggest that the data can provide some value in the assessment process.

  20. A sigh of relief or a sigh of expected relief: Sigh rate in response to dyspnea relief.

    Vlemincx, Elke; Meulders, Michel; Luminet, Olivier


    Research has suggested that sighs may serve a regulatory function during stress and emotions by facilitating relief. Evidence supports the hypotheses that sighs both express and induce relief from stress. To explore the potential role of sighs in the regulation of symptoms, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sighs and relief of symptoms, and relief of dyspnea, specifically. Healthy volunteers participated in two studies (N = 44, N = 47) in which dyspnea was induced by mild (10 cmH2 O/l/s) or high (20 cmH2 0/l/s) inspiratory resistances. Dyspnea relief was induced by the offset of the inspiratory resistances (transitions from high and mild inspiratory resistance to no resistance). Control comparisons included dyspnea increases (transitions from no or mild inspiratory resistance to high inspiratory resistance) and dyspnea continuations (continuations of either no resistance or a high resistance). In Experiment 1, dyspnea levels were cued. In Experiment 2, no cues were provided. Sigh rate during dyspnea relief was significantly higher compared to control conditions, and sigh rate increased as self-reported dyspnea decreased. Additionally, sigh rate was higher during cued dyspnea relief compared to noncued dyspnea relief. These results suggest that sighs are important markers of dyspnea relief. Moreover, sighs may importantly express dyspnea relief, as they are related to experiential dyspnea decreases and occur more frequently during expected dyspnea relief. These findings suggest that sighs may not only be important in the regulation of stress and emotions, but also may be functional in the regulation of dyspnea. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  1. Oxycodone combinations for pain relief.

    Raffa, R B; Pergolizzi, J V; Segarnick, D J; Tallarida, R J


    No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment.

  2. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  3. Pain relief can be painful

    Ashish Bindra


    Full Text Available Mandibular nerve block is periodically used procedure used to treat neuralgic pain in the distribution of trigeminal nerve. It is a commonly performed block in outpatient settings at our institute. We present a case of an elderly edentulous patient with trigeminal neuralgia who suffered recurrent temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation following mandibular nerve block. The patient presented with complaints of severe pain, inability to close mouth, and eat food since 2 days. Anterior closed reduction of TMJ resulted in reduction of joint and immediate pain relief. However, the maneuver failed due to recurrent dislocation of the joint. A Barton dressing was applied to prevent another dislocation. This was followed by autologous blood injection into the joint. This case focuses on the preponderance of clinical evaluation and accentuates the need for additional forethought to be taken during pain procedures, particularly in the geriatric population.

  4. Exploring links between biomass burning smoke and tornado likelihood: From regional to large-eddy scale simulations

    Saide, P. E.; Thompson, G.; Eidhammer, T.; da Silva, A. M., Jr.; Pierce, R. B.; Carmichael, G. R.


    Biomass burning smoke from Central America can have the potential to enhance the likelihood of tornado occurrence and intensity in the SE US by changing the environment where tornadic storms form (Saide et al., GRL 2015). In this presentation we build over this study to further our understanding of these interactions on multiple dimensions: 1) Biomass burning smoke emissions are constrained using an inverse modeling technique to improve the representation of smoke loads and its impacts, 2) The representation of these smoke-tornado interactions are assessed when using a simplified aerosol scheme with the intent of introducing these feedbacks into numerical weather prediction in the future, 3) The occurrence of these interactions is investigated for other tornado outbreaks on the record to learn about their frequency and under what conditions they occur, and 4) Multi-scale simulations are performed from regional to tornado-resolving scales to assess the impact of smoke on the number of tornadoes formed and their EF intensity. Future steps will also be discussed. The image below shows MODIS-Aqua satellite products for 27 April 2011 over the southeast US, Central America and the Gulf of Mexico (GoM), along with tornado tracks (red solid lines, thickness indicates the magnitude of the tornado reports , thickest=5, thinnest=1) for the period from April 26-28. The background is a true color image of the surface, clouds, and smoke, with yellow markers indicating fire detections and an iridescent overlay showing aerosol optical depth (AOD). Red, green and purple colors show high (1.0), medium (0.6) and low (0.1) AOD values. The article by Saide et al. (2015) shows that the increase in aerosol loads in the GoM is produced by fires in Central America, and this smoke is further transported to the southeast US where it can interact with clouds and radiation producing environmental conditions more favorable to significant tornado occurrence for the historical outbreak on 27

  5. Alabama Disasters: Leveraging NASA EOS to Explore the Environmental and Economic Impact of the April 27 Tornado Outbreak

    Herdy, Claire; Luvall, Jeffrey; Cooksey, Kirstin; Brenton, James; Barrick, Bradley; Padgett-Vasquez, Steve


    The disastrous tornado outbreak in Alabama on April 27, 2011 greatly impacted the economy of the state. On record, the tornado outbreak was the second deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S. When considering the agricultural and value-added activities such as food and timber processing, farm inputs, manufacturing, transportation, and retail sales, the dollar value of Alabama agribusiness annually exceeds $40 billion (NASS, 2011). This research aims to examine how the timber and agriculture damage affected the state economy of Alabama and will be used to aid in long-term economic recovery. ASTER imagery was used along with ground-truthed NASS (National Agriculture Statistics Service) crop location records to verify the economic impact tornadoes had on the agricultural economy of the state. This swath damage can be calculated by correlating tornado path with NASS statistics on crop yield, precisely showing the fields affected and dollars lost to this disaster. Not only can this be executed manually using ENVI and ArcGIS, but also through the use of Python, a programming language that has the ability to automate the process, creating a product for initial damage assessment.

  6. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    Frankewich, P. A.


    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  7. 44 CFR 68.12 - Relief.


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 68.12 Section 68.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Relief. The final determination may be appealed by the appellant(s) to the United States district court...

  8. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... and Obligations-Projects Project Mortgage Insurance § 220.753 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where...

  9. 47 CFR 1.6009 - Relief.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 1.6009 Section 1.6009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of Section 325(e) of the... Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6009 Relief. If the Commission determines that a satellite...

  10. 24 CFR 236.255 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 236.255 Section 236.255 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance § 236.255 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where the mortgage is in default, the mortgagor and...

  11. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.761 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where the mortgage is in default, the mortgagor and the...

  12. Tornado hazard communication disparities among Spanish-speaking individuals in an English-speaking community.

    Ahlborn, Leslie; Franc, Jeffrey Michael


    The state of Oklahoma, known for destructive tornados, has a native Spanish-speaking (NSS) population of approximately 180,241, of which 50% report being able to speak English "very well" (US Census Bureau). With almost 50% of these native Spanish-speaking persons being limited English proficient (LEP), their reception of tornado hazard communications may be restricted. This study conducted in northeast Oklahoma (USA) evaluates the association between native language and receiving tornado hazard communications. This study was a cross-sectional survey conducted among a convenience sample of NSS and native English-speaking (NES) adults at Xavier Clinic and St. Francis Trauma Emergency Center in Tulsa, OK, USA from September 2009 through December 2009. Of the 82 surveys administered, 80 were returned, with 40 NES and 40 NSS participants. A scoring system (Severe Weather Information Reception (SWIR)) was developed to quantify reception of hazard information among the study participants (1-3 points=poor reception, 4-5=adequate reception, 6-8=excellent reception). Pearson's chi-squared test was used to calculate differences between groups with Yates' continuity correction applied where appropriate, and SWIR scores were analyzed using ANOVA. P-valuestornado siren. NSS were less likely to have Internet access (Ptornado warning reception between NSS and NES. Poor English proficiency was noted to be 75% among NSS, which is approximately 25% more than estimated by the US Census Bureau. This study demonstrates a need for emergency managers to recognize when appropriate and overcome communication disparities among limited English proficient populations.

  13. False alarms and missed events: the impact and origins of perceived inaccuracy in tornado warning systems.

    Ripberger, Joseph T; Silva, Carol L; Jenkins-Smith, Hank C; Carlson, Deven E; James, Mark; Herron, Kerry G


    Theory and conventional wisdom suggest that errors undermine the credibility of tornado warning systems and thus decrease the probability that individuals will comply (i.e., engage in protective action) when future warnings are issued. Unfortunately, empirical research on the influence of warning system accuracy on public responses to tornado warnings is incomplete and inconclusive. This study adds to existing research by analyzing two sets of relationships. First, we assess the relationship between perceptions of accuracy, credibility, and warning response. Using data collected via a large regional survey, we find that trust in the National Weather Service (NWS; the agency responsible for issuing tornado warnings) increases the likelihood that an individual will opt for protective action when responding to a hypothetical warning. More importantly, we find that subjective perceptions of warning system accuracy are, as theory suggests, systematically related to trust in the NWS and (by extension) stated responses to future warnings. The second half of the study matches survey data against NWS warning and event archives to investigate a critical follow-up question--Why do some people perceive that their warning system is accurate, whereas others perceive that their system is error prone? We find that subjective perceptions are--in part-a function of objective experience, knowledge, and demographic characteristics. When considered in tandem, these findings support the proposition that errors influence perceptions about the accuracy of warning systems, which in turn impact the credibility that people assign to information provided by systems and, ultimately, public decisions about how to respond when warnings are issued. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Environmental risk perception from visual cues: the psychophysics of tornado risk perception

    Dewitt, Barry; Fischhoff, Baruch; Davis, Alexander; Broomell, Stephen B.


    Lay judgments of environmental risks are central to both immediate decisions (e.g., taking shelter from a storm) and long-term ones (e.g., building in locations subject to storm surges). Using methods from quantitative psychology, we provide a general approach to studying lay perceptions of environmental risks. As a first application of these methods, we investigate a setting where lay decisions have not taken full advantage of advances in natural science understanding: tornado forecasts in the US and Canada. Because official forecasts are imperfect, members of the public must often evaluate the risks on their own, by checking environmental cues (such as cloud formations) before deciding whether to take protective action. We study lay perceptions of cloud formations, demonstrating an approach that could be applied to other environmental judgments. We use signal detection theory to analyse how well people can distinguish tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, and multidimensional scaling to determine how people make these judgments. We find that participants (N = 400 recruited from Amazon Mechanical Turk) have heuristics that generally serve them well, helping participants to separate tornadic from non-tornadic clouds, but which also lead them to misjudge the tornado risk of certain cloud types. The signal detection task revealed confusion regarding shelf clouds, mammatus clouds, and clouds with upper- and mid-level tornadic features, which the multidimensional scaling task suggested was the result of participants focusing on the darkness of the weather scene and the ease of discerning its features. We recommend procedures for training (e.g., for storm spotters) and communications (e.g., tornado warnings) that will reduce systematic misclassifications of tornadicity arising from observers’ reliance on otherwise useful heuristics.

  15. Predictability of US tornado outbreak seasons using ENSO and northern hemisphere geopotential height variability

    Kent H. Sparrow; Andrew E. Mercer


    The predictability of dangerous atmospheric phenomena such as tornado outbreaks has generally been limited to a week or less. However, recent work has demonstrated the importance of the Rossby wavetrain phasing over the United States in establishing outbreak-favorable environments. The pre-dictability of Rossby wavetrain phasing is strongly related to numerous climate-scale interannual vari-ability indices, which are predictable many months in advance. To formalize the relationship between interannual variability indices and seasonal tornado outbreak frequency, indices derived from monthly mean Northern Hemisphere 500-hPa and 1000-hPa geopotential height fields and Niño 3.4 indices for ENSO phase were compared to annual tornado outbreak seasonal frequencies. Statistical models pre-dicting seasonal outbreak frequency were established using linear (stepwise multivariate linear regressioneSMLR) and nonlinear (support vector regressioneSVR) statistical modeling techniques. The stepwise methodology revealed predictors that are important in establishing outbreak-favorable environments at long lead times. Additionally, the results of the statistical modeling revealed that the nonlinear SVR technique reduced root mean square errors produced by the control SMLR technique by 28% and provided more consistent forecasts. A preliminary physical analysis revealed that years with high outbreak frequencies were associated with the presence of 500-mb troughs over the central and western US during the peak of outbreak season, while lower frequencies were consistent with ridging over the US or northwest flow over the Plains. These patterns support the results of the statistical modeling, which demonstrate the utility of geopotential height variability as a predictability measure of outbreak frequency.

  16. Counter-Orientalism: Retranslating the ‘Invisible Arab’1 in Leila Aboulela’s The Translator and Lyrics Alley2

    Ahmed Gamal El Din


    Full Text Available Retranslation is a foundational postcolonial metaphor that might highlight the new horizons of transcultural and transnational relations and their political backdrop. By the same token, Arab British migrant narratives are of special relevancy to both translation and cultural studies, since migrant identity and writing are closely associated with the politics of translation, rewriting, relocation and cross-cultural pollination. This contribution explores the role of counter-discourses in general and counter-Orientalism in particular in the contemporary fiction of Arab British writers. In particular the paper focuses on the textual representations of invisible Arab men and women and the East-West cultural exchange in the writing of the Sudanese feminist and Scottish immigrant Leila Aboulela (1964-. Drawing on the counter-traditional concept of translation as engagement rather than transfer, this article attempts to spotlight the aesthetic and political parameters of cultural translation in Arab British literature represented by Leila Aboulela’s The Translator (1999 and Lyrics Alley (2010. Many studies have examined the mis/representation of Arabs in Western Orientalist narratives, but very few have probed how Arab émigrés have deftly attempted to engage with Orientalist narratives by restructuring new identities and critically hybridizing unexampled cultural models. In other words, counter-Orientalism implies appropriating Orientalist stereotypes of space, history, identity and gender in counter-narratives that seek to retranslate, demythologize and therefore de-Orientalize Arab subjects.

  17. 南京太平巷幼儿园设计中色彩的运用%On color application of Taiping Alley Kindergarten design in Nanjing



    According to the analysis of the color design of kindergartens, the paper explores the meaning and methods for the indoor colors design of kindergartens, illustrates the features and methods for the color design in kindergartens with the case of Taiping Alley Kindergarten in Nanjing, introduces color application in the spatial design of kindergarten, and explores the optimal methods for the spatial color composition.%通过对幼儿园色彩设计的分析,探讨了幼儿园室内色彩设计的意义和方法,并以太平巷幼儿园为具体案例,阐述了幼儿园色彩设计的特点和手法,介绍了幼儿园空间设计中色彩的搭配及运用,以探索出幼儿园空间色彩组合的最佳方法。

  18. Numerical modeling and analysis of the effect of Greek complex topography on tornado genesis

    I. T. Matsangouras


    Full Text Available Tornadoes have been reported in Greece over the last decades in specific sub-geographical areas and have been associated with strong synoptic forcing. It is well known that meteorological conditions over Greece are affected at various scales by the significant variability of topography, the Ionian Sea at the west and the Aegean Sea at the east. However, there is still uncertainty regarding topography's importance on tornadic generation and development. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of topography in significant tornado genesis events that were triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over Greece. Three tornado events that occurred over the last years in Thiva (Boeotia, 17 November 2007, Vrastema (Chalkidiki, 12 February 2010 and Vlychos (Lefkada, 20 September 2011 have been selected for numerical experiments. These events were associated with synoptic scale forcing, while their intensity was T4–T5 (Torro scale and caused significant damage. The simulations were performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF, initialized with ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso scale. In the experiments the topography of the inner grid was modified by: (a 0% (actual topography and (b −100% (without topography. The aim was to determine whether the occurrence of tornadoes – mainly identified by various severe weather instability indices – could be indicated by modifying topography. The main utilized instability variables concerned the Bulk Richardson number shear (BRN, the energy helicity index (EHI, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcel with maximum theta-e. Additional a verification of model was conducted for every sensitivity experiment accompanied with analysis absolute vorticity budget

  19. Benelli公司生产的TORNADO TRE 900LE型摩托车



    @@ 意大利Benelli(贝内利)公司为摩托车爱好者生产的新型具有运动特性的Tornado tre 900LE型摩托车,极大地满足了摩托车爱好者的需要.该车采用该公司自行设计研发的排量为900mL3缸多点电喷发动机,动力性能极佳,如图1、2、3所示.

  20. 国内首测 Benelli Tornado Tre 1130龙卷风暴

    安李楠; A.ROY(摄影)


    1999年的意大利米兰车展上,一款令举世震惊的概念车呈现在世人面前,这就是Benelli(贝纳利)决心重回大排量运动型车领域的开山之作——Tornado Tre900“龙卷风”,它独树一帜的设计在世界超级跑车界刮起了一股强劲的风暴。

  1. Modelling mean transit time of stream base flow during tropical cyclone rainstorm in a steep relief forested catchment

    Lee, Jun-Yi; Huang, -Chuan, Jr.


    Mean transit time (MTT) is one of the of fundamental catchment descriptors to advance understanding on hydrological, ecological, and biogeochemical processes and improve water resources management. However, there were few documented the base flow partitioning (BFP) and mean transit time within a mountainous catchment in typhoon alley. We used a unique data set of 18O isotope and conductivity composition of rainfall (136 mm to 778 mm) and streamflow water samples collected for 14 tropical cyclone events (during 2011 to 2015) in a steep relief forested catchment (Pinglin, in northern Taiwan). A lumped hydrological model, HBV, considering dispersion model transit time distribution was used to estimate total flow, base flow, and MTT of stream base flow. Linear regression between MTT and hydrometric (precipitation intensity and antecedent precipitation index) variables were used to explore controls on MTT variation. Results revealed that both the simulation performance of total flow and base flow were satisfactory, and the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of total flow and base flow was 0.848 and 0.732, respectively. The event magnitude increased with the decrease of estimated MTTs. Meanwhile, the estimated MTTs varied 4-21 days with the increase of BFP between 63-92%. The negative correlation between event magnitude and MTT and BFP showed the forcing controls the MTT and BFP. Besides, a negative relationship between MTT and the antecedent precipitation index was also found. In other words, wetter antecedent moisture content more rapidly active the fast flow paths. This approach is well suited for constraining process-based modeling in a range of high precipitation intensity and steep relief forested environments.

  2. Study of the tornado event in Greece on March 25, 2009: Synoptic analysis and numerical modeling using modified topography

    Matsangouras, I. T.; Nastos, P. T.; Pytharoulis, I.


    Recent research revealed that western Greece and NW Peloponnese are regions that favor prefrontal tornadic incidence. On March 25, 2009 a tornado developed approximately at 10:30 UTC near Varda village (NW Peloponnese). Tornado intensity was T4-T5 (TORRO scale) and consequently caused an economic impact of 350,000 € over the local society. The goals of this study are: (i) to analyze synoptic and remote sensing features regarding the tornado event over NW Peloponnese and (ii) to investigate the role of topography in tornadogenesis triggered under strong synoptic scale forcing over that area. Synoptic analysis was based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) data sets. The analysis of daily anomaly of synoptic conditions with respect to 30 years' climatology (1981-2010), was based on the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP-NCAR) reanalysis data sets. In addition, numerous remote sensing data sets were derived by the Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) weather station network in order to better interpret the examined tornado event. Finally, numerical modeling was performed using the non-hydrostatic Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), initialized by ECMWF gridded analyses, with telescoping nested grids that allow the representation of atmospheric circulations ranging from the synoptic scale down to the meso-scale. The two numerical experiments were performed on the basis of: (a) the presence and (b) the absence of topography (landscape), so as to determine whether the occurrence of a tornado - identified by diagnostic instability indices - could be indicated by modifying topography. The energy helicity index (EHI), the bulk Richardson number (BRN) shear, the storm-relative environmental helicity (SRH), and the maximum convective available potential energy (MCAPE, for parcels with maximum θe) were considered as principal diagnostic instability variables and

  3. Numerical study of the performance of tornado-type wind energy systems

    Ayad, S. S.


    The results of an analytical investigation of the effects of changing the parameters and operating conditions of a tornado-type wind energy system are presented. The tornado tower system comprises a tower over the turbine exhaust. A vortex is formed within the tower, and contains a low pressure area at core, which enhances the wind flow velocity through the turbine. Various flow conditions are studied with a two-equation turbulence model to obtain closure. Governing conditions for mass conservation, radial momentum, tangential momentum, and the axial momentum are defined, together with formulations for the turbulent kinetic energy and the turbulence dissipation transport, and solutions are found using a finite difference method. The effects of the boundary layer structures, the site aerodynamic surface roughness, the tower height/diameter, and the system size are examined. The boundary layer is found to have a significant effect, and so does the surface roughness in the case of smaller systems. The vortex must necessarily be maintained at least one tower diameter in size. Performance improvements are limited after a 4 m diameter. Finally, towers with tangential guide vanes are demonstrated to suffer a performance loss due to a loss of angular momentum in the lee region of the tower.

  4. Prevention of destructive tropical and extratropical storms, hurricanes, tornadoes, dangerous thunderstorms, and catastrophic floods

    E. Yu. Krasilnikov


    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones and storms, hurricanes, powerful thunderclouds, which generate tornadoes, destructive extratropical cyclones, which result in catastrophic floods, are the powerful cloud systems that contain huge amount of water. According to the hypothesis argued in this paper, an electric field coupled with powerful clouds and electric forces play a cardinal role in supporting this huge mass of water at a high altitude in the troposphere and in the instability of powerful clouds sometimes during rather a long time duration. Based on this hypothesis, a highly effective method of volume electric charge neutralization of powerful clouds is proposed. It results in the decrease in an electric field, a sudden increase in precipitation, and subsequent degradation of powerful clouds. This method, based on the natural phenomenon, ensures the prevention of the intensification of tropical and extratropical cyclones and their transition to the storm and hurricane (typhoon stages, which makes it possible to avoid catastrophic floods. It also ensures the suppression of severe thunderclouds, which, in turn, eliminates the development of dangerous thunderstorms and the possibility of the emergence and intensification of tornadoes.

  5. Tornado-Like Evolution of A Kink-Unstable Solar Prominence

    Wang, Wensi; Wang, Yuming


    We report on the tornado-like evolution of a quiescent prominence on 2014 November 1. The eastern section of the prominence first rose slowly transforming into an arch-shaped structure as high as ~150 Mm above the limb; the arch then writhed moderately in a left-handed sense, while the originally dark prominence material became in emission in the Fe IX 171~{\\AA} passband, and a braided structure appeared at the eastern edge of the warped arch. The unraveling of the braided structure was associated with a transient brightening in EUV and apparently contributed to the formation of a curtain-like structure (CLS). The CLS consisted of myriads of thread-like loops rotating counterclockwise about the vertical if viewed from above. Heated prominence material was observed to slide along these loops and land outside the filament channel. The tornado was eventually disintegrated and the remaining material flew along a left-handed helical path of approximately a full turn, as corroborated through stereoscopic reconstruc...

  6. Whole genome sequence typing to investigate the Apophysomyces outbreak following a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, 2011.

    Etienne, Kizee A; Gillece, John; Hilsabeck, Remy; Schupp, Jim M; Colman, Rebecca; Lockhart, Shawn R; Gade, Lalitha; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Sutton, Deanna A; Neblett-Fanfair, Robyn; Park, Benjamin J; Turabelidze, George; Keim, Paul; Brandt, Mary E; Deak, Eszter; Engelthaler, David M


    Case reports of Apophysomyces spp. in immunocompetent hosts have been a result of traumatic deep implantation of Apophysomyces spp. spore-contaminated soil or debris. On May 22, 2011 a tornado occurred in Joplin, MO, leaving 13 tornado victims with Apophysomyces trapeziformis infections as a result of lacerations from airborne material. We used whole genome sequence typing (WGST) for high-resolution phylogenetic SNP analysis of 17 outbreak Apophysomyces isolates and five additional temporally and spatially diverse Apophysomyces control isolates (three A. trapeziformis and two A. variabilis isolates). Whole genome SNP phylogenetic analysis revealed three clusters of genotypically related or identical A. trapeziformis isolates and multiple distinct isolates among the Joplin group; this indicated multiple genotypes from a single or multiple sources. Though no linkage between genotype and location of exposure was observed, WGST analysis determined that the Joplin isolates were more closely related to each other than to the control isolates, suggesting local population structure. Additionally, species delineation based on WGST demonstrated the need to reassess currently accepted taxonomic classifications of phylogenetic species within the genus Apophysomyces.

  7. User perception and interpretation of tornado probabilistic hazard information: Comparison of four graphical designs.

    Miran, Seyed M; Ling, Chen; James, Joseph J; Gerard, Alan; Rothfusz, Lans


    Effective design for presenting severe weather information is important to reduce devastating consequences of severe weather. The Probabilistic Hazard Information (PHI) system for severe weather is being developed by NOAA National Severe Storms Laboratory (NSSL) to communicate probabilistic hazardous weather information. This study investigates the effects of four PHI graphical designs for tornado threat, namely, "four-color"," red-scale", "grayscale" and "contour", on users' perception, interpretation, and reaction to threat information. PHI is presented on either a map background or a radar background. Analysis showed that the accuracy was significantly higher and response time faster when PHI was displayed on map background as compared to radar background due to better contrast. When displayed on a radar background, "grayscale" design resulted in a higher accuracy of responses. Possibly due to familiarity, participants reported four-color design as their favorite design, which also resulted in the fastest recognition of probability levels on both backgrounds. Our study shows the importance of using intuitive color-coding and sufficient contrast in conveying probabilistic threat information via graphical design. We also found that users follows a rational perceiving-judging-feeling-and acting approach in processing probabilistic hazard information for tornado. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The 2011 Tuscaloosa tornado: integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care.

    Kanter, Robert K


    To empirically describe the integration of pediatric disaster services into regional systems of care after the April 27, 2011, tornado in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a community with no pediatric emergency department or pediatric intensive care unit and few pediatric subspecialists. Data were obtained in interviews with key informants including professional staff and managers from public health and emergency management agencies, prehospital emergency medical services, fire departments, hospital nurses, physicians, and the trauma program coordinator. A single hospital in Tuscaloosa served 800 patients on the night of the tornado. More than 100 of these patients were children, including more than 20 with critical injuries. Many children were unaccompanied and unidentified on arrival. Resuscitation and stabilization were performed by nonpediatric prehospital and emergency department staff. More than 20 children were secondarily transported to the nearest children's hospital an hour's drive away under the care of nonpediatric local emergency medical services providers. No preventable adverse events were identified in the resuscitation and secondary transport phases of care. Stockpiled supplies and equipment were adequate to serve the needs of the disaster victims, including the children. Essential aspects of preparation include pediatric-specific clinical skills, supplies and equipment, operational disaster plans, and interagency practice embedded in everyday work. Opportunities for improvement identified include more timely response to warnings, improved practices for identifying unaccompanied children, and enhanced child safety in shelters. Successful responses depended on integration of pediatric services into regional systems of care. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Tornado Codes Based on PEG Algorithm%基于PEG算法的Tornado码构造

    关涌涛; 吴亮


    Tornado码二部图构造是一个非常重要的问题.基于PEG算法构造LDPC码二部图时显现的各种优点,本文提出了一种改进的PEG构图算法.仿真结果表明,改进的算法比原PEG算法有更快的执行速度,并且基于此算法构造的Tomado码也比原始的Tomado码有更好的性能.%The construction of bipartite graphs is one of very important problems in the design of Tornado codes. Based on the advantages exhibited in the construction of bipartite graph in LDPC code with PEC algorithm, an improved PEC algorithm is presented. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm has a higher executive speed compared with the original PEG algorithm and the Tornado codes which constructed with this algorithm have a better performance.

  10. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  11. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  12. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    PATIENT EDUCATION Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  13. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  14. Enveloping Relief Surfaces of Landslide Terrain


    Two relief surfaces that envelop the rock fall region in a part of Garhwal Himalayas around Chamoli have been identified. Relative relief and absolute relief have been analyzed and the enveloping surfaces recorded at two levels of relief in the landscape. All landslide activity lies within these surfaces. The lower enveloping surface (800 m) dips due south by 7-8 degrees, due to an elevation rise of 100 meters within 12 km from south to north, i.e., a gradient of 8 percent. The nature of the surface is smooth. The upper enveloping surface (> 2500 m) is almost parallel to the lower one but its surface is undulatory due to landslides and denudation. The area has been a seismically active region and has undergone seismic activity up until recently, as evidenced by the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999. The effects of earthquakes are seen at higher levels in the form of landslide imprints on the terrain.

  15. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  16. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  17. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher; Porreca, Frank


    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex, activation of midbrain dopamine neurons and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute and chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  18. Safety/relief-valve test program

    Hunter, J.A.


    In response to the NRC's Task 2.1.2 following the TMI-2 accident, government and industry programs were formulated to address the performance of safety and relief valve systems for pressurized and boiling water reactors. Objective is to demonstrate by testing and analysis that safety and relief valve systems in the reactor coolant system are qualified for the anticipated full range of reactor operating and accident conditions. The EPRI PWR program tested PWR safety valves and power operated relief valves (PORVs) under steam, liquid, and steam/liquid transition conditions. The program also tested PWR PORV block valves under steam conditions. The GE BWR program tested BWR relief and safety/relief valves under high pressure steam and low pressure liquid conditions. EG and G Idaho recent activities have focused on the evaluation of the industry test data, evaluation and modification of analytical codes for safety/relief valve system analysis, and initial evaluation of utility responses to US NRC program requirements.

  19. Adolescent Substance Use Following a Deadly U.S. Tornado Outbreak: A Population-Based Study of 2,000 Families.

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Sumner, Jennifer A; Adams, Zachary W; McCauley, Jenna L; Carpenter, Matthew; Amstadter, Ananda B; Ruggiero, Kenneth J


    Despite conceptual links between disaster exposure and substance use, few studies have examined prevalence and risk factors for adolescent substance use and abuse in large, population-based samples affected by a recent natural disaster. We addressed this gap using a novel address-based sampling methodology to interview adolescents and parents who were affected by the 4th deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S. Postdisaster interviews were conducted with 2,000 adolescent-parent dyads living within a 5-mile radius of the spring 2011 U.S. tornadoes. In addition to descriptive analyses to estimate prevalence, hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine a range of protective and risk factors for substance use and abuse. Approximately 3% reported substance abuse since the tornado. Greater number of prior traumatic events and older age emerged as consistent risk factors across tobacco and alcohol use and substance abuse since the tornado. Tornado incident characteristics, namely, greater loss of services and resources after the tornado and posttraumatic stress disorder since the tornado, were associated with greater alcohol consumption. Service loss increased risk for binge drinking, whereas, for substance abuse, posttraumatic stress disorder increased risk and parent presence during the tornado decreased risk. Greater family tornado exposure was associated with a greater number of cigarettes smoked in female but not male teen participants. Both trauma and non-trauma-related factors are relevant to postdisaster substance abuse among adolescents. Future research should examine the role of broader ecological systems in heightening or curtailing substance use risk for adolescents following disaster exposure.

  20. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...

  1. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.


    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2 to 8 weeks, 39% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 33% reported significant pain relief, and 28% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Six months to one year postlaparoscopy, 49% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 15% reported significant pain relief, and 36% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Two to five years after laparoscopic enterolysis, 37% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 30% reported significant pain relief, and 33% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Some patients required between 1 and 3 subsequent laparoscopic adhesiolysis. A total of 3 enterotomies and 2 cystotomies occurred, all of which were repaired laparoscopically. Conclusion: We conclude that laparoscopic enterolysis may offer significant long-term relief of chronic pelvic pain in some patients. PMID:11051185

  2. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN... or components intended to be imported in order to ensure that relief from import duties is obtained...

  3. 7 CFR 635.5 - Forms of relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 635.5 Section 635.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING EQUITABLE RELIEF FROM INELIGIBILITY § 635.5 Forms of relief. (a) The Chief... land covered by the program; and (5) Receive such other equitable relief as determined to be...

  4. 37 CFR 41.120 - Notice of basis for relief.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of basis for relief... Notice of basis for relief. (a) The Board may require a party to provide a notice stating the relief it requests and the basis for its entitlement to relief. The Board may provide for the notice to be maintained...

  5. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motions for temporary relief. 210.52 Section 210... IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief. Requests for temporary relief under section 337 (e) or (f) of the Tariff Act of 1930 shall be made through...

  6. 43 CFR 4.1367 - Request for temporary relief.


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for temporary relief. 4.1367... temporary relief. (a) Where review is requested pursuant to § 4.1362, any party may file a request for temporary relief at any time prior to a decision by an Administrative Law Judge, so long as the relief...

  7. 7 CFR 718.305 - Forms of relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 718.305 Section 718.305 Agriculture... Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.305 Forms of relief. (a) The Administrator of FSA, Executive Vice... all or part of the land covered by the program; and (5) Receive such other equitable relief as...

  8. Structural and Environmental Characteristics of Extratropical Cyclones that Cause Tornado Outbreaks in the Warm Sector

    Tochimoto, Eigo; Niino, Hiroshi


    The differences in structural and environmental characteristics of extratropical cyclones (hereafter, ECs) that cause tornado outbreaks and those that do not were examined through composite analyses of the newly-released Japanese reanalysis data (JRA-55) and idealized numerical experiments. ECs that developed in the United States in April and May between 1995 and 2012 are categorized into two groups: ECs accompanied by 15 or more tornadoes (hereafter, outbreak cyclones (OCs)) and ECs accompanied by 5 or less tornadoes (non-outbreak cyclones (NOCs)). 55 OCs and 41 NOCs that are of similar strength as OCs are selected in this study. The composite analyses show significant differences in convective environmental parameters between OCs and NOCs. For OCs, convective available potential energy (CAPE) and storm relative environmental helicity (SREH) are larger and the areas in which these parameters have significant values are wider in the warm sector. The larger CAPE in OCs is due to larger amount of low-level water vapor, while the larger SREH in OCs due to stronger southerly wind at low levels. A piecewise potential vorticity (PV) diagnostics (Davis and Emanuel, 1991) indicates that low- to mid-level PV anomalies mainly contribute to the difference in the low-level winds between OCs and NOCs. On the other hand, the low-level winds associated with upper-level PV anomalies are not the major contributor to the difference. The results of the idealized numerical experiments for OCs and NOCs (hereafter, referred to as OC-CTL and NOC-CTL, respectively) using WRF ver. 3.4 show that the characteristics of the low-level wind fields and SREH distributions for the simulated ECs in OC-CTL and NOC-CTL are similar to those for OCs and NOCs, respectively. In OC-CTL, SREH and low-level winds in the east-southeast region of the EC center is larger than those in NOC-CTL, respectively. It is suggested that these differences are due to the structures of jetstream. The structure of

  9. Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.

    Leknes, Siri; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene


    Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a primary process and a slow 'opponent process' of opposite valence, the purpose of which is to reduce the deviation from homeostatic balance. Here, opponent process theory provided a framework to explore the interaction between pain, relief and reward. We devised three psychophysical studies examining the temporal (Experiment I) and magnitude (Experiments I and II) relationships between pain severity and its subsequent relief. In Experiment III, we further manipulated the magnitude and pleasantness of relief experienced by applying innocuous cooling following noxious heat stimulation of capsaicin-sensitized skin. Results confirmed predictions from opponent process theory and showed that pain intensity reduction was significantly stronger than relief intensity ratings. Furthermore, continuous relief ratings appeared to reflect the speed of pain intensity reduction. Varying pain intensity parametrically confirmed that relief increases with pain intensity. That innocuous cooling following primary hyperalgesia intervention significantly increased the intensity, pleasantness and duration of relief provides further evidence that pain relief encapsulates more than a reduction in pain intensity. Importantly, the high relief pleasantness ratings confirmed the hypothesized link between relief and reward.

  10. Uncertainty and control in the context of a category-five tornado.

    Afifi, Walid A; Afifi, Tamara D; Merrill, Annie


    The purpose of this qualitative descriptive study was to illuminate the experience and management of uncertainty during a natural disaster. Interviews were conducted with 26 survivors of a category-five tornado that entirely demolished the small, rural town of Greensburg, Kansas. Three primary themes were found in the survivors' accounts. First, the survivors experienced rapidly shifting levels and kinds of uncertainty as they proceeded through the stages of the disaster. Second, the fluidity of much-needed information added to uncertainty. Third, the feeling of lack of control over outcomes of the disaster and its aftermath was pervasive and was often managed through reliance on communal coping. Recommendations for disaster-related intervention programs are suggested. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Plasma Kinetics in the Ethanol/Water/Air Mixture in "Tornado" Type Electrical Discharge

    Levko, D; Chernyak, V; Olszewski, S; Nedybaliuk, O


    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental study of plasma-assisted reforming of ethanol into molecular hydrogen in a new modification of the "tornado" type electrical discharge. Numerical modeling clarifies the nature of the non-thermal conversion and explains the kinetic mechanism of nonequilibrium plasma-chemical transformations in the gas-liquid system and the evolution of hydrogen during the reforming as a function of discharge parameters and ethanol-to-water ratio in the mixture. We also propose a scheme of chemical reactions for plasma kinetics description. It is shown that some characteristics of the investigated reactor are at least not inferior to characteristics of other plasma chemical reactors.

  12. Applications of Earth Remote Sensing for Identifying Tornado and Severe Weather Damage

    Burks, J. E.; Molthan, A.; Schultz, L. A.; McGrath, K.; Bell, J. R.; Cole, T.; Angle, K.


    In 2014, collaborations between the Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the National Weather Service (NWS), and the USGS led to the incorporation of Earth remote sensing imagery within the NOAA/NWS Damage Assessment Toolkit (DAT). The DAT is a smartphone, tablet, and web-based application that allows NWS meteorologists to acquire, quality control, and manage various storm damage indicators following a severe weather event, such as a tornado, occurrence of widespread damaging winds, or significant hail. Earth remote sensing supports the damage assessment process by providing a broad overview of how various acquired damage indicators relate to scarring visible from space, ranging from high spatial resolution commercial imagery (~1-4m) acquired via USGS and in collaboration with other federal and private sector partners, to moderate resolution imaging from NASA sensors (~15-30m) such as those aboard Landsat 7 and 8 and Terra's ASTER, to lower resolution but routine imaging from NASA's Terra and Aqua MODIS, or the Suomi-NPP VIIRS instrument. In several cases, the acquisition and delivery of imagery in the days after a severe weather event has proven helpful in confirming or in some cases adjusting the preliminary damage track acquired during a ground survey. For example, limited road networks and access to private property may make it difficult to observe the entire length of a tornado track, while satellite imagery can fill in observation gaps to complete a more detailed damage track assessment. This presentation will highlight successful applications of Earth remote sensing for the improvement of damage surveys, discuss remaining challenges, and provide direction on future efforts that will improve the delivery of remote sensing data and use through new automation processes and training opportunities.

  13. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Blaedel, K.L.


    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  14. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part II: Descriptive Analysis of Identified Twitter Activity during the 2013 Hattiesburg F4 Tornado.

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo


    This article describes a novel triangulation methodological approach for identifying twitter activity of regional active twitter users during the 2013 Hattiesburg EF-4 Tornado. A data extraction and geographically centered filtration approach was utilized to generate Twitter data for 48 hrs pre- and post-Tornado. The data was further validated using six sigma approach utilizing GPS data. The regional analysis revealed a total of 81,441 tweets, 10,646 Twitter users, 27,309 retweets and 2637 tweets with GPS coordinates. Twitter tweet activity increased 5 fold during the response to the Hattiesburg Tornado.  Retweeting activity increased 2.2 fold. Tweets with a hashtag increased 1.4 fold. Twitter was an effective disaster risk reduction tool for the Hattiesburg EF-4 Tornado 2013.

  15. Recent trends in the international relief system.

    Borton, J


    Since 1991 the international relief system has been undergoing a process of rapid and fundamental change associated with the end of the Cold War period. The principal changes concern (i) the international community's approach to national sovereignty and the 'right' of armed intervention in support of humanitarian objectives, and (ii) organisatwnal changes aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of the response by donor organisations and the United Nations. This paper describes these changes and attempts to place them in the context of earlier trends within the international relief system, notably the enhanced role of non-governmental organisations, which occurred during the 1980s.

  16. Tornado project - The impact of catastrophic deforestation on the lake and peatland ecosystems of the Tuchola Pinewoods, Northern Poland

    Słowiński, Michał; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Łuców, Dominika; Kołaczek, Piotr; Tjallingii, Rik; Noryśkiewicz, Agnieszka M.; Zawiska, Izabela; Lane, Christine; Rzodkiewicz, Monika; Słowińska, Sandra; Kramkowski, Mateusz; Płóciennik, Mateusz; Tyszkowski, Sebastian; Łokas, Edyta; Kordowski, Jarosław; Brauer, Achim


    An increase in extreme weather phenomena has been observed over the last decades as a result of global climate warming. This project aims to investigate the effects of tornado events on the lake and peatland ecosystems of the Tuchola Pinewoods, Northern Poland. Deforestation by tornado events can cause severe perturbations of the soil hydrology and erosion that, in turn, affects adjacent lakes and peatlands. The Tuchola Pinewoods provide an exceptional possibility of studying the impact of such extreme events as it was struck by a tornado in 2012. This project focuses on lake - peatlands ecosystems that were directly affected by this tornado, with respect to the general transformation of the vegetation (mainly forests) over the last 300 years. Extensive clearing of the forest occurred in the nineteenth century due-to human agricultural activity, and we compare this with the impact of the 2012 tornado. Accurate reconstructions will rely on a broad range of palaeoecological techniques such as Cladocera, Chironomidae, diatoms, pollen, macroremains, testate amoebae, but also on geochemistry, i.e. μXRF scanning. We plan to analyses sediments of Kałębie and Martwe Lakes, as well as the adjacent Martwe peatland located along the path of the tornado. The chorology of the records collected will be based on 210Pb, 137Cs and radiocarbon dating as well as relative (crypto)tephra markers of the Eyjafjöll (2010) and Askja (1875) eruptions. This research addresses the emerging issue of the impact of extreme phenomena and more general climate changes on lake and peatland ecosystems, which potentially helps to adaptations to the environmental consequences of extreme events in the future. This project is funded by the Polish National Science Centre (No. 2015/17/B/ST10/03430) and is a contribution to the Virtual Institute of Integrated Climate and Landscape Evolution Analyses - ICLEA - of the Helmholtz Association and Science and Research Funds for 2015-2016, allocated to a co

  17. Emergency relief system design: The DIERS users group safety relief valve example problem

    Fisher, H.G. [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States)


    Emergency relief system design involving two-phase flow is an evolving and complex technology. Aspects of alternative design techniques have been published. Well-documented, comprehensive design methods for safety relief valves, rupture disks and breather vents, however, are not readily available and example problems supported by data do not exist. Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) Users Group members recently completed an example rating problem consisting of a safety relief valve mounted in a typical industrial configuration. Participants were asked to compute the flow through the device and to calculate the inlet pipe irreversible pressure loss and discharge pipe back pressure. Case studies involving various flows and physical conditions were formulated. A {open_quotes}Modified Delphi{close_quotes} technique was used to encourage participants to work until the {open_quotes}consensus{close_quotes} result was achieved. The exercise served to educate participants in the complexities and subtleties of emergency relief system design involving safety relief installations as compared to ideal nozzle calculations. All learned from the various calculation techniques used by others to solve the problem. Participants corrected parts of their computer codes and/or added procedures to address aspects of the problem. The present example problem is not supported by data. Available safety relief valve two-phase flow data suggest complexity not presently included in problem solutions. Future modification of the results may be required as additional considerations are incorporated into existing analytical methods and computer codes. 20 refs., 21 tabs.

  18. Locomotion and claw disorders in Norwegian dairy cows housed in freestalls with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys.

    Fjeldaas, T; Sogstad, A M; Osterås, O


    This study was part of a cross-sectional project on freestall housing, and the aim was to compare locomotion and claw disorders in freestall dairy cattle herds with slatted concrete, solid concrete, or solid rubber flooring in the alleys. The final population for studying claw disorders consisted of 66 dairy herds with 2,709 dry or lactating cows, whereas the population for studying locomotion consisted of 54 herds with 2,216 cows. All herds used Norwegian Red as the main breed. The herds were visited by 15 trained claw trimmers one time during the period from the beginning of February to summer let-out onto pasture in 2008. The trimmers assessed locomotion scores (LocS) of all cows before trimming. At trimming, claw disorders were diagnosed and recorded in the Norwegian Claw Health Card. Estimates describing locomotion and claw disorders in the hind feet were identified by use of multivariable models fit with LocS and each claw disorder as dependent variables, respectively. Herd nested within claw trimmer was included in the model as random effects. The odds ratio (OR) of having LocS >2 and LocS >3 was 1.9 and 2.1, respectively, on slatted concrete compared with solid concrete. Fewer cases of dermatitis were found on slatted than solid concrete (OR=0.70) and a tendency was observed for fewer heel horn erosions on slatted concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.47). Hemorrhages of the white line and sole were more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.6 and OR=2.1, respectively). White line fissures were also more prevalent in herds housed on slatted and solid concrete than in those housed on solid rubber (OR=2.1 and OR=2.0, respectively). Double soles were more prevalent on solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=4.4). However, sole ulcers were less prevalent in herds with slatted and solid concrete than solid rubber (OR=0.39 and OR=0.53, respectively). Fewer corkscrewed claws were found on slatted concrete than

  19. Mental Health Among Adolescents Exposed to a Tornado: The Influence of Social Support and Its Interactions With Sociodemographic Characteristics and Disaster Exposure.

    Paul, Lisa A; Felton, Julia W; Adams, Zachary W; Welsh, Kyleen; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J


    Approximately 25% of youths experience a natural disaster and many experience disaster-related distress, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study contributes to the literature by examining PTSD and depressive symptoms among 2,000 adolescents (50.9% female, 70.5% White) assessed after exposure to tornadoes in 2011. The authors hypothesized that greater tornado exposure, female sex, and younger age would be associated with distress, and that social support would interact with these associations. Analyses showed that PTSD symptoms were associated with lower levels of social support (β = -.28, p tornado exposure (β = .14, p tornado exposure, sex, and social support (β = -.06, p = .017). For boys, the influence of tornado exposure on PTSD symptoms increased as social support decreased. Regardless of level of tornado exposure, low social support was related to PTSD symptoms for girls; depressive symptom results were similar. These findings were generally consistent with the literature and provide guidance for intervention development focused on strengthening social support at the individual, family, and community levels. © 2015 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  20. 高抽巷瓦斯抽放技术在高河煤矿的应用%Application of High Alley Pumping Gas Drainage Technology in Gaohe Coal Mine



    高河煤矿属于高瓦斯矿井,高瓦斯带来的灾害严重威胁着矿井的安全开采,通过理论研究和现场实践,在高河煤矿E1305工作面应用了高抽巷瓦斯抽采技术,得到了高河煤矿地质条件和开采条件下的高抽巷瓦斯抽采方法,并经高河煤矿回采工作面现场应用,瓦斯抽放效果良好。%Gaohe Coal Mine belongs to gassy mine, the gas disasters seriously threatens the safety of mine exploitation.Through theoret-ical research and field practice,used the high alley pumping gas extraction technology in Gaohe E1305 working face, obtained the Gao-he Coal Mine under the geological conditions and mining conditions of high alley pumping gas extraction method, and the Gaohe field application, working face coal mine gas drainage effect is good.

  1. 语言景观个案研究--以昆明文化巷为例%Research on Linguistic Landscape - A Case Study of Wenhua Alley in Kunming

    夏娜; 夏百川


    Taking Yunnan Kunming foreigners’ distributing center—Wenhua Alley as the research object,the paper inquired the impact of English as the world language upon Kunming by means of the research method of linguistic landscape. The survey results re-veal that English has a great influence on the southwestern region of Kunming,and there have appeared a number of bilingual,trilin-gual and mixed language phenomena. The globalization trend of the linguistic landscape in Wenhua Alley is distinct.%以云南昆明外国人集散地———文化巷为研究对象,借助语言景观学的研究方法,探究作为世界语言的英语对昆明的影响力。调查结果表明,英语对地处西南地区的昆明有较大影响,并出现了多种双语、三语以及混合语现象,昆明文化巷语言景观的全球化趋向明显。

  2. Sheet thickness required for protection against the impact of a missile generated by a tornado; Espesor de chapa requerido para la proteccion contra el impacto de un misil generado por un tornado

    Prats, F.; Fernandez, M. C.


    The tornado generated missiles are classified in three categories: piece of pipe, car and a solid sphere. These missiles can impact class structures outer areas of the plant, possibly causing damage. Specifically, can pierce tanks located within reach class and losing the required integrity of these structures. Therefore, in this paper we review the issue of the required thickness to ensure that no loss of integrity of the tanks. The paper focuses on the evaluation of the required thickness of steel sheets.

  3. Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide.

    Oud, MJT; de Groot, MH


    Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide. - After the suicide of a 43-year-old woman with known depression, a 41-year-old paraplegic man who recently developed diarrhoea and a 41-year-old woman with probable depression with symptoms of psychosis, the general practitioners of the surviving

  4. Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide.

    Oud, MJT; de Groot, MH


    Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide. - After the suicide of a 43-year-old woman with known depression, a 41-year-old paraplegic man who recently developed diarrhoea and a 41-year-old woman with probable depression with symptoms of psychosis, the general practitioners of the surviving

  5. What sets topographic relief in extensional footwalls?

    Densmore, Alexander L.; Dawers, Nancye H.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Guidon, Roman


    We use three large normal fault arrays in the northeastern Basin and Range Province, western United States, to document catchment development and relief production during fault growth. Fault slip and slip rates increase systematically along strike from zero at the fault tips. Catchment relief and across-strike range width both increase as slip accumulates but reach maximum values at a distance of ˜15 km from the fault tips and remain uniform along strike over much of the footwalls. Catchment outlet spacing also increases away from the fault tips but does not reach a uniform value and may vary by a factor of 5 6 along strike. We infer that catchments first elongate in the across-strike direction as slip accumulates and the range half-width increases. Once the half-width reaches its maximum value, continued catchment growth is possible only by along-strike capture, which increases outlet spacing but not relief. The close correspondence between catchment relief and range half-width suggests that geomorphically limited hillslope and channel gradients are achieved within the 15 km tip zone. Thus, the limiting factor in footwall development is the width of the range, which is controlled by two external agents: the geometry and spacing of the major faults, and the elevations of base level on both flanks.

  6. 75 FR 75091 - Mortgage Assistance Relief Services


    ... marketing of MARS, including misrepresentations regarding the services MARS providers will perform and... marketing to offer newly-minted forms of mortgage relief--for example, the possibility of entering a short...:// . \\59\\ See State Bar of Cal., Ethics Alert: Legal...

  7. A node architecture for disaster relief networking

    Hoeksema, F.W.; Heskamp, M.; Schiphorst, R.; Slump, C.H.


    In this paper we present node architecture for a personal node in a cognitive ad-hoc disaster relief network. This architecture is motivated from the network system requirements, especially single-hop distance and jamming-resilience requirements. It is shown that the power consumption of current-day

  8. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A


    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  9. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  10. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What are the types ... an epidural”) is the most common type of pain relief used during labor and delivery in the United ...

  11. Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  12. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  13. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  14. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  16. Mechanical Designs for Relief Valves for Cryogenic Apparatuses and Installations

    CERN. Geneva


    There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...

  17. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.


    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  18. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  19. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading,...

  20. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces must be fitted with relief valves, rupture discs, or other devices specially approved by the...

  1. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved type and discharge area, mounted on the cover or threaded into the...

  2. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Pressure relief devices. (a) Unless prohibited in part 173 of this subchapter, tanks shall be equipped with one or more relief devices of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by...

  3. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  4. 46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves. 98.25-60 Section 98.25-60 Shipping... § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety relief valves, designed, constructed, and flow-tested for capacity in conformance with subpart 162.018...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  6. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158... Extent of relief. (a) General. The surety on any bond required by this part who has filed a notice for relief from liability as provided in § 24.157 will be relieved from liability under bond as set forth in...

  7. 30 CFR 847.16 - Civil actions for relief.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions for relief. 847.16 Section 847.16... relief. (a) Under section 521(c) of the Act, we, the regulatory authority, may request the Attorney General to institute a civil action for relief whenever you, the permittee, or your agent— (1) Violate or...

  8. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral presentations seeking relief. (a) For violation of section 592 or section 593A. If the penalty incurred is for a...

  9. 7 CFR 900.70 - Applications for interim relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for interim relief. 900.70 Section 900.70... Applications for interim relief. (a) Filing the application. A person who has filed a petition pursuant to... the relief is requested, including any facts showing irreparable injury. The application must be...

  10. 19 CFR 172.2 - Petition for relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for relief. 172.2 Section 172.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Relief § 172.2 Petition for relief. (a) To whom addressed. Petitions for the cancellation of any claim...

  11. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of... whether area code relief will take the form of a geographic split, an overlay area code, or a boundary...

  12. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary or temporary relief. 1601.23 Section 1601.23... Employment Practices § 1601.23 Preliminary or temporary relief. (a) In the interest of the expeditious... subdivision, any recommendation for preliminary or temporary relief shall be transmitted directly to the...

  13. 18 CFR 1308.11 - Contractor's request for relief.


    ... for relief. 1308.11 Section 1308.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES Contracting Officers § 1308.11 Contractor's request for relief. Any request for relief which a Contractor believes is due under a contract shall be submitted to the Contracting Officer...

  14. 50 CFR 11.12 - Petition for relief.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petition for relief. 11.12 Section 11.12... PROCEDURES Assessment Procedure § 11.12 Petition for relief. If the respondent so chooses he may ask that no... the charge and the Director's allegations of facts, by filing a petition for relief (hereinafter...

  15. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank... applicable individual specification. The pressure and vacuum relief system must be designed to operate and...

  16. 12 CFR 268.501 - Remedies and relief.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedies and relief. 268.501 Section 268.501... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.501 Remedies and relief. (a) When the... employee has been discriminated against, the Board shall provide full relief which shall include the...

  17. 49 CFR 1115.5 - Petitions for other relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for other relief. 1115.5 Section 1115.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE APPELLATE PROCEDURES § 1115.5 Petitions for other relief. (a) A... desired relief must be stated in the petition, and the petition must be filed not less than 10 days prior...

  18. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for applying for relief... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or...

  19. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this...

  20. 49 CFR 601.41 - Petitions for relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for relief. 601.41 Section 601.41... Transportation Systems § 601.41 Petitions for relief. In the case of a national or regional emergency or disaster... for temporary relief from the provisions of any policy statement, circular, guidance document or rule. ...

  1. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b...

  2. 26 CFR 1.6015-4 - Equitable relief.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equitable relief. 1.6015-4 Section 1.6015-4...) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-4 Equitable relief. (a) A requesting spouse who files a joint return for which a liability remains unpaid and who does not qualify for full relief under § 1...

  3. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedies and relief. 1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief. (a) When an agency, or the... discriminated against, the agency shall provide full relief which shall include the following elements in...

  4. 37 CFR 41.204 - Notice of basis for relief.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of basis for relief... § 41.204 Notice of basis for relief. (a) Priority statement. (1) A party may not submit evidence of its... the precise relief sought. (c) Filing and service. The Board will set the times for filing and serving...

  5. 46 CFR 560.3 - Petitions for relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for relief. 560.3 Section 560.3 Shipping... PORTS § 560.3 Petitions for relief. (a) Filing. (1) Any owner or operator of a liner, bulk, tramp or... between foreign ports has been, or will be, unduly impaired may file a written petition for relief under...

  6. 19 CFR 171.1 - Petition for relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for relief. 171.1 Section 171.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.1 Petition for relief. (a) To whom...

  7. Ground beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) assemblages inhabiting Scots pine stands of Puszcza Piska Forest: six-year responses to a tornado impact.

    Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina


    Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years.

  8. Libraries and information provision for African relief

    Elsemieke Wishart


    Full Text Available This research article explores the concept that libraries as communication centres in sub-Saharan Africa can play a vital role in bringing poverty relief by providing greater access to information through modern technology. It discusses the patrons who can benefit from community information centres and explores their particular needs. I have researched how modern tools like the Internet, computers, e-readers and cell phones can bring valuable information to impoverished citizens. My research was conducted through reading research papers using article databases, books and Internet websites. The future for libraries in sub-Saharan Africa is bright, as new technology opens up vast opportunities to share information in a way that is accessible, affordable and adaptable to the needs of the African people. I recommend that librarians and relief organisations in Southern Africa seriously consider using modern technology to provide information that will empower its citizens.

  9. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  10. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Whipple, Kelin X.


    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  11. The 2008 Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak: Synthetic Dual Doppler Analysis of Contrasting Tornadic Storm Types

    Knupp, Kevin R.; Coleman, Timothy; Carey, Larry; Peterson, Walt; Elkins, Calvin


    During the Super Tuesday Tornado Outbreak on 5-6 February, a significant number of storms passed within about 40 km of WSR-88D radars. This distance, combined with the significant motion vector (from the southwest at 20-25 m per second) of relatively steady storms, is amenable to a synthetic dual Doppler analysis during the times when the storms passed the WSR-88D locations. Nine storms will be analyzed using the SDD technique. The following table provides their general characteristics and nearest approach to the 88D radars. For this data set, storm structure ranges from isolated supercell to QLCS. Each storm will be analyzed for a 40-60 min period during passage by the WSR-88D radar to determine general storm properties. Analysis of high-resolution single Doppler data around the time of passage (plus or minus 30 min), combined with 1-2 SDD analyses, will be used to examine the kinematic structure of low-level circulations (e.g., mesocyclone, downdraft) and the relation to the parent storm. This analysis may provide insights on the fundamental differences between cyclonic circulations in supercell storms and those within QCLS's.

  12. Diagnostic Accuracy of the Neck Tornado Test as a New Screening Test in Cervical Radiculopathy.

    Park, Juyeon; Park, Woo Young; Hong, Seungbae; An, Jiwon; Koh, Jae Chul; Lee, Youn-Woo; Kim, Yong Chan; Choi, Jong Bum


    The Spurling test, although a highly specific provocative test of the cervical spine in cervical radiculopathy (CR), has low to moderate sensitivity. Thus, we introduced the neck tornado test (NTT) to examine the neck and the cervical spine in CR. The aim of this study was to introduce a new provocative test, the NTT, and compare the diagnostic accuracy with a widely accepted provocative test, the Spurling test. Retrospective study. Medical records of 135 subjects with neck pain (CR, n = 67; without CR, n = 68) who had undergone cervical spine magnetic resonance imaging and been referred to the pain clinic between September 2014 and August 2015 were reviewed. Both the Spurling test and NTT were performed in all patients by expert examiners. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were compared for both the Spurling test and the NTT. The sensitivity of the Spurling test and the NTT was 55.22% and 85.07% (P < 0.0001); specificity, 98.53% and 86.76% (P = 0.0026); accuracy, 77.04% and 85.93% (P = 0.0423), respectively. The NTT is more sensitive with superior diagnostic accuracy for CR diagnosed by magnetic resonance imaging than the Spurling test.

  13. EDs credit drills, community engagement with helping them manage casualties from tornado crises.


    Emergency department leaders at DCH Regional Medical Center in Tuscaloosa, AL, and Cullman Regional Medical Center in Cullman, AL, credit their regular practice drills with helping them deal with unprecedented demand when deadly tornadoes swept through the South this past April. Both facilities used the hospital instant command structure (HICS) to mobilize the resources needed to care for the surge in patients, and say the approach worked well in helping them meet the needs of their communities. However, the crises also showcased opportunities for improvement. The ED at DCH Regional Medical Center saw more than 600 patients on the day of the storm, a three-fold increase in the hospital's typical volume. CRMC treated 99 patients in the seven hours immediately following the storm when it usually treats 114 patients per day. In addition to a big surge in patients, both hospitals dealt with power outages that limited access to some services such as radiology. Triage proved particularly challenging at DCH Regional Medical Center, as patients flowed into the hospital from numerous access points. The hospital plans to assign coordinators to each area of the hospital to better manage the influx in the future. When reviewing emergency operations plans, Joint Commission reviewers often find deficiencies in hazard vulnerability analyses as well as the processes used to determine the emergency credentials of licensed independent practitioners.

  14. Effects of optimism on recovery and mental health after a tornado outbreak.

    Carbone, Eric G; Echols, Erin Thomas


    Dispositional optimism, a stable expectation that good things will happen, has been shown to improve health outcomes in a wide range of contexts, but very little research has explored the impact of optimism on post-disaster health and well-being. Data for this study come from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Public health systems and mental health community recovery (PHSMHCR) Survey. Participants included 3216 individuals living in counties affected by the April 2011 tornado outbreak in Mississippi and Alabama. This study assesses the effect of dispositional optimism on post-disaster recovery and mental health. Dispositional optimism was found to have a positive effect on personal recovery and mental health after the disaster. Furthermore, it moderated the relationship between level of home damage and personal recovery as well as the relationship between home damage and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), with stronger effects for those with increased levels of home damage. The utility of screening for optimism is discussed, along with the potential for interventions to increase optimism as a means of mitigating adverse mental health effects and improving the recovery of individuals affected by disasters and other traumatic events.

  15. Pain relief is a human right.

    Daher, Michel


    For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from

  16. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred


    The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

  17. Mental Health Among Adolescents Exposed to a Tornado: The Influence of Social Support and its Interactions with Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Disaster Exposure

    Paul, Lisa A.; Felton, Julia W.; Adams, Zachary W.; Welsh, Kyleen; Miller, Stephanie; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.


    Approximately 25% of youths experience a natural disaster and many experience disaster-related distress, including symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. This study contributes to the literature by examining PTSD and depressive symptoms among 2,000 adolescents (50.9% female, 70.5% White) assessed after exposure to tornadoes in 2011. The authors hypothesized that greater tornado exposure, female sex, and younger age would be associated with distress, and that social support would interact with these associations. Analyses showed that PTSD symptoms were predicted by lower levels of social support (β = −.28, p tornado exposure (β = .14, ptornado exposure, sex, and social support (β = −.06, p = .017). For boys, the influence of tornado exposure on PTSD symptoms increased as social support decreased. Regardless of level of tornado exposure, low social support was related to PTSD symptoms for girls; depressive symptom results were similar. These findings are generally consistent with the literature and provide guidance for intervention development focused on strengthening social support at the individual, family, and community levels. PMID:26031997

  18. EPRI PWR Safety and Relief Value Test Program: safety and relief valve test report


    A safety and relief valve test program was conducted by EPRI for a group of participating PWR utilities to respond to the USNRC recommendations documented in NUREG 0578 Section 2.1.2, and as clarified in NUREG 0737 Item II.D.1.A. Seventeen safety and relief valves representative of those utilized in or planned for use in participating domestic PWR's were tested under the full range of selected test conditions. This report contains a listing of the selected test valves and the corresponding as tested test matrices, valve performance data and principal observations for the tested safety and relief valves. The information contained in this report may be used by the participating utilities in developing their response to the above mentioned USNRC recommendations.


    Werth, D.; (NOEMAIL), A.; Shine, G.


    Recent data sets for three meteorological phenomena with the potential to inflict damage on SRS facilities - tornadoes, straight winds, and heavy precipitation - are analyzed using appropriate statistical techniques to estimate occurrence probabilities for these events in the future. Summaries of the results for DOE-mandated return periods and comparisons to similar calculations performed in 1998 by Weber, et al., are given. Using tornado statistics for the states of Georgia and South Carolina, we calculated the probability per year of any location within a 2⁰ square area surrounding SRS being struck by a tornado (the ‘strike’ probability) and the probability that any point will experience winds above set thresholds. The strike probability was calculated to be 1.15E-3 (1 chance in 870) per year and wind speeds for DOE mandated return periods of 50,000 years, 125,000 years, and 1E+7 years (USDOE, 2012) were estimated to be 136 mph, 151 mph and 221 mph, respectively. In 1998 the strike probability for SRS was estimated to be 3.53 E-4 and the return period wind speeds were 148 mph every 50,000 years and 180 mph every 125,000 years. A 1E+7 year tornado wind speed was not calculated in 1998; however a 3E+6 year wind speed was 260 mph. The lower wind speeds resulting from this most recent analysis are largely due to new data since 1998, and to a lesser degree differences in the models used. By contrast, default tornado wind speeds taken from ANSI/ANS-2.3-2011 are somewhat higher: 161 mph for return periods of 50,000 years, 173 mph every 125,000 years, and 230 mph every 1E+7 years (ANS, 2011). Although the ANS model and the SRS models are very similar, the region defined in ANS 2.3 that encompasses the SRS also includes areas of the Great Plains and lower Midwest, regions with much higher occurrence frequencies of strong tornadoes. The SRS straight wind values associated with various return periods were calculated by fitting existing wind data to a Gumbel

  20. Characteristics Analysis of Tornado Weather%一次龙卷风天气的特征分析

    李改琴; 许庆娥; 吴丽敏; 董建设; 钟天华


    Using Puyang CINRDA/SB Doppler radar detection data,conventional data,intensive operation-al data,this paper analyzed a tornado process that occurred in Puyang on 16 July 2009.The diagnostic re-sults show that the tornado occurs in the northwest of subtropical high edge,the left front of low-level jet and near the warm shear line.Before the tornado there are powerful convective instability energy in atmos-pheric environment,and large wind vertical shear and abundant water vapor in lower levels.In the Doppler radar reflectivity factor chart,the north of mobile bow echo is strongly developed into hooked echo,and the tornado is detected near the weak-echo area.Radial velocity diagram shows there is a meso-γscale cy-clonic vortex field with convergence.The strengthened vortex leads to the central tornado vortex,produ-cing the tornado weather.In addition,the strong echo,low echo top high,lower strong vertical wind shear are all the characteristics of Doppler radar products.%利用河南濮阳 CINRDA/SB 多普勒雷达探测资料,结合常规天气图资料、地面加密自动站资料等,对2009年7月16日发生在河南濮阳的龙卷天气过程进行诊断分析,结果表明:这次龙卷天气过程发生在副热带高压边缘西北侧、低空急流左前方的暖切变线附近;龙卷发生前大气环境具有较大的对流不稳定能量,低层存在大的风垂直切变和丰富的水汽;多普勒雷达反射率因子图上表现为移动的弓形回波北段强烈发展形成钩状回波,龙卷生成于钩状回波弱回波区附近。径向速度图上表现为在大范围入流风场中出现伴有辐合的γ中尺度气旋式涡旋,涡旋进一步发展加强导致其中央龙卷涡旋的产生,产生龙卷风天气。另外,强回波、低回波顶高、低层强垂直风切变都是这次龙卷过程中多普勒雷达产品特征。

  1. Technology and information sharing in disaster relief

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter;


    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under...... database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led...

  2. EC Hidraulic Drive Cylinder Relief Vlave Test

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab


    This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.

  3. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Brown, E.S.


    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  4. Holistic relief of pain - Nursing approach

    Evaggelos Giavasopoulos


    Full Text Available It is well known that the patients who suffer from pain can develop a wide variety of behaviours. At the same time they experience a plethora of biological, psychological and social problems. Undeniably the nurses constitute an integral part of the multidisciplinary team of approach and relief of patient’s pain. The nurse’s role is developed and organized with independence in the health care team and expresses itself in a wide spectrum of activities. Aim in the present article is to highlight the force of nurse among the multidisciplinary team, analyzing the multiple roles undertaken by nurses, as well as the necessity for holistic approach of pain.

  5. CAS scientists active in earthquake relief operation


    @@ Soon after the devastating earthquake taking place on last 12 May in Sichuan, the CAS leadership promptly mobilized its researchers to dedicate their expertise to the nationwide drive of the disaster's relief and reduction. A leading group was established to coordinate the Academy's efforts in this regard. All of the eight CAS institutions located in Sichuan were organized to do everything possible to reduce their losses to the minimum. At the same time, a trans-departmental and interdisciplinary taskforce was formed to provide a powerful S&T backing for the nationwide drive.

  6. Estudio y simulación de tornados en el área geográfica de Barranquilla

    Ernesto Díaz


    En esta primera fase de la investigación se busca estudiar el comportamiento de los tornados, en el área metropolitana de Barranquilla, explorando toda la literatura disponible sobre su nivel de ocurrencia en la ciudad, los grados de destrucción que se generan en el área circundante, los datos históricos que registren el comportamiento de las variables físicas que los generan y los distintos modelos computacionales ya existentes susceptibles de ser parametrizados en la geografía local.

  7. Earthquake Airbags, New Devices to Save Lives in Earthquakes, Tornados and Similar Disasters Resulting from Building Crashes

    Amir Hashem Shahidi Bonjar


    Full Text Available Earthquake Airbag (EA is a new terminology being introduced for the earthquake literature of the world. According to literature surveys, this terminology has not been used previously. Based on many scientific reports, fatality rates are lower in vehicles equipped with airbags than unequipped ones. Accordingly, it was postulated that similar structures can be adopted in buildings to protect people and lower human casualties in building crashes. The data collected from simulation of collision-impact on fragile objects revealed that the safety advantage of airbags is that they can reduce impact injuries upon indoor people from falling debris in earthquakes and building crashes resulting from tornados, hurricanes or similar disasters.

  8. Insights into Casual Relief Teaching: Casual Relief Teachers' Perceptions of Their Knowledge and Skills

    Nicholas, Maria; Wells, Muriel


    Research into the experiences of casual relief teachers (CRTs) (substitute or supply teachers) across Australia and internationally has reported feelings of marginalisation among participants. These findings are concerning when one considers that students might be in the care of CRTs for an equivalent of 1 year or more throughout their schooling.…

  9. The glacial relief in the Leaota Mountains



    Full Text Available The presence of glacial relief in the Romanian medium height massifs is still controversial. The medium height mountains, such as theLeaota Mountains (in the Bucegi group, with maximum altitudes of almost 2000 m andmedium altitudes of approximately 1250 m, can display traces of glacial relief dating from theUpper Pleistocene. The aim of this article is to provide evidence about the presence of theglacial morphology in the northern part of the Leaota Peak, the main orographic node in themassif with the same name. Thus, on the basis of field observations, of topographical mapanalysis and by using the geographic information systems which made possible a detailedmorphometric analysis, I was able to gather evidence proving the existence of a glacial cirquein the Leaota Mountains. The arguments put forward in this article show that the glacial reliefis represented in the Leaota Mountains through a small-size suspended glacial cirque, whichdisplays all the morphologic elements proving the existence of glaciation in this massif.

  10. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    Soyars, W. M. [Fermilab


    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  11. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.


    ... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking...— (a) Set pressure rating; (b) Rated flow capacity expressed as cubic feet of standard air (60 °F 14.7... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71...

  12. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...


    X.C.Zhao; Y.D.Zhang; H.W.Zhang; Q.Wu


    A finite element model is developed for the simulation of vibration stress relief (VSR) after welding.For the nonresonant vibration,the reduction in stress strongly depends on the amplitude of vibration.For the resonant vibration,the vibration frequency is the key for stress relief.The vibration frequency should be close to the structure natural frequency for the desired vibration mode.Only small vibration amplitude is required,which will be amplified during vibration.Vibration time does not have a major impact on vibration stress relief.When the amplitude of vibration stress relief is large,the treatment will be more effective.

  14. Study of safety relief valve operation under ATWS conditions. [PWR

    Hutmacher, E.S.; Nesmith, B.J.; Brukiewa, J.B.


    A literature survey and analysis project has been performed to determine if recent (since mid-1975) data has been reported which could influence the current approach to predicting PWR relief valve capacity under ATWS conditions. This study was conducted by the Energy Technology Engineering Center for NRC. Results indicate that the current relief valve capacity model tends to predict less capacity than actually obtains; however, no experimental verification at PWR ATWS conditions was found. Other project objectives were to establish the availability of methods for evaluating reaction forces and back pressure effects on relief valve capacity, and to determine if facilities exist which are capable of testing PWR relief valves at ATWS conditions.

  15. Estudio descriptivo de los vórtices atmosféricos causantes de tornados en Venezuela

    Nelson Falcón


    Full Text Available Los tornados y trombas marinas son fenómenos comunes en áreas tropicales y subtropicales. La ocurrencia de estos torbellinos en la atmósfera es debida a inestabilidades y fluctuaciones locales. Desde el punto vista de la Física Atmosférica son de interés los mecanismos físicos que intervienen en la atmósfera a microescala. Se discute la fundamentación microfísica de estos eventos atmosféricos en el país y se establece una síntesis fenomenológica y el modelo estándar de las trombas marinas observadas en el Lago de Valencia, Lago de Maracaibo y en otras regiones de Venezuela. Mediante la aplicación de la técnica de fotometría se realiza un análisis exploratorio de las imágenes para extraer los órdenes de magnitud de las características físicas de los vórtices causantes de las trombas marinas y tornados tropicales.

  16. VA administrators breahe a sigh of relief

    Robbins RA


    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. On May 30, Eric Shinseki, the Secretary for Veterans Affairs (VA, resigned under pressure amidst a growing scandal regarding falsification of patient wait times at nearly 40 VA medical centers. Before leaving office Shinseki fired Sharon Helman, the former hospital director at the Phoenix VA, where the story first broke, along with her deputy and another unnamed administrator. In addition, Susan Bowers, director of VA Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN 18 and Helman’s boss, resigned. Robert Petzel, undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration (VHA, head of the VA hospitals and clinics, had resigned earlier. You could hear the sigh of relief from the VA administrators. With their bosses resigning left and right, the VA leadership in shambles and the reputation of the VA soiled for many years to come, why are the VA administrators relieved? The simple answer is that nothing has really changed. There for a moment it looked ...

  17. Relief of diabetic neuropathy with fluoxetine.

    Theesen, K A; Marsh, W R


    A 31-year-old woman with advanced diabetes mellitus with secondary autonomic and peripheral neuropathy was admitted for treatment of major depression. Previous therapy with desipramine resulted in exacerbation of the patient's orthostatic hypotension. After admission to the psychiatric facility she was initially stabilized medically and treated with psychotherapy. Subsequent treatment with low-dose fluoxetine 5 mg resulted in a decrease of the patient's diabetic neuropathy pain. Further increases in the fluoxetine dosage resulted in improvement of her depression and increased pain relief. Therapy with fluoxetine did not result in exacerbation of the orthostatic hypotension. This preliminary case report indicates that fluoxetine may be an alternative to the tricyclic antidepressants and trazodone in the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  18. Validity of the OSU Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale and the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality with Child Tornado Survivors

    Evans, Linda Garner; Oehler-Stinnett, Judy


    Tornadoes and other natural disasters can lead to anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children. This study provides further validity for the Oklahoma State University Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Scale-Child Form (OSU PTSDS-CF) by comparing it to the Behavior Assessment System for Children Self-Report of Personality (BASC-SRP).…

  19. Hurricane Relief Operations in the Caribbean: Is the Use of the Military in Hurricane Relief Operations


    Caribbean hurricanes are a type of tropical cyclone . They originate in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa and affect the Caribbean and 2 the...that will prove to be more suitable in disaster relief situations. Matthew Yarrow also shares Dynes’ view. He believes that soldiers are ill-suited... Haiti operations, in part due to the battalion commander’s lack of authority over troops from different countries. However, the performance of the

  20. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a)...

  1. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar


    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  2. Ethiopian Relief: A Case Study in Failed Public Relations.

    Chapel, Gage W.


    Examines how InterAid, a private-sector relief agency, responded to the false charge that it had misappropriated $20 million purportedly raised for Ethiopian famine relief. Suggests that it was not primarily negative reporting that retarded the strength of InterAid, but InterAid's inability to demonstrate shared common interests with its primary…

  3. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, A.; Peters, O.


    number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitude

  4. 46 CFR 193.15-40 - Pressure relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 193.15-40 Section 193.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary...

  5. Emergency Relief for Teachers of Children Who Challenge

    Crow, René; Cooper, Mark; Dallas, Jamie


    Teachers of students with chronic challenging behaviors need relief, and they need it quickly. While they may appreciate the sympathy of others, what they really need is some genuine help. Challenging children can make a teacher's day difficult. In this article, the authors share some strategies that can provide "emergency relief" to…

  6. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge...

  7. 46 CFR 76.15-40 - Pressure relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 76.15-40 Section 76.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary, relatively...

  8. 46 CFR 95.15-40 - Pressure relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 95.15-40 Section 95.15-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-40 Pressure relief. (a) Where necessary...

  9. 40 CFR 1042.850 - Exemptions and hardship relief.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions and hardship relief. 1042.850 Section 1042.850 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Special Provisions for Remanufactured Marine Engines § 1042.850 Exemptions and hardship relief. This...

  10. 12 CFR 742.4 - RegFlex Relief.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false RegFlex Relief. 742.4 Section 742.4 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS REGULATORY FLEXIBILITY PROGRAM § 742.4 RegFlex Relief. (a) Exemptions. RegFlex credit unions are exempt from the following...

  11. Comparative Analysis of Two Tornado Events over Northern Anhui Province%皖北两次龙卷过程对比分析

    王德育; 张学贤


    An analysis is made of two tornado events in Lingbi and Sixian counties, Anhui Province, by means of the conventional data, NCEP data, intensive observations, and Doppler radar data. The results show: the tornadoes occurred on the left of the low level jet at the intersection point of high-humidity center and vapor convergence center; before tornadoes appeared, the low level vertical wind shear was strong; the tornadoes occurred in the areas where the ground convergence was the strongest; there were clear vortex features and a mid-level cyclone in 10 to 20 minutes before tornado occurred; the Lingbi tornado appeared in the south of the storm with strong radar echoes under 3 km; the Sixian tornado appeared at the center of the banded radar echoes with strong splited and protruded echoes, and the mesocyclone top descended.%利用常规资料、NCEP再分析资料、高密度地面自动站资料、多普勒天气雷达资料,对安徽省灵璧县和泗县发生的两次龙卷过程进行对比分析.结果表明:龙卷风发生在低空急流的北端左侧以及高湿中心和水汽辐合中心的交汇处;龙卷风发生前低层垂直风切变强烈;龙卷风发生在地面辐合最强的地方,为判断龙卷风可能发生的区域提供了线索;龙卷风发生前10~20 min均有龙卷涡旋特征报警,同时有中等强度中气旋配合;灵璧龙卷风出现在母体风暴的南端,强回波在3 km以下;泗县龙卷风发生在带状回波的中部,中气旋由弱发展为中等强度后一个体扫龙卷出现,龙卷风发生时强回波有断裂和突前以及中气旋顶高下降的特征.

  12. 龙卷风风场特性的CFD数值模拟%CFD numerical simulation of tornado wind field characteristics

    徐枫; 肖仪清; 李波; 欧进萍


    基于计算流体动力学方法建立了龙卷风发生装置的数值计算模型,对具有单涡结构的龙卷风风场特性进行了研究.分析了切向风速沿径向和高度的分布规律,并将切向速度沿径向的分布与Rankin涡模型和参数化气旋模型理论公式进行对比,验证龙卷风风场数值模拟结果的合理性.进一步研究了入口风速和入口角度改变对龙卷风风场特性的影响,并给出了各个数值计算模型近地面核心半径、最大切向风速和涡流比,进而可以获得不同尺度和不同强度的龙卷风风场.该方法为龙卷风风场模拟提供了新的研究途径,并可应用于建筑物的抗龙卷风设计研究.%Based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD,a numerical model of tornado generator was established and the characteristics of tornado wind field with a single vortex structure were studied.Radial and altitudinal distributions of the tangential velocity were presented,and the comparison of the radial distribution of tangential velocity with the theoretical formulas of Rankine vortex model and parameterized cyclone model was conducted,so as to verify the rationality of the numerical simulation results of tornado wind field.Influences on characteristics of tornado wind field were further studied by changing the inlet angle and velocity magnitude.The parameters of each numerical calculation model were given,which include core radius,maximum tangential velocity and swirl ratio near surface.Therefore,the tornado-like wind field with different intensities and scales was obtained.The present method provides a new approach to simulate tornadoes and can be used for study on tornado-resistant building designs.

  13. Disaster characteristics of tornadoes over China during the past 30 years%近30 a中国龙卷风灾害特征研究

    黄大鹏; 赵珊珊; 高歌; 肖潺


    基于中国气象局气象灾害灾情普查数据库中龙卷风灾情数据,采用时间序列统计分析、趋势分析和GIS空间分析方法,对1984—2013年中国龙卷风发生频次及其灾情进行了统计分析,同时分析了中国龙卷风及其灾害的时空分布特征。结果表明:近30 a,中国龙卷风灾害年发生次数和龙卷风导致的死亡(含失踪)人数、倒损房屋数量和直接经济损失均呈现下降趋势,其中龙卷风灾害发生频次和死亡人数下降趋势明显,而直接经济损失下降趋势较弱;中国龙卷风灾害发生次数及其导致的死亡人数、倒损房屋和直接经济损失均表现为夏季最多,春季次之,其中,7月份龙卷风发生次数最多且灾情最重;空间分布上,中国龙卷风灾害发生次数和直接经济损失均表现为西少东多的特征,死亡人数和倒损房屋数量主要分布在我国东部偏南地区;西北和西南地区龙卷风灾害发生少、灾情轻,而中东部地区的江苏、安徽、湖北、湖南、江西和广东龙卷风发生频次高、死亡(含失踪)人数多且经济损失较重,其中江苏和安徽最为严重。%Based on historical damage data of tornados extracted from the meteorological disaster database in China Meteorological Administration, we have counted the frequency and disaster situation of tornado over China from 1984 to 2013, and then analyzed their spatial-temporal characteristics by using time series statistical analysis, trend analysis and GIS spatial analysis methods. Results show that the decreasing trends of the tornado occurrence frequency and the number of dead or missing persons caused by tornados are evident in China from 1984 to 2013. The number of damaged or collapsed houses shows a decreased trend, while the direct economic losses only decreased slightly. Tornadoes occur mainly in summer, especially in July, and rarely occur in winter. Most of the dead or missing

  14. Force Analysis of Space Truss Subjected to Tornado Loads%龙卷风作用下空间桁架的受力分析

    白俊峰; 鞠彦忠; 曾聪


    Tornado is a striking destructive and complex storm. The numerical wind field model of tornado is established by summing up the previous theory including the vortex movement theory, statistical analysis of measured data, degree of risk and an actual event. A new load method of space truss Subjecting to tornado has been put forward. Force Analysis is given that transmission tower as a kind of typical space truss subjected to Tornado Loads. The calculation results show that the response of transmission tower which subjected to tornado loads is similar to natural wind loads.%龙卷风是一种破坏力巨大、风场结构复杂的暴风。本文从涡运动理论、实测数据统计分析、半经验公式和龙卷风风险度模型等几方面解析龙卷风风场结构,并结合实例建立龙卷风的风场数值模型。挺出在龙卷风作角下桁架结构的樯载处理方法和加载方法,以输电塔为例分析在龙卷风作用下的受力情况,结果显示龙卷风作用下桁架结构的响应同相同风速自然风作用下的响应很相近。

  15. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia


    @@ United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.

  16. United Airlines Assists Tsunami Relief Effort United donates cargo space for relief supplies going to southern Asia


      United Airlines today announced several initiatives to assist with the tsunami relief effort in Asia, including the donation of available cargo space to ship relief supplies to southern Thailand,Indonesia, Sri Lanka and other coastal areas on the Indian Ocean.……

  17. Development and Innovation of Leisure-themed Cultural Business Streets---Taking Jinli Alley of Chengdu%文化休闲商业街的开发与创新--以成都锦里为例

    徐明波; 晋超


    文化休闲商业街区是城市文化品牌、休闲生活、商业聚集的最好方式。文化休闲商业街的开发与创新是发展文化产业、都市旅游的重点。文章以成都锦里为例,提出高水平的文化创意是文化休闲商业街开发成功的核心,文化空间的营造是文化真实性体验得以实现的途径。%Leisure-themed cultural business streets are a trademark for a city ,integrating leisure activities and businesses .Their development and innovation are crucial for the growth of cultural industry and urban tourism . This paper ,taking Jinli Alley in Chengdu as an example , points out that high-level cultural innovation is the core for the success of such streets ,and that creation of cultural space is an effective approach to authentic cul-tural experience .

  18. Donation to disaster relief campaigns: underlying social cognitive factors exposed.

    Oosterhof, Liesbeth; Heuvelman, Ard; Peters, Oscar


    A number of very serious natural disasters have put an enormous pressure on relief organizations in the last few years. The present study exposes underlying social cognitive factors for donation to relief campaigns. A causal model was constructed, based on social cognitive theory, research on attitudes, and the impact of media exposure. The aim was to expand and improve an already existing model by Cheung and Chan [Cheung, C. K., & Chan, C. M. (2000). Social-cognitive factors of donating money to charity, with special attention to an international relief organisation. Evaluation and Program Planning, 23, 241-253]. The expanded model showed a better fit. Furthermore, the expanded model explained two-thirds of the variance of the intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign. The greatest predictor of the intention to donate proved to be "Past donation to disaster relief campaigns." The factor "News exposure" was indicated to be a valuable additional factor, as it had a significant direct effect on "Awareness of a disaster relief campaign" and was the only factor that had a total effect on all other factors, including "Intention to donate to a disaster relief campaign."

  19. A Real-Time Decision Support System for Anesthesiologist End-of-Shift Relief.

    Wax, David B; McCormick, Patrick J


    A decision support system using recent data about work hours and real-time data about relief events was developed to guide anesthesiologist end-of-shift relief decisions in an effort to promote a relief order that prioritized relief for those who had recently worked later than others. After system implementation, there were fewer deviations from this idealized order of relief, and early relief was more evenly distributed.

  20. Cartographic Relief Presentation Revisited - Forty Years after Eduard Imhof

    Hurni, Lorenz

    Topographic maps represent in a symbolised way the main features of the Earth's surface shape as well as the major, mostly visible objects covering the topography. The clear and readable depiction of the relief is one of the main challenges in topographic cartography. The Swiss cartographer Eduard Imhof had a significant influence on the development of modern topographic cartography. He published his trend-setting findings 40 years ago in his textbook "Cartographic Relief Presentation". This overview paper reviews his major contributions to topographic cartography and presents today's state of cartographic relief depiction, illustrated by current map examples and projects elaborated at Imhof's Alma Mater, the Institute of Cartography of ETH Zurich.


    S. G. Pugacheva


    Full Text Available In article the basic geological and morphological features of a volcanic relief of a surface of a planet Mars are considered. The volcanic relief of a planet represents relic ancient shield volcanoes, linear forms of volcanic mountains, areal and central lava flooding, radial and concentric breaks. Results of researches of morphology of volcanic and tectonic formations of a relief of Mars are given in article. On materials of shooting of a surface of Mars spacecrafts constructed hypsometric high-rise profiles of volcanoes and average steepness of slopes are defined. The relative age of volcanoes and volcanic plains is estimated on density of shock craters.

  2. Rapidly design safety relief valve inlet piping systems

    Westman, M.A.


    Safety relief valves (SRVs) used to protect against overpressure require well-designed inlet piping for proper operation. The engineer`s job is to produce these designs from a thorough understanding of the inlet piping as a key component in the safety relief system and the correct application of the governing fluid dynamics principles. This article will present a technique for analysis and design using classical ideal-gas adiabatic fluid flow principles. Also, it will discuss the advantages of using the personal computer (PC) to quickly arrive at accurate designs. This work applies to SRVs in which relief flows are limited by sonic conditions at their nozzles.

  3. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Tornado in Southeast Henan and its Disaster Characteristics%豫东南龙卷风时空分布和灾害特征



    根据中国气象灾害大典、年鉴、全国与河南省气候影响评价等文献,对豫东南区域1949-2011年30次龙卷风的历史记录逐个进行了时空分析和富士达分级:63 a来发生于6、7月的龙卷风占总次数的2/3;20世纪80年代集中发生在1984年和1986年,90年代仅1990、1993年没有发生,21世纪前10 a主要是2005年的3次(均为F1级)。有24个县(市)曾有龙卷风光顾过,发生最多的汝南和潢川曾遭遇过5次龙卷风袭击,其他县(市)分别出现1~4次不等。灾害特征是较低级别的F0和F1等级较多,F2等级较少,但发生的概率和强度等级均高于豫西。%Based on document including Chinese meteorological disaster dictionary and yearbook, Chinese and Henan provincial climate impact assessments, the 30 tornado records from 1949 to 2011 in southeast Henan were classified with Fujitec tornado scale and its temporal and spatial distribution were analyzed. Results shows that: in the past 63 years, two thirds of tornadoes happened in June and July; tornadoes in 1980s concentrated in 1984 and 1986, except for 1990 and 1993, tornadoes occurred every year in 1990s, the former 10 years of the 21st century, only 3 tornadoes happened in 2005 (F1 level). There were tornado records in 24 counties, 5 tornadoes were recorded in Ru'nan and Huangchuan, which happened the most, the rest counties recorded 1--4 tornadoes. Most of the recorded tornadoes were F0 level and F1 level, there were only a few F2 level tornadoes. The probability and intensity in southeast Henan were both stronger than west Henan.

  4. Targeting the cannabinoid system for pain relief?

    Chiou, Lih-Chu; Hu, Sherry Shu-Jung; Ho, Yu-Cheng


    Marijuana has been used to relieve pain for centuries, but its analgesic mechanism has only been understood during the past two decades. It is mainly mediated by its constituents, cannabinoids, through activating central cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors, as well as peripheral CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB2-selective agonists have the benefit of lacking CB1 receptor-mediated CNS side effects. Anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) are two intensively studied endogenous lipid ligands of cannabinoid receptors, termed endocannabinoids, which are synthesized on demand and rapidly degraded. Thus, inhibitors of their degradation enzymes, fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively, may be superior to direct cannabinoid receptor ligands as a promising strategy for pain relief. In addition to the antinociceptive properties of exogenous cannabinoids and endocannabinoids, involving their biosynthesis and degradation processes, we also review recent studies that revealed a novel analgesic mechanism, involving 2-AG in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a midbrain region for initiating descending pain inhibition. It is initiated by Gq-protein-coupled receptor (GqPCR) activation of the phospholipase C (PLC)-diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL) enzymatic cascade, generating 2-AG that produces inhibition of GABAergic transmission (disinhibition) in the PAG, thereby leading to analgesia. This GqPCR-PLC-DAGL-2-AG retrograde disinhibition mechanism in the PAG can be initiated by activating type 5 metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR5), muscarinic acetylcholine (M1/M3), and orexin (OX1) receptors. mGluR5-mediated disinhibition can be initiated by glutamate transporter inhibitors, or indirectly by substance P, neurotensin, cholecystokinin, capsaicin, and AM404, the bioactive metabolite of acetaminophen in the brain. The putative role of 2-AG generated after activating the above neurotransmitter receptors in stress-induced analgesia is also discussed.

  5. Twitter as a Potential Disaster Risk Reduction Tool. Part III: Evaluating Variables that Promoted Regional Twitter Use for At-risk Populations During the 2013 Hattiesburg F4 Tornado.

    Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo


    Study goals attempt to identify the variables most commonly associated with successful tweeted messages and determine which variables have the most influence in promoting exponential dissemination of information (viral spreading of the message) and trending (becoming popular) in the given disaster affected region. Part II describes the detailed extraction and triangulation filtration methodological approach to acquiring twitter data for the 2013 Hattiesburg Tornado. The data was then divided into two 48 hour windows before and after the tornado impact with a 2 hour pre-tornado buffer to capture tweets just prior to impact. Criteria-based analysis was completed for Tweets and users. The top 100 pre-Tornado and post-Tornado retweeted users were compared to establish the variability among the top retweeted users during the 4 day span.  Pre-Tornado variables that were correlated to higher retweeted rates include total user tweets (0.324), and total times message retweeted (0.530).  Post-Tornado variables that were correlated to higher retweeted rates include total hashtags in a retweet (0.538) and hashtags #Tornado (0.378) and #Hattiesburg (0.254). Overall hashtags usage significantly increased during the storm. Pre-storm there were 5,763 tweets with a hashtag and post-storm there was 13,598 using hashtags. Twitter's unique features allow it to be considered a unique social media tool applicable for emergency managers and public health officials for rapid and accurate two way communication.  Additionally, understanding how variables can be properly manipulated plays a key role in understanding how to use this social media platform for effective, accurate, and rapid mass information communication.

  6. Grayscale North America Shaded Relief ? 1-Kilometer Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale North America shaded relief data were derived from the GTOPO30 elevation data. GTOPO30 is a global digital elevation model (DEM) with a horizontal grid...

  7. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Western Gulf of Mexico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  8. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Puerto Rico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  9. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Gulf of Mexico

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  10. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California Version 2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides a comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a seamless...

  11. Anti-Seizure Medications: Relief from Nerve Pain

    Anti-seizure medications: Relief from nerve pain Anti-seizure drugs often are used to help control the type of ... by damaged nerves. By Mayo Clinic Staff Anti-seizure medications were originally designed to treat people with ...

  12. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  13. Satellite View of Hawaii, with Shaded Relief - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with...

  14. Satellite View of Alaska, with Shaded Relief - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska, with Shaded Relief map layer is a 200- meter-resolution simulated-natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with...

  15. The development of safety relief valve for nuclear service

    Kim, Chil Sung; Kim, Kang Tae; Kim, Ji Heon; Jang, Ki Jong [Smart Valve Com., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kee Seong [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Safety relief valve is the important equipment used to protect the pressure facility from overpressure. The objective of the study is the development of safety relief valve which protects the boiler and pressure vessel from over pressure by discharging or sucking the operating medium when the pressure of system is reaching the set pressure of the system. It is important to find out the relationship between trim shape and performance, so the characteristics of flow field at the inside of safety relief valve were investigated through computational fluid dynamics analysis. The study shows that safety relief valve is developed though the design using the analysis between flow characteristics and spring force, the experiential verification.

  16. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southeast Atlantic

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  17. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northwest Pacific

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Northeast Atlantic

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Southern California

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  20. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Central Pacific

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  1. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  2. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  3. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  4. Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men

    ... Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men Study ... a new study indicates. Researchers asked 42 recreational marijuana smokers to place one hand in extremely cold ...

  5. Spontaneous formation of optically induced surface relief gratings

    Leblond, H; Ahamadi-kandjani, S; Nunzi, J -M; Ortyl, E; Kucharski, S


    A model based on Fick's law of diffusion as a phenomenological description of the molecular motion, and on the coupled mode theory, is developped to describe single-beam surface relief grating formation in azopolymers thin films. It allows to explain the mechanism of spontaneous patterning, and self-organization. It allows also to compute the surface relief profile and its evolution in time with good agreement with experiments.

  6. Pain relief and clinical outcome: from opioids to balanced analgesia

    Kehlet, H


    If it is generally accepted that adequate postoperative pain relief will improve outcome from surgery, several controlled trials demonstrated this only for lower body surgical procedures with epidural and spinal anesthetics. Important effects on outcome were not shown when postoperative opioids...... were administered with patient controlled (PCA) or epidural techniques. However, the most optimal pain relief seems to be best achieved with balanced analgesia techniques using combinations of epidural opioids and local anesthetics and systemic non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Future efforts...

  7. Prototipo de simulador de tornado para el combate Aéreo No. 3 (CACOM 3 de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana (FAC

    Jorge Mario Cárdenas Cabrera


    El comando CACOM 3 de la Fuerza Aérea Colombiana (FAC ha tomado la iniciativa en este aspecto y se ha dado a la tarea de estudiar este fenómeno, trabajando en el diseño de un simulador de tornados a escala, con base en el ya existente, desarrollado por el phD. Harald Eddens, introdujo modificaciones que permitan, además de generar el fenómeno, medir y controlar a través de dispositivos electrónicos algunas variables ambientales. Estos dispositivos permitirán iniciar estudios desde el comando y servir de apoyo para labores de educación de la población vulnerable en cuanto a entender cómo se forma un tornado.

  8. Climate characteristics of tornado from 1956 to 2011 in Heilongjiang province%1956-2011年黑龙江省龙卷风气候特征

    朱红蕊; 张洪玲; 孙爽; 王春丽; 姚俊英


    利用富士达—皮尔森强度分类法对1956—2011年黑龙江省229个龙卷风样本进行分类,分析龙卷风事件的时空分布特征,探讨典型龙卷风个例的环流背景及形成机制。结果表明:1956—2011年黑龙江省龙卷风灾害具有明显的时空分布特征,20世纪60—80年代龙卷风活动频繁,90年代龙卷风发生频次最少,2001—2011年龙卷风发生频次略增加。龙卷风主要集中发生在夏季,以7月发生最多,且多出现在午后至傍晚。对龙卷风空间分析发现黑龙江省绥化地区是龙卷风多发区,与该地区的地理位置、气候条件和大气环流特征有关。不稳定的形势场是龙卷风产生的基础,暖湿气流的输送和冷暖空气的强对流运动为龙卷风的产生提供了有利条件。%Tornadoes events from 1956 to 201 1 in Heilongjiang province were classified by a Fujitec-Pearson meth-od.Temporal and spatial characteristics of tornadoes were analyzed,and the related large-scale circulation and for-mation mechanism for typical cases were discussed.The results show that there is apparent temporal and spatial distribution for those tornado events from 1956 to 201 1 in Heilongjiang province.The frequency of tornado is high-er during 1960s to 1980s,while it is the lowest in 1990s,and it increases during 2001 to 2011.Most tornadoes oc-cur in summer,especially in July,and most are from afternoon to early evening.Spatial distribution of tornadoes suggests that frequent area of tornadoes is in Suihua of Heilongjiang province,which is related with the local geo-graphical location,climatic conditions and atmospheric circulation.Unstable situation,warm moisture transports and the vertical motion of cold and warm air provide the favorable conditions for generation of tornadoes.

  9. Characteristics of Tornadoes around a Nuclear Power Staion in Hubei%湖北浠水核电站周边地区龙卷风特征

    马德栗; 陈正洪; 靳宁; 郭渠


    The characteristics of tornado events around the Xishui nuclear power plant of Hubei Province from 1964 to 2007 are analyzed based on the data from the area of 300 km× 300 km around the nuclear power plant in the ways such as meteorological station records, climate impact assessment reports, etc. The results indicate that: there was apparent temporal distribution in those tornado events, such as daily, monthly, and decadal scale variation. The tornadoes concentrated mostly in spring and summer, especially in July, and occurred frequently from mid-day to early evening, especially at afternoon; however, there was seldom tornado occurred in autumn and winter. The average lasting time for all tornadoes is 27 min. During the past 44 years, tornadoes appeared most frequently in the first seven years of the 21st century. The wind speed grade is mostly 10 on the Beaufort scale, concentrated around 12. The most frequent moving direction of the tornadoes is from west to east, and the average affected width is 1. 20 km, and the average affected length is 21. 66 km. The most severe tornado-induced disaster is that induced by the extremely strong wind, which mostly accompanies hailstones, heavy rainfall, and lighting strikes.%根据湖北省浠水核电站周边300 km×300 km区域范围内1964-2007年龙卷风资料,对龙卷风的时间分布和灾害特征进行了分析.结果表明:龙卷风有明显的时间分布,一年之中主要集中在春、夏两季,秋、冬季无龙卷风发生,以7月最多;一天之中,午后至傍晚最多,集中在16:00-18:59之间,龙卷风平均持续时间27 min.近44年,21世纪头7年中龙卷风出现最为频繁.龙卷风出现时,蒲福风力等级一般在10级以上,集中出现在12级;富士达风力等级集中出现在F0、F1级,F2级以上出现的几率较小.龙卷风多以自西向东方向移动,影响宽度平均1.20 km,平均带长21.66 km.龙卷风灾害主要是风灾,往往伴有冰雹、暴雨、雷击,破坏力极强.

  10. Change Characters of Tornados in China in 1980-2009%1980-2009年我国龙卷事件变化

    冯婧; 周伟灿; 徐影


    Using the 115 tornado events records from 725 stations over China during 1980-2009, geographic and temporal distributive characters of tornado events and reasons for tornado reduction since the 1990s were studied. The results show that tornados frequently occurred in eastern China, and the frequency of tornado events showed a significant decreasing trend in yearly number in 1980-2009, with the highest frequency in the Jul.-Aug. of the 1980s, followed by a distinctly decreasing period, especially in eastern areas. Two important convective parameters, i.e, convective available potential energy (ECAPE) ANd vertical shear of 0-6 km wind (S06), in Jul.-Aug. in the period of 1980-2009 were examined to find out reasons for the tornado reduction. The analyses of the centers of EcAPE, S06 and their products (ES = ECAPE × S06) suggested that the centers of ES were more coincided with areas of frequent tornados. The significant decreasing in S06, in Jul.-Aug. of 1980 2009 in North China Plain might be responsible for the reduction of tornados in the plain after the 1980s.%根据1980-2009年我国龙卷事件的变化特征,初步探讨了20世纪90年代以后龙卷事件显著减少的特征及原因.结果表明,1980-2009年龙卷事件呈现明显减少的趋势,20世纪80年代最多,90年代以后明显减少,尤其是夏季(7-8月),在我国东部地区减少最明显.对龙卷高发时段7-8月06时(UTC)对流有效位能(ECAPE)与深层垂直风切变(S06)以及二者乘积变量(ES)的分析表明:ECAPE和S06是影响龙卷的两个重要因子,ES的高值中心更好地对应于龙卷事件发生的集中区.地面气温的变化会影响ECAPE的变化.1980-2009年,我国华北平原地区7-8月S06明显下降是20世纪80年代以后我国华北地区龙卷事件减少的主要原因.

  11. An HIT Solution for Clinical Care and Disaster Planning: How One health Center in Joplin, MO Survived a Tornado and Avoided a Health Information Disaster.

    Shin, Peter; Jacobs, Feygele


    Since taking office, President Obama has made substantial investments in promoting the diffusion of health information technology (IT). The objective of the national health IT program is, generally, to enable health care providers to better manage patient care through secure use and sharing of health information. Through the use of technologies including electronic health records, providers can better maintain patient care information and facilitate communication, often improving care outcomes. The recent tornado in Joplin, MO highlights the importance of health information technology in the health center context, and illustrates the importance of secure electronic health information systems as a crucial element of disaster and business continuity planning. This article examines the experience of a community health center in the aftermath of the major tornado that swept through the American Midwest in the spring of 2011, and provides insight into the planning for disaster survival and recovery as it relates to patient records and health center data.

  12. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula


    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  13. Does Immediate Pain Relief After an Injection into the Sacroiliac Joint with Anesthetic and Corticosteroid Predict Subsequent Pain Relief?

    Schneider, Byron J; Huynh, Lisa; Levin, Josh; Rinkaekan, Pranathip; Kordi, Ramin; Kennedy, David J


    To determine if immediate pain response following an injection with local anesthetic and corticosteroid predicts subsequent relief.  Prospective observational cohort.  An institutional review board-approved prospective study from a single academic medical center.  Patients with clinical diagnosis of sacroiliac (SIJ) pain and referred for SIJ injection were enrolled; 1 cc of 2% lidocaine and 1 cc of triamcinolone 40 mg/mL were injected into the SIJ. Pain score on 0-10 numeric rating scale (NRS) during provocation maneuvers was recorded immediately before injection, immediately after injection, and at two and four weeks of follow-up. Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) was also recorded.  Various cutoffs were identified to establish positive anesthetic response and successful outcomes at follow-up. These were used to calculated likelihood ratios. Of those with 100% anesthetic response, six of 11 (54.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]+/-29.4%, +LR 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1-5.9) demonstrated 50% or greater pain relief at follow-up, and four of 11 (36.5%, 95% CI+/-28.4%, +LR 3.00, 95% CI = 1.4-5.1) had 100% relief at two to four weeks. Fourteen of 14 (100%, 95% CI+/-21.5%, -LR 0.0, 95% CI = 0.0-2.1) with an initial negative block failed to achieve 100% relief at follow-up.  Patients who fail to achieve initial relief after SIJ injection with anesthetic and steroid are very unlikely to achieve significant pain relief at follow-up; negative likelihood ratios (LR) in this study, based on how success is defined, range between 0 and 0.9. Clinically significant positive likelihood ratios of anesthetic response to SIJ injection are more limited and less robust, but are valuable in predicting 50% relief or 100% relief at two to four weeks.

  14. 转子泵的革命性突破——耐驰NETZSCH TORNADO@ T2转子泵的革命性设计




  15. Some wind and instability parameters associated with strong and violent tornadoes: 2. Variations in the combinations of wind and instability parameters

    Johns, Robert H.; Davies, Jonathan M.; Leftwich, Preston W.

    Meteorologists have long known that both potential buoyant energy and the strength and vertical profile of the tropospheric wind fields are important in the process of tornado development [e.g., Miller, 1972]. Further, operational experience suggests that the combinations of wind parameters and instability parameters vary considerably from one tornado situation to another. Numerical models suggest that the type of storm that develops in a given situation (e.g., an isolated supercell) is related to both the vertical wind profile and the potential buoyant energy of the air in the updraft entrainment layer [Weisman and Klemp, 1982, 1986]. Observational studies by Rasmussen and Wilhelmson [1983] and Leftwich and Wu [1988] have examined the wind shear/potential buoyant energy relationship in association with tornado development. These studies involved limited data sets and were concerned with the wind shear in a relatively deep layer of the troposphere (0-4-km above ground level (AGL)). Recently, interest has focused on the nature of the wind fields in shallower layers of the lower troposphere, layers that more nearly correspond to the updraft entrainment region [Davies, 1989; Davies-Jones et al., 1990]. Utilizing a large comprehensive data set, Johns et al [1990] (hereafter referred to as JDL) examined the relationship between 0-2-km AGL "positive" wind shear (PWS) and convective available potential energy (CAPE) [Moncrieff and Green, 1972] in association with strong and violent tornado development. In this paper (part 2) the authors review the initial work of JDL and examine additional wind and potential buoyant energy parameter relationships associated with the data set compiled by JDL.

  16. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height


    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  17. 21 CFR 358.350 - Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products... USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.350 Labeling of ingrown toenail relief drug products..., if any, and identifies the product as an “ingrown toenail relief product” or as an “ingrown...

  18. Dose potential of sludge contaminated and/or TRU contaminated waste in B-25s for tornado and straight wind events

    Aponte, C.I.


    F and H Tank Farms generate supernate and sludge contaminated Low-Level Waste. The waste is collected, characterized, and packaged for disposal. Before the waste can be disposed of, however, it must be properly characterized. Since the radionuclide distribution in typical supernate is well known, its characterization is relatively straight forward and requires minimal effort. Non-routine waste, including potentially sludge contaminated, requires much more effort to effectively characterize. The radionuclide distribution must be determined. In some cases the waste can be contaminated by various sludge transfers with unique radionuclide distributions. In these cases, the characterization can require an extensive effort. Even after an extensive characterization effort, the container must still be prepared for shipping. Therefore a significant amount of time may elapse from the time the waste is generated until the time of disposal. During the time it is possible for a tornado or high wind scenario to occur. The purpose of this report is to determine the effect of a tornado on potential sludge contaminated waste, or Transuranic (TRU) waste in B-25s [large storage containers], to evaluate the potential impact on F and H Tank Farms, and to help establish a B-25 control program for tornado events.

  19. Comportamento de dois genótipos de milho cultivados em sistema de aléias preestabelecido com diferentes leguminosas arbóreas Behaviour of two maize genotypes grown in alley cropping system pre-established with diferents leguminous trees

    Andréia Araújo Lima Leite


    Full Text Available O cultivo em aléias tem sido recomendado como alternativa para a substituição da agricultura de corte e queima, no trópico úmido, devido à grande capacidade de produção de matéria orgânica e de reciclagem de nutrientes, mas algumas dúvidas quanto à sustentabilidade e à competição interespecífica são persistentes. O objetivo no trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade da cultura do milho em um sistema de cultivo em aléias de leguminosas arbóreas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualisados, com quatro repetições dos tratamentos: aléias de sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana, ingá (Inga edulis, guandu (Cajanus cajan e leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e uma testemunha sem aléias. Foram avaliadas a remobilização de carbono e nitrogênio, massa de grãos, massa de mil grãos e competição interespecífica entre as cultivares de milho e as leguminosas. A produção de grãos foi maior nas parcelas com C. fairchildiana e L. leucocephala. A produtividade do híbrido de milho foi superior à da variedade em todos os tratamentos. A produtividade e a massa de mil grãos de milho não são negativamente afetadas pela distância da linha da leguminosa arbórea. Esse estudo conclui que o sistema de aléias com leguminosas arbóreas é uma alternativa importante ao manejo sustentável dos agroecossistemas no tropico úmido. Além disso, nessa região a produtividade em grãos na cultura do milho é favorecida no sistema de aléias preeestabelecidas com as leguminosas arbóreas sombreiro, ingá e leucena e pela utilização de genótipos eficientes no aproveitamento do nitrogênio, cujo sincronismo entre a liberação e a absorção do N aplicado por meio das leguminosas deve ser aprimorado.Alley cropping has been recommended as alternative land use to slash-and-burn agriculture in humid tropics. However, interespecific competition between cash crop and hedgerow can reduce this potential. This study aimed to evaluate the

  20. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height


    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  1. 区域暴雨过程中两次龙卷风事件分析%Analysis of the two tornado events during a process of regional torrential rain

    张一平; 俞小鼎; 吴蓁; 梁俊平; 吕林宜


    A detailed analysis of the two tornado processes on 17 and 19 July 2010 in Henan was made by using a new generation of Doppler radar data, the conventional observations data, the NECP reanalysis data and other information. The results were as follows: (1) the weather background of the tornado occurrence; the two tornadoes occurred during a process of regional torrential and severe torrential rains in Henan, which were impacted by the southwestern flow in the subtropical high edge, the strong divergence areas north of the Tibetan high ridge and on the right rear of the entrance areas of the upper jet stream with the vortex, shear line and jet stream existing in the middle and lower levels. Tornadoes occurred in the southeast quadrant of meso-β cyclones on the ground, about 50 km from the cyclone center. (2) The environment field characteristics of the tornadoes covered: the convective available potential energy greater than 1000 J/kg, unstable atmospheric stratification, the K index greater than 36℃ , the SWEAT index of the occurrence of strong tornadoes being about 400, the vertical wind shear for 0 — 1. 5 km being up to 15 m/s, and a very low lifting condensation level that was from 0 to 300 m. (3) The analyzed results of the radar echo and characteristical parameters: two tornadoes both occurred in the β-meso scale spiral rainbands on the southeast side of the vortex with the intensity of the echo band of about 50 dBz and the top from 9 to 12 km, and the tornado was produced by a mini-supercell that was in the center of the echo, with a significantly weak echo upward flow zone in the vertical profile and the interface zone between the rear flank downdraft and updraft is a key area which is prone to tornadoes. The Y-mesoscale cyclone series experinced a evolution process related to three dimensional correlated shear, mesocyclone, tornado vortex signature as shown in the velocity profiles. The mesocyclone occurred earlier about 0. 5 - 1 h than the tornado

  2. Sky-View Factor as a Relief Visualization Technique

    Žiga Kokalj


    Full Text Available Remote sensing has become the most important data source for the digital elevation model (DEM generation. DEM analyses can be applied in various fields and many of them require appropriate DEM visualization support. Analytical hill-shading is the most frequently used relief visualization technique. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This paper proposes a new relief visualization technique based on diffuse, rather than direct, illumination. It utilizes the sky-view factor—a parameter corresponding to the portion of visible sky limited by relief. Sky-view factor can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology as it improves the recognition of small scale features from high resolution DEMs.

  3. Creative by Way of Adaption: Ramayana Relief of Prambanan Temple

    Soeprapto Soedjono


    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas tentang proses penciptaan karya seni berdasarkan teori adaptasi sebagaimana yang didiskusikan oleh Linda Hutcheon dalam bukunya yang berjudul: A Theory of Adaptation. Penekanan pembahasan lebih diletakkan pada aspek-aspek estetis visual yang terdapat pada karya seni relief naratif yang mengelilingi sepanjang dinding bagian dalam candi Prambanan di Kalasan, Yogyakarta. Sebagaimana tema relief yang diadaptasi dari ceritera legenda Ramayana yang ditulis oleh Walmiki pada waktu silam, maka proses penciptaan relief tersebut pada masa berikutnya diyakini mengikuti prosedur teori adaptasi tersebut.   This article aims to discuss the creation of arts based upon the theory of adaptation that had been laid on by Linda Hutcheon in her book called A Theory of Adaptation. The discussion has put emphasis on the elaboration of any visual aesthetics aspects embodied within the Ramayana sculptural program in the narrative relief which is encircling along Prambanan temple inner wall in Kalasan, Yogyakarta. Since the relief’s theme is derived from the ancient epic story of Ramayana legend (by Valmiki, it is plausible that the later creative process of the relief work was created through the adaptation theory procedure.

  4. Power Scaling of the Size Distribution of Economic Loss and Fatalities due to Hurricanes, Earthquakes, Tornadoes, and Floods in the USA

    Tebbens, S. F.; Barton, C. C.; Scott, B. E.


    Traditionally, the size of natural disaster events such as hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods is measured in terms of wind speed (m/sec), energy released (ergs), or discharge (m3/sec) rather than by economic loss or fatalities. Economic loss and fatalities from natural disasters result from the intersection of the human infrastructure and population with the size of the natural event. This study investigates the size versus cumulative number distribution of individual natural disaster events for several disaster types in the United States. Economic losses are adjusted for inflation to 2014 USD. The cumulative number divided by the time over which the data ranges for each disaster type is the basis for making probabilistic forecasts in terms of the number of events greater than a given size per year and, its inverse, return time. Such forecasts are of interest to insurers/re-insurers, meteorologists, seismologists, government planners, and response agencies. Plots of size versus cumulative number distributions per year for economic loss and fatalities are well fit by power scaling functions of the form p(x) = Cx-β; where, p(x) is the cumulative number of events with size equal to and greater than size x, C is a constant, the activity level, x is the event size, and β is the scaling exponent. Economic loss and fatalities due to hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes, and floods are well fit by power functions over one to five orders of magnitude in size. Economic losses for hurricanes and tornadoes have greater scaling exponents, β = 1.1 and 0.9 respectively, whereas earthquakes and floods have smaller scaling exponents, β = 0.4 and 0.6 respectively. Fatalities for tornadoes and floods have greater scaling exponents, β = 1.5 and 1.7 respectively, whereas hurricanes and earthquakes have smaller scaling exponents, β = 0.4 and 0.7 respectively. The scaling exponents can be used to make probabilistic forecasts for time windows ranging from 1 to 1000 years

  5. 基于IPA分析法的景区旅游形象游客感知研究--以三坊七巷历史文化街区为例%Research on Perceived Destination Image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on IPA Analysis



    运用IPA分析法对三坊七巷旅游形象的游客感知进行了实证研究,结果表明:游客总体满意度较好;历史名人文化、节事活动、景区内部交通等感知要素游客评价满意度高于重要性,是景区竞争优势,今后可继续强化;传统坊巷格局、外部交通通达性、景区游览接待设施等感知因素亟待改进;核心区域延续性、旅游资源特色、餐饮价格等感知要素由于游客的期望值低,景区对这些服务可考虑采取适度发展的策略。%Taking Three Lanes and Seven Alleys as a case study, the paper determined the effects of 22 factors on the perceived image of the destination.Through the data collected from questionnaire, a quantitative demon-strative study has been conducted on perceived destination image of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.The study conclusion indicates that overall customer satisfaction is good.Tourists are satisfied with historical celebrity cul-ture, festival activities and interior traffic of tourist spots;the layout of traditional lanes and alleys, the exterior traffic and infrastructure are in urgent need to be improved based on the undesirable percieved image;the conti-nuity of core tourist region, characteristics of the tourist resources and food prices can be given moderate attention to as expectations are low in these respects.The study conclusion can provide guidance for sustainable develop-ment of Three Lanes and Seven Alleys.

  6. 安徽龙卷发生的环境条件和临近预警%Synoptic Situation and Pre-Warning of Anhui Tornado

    姚叶青; 郝莹; 张义军; 李劲; 刘高平; 邱学兴; 余金龙; 刘远永


    利用1960—2009年气象观测资料,对安徽省128次龙卷的气候特征和环流背景进行了分析,结果表明,龙卷多发于4-9月平原丘陵地带的江淮东部,而山区极少,20世纪80年代以后龙卷明显减少;建立了安徽出现龙卷的4种概念模型。同时,利用日本JMA 20km×20km高分辨率数值预报再分析产品对比分析了龙卷、冰雹及雷雨大风的环境场,发现龙卷与冰雹、雷雨大风在4个方面存在明显差异,即中低层比湿、中低层垂直风切变、风暴相对螺旋度和0℃层以下的对流有效位能与整层对流有效位能比值,前3个均是龙卷最大,龙卷是冰雹和雷雨大风的2倍~3倍,对流有效位能主要集中在0℃层以下,而冰雹和雷雨大风主要集中在0℃层以上。基于龙卷临近预警和安徽6次龙卷的雷达特征显示,龙卷涡旋TVS的底部达到雷达最低仰角探测高度的中气旋及其后龙卷涡旋特征是识别龙卷的主要依据,龙卷触地前中气旋的最大速度差增强,其强度与龙卷强度呈正相关。而雷达距离的选取也直接影响龙卷的临近预警,距离龙卷20~100km处的雷达较为理想,200km以外的雷达资料对龙卷预警几乎没有意义。%Using the historical observation data from 1960to 2009the climatic characteristics and in Anhui tornado have been analyzed.The results show that the occurring frequency of tornado in Anhui Province is more than that of the east of Changjiang-Huaihe valleys and no mountainous area from April to September.And tornadoes have obviously reduced since 1980s.Four types of synoptic situation which form tornadoes probably to have been summarized too.Through the contrastive analyses of the difference of tornado,hail and gust with thunderstorm using 20km×20km JMA reanalysis products,the conclusions are as follows:Before the tornado occurring,the air on the low-level is warm and wet,sometime is wet in whole layer.Lifting condensation level is lower

  7. Access and completion of a Web-based treatment in a population-based sample of tornado-affected adolescents.

    Price, Matthew; Yuen, Erica K; Davidson, Tatiana M; Hubel, Grace; Ruggiero, Kenneth J


    Although Web-based treatments have significant potential to assess and treat difficult-to-reach populations, such as trauma-exposed adolescents, the extent that such treatments are accessed and used is unclear. The present study evaluated the proportion of adolescents who accessed and completed a Web-based treatment for postdisaster mental health symptoms. Correlates of access and completion were examined. A sample of 2,000 adolescents living in tornado-affected communities was assessed via structured telephone interview and invited to a Web-based treatment. The modular treatment addressed symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and alcohol and tobacco use. Participants were randomized to experimental or control conditions after accessing the site. Overall access for the intervention was 35.8%. Module completion for those who accessed ranged from 52.8% to 85.6%. Adolescents with parents who used the Internet to obtain health-related information were more likely to access the treatment. Adolescent males were less likely to access the treatment. Future work is needed to identify strategies to further increase the reach of Web-based treatments to provide clinical services in a postdisaster context. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Independent natural genetic variation of punishment- versus relief-memory

    Appel, Mirjam; Kocabey, Samet; Savage, Sinead; König, Christian


    A painful event establishes two opponent memories: cues that are associated with pain onset are remembered negatively, whereas cues that coincide with the relief at pain offset acquire positive valence. Such punishment- versus relief-memories are conserved across species, including humans, and the balance between them is critical for adaptive behaviour with respect to pain and trauma. In the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster as a study case, we found that both punishment- and relief-memories display natural variation across wild-derived inbred strains, but they do not covary, suggesting a considerable level of dissociation in their genetic effectors. This provokes the question whether there may be heritable inter-individual differences in the balance between these opponent memories in man, with potential psycho-clinical implications. PMID:28003518

  9. Experiences from tsunami relief activity: implications for medical training

    Sudharsanam Manni Balasubramaniam


    Full Text Available A tsunami struck the coast of Tamilnadu and Pondicherry on 26 December 2004. Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research, (JIPMER in Pondicherry played a vital role in providing medical relief. The experiences from the relief activities revealed areas of deficiency in medical education in regards to disaster preparedness. A qualitative study using focus group discussion was employed to find the lacunae in skills in managing medical relief measures. Many skills were identified; the most important of which was addressing the psychological impact of the tsunami on the victims. Limited coordination and leadership skills were also identified. It is recommended that activity-based learning can be included in the curriculum to improve these skills.

  10. Surface-relief and polarization gratings for solar concentrators.

    de Jong, Ties M; de Boer, Dick K G; Bastiaansen, Cees W M


    Transmission gratings that combine a large diffraction angle with a high diffraction efficiency and a low angular and wavelength dispersion could be used to collect sunlight in a light guide. In this paper we compare the diffractive properties of polarization gratings and classical surface-relief gratings and explore their possible use in solar concentrators. It is found that polarization gratings and surface-relief gratings have qualitatively comparable diffraction characteristics when their thickness parameters are within the same regime. Relatively large grating periods result in high diffraction efficiencies over a wide range of incident angles. For small grating periods the efficiency and the angular acceptance are decreased. Surface-relief gratings are preferred over polarization gratings as in-couplers for solar concentrators.

  11. Experiences in disaster-related mental health relief work: An exploratory model for the interprofessional training of psychological relief workers.

    Ren, ZhengJia; Wang, HongTao; Zhang, Wei


    The purpose of this study was to begin to generate an exploratory model of the disaster-related mental health education process associated with the training experiences of psychological relief workers active during the Sichuan earthquake in China. The data consisted of semi-structured interviews with 20 psychological relief workers from four different professions (social workers, psychiatric nurses, psychiatrists, and counsellors) regarding their experiences in training and ideas for improvement. The model explains the need to use a people-centred community interprofessional education approach, which focuses on role-modelling of the trainer, caring for relief workers, paying attention to the needs of the trainee, and building systematic interprofessional education strategies. The proposed model identifies areas for the comprehensive training of relief workers and aims to address the importance of people-centred mental health service provisions, ensure intentional and strategic training of relief workers using interprofessional concepts and strategies, and use culturally attuned and community-informed strategies in mental health training practices.

  12. Subducted oceanic relief locks the shallow megathrust in central Ecuador

    Collot, Jean-Yves; Sanclemente, Eddy; Nocquet, Jean-Mathieu; Leprêtre, Angélique; Ribodetti, Alessandra; Jarrin, Paul; Chlieh, Mohamed; Graindorge, David; Charvis, Philippe


    Whether subducted oceanic reliefs such as seamounts promote seismic rupture or aseismic slip remains controversial. Here we use swath bathymetry, prestack depth-migrated multichannel seismic reflection lines, and wide-angle seismic data collected across the central Ecuador subduction segment to reveal a broad 55 km × 50 km, 1.5-2.0 km high, low height-to-width ratio, multipeaked, sediment-bare, shallow subducted oceanic relief. Owing to La Plata Island and the coastline being located, respectively, 35 km and 50-60 km from the trench, GPS measurements allow us to demonstrate that the subducted oceanic relief spatially correlates to a shallow, 80 km × 55 km locked interplate asperity within a dominantly creeping subduction segment. The oceanic relief geometrical anomaly together with its highly jagged topography, the absence of a subduction channel, and a stiff erosive oceanic margin are found to be long-term geological characteristics associated with the shallow locking of the megathrust. Although the size and level of locking observed at the subducted relief scale could produce an Mw >7+ event, no large earthquakes are known to have happened for several centuries. On the contrary, frequent slow slip events have been recorded since 2010 within the locked patch, and regular seismic swarms have occurred in this area during the last 40 years. These transient processes, together with the rough subducted oceanic topography, suggest that interplate friction might actually be heterogeneous within the locked patch. Additionally, we find that the subducted relief undergoes internal shearing and produces a permanent flexural bulge of the margin, which uplifted La Plata Island.

  13. Synapsin determines memory strength after punishment- and relief-learning.

    Niewalda, Thomas; Michels, Birgit; Jungnickel, Roswitha; Diegelmann, Sören; Kleber, Jörg; Kähne, Thilo; Gerber, Bertram


    Adverse life events can induce two kinds of memory with opposite valence, dependent on timing: "negative" memories for stimuli preceding them and "positive" memories for stimuli experienced at the moment of "relief." Such punishment memory and relief memory are found in insects, rats, and man. For example, fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) avoid an odor after odor-shock training ("forward conditioning" of the odor), whereas after shock-odor training ("backward conditioning" of the odor) they approach it. Do these timing-dependent associative processes share molecular determinants? We focus on the role of Synapsin, a conserved presynaptic phosphoprotein regulating the balance between the reserve pool and the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles. We find that a lack of Synapsin leaves task-relevant sensory and motor faculties unaffected. In contrast, both punishment memory and relief memory scores are reduced. These defects reflect a true lessening of associative memory strength, as distortions in nonassociative processing (e.g., susceptibility to handling, adaptation, habituation, sensitization), discrimination ability, and changes in the time course of coincidence detection can be ruled out as alternative explanations. Reductions in punishment- and relief-memory strength are also observed upon an RNAi-mediated knock-down of Synapsin, and are rescued both by acutely restoring Synapsin and by locally restoring it in the mushroom bodies of mutant flies. Thus, both punishment memory and relief memory require the Synapsin protein and in this sense share genetic and molecular determinants. We note that corresponding molecular commonalities between punishment memory and relief memory in humans would constrain pharmacological attempts to selectively interfere with excessive associative punishment memories, e.g., after traumatic experiences.

  14. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De;


    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  15. Scale-Dependent Representations of Relief Based on Wavelet Analysis


    Automatic generalization of geographic information is the core of multi-scale representation of spatial data,but the scale-dependent generalization methods are far from abundant because of its extreme complicacy.This paper puts forward a new consistency model about scale-dependent representations of relief based on wavelet analysis,and discusses the thresholds in the model so as to acquire the continual representations of relief with different details between scales.The model not only meets the need of automatic generalization but also is scale-dependent completely.Some practical examples are given.

  16. A sigh of relief or a sigh to relieve: The psychological and physiological relief effect of deep breaths.

    Vlemincx, Elke; Van Diest, Ilse; Van den Bergh, Omer


    Both animal and human research have revealed important associations between sighs and relief. Previously we argued to conceive of sighs as resetters which temporarily induce relief. The present study aimed to investigate the psychological and physiological relief effect of sighs by instructed deep breaths and spontaneous sighs compared to a control breathing maneuver. Participants completed three blocks of 40 trials during which uncertainty cues were followed by either safety cues followed by a positive picture, or danger cues followed by a negative picture. One block was presented without breathing instructions, two subsequent blocks with breathing instructions. During the presentation of the safety and danger cues, an instruction was given to either 'take a deep breath' or 'postpone the next inhalation for 2 s (breath hold). Continuously, participants rated relief and Frontalis electromyography was recorded. Trait anxiety sensitivity was assessed by the Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Self-reported relief and physiological tension were compared 5s before and after instructed deep breaths and breath holds, and before and after spontaneous deep breaths and breath holds in the respective blocks. Results show that self-reported relief following an instructed deep breath was higher than before. Physiological tension decreased following a spontaneous sigh in high anxiety sensitive persons and following a spontaneous breath hold in low anxiety sensitive persons. These results are the first to show that a deep breath relieves and, in anxiety sensitive persons, reduces physiological tension. These findings support the hypothesis that sighs are psychological and physiological resetters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pain relief at the end of life: nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia.

    Brorson, Hanna; Plymoth, Henrietta; Örmon, Karin; Bolmsjö, Ingrid


    Patients with dementia receive suboptimal palliative care, and this patient group is at risk to have pain at the end of life. Because communicative impairments are common in this patient group, nurses play an important caregiver role in identifying, assessing, and relieving patients' pain. This study aimed to describe nurses' experiences regarding end-of-life pain relief in patients with dementia. This descriptive exploratory qualitative study was based on seven semistructured interviews. Burnard's content analysis inspired the data analysis. Two main categories were identified: (1) nurses' experience of difficulties concerning pain relief and (2) nurses' experience of resources concerning pain relief. Nurses experienced difficulties, such as feeling of powerlessness because of difficulties in obtaining adequate prescriptions for analgesics, ethical dilemmas, feeling of inadequacy because analgesia did not have the desired effect, and a feeling of not being able to connect with the patient. Factors, including knowledge about the patient, professional experience, utilization of pain assessment tools, interpersonal relationships, and interprofessional cooperation, served as resources and enabled end-of-life pain relief. The results of this study highlight the complexity of pain relief in patients with dementia at the end of life from a nursing perspective. The inability of patients with dementia to verbally communicate their pain makes them a vulnerable patient group, dependent on their caregivers. Knowing the life story of the patient, professional experience, teamwork based on good communication, and use of a pain assessment tool were reported by the nurses to improve pain relief at the end of life for patients with dementia. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Study of the Tourists’ Cultural Perception of the Three Lanes and Seven Alleys Based on Network Text Analysis%基于网络文本分析的三坊七巷游客文化感知研究

    尹小娜; 郑向敏


    Using network text analysis and software of ROST Content Mining, the paper explores thetourists’ cultural awareness of theTh-ree Alleys and Seven Lanes. The results of the study are as follows: visitors’ awareness of theThree Alleys and Seven Lanes is generally positive, material cultural awareness is stronger than intangible culture, and awareness of diet culture is the strongest in the material cultural awareness. The perception of the craft is mainly showed in non-material cultural awareness, while tourists’cultural perception is different.%本文运用网络文本分析法,以各大旅游网站中相关游记与评论等数据为样本,使用ROST Content Mining软件探索三坊七巷游客的文化感知。研究结果如下:游客对三坊七巷文化的整体印象较好;物质文化感知强于非物质文化感知;物质文化感知中对饮食文化感知最强;非物质文化感知方面主要表现为对手工艺品的感知;游客的文化感知存在差异。

  19. 49 CFR 230.49 - Setting of safety relief valves.


    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and... safety relief valves, two steam gauges shall be used, one of which must be so located that it will be in... varies more than 3 psi they shall be removed from the boiler, tested, and corrected before the...

  20. A Closer Look: The American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012

    Balmer, Mary


    School districts may be affected by the American Taxpayer Relief Act of 2012 with regard to fixed assets management and education entities. The act avoids the scheduled increases to individual income tax rates for most Americans and extends a host of expired and expiring tax provisions for both individuals and businesses. The provisions described…

  1. Diffraction from relief gratings on a biomimetic elastomer cast

    Guerrero, Raphael A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City (Philippines); Aranas, Erika B. [Department of Physics, Ateneo de Manila University, Loyola Heights, Quezon City (Philippines)


    Biomimetic optical elements combine the optimized designs of nature with the versatility of materials engineering. We employ a beetle carapace as the template for fabricating relief gratings on an elastomer substrate. Biological surface features are successfully replicated by a direct casting procedure. Far-field diffraction effects are discussed in terms of the Fraunhofer approximation in Fourier space.

  2. Acupucture as pain relief during delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    Borup, Lissa; Wurlitzer, Winnie; Hedegaard, Morten


    Background: Many women need some kind of analgesic treatment to relieve pain during childbirth. The objective of our study was to compare the effect of acupuncture with transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) and traditional analgesics for pain relief and relaxation during delivery with ...

  3. Surface relief resonant Brewster filters with multiple with multiple channels

    Ma Jian-Yong; Liu Shi-Jie; Zhang Da-Wei; Yao Jian-Ke; Xu Cheng; Jin Yun-Xia; Shao Jian-Da; Fan Zheng-Xiu


    In this paper,a new type of resonant Brewster filters(RBF)with surface relief structure for the multiple channels is first presented by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis and the S-matrix method.By tuning the depth of homogeneous layer which is under the surface relief structure,the multiple channels phenomenon is obtained.Long range,extremely low sidebands and multiple channels are found when the RBF with surface relief structure is illuminated with Transverse Magnetic incident polarization light near the Brewster angle calculated with the effective media theory of sub wavelength grating.Moreover,the wavelengths of RBF with surface relief structure can be easily shifted by changing the depth of homogeneous layer while its optical properties such as low sideband reflection and narrow band are not spoiled when the depth is changed.Furthermore,the variation of the grating thickness does not effectively change the resonant wavelength of RBF,but have a remarkable effect on its line width,which is very useful for designing such filters with different line widths at desired wavelength.

  4. Calling the Cavalry: Disaster Relief and the American Military


    regulators influence others. This model is the framework I use to determine expectations of federal disaster relief efforts. It is hypothesized that...entered 1 Federal Emergency Management Agency, "National Response Framework ," ed... Hofsteder suggests that the quantity of power one has is determined by the individual but measured by society. Power distance is based on a

  5. Structural Marginalisation, Othering and Casual Relief Teacher Subjectivities

    Charteris, Jennifer; Jenkins, Kathryn; Bannister-Tyrrell, Michelle; Jones, Marguerite


    Produced through market relations of neoliberal managerialism, teacher subjectivities are becoming progressively commodified. With the increasing casualisation of the teaching workforce, the well-being and status of casual relief teachers (CRTs) can be seen as an area of concern, at risk of "flexploitation". More than just a convenient…

  6. Topology-optimized broadband surface relief transmission grating

    Andkjær, Jacob; Ryder, Christian P.; Nielsen, Peter C.


    We propose a design methodology for systematic design of surface relief transmission gratings with optimized diffraction efficiency. The methodology is based on a gradient-based topology optimization formulation along with 2D frequency domain finite element simulations for TE and TM polarized pla......% in a broadband range going from the ultraviolet region, through the visible region and into the near-infrared region....

  7. Relief in Small and Simple Matters in Belgium

    S. Voet (Stefaan)


    textabstractThis article is based on a national report that was written for the XVth World Congress of the International Association of Procedural Law that was held in Istanbul in May 2015 and that focused on Effective Judicial Relief and Remedies in an Age of Austerity. It first of all sketches the

  8. A Law and Economics Perspective on Injunctive Relief

    A.I. Ogus (Anthony); L.T. Visscher (Louis)


    textabstractAbstract The Law and Economics perspective on injunctive relief has been developed primarily from the Calabresi and Melamed (1972) distinction between property rules and liability rules, two different judicial means of enforcing legal rights. Their analysis is predicated on the assumpti

  9. 77 FR 6675 - Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans


    ... CORPORATION 29 CFR Part 4007 Premium Penalty Relief for Certain Delinquent Plans AGENCY: Pension Benefit... regulatory review, among other initiatives, PBGC is announcing a limited window for covered plans that have... and 4007 of ERISA, plans covered by title IV must pay premiums to PBGC. The vast majority of plans...

  10. Analysis of acoustic fatigue in safety relief systems

    Smeulers, J.P.M.; Beek, P.J.G. van; Golliard, J.


    To protect installations in the gas and oil industry and process industries against overpressure the installation of relief systems is common practice. However, there have been incidents where such systems fail as a result of high dynamic loads caused by: the generation of shock waves when the relie

  11. 7 CFR 635.6 - Equitable relief by State Conservationists.


    ... of: (1) Payment limitations under 7 CFR part 1400; (2) Payment limitations under a conservation program administered by the Secretary; or (3) The highly erodible land and wetland conservation... CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING EQUITABLE RELIEF FROM INELIGIBILITY §...

  12. Pain Relief in Postabortion Care Practiced by Healthcare ...

    Older professionals were more likely to employ pain relief in PAC (P = 0.01). Furthermore ... for analgesia should be conducted for healthcare professionals to improve the quality of PAC received by clients. ... medical and related interventions designed to manage ... specific training programs for more effective PAC services.

  13. Building relations with women's organisations in relief work.

    Gell, F


    An Oxfam Emergency Team arrived in Ingushetia in the Northern Caucasus region of the former Soviet Union in August 1996 to set up a program of shelter, rehabilitation, and relief in response to the large influx of people displaced by conflicts in the neighboring republics of Chechnya and North Ossetia. The team was also tasked with contacting community organizations such as women's groups and developing a relationship with them through joint relief work. The Chechen population was comprised of mainly women, children, and the elderly. The internally displaced population of 100,000 people is now scattered throughout the republic in collective centers and host families. Small committees of women were formed to help identify the most vulnerable residents and to distribute winter clothing. It was found during the relief work that fledgling women's groups are establishing themselves as vehicles for change, increasingly open to work with and learn from international organizations such as Oxfam. The Chechen branch of the Union of North Caucasian Women and the Ingushetian ALMOS played leading roles in peacemaking, human rights observance, and humanitarian relief.

  14. Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief in children

    Henneberg, S W; Hole, P; Haas, Inge Madsen De


    Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine for postop......Epidural morphine for postoperative pain relief is in general use, and has proved to be very efficient in adults. The epidural technique and the use of epidural morphine are much less frequent in children. For 2 years we have prospectively followed 76 children who had epidural morphine...... for postoperative pain relief after major abdominal surgery. The age distribution was from newborn to 13 years, with a median age of 12 months. It was estimated that 94% of the patients had good analgesia for the first 24 postoperative hours and no other opioids were given. The side effects were few, but one case...... the investigation. We observed a change in the sleeping pattern with an increased number of sleep-induced myoclonia during the administration of epidural morphine. In conclusion, the use of epidural morphine in children for postoperative pain relief is very efficient. The minimal effective dose has not been...

  15. Children's Thinking about Their Own and Others' Regret and Relief

    Weisberg, Daniel P.; Beck, Sarah R.


    In two experiments using a decision-making game, we investigated children's thinking about regret and relief. In Experiment 1 (N = 43, 31 children [5 years 4 months to 8 years 2 months of age] and 12 adults), participants chose between two boxes containing different numbers of stickers. They rated their happiness before learning that the other box…

  16. How Tax Relief for Training Can Make a Real Difference

    Wilson, Tom


    Companies received more than 5 billion British Pounds last year from the Exchequer in tax relief for work-related training. That is equivalent to the turnover of more than 250 further education colleges. And it vastly overshadows the 50 million British Pounds Growth and Innovation Fund set up to support employers' initiatives to improve skills and…

  17. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2) v2

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two-minute gridded global relief for both ocean and land areas are available in the ETOPO2v2 (2006) database. ETOPO2v2 replaced ETOPO2 (2001). The historic 2-minute...

  18. Improved Relief Valve Would Be Less Susceptible to Failure

    Farner, Bruce R.


    The balanced-piston relief valve with side vented reaction cavity has been proposed as an improved alternative to a conventional high-pressure, high-flow relief valve. The proposed valve would be less susceptible to failure. A typical conventional high-pressure, high-flow relief valve contains a piston that is exposed to the upstream pressure across the full valve-seat diameter and is held against the valve seat and the upstream pressure by a large spring. In the event of an increase in upstream pressure to a level above the valve set point (the pressure above which the valve opens), the opening force on the piston can be so large that the piston becomes accelerated to a speed high enough that the ensuing hard impact of the piston within the valve housing results in failure of the valve. For a given flow cross section, the proposal would significantly reduce the force, thereby reducing susceptibility to failure. A basic version of the proposed balanced-piston relief valve with side vented reaction cavity is described.

  19. Barriers to spousal contribution to childbirth pain relief in Nigeria.

    Emelonye, A U; Pitkäaho, T; Aregbesola, A; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K


    The aim of this study was to investigate the barriers inhibiting the use of spousal presence for childbirth pain relief in health facilities and recommendations from three perspectives: the midwife, the woman, and the spouse. Spousal presence is a non-invasive, participatory and inexpensive technique used in pain management during childbirth. Although it contributes to a large extent in relieving childbirth pain, it is underutilized in Nigerian hospitals. Overcoming the challenges impeding spousal presence and participation during childbirth will improve maternal outcome, satisfaction and midwifery care practices. A cross-sectional survey conducted in four hospitals in Nigeria involving midwives (n = 100), women (n = 142) and their spouses (n = 142) from June to December 2014 using pretested questionnaires. Five themes were identified: poor infrastructural facility, lack of adequate pain management policy, lack of midwife pain management practices, midwives' attitudes towards spousal presence during childbirth and feelings about spousal presence during childbirth pain relief. Infrastructural defects in the health facilities resulting in the lack of privacy in maternity units for both spouses and partners negatively influence the presence of a spouse during childbirth and pain relief. Adopting effective strategies such as good infrastructural facilities, staff training and spouse-friendly hospital policies will encourage spouses to fully participate in and contribute to childbirth pain relief. This study identified poor staff attitudes towards pain relief and spousal presence during childbirth as barriers. Providing adequate policies on pain management, continuous staff education and orientation on spousal relationship will improve active spousal participation and maternal satisfaction during childbirth. © 2016 International Council of Nurses.

  20. Frações oxidáveis do carbono orgânico em argissolo vermelho-amarelo sob sistema de aleias Oxidizable organic carbon fractions of an ultisol under an alley cropping system

    Arcângelo Loss


    Full Text Available O aporte de matéria orgânica ao solo via leguminosas em sistemas de aleias pode ser uma alternativa para o uso sustentável do trópico úmido. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o aporte de matéria orgânica facilmente oxidável proveniente da combinação de resíduos de diferentes leguminosas utilizadas em sistemas de condução de culturas em aleias sob Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo. Foram avaliadas duas espécies de leguminosas de alta qualidade de resíduos - leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan, e duas espécies de baixa qualidade de resíduos - sombreiro (Clitoria fairchildiana e acácia (Acacia mangium, combinadas entre si, nos seguintes tratamentos: sombreiro + guandu; leucena + guandu; acácia + guandu; sombreiro + leucena; leucena + acácia e testemunha sem leguminosa. As amostras de solo foram coletadas nas profundidades de 0-5 e 5-10 cm, nas entrelinhas. Foi quantificado e fracionado o C orgânico total (COT, estratificado em quatro frações (F1, F2, F3 e F4 com graus decrescentes de oxidação. As áreas com sombreiro/leucena, acácia/leucena e acácia/guandu apresentaram os maiores teores de COT (0-5 cm, e a área testemunha, os menores (5-10 cm. A maior proporção do COT estava nas frações F1+F2; a área testemunha teve os menores teores de C nessas frações. O tratamento acácia/guandu apresentou maiores teores de C na fração F1 nas duas profundidades. O tratamento leucena/guandu apresentou as maiores proporções do COT nas frações F3 + F4. Os resultados indicam que, no cultivo em sistema de aleias, a combinação de leguminosas de alta e baixa qualidade de resíduos (acácia/guandu favorece o aumento de matéria orgânica facilmente decomponível, enquanto o uso de leguminosas de alta qualidade de resíduos favorece maiores proporções de C somente nas frações mais resistentes (F3 + F4.The input of organic matter to the soil by legumes in alley cropping systems may be an alternative for a

  1. Developing Countries Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges Debt Relief Initiative for Poor Countries Faces Challenges


    This report responds to your request that we (1) assess whether the enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative is likely to free up...resources for poverty reduction and achieve the goal of debt sustainability, (2) describe the strategy to strengthen the link between debt relief and poverty

  2. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of the United States, with relief shading...

  4. USGS Small-scale Dataset - Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America 200509 GeoTIFF

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  5. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of the Conterminous United States map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of the United States, in an Albers...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View with Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate...

  7. The influence of diffraction gratings relief noise on the intensity distribution in diffraction orders

    Kolyuchkin, V. V.; Odinokov, S. B.


    The method of security hologram quality inspection, in which the relief phase parameters are determined by registering results of the intensity distribution in diffraction orders, is known. The profile of relief as a harmonious distribution is represented. Deviation of the real relief profile from the ideal profile, another words phase relief noise, influence on the accuracy of this method. In the paper, on the assumption of homogeneity of the phase relief noise, the mathematical expressions for evaluating the influence of the phase relief noise on the intensity distribution in the diffraction orders are represented. Parameters of the correlation functions approximation describing the phase relief noise are determined. The dependence of the intensity values from the standard deviation of the phase relief noise is represented.

  8. Teatro Alley Houston – (EE.UU.

    Ulrich Franzen y asociados, Arquitectos


    Full Text Available Both in view of its exterior shape and appearance as well as its interior decoration this building has been planned meticulously, considering the area, the population and the climate of the city as well as the usual medium of transport that the visitor will be using. The box-offices are accessible by car for which there is a nearby underground parking lot, connected with the theatre through a tunnel. The staircases are short and of different shapes. The theatre has spacious and shading terraces next to the foyers from where there is a view over the civic centre of the town. The interior decoration is inspired by the Spanish tradition, the South West Indies and Central America the influence of which is noted extensively in the area. The construction in general has been made with curved walls of fairfaced concrete on the outside and on the inside the colours are orange, brown, golden and blue.Este edificio se proyectó, tanto en su forma y aspecto exterior, como en su decoración interior, pensando meticulosamente en la zona, población de la ciudad y su clima, así como el medio habitual de transporte que utilizará el visitante. Las taquillas tienen acceso desde el automóvil, el cual se puede dejar en el estacionamiento subterráneo próximo, enlazado con el teatro mediante un túnel. Las escalinatas son variadas y constan de tramos cortos de forma diferente. Dispone de amplias y sombreadas terrazas, junto a las salas de descanso, desde las que se observa el centro cívico de la población. La decoración interior se inspiró en la tradición española, de las Indias Suroccidentales y de América Central, cuya influencia se nota ostensiblemente en la región. La construcción general se realizó a base de muros curvos de hormigón visto al exterior y colores naranja, marrón, dorado y azul en el interior.

  9. The Military Logistics Support of Humanitarian Relief Efforts during Low-Intensity Conflict


    of military logistics support of relief efforts low-intensity conflict, a study of the land, people, government, economy and history of each country...U.S. policy goals, the actual humanitarian relief operation, and the military logistics support provided used to the question: ’What are the key...elements to provide successful logistics support of humanitarian relief efforts during low-intensity conflict? Military Logistics , Humanitarian Relief, Low-Intensity Conflict, Afghanistan, Chad, Humanitarian Aid, Logistics

  10. 46 CFR 38.25-10 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.25-10 Section 38.25-10... and Inspections § 38.25-10 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) The cargo tank safety relief valves shall be inspected at least once in every 2 years. (b) The safety relief valve discs must be lifted...

  11. Knowledge, attitude and use of pain relief in labour among women ...

    Results: The median age of the participants was 28 years and a median parity of one. ... Among the 10.6% patients that were of a pain relief method, 54% had gotten ... would use a pain relief method in the next labour with epidural method being ... There is need to integrate information on pain relief options in labour as part ...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.


    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current...

  13. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  14. 38 CFR 2.7 - Delegation of authority to provide relief on account of administrative error.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of authority to provide relief on account of administrative error. 2.7 Section 2.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 2.7 Delegation of authority to...

  15. 12 CFR 303.248 - Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Truth in Lending Act-Relief from reimbursement... PRACTICE FILING PROCEDURES Other Filings § 303.248 Truth in Lending Act—Relief from reimbursement. (a) Scope. This section applies to requests for relief from reimbursement pursuant to the Truth in Lending...

  16. 49 CFR 179.220-24 - Tests of pressure relief valves.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tests of pressure relief valves. 179.220-24 Section 179.220-24 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS...-24 Tests of pressure relief valves. Each safety relief valve must be tested by air or gas...

  17. 30 CFR 203.85 - What is in an economic viability and relief justification report?


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is in an economic viability and relief... Required Reports § 203.85 What is in an economic viability and relief justification report? This report... economic viability and relief justification report must contain the following items for an oil and...

  18. 77 FR 19533 - Changes in the Statutory Authority for Petitions for Relief


    ... Petitions for Relief AGENCY: U.S. Customs and Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security. ACTION... authorities regarding petitions for relief from a fine, penalty, forfeiture, or liquidated damages under a law... alleged to have committed a violation, or a breach of a bond condition, to petition for relief. This...

  19. Photofabrication of surface relief gratings using post functionalized azo polymers

    Tripathy, S.K.; Kumar, J.; Kim, D.Y.; Jiang, X.; Wang, X.; Li, L.; Sukwattanasinitt, M.; Sandman, D.J.


    A series of azobenzene funtionalized polymers has been synthesized by post polymerization azo coupling reaction. Photo-fabrication of surface relief gratings were studied on the polymer films. Epoxy based azo polymers were prepared by post azo coupling reaction to form polymers containing donor-acceptor type azo chromophores. The azo chromophores were designed to contain ionizable groups to impart self-assembling and photoprocessing capabilities to the polymers. The polymers containing 4-(4-(carboxylic acid)phenylazo)aniline chromophores can be directly photofabricated to form surface relief gratings with large surface modulations. Charge interactions had a strong influence on the details of the writing process. A new soluble polydiacetylene, post-functionalized with azobenzene groups was also prepared. Large amplitude surface gratings could be fabricated on this polydiacetylene film as well.

  20. The Pressure Relief System Design for Industrial Reactors

    Iztok Hace


    Full Text Available A quick and simple approach for reactor—emergency relief system design—for runaway chemical reactions is presented. A cookbook for system sizing with all main characteristic dimensions and parameters is shown on one realistic example from process industry. System design was done based on existing theories, standards, and correlations obtained from the literature, which were implemented for presented case. A simple and effective method for emergency relief system is shown, which may serve as an example for similar systems design. Obtained results may contribute to better understanding of blow down system frequently used in industrial plants, for increasing safety, decreasing explosion damage, and alleviating the ecological problems together with environmental pollution in case of industrial accidents.