Sample records for relief devices piping

  1. 49 CFR 178.337-9 - Pressure relief devices, piping, valves, hoses, and fittings.


    ... must not be capable of causing any adverse chemical reaction with the cargo tank lading in the event of... heavier, except for sacrificial devices. Malleable metal, stainless steel, or ductile iron must be used in.... Stainless steel may be used for internal components such as shutoff discs and springs except...

  2. 46 CFR 154.519 - Piping relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping relief valves. 154.519 Section 154.519 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.519 Piping relief valves. (a) The liquid relief valve that protects the cargo piping system from liquid pressure exceeding the design pressure must discharge into: (1) A cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 56.50-20 - Pressure relief piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief piping. 56.50-20 Section 56.50-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-20 Pressure relief piping. (a)...

  4. 46 CFR 154.517 - Piping: Liquid pressure relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Liquid pressure relief. 154.517 Section 154.517 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.517 Piping: Liquid pressure relief. The cargo loading and discharge...

  5. Rapidly design safety relief valve inlet piping systems

    Westman, M.A.


    Safety relief valves (SRVs) used to protect against overpressure require well-designed inlet piping for proper operation. The engineer`s job is to produce these designs from a thorough understanding of the inlet piping as a key component in the safety relief system and the correct application of the governing fluid dynamics principles. This article will present a technique for analysis and design using classical ideal-gas adiabatic fluid flow principles. Also, it will discuss the advantages of using the personal computer (PC) to quickly arrive at accurate designs. This work applies to SRVs in which relief flows are limited by sonic conditions at their nozzles.

  6. 46 CFR 56.50-25 - Safety and relief valve escape piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety and relief valve escape piping. 56.50-25 Section 56.50-25 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-25 Safety and relief valve escape piping. (a) Escape piping...

  7. Underground pipe inspection device and method

    Germata, Daniel Thomas [Wadsworth, IL


    A method and apparatus for inspecting the walls of an underground pipe from inside the pipe in which an inspection apparatus having a circular planar platform having a plurality of lever arms having one end pivotably attached to one side of the platform, having a pipe inspection device connected to an opposite end, and having a system for pivoting the lever arms is inserted into the underground pipe, with the inspection apparatus oriented with the planar platform disposed perpendicular to the pipe axis. The plurality of lever arms are pivoted toward the inside wall of the pipe, contacting the inside wall with each inspection device as the apparatus is conveyed along a length of the underground pipe.

  8. 49 CFR 179.15 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.15 Section 179.15... Design Requirements § 179.15 Pressure relief devices. Except for DOT Class 106, 107, 110, and 113 tank cars, tanks must have a pressure relief device, made of material compatible with the lading,...

  9. 46 CFR 154.912 - Inerted spaces: Relief devices.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inerted spaces: Relief devices. 154.912 Section 154.912... Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.912 Inerted spaces: Relief devices. Inerted spaces must be fitted with relief valves, rupture discs, or other devices specially approved by the...

  10. 49 CFR 179.500-12 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.500-12 Section 179... and 107A) § 179.500-12 Pressure relief devices. (a) Tank shall be equipped with one or more pressure relief devices of approved type and discharge area, mounted on the cover or threaded into the...

  11. 49 CFR 179.300-15 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief devices. 179.300-15 Section 179... Pressure relief devices. (a) Unless prohibited in part 173 of this subchapter, tanks shall be equipped with one or more relief devices of approved type, made of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by...

  12. 46 CFR 64.71 - Marking of pressure relief devices.


    ... AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Pressure Relief Devices and Vacuum Relief Devices for MPTs § 64.71 Marking...— (a) Set pressure rating; (b) Rated flow capacity expressed as cubic feet of standard air (60 °F 14.7... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of pressure relief devices. 64.71 Section 64.71...

  13. Transient analysis of water slug discharge in PWR safety/relief valve piping. [WATSLUG code

    Van Duyne, D.A.; Hsieh, J.S.; Shave, D.F.


    The sudden discharge of the water loop seal, which is often present upsteam of pressurizer safety and relief valves, creates large momentum and inertia forces on the piping segments downstream of the valve. This paper provides a brief discussion of the commonly available control-volume calculation techniques, a description of the governing equations and a recently developed computer routine (WATSLUG) for their solution, and a review of results calculated using this method for a typical pressurizer safety and relief valve system. 8 refs.

  14. Resolving plant operational issues related to pressurizer safety relief valve piping

    Bain, R.A. [Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Div.; Testa, M.F. [Duquesne Light Co., Shippingport, PA (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.


    Pressurizer safety and relief valve (PSARV) piping has many technical issues related to the qualification and operation of the system that have been addressed at Beaver Valley Unit 2. The PSARV piping is part of a system that must meet Code requirements while being subjected to very significant fluid transient loadings. Valve components include safety valves, power operated relief valves (PORVs), and motor operated block valves. Fluid slugs upstream of these valves can be steam or can be hot or cold water, resulting in a significant variance in possible slug densities. Problems with design options and hardware installed to decrease slug density such as heat tracing, and the susceptibility of the PORVs to leak are issues that affect plant operation, efficiency and cost effectiveness.

  15. 40 CFR 265.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 265.1054 Section 265.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure relief...

  16. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief.

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time were measured, and comfort grade was evaluated during sessions of continuous lateral turning at 0°, 15°, 30°, and 45°. We quantified the pressure-relieving effect using peak pressure, mean pressure, and pressure time integration. [Results] Participants demonstrated pressure time integration values below the pressure-time threshold at 15°, 30°, and 45° at all the common pressure ulcer sites. Moreover, the most effective angles for pressure relief at the common pressure ulcer sites were 30° at the occiput, 15° at the left scapula, 45° at the right scapula, 45° at the sacrum, 15° at the right heel, and 30° at the left heel. However, angles greater than 30° induced discomfort. [Conclusion] Continuous lateral turning with our specially designed device effectively relieved the pressure of targeted sites. Moreover, the suggested angles of continuous lateral turning can be used to relieve pressure at targeted sites.

  17. 40 CFR 63.1011 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. 63.1011 Section 63.1011 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The owner or operator...

  18. 40 CFR 63.165 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 63.165 Section 63.165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. (a) Except during pressure releases, each pressure...

  19. 40 CFR 63.1030 - Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. 63.1030 Section 63.1030 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 63.1030 Pressure relief devices in gas and vapor service standards. (a) Compliance schedule. The...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-15 - Valves and safety relief devices.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and safety relief devices. 58.16-15 Section 58.16... AUXILIARY MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Liquefied Petroleum Gases for Cooking and Heating § 58.16-15 Valves and safety relief devices. (a) Each cylinder shall have a manually operated screw-down shutoff...

  1. Design guidelines for PWR pressurizer safety and relief valve discharge piping to minimize potential operating and piping qualification problems

    Adams, T.M.; Chang, K.C.; Campbell, T.E.


    General system design considerations such as functional requirements, valve types and operation, and various loading conditions are discussed. General guidelines for the piping layout, support design, and embedment selection are presented and discussed. Also presented and discussed are potential system operating problems which can arise from an improper design. 3 refs.

  2. Application of RELAP5/MOD1 for calculation of safety and relief valve discharge piping hydrodynamic loads. Final report. [PWR


    A series of operability tests of spring-loaded safety valves was performed at Combustion Engineering in Windsor, CT as part of the PWR Safety and Relief Valve Test Program conducted by EPRI on behalf of PWR Utilities in response to the recommendations of NUREG-0578 and the requirements of the NRC. Experimental data from five of the safety valve tests are compared with RELAP5/MOD1 calculations to evaluate the capability of the code to determine the fluid-induced transient loads on downstream piping. Comparisons between data and calculations are given for transients with discharge of steam, water, and water loop seal followed by steam. RELAP5/MOD1 provides useful engineering estimates of the fluid-induced piping loads for all cases.

  3. Acoustic Resonance Frequency Elimination Device for Safety Relief Valves

    Redmond, J.


    Industry experience has shown that Safety Relief Valves (SRVs) and Steam Dryers installed in Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) experience vibration induced degradation and failures caused by acoustic resonance vibration of the main steam lines, resulting in decreased reliability and potential safety issues. The resonance is caused by vortex shedding from the standpipe inlet and acoustic standing waves in the standpipe, occurring when the two frequencies match. (Author)

  4. Effects of a continuous lateral turning device on pressure relief

    Do, Nam Ho; Kim, Deog Young; Kim, Jung-Hoon; Choi, Jong Hyun; Joo, So Young; Kang, Na Kyung; Baek, Yoon Su


    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the pressure-relieving effects of a continuous lateral turning device on common pressure ulcer sites. [Subjects] Twenty-four healthy adults participated. [Methods] The design of our continuous lateral turning device was motivated by the need for an adequate pressure-relieving device for immobile and/or elderly people. The procedure of manual repositioning is embodied in our continuous lateral turning device. The interface pressure and time we...

  5. Automatic device for maintenance on safety relief valve

    Fujio, M. [Okano Valve Mfg. Co. Ltd., Kitakyushu, Fukuoka (Japan)


    This system offers shorter, labor-saving periodic inspection of nuclear power plants particularly for maintenance of in the BWR plant. This automatic device has the following performance features. (author).

  6. RELAP5/MOD3 assessment for calculation of safety and relief valve discharge piping hydrodynamic loads. International agreement report

    Stubbe, E.J.; VanHoenacker, L.; Otero, R. [TRACTEBEL, Brussels (Belgium)


    This report presents an assessment study for the use of the code RELAP 5/MOD3/5M5 in the calculation of transient hydrodynamic loads on safety and relief discharge pipes. Its predecessor, RELAP 5/MOD1, was found adequate for this kind of calculations by EPRI. The hydrodynamic loads are very important for the discharge piping design because of the fast opening of the valves and the presence of liquid in the upstream loop seals. The code results are compared to experimental load measurements performed at the Combustion Engineering Laboratory in Windsor (US). Those measurements were part of the PWR Valve Test Program undertaken by EPRI after the TMI-2 accident. This particular kind of transients challenges the applicability of the following code models: two-phase choked discharge; interphase drag in conditions with large density gradients; heat transfer to metallic structures in fast changing conditions; two-phase flow at abrupt expansions. The code applicability to this kind of transients is investigated. Some sensitivity analyses to different code and model options are performed. Finally, the suitability of the code and some modeling guidelines are discussed.

  7. 40 CFR 264.1054 - Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Pressure relief devices in gas/vapor service. 264.1054 Section 264.1054 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY..., AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Equipment Leaks § 264.1054 Standards: Pressure...

  8. 49 CFR 192.731 - Compressor stations: Inspection and testing of relief devices.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compressor stations: Inspection and testing of...) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 192.731 Compressor stations: Inspection and testing of relief devices. (a) Except for rupture...

  9. Comparative performance of passive devices for piping system under seismic excitation

    Kumar, Praveen, E-mail: [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India); Jangid, R.S. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Reddy, G.R. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai, 400085 (India)


    Highlights: • Correlated the analytical results obtained from the proposed analytical procedures with experimental results in the case of XPD. • Substantial reduction of the seismic response of piping system with passive devices is observed. • Significant increase in the modal damping of the piping system is noted. • There exist an optimum parameters of the passive devices. • Good amount of energy dissipation is observed by using passive devices. - Abstract: Among several passive control devices, X-plate damper, viscous damper, visco-elastic damper, tuned mass damper and multiple tuned mass dampers are popular and used to mitigate the seismic response in the 3-D piping system. In the present paper detailed studies are made to see the effectiveness of the dampers when used in 3-D piping system subjected to artificial earthquake with increasing amplitudes. The analytical results obtained using Wen's model are compared with the corresponding experimental results available which indicated a good match with the proposed analytical procedure for the X-plate dampers. It is observed that there is significant reduction in the seismic response of interest like relative displacement, acceleration and the support reaction of the piping system with passive devices. In general, the passive devices under particular optimum parameters such as stiffness and damping are very effective and practically implementable for the seismic response mitigation, vibration control and seismic requalification of piping system.

  10. Flexible pipe crawling device having articulated two axis coupling

    Zollinger, William T.


    An apparatus for moving through the linear and non-linear segments of piping systems. The apparatus comprises a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly, a mechanism for extension and retraction of the front and rear leg assembles with respect to each other, such as an air cylinder, and a pivoting joint. One end of the flexible joint attaches to the front leg assembly and the other end to the air cylinder, which is also connected to the rear leg assembly. The air cylinder allows the front and rear leg assemblies to progress through a pipe in "inchworm" fashion, while the joint provides the flexibility necessary for the pipe crawler to negotiate non-linear piping segments. The flexible connecting joint is coupled with a spring-force suspension system that urges alignment of the front and rear leg assemblies with respect to each other. The joint and suspension system cooperate to provide a firm yet flexible connection between the front and rear leg assemblies to allow the pivoting of one with respect to the other while moving around a non-linear pipe segment, but restoring proper alignment coming out of the pipe bend.

  11. Pressure Relief Devices for High-Pressure Gaseous Storage Systems: Applicability to Hydrogen Technology

    Kostival, A.; Rivkin, C.; Buttner, W.; Burgess, R.


    Pressure relief devices (PRDs) are viewed as essential safety measures for high-pressure gas storage and distribution systems. These devices are used to prevent the over-pressurization of gas storage vessels and distribution equipment, except in the application of certain toxic gases. PRDs play a critical role in the implementation of most high-pressure gas storage systems and anyone working with these devices should understand their function so they can be designed, installed, and maintained properly to prevent any potentially dangerous or fatal incidents. As such, the intention of this report is to introduce the reader to the function of the common types of PRDs currently used in industry. Since high-pressure hydrogen gas storage systems are being developed to support the growing hydrogen energy infrastructure, several recent failure incidents, specifically involving hydrogen, will be examined to demonstrate the results and possible mechanisms of a device failure. The applicable codes and standards, developed to minimize the risk of failure for PRDs, will also be reviewed. Finally, because PRDs are a critical component for the development of a successful hydrogen energy infrastructure, important considerations for pressure relief devices applied in a hydrogen gas environment will be explored.

  12. Research on thermal characteristics of heat pipes for led lightning devices

    Lozovoi M. A.


    Full Text Available New energy-saving technologies for lighting is a promising trend in lighting technology. To this end, during the recent decade, have been actively developed and implemented lighting units based on LED modules. Reliability of such devices is largely dependent on the ensuring of cooling of the LEDs. Heat pipes are being used with ever increasing frequency for increasing an efficiency of cooling of powerful LEDs within a lightening device. Results of experimental modeling of thermal characteristics of two aluminum heat pipes with grooved capillary structure and ammonia used as a heat transfer agent, designed for application as a heat transfer elements in designs of powerful LED lightening device with forced air cooling are presented in this paper. It is shown that for the heat flux range of 50 to 100 W and for incident flow speed in the range of 0.8 to 2.1 m/s the temperature in the heating zone of the heat pipe falls into the range of 31.0 to 52.5 °C. In this case the temperature difference along the heat pipe is between 0.9…1.7 °C, when a minimal value of the fed heat flux is 50 W, and 1.7…3.1°C, when a maximum value of the heat flux is 100 W. The value of heat transfer resistance of the heat pipes was in the range of 0.012 to 0.044 °C/W. The key factors influencing the thermal characteristics of the heat pipes are: the value of the fed heat flux, the speed of cooling air flux, heat pipe inclination angle with respect to the horizon. By using five such heat pipes within the powerful LED lightning device it is possible to achieve an elimination of the total heat flux from LED modules up to 500 W. At an efficiency factor of LEDs of about 75% this is equivalent to intake power 665 W. Taking into account that luminous efficiency of modern LEDs is about 10 times as high as those of incandescent lamps, proposed lightning device will produce a luminous flux which is equivalent to the luminous flux of a lightening device with incandescent lamps

  13. A suspension device for an oil transferring pipe or hose; Oppheng paa et fartoey for et roer eller en slange

    Krogstad, I.; Sethre, K.


    The invention relates to an suspension device for an oil conveying pipe or hose for loading or unloading of a vessel. The device is cardanic, and during unloading the oil is conducted towards the cardan centre from one or both sides along a horizontal axis through one or more pipe swivels and possibly also bearings. Thereafter, the oil flow diverted and is conducted back towards the cardan centre along the second cardan axis. After having passed the next pipe swivel the oil flow is diverted to the third cardan axis, and in order to relieve this pipe swivel bearings may be arranged coaxially with the pipe swivel. The pipe bend is in this case suspended in brackets attached to a cylindrical load cell, which in turn pivots in a beam structure which in an integral part of the pipe structure, and which pivots about the first cardan axis. The load cell is able to register the hose tension. 5 figs.

  14. Acupuncture: a first approach on pain relief using a 617 nm LED device

    Costa, J. M.; Corral-Baqués, M. I.; Amat, A.


    In this study, a preliminary approach for pain relief using a novel pulsated LED device was conducted. 12 patients were treated with a Photopuncture device designed by SORISA, which consisted in a 10-channel LED system at 617 nm. 15 patients with different pain localizations were treated: cervicobrachialgia (3 cases), lumbago / sciatica (4 cases), gonalgia (3 cases), cephalalgia (2 cases), talalgia (1 case), epicondylitis (1 case) and trigeminal neuralgia (1 case). To characterize the pain level, the Categorical Pain Scale (none (0), mild (1-3), moderate (4-6) and severe (7-10)) was used. Just patients with severe pain (7-10) were treated. Patients were treated twice a week for 25 minutes; 5 to 8 sessions were given at the following treatment parameters: 10 mW per channel pulsed at 60 Hz with a 50 % duty cycle. The total dose for point was 7.5 J. To characterize the response to the treatment, the results were classified as: "no result", no changes in pain degree; "poor", pain decreased one category; "good", pain decreased two categories; "very good", complete healing (no pain). The results were: 1 case with "very good" result; 11 cases with "good" result; 3 cases with "poor" result; and 0 cases with "no result". We conclude that the Photopuncture led device may be a good alternative to classical Acupuncture in pain relief, although further experimentation is required.

  15. Measurement of inner and/or outer profiles of pipes using ring beam devices

    Wakayama, T.; Yoshizawa, T.


    Inner profile measurement is an important matter in such fields as medicine, dentistry and anthropology as well as mechanical engineering and industry. Here we propose a measurement method for inner diameter of pipes and/or holes. The key device in this technique is a ring beam device which consists of a conical mirror and a laser diode. And the fundamental principle is based on optical sectioning without any contact probe. The optically sectioned profile of an inner wall of a pipe-like object is analyzed to give the inner profile in addition to the inner diameter. This optical instrument with a simple and small configuration is now under development for practical uses. In the hitherto-tried experimental works, the availability of this instrument has been highly evaluated and usability for practical applications is expected, especially, for measurement and inspection of mechanical components and elements besides pipes. This ring beam device consisting of a conical mirror and a LD is assembled to form a disklike light beam sheet. We show measurement result of pipes and holes, and, at the same time, report a compact inner profile measuring instrument. Both the ring beam device and a miniaturized CCD camera are fabricated in a glass tube. Availability of this instrument is shown by measuring the inner profiles of various pipes. In response to this trial, there appeared a strong request that not only the internal but external profiles should be measured simultaneously. Therefore we propose an improved method for measuring the external profile in addition to the internal profile. In our arrangement, one pair of concaved conical mirrors is used for the external profile measurement. In combination with the inner profile measurement technique, simultaneous measurement of the inner and outer profiles becomes attainable. A measurement result on a bevel gear shows availability of newly proposed principle. Now we are aiming to realize simultaneous measurement of the internal

  16. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    Itoh, Hirokuni [Ohyo Koken Kogyo Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Hatakeyama, Mutsuo [Radioactive Waste Management and Nuclear Facility Decommissioning Technology Center, Tokyo (Japan); Tachibana, Mitsuo; Yanagihara, Satoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures {beta}-rays and {gamma}-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of {beta}-rays measures {gamma}-rays. The {beta}-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting {gamma}-ray counts measured by the inner detector from {gamma}- and {beta}-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of {sup 60}Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm{sup 2} with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm{sup 2} corresponding to clearance level of {sup 60}Co (0.4 Bq/g) can be evaluated with measurement time of 2 seconds, which is equal to measurement speed of 54 m/h. (author)

  17. Development of measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (Contract research)

    Itoh, H; Tachibana, M; Yanagihara, S


    The measuring device for inner surfaces of embedded piping (MISE) was developed to evaluate low-level radiological contaminations of inner surfaces of piping. The MISE consists of a cylindrically-formed double layered type detector and a piping crawling robot, which were designed and manufactured separately. In measurements of the contaminations, an outer cylindrical detector close to the surface of piping measures beta-rays and gamma-rays and an inner cylindrical detector set after a shielding plate for shield of beta-rays measures gamma-rays. The beta-ray counting rates are derived by subtracting gamma-ray counts measured by the inner detector from gamma- and beta-ray counts measured by the outer detector. The piping crawling robot transports the cylindrically-formed double layered type detector with observing inner surfaces of piping. The detection limit for the contamination of sup 6 sup 0 Co was found to be about 0.17 Bq/cm sup 2 with measurement time of 30 seconds. It is expected that 0.2 Bq/cm sup 2 co...

  18. Acoustical measurements of expression devices in pipe organs.

    Braasch, Jonas


    In this investigation, three different swell systems known in pipe organs, the swell box, the crescendo wheel, and the historic wind swell were measured and compared to each other. The dynamic range of the crescendo wheel was found to be most effective, and for frequencies near 2 kHz the increase in sound pressure level could be up to 50 dB between the softest and the loudest adjustment. The maximum dynamic range for the wind swell and the swell box were found to be 10-20 dB in the same frequency range. With its step-wise crescendo procedure, the crescendo wheel simulates the type of orchestra crescendo which is reached by successively adding further musical instruments. In contrast, the swell box and the wind swell produce a crescendo effect similar to the crescendo in which individual musical instruments perform a dynamic movement. This type of crescendo requires a continuous level increase but allows a smaller dynamic range. The disappearance of the wind swell is not surprising because it offers no advantage over the swell box, while being restricted to stops with free reeds.

  19. Experimental measurement, calculation and thermal visualization condenser temperature of cooling device with a heat pipe technology

    Nemec Patrik


    Full Text Available This work deal with evaluation of condenser temperature by experimental measurement, calculation and thermal visualization of cooling device working with a heat pipe technology. The referred device in the article is cooling device capable transfer high heat fluxes from electric elements to the surrounding. One from many things influenced the heat flux amount transferred from electronic elements through the cooling device to the surrounding is condenser construction, its capacity and option of heat removal. The work contain description, working principle and construction of cooling device. Experimental part describe the measuring method and mathematical calculation to condenser temperature evaluation of cooling device depending on the loaded heat of electronic components in range from 250 to 750 W. The mathematical calculation is based on physical phenomena of boiling, condensation and natural convection heat transfer. The results of experimental measurement and mathematical calculation are verified by thermal imagining of device condenser by IR camera.

  20. Application of an IR Thermographic Device for the Detection of a Simulated Defect in a Pipe

    Young Han Kim


    Full Text Available An infrared (IR temperature sensor module developed for the detection ofdefects in a metal plate is modified for defect detection in a pipe. A module giving closesensor arrangement and maintaining a constant distance between sensor and measuredobject is developed and utilized in the present modification of the IR thermographic device.The defect detection performance is experimentally investigated, and the measuredtemperature is compared with the computed temperature distribution and with a previousexperimental result. The outcome of this experiment indicates that detection of a simulateddefect is readily obtainable, and the measured temperature distribution is better for defectdetection than with the previously utilized device. The comparison of standard deviations ofdifferent sensors clearly indicates an improvement in the location of defects in this study.Also, the measured temperature distribution is comparable to the one calculated using a heatconduction equation. The device developed for defect detection here is suitable forimplementation in chemical processes, where most vessels and piping systems arecylindrical in shape.

  1. Programmable immersive peripheral environmental system (PIPES): a prototype control system for environmental feedback devices

    Frend, Chauncey; Boyles, Michael


    This paper describes an environmental feedback device (EFD) control system aimed at simplifying the VR development cycle. Programmable Immersive Peripheral Environmental System (PIPES) affords VR developers a custom approach to programming and controlling EFD behaviors while relaxing the required knowledge and expertise of electronic systems. PIPES has been implemented for the Unity engine and features EFD control using the Arduino integrated development environment. PIPES was installed and tested on two VR systems, a large format CAVE system and an Oculus Rift HMD system. A photocell based end-to-end latency experiment was conducted to measure latency within the system. This work extends previously unpublished prototypes of a similar design. Development and experiments described in this paper are part of the VR community goal to understand and apply environment effects to VEs that ultimately add to users' perceived presence.

  2. Loop heat pipes - highly efficient heat-transfer devices for systems of sun heat supply

    Maydanik, Yu. [Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics


    Loop heat pipes (LHPs) are hermetic heat-transfer devices operating on a closed evaporation-condensation cycle with the use of capillary pressure for pumping the working fluid [1]. In accordance with this, they possess all the main advantages of conventional heat pipes, but, as distinct from the latter, have a considerably higher heat-transfer capacity, especially when operating in the ''antigravity'' regime, when heat is transferred from above downwards. Besides, LHPs possess a higher functional versatility, are adaptable to different operating conditions and provide great scope for various design embodiments. This is achieved at the expense of both the original design of the device and the properties of the wick - a special capillary structure used for the creation of capillary pressure. The LHP schematic diagram is given in Fig. 1. The device contains an evaporator and a condenser - heat exchanger connected by means of smooth-walled pipe-lines with a relatively small diameter intended for separate motion of vapor and liquid. At present loop heat pipes are most extensively employed in thermoregulation systems of spacecrafts. Miniature LHPs are used for cooling electronics and computers. At the same time there exists a considerable potential of using these devices for the recovery of low-grade (waste) heat from different sources, and also in systems of sun heat supply. In the latter case LHPs may serve as an efficient heat-transfer link between a sun collector and a heat accumulator, which has a low thermal resistance and does not consume any additional energy for pumping the working fluid between them. (orig.)

  3. Accounting the mechanical resistance of testing device for straight-flow branch pipe in the transverse direction

    Sitnikov, D. V.; Klishin, S. V.; Zubarev, A. V.; Shvarts, A. A.


    The flexible inserts as a rubber-cord branch pipe are used to reduce the vibrations distributed from units of a hydraulic system through the pipelines. The device with completely rigid elements is used for the experimental determination of the stiffness characteristics of the branch pipes that determine their anti-vibration properties. In the paper the study of the mechanical resistances of an experimental device construction is carried out by method of the harmonic analysis in a frequency range of 1 Hz to 1000 Hz. Then these mechanical resistances are compared with the mechanical resistance of the branch pipe with diameter 100 mm obtained experimentally. It is found as a result it is necessary to take into account the value of the device mechanical resistance when the stiffness characteristics of the rubber-cord branch pipes with diameter 100 mm in the transverse direction at frequencies above 735 Hz are determined experimentally.

  4. Electrowetting-based microfluidic operations on rapid-manufactured devices for heat pipe applications

    Hale, Renee S.; Bahadur, Vaibhav


    The heat transport capacity of traditional heat pipes is limited by the capillary pressure generated in the internal wick that pumps condensate to the evaporator. Recently, the authors conceptualized a novel heat pipe architecture, wherein wick-based pumping is replaced by electrowetting (EW)-based pumping of microliter droplets in the adiabatic section. An electrowetting heat pipe (EHP) can overcome the capillary limit to heat transport capacity and enable compact, planar, gravity-insensitive, and ultralow power consumption heat pipes that transport kiloWatt heat loads over extended distances. This work develops a novel technique for rapid, scalable fabrication of EW-based devices and studies critical microfluidic operations underlying the EHP, with the objective of predicting the key performance parameters of the EHP. Devices are fabricated on a printed circuit board (PCB) substrate with mechanically-milled electrodes, and a removable polyimide dielectric film. The first set of experiments uncovers the maximum channel gap (1 mm) for reliable EW-based pumping; this parameter determines the heat transport capacity of the EHP, which scales linearly with the channel gap. The second set of experiments uncovers the maximum channel gap (375 microns) at which EW voltages can successfully split droplets. This is an important consideration which ensures EHP operability in the event of unintentional droplet merging. The third set of experiments demonstrate and study EW-induced droplet generation from an open-to-air reservoir, which mimics the interface between the condenser and adiabatic sections of the EHP. The experimental findings predict that planar, water-based EHPs with a (10 cm by 4 mm) cross section can transport 1.6 kW over extended distances (>1 m), with a thermal resistance of 0.01 K W-1.

  5. Analysis of thermo-mechanical pipe-strength for the LHC helium relief system and corresponding helium flows following a resistive transition of the magnets.

    Chorowski, M; Riddone, G


    The LHC cryogenic system will contain of about 100 tons of helium mostly located in underground elements of the machine. The amount of helium stored in the magnet cold masses located in one sector of the LHC machine will be of about 6400 kg. In case of a simultaneous resistive transition (quench) of the magnets of a full sector of the accelerator, the helium will be relieved to a dedicated relief system. The system will comprise header D, quench lines connected to medium pressure tanks, vent line open to environment and accessories. We analyse a dynamic behaviour of the system with respect to its thermo-mechanical properties and overall capacity. Spatial and time distribution of pressure, temperature, velocity, density and flow rates in the system elements are presented. Thermo-mechanical stresses in the critical pipe sections have been calculated.

  6. Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.


    A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients.

  7. One-heater flow-through polymerase chain reaction device by heat pipes cooling.

    Chen, Jyh Jian; Liao, Ming Huei; Li, Kun Tze; Shen, Chia Ming


    This study describes a novel microfluidic reactor capable of flow-through polymerase chain reactions (PCR). For one-heater PCR devices in previous studies, comprehensive simulations and experiments for the chip geometry and the heater arrangement were usually needed before the fabrication of the device. In order to improve the flexibility of the one-heater PCR device, two heat pipes with one fan are used to create the requisite temperature regions in our device. With the integration of one heater onto the chip, the high temperature required for the denaturation stage can be generated at the chip center. By arranging the heat pipes on the opposite sides of the chip, the low temperature needed for the annealing stage is easy to regulate. Numerical calculations and thermal measurements have shown that the temperature distribution in the five-temperature-region PCR chip would be suitable for DNA amplification. In order to ensure temperature uniformity at specific reaction regions, the Re of the sample flow is less than 1. When the microchannel width increases and then decreases gradually between the denaturation and annealing regions, the extension region located in the enlarged part of the channel can be observed numerically and experimentally. From the simulations, the residence time at the extension region with the enlarged channel is 4.25 times longer than that without an enlarged channel at a flow rate of 2 μl/min. The treated surfaces of the flow-through microchannel are characterized using the water contact angle, while the effects of the hydrophilicity of the treated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels on PCR efficiency are determined using gel electrophoresis. By increasing the hydrophilicity of the channel surface after immersing the PDMS substrates into Tween 20 (20%) or BSA (1 mg/ml) solutions, efficient amplifications of DNA segments were proved to occur in our chip device. To our knowledge, our group is the first to introduce heat pipes into

  8. The anatomy of a pipe bomb explosion: the effect of explosive filler, container material and ambient temperature on device fragmentation.

    Bors, Dana; Cummins, Josh; Goodpaster, John


    Understanding the mechanical properties of different piping material under various conditions is important to predicting the behavior of pipe bombs. In this study, the effect of temperature on pipe bomb containers (i.e., PVC, black steel and galvanized steel) containing low explosive fillers (i.e., Pyrodex and double-base smokeless powder (DBSP)) was investigated. Measurements of fragment velocity and mass were compared for similar devices exploded in the spring (low/high temperature was 8°C/21°C) and winter (low/high temperature range was -9°C/-3°C). The explosions were captured using high speed filmography and fragment velocities were plotted as particle vector velocity maps (PVVM). The time that elapsed between the initiation of the winter devices containing double-base smokeless powder (DBSP) and the failure of their pipe containers ranged from 5.4 to 8.1 ms. The maximum fragment velocities for these devices ranged from 332 to 567 m/s. The steel devices ruptured and exploded more quickly than the PVC device. The steel devices also generated fragments with higher top speeds. Distributions of fragment masses were plotted as histograms and fragment weight distribution maps (FWDM). As expected, steel devices generated fewer, larger fragments than did the PVC devices. Comparison to devices exploded in the spring revealed several pieces of evidence for temperature effects on pipe bombs. For example, the mean fragment velocities for the winter devices were at or above those observed in the spring. The maximum fragment velocity was also higher for the winter steel devices. Although there were no significant differences in mean relative fragment mass, the fragment weight distribution maps (FWDMs) for two winter devices had anomalous slopes, where lower energy filler caused more severe fragmentation than higher energy filler. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Emergency relief system design: The DIERS users group safety relief valve example problem

    Fisher, H.G. [Union Carbide Corp., South Charleston, WV (United States)


    Emergency relief system design involving two-phase flow is an evolving and complex technology. Aspects of alternative design techniques have been published. Well-documented, comprehensive design methods for safety relief valves, rupture disks and breather vents, however, are not readily available and example problems supported by data do not exist. Design Institute for Emergency Relief Systems (DIERS) Users Group members recently completed an example rating problem consisting of a safety relief valve mounted in a typical industrial configuration. Participants were asked to compute the flow through the device and to calculate the inlet pipe irreversible pressure loss and discharge pipe back pressure. Case studies involving various flows and physical conditions were formulated. A {open_quotes}Modified Delphi{close_quotes} technique was used to encourage participants to work until the {open_quotes}consensus{close_quotes} result was achieved. The exercise served to educate participants in the complexities and subtleties of emergency relief system design involving safety relief installations as compared to ideal nozzle calculations. All learned from the various calculation techniques used by others to solve the problem. Participants corrected parts of their computer codes and/or added procedures to address aspects of the problem. The present example problem is not supported by data. Available safety relief valve two-phase flow data suggest complexity not presently included in problem solutions. Future modification of the results may be required as additional considerations are incorporated into existing analytical methods and computer codes. 20 refs., 21 tabs.

  10. On the capacity-formula for pressure relief devices of tanks for dangerous goods; Die Kapazitaetsformel fuer Druckentlastungsvorrichtungen von Gefahrguttanks

    Ludwig, J. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)


    Each tank-container respectively portable tank for multimodal purposes has to be closed and fitted with safety devices (pressure relief devices). Pressure relief devices have to meet essential requirements concerning their total delivery capacity in condition of complete engulfment of the tank in fire. The total capacity of these devices should be sufficient to limit the pressure in the tank in each case to its test pressure, maximally. The total delivery capacity has to be determined by applying a formula which had been developed in the USA and taken over later on into international and national regulations on the transport of dangerous goods. The derivation of this formula will be described and evaluated with regard to given facts related to general thermodynamics and fire test results. (orig.) [German] Wesentliche Anforderung an Sicherheitseinrichtungen (Druckentlastungsvorrichtungen) fuer Tanks und Tankcontainer im multimodalen Verkehr ist, dass diese Einrichtungen im Feuerfall eine Gesamtdurchflussmenge aufweisen muessen, die zumindest einen Druckanstieg ueber den Pruefdruck hinaus verhindert. Die Ermittlung der Gesamtdurchflussmenge erfolgt nach einer in den USA entwickelten, in internationale und nationale Verkehrsvorschriften uebernommenen Zahlenwertgleichung (Kapazitaetsformel). Die Herleitung dieser Zahlenwertgleichung sowohl aus allgemein thermodynamischen als auch empirischen Gegebenheiten wird beschrieben und bewertet. (orig.)

  11. The second device for measuring of the thickness of the falling condensate in the gravity assisted heat pipe

    Lenhard, Richard; Malcho, Milan


    This article describes a device for measuring the thickness of a falling condensate that allowed comparison of calculations with the measurements. This article is a basic methodology for measuring the thickness of the falling condensate in gravitational heat pipes, with using the optical triangulation method, and the evaluation of risks associated with this method.

  12. In-plant safety/relief valve discharge load test, Monticello Plant. Final report

    Buzek, E.A. (comp.)


    This document reports the results of the test program of safety/relief valve (SRV) discharge load phenomena through a ramshead discharge device, and the effects upon the Mark I primary containment torus structure of the Monticello Nuclear Power Plant. The objectives were to provide a data base for verifying/improving bubble pressure, water reflood and piping load analytical models, and to measure the structural response of the torus, SRV piping, supports and acceleration of the basement and pedestal.

  13. 49 CFR 192.199 - Requirements for design of pressure relief and limiting devices.


    ... ports designed to prevent accumulation of water, ice, or snow, located where gas can be discharged into... seats that are designed not to stick in a position that will make the device inoperative; (c) Be... source of pressure, be designed to prevent unauthorized operation of any stop valve that will make...

  14. Experimental analysis on a 1:2 scale model of the double light pipe, an innovative technological device for daylight transmission

    Baroncini, C.; Boccia, O.; Chella, F.; Zazzini, P. [D.S.S.A.R.R. Faculty of Architecture, University ' ' G. D' Annunzio' ' Viale Pindaro 42, 65127 Pescara (Italy)


    In this paper the authors present the double light pipe, an innovative technological device, designed as an evolution of a traditional light pipe, which distributes daylight to underground areas of a building, illuminating, at the same time, the passage areas thanks to a larger collector and a second transparent pipe attached to the first one. Unlike the traditional light pipe, thanks to this double illuminating function it can be located in the middle of a room, despite its encumbrance. In this paper the technological design of the double light pipe is presented and the results of an experimental analysis on a reduced scale (1:2) model are shown. Internal illuminance data over horizontal and vertical work-planes were measured in various sky conditions with or without direct solar radiation. Being this innovative device obtained by a light pipe integrated with a second pipe, it performs like a traditional light pipe for the final room and, at the same time, illuminates the intermediate room giving it uniform and high quality light, particularly indicated for wide plant areas, such as show-rooms or museums. (author)

  15. Closed loop oscillating heat pipe as heating device for copper plate

    Kamonpet, Patrapon; Sangpen, Waranphop


    In manufacturing parts by molding method, temperature uniformity of the mold holds a very crucial aspect for the quality of the parts. Studies have been carried out in searching for effective method in controlling the mold temperature. Using of heat pipe is one of the many effective ways to control the temperature of the molding area to the right uniform level. Recently, there has been the development of oscillating heat pipe and its application is very promising. The semi-empirical correlation for closed-loop oscillating heat pipe (CLOHP) with the STD of ±30% was used in design of CLOHP in this study. By placing CLOHP in the copper plate at some distance from the plate surface and allow CLOHP to heat the plate up to the set surface temperature, the temperature of the plate was recorded. It is found that CLOHP can be effectively used as a heat source to transfer heat to copper plate with excellent temperature distribution. The STDs of heat rate of all experiments are well in the range of ±30% of the correlation used.

  16. Headache relief after anterior cervical discectomy: post hoc analysis of a randomized investigational device exemption trial: clinical article.

    Schrot, Rudolph J; Mathew, Jesna S; Li, Yueju; Beckett, Laurel; Bae, Hyun W; Kim, Kee D


    The authors analyzed headache relief after anterior cervical discectomy. Headache may be relieved after anterior cervical discectomy, but the mechanism is unknown. If headaches were directly referred from upper cervical pathology, more headache relief would be expected from surgery performed at higher cervical levels. If spinal kinesthetics were the mechanism, then headache relief may differ between arthroplasty and fusion. Headache relief after anterior cervical discectomy was quantified by the operated disc level and by the method of operation (arthroplasty vs arthrodesis). The authors performed a post hoc analysis of an artificial disc trial. Data on headache pain were extracted from the Neck Disability Index (NDI) questionnaire. A total of 260 patients underwent single-level arthroplasty or arthodesis. Preoperatively, 52% reported NDI headache scores of 3 or greater, compared with only 13%-17% postoperatively. The model-based mean NDI headache score at baseline was 2.5 (95% CI 2.3-2.7) and was reduced by 1.3 points after surgery (95% CI 1.2-1.4, p relief. There was no significant difference in headache relief between arthroplasty and arthrodesis. Most patients with symptomatic cervical spondylosis have headache as a preoperative symptom (88%). Anterior cervical discectomy with both arthroplasty and arthrodesis is associated with a durable decrease in headache. Headache relief is not related to the level of operation. The mechanism for headache reduction remains unclear.


    Suthar, K. J.; Lurie, Alexander M.; Den Hartog, P.


    Heat pipes and vapour chambers work on heat exchange phenomena of two-phase flow and are widely used for in-dustrial and commercial applications. These devices offer very high effective thermal conductivities (5,000-200,000 W/m/K) and are adaptable to various sizes, shapes, and ori-entations. Although they have been found to be an excel-lent thermal management solution for laptops, satellites, and many things in-between, heat pipes and vapour cham-bers have yet to be adopted for use at particle accelerator facilities where they offer the possibility of more compact and more efficient means to remove heat from unwanted synchrotron radiation. As with all technologies, there are inherent limitations. Foremost, they are limited by practi-cality to serve as local heat transfer devices; heat transfer over long distances is likely best provided by other means. Heat pipes also introduce unique failure modes which must be considered.

  18. Experimenting with a "Pipe" Whistle

    Stafford, Olga


    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here…

  19. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    Seniuk, P.J.


    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  20. Pressure relief valve/safety relief valve testing

    Murray, W.A.; Hamm, E.R.; Barber, J.R.


    Pressure vessels and piping systems are protected form overpressurization by pressure relief valves. These safety features are required to be tested-inspected on some periodic basis and, in most cases witnessed by a third party inspector. As a result nonconformances found by third parties Westinghouse Hanford Company initiated a task team to develop a pressure safety program. This paper reveals their findings.

  1. A Designer Fluid For Aluminum Phase Change Devices. Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes Performance Enhancement in Copper Heat Pipes. Volume 3


    34 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews , 20, pp. 397-410, 2013. [42] Liu, Z.-H., Li, Y.-Y., and Bao, R., "Thermal performance of inclined grooved...enhancement— research gap to engineering application," Progress in Nuclear Energy , 66, pp. 13-24, 2013. [39] Ahn, H. S., and Kim, M. H., "A review on...Heat Pipes," Proc. ASME 2013 Heat Transfer Summer Conference collocated with the ASME 2013 7th International Conference on Energy Sustainability and

  2. Pressure and Vacuum Relief Devices of Storage Tank at LNG Receiving Terminal%LNG接收站储罐压力和真空泄放装置

    张林松; 邢贵柱


    The basic technological process of LNG receiving terminal and the basic requirement for LNG storage tank are introduced. The contents of LNG storage tank pressure test are analyzed. The facili- ties for overpressure protection and negative pressure protection of LNG storage tank,the parameter set- ting and the selection considerations,key points of design and installation of pressure and vacuum relief devices are discussed.%介绍了LNG接收站的基本工艺和LNG储罐的基本要求,分析了LNG储罐压力检测内容,论述了LNG储罐超压保护和负压保护的设施、设定参数、压力和真空泄放装置的选择依据与设计安装要点.

  3. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe.

    Jones, T. B.


    A heat pipe of new design, using an electrode structure to orient and guide the dielectric liquid phase flow, is proposed. Analysis indicates that the operation of the electrohydrodynamic heat pipe is in direct analogy to capillary devices, with the polarization force acting in place of capillarity. Advantages of these new heat pipes include greatly reduced liquid friction, electrohydrodynamically enhanced evaporation and condensation heat transfer, and a possible voltage-controlled on/off feature. Preliminary calculations indicate that relatively high performance devices are possible.

  4. Electrohydrodynamic heat pipes.

    Jones, T. B.


    An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe of radical design is proposed which substitutes polarization electrohydrodynamic force effects for capillarity in collecting, guiding, and pumping a condensate liquid phase. The discussed device is restricted to the use of dielectric liquids as working fluids. Because of the relatively poor thermal transport properties of these liquids, capillary heat pipes using these liquids have not been high performance devices. The employment of the electrohydrodynamic concept should enhance this performance and help fill the performance gap that exists in the temperature range from 250 F to 750 F for 'conventional' capillary heat pipes.

  5. 高频直缝焊管内毛刺清除装置设计改进%Improvement of HF Longitudinal Welded Pipe Inside Burr Removing Device

    韩子元; 杜广来; 祁云祥; 祖建江; 轧乃姜


    介绍了高频直缝焊管内毛刺清除的主要方式,对天津双街钢管有限公司φ325 mm机组原有机械刮削式内毛刺清除装置的结构形式及优缺点进行了分析.研究设计了新型液压升降刮削式内毛刺清除装置,对其周向调整结构、无油润滑轴承、刀具冷却方式和内毛刺余高检测方法等创新点进行了详细的阐述.经过实际生产应用,这种新型液压升降式内毛刺清除装置刮削质量更稳定,轴承套和刀具的使用成本更低,操作方便,经济实用,在高频直缝焊管生产行业中有很好的推广价值.%The main removing insdie burr methods on high frequency longitudinal welded pipe were introduced; the structure, advantages and disadvantages of original mechanical scraping inside burr removing device of 325 units in Tianjin Shuangjie Steel Pipe Co., Ltd. were analyzed. A new kind of hydraulic lifting and scraping inside burr removing device was designed and studied, and several innovative points were expatiated, covering the circumferential adjusting structure, bearing without oil lubrication, cutter cooling mode, detecting method of inside burr reinforcement and so on.The practical application proved that this new device possesses stable quality, lower cost for bearing and cutter,operation convenience, so it is applicable to widely promote in high frequency longitudinal welded pipe industry.

  6. Depth relief

    Kappers, A.M.L.; Koenderink, J.J.; Doorn, A.J. van


    A study is reported of the depth relief in a simple three-dimensional scene consisting of a white, rough sphere on a planar support, illuminated in a natural manner. Viewing conditions included monocular and binocular as well as 'synoptical' viewing. In the synoptical condition the eyes are

  7. Preliminary Design of IHTS Piping Support for PGSFR

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Koo, Gyeong-Hoi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    A pipe support is a designed element that transfer the load from pipe to the supporting structures. Providing sufficient pipe wall thickness and installing proper supports are most important elements for structural integrity of the piping system. Piping supports are generally referred to as device used in supporting the weight of the piping. The weight includes that of the pipe proper, the content the pipe carries, and the pipe converting, such as insulation. A FE analysis was performed to select variable spring hanger of IHTS hot-leg piping for PGSFR. The calculated values will be used to design variable spring hanger.

  8. 切管机刀具气雾式保护装置设计%Design of Aerosol Type Protective Device for Pipe Cutting Machine

    王增会; 王家珂; 杨涵坤; 石瑞芬


    介绍了一种新型的用于切管机的刀具保护装置,着重阐述新型设备中喷雾机构、吹气机构及控制触发装置的工作过程和电机的选择方法。所设计的新型设备可更好地保护刀具,其冷却效果好,操作方便,提高了刀具的使用寿命。%A new protective device for pipe cutting machine tool was introduced in this paper ,and the working process of spray mechanism ,blowing mechanism and trigger control device was emphatically expounded .The new equipment can protect cutting tool better ,and has perfect cooling and easy operation ,thus improving the service life of tool .

  9. 46 CFR 151.15-6 - Venting piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Venting piping. 151.15-6 Section 151.15-6 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-6 Venting piping. (a) The back pressure in the relief... condensate which may accumulate in the vent piping. (b)...

  10. Diclofenac plus lidocaine gel for pain relief during intrauterine device insertion. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study.

    Fouda, Usama M; Salah Eldin, Noha M; Elsetohy, Khaled A; Tolba, Hoda A; Shaban, Mona M; Sobh, Sherin M


    To determine the effectiveness of diclofenac potassium combined with 2% lidocaine gel in reducing the pain of intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. We randomized 90 parous women requesting copper T380A IUD insertion in a 1:1 ratio to active or placebo treatment. Active treatment included administration of two 50-mg diclofenac potassium tablets 1h before IUD insertion, application of 3mL of 2% lidocaine gel on the anterior cervical lip 3min before IUD insertion and placement of a cotton swab soaked in 2% lidocaine gel in the cervical canal 3min before IUD insertion. Women in the placebo group received placebo tablets and gel. Participants assessed pain intensity using a 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS). We considered a 2-cm difference in VAS pain score between both groups during IUD insertion to be a clinically significant difference. Subjects receiving active treatment, as compared to placebo, experienced less pain during tenaculum placement (1.66±0.85 vs. 2.33±1.19, p=.003) and IUD insertion (3.14±0.92 vs. 3.94±1.3, p=.001). Women who delivered only by cesarean section had higher pain scores with IUD insertion compared with women with previous vaginal deliveries (4.41±1.24 vs. 3.29±1.05, p=.001). Diclofenac potassium combined with 2% lidocaine gel slightly reduced pain scores during tenaculum application and copper IUD insertion in parous women; however, the reduction in pain scores lacked clinical significance. Although we found a statistically significant lowering of pain scores with pretreatment with diclofenac potassium and lidocaine gel in parous women having copper IUD placement, the reduction is not clinically relevant. These findings may be more relevant for nulliparous women who experience more pain than parous women with IUD insertion and support studies of diclofenac potassium and lidocaine gel in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Groove Rectification Analysis on Portable Pipe External Aligning Device%便携式管道外对口器坡口矫正分析

    赵杰; 李峰; 姚爽


    |In order to solve the groove profile problem of pipe butt welding under complicated working condition, using portable pipe external aligning device with ANSYHS bisymmetrical screw slide mechanism to conduct finite element analysis, analyzed deformation and stress distribution of pipeline and aligning device under a series of load . The result indicated that plastic deformation occurred in φ 325 mmx8 mm pipeline under 8 Mpa load, and the equivalent stress strength of aligning device was far less than that of yield stress, plastic deformation did not occur. The maximum bearing ability for this kind of aligning device is 24 Mpa, and it can rectify deformation pipeline with the maximum roundness 2.6%.%为了解决复杂工况下管道对焊坡口的整形问题,运用ANSYS对双对称丝杠滑块机构的便携式管道外对口器进行有限元分析.分析了在一系列载荷作用下管道及对口器的变形情况和应力分布,结果表明,φ325 mm×8 mm管道在8MPa载荷作用下发生塑性变形,此时对口器的等效应力强度远小于屈服应力,未发生塑性变形.该对口器的最大承重能力为24 MPa,最大能够矫正椭圆度为2.6%的变形管道.

  12. An Innovative and Portable Multimodal Pain Relief Device for the Management of Neuropathic Low Back Pain - a Study from Kashmir (Southeast Asia)

    Lone, Baseer-ul-Rasool; Beigh, Mirza-Idrees-ul-Haq; Manzoor, Mushbiq


    We developed a portable multimodal system with seven different mechanisms of pain relief incorporated into a lumbar belt called the Comfort-N-Harmony Belt (C&H belt). Here, we describe the technical details of the system and also summarize the effects of this multimodal pain relieving technology as an adjuvant to analgesics versus analgesics alone, on the level of pain, improvement of psychological status, disability, and the quality of life in the patients with neuropathic low back pain (LBP). We tracked the volunteers who were following up at a tertiary health care center for the complaints of neuropathic LBP of minimum three months duration and were on analgesics alone with no relief in the severity of the pain. Study group A (n = 45) consisted of volunteers with LBP on C&H belt therapy, along with the usually prescribed analgesic intake, and group B (n = 45) with LBP volunteers on analgesics, plus a similar looking but plain leather belt (placebo). For pain, the VAS (Visual Analogue Scale); for anxiety and depression, the (HADS) Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale; for disability, the RMDQ (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire); and for quality of life, (NHP) Nottingham-Health-Profile were used before and after the study period.  There were no significant differences in demographic variables between the groups (p 0.05). However, in comparison of pre- and post-treatment scores, the pre-treatment score values of RMDQ, NHP-pain, NHP-physical activity, and NHP-social isolation were much higher in group A compared to the group B, but still these scores were, in a statistically significant manner, improved in group A compared to the group B after the study period was over (p < 0.05). Multiple pain relieving mechanisms in a portable device-based system, when used along with analgesics, are effective in relieving pain, improving function and quality of life, and help in relieving the associated anxiety and depression in patients with chronic neuropathic LBP than

  13. Experimenting with a ``Pipe'' Whistle

    Stafford, Olga


    A simple pipe whistle can be made using pieces of PVC pipe. The whistle can be used to measure the resonant frequencies of open or closed pipes. A slightly modified version of the device can be used to also investigate the interesting dependence of the sound frequencies produced on the orifice-to-edge distance. The pipe whistle described here allows students in a physics of music or introductory physics course to study an example of an "edge tone" device that produces discrete sound frequencies. From their textbooks, students likely know about standing waves produced by pipes or strings, as well as the resonant frequencies for open and closed pipes. To go a bit further, they can also learn how the frequency of the sound wave depends on the orifice-to-edge distance of the wind instrument.

  14. Silicon Heat Pipe Array

    Yee, Karl Y.; Ganapathi, Gani B.; Sunada, Eric T.; Bae, Youngsam; Miller, Jennifer R.; Beinsford, Daniel F.


    Improved methods of heat dissipation are required for modern, high-power density electronic systems. As increased functionality is progressively compacted into decreasing volumes, this need will be exacerbated. High-performance chip power is predicted to increase monotonically and rapidly with time. Systems utilizing these chips are currently reliant upon decades of old cooling technology. Heat pipes offer a solution to this problem. Heat pipes are passive, self-contained, two-phase heat dissipation devices. Heat conducted into the device through a wick structure converts the working fluid into a vapor, which then releases the heat via condensation after being transported away from the heat source. Heat pipes have high thermal conductivities, are inexpensive, and have been utilized in previous space missions. However, the cylindrical geometry of commercial heat pipes is a poor fit to the planar geometries of microelectronic assemblies, the copper that commercial heat pipes are typically constructed of is a poor CTE (coefficient of thermal expansion) match to the semiconductor die utilized in these assemblies, and the functionality and reliability of heat pipes in general is strongly dependent on the orientation of the assembly with respect to the gravity vector. What is needed is a planar, semiconductor-based heat pipe array that can be used for cooling of generic MCM (multichip module) assemblies that can also function in all orientations. Such a structure would not only have applications in the cooling of space electronics, but would have commercial applications as well (e.g. cooling of microprocessors and high-power laser diodes). This technology is an improvement over existing heat pipe designs due to the finer porosity of the wick, which enhances capillary pumping pressure, resulting in greater effective thermal conductivity and performance in any orientation with respect to the gravity vector. In addition, it is constructed of silicon, and thus is better

  15. Development of SPR-6 Pipe Handling Device%SPR-6钻柱自动排放装置的研制

    高迅; 徐军; 彭太锋; 李勇


    The traditional drilling rig needs high-altitude operations by derrickman on the monkey board in drill string racking and transporting, presenting high risk, intensive labor and low efficiency. In view of this, the SPR-6 pipe handling device has been developed. The device mainly consists of the upper grab arm, the lower grab arm and electro-hydraulic control system. Through centralized control, the upper and the lower grab arms achieve synchronous interaction to grab, move and rack the drill string, so to achieve automatic drill string racking. The testing results showed that, the SPR-6 automatic pipe handling device has a rational structure design, high accu-racy, and operation flexibility, stable and reliable running, thus achieving automatic and unmanned pipe han-dling, reduced labor intensity and improved drilling safety.%传统石油钻机在排放和输送钻柱作业过程中需要井架工在二层台从事高空作业,危险系数高,劳动强度大,作业效率低.鉴于此,研制了SPR-6钻柱自动排放装置.该装置主要由上部机械手、 下部机械手和电液控制系统等部分组成,通过集中控制,实现上部机械手和下部机械手的同步联动,达到抓取、 移动和排放钻柱的目的.试验结果表明,SPR-6钻柱自动排放装置结构设计合理,定位精度高,操作灵活,运行平稳可靠,减轻了工人的劳动强度,提高了钻井作业安全性.该装置实现了钻柱排放作业自动化和无人化操作.

  16. Thermodynamic aspects of heat pipe operation

    Richter, Robert; Gottschlich, Joseph


    An expanded heat pipe operating model is described which includes thermodynamic and heat transfer considerations to reconcile disparities between actual and theoretical heat pipe performances. The analysis shows that thermodynamic considerations can explain the observed heat pipe performance limitations. A full understanding of thermodynamic processes could lead to advanced concepts for thermal transport devices.

  17. 49 CFR 236.712 - Brake pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Brake pipe. 236.712 Section 236.712 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.712 Brake pipe. A pipe...

  18. Automatic Control Design of Rust Removing Device for Pipe End%管端除锈设备自动控制设计

    李建明; 邓志伟; 付雪强; 张世平; 江渊; 魏耀华


    In this article, it introduced the structure and functions of a new kind of SAW pipe end rust removing device, and expounded its working principle. At the same time, the full-automatic control technology of rust removing was designed based on SIEMENS S7-200 PLC. The productive practice proved that this automatic control design increased production efficiency, reduced failure rate and work labor cost, avoided unstable factors of manual operation, and realized stable rust removing was in favour of HSE field management, and simple maintenance. Meanwhile, it avoided base metal scratch, increased rust removing quality. So it is applicable to widely promote in SAWH pipe industry.%介绍了一种新型螺旋埋弧焊管管端除锈设备的构造和功能,阐述了其工作原理,并基于西门子S7-200 PLC设计了除锈设备的全自动控制工艺.经过实际生产应用证明,管端除锈设备的自动控制设计提高了工作效率,维修、维护方便,故障率降低,更有利于HSE现场管理,避免了人工操作的不稳定因素,降低了劳动力成本,保证了管端除锈质量的稳定,同时,避免了母材划伤,提高了除锈质量,在同行业中具有很好的推广应用价值.

  19. 33 CFR 157.122 - Piping, valves, and fittings.


    ...) Each overpressure relief valve must discharge into the suction side of a pump that meets § 157.126(b... system for oil washing and water washing, that piping system must be designed to drain the crude oil...

  20. Performance characteristic of thermosyphon heat pipe at radiant heat source

    Hrabovský, Peter; Papučík, Štefan; Kaduchová, Katarína


    This article discusses about device, which is called heat pipe. This device is with heat source with radiant heat source. Heat pipe is device with high efficiency of heat transfer. The heat pipe, which is describe in this article is termosyphon heat pipe. The experiment with termosyphon heat pipe get a result. On the base of result, it will be in future to create mathematical model in Ansys. Thermosyphon heat pipe is made of copper and distilled water is working fluid. The significance of this experiment consists in getting of the heat transfer and performance characteristic. On the basis of measured and calculated data can be constructed the plots.

  1. Development of On-site Self-climbing Drill Pipe Testing Device%自爬式钻杆现场检测装置的研制∗

    刘丹; 汤清源; 王刚庆; 王文军


    采用涡流检测方式只能检测钻杆表面和近表面缺陷,超声波检测方式对检测环境的要求较高,检测装置结构复杂,且检测过程中需施加耦合剂,不适合钻杆现场检测。鉴于此,研制了自爬式钻杆现场检测装置。该装置基于漏磁检测原理,通过霍耳元件拾取钻杆本体外的漏磁场信号,然后通过系统配套的信号转换器和信号处理系统对采集的缺陷信号进行采样、调理、 A/D转换和分析处理,以此来测量和评价其内部的腐蚀坑、裂纹及偏磨等缺陷,进而达到对钻杆缺陷进行定位和判断的目的。现场检测结果表明:当励磁电流达到3�5A时,自爬式钻杆检测装置可准确识别钻杆各类缺陷,且性能稳定可靠。该装置给管子站和井场现场堆放的钻杆提供了一种方便的检测手段,为钻杆的重复利用提供了技术保障。%The eddy current detection method can only detect surface and near surface defects of drillpipe, ultrasonic detection method�s high demand for detection environment, complex device structure and the need of coupling agent make it not suitable for drillpipe field detection� To address the issue, the self⁃climbing drillpipe field detection device has been developed� Based on the principle of magnetic flux leakage detection, the device picks up the leakage magnetic field signals out of the drillpipe body through the Hall element, then realizes sam⁃pling, conditioning, A/D conversing and analysis of the acquired defects signals through the system�s signal con⁃verter and signal processing system, so that to measure and evaluate the drillpipe�s internal defects like corrosion pits, cracks and eccentric wear, thus locate and evaluate the drillpipe defects� Field test results show that, when the excitation current reaches 3�5 A, the self⁃climbing drillpipe detection device can accurately identify the defects with stable and reliable

  2. Piping Flexibility


    A NASA computer program aids Hudson Engineering Corporation, Houston, Texas, in the design and construction of huge petrochemical processing plants like the one shown, which is located at Ju'aymah, Saudi Arabia. The pipes handling the flow of chemicals are subject to a variety of stresses, such as weight and variations in pressure and temperature. Hudson Engineering uses a COSMIC piping flexibility analysis computer program to analyze stresses and unsure the necessary strength and flexibility of the pipes. This program helps the company realize substantial savings in reduced engineering time.

  3. Piping Analysis


    Burns & McDonnell provide architectural and engineering services in planning, design and construction of a wide range of projects all over the world. In design analysis, company regularly uses COSMIC computer programs. In computer testing piping design of a power plant, company uses Pipe Flexibility Analysis Program (MEL-21) to analyze stresses due to weight, temperature, and pressure found in proposed piping systems. Individual flow rates are put into the computer, then computer calculates the pressure drop existing across each component; if needed, design corrections or adjustments can be made and rechecked.

  4. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D


    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  5. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Nemec Patrik; Malcho Milan


    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fl...

  6. Itching for Allergy Relief?

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Itching for Allergy Relief? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... your ability to function, you don't find relief from OTC drugs, or you experience allergy symptoms ...

  7. A New Type Guide Device of Pipe Mill Inlet%一种新型的轧管机入口台导向装置



    This paper introduce the structure and designing characteristics of a advanced pipe mill inlet were introduced. The advanced pipe mill inlet can be effectively checked mandel shake.%介绍了一种新型的斜轧轧管机入口台及其导向装置的结构和设计特点,该新型的轧管机入口台结构能够有效遏制芯棒的甩动。

  8. Piping Connector


    In Stennis Space Center's Component Test Facility, piping lines carry rocket propellants and high pressure cryogenic fuels. When the lines are chilled to a pretest temperature of 400 degrees below zero, ordinary piping connectors can leak. Under contract to Stennis, Reflange, Inc. developed the T-Con connector, which included a secondary seal that tolerates severe temperature change. Because of the limited need for the large and expensive T-Con product, Reflange also developed the less costly E-Con, a smaller more compact design with the same technical advantages as the T-Con.

  9. 46 CFR 38.10-15 - Safety relief valves-TB/ALL.


    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves-TB/ALL. 38.10-15 Section 38.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS LIQUEFIED FLAMMABLE GASES Piping, Valves, Fittings, and Accessory Equipment § 38.10-15 Safety relief valves—TB/ALL. (a) Each tank shall be...

  10. Silicon Carbide (SiC) Device and Module Reliability, Performance of a Loop Heat Pipe Subjected to a Phase-Coupled Heat Input to an Acceleration Field


    Oscillations in Loop Heat Pipe Operation,” AIP Conf. Proc. Vol. 552, 2001, pp. 255; DOI: 10.1063/1.1357932. [3] Bai, L., Lin, G., Zhang, H., Wen, D...916-920. [6] Khrustalev, D., “Advances in Transient Modeling of Loop Heat Pipe Systems with Multiple Components,” AIP Conf. Proc. Vol. 1208, 2010, pp...Under Standard and Elevated Acceleration Fields,” Journal of Thermophysics and Heat Transfer, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2010, pp.184-198; DOI: 10.2514/45684

  11. High Energy Vibration for Gas Piping

    Lee, Gary Y. H.; Chan, K. B.; Lee, Aylwin Y. S.; Jia, ShengXiang


    In September 2016, a gas compressor in offshore Sarawak has its rotor changed out. Prior to this change-out, pipe vibration study was carried-out by the project team to evaluate any potential high energy pipe vibration problems at the compressor’s existing relief valve downstream pipes due to process condition changes after rotor change out. This paper covers high frequency acoustic excitation (HFAE) vibration also known as acoustic induced vibration (AIV) study and discusses detailed methodologies as a companion to the Energy Institute Guidelines for the avoidance of vibration induced fatigue failure, which is a common industry practice to assess and mitigate for AIV induced fatigue failure. Such detailed theoretical studies can help to minimize or totally avoid physical pipe modification, leading to reduce offshore plant shutdown days to plant shutdowns only being required to accommodate gas compressor upgrades, reducing cost without compromising process safety.

  12. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Nemec Patrik


    Full Text Available Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  13. Visualization of working fluid flow in gravity assisted heat pipe

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan


    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapor and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about construction and processes casing in heat pipe during operation. Experiment visualization of working fluid flow is performed with glass heat pipe filed with ethanol. The visualization of working fluid flow explains the phenomena as working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, vapor flow, vapor condensation on the wall, vapor and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall, occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  14. Assessment of SWBR safety-relief valve discharge line dynamic loads due to steam blowdown

    Spoelstra, S.; Stoop, P.M. [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN), Petten (Netherlands); Dijk, A.B. van [Stork Nucon BV (Netherlands)


    The Safety/Relief Valve Discharge Lines of the SBWR nuclear power plant are subject to dynamic loads due to steam blowdown after rapid opening of the Safety/Relief Valves. This paper describes the calculation of the thermal-hydraulic loads exerted on the piping system and the calculation of the resulting pipe stresses. These calculations have been performed using the CHARME and PS+CAEPIPE computer programs respectively. The calculated pipe stresses have been combined with the ones resulting from dead weight and thermal expansion and compared with ASME III criteria. (orig.).

  15. 21 CFR 882.5890 - Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief.


    ... pain relief. 882.5890 Section 882.5890 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Devices § 882.5890 Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. A transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulator for pain relief is a device used to apply an electrical current...

  16. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale


    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  17. Safety/relief valve quencher loads: evaluation for BWR Mark II and III containments

    Su, T.M.


    Boiling water reactor (BWR) plants are equipped with safety/relief valves (SRVs) to protect the reactor from overpressurization. Plant operational transients, such as turbine trips, will actuate the SRV. Once the SRV opens, the air column within the partially submerged discharge line is compressed by the high-pressure steam released from the reactor. The compressed air discharged into the suppression pool produces high-pressure bubbles. Oscillatory expansion and contraction of these bubbles create hydrodynamic loads on the containment structures, piping, and equipment inside containment. This report presents the results of the staff's evaluation of SRV loads. The evaluation, however, is limited to the quencher devices used in Mark II and III containments. With respect to Mark I containments, the SRV acceptance criteria are presented in NUREG-0661 issued July 1980. The staff acceptance criteria for SRV loads for Mark II and III containments are presented in this report.

  18. Heat pipes

    Dunn, Peter D


    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  19. Relief of knee flexion contracture and gait improvement following adaptive training for an assist device in a transtibial amputee: A case study.

    Kim, Sol-Bi; Ko, Chang-Yong; Son, Jinho; Kang, Sungjae; Ryu, Jeicheong; Mun, Museong


    Management of a knee contracture is important for regaining gait ability in transtibial amputees. However, there has been little study of prosthesis training for enhancing mobility and improving range of motion in cases of restricted knee extension. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of adaptive training for an assist device (ATAD) for a transtibial amputee with a knee flexion contracture (KFC). A male transtibial amputee with KFC performed 4 months of ATAD with a multidisciplinary team. During the ATAD, the passive range of motion (PROM) in the knee, amputee mobility predictor (AMP) assessment, center of pressure (COP) on a force plate-equipped treadmill, gait features determined by three-dimensional motion analysis, and Short-Form 36 Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were evaluated. Following ATAD, PROM showed immediate improvement (135.6 ± 2.4° at baseline, 142.5 ± 1.7° at Step 1, 152.1 ± 1.8° at Step 2, 165.8 ± 1.9° at Step 3, and 166.0 ± 1.4° at Step 4); this was followed by an enhanced COP. Gradually, gait features also improved. Additionally, the AMP score (5 at baseline to 29 at Step 4) and K-level (K0 at baseline to K3 at Step 4) increased after ATAD. Along with these improvements, the SF-36 score also improved. ATAD could be beneficial for transtibial amputees by relieving knee contractures and improving gait.

  20. Menopause: Symptom Relief and Treatments

    ... Submit Home > Menopause > Menopause symptom relief and treatments Menopause Menopause symptom relief and treatments Working with your doctor ... on menopause symptom relief and treatments Learning about menopause treatment options Most women do not need treatment ...

  1. PWR safety/relief valve blowdown analysis experience

    Lee, M.Z.; Chou, L.Y.; Yang, S.H. (Gilbert/Commonwealth Engineers and Consultants, Reading, PA (USA). Speciality Engineering Dept.)


    The paper describes the difficulties encountered in analyzing a PWR primary loop pressurizer safety relief valve and power operated relief valve discharge system, as well as their resolution. The experience is based on the use of RELAP5/MOD1 and TPIPE computer programs as the tools for fluid transient analysis and piping dynamic analysis, respectively. General approaches for generating forcing functions from thermal fluid analysis solution to be used in the dynamic analysis of piping are reviewed. The paper demonstrates that the 'acceleration or wave force' method may have numerical difficulties leading to unrealistic, large amplitude, highly oscillatory forcing functions in the vicinity of severe flow area discontinuities or choking junctions when low temperature loop seal water is discharged. To avoid this problem, an alternate computational method based on the direct force method may be used. The simplicity and superiority in numerical stability of the forcing function computation method as well as its drawbacks are discussed. Additionally, RELAP modeling for piping, valve, reducer, and sparger is discussed. The effects of loop seal temperature on SRV and PORV discharge line blowdown forces, pressure and temperature distributions are examined. Finally, the effects of including support stiffness and support eccentricity in piping analysis models, method and modeling relief tank connections, minimization of tank nozzle loads, use of damping factors, and selection of solution time steps are discussed.

  2. Adjustable safety relief valve

    Taylor, W.L.


    This patent describes a pressure relief valve having a relief set pressure. It comprises: a valve body having a fluid inlet and outlet, a spherical, metal valve seat associated with the inlet and a valve member comprising at least a portion of a spherical,metal ball attached to a ball holding element, the valve member being biased against the valve seat and thus providing a metal-to-metal seal preventing the passage of fluids past the valve seat when the fluid pressure in the inlet is below the relief pressure setting of the valve.

  3. Development of Plasma Cutting Tracking Device for Spiral Welded Pipe%伺服控制跟踪在螺旋焊管生产线上的应用

    王昌龙; 陈靖芯; 秦永法; 竺志大


    薄壁螺旋焊管定长切割多数采用机械刀轮跟踪,往往存在切口不齐的问题。设计了一套用于螺旋焊管机的等离子切割跟踪装置,该系统由两路测速传感器、直流伺服电机、齿轮减速器、双丝杠螺母驱动的带有等离子切割喷枪的小车组成,通过调节伺服控制脉冲频率与所需送板速度之间的比例关系、送板速度与小车前进速度之间的比例关系,使切割小车与钢管伸长同步。测试结果表明,伺服跟踪误差小于1 cm ,远小于机械刀轮跟踪1 cm~3 cm的误差。%A knife flywheel is generally used in steel pipe cutting ,an uprightness incision is not available .A set of plasma cutting tracking device for spiral pipe is developed .This system is composed of two speed sensors ,DC servo motor ,gear retarder ,a vehicle with plasma gun drove by double screw and nut .Using this system regulates the velocity ratio of vehicle to plate (vvehicle/vplate ) ,to make the vehicle moving at the same speed of pipe extension .Experiment results show the error of servo tracking is less than the mechanical tracking ,the former is below 1 cm and the latter is 1 cm~3 cm .

  4. Fundamentals of piping design

    Smith, Peter


    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  5. Piping and tubing technology: A compilation


    A compilation on the devices, techniques, and methods used in piping and tubing technology is presented. Data cover the following: (1) a number of fittings, couplings, and connectors that are useful in joining tubing and piping and various systems, (2) a family of devices used where flexibility and/or vibration damping are necessary, (3) a number of devices found useful in the regulation and control of fluid flow, and (4) shop hints to aid in maintenance and repair procedures such as cleaning, flaring, and swaging of tubes.

  6. Glovebox pressure relief and check valve

    Blaedel, K.L.


    This device is a combined pressure relief valve and check valve providing overpressure protection and preventing back flow into an inert atmosphere enclosure. The pressure relief is embodied by a submerged vent line in a mercury reservior, the releif pressure being a function of the submerged depth. The pressure relief can be vented into an exhaust system and the relieving pressure is only slightly influenced by the varying pressure in the exhaust system. The check valve is embodied by a ball which floats on the mercury column and contacts a seat whenever vacuum exists within the glovebox enclosure. Alternatively, the check valve is embodied by a vertical column of mercury, the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of mercury.

  7. Simulation of transients of high amplitude in pipe systems

    Boersma, J.M.; Looijmans, K.N.H.


    Fast high-amplitude transients ask for a non-linear modelling approach in which large density variations and heat exchange can be considered. Operation of safety-valves, relief valves, the occurrence of valve failure and the start-up or shutdown of rotating equipment in industrial pipe systems can l

  8. Reusable pipe flange covers

    Holden, James Elliott (Simpsonville, SC); Perez, Julieta (Houston, TX)


    A molded, flexible pipe flange cover for temporarily covering a pipe flange and a pipe opening includes a substantially round center portion having a peripheral skirt portion depending from the center portion, the center portion adapted to engage a front side of the pipe flange and to seal the pipe opening. The peripheral skirt portion is formed to include a plurality of circumferentially spaced tabs, wherein free ends of the flexible tabs are formed with respective through passages adapted to receive a drawstring for pulling the tabs together on a back side of the pipe flange.

  9. Pipe drafting and design

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher


    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe




    The GTRAN program was developed to solve transient, as well as steady state, problems for gas piping systems. GTRAN capabilities allow for the analysis of a variety of system configurations and components. These include: multiple pipe junctions; valves that change position with time; fixed restrictions (orifices, manual valves, filters, etc.); relief valves; constant pressure sources; and heat transfer for insulated piping and piping subjected to free or forced convection. In addition, boundary conditions can be incorporated to simulate specific components. The governing equations of GTRAN are the one-dimensional transient gas dynamic equations. The three equations for pressure, velocity, and density are reduced to numerical equations using an implicit Crank-Nicholson finite difference technique. Input to GTRAN includes a description of the piping network, the initial conditions, and any events (e.g. valve closings) occuring during the period of analysis. Output includes pressure, velocity, and density versus time. GTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX series computer. GTRAN was developed in 1983.

  11. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    Nemec Patrik


    Full Text Available Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  12. Working fluid flow visualization in gravity heat pipe

    Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan


    Heat pipe is device working with phase changes of working fluid inside hermetically closed pipe at specific pressure. The phase changes of working fluid from fluid to vapour and vice versa help heat pipe to transport high heat flux. The article deal about gravity heat pipe construction and processes casing inside during heat pipe operation. Experiment working fluid flow visualization is performed with two glass heat pipes with different inner diameter (13 mm and 22 mm) and filled with water. The working fluid flow visualization explains the phenomena as a working fluid boiling, nucleation of bubbles, and vapour condensation on the wall, vapour and condensate flow interaction, flow down condensate film thickness on the wall occurred during the heat pipe operation.

  13. Water hammer, flow induced vibration and safety/relief valve loads

    Valandani, P.; Uffer, R.; Sexton, D.


    This report presents the results of an evaluation performed to determine current and recommended practices regarding the consideration of water hammer, flow-induced vibration and safety-relief valve loads in the design of nuclear power plant piping systems. Current practices were determined by a survey of industry experts. Recommended practices were determined by evaluating factors such as load magnitude and frequency content, system susceptibility to load occurrence and safety effects of postulated piping damage.

  14. The Optimization Program of Steel Plate Feeding Device for LASW Pipe Production Line%直缝埋弧焊管生产线钢板上料装置优选方案

    李钢; 张增全; 韩保材; 汤跃先; 汤圣先


    In this article, it described the main structure and constitute of 3 kinds of commonly used feeding device of JCOE/UOE LSAW pipe production line, including the combined converyor of roller and chain, chain conveyor and vacuum suction cups hanging conveyer, and compared the main structure and constitute with several aspects, such as equipment structure and operation, operation and maintenance workload, equipment investment, installed capacity, production running cost, plate scratch, etc. The results indicated that vacuum suction cups hanging conveyer device is with some advantages, such as simple structure, easy operation, low workload for operation and maintenance, small investment, small installed capacity, low production running cost, and production rhythm can completely meet the design requirements, which is the best optimization program for LASW pipe production line steel plate feeding device.%对JCOE/UOE直缝埋弧焊管生产线上通常采用的三种上料装置, 即平辊和链条组合输送装置、 链条输送装置以及真空吸盘吊输送装置的主要结构和组成进行了描述, 并从设备结构与操作、运行与维护工作量、 设备投资、 装机容量、 生产运行成本、 钢板划伤等主要方面进行了对比. 结果表明, 采用真空吸盘吊输送装置具有设备结构简单、 操作方便、 运行与维护的工作量相对较低、 资金投入相对较少、 装机容量小、 生产运行成本低、 生产节奏完全能满足设计要求等优点, 是直缝埋弧焊管生产线钢板上料的最佳优选方案.

  15. Relief Aid Carefully Audited


    In a recent interview with the national TV broadcaster CCTV,Wang Zhongxin,Director of the Social Security Audit Department at the National Audit Office,talks about the procedures that are in effect to ensure relief supplies for the Wenchuan earthquake victims reach the end users. Excerpts of

  16. Paper relief architecture

    Latka, J.F.


    The article presents two contemporary projects of paper structures relief architecture designed and built by Shigeru Ban Architects and Voluntary Architect Network. Author of the article took part in design and construction process of one of the projects. The project of Yaan Nursery School, which wa

  17. Vent Relief Valve Test


    Shown is the disassembly, examination, refurbishment and testing of the LH2 ( liquid hydrogen) and LOX (liquid oxygen) vent and relief valves for the S-IVB-211 engine stage in support of the Constellation/Ares project. This image is extracted from high definition video and is the highest resolution available.

  18. FTA of Combustion or Explosion of Oxygen Pipes and Valves of Aviation Oxygen Device%航空供氧设施输氧管网和阀门燃烧爆炸危险性事故树分析

    周显军; 卢峰; 谢立军


    通过识别航空供氧设施输氧管网和阀门的危险因素,进行燃烧爆炸危险性分析,应用事故树分析方法找出引发事故的原因和路径,确定原因事件的结构重要度,由此提出了防止航空供氧设施输氧管网和阀门事故的方法,可为航空供氧设施的安全管理提供科学依据.%The paper analyses the risk of combustion or explosion by identifying hazards in oxygen pipes and valves of aviation oxygen device, deterhlines the caused and path of accidents by FTA, and then the accidents are described with the concept of "structure importance". Thus the measures are put forward to prevent these accidents, which provide safety management of aviation oxygen device.


    The installation of the central section of the beam pipe into the heart of the  CMS was completed by 23 April. All the beam pipe elements have been successfully vacuum-tested and the bakeout started.  

  20. 报纸信函文件气力管道输送装置的设计%Newspaper letter file pneumatic pipe device design



    In view of the fact that current post offices processed clients'newspapers, letters and documents only to u-nit's mailroom, then the worker of the mailroom sorted and sent them artificially, the course of delivery and efficiency cannot satisfy the requirements of high speed and high efficiency. At a angle of pneumatic transmission, by using the pipeline pneumatic handling installment to send the mails and the programming to realize the automatic control, a pneumatic pipe delivery system was designed. It can realize effective delivery of mails between sections of unit.%针对当前邮电局对许多单位的报纸信函文件仅送至单位的收发室,然后由收发室分拣后再用人工传达,不能快速高效地满足工作需要的现状.从气力输送角度出发,对收发室分拣后的报纸文件采用管道气力输送装置,并采用编程实现自动控制,完全可以高效地在本单位各部门之间的送达.

  1. Allergy Relief for Your Child

    ... For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Allergy Relief for Your Child Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... counter (OTC) and prescription medicines that offer allergy relief as well as allergen extracts used to diagnose ...

  2. Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Finding Relief from Allergy's Grip Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table ... action for patients who have had inadequate symptom relief with antihistamines and topical nasal steroids. Through injection ...

  3. Numerical study of heat pipe application in heat recovery systems

    Song Lin; Broadbent, John; McGlen, Ryan [Thermacore Europe, Ashington (United Kingdom)


    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices with extremely high effective thermal conductivity. They can be cylindrical or planar in structure. Heat pipes can be embedded in a metal cooling plate, which is attached to the heat source, and can also be assembled with a fin stack for fluid heat transfer. Due to the high heat transport capacity, heat exchangers with heat pipes have become much smaller than traditional heat exchangers in handling high heat fluxes. With the working fluid in a heat pipe, heat can be absorbed on the evaporator region and transported to the condenser region where the vapour condenses releasing the heat to the cooling media. Heat pipe technology has found increasing applications in enhancing the thermal performance of heat exchangers in microelectronics, energy and other industrial sectors. Utilisation of a heat pipe fin stack in the drying cycle of domestic appliances for heat recovery may lead to a significant energy saving in the domestic sector. However, the design of the heat pipe heat exchanger will meet a number of challenges. This paper presents a design method by using CFD simulation of the dehumidification process with heat pipe heat exchangers. The strategies of simulating the process with heat pipes are presented. The calculated results show that the method can be further used to optimise the design of the heat pipe fin stack. The study suggests that CFD modelling is able to predict thermal performance of the dehumidification solution with heat pipe heat exchangers. (Author)

  4. Reliability Estimation for Double Containment Piping

    L. Cadwallader; T. Pinna


    Double walled or double containment piping is considered for use in the ITER international project and other next-generation fusion device designs to provide an extra barrier for tritium gas and other radioactive materials. The extra barrier improves confinement of these materials and enhances safety of the facility. This paper describes some of the design challenges in designing double containment piping systems. There is also a brief review of a few operating experiences of double walled piping used with hazardous chemicals in different industries. This paper recommends approaches for the reliability analyst to use to quantify leakage from a double containment piping system in conceptual and more advanced designs. The paper also cites quantitative data that can be used to support such reliability analyses.

  5. Safety relief valve instabilities; Instabiles Verhalten beim Betrieb von direkt belasteten Sicherheitsventilen

    Neuhaus, Thorsten; Bloemeling, Frank; Jung, Andreas; Schaffrath, Andreas [TUeV NORD SysTec GmbH und Co. KG, Hamburg (Germany)


    The opening and closing of safety relief valves induce pressure vibrations and respective loads on the piping system. The quantification of the internal pressure load and the pipe segment forces for the proof of the structural integrity of the piping system and the supports is performed using the code DYVRO. It is not clear whether the calculated result of high-frequent opening and closing shows a realistic behavior or is caused by a simplified modeling. The contribution offers strategic recommendations to avoid unrealistic calculations.

  6. Impedance modelling of pipes

    Creasy, M. Austin


    Impedance models of pipes can be used to estimate resonant frequencies of standing waves and model acoustic pressure of closed and open ended pipes. Modelling a pipe with impedance methods allows additional variations to the pipe to be included in the overall model as a system. Therefore an actuator can be attached and used to drive the system and the impedance model is able to include the dynamics of the actuator. Exciting the pipe system with a chirp signal allows resonant frequencies to be measured in both the time and frequency domain. The measurements in the time domain are beneficial for introducing undergraduates to resonances without needing an understanding of fast Fourier transforms. This paper also discusses resonant frequencies in open ended pipes and how numerous texts incorrectly approximate the resonant frequencies for this specific pipe system.

  7. 21 CFR 882.5840 - Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for... Devices § 882.5840 Implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief. (a) Identification. An implanted intracerebral/subcortical stimulator for pain relief is a device that applies electrical...



    An inlet stratification device (5) for a circuit circulating a fluid through a tank (1 ) and for providing and maintaining stratification of the fluid in the tank (1 ). The stratification de- vice (5) is arranged vertically in the tank (1) and comprises an inlet pipe (6) being at least partially...... formed of a flexible porous material and having an inlet (19) and outlets formed of the pores of the porous material. The stratification device (5) further comprises at least one outer pipe (7) surrounding the inlet pipe (6) in spaced relationship thereto and being at least partially formed of a porous...

  9. Thermal Analysis of Heat Pipe Using Taguchi Method

    Senthilkumar R


    Full Text Available The heat pipe is a novel heat transfer device to transfer large amount of heat through a small cross sectional area with very small temperature differences and it also posses high thermal conductance and low thermal impedance. In this paper, the heat pipe working parameters are analyzed using Taguchi methodology. The Taguchimethod is used to formulate the experimental work, analyze the effect of working parameters of the heat pipe and predict the optimal parameter of heat pipe such as heat input, inclination angle and flow rate. It is found that these parameters have a significant influence on heat pipe performance. The analysis of the Taguchi method reveals that, all the parameters mentioned above have equal contributions in the performance of heat pipe efficiency, thermal resistance and overall heat transfer coefficient. Experimental results are provided to validate the suitability of the proposed approach.

  10. Impact of working fluids on gravitational heat pipe performance

    Jobb, Marián; Kosa, Ľuboš; Nosek, Radovan; Malcho, Milan


    Performance heat pipes depends on several parameters. This article deals with the performance of heat pipes, depending on the working fluid and operating temperature. There is described the essential function of the heat pipe manufacturing process. Stainless heat pipes were made of material AISI 304 and filled with a distilled water and solution of distilled water with silver nitrate, up to 20% of the heat pipe inner volume. Measurements were carried at an operating temperature of 40 °C to 90 °C. The performance was measured on the experimental device. Presented results show the progress of individual measurements and the effect of operating parameters and working fluid on the performance of heat pipes.

  11. Heat Pipe Materials Compatibility

    Eninger, J. E.; Fleischman, G. L.; Luedke, E. E.


    An experimental program to evaluate noncondensable gas generation in ammonia heat pipes was completed. A total of 37 heat pipes made of aluminum, stainless steel and combinations of these materials were processed by various techniques, operated at different temperatures and tested at low temperature to quantitatively determine gas generation rates. In order of increasing stability are aluminum/stainless combination, all aluminum and all stainless heat pipes. One interesting result is the identification of intentionally introduced water in the ammonia during a reflux step as a means of surface passivation to reduce gas generation in stainless-steel/aluminum heat pipes.

  12. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Ku, Jentung


    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  13. Heat Pipe Planets

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.


    When volcanism dominates heat transport, a terrestrial body enters a heat-pipe mode, in which hot magma moves through the lithosphere in narrow channels. Even at high heat flow, a heat-pipe planet develops a thick, cold, downwards-advecting lithosphere dominated by (ultra-)mafic flows and contractional deformation at the surface. Heat-pipes are an important feature of terrestrial planets at high heat flow, as illustrated by Io. Evidence for their operation early in Earth's history suggests that all terrestrial bodies should experience an episode of heat-pipe cooling early in their histories.

  14. Conceptual design of a device for charging PIG's batteries, using the hydraulic energy from the flow in pipe

    Ramirez, Ricardo E.; Dutra, Max S. [Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute for Graduate and Research Studies (COPPE-UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Program], e-mail:, e-mail:


    Some actual projects deal with development of PIGs with speed control for liquid pipelines, with the possibility of controlled displacement including counter flow locomotion, in order to inspect and service in 'unpiggable lines' and flexible lines. In this case, it is normal to carry energy consumption greater than the energy disposable in the batteries. This work proposes a device composed by a turbine and an electric generator; presents a preliminary mechanical design of the turbine for the specific requirements of the application like internal pressure inside the line, a range of relative velocities between the PIG and the pipeline and adequate material for the environmental conditions. One of the priority requirements is that the geometric form of the turbine and generator mate with a proposed form of the PIG minimizing the pressure drop in the line for the different work conditions. The electric design defines the magnets characteristics, geometric forms, dimensions and number of turns to obtain the required voltage and power for charging a nominal pack of batteries. (author)

  15. Phytotherapy for pain relief.

    Zareba, Grazyna


    Pain is considered the third most common healthcare problem disabling more individuals than heart disease and cancer together. Although pharmacological pain management offers a significant relief in several pain-related diseases, many patients turn to its supplementation with complementary and alternative medicine. Botanicals used in pain therapy can contribute to restoring the quality of life to a patient and may effect and enhance conventional pain management. Herbal analgesic use in several pain-related diseases such as rheumatologic diseases, back pain, cancer, diabetic peripheral neuropathy and migraine will be discussed. In addition, this review describes botanicals with known analgesic activity for which randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials assessing their efficacy in different pain-related diseases have been published and which have been recently evaluated in many systematic reviews with well-described methodology.

  16. Explosive welding of pipes

    Drennov, O.; Burtseva, O.; Kitin, A. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center, Sarov (Russian Federation)


    Arrangement of pipelines for the transportation of oil and gas is a complicated problem. In this paper it is suggested to use the explosive welding method to weld pipes together. This method is rather new. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its static analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. We suggest to perform explosive welding according to the following scheme: the ends of the 2 pipes are connected, the external surfaces are kept at a similar level. A cylindrical steel layer of diameter larger than the pipe diameter is set around the pipe joint and an explosive charge is placed on its external surface. The basic problem is the elimination of strains and reduction of pipe diameter in the area of the dynamic effect. The suggestion is to use water as filler: the volume of pipes in the area adjacent to the zone of explosive welding is totally filled with water. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gas dynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water. Model experiments with pipes having radii R = 57 mm confirmed results of the calculations and the possibility in principle to weld pipes by explosion with use of water as filler.

  17. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun


    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...

  18. A heat pipe

    Rachev, L.A.; Kravtsov, A.A.


    A thermal pipe is described which contains a hermetically sealed body with a reticular filler. In order to increase the transmitted thermal power, the pipe is equipped with a high voltage source and with insulators, located between the wall of the body and the filler, where the latter is switched in to the high voltage source, preferably an adjustable one.

  19. Oscillating heat pipes

    Ma, Hongbin


    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  20. The monster sound pipe

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James


    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video ( of the demonstration is included, which illustrates how an Internet keyboard can be used to estimate the fundamental pitches of each pipe. Since both pipes have similar end corrections, the pitch discrepancy between the smooth pipe and drainage tube is due to the corrugations, which lower the speed of sound inside the flexible tube, dropping its pitch a semitone.

  1. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele


    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  2. Use of Numerical Simulation to Measure the Effect of Relief Wells for Decreasing Uplift in a Homogeneous Earth Dam

    Farzin Salmasi


    Full Text Available Relief wells are used extensively to relieve excess hydrostatic pressure in pervious foundation strata overlain by impervious top strata, conditions which often exist landward of levees and downstream of dams and hydraulic structures. Placing well outlets in below-surface trenches or collector pipes helps dry up seepage areas downstream of levees and dams. Relief wells are often used in combination with seepage control measures, such as upstream blankets, downstream seepage berms, and grouting. Draining seepage water into relief wells decreases uplift and prevents piping. This study examined the effect of relief wells with different diameters at different distances downstream of a homogeneous earth dam using Seep/W software. Also the effect of upstream water level of reservoir on seepage flow to each well was carried out. Results show that by decreasing the distance between relief wells and increasing the diameter of the relief wells, total uplift pressure decreases. The optimum distance between relief wells to decrease uplift pressure was found to be 5 m. The proposed method is recommended in designing relief wells by providing optimum diameter and distance of wells for the sustained yield.

  3. 24 CFR 965.508 - Individual relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Individual relief. 965.508 Section... relief. Requests for relief from surcharges for excess consumption of PHA-purchased utilities, or from... appropriate. The PHA's criteria for granting such relief, and procedures for requesting such relief, shall be...

  4. Quick-Relief Medications for Lung Diseases

    ... relief medications are used to treat asthma, other lung disease symptoms or an acute episode (such as an ... about the following quick-relief asthma and other lung disease medications: Anticholinergics Anticholinergics are quick-relief asthma and ...

  5. Reeling of tight fit pipe

    Focke, E.S.


    If it would be possible to install Tight Fit Pipe by means of reeling, it would be an attractive new option for the exploitation of offshore oil and gas fields containing corrosive hydrocarbons. Tight Fit Pipe is a mechanically bonded double walled pipe where a corrosion resistant alloy liner pipe

  6. Pipe drafting and design

    Parisher, Roy A


    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  7. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun


    The paper treats a piping system, where the layout of the network is given but the diameters of the pipes should be chosen among a small number of different values. The cost of realizing the system should be minimized while keeping the energy heads at the nodes above some lower limits. A new...... algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...


    LI LI


    @@ As donated food,clothing,quilts and heating devices flood into earthquake-devastated Yushu Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province from across the country,and power and water supply and telecommunications services resume,survivors of the catastrophic earthquake on April 14 see hopes of emerging from the traumatic event and starting a new life.

  9. An electrohydrodynamic heat pipe

    Jones, T. B.


    Dielectric liquid for transfer of heat provides liquid flow from the condenser section to the evaporator section in conventional heat pipes. Working fluid is guided or pumped by an array of wire electrodes connected to a high-voltage source.

  10. Stuck pipe prediction

    Alzahrani, Majed


    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  11. The Monster Sound Pipe

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Perkins, James


    Producing a deep bass tone by striking a large 3 m (10 ft) flexible corrugated drainage pipe immediately grabs student attention. The fundamental pitch of the corrugated tube is found to be a semitone lower than a non-corrugated smooth pipe of the same length. A video ( of the demonstration is included, which…

  12. Transient Behaviour of a Heat Pipe with Extracapillary Circulation


    Heat pipe devices, for their typical working mode, are particularly suitable for zero gravity applications, and have also been considered for applications in space satellites with nuclear generators because of the absence of active systems for the coolant circulation. The present work reports the results of experimental tests carried out on a heat pipe facility designed to investigate the thermal-hydraulic performance of a water heat pipe. The device layout, configuration and geometry, simulate a heat pipe working mode utilizable in space applications under zero gravity conditions. The evaporating section, completely lined (covered) with wicks (sintered stainless steel), and nearly plane shaped, is housed in a cylindrical container. The obtained results show that the system can approach steady-state conditions, at a pressure of 4 bar and with a heat flux transferred of about 150 W/cm2, supporting an electric power step of about 1.8 Kw.

  13. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.


    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  14. Southern Alaska Coastal Relief Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building coastal-relief models (CRM) for select U.S. coastal regions. Bathymetric, topographic, and shoreline data...

  15. Heat Pipe Integrated Microsystems

    Gass, K.; Robertson, P.J.; Shul, R.; Tigges, C.


    The trend in commercial electronics packaging to deliver ever smaller component packaging has enabled the development of new highly integrated modules meeting the demands of the next generation nano satellites. At under ten kilograms, these nano satellites will require both a greater density electronics and a melding of satellite structure and function. Better techniques must be developed to remove the subsequent heat generated by the active components required to-meet future computing requirements. Integration of commercially available electronics must be achieved without the increased costs normally associated with current generation multi chip modules. In this paper we present a method of component integration that uses silicon heat pipe technology and advanced flexible laminate circuit board technology to achieve thermal control and satellite structure. The' electronics/heat pipe stack then becomes an integral component of the spacecraft structure. Thermal management on satellites has always been a problem. The shrinking size of electronics and voltage requirements and the accompanying reduction in power dissipation has helped the situation somewhat. Nevertheless, the demands for increased onboard processing power have resulted in an ever increasing power density within the satellite body. With the introduction of nano satellites, small satellites under ten kilograms and under 1000 cubic inches, the area available on which to place hot components for proper heat dissipation has dwindled dramatically. The resulting satellite has become nearly a solid mass of electronics with nowhere to dissipate heat to space. The silicon heat pipe is attached to an aluminum frame using a thermally conductive epoxy or solder preform. The frame serves three purposes. First, the aluminum frame provides a heat conduction path from the edge of the heat pipe to radiators on the surface of the satellite. Secondly, it serves as an attachment point for extended structures attached

  16. High frequency statistical energy analysis applied to fluid filled pipe systems

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Smeulers, J.P.M.


    In pipe systems, carrying gas with high velocities, broadband turbulent pulsations can be generated causing strong vibrations and fatigue failure, called Acoustic Fatigue. This occurs at valves with high pressure differences (i.e. chokes), relief valves and obstructions in the flow, such as sharp

  17. High frequency statistical energy analysis applied to fluid filled pipe systems

    Beek, P.J.G. van; Smeulers, J.P.M.


    In pipe systems, carrying gas with high velocities, broadband turbulent pulsations can be generated causing strong vibrations and fatigue failure, called Acoustic Fatigue. This occurs at valves with high pressure differences (i.e. chokes), relief valves and obstructions in the flow, such as sharp be

  18. 7 CFR 760.106 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 760.106 Section 760.106 Agriculture... Assistance Programs § 760.106 Equitable relief. (a) The Secretary may provide equitable relief on a case-by... accordance with the FCIA (7 U.S.C. 1501-1524) or (ii) Application closing date for NAP. (b) Equitable relief...

  19. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Polcyn, Adam D.


    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  20. Composite drill pipe

    Leslie, James C [Fountain Valley, CA; Leslie, II, James C.; Heard, James [Huntington Beach, CA; Truong, Liem , Josephson; Marvin, Neubert [Huntington Beach, CA; Hans, [Anaheim, CA


    A composite pipe segment is formed to include tapered in wall thickness ends that are each defined by opposed frustoconical surfaces conformed for self centering receipt and intimate bonding contact within an annular space between corresponding surfaces of a coaxially nested set of metal end pieces. The distal peripheries of the nested end pieces are then welded to each other and the sandwiched and bonded portions are radially pinned. The composite segment may include imbedded conductive leads and the axial end portions of the end pieces are shaped to form a threaded joint with the next pipe assembly that includes a contact ring in one pipe assembly pierced by a pointed contact in the other to connect the corresponding leads across the joint.

  1. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G


    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  2. Pipe Drafting with CAD. Teacher Edition.

    Smithson, Buddy

    This teacher's guide contains nine units of instruction for a course on computer-assisted pipe drafting. The course covers the following topics: introduction to pipe drafting with CAD (computer-assisted design); flow diagrams; pipe and pipe components; valves; piping plans and elevations; isometrics; equipment fabrication drawings; piping design…

  3. PE 100 pipe systems

    Brömstrup, Heiner


    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  4. Pressure-relief and methane production performance of pressure relief gas extraction technology in the longwall mining

    Zhang, Cun; Tu, Shihao; Chen, Min; Zhang, Lei


    Pressure relief gas extraction technology (PRGET) has been successfully implemented at many locations as a coal mine methane exploitation and outburst prevention technology. Comprehensive PRGET including gob gas venthole (GGV), crossing seam drilling hole (CSDH), large diameter horizontal long drilling hole (LDHLDH) and buried pipe for extraction (BPE) have been used to extract abundant pressure-relief methane (PRM) during protective coal seam mining; these techniques mitigated dangers associated with coal and gas outbursts in 13-1 coal seam mining in the Huainan coalfield. These extraction technologies can ensure safe protective seam mining and effectively extract coal and gas. This article analyses PRGET production performance and verifies it with the field measurement. The results showed that PRGET drilling to extract PRM from the protected coal seam significantly reduced methane emissions from a longwall ventilation system and produced highly efficient extraction. Material balance analyses indicated a significant decrease in gas content and pressure in the protected coal seam, from 8.78 m3 t-1 and 4.2 MPa to 2.34 m3 t-1 and 0.285 MPa, respectively. The field measurement results of the residual gas content in protected coal seam (13-1 coal seam) indicated the reliability of the material balance analyses and the pressure relief range of PRGET in the protected coal seam is obtained.

  5. Utilization of heat pipes for transfer heat from the flue gas into the heat transfer medium

    Lenhard Richard


    Full Text Available The contribution is listed possible application of heat pipes in systems for obtaining heat from flue gas of small heat sources. It is also stated in the contribution design an experimental device on which to study the impact of fill (the quantity, type of load at various temperature parameters (temperature heating and cooling thermal power transferred to the heat pipe. Is listed measurement methodology using heat pipes designed experimental facility, measurement results and analysis of the results obtained.

  6. 46 CFR 154.503 - Piping and piping system components: Protection from movement.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping and piping system components: Protection from..., Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.503 Piping and piping system components... cause stresses that exceed the design stresses, the piping and piping system components and cargo...

  7. Study on Monitoring Rock Burst through Drill Pipe Torque

    Zhonghua Li


    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method to identify the danger of rock burst from the response of drill pipe torque during drilling process to overcome many defects of the conventional volume of drilled coal rubble method. It is based on the relationship of rock burst with coal stress and coal strength. Through theoretic analysis, the change mechanism of drill pipe torque and the relationship of drill pipe torque with coal stress, coal strength, and drilling speed are investigated. In light of the analysis, a new device for testing drill pipe torque is developed and a series of experiments is performed under different conditions; the results show that drill pipe torque linearly increases with the increase of coal stress and coal strength; the faster the drilling speed, the larger the drill pipe torque, and vice versa. When monitoring rock burst by drill pipe torque method, the index of rock burst is regarded as a function in which coal stress index and coal strength index are principal variables. The results are important for the forecast of rock burst in coal mine.

  8. High heat flux loop heat pipes

    North, Mark T.; Sarraf, David B.; Rosenfeld, John H.; Maidanik, Yuri F.; Vershinin, Sergey


    Loop Heat Pipes (LHPs) can transport very large thermal power loads, over long distances, through flexible, small diameter tubes and against high gravitational heads. While recent LHPs have transported as much as 1500 W, the peak heat flux through a LHP's evaporator has been limited to about 0.07 MW/m2. This limitation is due to the arrangement of vapor passages next to the heat load which is one of the conditions necessary to ensure self priming of the device. This paper describes work aimed at raising this limit by threefold to tenfold. Two approaches were pursued. One optimized the vapor passage geometry for the high heat flux conditions. The geometry improved the heat flow into the wick and working fluid. This approach also employed a finer pored wick to support higher vapor flow losses. The second approach used a bidisperse wick material within the circumferential vapor passages. The bidisperse material increased the thermal conductivity and the evaporative surface area in the region of highest heat flux, while providing a flow path for the vapor. Proof-of-concept devices were fabricated and tested for each approach. Both devices operated as designed and both demonstrated operation at a heat flux of 0.70 MW/m2. This performance exceeded the known state of the art by a factor of more than six for both conventional heat pipes and for loop heat pipes using ammonia. In addition, the bidisperse-wick device demonstrated boiling heat transfer coefficients up to 100,000 W/m2.K, and the fine pored device demonstrated an orientation independence with its performance essentially unaffected by whether its evaporator was positioned above, below or level with the condenser.

  9. A device for taking samples of scale from bore pipes used for collecting groundwater; Dispositivo para la toma de muestras de incrustaciones en tuberias de sondeos en la captacion de aguas subterraneas

    Martinez Rubio, J.; Ruano Magan, P. [Tecnologias y Servicios Agrarios, S. A. (Spain); Gonzalez Yelamos, J. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain); Rebollo Ferreiro, L. F. [Universidad de Alcala (Spain)


    A study was made of the problem of corrosion/scale in water collection bore pipes, beginning with a review of the existing literature. This led to the conclusion that thorough knowledge of such phenomena requires taking samples from the walls of the pipes and filters to determine the physiocochemical and biological details. A new instrument, based on a previous appliance, has been developed for this purpose. It has a pair of arms and is capable of going down inside the well or bore hole, generally with a video camera attached. It has a cup on the end of each arm that can scrape the wall, catch the sample and protect it with a lid. A prototype has proved to be efficient at obtaining representative samples that can be analysed to determine the corrosion/scale processes. (Author) 9 refs.

  10. Explosive Welding of Pipes

    Drennov, Oleg; Drennov, Andrey; Burtseva, Olga


    For connection by welding it is suggested to use the explosive welding method. This method is rather new. Nevertheless, it has become commonly used among the technological developments. This method can be advantageous (saving material and physical resources) comparing to its statical analogs (electron-beam welding, argon-arc welding, plasma welding, gas welding, etc.), in particular, in hard-to-reach areas due to their geographic and climatic conditions. Explosive welding of cylindrical surfaces is performed by launching of welded layer along longitudinal axis of construction. During this procedure, it is required to provide reliable resistance against radial convergent strains. The traditional method is application of fillers of pipe cavity, which are dense cylindrical objects having special designs. However, when connecting pipes consecutively in pipelines by explosive welding, removal of the fillers becomes difficult and sometimes impossible. The suggestion is to use water as filler. The principle of non-compressibility of liquid under quasi-dynamic loading is used. In one-dimensional gasdynamic and elastic-plastic calculations we determined non-deformed mass of water (perturbations, which are moving in the axial direction with sound velocity, should not reach the layer end boundaries for 5-7 circulations of shock waves in the radial direction). Linear dimension of the water layer from the zone of pipe coupling along axis in each direction is >= 2R, where R is the internal radius of pipe.

  11. Aeronautical tubes and pipes

    Beauclair, N.


    The main and subcomponent French suppliers of aircraft tubes and pipes are discussed, and the state of the industry is analyzed. Quality control is essential for tubes with regard to their i.d. and metallurgical compositions. French regulations do not allow welded seam tubes in hydraulic circuits unless no other form is available, and then rustproofed steel must be installed. The actual low level of orders for any run of tubes dictates that the product is only one of several among the manufacturers' line. Automation, both in NDT and quality control, assures that the tubes meet specifications. A total of 10 French companies participate in the industry, serving both civil and military needs, with some companies specializing only in titanium, steel, or aluminum materials. Concerns wishing to enter the market must upgrade their equipment to meet the higher aeronautical specifications and be prepared to furnish tubes and pipes that serve both functional and structural purposes simultaneously. Additionally, pipe-bending machines must also perform to tight specifications. Pipes can range from 0.2 mm exterior diameter to 40 mm, with wall thicknesses from 0.02 mm to 3 mm. A chart containing a list of manufacturers and their respective specifications and characteristics is presented, and a downtrend in production with reduction of personnel is noted.

  12. Heat-pipe planets

    Moore, William B.; Simon, Justin I.; Webb, A. Alexander G.


    Observations of the surfaces of all terrestrial bodies other than Earth reveal remarkable but unexplained similarities: endogenic resurfacing is dominated by plains-forming volcanism with few identifiable centers, magma compositions are highly magnesian (mafic to ultra-mafic), tectonic structures are dominantly contractional, and ancient topographic and gravity anomalies are preserved to the present. Here we show that cooling via volcanic heat pipes may explain these observations and provide a universal model of the way terrestrial bodies transition from a magma-ocean state into subsequent single-plate, stagnant-lid convection or plate tectonic phases. In the heat-pipe cooling mode, magma moves from a high melt-fraction asthenosphere through the lithosphere to erupt and cool at the surface via narrow channels. Despite high surface heat flow, the rapid volcanic resurfacing produces a thick, cold, and strong lithosphere which undergoes contractional strain forced by downward advection of the surface toward smaller radii. We hypothesize that heat-pipe cooling is the last significant endogenic resurfacing process experienced by most terrestrial bodies in the solar system, because subsequent stagnant-lid convection produces only weak tectonic deformation. Terrestrial exoplanets appreciably larger than Earth may remain in heat-pipe mode for much of the lifespan of a Sun-like star.

  13. [Piping cinnamon] 791

    W L H Skeen and Co


    279 x 211 mm. Showing female workers making cinnamon pipes. The cinnamon is placed on a low tripod formed from four sticks, and steadied with the operator's foot while the cuticle is scraped off with a small curved knife. Annotated '791' on the bottom right hand corner of the photograph. Date approximate.

  14. Fraktalnist deformational relief polycrystalline aluminum

    М.В. Карускевич


    Full Text Available  The possibility of the fractal geometry method application for the analisys of surface deformation structures under cyclic loading is presented.It is shown, that deformation relief of the alclad aluminium alloyes meets the criteria of the fractality. For the fractal demention estimation the method of  “box-counting”can be applied.

  15. Stress relief of transition zones

    Woodward, J.; van Rooyen, D.


    This paper considers the problem of intergranular stress corrosion cracking, initiated on the primary side, in the expansion transition region of roller expanded Alloy 600 tubing. In general it is believed that residual stresses, arising from the expansion process, are the cause of the problem. The work reported here concentrated on the identification of an optimal, in-situ stress relief treatment.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of a Rotating Heat Pipe

    Jankowski, Todd A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rotating and revolving heat pipes have been used in a variety of applications including heat pipe heat exchangers, cooling of rotating electrical machines, and heat removal in high speed cutting operations. The use of heat pipes in rotating environments has prompted many analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of the heat transfer characteristics of these devices. Past investigations, however, have been restricted to the study of straight heat pipes. In this work, a curved rotating heat pipe is studied numerically and experimentally. In certain types of rotating machines, heat generating components, which must be cooled during normal operation, are located at some radial distance from the axis of rotation. The bent heat pipe studied here is shown to have advantages when compared to the conventional straight heat pipes in these off-axis cooling scenarios. The heat pipe studied here is built so that both the condenser and evaporator sections are parallel to the axis of rotation. The condenser section is concentric with the axis of rotation while the evaporator section can be placed in contact with off-axis heat sources in the rotating machine. The geometry is achieved by incorporating an S-shaped curve between the on-axis rotating condenser section and the off-axis revolving evaporator section. Furthermore, the heat pipe uses an annular gap wick structure. Incorporating an annular gap wick structure into the heat pipe allows for operation in a non-rotating environment. A numerical model of this rotating heat pipe is developed. The analysis is based on a two-dimensional finite-difference model of the liquid flow coupled to a one-dimensional model of the vapor flow. Although the numerical model incorporates many significant aspects of the fluid flow, the flow in the actual heat pipe is expected to be threedimensional. The rotating heat pipe with the S-shaped curve is also studied experimentally to determine how well the numerical model captures the key

  17. Inlet stratification device


    ) with an inlet passage way (16). The upper end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected with a top cap (9). The top cap (9) and the bottom cap (10) are mutually connected by means of a wire (8) and the top cap (9) is configured as a floating device providing a buoyancy force larger than the downwardly directed force......An inlet stratification (5) is adapted to be arranged vertically in a tank (1) during operation. The stratification device (5) comprises an inlet pipe (6) formed of a flexible porous material and having a lower and upper end. The lower end of the inlet pipe (6) is connected to a bottom cap (10...

  18. Digital relief generation from 3D models

    Wang, Meili; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Hongming; Qian, Kun; Chang, Jian; He, Dongjian


    It is difficult to extend image-based relief generation to high-relief generation, as the images contain insufficient height information. To generate reliefs from three-dimensional (3D) models, it is necessary to extract the height fields from the model, but this can only generate bas-reliefs. To overcome this problem, an efficient method is proposed to generate bas-reliefs and high-reliefs directly from 3D meshes. To produce relief features that are visually appropriate, the 3D meshes are first scaled. 3D unsharp masking is used to enhance the visual features in the 3D mesh, and average smoothing and Laplacian smoothing are implemented to achieve better smoothing results. A nonlinear variable scaling scheme is then employed to generate the final bas-reliefs and high-reliefs. Using the proposed method, relief models can be generated from arbitrary viewing positions with different gestures and combinations of multiple 3D models. The generated relief models can be printed by 3D printers. The proposed method provides a means of generating both high-reliefs and bas-reliefs in an efficient and effective way under the appropriate scaling factors.

  19. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes.

    Martinez, Mario J.; Givler, Richard C.


    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  20. Computational model of miniature pulsating heat pipes

    Martinez, Mario J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Givler, Richard C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The modeling work described herein represents Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) portion of a collaborative three-year project with Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems (NGES) and the University of Missouri to develop an advanced, thermal ground-plane (TGP), which is a device, of planar configuration, that delivers heat from a source to an ambient environment with high efficiency. Work at all three institutions was funded by DARPA/MTO; Sandia was funded under DARPA/MTO project number 015070924. This is the final report on this project for SNL. This report presents a numerical model of a pulsating heat pipe, a device employing a two phase (liquid and its vapor) working fluid confined in a closed loop channel etched/milled into a serpentine configuration in a solid metal plate. The device delivers heat from an evaporator (hot zone) to a condenser (cold zone). This new model includes key physical processes important to the operation of flat plate pulsating heat pipes (e.g. dynamic bubble nucleation, evaporation and condensation), together with conjugate heat transfer with the solid portion of the device. The model qualitatively and quantitatively predicts performance characteristics and metrics, which was demonstrated by favorable comparisons with experimental results on similar configurations. Application of the model also corroborated many previous performance observations with respect to key parameters such as heat load, fill ratio and orientation.

  1. The Team Approach to Pain Relief

    ... Issue Past Issues The Team Approach to Pain Relief Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents For ... with her quality of life, and acupuncture brought relief from severe shoulder pain. "I'm functional again. ...

  2. The use of heat pipes in thermal control system for electronics: current situation and prospects

    Khairnasov S. M.


    Full Text Available Today, the widespread application of cooling systems based on heat pipes makes significant contribution to the solution of the thermal control of electronic equipment. The use of heat pipes as heat transfer devices and heat exchanging equipment allows creating an efficient new-generation heat sinks. Nowadays, heat pipes are widely used in the following areas: electronic equipment, special application computer equipment (from small computers to large data centres, high power electronics. The article provides an analysis of the current state and prospects of heat pipes application in thermal control systems for ground-based electronic equipment.

  3. 47 CFR 69.727 - Regulatory relief.


    ... similarly situated customers; and (ii) The price cap LEC excludes all contract tariff offerings from price... customer. (b) Phase II relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase II triggers specified in §§ 69.709(c) or 69... Pricing Flexibility § 69.727 Regulatory relief. (a) Phase I relief. Upon satisfaction of the Phase I...

  4. 7 CFR 1465.33 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1465.33 Section 1465.33 Agriculture... § 1465.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of any authorized NRCS... participant may be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635, section 635.3. The financial or...

  5. 28 CFR 36.504 - Relief.


    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relief. 36.504 Section 36.504 Judicial... COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Enforcement § 36.504 Relief. (a) Authority of court. In a civil action under § 36.503, the court— (1) May grant any equitable relief that such court considers to be appropriate, including...

  6. 29 CFR 553.225 - Early relief.


    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... relief. It is a common practice among employees engaged in fire protection activities to relieve employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...

  7. 29 CFR 4041.4 - Disaster relief.


    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disaster relief. 4041.4 Section 4041.4 Labor Regulations...-EMPLOYER PLANS General Provisions § 4041.4 Disaster relief. When the President of the United States declares that, under the Disaster Relief Act (42 U.S.C. 5121, 5122(2), 5141(b)), a major disaster exists...

  8. 29 CFR 1614.505 - Interim relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interim relief. 1614.505 Section 1614.505 Labor Regulations... OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the agency appeals and the case... interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of paragraph (a)(1...

  9. 7 CFR 276.5 - Injunctive relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Injunctive relief. 276.5 Section 276.5 Agriculture... Injunctive relief. (a) General. If FNS determines that a State agency has failed to comply with the Food... Secretary may seek injunctive relief against the State agency to require compliance. The Secretary may...

  10. 20 CFR 627.803 - Relief.


    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Relief. 627.803 Section 627.803 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR GENERAL PROVISIONS GOVERNING PROGRAMS... Relief. In ordering relief, the ALJ shall have the full authority of the Secretary under section 164 of...

  11. 24 CFR 7.44 - Interim relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interim relief. 7.44 Section 7.44... § 7.44 Interim relief. (a) When the Department appeals and the case involves removal, separation, or... outcome of the Department appeal. The employee may decline the offer of interim relief. (b) Service under...

  12. 7 CFR 1466.33 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1466.33 Section 1466.33 Agriculture... Administration § 1466.33 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of any... relief, to the extent it is deemed desirable by NRCS, to provide a fair and equitable treatment because...

  13. 7 CFR 1470.34 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 1470.34 Section 1470.34 Agriculture... § 1470.34 Equitable relief. (a) If a participant relied upon the advice or action of NRCS and did not... be eligible for equitable relief under 7 CFR part 635. The financial or technical liability for any...

  14. 12 CFR 268.505 - Interim relief.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim relief. 268.505 Section 268.505 Banks... REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.505 Interim relief. (a)(1) When the Board appeals... offer of interim relief. (2) Service under the temporary or conditional restoration provisions of...

  15. 7 CFR 636.20 - Equitable relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equitable relief. 636.20 Section 636.20 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING WILDLIFE HABITAT INCENTIVES PROGRAM § 636.20 Equitable relief. (a) If a... as meeting program requirements and grant relief because of the good-faith reliance on the part of...

  16. 7 CFR 795.24 - Relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Relief. 795.24 Section 795.24 Agriculture Regulations... PROVISIONS COMMON TO MORE THAN ONE PROGRAM PAYMENT LIMITATION General § 795.24 Relief. If a producer relied... reviewing authority makes a more restrictive determination, the Deputy Administrator may grant relief only...

  17. 32 CFR 516.19 - Injunctive relief.


    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Injunctive relief. 516.19 Section 516.19 National... RELATIONS LITIGATION Reporting Legal Proceedings to HQDA § 516.19 Injunctive relief. (a) General. Plaintiffs... injunctive relief: (1) Plaintiff's likelihood of success on the merits. (2) Whether plaintiff will be...

  18. 18 CFR 281.215 - Additional relief.


    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional relief. 281... Additional relief. If an interstate pipeline rejects (under § 281.210 or otherwise) a request for... aggrieved by such action may file a request for relief from curtailment under § 385.206 of this chapter. The...

  19. 49 CFR 1108.4 - Relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 1108.4 Section 1108.4 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1108.4 Relief. (a) Subject to specification in the complaint, as provided in § 1108.7 herein, an Arbitrator may grant the following types of relief: (1) Monetary damages, to the extent...

  20. Determining the location of buried plastic water pipes from measurements of ground surface vibration

    Muggleton, J. M.; Brennan, M. J.; Gao, Y.


    ‘Mapping the Underworld' is a UK-based project, which aims to create a multi-sensor device that combines complementary technologies for remote buried utility service detection and location. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics, and techniques for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular plastic water pipes, are being investigated. One of the proposed techniques involves excitation of the pipe at some known location with concurrent vibrational mapping of the ground surface in order to infer the location of the remainder of the pipe. In this paper, measurements made on a dedicated pipe rig are reported. Frequency response measurements relating vibrational velocity on the ground to the input excitation were acquired. Contour plots of the unwrapped phase revealed the location of the pipe to within 0.1-0.2 m. Magnitude contour plots revealed the excitation point and also the location of the pipe end. By examining the unwrapped phase gradients along a line above the pipe, it was possible to identify the wave-type within the pipe responsible for the ground surface vibration. Furthermore, changes in the ground surface phase speed computed using this method enabled the location of the end of the pipe to be confirmed.

  1. LHCb: Beam Pipe portrait

    LHCb, Collaboration


    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector: it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  2. LHCb: Beam Pipe

    LHCb, Collaboration


    The proton beams circulate in the accelerator in Ultra High Vacuum to make them interact only with each other when colliding at the interaction point. A special beam pipe "holds" the vacuum where they pass through the LHCb detector:it has to be mechanically very strong to stand the difference in pressure between the vacuum inside it and the air in the cavern but also be as transparent as possible for the particles originating in the proton−proton collisions.

  3. Heat Pipe Systems


    Solar Fundamentals, Inc.'s hot water system employs space-derived heat pipe technology. It is used by a meat packing plant to heat water for cleaning processing machinery. Unit is complete system with water heater, hot water storage, electrical controls and auxiliary components. Other than fans and a circulating pump, there are no moving parts. System's unique design eliminates problems of balancing, leaking, corroding, and freezing.

  4. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report



    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  5. Service Learning Through Disaster Relief

    Donna J. Duerst


    Full Text Available The Rock County 4-H Disaster Relief Committee raised $1,550 to aid tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and then turned its attention to Hurricane Katrina relief efforts. Thirty-one 4-H youth participated in a service learning trip to the South with the objectives of helping hurricane victims, learning about new cultures and achieving personal growth during three days of service projects in Louisiana and Mississippi. Their written reflections and other evaluative measures revealed they learned about southern culture, gained a greater appreciation for their lives, gained self confidence and developed a desire to help others more often. The trip was a valuable developmental experience for the youth, and information from the trip could be utilized to create similar experiences based on service learning. This article provides an overview of the trip and describes the evaluation methods used to measure learning and assess personal growth.

  6. Miniature Loop Heat Pipe with Multiple Evaporators and Multiple Condensers Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Loop Heat Pipe (LHP) is a high performance heat transport device using capillary forces to circulate the working fluid in a closed loop. Conventional LHPs usually...

  7. Mobile robots for inspection and maintenance of piping in electrical power plants

    Jezequel, P.


    Mobile mechanical devices working with inspection and maintenance of pipes in electrical power plants might become useful to E.D.F. A specific field in robotics, with its proper know-how and complications, is being developed.

  8. Influence of the ambient temperature during heat pipe manufacturing on its function and heat transport ability

    Čaja A.


    Full Text Available Heat pipe is heat transfer device working at a minimum temperature difference of evaporator and condenser. Operating temperature of the heat pipe determine by properties of the working substance and pressure achieved during production. The contribution is focused on the determining the effect of the initial surrounding temperature where the heat pipe is manufactured and on the obtaining performance characteristics produced heat pipes in dependence of manufacturing temperature. Generally hold, that the boiling point of the working liquid decrease with decreasing ambient pressure. Based on this can be suppose that producing of lower ambient temperature during heat pipe manufacturing, will create the lower pressure, the boiling point of the working fluid will lower too and the heat pipe should be better performance characteristics.

  9. 46 CFR 76.33-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.33-15 Section 76.33-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.33-15 Piping. (a) Individual pipes shall be not less than 3/4-inch standard pipe size. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be protected inside and...

  10. Mechanism for in-pipe inspection; Dispositivo para inspecao de dutos

    Freitas, Gustavo Medeiros; Dutra, Max Suell [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil)


    The internal inspection of pipes is becoming a routine activity thanks to their importance on transportation of substances such as oil and natural gas. This paper addresses a mechanism capable of working inside pipes of different diameters that may present extreme curves and inclinations. The mechanism is composed of modules with devices that provide adjustable contact with the duct, using wheels on the contact points. The robot moves inside the pipe creating a virtual spindle. For that, two parts are used: the first one, guided along the pipe by a set of wheels, moves parallel to the axis of the pipe; the second part is attached to a motor. The motor rotation forces the mechanism to follow a helical motion, with tilted wheels rotating about the axis of the pipe. Each adjustable contact device works like a lever, pressing the wheel against the pipe. The base of the device can be actively rotated, modifying the angle of the wheel in relation to the pipe (equivalent to the step of the spindle), permitting the motion of the system in both directions, with specific velocity. According to the applied angle, the robot changes the relation between torque and displacement velocity. (author)

  11. Construction of an Inexpensive Copper Heat-Pipe Oven

    Grove, T. T.; Hockensmith, W. A.; Cheviron, N.; Grieser, W.; Dill, R.; Masters, M. F.


    We present a new, low-cost method of building an all copper heat-pipe oven that increases the practicality of this device in advanced undergraduate instructional labs. The construction parts are available at local hardware and plumbing supply stores, and the assembly techniques employed are simple and require no machining. (Contains 1 footnote, 3…

  12. Multileg Heat-Pipe Evaporator

    Alario, J. P.; Haslett, R. A.


    Parallel pipes provide high heat flow from small heat exchanger. Six parallel heat pipes extract heat from overlying heat exchanger, forming evaporator. Vapor channel in pipe contains wick that extends into screen tube in liquid channel. Rods in each channel hold wick and screen tube in place. Evaporator compact rather than extended and more compatible with existing heat-exchanger geometries. Prototype six-pipe evaporator only 0.3 m wide and 0.71 m long. With ammonia as working fluid, transports heat to finned condenser at rate of 1,200 W.

  13. Influence of Different Parameters on Heat Pipe Performance

    Sharmishtha Singh Hada


    Full Text Available In electrical and electronic industry due to miniaturization of electronic components heat density increases which, in turns increases the heat flux inside it. Scientist and many researchers are doing lot of work in this field for thermal management of devices. Heat pipe is a device that is used in electronic circuit (micro and power electronics, spacecraft & electrical components for cooling purpose. It is based on the principle of evaporation and condensation of working fluid. Heat pipe made up of three main parts are evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections. In this working fluid vaporise at evaporator and transfers heat to condenser by adiabatic section where heat release to surrounding. Vapour flows possible from evaporator to condenser section due to vapour pressure difference exist between them. Use of heat pipe material, type of working fluid & its property, wick structure, orientation, filled ratio, operating condition, dimensions of pipe has a prominent effect on heat pipe performance. Variation of these parameters for minimum thermal resistance gives better performance.

  14. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    Ebadian, M.A.


    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system.

  15. Deployable Pipe-Z

    Zawidzki, Machi


    This paper presents a concept of deployable Pipe-Z (dPZ): a modular structural system which takes advantage of the robustness of rigid-panel mechanism and allows to create free-form links which are also reconfigurable and deployable. The concept presented can be applied for building habitats and infrastructures for human exploration of oceans and outer space. dPZ structures can adapt to changing requirements e.g. mission objectives, crew condition and technological developments. Furthermore, such lightweight and adaptable structural concept can assist in sustainable exploration development. After brief introduction, the concept of Pipe-Z (PZ) is presented. Next, the reconfigurability of PZ is explained and illustrated with continuous and collision-free transition from a PZ forming a Trefoil knot to a Figure-eight knot. The following sections introduce, explain and illustrate the folding mechanism of a single foldable Pipe-Z module (fPZM) and entire dPZ structure. The latter is illustrated with asynchronous (delayed) unfolding of a relatively complex Unknot. Several applications of PZ are suggested, namely for underwater and deep-space and surface habitats, for permanent, but in particular, temporary or emergency passages. As an example, a scenario of a failure of one of the modules of the International Space Station is presented where a rigid structure of 40 fPZMs bypasses the "dead link". A low-fidelity prototype of a 6-module octagonal dPZ is presented; several folding schemes including concentric toric rings are demonstrated. Practical issues of pressurization and packing are briefly discussed.

  16. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten


    as well as structural design. Material development was carried out considering both processing requirements as well as mechanical properties of the hardened material. A micro-mechanical model for the non-linear material behavior of the hardened material based on the stress-crack width or the $\\sigma...... itself. The structural modeling of the pipe was done making direct use of the $\\sigma-w$ material characterization. The processing technique developed is a novel type of extrusion combiningease of material mixing and few requirements for material pre-processingwith a high degree of accuracy and stability...

  17. Design of emergency relief system to flare; Projeto de sistemas de alivio de emergencia para tocha

    Britto, Joelson de Carvalho [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    The relief system has for objective to protect the unit equipment and piping system for high pressures developed during eventual operational upset. As examples of operational upset could mention: human failure (operational mistake - example: inadvertent closure of a block valve), heat exchange tube rupture, utility failure (cooling water, electric power, steam, instrument air) and fire. The relieved products are piping to flare system in order to burn the waste gas. The burned or unburned relieved stream shall be dispersed in order to not to cause damages to the people and the environment. That system should operate automatically without the need of interference of the personnel of the operation. The system is basically constituted of Pressure Safety and Relief Valves (PSVs), piping net, gas-liquid separation vessel, separation vessel residual liquid pump (if necessary) and flare for burning waste gas without liquid. They are necessary also some utilities as fuel gas (to be used as purge gas by flare tip and as fuel gas by pilots in order to guarantee the continuous operation of the flare pilots), electric power, instrument/service air and compressed air or steam (if necessary) to improve the quality of the burns. (author)

  18. BOA: Pipe-asbestos insulation removal robot system

    Schempf, H.; Bares, J.; Schnorr, W. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)


    The BOA system is a mobile pipe-external robotic crawler used to remotely strip and bag asbestos-containing lagging and insulation materials (ACLIM) from various diameter pipes in (primarily) industrial installations. Steam and process lines within the DOE weapons complex warrant the use of a remote device due to the high labor costs and high level of radioactive contamination, making manual removal extremely costly and highly inefficient. Currently targeted facilities for demonstration and remediation are Fernald in Ohio and Oak Ridge in Tennessee.



    ABSTRACTS WELDEL PIPE AND TUBE Vol.24 No.3 May.2001 Huang Jingan(1) Strengthen, Intercourse, Coordination and Promote the Development Together Liang Aiyu(11) The Production and the Development of the Water supply pipe for City Construction From the aspects of the quality, appearance, environment protection, economic analysis etc., This article evaluates the galvanized pipe, plastic steel complex pipe, plastic aluminum pipe, stainless pipe for city water supply. In accordance with the requirements of the city construction programming and development, it is considered that the plastic aluminum pipe and plastic steel pipe instead of galvanization pipe is the trend of the development. The author also gives some constructive proposals for reference. Subject Terms:galvanized pipe complex pipe stainless pipe city water supply evaluation Zhao Rongbin,Li Guangjun(14) The TIG welding of Protected Tantalum-pipe for sheathed thermocouples used in corrosive environment The protected Tantalum-pipe welding of sheathed therocouples was investigated by TIG. The welding process and its key parameters were introduced. Welding quality influenced by processing was discussed. Subject Terms:welding protected Tantalum-pipe corrosion He Defu et al(18) Design and Research for An Automatic MIG Welding Machine of Catalyst Converter of Automobile Two different schemes for automatic MIG welding of catalyst converter of automobile have been compared and analysed. A design of automatic MIG welding machine used for catalyst converter of automobile has been suggested in this paper. Subject Terms:environmental protection automobile tri-catalyst converter MIG welding automatic welding PLC Fang Chucai(24) Cold Crack Analysis of Low Alloy High Strength Steel Weld Seam Heat Affected Area During the welding of low alloy high strength (X65 and above), the fine crack occurs in the weld (especially inner weld) and the low plastic hard brickle structure occurs in the Heat Affected Area (HAZ) sometime. This

  20. Heat Pipe Blocks Return Flow

    Eninger, J. E.


    Metal-foil reed valve in conventional slab-wick heat pipe limits heat flow to one direction only. With sink warmer than source, reed is forced closed and fluid returns to source side through annular transfer wick. When this occurs, wick slab on sink side of valve dries out and heat pipe ceases to conduct heat.

  1. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    Hilberink, A.


    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  2. Temperature drops in heat pipes

    Saatci, A.M.; Khalifa, A.M.A.; Akyurt, M.


    The role of entrainment in limiting heat pipe power handling capacity is discussed. The effect of entrainment on the measured temperature field in the integral heat pipe of a split system solar cooker is analyzed. An experimental set-up depicting a heat loop is presented, along with test results.

  3. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo


    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  4. Thermal Performance of a Heat Pipe for Hybrid Control Rod in Advanced In-core Decay Heat Removal System

    Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this research, an innovative hybrid heat pipe system is designed for advanced in-core decay heat removal concept. Heat pipe is a device that transfer heat from pipe's hotter end to the colder end by phase change and convection of working fluid. The concept of the hybrid heat pipe system is that the control rod can have not only the original function of neutron absorber but also the function of the heat removal. If the function of heat pipe is applied to the control rods, the limited heat removal capacity can be extended because control rods are inserted to the reactor at initial state of accident using gravitational force. The neutron absorber-based heat pipe is designed to apply them to nuclear systems. However, thermosyphon and heat pipe are competitive as passive decay heat removal device in large scale. Thus, stainless steel 316L thermosyphon and heat pipe having sheath outer diameter of 3/4 inch (17.4 mm inner diameter), and the length of 1000 mm were tested. Effects on whether there is a wick structure on the heat pipe or not on the heat removal capacity were studied. To confirm the heat removal capacity of heat pipe, and heat transfer coefficient were measured for each specimen.

  5. Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief


    Coordinating Robot Teams for Disaster Relief Mark Roberts1, Thomas Apker2, Benjamin Johnson1, Bryan Auslander3, Briana Wellman4 & David W...for Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief operations. We demonstrate that the SDP responds to a dynamic, open world while ensuring that vehicles...facilitate such information gathering tasks, freeing humans to perform more critical tasks in Humanitarian Assistance / Disaster Relief (HA/DR

  6. Study on analysis of flow field in ejector suction pipe

    Kim, Noh Hyeong [GS Caltex Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An ejector is a fluid transportation device that operates based on the principle that a high pressure fluid is spouted through a driving pipe and the pressure of a low pressure fluid is increased through exchange of momentum with a low pressure gas. Steam steam ejectors have been widely used for suction, mixture, and dehydration. They can be easily used in places where fluid moves and expenses are reasonable. In addition, such ejectors are a semi permanent fluid device that requires little maintenance. In this study, we present an optimized design by analyzing what cannot be obtained through experiments in order to improve the device performance, analyze general contents of a flow by acquiring exact test data on specific and interpretative areas using more advanced experimental techniques, and identify the flow characteristics of a branch pipe by examining the validity of experiments using computer hydrodynamics simulations.

  7. A sigh of relief or a sigh of expected relief: Sigh rate in response to dyspnea relief.

    Vlemincx, Elke; Meulders, Michel; Luminet, Olivier


    Research has suggested that sighs may serve a regulatory function during stress and emotions by facilitating relief. Evidence supports the hypotheses that sighs both express and induce relief from stress. To explore the potential role of sighs in the regulation of symptoms, the present study aimed to investigate the relationship between sighs and relief of symptoms, and relief of dyspnea, specifically. Healthy volunteers participated in two studies (N = 44, N = 47) in which dyspnea was induced by mild (10 cmH2 O/l/s) or high (20 cmH2 0/l/s) inspiratory resistances. Dyspnea relief was induced by the offset of the inspiratory resistances (transitions from high and mild inspiratory resistance to no resistance). Control comparisons included dyspnea increases (transitions from no or mild inspiratory resistance to high inspiratory resistance) and dyspnea continuations (continuations of either no resistance or a high resistance). In Experiment 1, dyspnea levels were cued. In Experiment 2, no cues were provided. Sigh rate during dyspnea relief was significantly higher compared to control conditions, and sigh rate increased as self-reported dyspnea decreased. Additionally, sigh rate was higher during cued dyspnea relief compared to noncued dyspnea relief. These results suggest that sighs are important markers of dyspnea relief. Moreover, sighs may importantly express dyspnea relief, as they are related to experiential dyspnea decreases and occur more frequently during expected dyspnea relief. These findings suggest that sighs may not only be important in the regulation of stress and emotions, but also may be functional in the regulation of dyspnea. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. 49 CFR 179.400-20 - Pressure relief devices.


    ... mixture exceeding 50% of the lower flammability limit to the atmosphere under normal conditions of storage... specified in § 179.401-1; (ii) Have sufficient capacity to limit the pressure within the inner tank to...




    Various totally implantable drug delivery systems from single access ports to micropumps are now available for administration of repeated boluses, and continuous or programmable infusions. In this respect, emphasis is given to a relatively cheap, totally implantable system for self-administering int

  10. Oxycodone combinations for pain relief.

    Raffa, R B; Pergolizzi, J V; Segarnick, D J; Tallarida, R J


    No single analgesic drug provides the perfect therapeutic/adverse effect profile for every pain condition. In addition to convenience and possibly improved compliance, a combination of analgesic drugs offers the potential, requiring verification, of providing greater pain relief and/or reduced adverse effects than the constituent drugs when used individually. We review here analgesic combinations containing oxycodone. We found surprisingly little preclinical information about the analgesic or adverse effect profiles of the combinations (with acetaminophen, paracetamol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, morphine, gabapentin or pregabalin). Clinical experience and studies suggest that the combinations are safe and effective and may offer certain advantages. As with all combinations, the profile of adverse effects must also be determined in order to provide the clinician with the overall benefit/risk assessment.

  11. Exercise Based- Pain Relief Program

    Zadeh, Mahdi Hossein

    in the current study was to use exercise induced- muscle damage followed by ECC as an acute pain model and observe its effects on the sensitivity of the nociceptive system and blood supply in healthy subjects. Then, the effect of a repeated bout of the same exercise as a healthy pain relief strategy......Exercise-based pain management programs are suggested for relieving from musculoskeletal pain; however the pain experienced after unaccustomed, especially eccentric exercise (ECC) alters people´s ability to participate in therapeutic exercises. Subsequent muscle pain after ECC has been shown...... to cause localized pressure pain and hyperalgesia. A prior bout of ECC has been repeatedly reported to produce a protective adaptation known as repeated bout effect (RBE). One of the main scopes of the current project was to investigate the adaptations by which the RBE can be resulted from. The approach...

  12. Pain relief can be painful

    Ashish Bindra


    Full Text Available Mandibular nerve block is periodically used procedure used to treat neuralgic pain in the distribution of trigeminal nerve. It is a commonly performed block in outpatient settings at our institute. We present a case of an elderly edentulous patient with trigeminal neuralgia who suffered recurrent temporomandibular joint (TMJ dislocation following mandibular nerve block. The patient presented with complaints of severe pain, inability to close mouth, and eat food since 2 days. Anterior closed reduction of TMJ resulted in reduction of joint and immediate pain relief. However, the maneuver failed due to recurrent dislocation of the joint. A Barton dressing was applied to prevent another dislocation. This was followed by autologous blood injection into the joint. This case focuses on the preponderance of clinical evaluation and accentuates the need for additional forethought to be taken during pain procedures, particularly in the geriatric population.

  13. 46 CFR 95.15-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.15-15 Section 95.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds per square inch. (b) All piping, in nominal...

  14. 46 CFR 154.520 - Piping calculations.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping calculations. 154.520 Section 154.520 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Process Piping Systems § 154.520 Piping calculations. A piping system must be designed to meet...

  15. 46 CFR 108.475 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 108.475 Section 108.475 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems Foam Extinguishing Systems § 108.475 Piping. (a) Each pipe, valve, and fitting in a foam... to remove liquid from the system. (e) Piping in a foam extinguishing system must be used only...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1123 - Exhaust piping.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 27.1123 Section 27.1123... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 27.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping... operating temperatures. (b) Exhaust piping must be supported to withstand any vibration and inertia loads...

  17. 46 CFR 197.336 - Pressure piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure piping. 197.336 Section 197.336 Shipping COAST... GENERAL PROVISIONS Commercial Diving Operations Equipment § 197.336 Pressure piping. Piping systems that... must— (a) Meet the ANSI Code; (b) Have the point of connection to the integral piping system of...

  18. 46 CFR 64.95 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 64.95 Section 64.95 Shipping COAST GUARD... SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.95 Piping. (a) Piping, valves, flanges, and fittings used in the... the piping system must comply with § 56.60-25(c) of this chapter....

  19. 46 CFR 76.23-20 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.23-20 Section 76.23-20 Shipping COAST GUARD... System, Details § 76.23-20 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  20. 46 CFR 95.17-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.17-15 Section 95.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  1. 46 CFR 76.17-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.17-15 Section 76.17-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Systems, Details § 76.17-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. (b) All piping, valves, and fittings...

  2. 46 CFR 193.15-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 193.15-15 Section 193.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Dioxide Extinguishing Systems, Details § 193.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 pounds per square inch. (b) All piping, in nominal...

  3. Investigation of high-frequency pipe welding

    Konovalov, Nikolai A.; Lakhno, Nikolay I.; Gushchin, A. G.; Putryk, N. D.; Kovalenko, Vladimir I.; Galkina, V. A.; Veselovsky, Vladimir B.; Furmanov, Valeri B.; Kovika, Nikolai D.; Novikov, Leonid V.; Shcherbina, V. N.


    For investigation of a pipe welding process at high-frequency heating aimed at increasing of pipe quality and decreasing of spoilage, the use of high-speed recording and TV-technique is considered to be effective. The authors have created a visual inspection system for pipe welding process studies at a tube mill of the Novomoskovsk Pipe Plant.

  4. 49 CFR 192.281 - Plastic pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.281 Section 192.281... Plastic pipe. (a) General. A plastic pipe joint that is joined by solvent cement, adhesive, or heat fusion may not be disturbed until it has properly set. Plastic pipe may not be joined by a threaded joint...

  5. 49 CFR 195.114 - Used pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Used pipe. 195.114 Section 195.114 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.114 Used pipe. Any used pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with § 195.112 (a) and (b) and the following: (a) The pipe must be of a known specification and the...

  6. 49 CFR 195.112 - New pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false New pipe. 195.112 Section 195.112 Transportation... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.112 New pipe. Any new pipe installed in a pipeline system must comply with the following: (a) The pipe must be made of steel of the carbon, low alloy-high strength, or alloy...

  7. 49 CFR 192.55 - Steel pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steel pipe. 192.55 Section 192.55 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.55 Steel pipe. (a) New steel pipe is... in accordance with paragraph (c) or (d) of this section. (b) Used steel pipe is qualified for use...

  8. Loop Heat Pipe Startup Behaviors

    Ku, Jentung


    A loop heat pipe must start successfully before it can commence its service. The startup transient represents one of the most complex phenomena in the loop heat pipe operation. This paper discusses various aspects of loop heat pipe startup behaviors. Topics include the four startup scenarios, the initial fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir that determines the startup scenario, factors that affect the fluid distribution between the evaporator and reservoir, difficulties encountered during the low power startup, and methods to enhance the startup success. Also addressed are the pressure spike and pressure surge during the startup transient, and repeated cycles of loop startup and shutdown under certain conditions.

  9. 浅谈安全阀的配管设计%Piping Design of Pressure Safety Vavles



    随着经济的发展,石化行业已经成为我国经济发展的支柱产业。但是由于石化装置中设备多为高温高压,一旦出现问题将极易产生重大事故。安全阀作为压力容器的安全泄放装置,由于其结构简单、灵敏可靠,在压力容器上被大量采用。然而,在工程设计中人们一般只重视安全阀设定压力与排量,而忽视安全阀的配管设计,现结合工程实例,就安全阀的配管设计进行叙述,供相关人员参考。%With the development of economy , the petrochemical industry in China has become a pillar industry of economic development.The equipment in petrochemical plant has high temperature and high pressure , once appear problem will easily produce a major accident.Safety valves as a kind of safety relief devices are used a large number on pressure vessel , because of its simple structure , sensitive and reliable.However, designer is generally only pay attention to the safety valve set pressure and displacement , ignoring the piping design of safety valve.Combined with the engineering example , piping design of safety valves were introduced , the reference for the related person was provides.

  10. Heat Pipe Embedded AlSiC Plates for High Conductivity - Low CTE Heat Spreaders

    Johnson, Matthew (DOE/NNSA Kansas City Plant (United States)); Weyant, J.; Garner, S. (Advanced Cooling Technologies, Inc. (Lancaster, PA (United States)); Occhionero, M. (CPS Technologies Corporation, Norton, MA (United States))


    Heat pipe embedded aluminum silicon carbide (AlSiC) plates are innovative heat spreaders that provide high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Since heat pipes are two phase devices, they demonstrate effective thermal conductivities ranging between 50,000 and 200,000 W/m-K, depending on the heat pipe length. Installing heat pipes into an AlSiC plate dramatically increases the plate’s effective thermal conductivity. AlSiC plates alone have a thermal conductivity of roughly 200 W/m-K and a CTE ranging from 7-12 ppm/ deg C, similar to that of silicon. An equivalent sized heat pipe embedded AlSiC plate has effective thermal conductivity ranging from 400 to 500 W/m-K and retains the CTE of AlSiC.

  11. Nitrogen heat pipe for cryocooler thermal shunt

    Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Daney, D.E.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Green, G.F.; Roth, E.W. [Naval Surface Warfare Center, Annapolis, MD (United States)


    A nitrogen heat pipe was designed, built and tested for the purpose of providing a thermal shunt between the two stages of a Gifford-McMahan (GM) cryocooler during cooldown. The nitrogen heat pipe has an operating temperature range between 63 and 123 K. While the heat pipe is in the temperature range during the system cooldown, it acts as a thermal shunt between the first and second stage of the cryocooler. The heat pipe increases the heat transfer to the first stage of the cryocooler, thereby reducing the cooldown time of the system. When the heat pipe temperature drops below the triple point, the nitrogen working fluid freezes, effectively stopping the heat pipe operation. A small heat leak between cryocooler stages remains because of axial conduction along the heat pipe wall. As long as the heat pipe remains below 63 K, the heat pipe remains inactive. Heat pipe performance limits were measured and the optimum fluid charge was determined.

  12. Inexpensive tamper proof safety relief valve

    Frankewich, P. A.


    Basic relief valve has added safety relief valve capability that relieves overpressure before failure can occur. It may be installed in inaccesible areas with a high degree of reliability, constructed from a variety of materials, and adapted to the user's specific application.

  13. 44 CFR 68.12 - Relief.


    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 68.12 Section 68.12 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Relief. The final determination may be appealed by the appellant(s) to the United States district court...

  14. 24 CFR 220.753 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 220.753 Section 220.753 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... and Obligations-Projects Project Mortgage Insurance § 220.753 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where...

  15. 47 CFR 1.6009 - Relief.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief. 1.6009 Section 1.6009 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Implementation of Section 325(e) of the... Carriers for Retransmission Without Consent § 1.6009 Relief. If the Commission determines that a satellite...

  16. 24 CFR 236.255 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 236.255 Section 236.255 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... Insurance § 236.255 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where the mortgage is in default, the mortgagor and...

  17. 24 CFR 221.761 - Forbearance relief.


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Forbearance relief. 221.761 Section 221.761 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... § 221.761 Forbearance relief. (a) In a case where the mortgage is in default, the mortgagor and the...

  18. Tissue holding device for use during surgical procedure, has contact body with suction foot and suction mouth that is surrounded by rim, and suction pipe connected to suction chamber

    Vonck, D.; Goossens, R.H.M.; Flipsen, S.F.J.; Jakimowicz, J.J.; Van der Putten, E.P.W.


    The device has a locking ring (5), a connector (6), and a contact body (1) with a suction foot and a suction mouth (8), where the mouth is surrounded by a rim (10), which is substantially located in a plane of the suction foot. A suction chamber (9) has a sieve-shaped inner wall (2) and a

  19. 49 CFR 192.279 - Copper pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Copper pipe. 192.279 Section 192.279... Copper pipe. Copper pipe may not be threaded except that copper pipe used for joining screw fittings or... heavier wall pipe listed in Table C1 of ASME/ANSI B16.5. [Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989, as...

  20. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Howden, G.F.


    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  1. Multi-pipe once-through type boiler

    Yoshinari, Yuji; Shiraishi, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Osamu; Kawahito, Akiyoshi; Kayahara, Toshihiro; Takeda, Satoru; Yamada, Takashi; Kawakami, Akinon.


    An objective of this invention is to provide a multi-pipe once-through-type of boiler having a small volume, such as those used in domestic heating devices, capable of enhancing the efficiency of heat transfer between the combustion gas in the tubular combustion gas passageway and the fluid to be heated in the pipes. The boiler of the invention has at least one row of circumferentially arranged pipes on which a plurality of fins are arranged in such a manner that the fins are in contact with the flow of combustion gas in a substantially parallel manner. Elements are provided for increasing the heat transfer effect, such as slits in the fins, or an inclined arrangement of the fins, or pipes without fins at the region near to the inlet of the combustion gas passageway. A heat insulating member for decreasing operational noise, as well as a cleaner device for blow-cleaning the combustion gas passageway, are also provided. 22 figs.

  2. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich; Nechitaeva Valentina Anatol'evna; Bogomolova Irina Olegovna; Shaykhetdinova Yuliya Aleksandrovna; Daminova Yuliya Farikhovna


    The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of d...

  3. Corrosion behavior in heat pipe

    Anurak Rodbumrung


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to perform life testing and determine the effect of working fluid on the corrosion of a heat pipe with a sintered wick. The heat pipe was made from a copper tube. The inner heat pipe was filled with 99.97% pure copper powder as a dendritic for the sintering process. The heat pipe had an outer diameter of 6 mm with a length of 200 mm, and distilled water and ethanol were the working fluids. The operating temperature at the evaporator was 125°C. The analysis consisted of using a scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results of the scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis showed that the corrosion of the heat pipe was uniform. The result of the atomic absorption spectroscopy indicated that the concentration of the copper in the ethanol as the working fluid was greater than in the distilled water as the working fluid, and the highest concentration of copper particles in the ethanol was 22.7499 ppm or 0.0409 mg after testing for 3000 h. The concentration of copper was higher when the length of the life test increased due to corrosion of the heat pipe.

  4. Heat pipe turbine vane cooling

    Langston, L.; Faghri, A. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)


    The applicability of using heat pipe principles to cool gas turbine vanes is addressed in this beginning program. This innovative concept involves fitting out the vane interior as a heat pipe and extending the vane into an adjacent heat sink, thus transferring the vane incident heat transfer through the heat pipe to heat sink. This design provides an extremely high heat transfer rate and an uniform temperature along the vane due to the internal change of phase of the heat pipe working fluid. Furthermore, this technology can also eliminate hot spots at the vane leading and trailing edges and increase the vane life by preventing thermal fatigue cracking. There is also the possibility of requiring no bleed air from the compressor, and therefore eliminating engine performance losses resulting from the diversion of compressor discharge air. Significant improvement in gas turbine performance can be achieved by using heat pipe technology in place of conventional air cooled vanes. A detailed numerical analysis of a heat pipe vane will be made and an experimental model will be designed in the first year of this new program.

  5. Heat pipes as perspective base elements of heat recovery in heat supply and ventilating systems

    Matveev Andrey


    Full Text Available Thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes are considered as high-efficient heat-transfer devices, which can provide energy-saving technologies for heat supply and ventilating systems and for different branches of industry. Thermotechnical and working (”performance capability” characteristics of heat pipes are investigated. By ”performance capability” of heat pipes and heat-transfer devices on heat pipes we mean the system state, where it can perform set functions and keep parameter values (thermal power, conductivity, thermal resistance, heat-transfer coefficient, temperature level and differential, etc. within the regulations of standardized specifications. The article presents theoretical and experimental methods of «gaslock» length determination on noncondensable gases during long-lasting tests of ammonia heat pipes made of aluminum shape АS – КRА 7.5 – R1 (alloy АD – 31. The paper gives results of research of thermotechnical characteristics of heat pipes in horizontal and vertical states (separate and as a set part while using different systems of thermal insulation. The obtained results of thermotechnical and resource tests show the advantages of ammonia heat pipes as basic elements for heat exchanger design in heating and ventilation systems.

  6. Length Effect on the Thermal Performance of a Heat Pipe for NPP Decay Heat Removal

    Seo, Joseph; Lee, Jae Young [Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    After Fukushima accident, importance and necessity of passive safety for nuclear power plant have been emphasized. Due to its passive characteristic, heat pipe is seriously considered as an alternative device of the active safety system for removing decay heat from the reactor core. Among many possible applications of heat pipe in NPP, we considered the application to the control rod. In the situation of SBO(Station Black Out) due to BDBA(Beyond Design Basis Accident) in a PWR, control rods are dropped in to nuclear reactor core automatically. Thus, it is expected that applying heat pipe function to control rod can enhance reactor safety by removing decay heat of fuel assembly. Considering the height of the control rod, L/D of the heat pipe would be larger than 400 if the given diameter is assumed to be similar to the diameter of the control rod. Thus, it may not be the matter for small heat pipes, it is necessary to consider the effects of L/D for the large L/D heat pipes. There for, length effect on the thermal performance of heat pipe for decay heat removal was experimentally investigated in this study. Through this study, the L/D effect on the thermal performance of the large L/D heat pipe for nuclear reactor has been studied.

  7. Analysis of heat transfer of loop heat pipe used to cool high power LED


    A novel loop heat pipe(LHP)cooling device for high power LED is developed.The thermal capabilities, including startup performance,temperature uniformity and thermal resistance of the loop heat pipe under different heat loads and incline angles have been investigated experimentally.The obtained results indicate that the thermal resistance of the heat pipe heat sink is in the range of 0.19―3.1 K/W,the temperature uniformity in the evaporator is controlled within 1.5℃,and the junction temperature of high power LED can be controlled steadily under 100℃for a heat load of 100 W.


    Шаповал, Андрій Андрійович; Панов, Євген Миколайович; Сауліна, Юлія Валеріївна; Романчук, Борис Васильович; Трубійчук, Р. П.


    The experimental study results of the influence of porous metal fiber structures on the intensity of two-phase heat transfer of water and acetone boiling on porous surfaces in conditions of free movement and capillary transport of liquids are presented in the article. The experiments were realized using specially designed experimental installation simulated the operating conditions of heat pipes and thermosyphons. Such conditions are typical for two-phase heat transfer devices – heat pipes an...

  9. Effect of orientation on heat transfer in pulsating heat pipe

    Naumova A. M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of orientation effect on heat transfer characteristics of a pulsating heat pipe (PHP. It is shown that transport of either mass or heat depends on PHP orientation against it`s axis. As a consequence of comparing experimental data with other authors’ results it was concluded that PHP thermal resistance depends not only on orientation but on some other determinal factors such as device construction and thermophysical properties of heat carrier.

  10. Power source for wireless sensors in pipes

    Keddis, Sherif; Schwesinger, Norbert


    In this paper, we present investigations on wireless sensors for fluid control inside a pipe. Autarkic sensors are in the technical trend. They are typically connected with a transceiver unit for data transmission. Sensors usually need a lower amount of energy than data transceivers. Therefore, they are commonly supplied via wires or batteries with electricity. With common technologies, this request leads to high requirements on tightness in liquids since poor sealing could easily lead to failures. Replacement of batteries inside pipes is complicated and almost accompanied by a flow interruption. The application of energy harvesters as power supply is therefore a good alternative. In our studies we used flexible piezoelectric energy harvesters of PVDF (Poly-Vinylidene-Di-Fluoride). All harvesting units consist of piezoelectric PVDF-foils as active layers and Aluminum-foils as electrodes. The layers were stacked alternating on each other and wound to a spool. A LDPE-film wraps the spool and prevents the inflow of liquids. The device has following parameters: No. of windings: 4 in air, 4, 5, 7 in water Dimensions: 15 mm Ø 22mm Materials: PDVF: 25μm Aluminimum: 6μm, LDPE: 25μm A ring shaped bluff body was placed inside the pipe to induce turbulence in the fluid stream. As the harvesters have been arranged downstream of the bluff body, they were forced to oscillate independent of the media. In each case, deformation of the active layers led to a polarization and a separation of electrical charges. Experiments were carried out in a wind channel as well as in a water pipe. In air, the spool oscillates with a frequency of about 30Hz, at a wind speed of about 7m/s. A -Voltage of about 4V (peak-peak) was measured. This delivers in case of power adjustment, power values of about 0.54μW. In water, the velocity of the fluid was limited to nearly one tenth. Oscillation starts only at a water speed above 0.6m/s. The average oscillation frequency is about 18Hz. At a velocity

  11. 热管余热节能回收装置在粮食干燥系统中的应用试验研究%Application test of waste heat recovery device of heat pipe in the grain drying system

    王龙龙; 武文斌; 秦强; 李衡


    The waste heat recovery of heat exchanger in the grain drying system of 1.67×106 kJ was studied.The heat pipe device was installed on the top of the heat exchanger,with simple structure and easy maintenance.The experiment results showed that when the furnace temperature was about 316~437℃,and the ambient temperature was 22℃,the clean air temper-ature increased from 22℃ to about 40℃,and the waste heat recovery effect was very obvious,which created good conditions for energy saving and consumption reducing in the drying system.%针对 1.67×106 kJ 粮食干燥系统中换热器的余热回收进行了研究.将热管装置安装在换热器的顶部,其结构简单,维修方便.应用实验结果表明,当炉膛温度在 316~437℃、环境温度 22℃左右时,新鲜空气温度能够从22℃提高到40℃左右,余热回收效果非常明显,这为整个干燥系统的节能降耗创造了很好的条件.

  12. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation in a Safety Relief Valve using water. Extension to Cryogenic fluids.

    Pinho, Jorge


    This thesis addresses the experimental investigation of the cavitation phenomenon and its main consequences on the normal operation of a safety relief valve (SRV). More particularly, limitation of the mass flux discharged and alteration of the hydraulic fluid forces behavior is of main interest for the proper design and sizing of such devices. In nuclear or thermal engineering systems, the use of SRVs is mandatory since it represents the ultimate protection device before an accident occurs, c...

  13. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Color

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  14. Lake Bathymetric DEM Shaded Relief Image

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Geo-referenced, shaded relief image of lake bathymetry classified at 5-foot depth intervals. This dataset has a cell resolution of 5 meters (occasionally 10m) as...

  15. Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery

    PATIENT EDUCATION Non-Drug Pain Relief: Imagery Relaxation helps lessen tension. One way to help decrease pain is to use imagery. Imagery is using your imagination to create a ...

  16. U.S. Coastal Relief Model

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  17. Enveloping Relief Surfaces of Landslide Terrain


    Two relief surfaces that envelop the rock fall region in a part of Garhwal Himalayas around Chamoli have been identified. Relative relief and absolute relief have been analyzed and the enveloping surfaces recorded at two levels of relief in the landscape. All landslide activity lies within these surfaces. The lower enveloping surface (800 m) dips due south by 7-8 degrees, due to an elevation rise of 100 meters within 12 km from south to north, i.e., a gradient of 8 percent. The nature of the surface is smooth. The upper enveloping surface (> 2500 m) is almost parallel to the lower one but its surface is undulatory due to landslides and denudation. The area has been a seismically active region and has undergone seismic activity up until recently, as evidenced by the Chamoli earthquake of 29th March 1999. The effects of earthquakes are seen at higher levels in the form of landslide imprints on the terrain.

  18. U.S. Coastal Relief Model - Hawaii

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NGDC's U.S. Coastal Relief Model (CRM) provides the first comprehensive view of the U.S. coastal zone integrating offshore bathymetry with land topography into a...

  19. Shaded Relief of Minnesota Elevation - Black & White

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This file is a product of a shaded relief process on the 30 meter resolution Digital Elevation Model data (dem30im3). This image was created using a custom AML...

  20. Brain Circuits Encoding Reward from Pain Relief

    Navratilova, Edita; Atcherley, Christopher; Porreca, Frank


    Relief from pain in humans is rewarding and pleasurable. Primary rewards, or reward predictive cues, are encoded in brain reward/motivational circuits. While considerable advances have been made in our understanding of reward circuits underlying positive reinforcement, less is known about the circuits underlying the hedonic and reinforcing actions of pain relief. We review findings from electrophysiological, neuroimaging and behavioral studies supporting the concept that the rewarding effect of pain relief requires opioid signaling in the anterior cingulate cortex, activation of midbrain dopamine neurons and release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Understanding of circuits that govern the reward of pain relief may allow the discovery of more effective and satisfying therapies for patients with acute and chronic pain. PMID:26603560

  1. 46 CFR 56.50-90 - Sounding devices.


    ... fuel-oil tank may terminate in any space where the risk of ignition of spillage from the pipe might... COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-90 Sounding devices. (a) Each tank...

  2. Safety/relief-valve test program

    Hunter, J.A.


    In response to the NRC's Task 2.1.2 following the TMI-2 accident, government and industry programs were formulated to address the performance of safety and relief valve systems for pressurized and boiling water reactors. Objective is to demonstrate by testing and analysis that safety and relief valve systems in the reactor coolant system are qualified for the anticipated full range of reactor operating and accident conditions. The EPRI PWR program tested PWR safety valves and power operated relief valves (PORVs) under steam, liquid, and steam/liquid transition conditions. The program also tested PWR PORV block valves under steam conditions. The GE BWR program tested BWR relief and safety/relief valves under high pressure steam and low pressure liquid conditions. EG and G Idaho recent activities have focused on the evaluation of the industry test data, evaluation and modification of analytical codes for safety/relief valve system analysis, and initial evaluation of utility responses to US NRC program requirements.

  3. Flat heat pipe design, construction, and analysis

    Voegler, G.; Boughey, B.; Cerza, M.; Lindler, K.W.


    This paper details the design, construction and partial analysis of a low temperature flat heat pipe in order to determine the feasibility of implementing flat heat pipes into thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion systems.

  4. Capacitance probe for detection of anomalies in non-metallic plastic pipe

    Mathur, Mahendra P.; Spenik, James L.; Condon, Christopher M.; Anderson, Rodney; Driscoll, Daniel J.; Fincham, Jr., William L.; Monazam, Esmail R.


    The disclosure relates to analysis of materials using a capacitive sensor to detect anomalies through comparison of measured capacitances. The capacitive sensor is used in conjunction with a capacitance measurement device, a location device, and a processor in order to generate a capacitance versus location output which may be inspected for the detection and localization of anomalies within the material under test. The components may be carried as payload on an inspection vehicle which may traverse through a pipe interior, allowing evaluation of nonmetallic or plastic pipes when the piping exterior is not accessible. In an embodiment, supporting components are solid-state devices powered by a low voltage on-board power supply, providing for use in environments where voltage levels may be restricted.


    GENG Yan-fen; WANG Zhi-li; JIN Sheng


    An efficient numerical method with first and second order accuracy is developed by the flux split technology to simulate the water hammer problem in single and multiple pipe networks under severe transient conditions. The finite volume formulation ensures that both schemes conserve mass and momentum and produces physically realizable shock fronts. The conception of the fictitious cell at the junction is developed. The typical water hammer problem and the experiment with friction and the comprehensive orbicular network with control valve and pressure relief valve and surge tank are implemented to test the numerical method. Strong numerical evidences show that the proposed scheme has several desirable properties, such as, accurate, efficient, robust, high shock resolution, conservative and stable for Courant number.

  6. 46 CFR 61.15-5 - Steam piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Steam piping. 61.15-5 Section 61.15-5 Shipping COAST... Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-5 Steam piping. (a) Main steam piping shall be subjected to a.... If the covering of the piping is not removed, the test pressure shall be maintained on the piping...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 192 - Qualification of Pipe


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of Pipe B Appendix B to Part 192... Pipe I. Listed Pipe Specifications API 5L—Steel pipe, “API Specification for Line Pipe” (incorporated by reference, see § 192.7). ASTM A53/A53M—Steel pipe, “Standard Specification for Pipe, Steel Black...

  8. Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes

    Ku, Jentung


    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Loop Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. This course will discuss operating principles and performance characteristics of a loop heat pipe. Topics include: 1) pressure profiles in the loop; 2) loop operating temperature; 3) operating temperature control; 4) loop startup; 4) loop shutdown; 5) loop transient behaviors; 6) sizing of loop components and determination of fluid inventory; 7) analytical modeling; 8) examples of flight applications; and 9) recent LHP developments.

  9. 46 CFR 169.652 - Bilge piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge piping. 169.652 Section 169.652 Shipping COAST... Electrical Bilge Systems § 169.652 Bilge piping. (a) All vessels of 26 feet in length and over must be... than 120 feet in length the bilge pipe must be not less than one and one-half inches. Piping on...

  10. China Steel Pipes Demand Rising Steadily


    @@ Steel pipes industry is an industry to play a decisive role in the national economic development. During the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, the steel pipes output has been increased distinctly. Based on experts forecast,the steel pipes demand in China will still be in tendency of increase during the Eleventh FiveYear Plan period, which will doubtlessly bring new opportunity and challenge to the steel pipes enterprises in China.

  11. 46 CFR 76.15-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.15-15 Section 76.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD... Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.15-15 Piping. (a) The piping, valves, and fittings shall have a bursting pressure of not less than 6,000 p.s.i. (b) All piping, in nominal sizes not over 3/4 inch, shall be...

  12. Assessment of the integrity of welded pipes

    Šarkoćević, Živče; Arsić, Miodrag; Sedmak, Aleksandar; MEĐO, Bojan; Mišić, Milan; id_orcid 0000-0003-0550-1851


    The subject of the paper is analysis of the integrity of welded pipes made of API J55 steel by high frequency contact welding (HF). Experimental research on the mechanical properties of the base material was conducted on pipes withdrawn from exploatation after 70 000 hours at service. Defect influence of the surface crack on the integrity of pipes was tested using hydrostatic pressure of pipes with axial surface crack in the base material. Fracture behaviour was tested using modified compact ...



    An experimental bimorph piezoelectric element (PZT) actuator for small pipe robot is developed. The robotcan move in φ 20 mm pipe, and can carry a CCD camera for detecting cracks or fine holes on inner surface of pipe. Thevelocity of the robot can reach 17~22 mm/s for vertical pipe up/down, respectively. Moving principle and its perfor-mance characteristics are presented.

  14. Analysis of Municipal Pipe Network Franchise Institution

    Yong, Sun; Haichuan, Tian; Feng, Xu; Huixia, Zhou

    Franchise institution of municipal pipe network has some particularity due to the characteristic of itself. According to the exposition of Chinese municipal pipe network industry franchise institution, the article investigates the necessity of implementing municipal pipe network franchise institution in China, the role of government in the process and so on. And this offers support for the successful implementation of municipal pipe network franchise institution in China.

  15. 46 CFR 154.806 - Capacity of pressure relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capacity of pressure relief valves. 154.806 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Vent Systems § 154.806 Capacity of pressure relief valves. Pressure relief valves for each... pressure above the set pressure of the relief valves: (a) The maximum capacity of an installed cargo...

  16. Laparoscopic Adhesiolysis and Relief of Chronic Pelvic Pain

    Nezhat, Farr R.; Crystal, Ruth Ann; Nezhat, Ceana H.


    Objective: To evaluate the short- and long-term results of laparoscopic enterolysis in patients with chronic pelvic pain following hysterectomy. Methods: Forty-eight patients were evaluated at time intervals from 2 weeks to 5 years after laparoscopic enterolysis. Patients were asked to rate postoperative relief of their pelvic pain as complete/near complete relief (80-100% pain relief), significant relief (50-80% pain relief), or less than 50% or no pain relief. Results: We found that after 2 to 8 weeks, 39% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 33% reported significant pain relief, and 28% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Six months to one year postlaparoscopy, 49% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 15% reported significant pain relief, and 36% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Two to five years after laparoscopic enterolysis, 37% of patients reported complete/near complete pain relief, 30% reported significant pain relief, and 33% reported less than 50% or no pain relief. Some patients required between 1 and 3 subsequent laparoscopic adhesiolysis. A total of 3 enterotomies and 2 cystotomies occurred, all of which were repaired laparoscopically. Conclusion: We conclude that laparoscopic enterolysis may offer significant long-term relief of chronic pelvic pain in some patients. PMID:11051185

  17. 48 CFR 252.229-7001 - Tax relief.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax relief. 252.229-7001... Clauses 252.229-7001 Tax relief. As prescribed in 229.402-70(a), use the following clause: Tax Relief (JUN... or components intended to be imported in order to ensure that relief from import duties is obtained...

  18. 7 CFR 635.5 - Forms of relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 635.5 Section 635.5 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING EQUITABLE RELIEF FROM INELIGIBILITY § 635.5 Forms of relief. (a) The Chief... land covered by the program; and (5) Receive such other equitable relief as determined to be...

  19. 37 CFR 41.120 - Notice of basis for relief.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of basis for relief... Notice of basis for relief. (a) The Board may require a party to provide a notice stating the relief it requests and the basis for its entitlement to relief. The Board may provide for the notice to be maintained...

  20. 19 CFR 210.52 - Motions for temporary relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Motions for temporary relief. 210.52 Section 210... IMPORT TRADE ADJUDICATION AND ENFORCEMENT Temporary Relief § 210.52 Motions for temporary relief. Requests for temporary relief under section 337 (e) or (f) of the Tariff Act of 1930 shall be made through...

  1. 43 CFR 4.1367 - Request for temporary relief.


    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Request for temporary relief. 4.1367... temporary relief. (a) Where review is requested pursuant to § 4.1362, any party may file a request for temporary relief at any time prior to a decision by an Administrative Law Judge, so long as the relief...

  2. 7 CFR 718.305 - Forms of relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forms of relief. 718.305 Section 718.305 Agriculture... Equitable Relief From Ineligibility § 718.305 Forms of relief. (a) The Administrator of FSA, Executive Vice... all or part of the land covered by the program; and (5) Receive such other equitable relief as...

  3. Smoking water pipe is injurious to lungs

    Sivapalan, Pradeesh; Ringbæk, Thomas; Lange, Peter


    This review describes the pulmonary consequences of water pipe smoking. Smoking water pipe affects the lung function negatively, is significantly associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and increases the risk of lung infections. Case reports suggest that regular smokers of water pipe...

  4. 46 CFR 108.449 - Piping tests.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping tests. 108.449 Section 108.449 Shipping COAST... Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.449 Piping tests. (a... piping installation. (b) When tested with CO2 or other inert gas under a pressure of 70 kilograms...

  5. 14 CFR 29.1123 - Exhaust piping.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 29.1123 Section 29.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Exhaust System § 29.1123 Exhaust piping. (a) Exhaust piping must be heat and corrosion resistant, and must have provisions to prevent failure due to...

  6. 46 CFR 76.10-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 76.10-15 Section 76.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 76.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the applicable requirements...

  7. 49 CFR 195.128 - Station piping.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station piping. 195.128 Section 195.128 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.128 Station piping. Any pipe to be installed in a station that...

  8. 46 CFR 193.10-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 193.10-15 Section 193.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 193.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings, shall meet...

  9. 46 CFR 95.10-15 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 95.10-15 Section 95.10-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 95.10-15 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings shall meet the...

  10. 14 CFR 25.1123 - Exhaust piping.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exhaust piping. 25.1123 Section 25.1123... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Exhaust System § 25.1123 Exhaust piping. For powerplant and auxiliary power unit installations, the following apply: (a) Exhaust piping must be heat...

  11. 46 CFR 132.110 - Piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping. 132.110 Section 132.110 Shipping COAST GUARD....110 Piping. (a) Except as provided for liftboats by § 134.180 of this subchapter, each fitting, flange, valve, and run of piping must meet the applicable requirements of part 128 of this subchapter....

  12. 46 CFR 154.660 - Pipe welding.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe welding. 154.660 Section 154.660 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... § 154.660 Pipe welding. (a) Pipe welding must meet Part 57 of this chapter. (b) Longitudinal butt...

  13. 49 CFR 192.59 - Plastic pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Plastic pipe. 192.59 Section 192.59 Transportation... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Materials § 192.59 Plastic pipe. (a) New plastic pipe... specification; and (2) It is resistant to chemicals with which contact may be anticipated. (b) Used plastic...

  14. 46 CFR 76.25-30 - Piping.


    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS FIRE PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Automatic Sprinkling System, Details § 76.25-30 Piping. (a) All piping, valves, and fittings of ferrous materials shall be... piping, valves, fittings, and sprinkler heads shall be securely supported, and, where...

  15. 33 CFR 127.1101 - Piping systems.


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Piping systems. 127.1101 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Design and Construction § 127.1101 Piping systems. Each piping system within the marine transfer area for LHG used for the transfer of LHG must meet the...

  16. 46 CFR 56.10-5 - Pipe.


    ...) Ferrous pipe. ASTM Specification A 53 (incorporated by reference, see § 56.01-2) furnace welded pipe shall... found from Table 56.60-1(a). (3) Copper-nickel alloys may be used for water and steam service within the... specifically permitted by this part. (6) Aluminum-alloy pipe or tube along with similar junction equipment may...

  17. PPOOLEX experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes

    Laine, J.; Puustinen, M.; Raesaenen, A. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology, Nuclear Safety Research Unit (Finland))


    This report summarizes the results of the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes carried out with the scaled down PPOOLEX test facility designed and constructed at Lappeenranta University of Technology. Steam was blown into the dry well compartment and from there through either one or two vertical transparent blowdown pipes to the condensation pool. Five experiments with one pipe and six with two parallel pipes were carried out. The main purpose of the experiments was to study loads caused by chugging (rapid condensation) while steam is discharged into the condensation pool filled with sub-cooled water. The PPOOLEX test facility is a closed stainless steel vessel divided into two compartments, dry well and wet well. In the experiments the initial temperature of the condensation pool water varied from 12 deg. C to 55 deg. C, the steam flow rate from 40 g/s to 1 300 g/s and the temperature of incoming steam from 120 deg. C to 185 deg. C. In the experiments with only one transparent blowdown pipe chugging phenomenon didn't occur as intensified as in the preceding experiments carried out with a DN200 stainless steel pipe. With the steel blowdown pipe even 10 times higher pressure pulses were registered inside the pipe. Meanwhile, loads registered in the pool didn't indicate significant differences between the steel and polycarbonate pipe experiments. In the experiments with two transparent blowdown pipes, the steamwater interface moved almost synchronously up and down inside both pipes. Chugging was stronger than in the one pipe experiments and even two times higher loads were measured inside the pipes. The loads at the blowdown pipe outlet were approximately the same as in the one pipe cases. Other registered loads around the pool were about 50-100 % higher than with one pipe. The experiments with two parallel blowdown pipes gave contradictory results compared to the earlier studies dealing with chugging loads in case of multiple pipes. Contributing

  18. Heat transfer intensification by increasing vapor flow rate in flat heat pipes

    Sprinceana, Silviu; Mihai, Ioan; Beniuga, Marius; Suciu, Cornel


    Flat heat pipes have various technical applications, one of the most important being the cooling of electronic components[9]. Their continuous development is due to the fact that these devices permit heat transfer without external energetic contribution. The practical exploitation of flat heat pipes however is limited by the fact that dissipated power can only reach a few hundred watts. The present paper aims to advance a new method for the intensification of convective heat transfer. A centrifugal mini impeller, driven by a turntable which incorporates four permanent magnets was designed. These magnets are put in motion by another rotor, which in its turn includes two permanent magnets and is driven by a mini electrical motor. Rotation of the centrifugal blades generates speed and pressure increase of the cooling agent brought to vapor state within the flat micro heat pipe. It's well known that the liquid suffers biphasic transformations during heat transfer inside the heat pipe. Over the hotspot (the heat source being the electronic component) generated at one end of the heat pipe, convective heat transfer occurs, leading to sudden vaporization of the liquid. Pressures generated by newly formed vapors push them towards the opposite end of the flat heat pipe, where a finned mini heat sink is usually placed. The mini-heat exchanger is air-cooled, thus creating a cold spot, where vapors condensate. The proposed method contributes to vapor flow intensification by increasing their transport speed and thus leading to more intense cooling of the heat pipe.

  19. This is not a Pipe

    Just, Sine Nørholm


    or unwilling to listen to, let alone engage with, emotionally guided bottom-up participation. Using an illustrative case of a Danish public debate over an alleged ban on liquorice pipes, this article argues that the disconnect between invitation and participation may be explained by the fact...

  20. Investigation of sand in piping

    Nađ Laslo


    Full Text Available For the investigation of the grain size distribution of the material washed out from the piping, we used 20 samples originating from different places on the Danube and the Tisza rivers. The grading characteristics of these samples were investigated based on selected grain sizes and the uniformity of gradients. Based on the investigations it has become possible to identify which grain size fractions are likely to be washed out, and how to characterize those fractions. Based on the grain size distribution curves it has been made possible to define the boundaries of the zone susceptible to piping. The zone limits of granular soils liquefied by earthquakes and the zone limits of the soil out washed from piping are very similar. This apparent correspondence already formerly raised the hypothetic question of whether piping occurring during high flood can be simulated by shape to similar surface liquefaction phenomena experienced during earthquakes, as in both cases a volcanic cone is formed through the crater of which water is constantly issuing, dragging away solid particles.

  1. Localized turbulence in pipe flow

    Kuik, D.J.


    In this thesis the transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow returns to the laminar state spontaneously. At high Reynolds number a small perturbation causes the flow to suddenly become turbulent. In the intermediate regime localized turbulence is observ

  2. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun


    to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...

  3. Spinning pipe gas lens revisited

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available The graded index (GRIN-like) medium generated by gas inside a heated steel pipe when rotated about its longitudinal axis has the ability to focus a laser beam. While the effective focal length of such a system has previously been studied...

  4. Experiments on heat pipes submitted to strong accelerations; Experimentation de caloducs soumis a de fortes accelerations

    Labuthe, A. [Dassault Aviation, 92 - Saint Cloud (France)


    In order to evaluate the possibility to use heat pipes as efficient heat transfer devices in aircrafts, a study of their behaviour during strong accelerations is necessary. This study has been jointly carried out by the Laboratory of Thermal Studies of Poitiers (France) and Dassault Aviation company. It is based on a series of tests performed with an experimental apparatus that uses the centrifugal effect to simulate the acceleration fields submitted to the heat pipe. Un-priming - priming cycles have been performed under different power and acceleration levels and at various functioning temperatures in order to explore the behaviour of heat pipes: rate of un-priming and re-priming, functioning in blocked mode etc.. This preliminary study demonstrates the rapid re-priming of the tested heat pipes when submitted to favourable acceleration situations and the possibility to use them under thermosyphon conditions despite the brief unfavourable acceleration periods encountered. (J.S.)

  5. The precision cutting control research of automotive stainless steel thin wall pipe

    Jin Lihong


    Full Text Available Stainless steel thin-walled tube are widely used in automobile industry at present, but as a result of thin wall pipe is poor strength and poor rigidity,which lead to deformation, shaped differencer and other problems in the process, it is hard to ensure the processing quality of parts. This paper proposes a method of thin stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting process in vehicle, greatly improved the problems and technical difficulties in the traditional process, the main research is about the cutting system and the hydraulic fixture design, obtained under low cost circumstances, it can realize high precision stainless steel pipes, high degree of automation to automatic cutting,simplified operation steps at the same time, increased the applicability of the system, provided a kind of advanced stainless steel thin wall pipe cutting device for the small and medium-sized enterprises.

  6. Efficient methods of piping cleaning

    Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich


    Full Text Available The article contains the analysis of the efficient methods of piping cleaning of water supply and sanitation systems. Special attention is paid to the ice cleaning method, in course of which biological foil and various mineral and organic deposits are removed due to the ice crust buildup on the inner surface of water supply and drainage pipes. These impurities are responsible for the deterioration of the organoleptic properties of the transported drinking water or narrowing cross-section of drainage pipes. The co-authors emphasize that the use of ice compared to other methods of pipe cleaning has a number of advantages due to the relative simplicity and cheapness of the process, economical efficiency and lack of environmental risk. The equipment for performing ice cleaning is presented, its technological options, terms of cleansing operations, as well as the volumes of disposed pollution per unit length of the water supply and drainage pipelines. It is noted that ice cleaning requires careful planning in the process of cooking ice and in the process of its supply in the pipe. There are specific requirements to its quality. In particular, when you clean drinking water system the ice applied should be hygienically clean and meet sanitary requirements.In pilot projects, in particular, quantitative and qualitative analysis of sediments adsorbed by ice is conducted, as well as temperature and the duration of the process. The degree of pollution of the pipeline was estimated by the volume of the remote sediment on 1 km of pipeline. Cleaning pipelines using ice can be considered one of the methods of trenchless technologies, being a significant alternative to traditional methods of cleaning the pipes. The method can be applied in urban pipeline systems of drinking water supply for the diameters of 100—600 mm, and also to diversion collectors. In the world today 450 km of pipelines are subject to ice cleaning method.Ice cleaning method is simple

  7. Pain relief as an opponent process: a psychophysical investigation.

    Leknes, Siri; Brooks, Jonathan C W; Wiech, Katja; Tracey, Irene


    Relief from pain in humans is frequently measured by computing the reduction on an 11-point pain intensity scale. However, this definition of relief may be insufficient to capture the utility of pain relief for the individual. Based on pain literature and evidence from studies examining relief and reward, it is clear that pain relief is a broad concept comprising several factors, only one of which is pain intensity reduction. According to opponent process theory, all sensations consist of a primary process and a slow 'opponent process' of opposite valence, the purpose of which is to reduce the deviation from homeostatic balance. Here, opponent process theory provided a framework to explore the interaction between pain, relief and reward. We devised three psychophysical studies examining the temporal (Experiment I) and magnitude (Experiments I and II) relationships between pain severity and its subsequent relief. In Experiment III, we further manipulated the magnitude and pleasantness of relief experienced by applying innocuous cooling following noxious heat stimulation of capsaicin-sensitized skin. Results confirmed predictions from opponent process theory and showed that pain intensity reduction was significantly stronger than relief intensity ratings. Furthermore, continuous relief ratings appeared to reflect the speed of pain intensity reduction. Varying pain intensity parametrically confirmed that relief increases with pain intensity. That innocuous cooling following primary hyperalgesia intervention significantly increased the intensity, pleasantness and duration of relief provides further evidence that pain relief encapsulates more than a reduction in pain intensity. Importantly, the high relief pleasantness ratings confirmed the hypothesized link between relief and reward.

  8. Colored Height and Shaded Relief, Kamchatka Peninsula


    Russia's Kamchatka Peninsula, lying between the Sea of Okhotsk to the west and the Bering Sea and Pacific Ocean to the east, is one of the most active volcanic regions along the Pacific Ring of Fire. It covers an area about the size of Colorado but contains more than 100 volcanoes stretching across the 1000-kilometer-long (620-mile-long) land mass. A dozen or more of these have active vents, with the youngest located along the eastern half of the peninsula. This color-coded shaded relief image, generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), shows Kamchatka's volcanic nature to dramatic effect.Kliuchevskoi, one of the most active and renowned volcanoes in the world, dominates the main cluster of volcanoes called the Kliuchi group, visible as a circular feature in the center-right of the image. The two other main volcanic ranges lie along northeast-southwest lines, with the older, less active range occupying the center and western half of Kamchatka. The younger, more active belt begins at the southernmost point of the peninsula and continues upward along the Pacific coastline.Two visualization methods were combined to produce this image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction, so northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and brown to white at the highest elevations.The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter (200

  9. Poisoning of Heat Pipes

    Gillies, Donald; Lehoczky, Sandor; Palosz, Witold; Carpenter, Paul; Salvail, Pat


    Thermal management is critical to space exploration efforts. In particular, efficient transfer and control of heat flow is essential when operating high energy sources such as nuclear reactors. Thermal energy must be transferred to various energy conversion devices, and to radiators for safe and efficient rejection of excess thermal energy. Applications for space power demand exceptionally long periods of time with equipment that is accessible for limited maintenance only. Equally critical is the hostile and alien environment which includes high radiation from the reactor and from space (galactic) radiation. In space or lunar applications high vacuum is an issue, while in Martian operations the systems will encounter a CO2 atmosphere. The effect of contact at high temperature with local soil (regolith) in surface operations on the moon or other terrestrial bodies (Mars, asteroids) must be considered.

  10. An in-pipe micro robot actuated by piezoelectric bimorphs

    LIU PinKuan; WEN ZhiJie; SUN LiNing


    A novel in-pipe micro robot providing stable and accurate locomotion inside a tubular structure with diameters ranging from 16 mm to 18 mm is presented in this paper. Driven by impulsive voltages, deflections of the piezoelectric bimorphs are generated and then converted into translational locomotion by the principle of the Impact Drive Mechanism (IDM). Theoretical analysis of the proposed system is performed based on a simplified mechanical model. Then dynamic simulations of the dynamic behavior are performed. Finally, an experiment is conducted to investigate the moving ability of this device. The results demonstrate that a maximum translational velocity of 3.5 mm/s can be obtained under an impulsive driving voltage with peak value at 50 V and frequency of 1100 Hz. Both theoretical analysis and experimental trials prove that the principle of IDM actuated by piezoelectric bimorphs is feasible and robust for achieving accurate locomotion of the micro robot in pipes with diameters of less than 20 mm.

  11. Wind tunnel data of the analysis of heat pipe and wind catcher technology for the built environment.

    Calautit, John Kaiser; Chaudhry, Hassam Nasarullah; Hughes, Ben Richard


    The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled 'Climate responsive behaviour heat pipe technology for enhanced passive airside cooling' by Chaudhry and Hughes [10] which presents the passive airside cooling capability of heat pipes in response to gradually varying external temperatures and related to the research article "CFD and wind tunnel study of the performance of a uni-directional wind catcher with heat transfer devices" by Calautit and Hughes [1] which compares the ventilation performance of a standard roof mounted wind catcher and wind catcher incorporating the heat pipe technology. Here, we detail the wind tunnel test set-up and inflow conditions and the methodologies for the transient heat pipe experiment and analysis of the integration of heat pipes within the control domain of a wind catcher design.

  12. A state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe

    Seo, B. K.; Lee, K. W.; Oh, W. Z.; Woo, Z. H.; Kim, G. H


    Many radioactive wastes are produced during the decommissioning of the nuclear facilities. Their radiological characterization must be estimated for disposal and reuse. Especially, it is very difficult to measure the in-pipe surface contamination, because of the difficulty of access. So, it is necessary to develop the measurement technology for the in-pipe surface contamination. In the developed counties of the decommissioning technology such as America, Japan etc. they developed the measuring device for the in-pipe radioactive contamination and performed the capacity estimation. In this report, the state of the art on the measurement of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and radiation detector for measuring the each radiation(alpha, beta, and gamma) proceeding around the world was analyzed. By means of such technology analysis, we will develop the measuring technology of the radioactive contamination in the inner surface of the pipe and apply to the decommissioning sites.

  13. Recent trends in the international relief system.

    Borton, J


    Since 1991 the international relief system has been undergoing a process of rapid and fundamental change associated with the end of the Cold War period. The principal changes concern (i) the international community's approach to national sovereignty and the 'right' of armed intervention in support of humanitarian objectives, and (ii) organisatwnal changes aimed at improving the coordination and effectiveness of the response by donor organisations and the United Nations. This paper describes these changes and attempts to place them in the context of earlier trends within the international relief system, notably the enhanced role of non-governmental organisations, which occurred during the 1980s.

  14. 38 CFR 17.152 - Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness.


    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Devices to assist in overcoming the handicap of deafness. 17.152 Section 17.152 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT... in overcoming the handicap of deafness. Devices for assisting in overcoming the handicap of...

  15. Buckling analysis of stiff thin films suspended on a substrate with tripod surface relief structure

    Yu, Qingmin; Chen, Furong; Li, Ming; Cheng, Huanyu


    A wavy configuration is a simple yet powerful structural design strategy, which has been widely used in flexible and stretchable electronics. A buckled structure created from a prestretch-contact-release process represents an early effort. Substrates with engineered surface relief structures (e.g., rectangular islands or tripod structure) have enabled stretchability to the devices without sacrificing their electric performance (e.g., high areal coverage for LEDs/photovoltaics/batteries/supercapacitors). In particular, the substrate with a tripod surface relief structure allows wrinkled devices to be suspended on a soft tripod substrate. This minimizes the contact area between devices and the deformed substrate, which contributes to a significantly reduced interfacial stress/strain. To uncover the underlying mechanism of such a design, we exploit the energy method to analytically investigate the buckling and postbuckling behaviors of stiff films suspended on a stretchable polymeric substrate with a tripod surface relief structure. Validated by finite element analysis, the predications from such an analytical study elucidate the deformed profile and maximum strain in the buckled and postbuckled stiff thin device films, providing a useful toolkit for future experimental designs.

  16. Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide.

    Oud, MJT; de Groot, MH


    Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide. - After the suicide of a 43-year-old woman with known depression, a 41-year-old paraplegic man who recently developed diarrhoea and a 41-year-old woman with probable depression with symptoms of psychosis, the general practitioners of the surviving

  17. Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide.

    Oud, MJT; de Groot, MH


    Relief for surviving relatives following a suicide. - After the suicide of a 43-year-old woman with known depression, a 41-year-old paraplegic man who recently developed diarrhoea and a 41-year-old woman with probable depression with symptoms of psychosis, the general practitioners of the surviving

  18. What sets topographic relief in extensional footwalls?

    Densmore, Alexander L.; Dawers, Nancye H.; Gupta, Sanjeev; Guidon, Roman


    We use three large normal fault arrays in the northeastern Basin and Range Province, western United States, to document catchment development and relief production during fault growth. Fault slip and slip rates increase systematically along strike from zero at the fault tips. Catchment relief and across-strike range width both increase as slip accumulates but reach maximum values at a distance of ˜15 km from the fault tips and remain uniform along strike over much of the footwalls. Catchment outlet spacing also increases away from the fault tips but does not reach a uniform value and may vary by a factor of 5 6 along strike. We infer that catchments first elongate in the across-strike direction as slip accumulates and the range half-width increases. Once the half-width reaches its maximum value, continued catchment growth is possible only by along-strike capture, which increases outlet spacing but not relief. The close correspondence between catchment relief and range half-width suggests that geomorphically limited hillslope and channel gradients are achieved within the 15 km tip zone. Thus, the limiting factor in footwall development is the width of the range, which is controlled by two external agents: the geometry and spacing of the major faults, and the elevations of base level on both flanks.

  19. 75 FR 75091 - Mortgage Assistance Relief Services


    ... marketing of MARS, including misrepresentations regarding the services MARS providers will perform and... marketing to offer newly-minted forms of mortgage relief--for example, the possibility of entering a short...:// . \\59\\ See State Bar of Cal., Ethics Alert: Legal...

  20. A node architecture for disaster relief networking

    Hoeksema, F.W.; Heskamp, M.; Schiphorst, R.; Slump, C.H.


    In this paper we present node architecture for a personal node in a cognitive ad-hoc disaster relief network. This architecture is motivated from the network system requirements, especially single-hop distance and jamming-resilience requirements. It is shown that the power consumption of current-day

  1. Increasing of the energetic efficiency and the incentives to the use of natural gas with heat pipe; Aumento da eficiencia energetica e fomento ao uso do gas natural com tubo termossifao (heat pipe)

    Landa, Henrique Gerken de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Pesquisa, Desenvolvimento e Engenharia de Gas e Energia]. E-mail:; Mantelli, Marcia Barbosa Henriques; Silva, Alexandre Kupka [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    The heat pipes are devices that allow the transportation of large heat quantities with high thermal efficiency, by using the effect of a work fluid vaporization and condensation inside a sealed tube, resulting in a heat average conduction with 100 to 1000 times higher than a massive copper tube with the same diameter. This paper discusses the increasing of the thermal efficiency and the incentives to the using of natural gas with heat pipe.

  2. Experimental Analysis of the Effects of Inclination Angle and Working Fluid Amount on the Performance of a Heat Pipe

    Mahdavi, Mahboobe; Tiari, Saeed; Qiu, Songgang


    Heat pipes are two-phase heat transfer devices, which operate based on evaporation and condensation of a working fluid inside a sealed container. In the current work, an experimental study was conducted to investigate the performance of a copper-water heat pipe. The performance was evaluated by calculating the corresponding thermal resistance as the ratio of temperature difference between evaporator and condenser to heat input. The effects of inclination angle and the amount of working fluid were studied on the equivalent thermal resistance. The results showed that if the heat pipe is under-filled with the working fluid, energy transferring capacity of the heat pipe decreases dramatically. However, overfilling heat pipe causes over flood and degrades heat pipe performance. The minimum thermal resistances were obtained for the case that 30% of the heat pipe volume was filled with working fluid. It was also found that in gravity-assisted orientations, the inclination angle does not have significant effect on the performance of the heat pipe. However, for gravity-opposed orientations, as the inclination angle increases, the temperature difference between the evaporator and condensation increases and higher thermal resistances are obtained. Authors appreciate the financial support by a research Grant from Temple University.

  3. Refuge alternatives relief valve testing and design.

    Lutz, T J; Bissert, P T; Homce, G T; Yonkey, J A


    The U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has been researching refuge alternatives (RAs) since 2007. RAs typically have built-in pressure relief valves (PRVs) to prevent the unit from reaching unsafe pressures. The U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration requires that these valves vent the chamber at a maximum pressure of 1.25 kPa (0.18 psi, 5.0 in. H2O), or as specified by the manufacturer, above mine atmospheric pressure in the RA. To facilitate PRV testing, an instrumented benchtop test fixture was developed using an off-the-shelf centrifugal blower and ductwork. Relief pressures and flow characteristics were measured for three units: (1) a modified polyvinyl chloride check valve, (2) an off-the-shelf brass/cast-iron butterfly check valve and (3) a commercially available valve that was designed specifically for one manufacturer's steel prefabricated RAs and had been adapted for use in one mine operator's built-in-place RA. PRVs used in tent-style RAs were not investigated. The units were tested with different modifications and configurations in order to check compliance with Title 30 Code of Federal Regulations, or 30 CFR, regulations. The commercially available relief valve did not meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification but may meet the manufacturer's specification. Alternative valve designs were modified to meet the 30 CFR relief pressure specification, but all valve designs will need further design research to examine survivability in the event of a 103 kPa (15.0 psi) impulse overpressure during a disaster.

  4. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.310 Cargo piping systems. Cargo liquid or vapor piping must: (a) Be separated from other piping systems, except where an interconnection to inert gas or purge piping is required by §...

  5. 46 CFR 154.500 - Cargo and process piping standards.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo and process piping standards. 154.500 Section 154... Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.500 Cargo and process piping standards. The cargo liquid and vapor piping and process piping systems must meet the requirements in §§ 154.503 through...

  6. 46 CFR 154.522 - Materials for piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Materials for piping. 154.522 Section 154.522 Shipping... Process Piping Systems § 154.522 Materials for piping. (a) The materials for piping systems must meet § 154.625 for the minimum design temperature of the piping, except the material for open ended...

  7. 46 CFR 119.730 - Nonferrous metallic piping materials.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous metallic piping materials. 119.730 Section... INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 119.730 Nonferrous metallic piping materials. (a) Nonferrous metallic piping materials are acceptable for use in the following: (1) Non-vital systems; (2) Aluminum fuel piping on...

  8. Piping inspection carriage having axially displaceable sensor

    Zollinger, William T.; Treanor, Richard C.


    A pipe inspection instrument carriage for use with a pipe crawler for performing internal inspections of piping surfaces. The carriage has a front leg assembly, a rear leg assembly and a central support connecting the two assemblies and for mounting an instrument arm having inspection instruments. The instrument arm has a y-arm mounted distally thereon for axially aligning the inspection instrumentation and a mounting block, a linear actuator and axial movement arm for extending the inspection instruments radially outward to operably position the inspection instruments on the piping interior. Also, the carriage has a rotation motor and gear assembly for rotating the central support and the front leg assembly with respect to the rear leg assembly so that the inspection instruments azimuthally scan the piping interior. The instrument carriage allows performance of all piping inspection operations with a minimum of moving parts, thus decreasing the likelihood of performance failure.

  9. Wave Propagation in Pipe-like Structures

    Morsbøl, Jonas

    Pipe-like shell structures are found in a wide range of practical applications such as: Wind turbine towers, jet engines, brass instruments, and piping systems. For many of these applications, structural vibrations play an important role for their performance. This thesis will in particular focus...... on how the curvature on a thin-walled pipe, as well as a changing radius along a straight thin-walled pipe, affects the waveguide properties. It shows that the waveguide properties of curved pipes roughly can be divided into three regimes: The curved beam regime, the cylinder regime, and the torus regime....... In the curved beam regime the waveguide properties of the pipe can be approximated by classical curved beam theory while in the cylinder regime they can be approximated by cylindrical shell theory. In the torus regime none of the two other regimes apply, and a full-blown shell model is needed. For the straight...

  10. Intermediate Temperature Fluids for Heat Pipes and Loop Heat Pipes Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Small Business Innovation Research Phase I project will develop heat pipe and loop heat pipe (LHP) working fluids for what is known as the intermediate...

  11. South America, Shaded Relief and Colored Height


    This image of South America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south but variable east-west), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the South American continent is readily apparent.Topographic relief in South America is dominated by the Andes Mountains, which extend all along the Pacific Coast. These mountains are created primarily by the convergence of the Nazca and South American tectonic plates. The Nazca Plate, which underlies the eastern Pacific Ocean, slides under western South America resulting in crustal thickening, uplift, and volcanism. Another zone of plate convergence occurs along the northwestern coast of South America where the Caribbean Plate also slides under the South American Plate and forms the northeastern extension of the Andes Mountains.East of the Andes, much of northern South America drains into the Amazon River, the world's largest river in terms of both watershed area and flow volume. Topographic relief is very low in much of the Amazon Basin but SRTM data provide an excellent detailed look at the basin's three-dimensional drainage pattern, including the geologic structural trough (syncline) that hosts the eastern river channel.North of the Amazon, the Guiana Highlands commonly stand in sharp contrast to the surrounding lowlands, indeed hosting the world's tallest waterfall, Angel Falls (979 meters or 3212 feet). Folded and fractured bedrock structures are distinctive in the topographic pattern.South of the Amazon, the Brazilian Highlands show a mix of landforms, including some broad areas of consistent topographic patterns that indicate the

  12. Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Topographic and Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth and elevation ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image...

  13. Medications for Pain Relief during Labor and Delivery

    ... FAQ086 LABOR, DELIVERY, AND POSTPARTUM CARE Medications for Pain Relief During Labor and Delivery • What are the types ... an epidural”) is the most common type of pain relief used during labor and delivery in the United ...

  14. Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Bathymetric Shaded Relief of North America map layer shows depth ranges using colors, with relief enhanced by shading. The image was derived from the National...

  15. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  16. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  17. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  18. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  19. Mechanical Designs for Relief Valves for Cryogenic Apparatuses and Installations

    CERN. Geneva


    There are also pressure relief valves with warm seat available on which the set pressure is based on an adjustment of forces by permanent magnets. Pressure vessel rules allows also the choice for an active triggered pressure relief valve (Cont...

  20. Pipes under internal pressure and bending

    Catinaccio, A


    This article covers the general behaviour of a straight uniform pipe, with built-in open ends, subject to internal pressure and in plane bending or curvature. It is intended as a summary of the basic equations driving the unintuitive phenomena of bending and instability of pipes under internal pressure. The analysis covers in addition the investigation of opposite pressure stabilisation effects that can be observed in some orthotropic material pipes like composite pressure hoses.

  1. Effect of Glass Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) pipe filled with Geopolymer Materials for Piping Application: Compression Properties


    The aim of this paper is to achieve the highest compressive strength of glass reinforced epoxy pipe with the geopolymer filler content of weight percentage that were used in glass reinforced epoxy pipe. The samples were prepared by using the filament winding method. The effect of weight percentage of geopolymer materials in epoxy hardener was studied under mechanical testing, which is using the compression test. A series of glass reinforced epoxy pipe and glass reinforced epoxy pipe filled wi...

  2. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.


    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  3. Experimental analysis of a flat heat pipe working against gravity

    Esarte, J.; Domiguez, M. [Universidad Publica de Navarra (Spain). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering


    Thermoelectric refrigeration always presents a heat flux addressing problem (constriction resistance) and it is a subject that has extensively been studied and analysed [closed form equation for thermal constriction/spreading resistances with variable resistances boundary conditions, IEPS Conference, 1994]. In previous works [Issues of the heat dissipation coming from a big surface through a much smaller one, 20th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, Beijing-China, 2001], a device (flat heat pipe) capable of addressing the heat flux has been theoretically and experimentally developed to reduce the so called constriction resistance (the lower the constriction resistance the higher the thermoelectric module performance). This work presents the experimental results of the constriction resistance for different prototypes of flat heat pipe and investigates if they are in agreement with the theoretical predictions. It also shows the influence of certain parameters on the constriction resistance. The results have later been compared with those obtained for a flat plate in order to check whether or not the device improves the thermoelectric module performance. A brief description of the device operation is also given. (Author)

  4. Development of bore tools for pipe inspection

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Taguchi, Kou; Ito, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    In the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER), replacement and maintenance on in-vessel components requires that all cooling pipes connected be cut and removed, that a new component be installed, and that all cooling pipes be rewelded. After welding is completed, welded area must be inspected for soundness. These tasks require a new work concept for securing shielded area and access from narrow ports. Tools had to be developed for nondestructive inspection and leak testing to evaluate pipe welding soundness by accessing areas from inside pipes using autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools. A system was proposed for nondestructive inspection of branch pipes and the main pipe after passing through pipe curves, the same as for welding and cutting tool development. Nondestructive inspection and leak testing sensors were developed and the basic parameters were obtained. In addition, the inspection systems which can move inside pipes and conduct the nondestructive inspection and the leak testing were developed. In this paper, an introduction will be given to the current situation concerning the development of nondestructive inspection and leak testing machines for the branch pipes. (author)

  5. Plastic pipe systems failure investigation and diagnosis

    Farshad, Mehdi


    Industrial and domestic piping is increasingly made from various plastics and composites, and these materials withstand heavy use over long periods. They are, however, affected by environmental and other factors over time and can degrade, causing major problems within piping systems. Farshad's book deals with why plastic pipes and systems fail, and with how to investigate and diagnose such failures. Pipes may buckle, fracture, change in dimensions and colour, blister and delaminate, corrode through stress, be abraded and obstructed: all these cause problems and lead to loss of efficient operat

  6. Fracture mechanics parameters of multilayer pipes

    Šestáková L.


    Full Text Available Multilayer pipes consisting of different materials are frequently used in praxis because of partial improvement of the properties of pipe systems. To estimate lifetime of these pipes the basic fracture parameters have to be determined. In this work finite element calculations are applied in order to estimate the stress intensity factor K and T-stress values for a new type of non-homogenous C-shape specimen. The application of calculated K and T values to laboratory estimation of fracture toughness and its transferability to real pipe system is discussed.

  7. Water pipe smoking and dermatologic consequences.

    Wollina, U


    Water pipe smoking is a recently growing addiction worldwide. It has become popular in Africa and the Western World and enfaces a renaissance in Middle East and Asia. The smoking technique leads to a different exposure to potential hazardous compounds compared to cigarette or classical pipe smoking. The common assumption that water pipe smoking is less dangerous to health is not substantiated by scientific data. Non-tobacco-based preparations reduce the exposure to nicotine but may contain equal or even higher concentrations of other toxic compounds. The medical literature on adverse effect of water pipe smoking on skin and oral mucosa is reviewed but future research is a demand.

  8. Location of Agricultural Drainage Pipes and Assessment of Agricultural Drainage Pipe Conditions Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Methods are needed to not only locate buried agricultural drainage pipe, but to also determine if the pipes are functioning properly with respect to water delivery. The primary focus of this research project was to confirm the ability of ground penetrating radar (GPR) to locate buried drainage pipe ...

  9. Olduvai Gorge, Shaded Relief and Colored Height


    Three striking and important areas of Tanzania in eastern Africa are shown in this color-coded shaded relief image from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The largest circular feature in the center right is the caldera, or central crater, of the extinct volcano Ngorongoro. It is surrounded by a number of smaller volcanoes, all associated with the Great Rift Valley, a geologic fault system that extends for about 4,830 kilometers (2,995 miles) from Syria to central Mozambique. Ngorongoro's caldera is 22.5 kilometers (14 miles) across at its widest point and is 610 meters (2,000 feet) deep. Its floor is very level, holding a lake fed by streams running down the caldera wall. It is part of the Ngorongoro Conservation Area and is home to over 75,000 animals. The lakes south of the crater are Lake Eyasi and Lake Manyara, also part of the conservation area. The relatively smooth region in the upper left of the image is the Serengeti National Park, the largest in Tanzania. The park encompasses the main part of the Serengeti ecosystem, supporting the greatest remaining concentration of plains game in Africa including more than 3,000,000 large mammals. The animals roam the park freely and in the spectacular migrations, huge herds of wild animals move to other areas of the park in search of greener grazing grounds (requiring over 4,000 tons of grass each day) and water. The faint, nearly horizontal line near the center of the image is Olduvai Gorge, made famous by the discovery of remains of the earliest humans to exist. Between 1.9 and 1.2 million years ago a salt lake occupied this area, followed by the appearance of fresh water streams and small ponds. Exposed deposits show rich fossil fauna, many hominid remains and items belonging to one of the oldest stone tool technologies, called Olduwan. The time span of the objects recovered dates from 2,100,000 to 15,000 years ago. Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of

  10. Heat transport capability and compensation chamber influence in loop heat pipes performance

    Riehl, Roger R. [National Institute for Space Research-Space Mechanics and Control Division-DMC/Satelite Av. dos Astronautas 1758, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, 12227-010 (Brazil); Siqueira, Tulio C.P.A. [Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto-Departamento de Engenharia de Controle e Automacao Ouro Preto, MG, 35400-000 (Brazil)


    The development of the loop heat pipe technology for application in future space missions requires that certain aspects related to the operation of this device in regard to the heat transport, geometry and selected working fluid must be carefully considered. As efforts have been focused in the construction of loop heat pipes able to manage up to 80W of applied heat using an alternative working fluid, designing and testing these devices have shown important results. Two loop heat pipes have been built and tested, where they differ from each other on their compensation chamber geometry and use high grade acetone as working fluid, in substitution of the so-used ammonia. Life tests have shown reliable operation for both loop heat pipes with successful startups and continuous operation without temperature overshoot or evaporator dryout. The life tests results investigation have generated important data that has been applied on the design and construction of loop heat pipes toward their use in future space applications. (author)

  11. Intermittent gravity-driven flow of grains through narrow pipes

    Alvarez, Carlos A.; de Moraes Franklin, Erick


    Grain flows through pipes are frequently found in various settings, such as in pharmaceutical, chemical, petroleum, mining and food industries. In the case of size-constrained gravitational flows, density waves consisting of alternating high- and low-compactness regions may appear. This study investigates experimentally the dynamics of density waves that appear in gravitational flows of fine grains through vertical and slightly inclined pipes. The experimental device consisted of a transparent glass pipe through which different populations of glass spheres flowed driven by gravity. Our experiments were performed under controlled ambient temperature and relative humidity, and the granular flow was filmed with a high-speed camera. Experimental results concerning the length scales and celerities of density waves are presented, together with a one-dimensional model and a linear stability analysis. The analysis exhibits the presence of a long-wavelength instability, with the most unstable mode and a cut-off wavenumber whose values are in agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Thermal behavior investigation of silicon-Pyrex micro heat pipe

    Yi Luo


    Full Text Available High heat flux is the major reason for the malfunctioning or shortened life of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs or integrated circuit (IC components. Cooling technical devices have been widely studied in recent years. A heat pipe made of silicon wafer and Pyrex 7740 has been used in the experiments. Silicon-to-Pyrex bonding is used for the visualization of the flow behavior of the working liquid in heat transfer. A thermal behavior testing system for micro heat pipes (MHPs, including a vacuum chamber, heat flux sensors and thermocouples, was designed and established. The experiments revealed the characteristics of the MEMS heat pipe in LEDs heat transfer, and the maximum equivalent thermal conductivity of the MHPs was 10.6 times that of the silicon wafer. Furthermore, the structure of MHP can be optimized based on these experimental results. They can also be the experimental basis for theoretical study of two-phase flow on the micro scale.

  13. Research on pipe welding information management system basedon RFID

    Liu Xun


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the construction background, construction target and construction principle of the pipe welding management system based on RFID. Then, describes the specific requirements of the system. The basic principle and key technology of the system are introduced. The structure of the system (including the system design, the selections of handheld devices and high frequency passive RFID tags is described .Then the system management software designs (including software structure, the main functions of the management center system and the main functions of the handheld detection system are described in detail. Finally, the management system is implemented, and it is deployed to several Gas Co, which has chieved good results.

  14. 21 CFR 358.310 - Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. 358.310... (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE MISCELLANEOUS EXTERNAL DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Ingrown Toenail Relief Drug Products § 358.310 Ingrown toenail relief active ingredient. The active ingredient...

  15. 46 CFR 98.25-60 - Safety relief valves.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety relief valves. 98.25-60 Section 98.25-60 Shipping... § 98.25-60 Safety relief valves. (a) Each tank shall be fitted with two or more approved safety relief valves, designed, constructed, and flow-tested for capacity in conformance with subpart 162.018...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1846 - Relief valves: Changing set pressure.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valves: Changing set pressure. 154.1846 Section... Relief valves: Changing set pressure. The master shall: (a) Supervise the changing of the set pressure of relief valves under § 154.802(b); (b) Enter the change of set pressure in the vessel's log; and...

  17. 27 CFR 24.158 - Extent of relief.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Extent of relief. 24.158... Extent of relief. (a) General. The surety on any bond required by this part who has filed a notice for relief from liability as provided in § 24.157 will be relieved from liability under bond as set forth in...

  18. 30 CFR 847.16 - Civil actions for relief.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions for relief. 847.16 Section 847.16... relief. (a) Under section 521(c) of the Act, we, the regulatory authority, may request the Attorney General to institute a civil action for relief whenever you, the permittee, or your agent— (1) Violate or...

  19. 19 CFR 171.3 - Oral presentations seeking relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oral presentations seeking relief. 171.3 Section... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.3 Oral presentations seeking relief. (a) For violation of section 592 or section 593A. If the penalty incurred is for a...

  20. 7 CFR 900.70 - Applications for interim relief.


    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applications for interim relief. 900.70 Section 900.70... Applications for interim relief. (a) Filing the application. A person who has filed a petition pursuant to... the relief is requested, including any facts showing irreparable injury. The application must be...

  1. 19 CFR 172.2 - Petition for relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for relief. 172.2 Section 172.2 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Relief § 172.2 Petition for relief. (a) To whom addressed. Petitions for the cancellation of any claim...

  2. 47 CFR 52.19 - Area code relief.


    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area code relief. 52.19 Section 52.19... Administration § 52.19 Area code relief. (a) State commissions may resolve matters involving the introduction of... whether area code relief will take the form of a geographic split, an overlay area code, or a boundary...

  3. 29 CFR 1601.23 - Preliminary or temporary relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary or temporary relief. 1601.23 Section 1601.23... Employment Practices § 1601.23 Preliminary or temporary relief. (a) In the interest of the expeditious... subdivision, any recommendation for preliminary or temporary relief shall be transmitted directly to the...

  4. 18 CFR 1308.11 - Contractor's request for relief.


    ... for relief. 1308.11 Section 1308.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY CONTRACT DISPUTES Contracting Officers § 1308.11 Contractor's request for relief. Any request for relief which a Contractor believes is due under a contract shall be submitted to the Contracting Officer...

  5. 50 CFR 11.12 - Petition for relief.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petition for relief. 11.12 Section 11.12... PROCEDURES Assessment Procedure § 11.12 Petition for relief. If the respondent so chooses he may ask that no... the charge and the Director's allegations of facts, by filing a petition for relief (hereinafter...

  6. 49 CFR 178.345-10 - Pressure relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.345-10 Section 178.345-10... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.345-10 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank... applicable individual specification. The pressure and vacuum relief system must be designed to operate and...

  7. 12 CFR 268.501 - Remedies and relief.


    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Remedies and relief. 268.501 Section 268.501... RULES REGARDING EQUAL OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 268.501 Remedies and relief. (a) When the... employee has been discriminated against, the Board shall provide full relief which shall include the...

  8. 49 CFR 1115.5 - Petitions for other relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for other relief. 1115.5 Section 1115.5... OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE APPELLATE PROCEDURES § 1115.5 Petitions for other relief. (a) A... desired relief must be stated in the petition, and the petition must be filed not less than 10 days prior...

  9. 31 CFR 306.111 - Procedure for applying for relief.


    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Procedure for applying for relief... GOVERNING U.S. SECURITIES Relief for Loss, Theft, Destruction, Mutilation, or Defacement of Securities § 306.111 Procedure for applying for relief. Prompt report of the loss, theft, destruction, mutilation or...

  10. 49 CFR 178.347-4 - Pressure relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.347-4 Section 178.347-4... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.347-4 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure and vacuum relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this...

  11. 49 CFR 601.41 - Petitions for relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for relief. 601.41 Section 601.41... Transportation Systems § 601.41 Petitions for relief. In the case of a national or regional emergency or disaster... for temporary relief from the provisions of any policy statement, circular, guidance document or rule. ...

  12. 49 CFR 178.346-3 - Pressure relief.


    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pressure relief. 178.346-3 Section 178.346-3... Specifications for Containers for Motor Vehicle Transportation § 178.346-3 Pressure relief. (a) Each cargo tank must be equipped with a pressure relief system in accordance with § 178.345-10 and this section. (b...

  13. 26 CFR 1.6015-4 - Equitable relief.


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equitable relief. 1.6015-4 Section 1.6015-4...) INCOME TAXES Tax Returns Or Statements § 1.6015-4 Equitable relief. (a) A requesting spouse who files a joint return for which a liability remains unpaid and who does not qualify for full relief under § 1...

  14. 29 CFR 1614.501 - Remedies and relief.


    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Remedies and relief. 1614.501 Section 1614.501 Labor... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Remedies and Enforcement § 1614.501 Remedies and relief. (a) When an agency, or the... discriminated against, the agency shall provide full relief which shall include the following elements in...

  15. 37 CFR 41.204 - Notice of basis for relief.


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of basis for relief... § 41.204 Notice of basis for relief. (a) Priority statement. (1) A party may not submit evidence of its... the precise relief sought. (c) Filing and service. The Board will set the times for filing and serving...

  16. 46 CFR 560.3 - Petitions for relief.


    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Petitions for relief. 560.3 Section 560.3 Shipping... PORTS § 560.3 Petitions for relief. (a) Filing. (1) Any owner or operator of a liner, bulk, tramp or... between foreign ports has been, or will be, unduly impaired may file a written petition for relief under...

  17. 19 CFR 171.1 - Petition for relief.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Petition for relief. 171.1 Section 171.1 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) FINES, PENALTIES, AND FORFEITURES Application for Relief § 171.1 Petition for relief. (a) To whom...

  18. Literature review and experimental investigation of heat pipes

    Barsch, W. O.; Schoenhals, R. J.; Viskanta, R.; Winter, E. R. F.


    Tests on heat pipes determine operational limits, external boundary conditions, noncondensable gas effects, startup behavior, and geometric configurations. Experiment consists of design, construction, and testing of an apparatus for measuring wick properties, conventional heat pipes and coplanar heat pipes.

  19. Visualization of the boiling phenomena and counter-current flow limit of annular heat pipe

    Kim, In Guk; Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    The thermal resistance of conventional heat pipes increases over the capillary limit because of the insufficient supplement of the working fluid. Due to the shortage of the liquid supplement, thermosyphon is widely used for vertically oriented heat transport and high heat load conditions. Thermosyphons are two-phase heat transfer devices that have the highly efficient heat transport from evaporation to condensation section that makes an upward driving force for vapor. In the condenser section, the vapor condenses and releases the latent heat. Due to the gravitation force acting on the liquid in the tube, working fluid back to the evaporator section, normally this process operate at the vertical and inclination position. The use of two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) for the cooling devices has the limitation due to the phase change of the working fluid assisted by gravity force. Due to the complex phenomenon of two-phase flow, it is required to understand what happened in TPCT. The visualization of the thermosyphon and heat pipe is investigated for the decrease of thermal resistance and enhancement of operation limit. Weibel et al. investigated capillary-fed boiling of water with porous sintered powder wick structure using high speed camera. At the high heat flux condition, dry-out phenomenon and a thin liquid film are observed at the porous wick structure. Wong and Kao investigated the evaporation and boiling process of mesh wicked heat pipe using optical camera. At the high heat flux condition, the water filing became thin and partial dry-out was observed in the evaporator section. Our group suggested the concept of a hybrid heat pipe with control rod as Passive IN-core Cooling System (PINCs) for decay heat removal for advanced nuclear power plant. The hybrid heat pipe is the combination of the heat pipe and control rod. It is necessary for PINCs to contain a neutron absorber (B{sub 4}C) to have the ability of reactivity control. It has annular vapor space and

  20. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations


    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  1. Libraries and information provision for African relief

    Elsemieke Wishart


    Full Text Available This research article explores the concept that libraries as communication centres in sub-Saharan Africa can play a vital role in bringing poverty relief by providing greater access to information through modern technology. It discusses the patrons who can benefit from community information centres and explores their particular needs. I have researched how modern tools like the Internet, computers, e-readers and cell phones can bring valuable information to impoverished citizens. My research was conducted through reading research papers using article databases, books and Internet websites. The future for libraries in sub-Saharan Africa is bright, as new technology opens up vast opportunities to share information in a way that is accessible, affordable and adaptable to the needs of the African people. I recommend that librarians and relief organisations in Southern Africa seriously consider using modern technology to provide information that will empower its citizens.

  2. Image mosaicing for automated pipe scanning

    Summan, Rahul; Dobie, Gordon; Guarato, Francesco; MacLeod, Charles; Marshall, Stephen; Forrester, Cailean; Pierce, Gareth; Bolton, Gary


    Remote visual inspection (RVI) is critical for the inspection of the interior condition of pipelines particularly in the nuclear and oil and gas industries. Conventional RVI equipment produces a video which is analysed online by a trained inspector employing expert knowledge. Due to the potentially disorientating nature of the footage, this is a time intensive and difficult activity. In this paper a new probe for such visual inspections is presented. The device employs a catadioptric lens coupled with feature based structure from motion to create a 3D model of the interior surface of a pipeline. Reliance upon the availability of image features is mitigated through orientation and distance estimates from an inertial measurement unit and encoder respectively. Such a model affords a global view of the data thus permitting a greater appreciation of the nature and extent of defects. Furthermore, the technique estimates the 3D position and orientation of the probe thus providing information to direct remedial action. Results are presented for both synthetic and real pipe sections. The former enables the accuracy of the generated model to be assessed while the latter demonstrates the efficacy of the technique in a practice.

  3. Computational analysis of aircraft pressure relief doors

    Schott, Tyler

    Modern trends in commercial aircraft design have sought to improve fuel efficiency while reducing emissions by operating at higher pressures and temperatures than ever before. Consequently, greater demands are placed on the auxiliary bleed air systems used for a multitude of aircraft operations. The increased role of bleed air systems poses significant challenges for the pressure relief system to ensure the safe and reliable operation of the aircraft. The core compartment pressure relief door (PRD) is an essential component of the pressure relief system which functions to relieve internal pressure in the core casing of a high-bypass turbofan engine during a burst duct over-pressurization event. The successful modeling and analysis of a burst duct event are imperative to the design and development of PRD's to ensure that they will meet the increased demands placed on the pressure relief system. Leveraging high-performance computing coupled with advances in computational analysis, this thesis focuses on a comprehensive computational fluid dynamics (CFD) study to characterize turbulent flow dynamics and quantify the performance of a core compartment PRD across a range of operating conditions and geometric configurations. The CFD analysis was based on a compressible, steady-state, three-dimensional, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes approach. Simulations were analyzed, and results show that variations in freestream conditions, plenum environment, and geometric configurations have a non-linear impact on the discharge, moment, thrust, and surface temperature characteristics. The CFD study revealed that the underlying physics for this behavior is explained by the interaction of vortices, jets, and shockwaves. This thesis research is innovative and provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of existing and novel PRD geometries over a range of realistic operating conditions representative of a burst duct over-pressurization event. Further, the study provides aircraft

  4. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    Whipple, Kelin X.


    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  5. Performance Evaluation of the Concept of Hybrid Heat Pipe as Passive In-core Cooling Systems for Advanced Nuclear Power Plant

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, In Guk; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)


    As an arising issue for inherent safety of nuclear power plant, the concept of hybrid heat pipe as passive in-core cooling systems was introduced. Hybrid heat pipe has unique features that it is inserted in core directly to remove decay heat from nuclear fuel without any changes of structures of existing facilities of nuclear power plant, substituting conventional control rod. Hybrid heat pipe consists of metal cladding, working fluid, wick structure, and neutron absorber. Same with working principle of the heat pipe, heat is transported by phase change of working fluid inside metal cask. Figure 1 shows the systematic design of the hybrid heat pipe cooling system. In this study, the concept of a hybrid heat pipe was introduced as a Passive IN-core Cooling Systems (PINCs) and demonstrated for internal design features of heat pipe containing neutron absorber. Using a commercial CFD code, single hybrid heat pipe model was analyzed to evaluate thermal performance in designated operating condition. Also, 1-dimensional reactor transient analysis was done by calculating temperature change of the coolant inside reactor pressure vessel using MATLAB. As a passive decay heat removal device, hybrid heat pipe was suggested with a concept of combination of heat pipe and control rod. Hybrid heat pipe has distinct feature that it can be a unique solution to cool the reactor when depressurization process is impossible so that refueling water cannot be injected into RPV by conventional ECCS. It contains neutron absorber material inside heat pipe, so it can stop the reactor and at the same time, remove decay heat in core. For evaluating the concept of hybrid heat pipe, its thermal performance was analyzed using CFD and one-dimensional transient analysis. From single hybrid heat pipe simulation, the hybrid heat pipe can transport heat from the core inside to outside about 18.20 kW, and total thermal resistance of hybrid heat pipe is 0.015 .deg. C/W. Due to unique features of long heat

  6. Transient behavior of heat pipe with thermal energy storage under pulse heat loads

    Chang, Ming-, Jr.


    Future space missions will require thermal transport devices with the ability to handle transient pulse heat loads. A novel design of a high-temperature axially grooved heat pipe (HP) which incorporates thermal energy storage (TES) to migrate pulse heat loads was presented. A phase-change material (PCM) which is encapsulated in cylindrical containers was used for the thermal energy storage. The transient response of the HP/TES system under two different types of pulse heat loads was studied analytically. The first type is pulse heat loads applied at the heat pipe evaporator, the second type is reversed-pulse heat loads applied at the condenser. In this research, a new three-dimensional alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) method was developed to model the heat conduction through the heat pipe wall and wicks, including the liquid flow in grooves. A very important characteristic of this new ADI method is that it is consistent with physical considerations. Compared with the well-known Brian's and Douglas's ADI methods, this new ADI method had higher accuracy and requires less computer storage. In the numerical solution of heat transfer problems with phase change (Stefan-type problem), a modified Pham's method which includes features from enthalpy and heat capacity methods was used to simulate the melting and solidification processes of the PCG. The vapor flow was assumed quasi-steady and one-dimensional, and was coupled with the evaporation and condensation on the heat pipe inside wall surface and the surfaces of the PCM containers. The transient responses of three different HP/TES configurations were compared: (1) a heat pipe with a large empty cylinder installed in the vapor core, (2) a heat pipe with a large PCM cylinder, and (3) a heat pipe with six small PCM cylinders. From the numerical results, it was found that the PCM is very effective in mitigrating the adverse effect of pulse heat loads. The six small PCM cylinders are more efficient than the large PCM

  7. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)


    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  8. Buckling Characteristics of Cylindrical Pipes

    Toshiaki Sakurai


    This paper describes the buckling pattern of the body frame by energy absorbed efficiency of crashworthiness related toresearch of the buckling characteristics of aluminum cylindrical pipes with various diameters formed mechanical tools. Experimentswere performed by the quasi-static test without lubrication between specimen and equipment. According to the change in the radiusversus thickness of the specimen, the buckling phenomena are transformed from folding to bellows and the rate of energy absorptionis understood. In crashworthiness, frames are characterized by the folding among three patterns from the absorbed energy efficiencypoint of view and weight reduction. With the development of new types of transport such as electric vehicles, innovated bodystructure should be designed.

  9. Overview of Loop Heat Pipe Operation

    Ku, Jentung


    Loop heat pipes (LHP's) are two-phase heat transfer devices that utilize the evaporation and condensation of a working fluid to transfer heat, and the capillary forces developed in the porous wicks to circulate the fluid. The LHP was first developed in the former Soviet Union in the early 1980s, about the same time that the capillary pumped loop (CPL) was developed in the United States. The LHP is known for its high pumping capability and robust operation mainly due to the use of fine-pored metal wicks and an integral evaporator/hydro-accumulator design. The LHP technology is rapidly gaining acceptance in aerospace community. It is the baseline design for thermal control of several spacecraft, including NASA's GLAS and Chemistry, ESA's ATLID, CNES' STENTOR, RKA's OBZOR, and several commercial satellites. Numerous LHP papers have been published since the mid-1980's. Most papers presented test results and discussions on certain specific aspects of the LHP operation. LHP's and CPL's show many similarities in their operating principles and performance characteristics. However, they also display significant differences in many aspects of their operation. Some of the LHP behaviors may seem strange or mysterious, even to experienced CPL practitioners. The main purpose of this paper is to present a systematic description of the operating principles and thermal-hydraulic behaviors of LHP'S. LHP operating principles will be given first, followed by a description of the thermal-hydraulics involved in LHP operation. Operating characteristics and important parameters affecting the LHP operation will then be described in detail. Peculiar behaviors of the LHP, including temperature hysteresis and temperature overshoot during start-up, will be explained. For simplicity, most discussions will focus upon LHP's with a single evaporator and a single condenser, but devices with multiple evaporators and condensers will also be discussed. Similarities and differences between LHP's and

  10. Voltage-controlled compression for period tuning of optical surface relief gratings.

    Kollosche, Matthias; Döring, Sebastian; Stumpe, Joachim; Kofod, Guggi


    This Letter reports on new methods and a consistent model for voltage tunable optical transmission gratings. Elastomeric gratings were molded from holographically written surface relief gratings in an azobenzene sol-gel material. These were placed on top of a transparent electroactive elastomeric substrate. Two different electro-active substrate elastomers were employed, with a large range of prestretches. A novel finite-deformation theory was found to match the device response excellently, without fitting parameters. The results clearly show that the grating underwent pure-shear deformation, and more surprisingly, that the mechanical properties of the electro-active substrate did not affect device actuation.


    David M. ADMIRAAL


    A number of reservoirs in Nebraska have been retrofitted with sediment bypass systems to extend their lifespan. The bypass systems are best suited for rerouting sediment that travels as bedload since bedload is relatively easy to capture at reservoir inlets. Because of their size, the captured sediment particles sometimes travel as bedload in the bypass system as well. Studies have been done to quantify head losses in horizontal pipes with different water and sediment flow rates, and the results have been used to assess the practicality of bypass systems for specific prototypes. However, much less has been done to evaluate the performance of inclined pipes for bypassing sediment. Furthermore, little has been done to understand how bedforms influence head losses in the pipes. In order to better understand the behavior of sediment transport within pipes, an experimental apparatus was constructed to simulate a range of sediment loading rates, water flow rates, and pipe inclination angles. Three pressure taps with a spacing of 1.5 m were installed in the pipe at a location sufficiently downstream from the inlet. One section of the pipe was replaced with an acrylic pipe of equivalent internal diameter so that bedform shapes and sizes could be measured for different flow conditions. For each flow condition, the pressure drop in the pipe and the sediment transport rate are recorded over time. For coarse sediment, the inclination angle ofthe pipe and the sediment transport rate both have a strong influence on flow properties, and, thus, head losses in the pipe.

  12. Pain relief is a human right.

    Daher, Michel


    For centuries, medical and surgical treatment has emphasized saving the life of the patient rather than ameliorating the patient's pain, particularly when there were few options for the latter. Today at the dawn of the 21st century, the best available evidence indicates a major gap between an increasingly understanding of the pathophysiology of pain and widespread inadequacy of its treatment. Epidemiologic evidence has proven that chronic pain is a widespread public health issue. Studies of cancer patients' pain control consistently reveal that up to half of patients receive inadequate analgesia and 30% do not receive appropriate drugs for their pain. Equally, for patients suffering HIV/AIDS, 60%-100% will experience pain at some stage in their illness. In the developed world, this gap has prompted a series of declarations and actions by national and international bodies advocating better pain control. One response to the worldwide undertreatment of pain has been to promote the concept that pain relief is a public health issue of such critical importance as to constitute an international imperative and fundamental human right. The importance of pain relief as the core of the medical ethic is clear. Pain clinicians promote the status of pain management beyond that of appropriate clinical practice or even an ethic of good medicine. They advocate a paradigm shift in the medical professions' perspective on pain management, from simply good practice to an imperative founded on patient rights. There is a need to promote policies which create conditions where human beings can bear even incurable illnesses and death in a dignified manner. This must help health professionals or lay groups to initiate a powerful agenda to reform local statutes. The essential components of such legislation are: 1. Reasonable pain management is a right. 2. Doctors have a duty to listen to and reasonably respond to a patient's report of pain. 3. Provision of necessary pain relief is immune from

  13. PE管管材性能探讨%Pipe Performance of PE Pipe



    目前中国的塑料管道正在稳步发展,其中PE管强劲的发展势头最为令人瞩目.PE管的使用领域广泛,其中给水管和燃气管是其两个最大的应用市场.本文简单阐述了PE管的组成成分,对比分析了PE管的性能,最后论述了PE管的用途.%At present, China's plastic pipe is steadily developing, and strong momentum of development of the PE pipe is the most remarkable. PE pipe has a wide use, in which water pipe and gas pipe are two largest markets for application. This paper briefly describes the composition of PE pipe, makes comparative analysis of its performance, and finally discusses the use of PE pipe.

  14. 49 CFR 230.62 - Dry pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dry pipe. 230.62 Section 230.62 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Pipes §...

  15. Technical Study of Slotted Pipe Working

    Yang Helai; Su Feng


    @@ Introduction Slotted pipe is a kind of tool used in the oilfield for drilling wells to proof sand. There are many difficulties in working out several thousands seams which are about 0.3mm to 0.6 mm wide on a 10 meter long alloy steel pipe,and the types are various, such as straight and trapezoid.

  16. Heat-pipe thermionic reactor concept

    Storm Pedersen, E.


    Main components are reactor core, heat pipe, thermionic converter, secondary cooling system, and waste heat radiator; thermal power generated in reactor core is transported by heat pipes to thermionic converters located outside reactor core behind radiation shield; thermionic emitters are in direct...

  17. Updating piping probabilities with survived historical loads

    Schweckendiek, T.; Kanning, W.


    Piping, also called under-seepage, is an internal erosion mechanism, which can cause the failure of dikes or other flood defence structures. The uncertainty in the resistance of a flood defence against piping is usually large, causing high probabilities of failure for this mechanism. A considerable

  18. 75 FR 877 - Drill Pipe From China


    ... COMMISSION Drill Pipe From China AGENCY: International Trade Commission. ACTION: Institution of antidumping... States is materially retarded, by reason of imports from China of drill pipe, provided for in subheadings... Government of China. Unless the Department of Commerce extends the time for initiation pursuant to...

  19. Heat pipe thermosyphon heat performance calculation

    Novomestský, Marcel; Kapjor, Andrej; Papučík, Štefan; Siažik, Ján


    In this article the heat performance of the heat pipe thermosiphon is achieved through numerical model. The heat performance is calculated from few simplified equations which depends on the working fluid and geometry. Also the thermal conductivity is good to mentioning, because is really interesting how big differences are between heat pipes and full solid surfaces.

  20. Energy Industry:Hunger for Steel Pipe?

    Berry Chen


    @@ After the ups and downs of Chinese steel pipe market in 2008, industry structure changes are taking place quietly. Some enterprises with high-end oil and natural gas pipes and high-pressure boiler tubes have not been much offected in this storm, and won good market demand, while others with low-end products have been eliminated.


    Xiaowei Luo; Suyuan Yu


    The deposition of particles in turbulent pipe flow was investigated in terms of two mechanisms, turbulent and thermophoretic. A general equation incorporating these two mechanisms was formulated to calculate the deposition efficiency of aerosol particles in turbulent pipe flow together with thermophoretic deposition. The validity of the equation was confirmed by good agreement between calculated and measured results.

  2. Water driven turbine/brush pipe cleaner

    Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)


    Assemblies are disclosed for cleaning the inside walls of pipes and tubes. A first embodiment includes a small turbine with angled blades axially mounted on one end of a standoff support. An O-ring for stabilizing the assembly within the pipe is mounted in a groove within the outer ring. A replaceable circular brush is fixedly mounted on the opposite end of the standoff support and can be used for cleaning tubes and pipes of various diameters, lengths and configurations. The turbine, standoff support, and brush spin in unison relative to a hub bearing that is fixedly attached to a wire upstream of the assembly. The nonrotating wire is for retaining the assembly in tension and enabling return of the assembly to the pipe entrance. The assembly is initially placed in the pipe or tube to be cleaned. A pressurized water or solution source is provided at a required flow-rate to propel the assembly through the pipe or tube. The upstream water pressure propels and spins the turbine, standoff support and brush. The rotating brush combined with the solution cleans the inside of the pipe. The solution flows out of the other end of the pipe with the brush rotation controlled by the flow-rate. A second embodiment is similar to the first embodiment but instead includes a circular shaped brush with ring backing mounted in the groove of the exterior ring of the turbine, and also reduces the size of the standoff support or eliminates the standoff support.

  3. Geothermal drill pipe corrosion test plan

    Caskey, B.C.; Copass, K.S.


    Plans are presented for conducting a field test of drill pipe corrosion, comparing air and nitrogen as drilling fluids. This test will provide data for evaluating the potential of reducing geothermal well drilling costs by extending drill pipe life and reducing corrosion control costs. The 10-day test will take place during fall 1980 at the Baca Location in Sandoval County, New Mexico.

  4. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: a review

    Champagnac, Jean-Daniel; Valla, Pierre; Herman, Fred


    The present review is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief on Earth. We first define different meanings of the word "relief", as it is commonly used, and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily lowtemperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides), and analyze published evidence for different regions. Our review first show that relief changes and rates of changes are more important at mid-, than high- or low-latitudes, and appear to be insensitive to mean precipitation rates. We also show that relief change is positive (relief increases) in most of the reported cases (~80%). We subsequently define two functional relationships between relief and erosion, depending on the chosen definition of relief, and propose a conceptual model of landscape memory. We conclude, following others, that erosion rates depends non-linearly on relief evolution, itself being a function of the spatial distribution and rates of erosion. The relief increases documented in this review may be related led to erosion rate increases during the same timescales. Lastly, we discuss the importance of glacial and periglacial processes on Late Cenozoic relief and erosion rate changes, and stress the importance of frost shattering and glacial erosion at mid- and high-latitudes.

  5. Comparison of Stress Relief Procedures for Cryogenic Aluminum Mirrors

    Ohl, Raymond G.; Barthelmy, Michael P.; Zewari, S. Wahid; Toland, Ronald; Mink, Ronald; Mentzell, J. Eric; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; McMann, Joseph C.; Hylan, Jason; Hagopian, John G.; Krebs, Carolyn (Technical Monitor)


    The Infrared Multi-Object Spectrograph (IRMOS) is a facility instrument for the Kitt Peak National Observatory Mayall Telescope (3.8 meter) and an engineering prototype for a potential design for the Next Generation Space Telescope/Multi-Object Spectrograph. IRMOS is a low-to mid-resolution (R = lambda/delta-lambda = 300-3800), near-IR (0.8-2.5 micron) spectrograph which produces simultaneous spectra of approximately 100 objects in its 2.8 x 2.0 arcmin field of view using a commercial MEMS multimirror array device. The instrument operating temperature is 80 K and the design is athermal --- the optical bench and mirrors are machined from aluminum 6061-T651. In spite of its baseline mechanical stress relief, aluminum 6061-T651 harbors some residual stress, which, unless relieved during fabrication, may relieve and distort mirror figure to unacceptable levels at the operating temperature. Other cryogenic instruments using aluminum mirrors for both ground-based and space IR astronomy have employed a variety of heat treatment formulae, with mixed results. We present the results of a test program designed to empirically determine the best stress relief procedure for the IRMOS mirrors. Identical test mirrors with spherical and flat optical prescriptions are processed with five different heat treatment formulae from the literature and compared to samples with out any additional processing. After figuring via diamond turning, the mirrors are tested for figure error and radius of curvature at room temperature and at 80 K for several thermal cycles. The heat treatment procedure for the mirrors that yielded the least and most repeatable change in figure error and radius is applied to the IRMOS mirror blanks. We correlate the results of our optical testing with heat treatment and metallographic data.

  6. Influence of dimension parameters of the gravity heat pipe on the thermal performance

    Kosa, Ľuboš; Nemec, Patrik; Jobb, Marián; Malcho, Milan


    Currently the problem with the increasing number of electronic devices is a problem with the outlet Joule heating. Joule heating, also known as ohmic heating and resistive heating, is the process by which the passage of an electric current through a conductor releases heat. Perfect dustproof cooling of electronic components ensures longer life of the equipment. One of more alternatives of heat transfer without the using of mechanical equipment is the use of the heat pipe. Heat pipes are easy to manufacture and maintenance of low input investment cost. The advantage of using the heat pipe is its use in hermetic closed electronic device which is separated exchange of air between the device and the environment. This experiment deals with the influence of changes in the working tube diameter and changing the working fluid on performance parameters. Changing the working fluid and the tube diameter changes the thermal performance of the heat pipe. The result of this paper is finding the optimal diameter with ideal working substance for the greatest heat transfer for 1cm2 sectional area tube.

  7. Inspection technology for high pressure pipes

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Eum, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R.; Moon, Soon S.; Jang, Jong H


    Various kinds of defects are likely to be occurred in the welds of high pressure pipes in nuclear power plants. Considering the recent accident of Zuruga nuclear power plant in Japan, reasonable policy is strongly requested for the high pressure pipe integrity. In this study, we developed the technologies to inspect pipe welds automatically. After development of scanning robot prototype in the first research year, we developed and implemented the algorithm of automatic tracking of the scanning robot along the weld line of the pipes. We use laser slit beam on weld area and capture the image using digital camera. Through processing of the captures image, we finally determine the weld line automatically. In addition, we investigated a new technology on micro systems for developing micro scanning robotic inspection of the pipe welds. The technology developed in this study is being transferred to the industry. (author)

  8. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)


    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  9. Testing of a Methane Cryogenic Heat Pipe with a Liquid Trap Turn-Off Feature for use on Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    Cepeda-Rizo, Juan; Krylo, Robert; Fisher, Melanie; Bugby, David C.


    Camera cooling for SIM presents three thermal control challenges; stable operation at 163K (110 C), decontamination heating to +20 C, and a long span from the cameras to the radiator. A novel cryogenic cooling system based on a methane heat pipe meets these challenges. The SIM thermal team, with the help of heat pipe vendor ATK, designed and tested a complete, low temperature, cooling system. The system accommodates the two SIM cameras with a double-ended conduction bar, a single methane heat pipe, independent turn-off devices, and a flight-like radiator. The turn ]off devices consist of a liquid trap, for removing the methane from the pipe, and an electrical heater to raise the methane temperature above the critical point thus preventing two-phase operation. This is the first time a cryogenic heat pipe has been tested at JPL and is also the first heat pipe to incorporate the turn-off features. Operation at 163K with a methane heat pipe is an important new thermal control capability for the lab. In addition, the two turn-off technologies enhance the "bag of tricks" available to the JPL thermal community. The successful test program brings this heat pipe to a high level of technology readiness.

  10. EPRI PWR Safety and Relief Value Test Program: safety and relief valve test report


    A safety and relief valve test program was conducted by EPRI for a group of participating PWR utilities to respond to the USNRC recommendations documented in NUREG 0578 Section 2.1.2, and as clarified in NUREG 0737 Item II.D.1.A. Seventeen safety and relief valves representative of those utilized in or planned for use in participating domestic PWR's were tested under the full range of selected test conditions. This report contains a listing of the selected test valves and the corresponding as tested test matrices, valve performance data and principal observations for the tested safety and relief valves. The information contained in this report may be used by the participating utilities in developing their response to the above mentioned USNRC recommendations.

  11. Tripping Effects on the Friction Factor in Turbulent Pipe Flows

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Bayoumi, O. A.; Durst, F.; Gad-El-Hak, M.


    Tripping devices are usually installed at the entrance of laboratory-scale pipe test sections to obtain a fully developed turbulent flow sooner. The tripping of laminar flow to induce turbulence can be carried out in different ways, such as using cylindrical wires, sand papers, well-organized tape letters, fences, etc. Claims of tripping effects have been made periodically since the classical experiments of Nikuradse (1932), which covered a significant range of Reynolds numbers. NikuradseÂ's data have become the metric by which theories are established, and have also been the subject of intense scrutiny. Several subsequent experiments reported friction factors as much as 5% lower than those measured by Nikuradse, and the authors of those reports attributed the difference to tripping effects. In the present study, measurements with and without ring tripping devices of different blocking areas of 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% have been carried out to determine the effect of entrance condition on the developing flow field in pipes. Along with pressure drop measurements to compute the skin friction, both Pitot tube and hot-wire anemometry measurements have been used to accurately determine the mean velocity profile over the working test section at different Reynolds numbers in the range of 1× 10^5--4.5 × 10^5. The results we obtained suggest that the tripping technique has an insignificant effect on the wall friction factor, in agreement with Nikuradse's original data.

  12. Predicting phase shift of elastic waves in pipes due to fluid flow and imperfections

    Thomsen, Jon Juel; Dahl, Jonas; Fuglede, Niels


    Flexural vibrations of a fluid-conveying pipe is investigated, with special consideration to the spatial shift in phase caused by fluid flow and various imperfections, e.g., non-ideal supports, non-uniform stiffness or mass, non-proportional damping, weak nonlinearity, and flow pulsation. This is......Flexural vibrations of a fluid-conveying pipe is investigated, with special consideration to the spatial shift in phase caused by fluid flow and various imperfections, e.g., non-ideal supports, non-uniform stiffness or mass, non-proportional damping, weak nonlinearity, and flow pulsation....... This is relevant for understanding wave propagation in elastic media in general, and for the design and trouble-shooting of phase-shift measuring devices such as Coriolis mass flowmeters in particular. A multiple time scaling perturbation analysis is employed for a simple model of a fluid-conveying pipe...

  13. An analytical and experimental investigation of rotating, non-capillary heat pipes

    Marto, P. J.


    An approximate theoretical model is derived for laminar film condensation on the inside of a rotating, truncated cone, and is used to predict the heat transfer performance of rotating, non-capillary heat pipes for a wide variety of parametric conditions. Experimental results are presented for water, ethyl alcohol, and freon-113 in a stainless steel heat pipe rotating to speeds of 2800 rpm. Results show that these devices can be used effectively to transfer large quantities of heat in rotating systems. Predicted results agree to within + or - 20 percent of the experimental data. Dropwise condensation, instead of film condensation, improves heat pipe performance while the presence of non-condensible gases impairs performance.

  14. Pinhole test for identifying susceptibility of soils to piping erosion: effect water quality and hydraulic head

    Nadal Romero, E.; Verachtert, E.; Poesen, J.


    Piping has been observed in both natural and soils, as well as under different types of land uses and vegetation covers. Despite its importance, no standard widely-applied methodology exists to assess susceptibility of soils to piping. This study aims at evaluating the pinhole test for assessing the susceptibility of soils to piping under different conditions. More precisely, the effects of hydraulic head and water quality are being assessed. Topsoil samples (remoulded specimens) with a small range of water contents were taken in Central Belgium (Heverlee) and the susceptibility of these soil samples are investigated under standardized laboratory conditions with a pinhole test device. Three hydraulic heads (50,180 and 380 mm) and two water qualities (tap and distilled water) were used, reflecting dominant field conditions. (Author) 6 refs.

  15. Theoretical and experimental analysis of dynamic processes of pipe branch for supply water to the Pelton turbine

    Jovanović Miomir Lj.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the analysis of pipe branch A6 to feed the Hydropower Plant ”Perućica” with integrated action Pelton turbines. The analysis was conducted experimentally (tensometric and numerically. The basis of the experimental research is the numerical finite element analysis of pipe branch A6 in pipeline C3. Pipe branch research was conducted in order to set the experiment and to determine extreme stress states. The analysis was used to perform the determination of the stress state of a geometrically complex assembly. This was done in detail as it had never been done before, even in the design phase. The actual states of the body pipe branch were established, along with the possible occurrence of water hammer accompanied by the appearance of hydraulic oscillation. This provides better energetic efficiency of the turbine devices. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR35049 and br. TR 33040

  16. Effect of copper nanofluid in aqueous solution of long chain alcohols in the performance of heat pipes

    Senthil Kumar, R.; Vaidyanathan, S.; Sivaraman, B.


    Heat pipes are widely used for the thermal control of electronic devices due to their capability of heat transport at high rate over considerable distance with small temperature drop. This study investigates the experimental performance of the heat pipe using the combination of copper nanofluids and the different types of aqueous solution of long chain alcohols. An experimental system is set up to measure the temperature distribution of heat pipes along the surface to determine the thermal efficiency and the thermal resistance of different working fluids computed. The working fluids used in this analysis illustrate certain improvement in the metrics over the conventional working fluids, pertaining to the heat transport limitations. The experimental results display higher efficiency and lower thermal resistance of the heat pipe when compared with the conventional working fluids like water.

  17. The impacts of cooling construction on the ability distract the heat of condensation part of the heat pipe

    Gavlas S.


    Full Text Available Heat pipes as cooling devices have a high potential. Their power to affect a variety of factors – the vapour pressure, the amount of media work etc. Itis therefore necessary to verify the calculated parameters also practically. To determine the performance of transmitted heat pipe is the best calorimetric method. When it is out of the flow and the temperature difference the cooling part of the heat pipe determines its transmitted power. The contribution is focused on comparison of two types of coolers. The first type is looped capillary cooler for the condenser section. The small diameter capillary is secured high coolant turbulence and hence heat dissipation. The second type is non-contact cooling, where cooling fluid washes direct heat pipe wall.

  18. Impact of the amount of working fluid in loop heat pipe to remove waste heat from electronic component

    Smitka Martin


    Full Text Available One of the options on how to remove waste heat from electronic components is using loop heat pipe. The loop heat pipe (LHP is a two-phase device with high effective thermal conductivity that utilizes change phase to transport heat. It was invented in Russia in the early 1980’s. The main parts of LHP are an evaporator, a condenser, a compensation chamber and a vapor and liquid lines. Only the evaporator and part of the compensation chamber are equipped with a wick structure. Inside loop heat pipe is working fluid. As a working fluid can be used distilled water, acetone, ammonia, methanol etc. Amount of filling is important for the operation and performance of LHP. This work deals with the design of loop heat pipe and impact of filling ratio of working fluid to remove waste heat from insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT.

  19. Technology and information sharing in disaster relief

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter;


    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under...... database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led...

  20. EC Hidraulic Drive Cylinder Relief Vlave Test

    Wu, J.; /Fermilab


    This engineering note documents the testing of the set pressure of the EC hydraulic drive cylinder relief valve. The purpose of the relief valve is to provide a safety measure in the event that oil becomes trapped in the rod side of the cylinder and pressure is applied to the cap side. The note includes an explanation of the procedure used and a summary of the result of the testing done on February 14, 1991 by Gary Trotter. The result was that the cylinder relief valve relieved at the correct set pressure of 10,500 psig. The basic concern is for the protection of the cylinder. The pump is capable of providing up to 10,500 psi of pressure to either side of the cylinder. The cylinder is rated for 10,500 psi. Under normal operating conditions, the valves would be open, and the pumping pressure would automatically flow oil into one side, and remove oil from the other side. If, however, the valve for the other side was closed, so that oil could not be removed, then the pressure would build in that side. If the rod side is pressurized to the maximum pump pressure of 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area ratio of 2.29 results in a pressure of approximately 4600 psi in the cap side, which is well under the rated pressure. If, however, the cap side is pressurized to 10,500 psi, the cross sectional area would produce a pressure of approximately 24,000 psi in the rod side, which could damage the cylinder. Therefore, the pressure on the rod side must be limited to the rated pressure of 10,500 psi. In reality, the maximum operating force on the piston would be under 11,000 Ibs., which would result in the maximum cylinder pressure being under 8000 psi to the rod side, and under 3500 psi to the cap side. Therefore, the relief is only needed as a safety precaution in the case that oil becomes trapped.

  1. LOFT pressurizer safety: relief valve reliability

    Brown, E.S.


    The LOFT pressurizer self-actuating safety-relief valves are constructed to the present state-of-the-art and should have reliability equivalent to the valves in use on PWR plants in the U.S. There have been no NRC incident reports on valve failures to lift that would challenge the Technical Specification Safety Limit. Fourteen valves have been reported as lifting a few percentage points outside the +-1% Tech. Spec. surveillance tolerance (9 valves tested over and 5 valves tested under specification). There have been no incident reports on failures to reseat. The LOFT surveillance program for assuring reliability is equivalent to nuclear industry practice.

  2. Holistic relief of pain - Nursing approach

    Evaggelos Giavasopoulos


    Full Text Available It is well known that the patients who suffer from pain can develop a wide variety of behaviours. At the same time they experience a plethora of biological, psychological and social problems. Undeniably the nurses constitute an integral part of the multidisciplinary team of approach and relief of patient’s pain. The nurse’s role is developed and organized with independence in the health care team and expresses itself in a wide spectrum of activities. Aim in the present article is to highlight the force of nurse among the multidisciplinary team, analyzing the multiple roles undertaken by nurses, as well as the necessity for holistic approach of pain.

  3. CAS scientists active in earthquake relief operation


    @@ Soon after the devastating earthquake taking place on last 12 May in Sichuan, the CAS leadership promptly mobilized its researchers to dedicate their expertise to the nationwide drive of the disaster's relief and reduction. A leading group was established to coordinate the Academy's efforts in this regard. All of the eight CAS institutions located in Sichuan were organized to do everything possible to reduce their losses to the minimum. At the same time, a trans-departmental and interdisciplinary taskforce was formed to provide a powerful S&T backing for the nationwide drive.

  4. Casing free district heating pipes; Mantelfria fjaerrvaermeroer

    Saellberg, Sven-Erik; Nilsson, Stefan [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Goeteborg (Sweden)


    Previous studies have shown that polyurethane insulation (PUR foam) on district heating pipes acts as protection against water if it is of good quality, i.e. free from cracks, cavities and other defects. On the other hand water vapour easily diffuses through PUR foam. However this is not a problem as long as the steel pipe is warmer than the surface layer, since the high temperature will prevent the vapour from condensating. What will happen with the insulation of a casing free district heating pipe where the ground water level occasionally reaches above the pipe has not been studied in detail. The current project has studied to what extent moisture enters the PUR foam insulation of two approximately one meter long district heating pipes without casing which have been in the ground for four years. Occasionally, the ground-water has entirely covered the pipes. In addition, the foam has been studied with respect to damage from the surrounding backfill material. Test specimens were taken out of the casing free pipes and were analysed with respect to moisture content. Additional measurements were done with a moisture indicator, and the electric resistance between the steel pipes and the four surveillance wires in each pipe was measured. The results from the various measurement techniques were the compared. The results show that the PUR foam remains dry as long as the service pipe is hot if no defects, such as crack and cavities, are present. Close to the service pipe, the foam actually dries out over time. The moisture content of the middle layer remains more or less constant. Only the colder parts on the outside exhibit an increase in moisture content. It was also seen that defects may lead to water ingress with subsequent humidification of the foam. However, the damaged foam area is limited. This is not the case for a regular pipe with a vapour tight casing, where experience show that moisture tend to spread along the pipe. The pipes were buried in sand and no

  5. Equivalent thermal conductivity of heat pipes

    Zesheng LU; Binghui MA


    In precision machining, the machining error from thermal distortion carries a high proportion of the total errors. If a precision machining tool can transfer heat fast, the thermal distortion will be reduced and the machining precision will be improved. A heat pipe working based on phase transitions of the inner working liquid transfers heat with high efficiency and is widely applied in spaceflight and chemical industries. In mechanics, applications of heat pipes are correspondingly less. When a heat pipe is applied to a hydrostatic motor-ized spindle, the thermal distortion cannot be solved dur-ing the heat transfer process because thermal conductivity or equivalent thermal conductivity should be provided first for special application in mechanics. An equivalent thermal conductivity model based on equivalent thermal resistances is established. Performance tests for a screen wick pipe, gravity pipe, and rotation heat pipe are done to validate the efficiency of the equivalent thermal conduc-tivity model. The proposed model provides a calculation method for the thermal distortion analysis of heat pipes applied in the motorized spindle.

  6. Research of Spined Heat-Exchanging Pipes

    Akulov Kirill


    Full Text Available Work is devoted to a research of spined heat-exchanging pipes that are assumed to use in air-cooler exchangers (ACE. The proposed new geometry of finning allows intensifying heat exchange and improving the efficiency of air coolers. It is caused by the increased area of finned surface with a value of finning ratio (the ratio of the area of the smooth pipe to a finned one to 42.7, while in the commercially available ACE, the figure is 22. Besides, the geometrical arrangement of the pin fins turbulizes the airflow. It should be mentioned that an easier method of manufacturing of heat exchanging pipes is proposed to use, which will reduce their costs. The proposed heat exchange pipes are made by winding cut aluminum strip to the supporting pipe or stretching stamped blanks on it. To increase the efficiency of the heat exchange surface pin fins should be as thin and long as possible; however, their strength should be sufficient for deformation-free operation. Fins should be staggered to maximize the distance between them. Spined heat-exchange pipes are designed to operate in a commercially produced ACE and their service is carried out similarly to commercially produced transversely finned pipes.

  7. Methods for Analyzing Pipe Networks

    Nielsen, Hans Bruun


    The governing equations for a general network are first set up and then reformulated in terms of matrices. This is developed to show that the choice of model for the flow equations is essential for the behavior of the iterative method used to solve the problem. It is shown that it is better...... to formulate the flow equations in terms of pipe discharges than in terms of energy heads. The behavior of some iterative methods is compared in the initial phase with large errors. It is explained why the linear theory method oscillates when the iteration gets close to the solution, and it is further...... demonstrated that this method offers good starting values for a Newton-Raphson iteration....

  8. Determination of geomagnetic archaeomagnitudes from clay pipes

    Games, K. P.; Baker, M. E.


    Archaeomagnitude determinations of a selection of clay pipes dateable to AD 1645+/-10 as well as studies of pottery samples from the same site and of the same age have been made. Values of the magnitude of the ancient magnetic field (Banc), were obtained from two pottery sherds, two pipe bowls and three pipe stems. The values from the sherds and bowls agree within 2% and compare well with the average value of the magnitude of the magnetic field for the seventeenth century as determined by other archaeomagnetic studies. However, the pipe stems give values of Banc which are significantly less than those from the bowls and pottery. We have not yet been able to explain this and thus we suggest that reliable archaeomagnitude determinations can be made from the bowls of clay pipes but not from the stems. Nevertheless, this result provides a new source of material for investigating variations in the geomagnetic field strength over the past 400 yr. Clay pipes have been manufactured in England since the end of the sixteenth century. In the firing process some pipes were broken and disposed of without ever having been smoked. One such collection, discovered at Rainford, Lancashire, in 1978, consisted of a series of discrete dumps including pipes, kiln debris and a small collection of contemporary used earthenware sherds. The internal consideration of the dumps suggested a very short period of activity and archaeologists (P. Davey, personal communication) ascribe all the material to the period 1645+/-10 yr. With such well-dated material, we set out to check whether or not reliable archaeomagnitudes could be obtained from the pipes.

  9. 30 CFR 75.1905-1 - Diesel fuel piping systems.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel fuel piping systems. 75.1905-1 Section... Diesel fuel piping systems. (a) Diesel fuel piping systems from the surface must be designed and operated... spillage of fuel and that activates an alarm system. (b) All piping, valves and fittings must be—...

  10. 46 CFR 182.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 182.720 Section 182.720... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. (a) Rigid... systems where permitted by paragraph (e) of this section. (c) Nonmetallic piping must not be used...

  11. 46 CFR 119.720 - Nonmetallic piping materials.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonmetallic piping materials. 119.720 Section 119.720 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... Piping Systems § 119.720 Nonmetallic piping materials. Nonmetallic piping materials,...

  12. 46 CFR 58.25-20 - Piping for steering gear.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for steering gear. 58.25-20 Section 58.25-20... MACHINERY AND RELATED SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-20 Piping for steering gear. (a) Pressure piping must... actuating system including the reservoir. The storage tank must be permanently connected by piping so...

  13. 46 CFR 153.294 - Marking of piping systems.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of piping systems. 153.294 Section 153.294... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.294 Marking of piping systems. (a) Each cargo piping...

  14. 46 CFR 153.280 - Piping system design.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping system design. 153.280 Section 153.280 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.280 Piping system design. (a) Each cargo piping system must...

  15. 46 CFR 182.710 - Piping for vital systems.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 182.710 Section 182.710... TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are... section is a non-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must: (1) Be composed of...

  16. 46 CFR 116.970 - Protection against hot piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection against hot piping. 116.970 Section 116.970 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.970 Protection against hot piping. Piping, including valves, pipe...

  17. 46 CFR 154.512 - Piping: Thermal isolation.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Thermal isolation. 154.512 Section 154.512 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.512 Piping: Thermal isolation. Low temperature piping must...

  18. 46 CFR 182.730 - Nonferrous metallic piping materials.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonferrous metallic piping materials. 182.730 Section... (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Piping Systems § 182.730 Nonferrous metallic piping materials. (a) Nonferrous metallic piping materials are acceptable for use in the following: (1)...

  19. 46 CFR 154.516 - Piping: Hull protection.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Hull protection. 154.516 Section 154.516... and Process Piping Systems § 154.516 Piping: Hull protection. A vessel's hull must be protected from...-522), at: (a) Each piping connection dismantled on a routine basis; (b) Cargo discharge and...

  20. 46 CFR 61.15-15 - Other piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other piping. 61.15-15 Section 61.15-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PERIODIC TESTS AND INSPECTIONS Periodic Tests of Piping Systems § 61.15-15 Other piping. (a) All other piping systems shall be...

  1. 46 CFR 154.528 - Piping joints: Flange type.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints: Flange type. 154.528 Section 154.528... and Process Piping Systems § 154.528 Piping joints: Flange type. (a) A flange must be one of the following types: (1) Welding neck. (2) Slip-on. (3) Socket weld. (b) If the piping is designed for...

  2. 46 CFR 153.910 - Cargo piping plan.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping plan. 153.910 Section 153.910 Shipping... Information § 153.910 Cargo piping plan. No person may operate a tankship unless the tankship has a cargo piping plan that: (a) Shows all cargo piping on the tankship; (b) Shows all cargo valving, pumps,...

  3. 46 CFR 56.30-3 - Piping joints (reproduces 110).


    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping joints (reproduces 110). 56.30-3 Section 56.30-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Selection and Limitations of Piping Joints § 56.30-3 Piping joints (reproduces 110). The type...

  4. 46 CFR 153.292 - Separation of piping systems.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Separation of piping systems. 153.292 Section 153.292... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.292 Separation of piping systems. Cargo piping systems must...

  5. 46 CFR 119.710 - Piping for vital systems.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping for vital systems. 119.710 Section 119.710... Piping Systems § 119.710 Piping for vital systems. (a) Vital systems are those systems that are vital to...-vital system. (c) Piping used in a vital system must meet § 56.60 in subchapter F of this...

  6. 46 CFR 154.514 - Piping: Electrical bonding.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Piping: Electrical bonding. 154.514 Section 154.514 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY... and Process Piping Systems § 154.514 Piping: Electrical bonding. (a) Cargo tanks or piping that...

  7. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST... Cargo piping. (a) Piping shall be of seamless steel meeting the requirements of § 56.60-1 of subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. The piping shall be of not less than Schedule 40...

  8. 46 CFR 154.355 - Bow and stern loading piping.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bow and stern loading piping. 154.355 Section 154.355... Arrangements § 154.355 Bow and stern loading piping. (a) Bow and stern loading piping must: (1) Meet § 154.310...; (3) Be clearly marked; (4) Be segregated from the cargo piping by a removable spool piece in...

  9. 49 CFR 192.321 - Installation of plastic pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation of plastic pipe. 192.321 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.321 Installation of plastic pipe. (a) Plastic pipe must be installed below ground level except as provided by paragraphs (g) and (h) of this section. (b) Plastic pipe that...

  10. 49 CFR 192.121 - Design of plastic pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of plastic pipe. 192.121 Section 192.121... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.121 Design of plastic pipe. Subject to the limitations of § 192.123, the design pressure for plastic pipe is determined by either of...

  11. 49 CFR 192.125 - Design of copper pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design of copper pipe. 192.125 Section 192.125... BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.125 Design of copper pipe. (a) Copper pipe used in mains must have a minimum wall thickness of 0.065 inches (1.65 millimeters) and must be...

  12. 49 CFR 192.277 - Ductile iron pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ductile iron pipe. 192.277 Section 192.277 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... Ductile iron pipe. (a) Ductile iron pipe may not be joined by threaded joints. (b) Ductile iron pipe may...

  13. 49 CFR 192.105 - Design formula for steel pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Design formula for steel pipe. 192.105 Section 192... NATURAL AND OTHER GAS BY PIPELINE: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.105 Design formula for steel pipe. (a) The design pressure for steel pipe is determined in accordance with the following...

  14. 49 CFR 195.212 - Bending of pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bending of pipe. 195.212 Section 195.212... PIPELINE Construction § 195.212 Bending of pipe. (a) Pipe must not have a wrinkle bend. (b) Each field bend must comply with the following: (1) A bend must not impair the serviceability of the pipe. (2) Each...

  15. 46 CFR 154.548 - Cargo piping: Flow capacity.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping: Flow capacity. 154.548 Section 154.548... and Process Piping Systems § 154.548 Cargo piping: Flow capacity. Piping with an excess flow valve must have a vapor or liquid flow capacity that is greater than the rated closing flow under § 154.546....

  16. 49 CFR 192.275 - Cast iron pipe.


    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cast iron pipe. 192.275 Section 192.275... Cast iron pipe. (a) Each caulked bell and spigot joint in cast iron pipe must be sealed with mechanical leak clamps. (b) Each mechanical joint in cast iron pipe must have a gasket made of a...




    Full Text Available Wall-thinned defects caused by accelerated corrosion due to fluid flow in the inner pipe appear in many structures of the secondary systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs and are a major factor in degrading the integrity of pipes. Wall-thinned defects need to be managed not only when the NPP is under maintenance but also when the NPP is in normal operation. To this end, a test technique was developed in this study to detect such wall-thinned defects based on the temperature difference on the surface of a hot pipe using infrared (IR thermography and a cooling device. Finite element analysis (FEA was conducted to examine the tendency and experimental conditions for the cooling experiment. Based on the FEA results, the equipment was configured before the cooling experiment was conducted. The IR camera was then used to detect defects in the inner pipe of the pipe specimen that had artificially induced defects. The IR thermography developed in this study is expected to help resolve the issues related to the limitations of non-destructive inspection techniques that are currently conducted for NPP secondary systems and is expected to be very useful on the NPPs site.

  18. On power detection of pipe wall-thinned defects using IR thermography in NPPs

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Jin Weon; Kim, Kyeong Suk [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)


    Wall-thinned defects caused by accelerated corrosion due to fluid flow in the inner pipe appear in many structures of the secondary systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs) and are a major factor in degrading the integrity of pipes. Wall-thinned defects need to be managed not only when the NPP is under maintenance but also when the NPP is in normal operation. To this end, a test technique was developed in this study to detect such wall-thinned defects based on the temperature difference on the surface of a hot pipe using infrared (IR) thermography and a cooling device. Finite element analysis (FEA) was conducted to examine the tendency and experimental conditions for the cooling experiment. Based on the FEA results, the equipment was configured before the cooling experiment was conducted. The IR camera was then used to detect defects in the inner pipe of the pipe specimen that had artificially induced defects. The IR thermography developed in this study is expected to help resolve the issues related to the limitations of non-destructive inspection techniques that are currently conducted for NPP secondary systems and is expected to be very useful on the NPPs site.

  19. Convection's enhancement in thermal micro pipes using extra fluid and shape memory material

    Mihai, Ioan; Sprinceana, Siviu


    Up to now, there have been developed various applications of thermal micro pipes[1-3], such as refrigerating systems, high heat flux electronics cooling, and biological devices etc., based on vacuum vaporization followed by a convective phenomenon that allows vapor transfer from the vaporization area to the condensation one. This article presents studies carried out on the enhancement of the convective phenomenon taking place in flat thermal micro pipes. The proposed method[4] is aimed at the cooling of power electronics components, such as microprocessors. The conducted research focused on the use of shape memory materials that allow, by a semi-active method, to bring extra fluid in the vaporization area of the thermal micro pipe. The conducted investigations analyzed the variation of the liquid layer thickness in the trapezoidal micro channels and the thermal flow change over time. The modification of liquid flow was studied in correlation with the capacity of the polysynthetic material to retain the most extra fluid in its pores. The enhancement of the convective heat transfer phenomenon in flat thermal micro pipes was investigated in correspondence to the increase of liquid quantity in the vaporization zone. The charts obtained by aid of Mathcad[5] allowed to represent the evolution during a period of time (or with the pipe's length) of the liquid film thickness, the flow and the thermal flow, as a function of the liquid supply variation due to the shape memory materials and the modification of the working temperature.

  20. Insights into Casual Relief Teaching: Casual Relief Teachers' Perceptions of Their Knowledge and Skills

    Nicholas, Maria; Wells, Muriel


    Research into the experiences of casual relief teachers (CRTs) (substitute or supply teachers) across Australia and internationally has reported feelings of marginalisation among participants. These findings are concerning when one considers that students might be in the care of CRTs for an equivalent of 1 year or more throughout their schooling.…

  1. Heat pipe testing program test plan

    Bienert, W.B.


    A test plan is given which describes the tests to be conducted on several typical solar receiver heat pipes. The hardware to be used, test fixtures and rationale of the test program are discussed. The program objective is to perform life testing under simulated receiver conditions, and to conduct performance tests with selected heat pipes to further map their performance, particularly with regard to their transient behavior. Performance requirements are defined. Test fixtures designed for the program are described in detail, and their capabilities for simulating the receiver conditions and their limitations are discussed. The heat pipe design is given. (LEW)

  2. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido


    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  3. Gas lensing in a heated spinning pipe

    Mafusire, C


    Full Text Available Spinning Pipe C MAFUSIRE1,2, A FORBES2, G SNEDDEN3, C MAHLASE3, MM MICHAELIS4 & M MATHUTHU1 1University of Zimbabwe, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe 2CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 3CSIR Defence Peace Safety... this system. BEAM PROPAGATION THROUGH GAS LENSES The heated spinning pipe acts as a GRIN lens where the refractive index variation inside the pipe is given by The variable parameters of the gas lens in this work were the rotation...

  4. Investigation on Mechanical Property of Seamless Pipe

    ZHAO Li-ming; YANG Xiao-yong; LIU Ye


    The mechanical properties of the steel pipe rolled with continuously casting round billet after determining the chemical composition in steel were studied. The results show that the total reduction ratio should be higher than 5.2 when the line pipes of grade B, grade 20 and other general seamless pipe were rolled with continuously casting round billet. And the total reduction ratio should be higher than 10.2 and the grain size should be controlled more than grade 7 for casing of oil countryside tubular goods (OCTG).

  5. Arterial gas occlusions in operating heat pipes

    Saaski, E. W.


    The effect of noncondensable gases on high performance arterial heat pipes has been investigated both analytically and experimentally. Models have been generated which characterize the dissolution of gases in condensate and the diffusional loss of dissolved gases from condensate in arterial flow. These processes, and others, have been used to postulate stability criteria for arterial heat pipes. Experimental observations of gas occlusions were made using a stainless steel heat pipe equipped with viewing ports, and the working fluids methanol and ammonia with the gas additives helium, argon, and xenon. Observations were related to gas transport models.

  6. Heat pipes theory, design and applications

    Reay, David; Kew, Peter


    Heat Pipes, 6th Edition, takes a highly practical approach to the design and selection of heat pipes, making it an essential guide for practicing engineers and an ideal text for postgraduate students. This new edition has been revised to include new information on the underlying theory of heat pipes and heat transfer, and features fully updated applications, new data sections, and updated chapters on design and electronics cooling. The book is a useful reference for those with experience and an accessible introduction for those approaching the topic for the first time. Contains all informat

  7. Characterization of radioactive contamination inside pipes with the Pipe Explorer{sup trademark} system

    Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W.; Cramer, E. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others


    The U.S. Department of Energy`s nuclear facility decommissioning program needs to characterize radiological contamination inside piping systems before the pipe can be recycled, remediated, or disposed. Historically, this has been attempted using hand held survey instrumentation, surveying only the accessible exterior portions of pipe systems. Difficulty, or inability of measuring threshold surface contamination values, worker exposure, and physical access constraints have limited the effectiveness of this approach. Science and Engineering associates, Inc. under contract with the DOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center has developed and demonstrated the Pipe Explorer{trademark} system, which uses an inverting membrane to transport various characterization sensors into pipes. The basic process involves inverting (turning inside out) a tubular impermeable membrane under air pressure. A characterization sensor is towed down the interior of the pipe by the membrane.

  8. Reliability of piping system components. Volume 4: The pipe failure event database

    Nyman, R.; Erixon, S. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Tomic, B. [ENCONET Consulting GmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B. [RSA Technologies, Visat, CA (United States)


    Available public and proprietary databases on piping system failures were searched for relevant information. Using a relational database to identify groupings of piping failure modes and failure mechanisms, together with insights from published PSAs, the project team determined why, how and where piping systems fail. This report represents a compendium of technical issues important to the analysis of pipe failure events, and statistical estimation of failure rates. Inadequacies of traditional PSA methodology are addressed, with directions for PSA methodology enhancements. A `data driven and systems oriented` analysis approach is proposed to enable assignment of unique identities to risk-significant piping system component failure. Sufficient operating experience does exist to generate quality data on piping failures. Passive component failures should be addressed by today`s PSAs to allow for aging analysis and effective, on-line risk management. 42 refs, 25 figs.

  9. Coolant choice for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe

    Zheng, Li-Fang; Wang, Li; Wu, Ping; Ji, Quan; Li, Xun-Feng; Liu, Jian-Ping


    In order to take away much more heat on the BESIII beam pipe to guarantee the normal particle detection, EDM-1 (oil No.1 for electric discharge machining), with good thermal and flow properties was selected as the candidate coolant for the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe. Its cooling character was studied and dynamic corrosion experiment was undertaken to examine its corrosion on beryllium. The experiment results show that EDM-1 would corrode the beryllium 19.9 μm in the depth in 10 years, which is weak and can be neglected. Finite element simulation and experiment research were taken to check the cooling capacity of EDM-1. The results show that EDM-1 can meet the cooling requirement of the central beryllium pipe. Now EDM-1 is being used to cool the central beryllium pipe of the BESIII beam pipe.

  10. Environmental relief effects through nanotechnological processes and products; Entlastungseffekte fuer die Umwelt durch nanotechnische Verfahren und Produkte

    Steinfeldt, Michael; Gleich, Armin von [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Fachgebiet Technikgestaltung und Technologieentwicklung, FB Produktionstechnik; Petschow, Ulrich; Pade, Christian; Sprenger, Rolf-Ulrich [Institut fuer oekologische Wirtschaftsforschung gGmbH, Berlin (Germany). FB Umweltoekonomie und -politik


    The top priority of the research project ''Environmental Relief Effects through Nanotechnological Processes and Products'' was to identify and quantify, to the extent possible and by means of selected examples, the environmental and sustainability opportunities and risks associated with this rapidly developing line of technology. Environmental relief potentials are understood here to include not only environmental engineering in the narrower sense (end-of-pipe technologies), but also and specifically process, production, and product-integrated environmental protection. The project consisted of four stages: 1. Analysis of products and processes already on the market or soon to be made available and application 2. Examination and initial qualitative assessment of each of the products and processes with respect to its potential for environmental relief (or burden, as the case may be) 3. In-depth life cycle analysis and assessment of four selected processes or products as compared to conventional processes or products (Manufacture of solderable surface finishes on printed circuit boards, MW carbon nanotube application for foils in the semiconductor industry, Lithium batteries for energy, storage, Ultradur {sup registered} High Speed plastic) 4. An appraisal of nanotechnology employment effects. (orig.)

  11. The glacial relief in the Leaota Mountains



    Full Text Available The presence of glacial relief in the Romanian medium height massifs is still controversial. The medium height mountains, such as theLeaota Mountains (in the Bucegi group, with maximum altitudes of almost 2000 m andmedium altitudes of approximately 1250 m, can display traces of glacial relief dating from theUpper Pleistocene. The aim of this article is to provide evidence about the presence of theglacial morphology in the northern part of the Leaota Peak, the main orographic node in themassif with the same name. Thus, on the basis of field observations, of topographical mapanalysis and by using the geographic information systems which made possible a detailedmorphometric analysis, I was able to gather evidence proving the existence of a glacial cirquein the Leaota Mountains. The arguments put forward in this article show that the glacial reliefis represented in the Leaota Mountains through a small-size suspended glacial cirque, whichdisplays all the morphologic elements proving the existence of glaciation in this massif.

  12. Increasing the Useful Life of Quench Reliefs with Inconel Bellows

    Soyars, W. M. [Fermilab


    Reliable quench relief valves are an important part of superconducting magnet systems. Fermilab developed bellows-actuated cryogenic quench reliefs which have been in use since the early l 980's. The original design uses a stainless steel bellows. A high frequency, low amplitude vibration during relieving events has resulted in fatigue failures in the original design. To take advantage of the improved resistance to fatigue of Inconel, a nickel-chromium alloy, reliefs using Inconel 625 bellows were made. Design, development, and testing of the new version reliefs will be discussed. Tests show that relief valve lifetimes using Inconel bellows are more than five times greater than when using the original stainless steel bellows. Inconel bellows show great promise in increasing the lifetime of quench relief valves, and thus the reliability of accelerator cryogenic systems.

  13. Alpha detection in pipes using an inverting membrane scintillator

    Kendrick, D.T.; Cremer, C.D.; Lowry, W. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others


    Characterization of surface alpha emitting contamination inside enclosed spaces such as piping systems presents an interesting radiological measurement challenge. Detection of these alpha particles from the exterior of the pipe is impossible since the alpha particles are completely absorbed by the pipe wall. Traditional survey techniques, using hand-held instruments, simply can not be used effectively inside pipes. Science and Engineering Associates, Inc. is currently developing an enhancement to its Pipe Explorer{trademark} system that will address this challenge. The Pipe Explorer{trademark} uses a unique sensor deployment method where an inverted tubular membrane is propagated through complex pipe runs via air pressure. The inversion process causes the membrane to fold out against the pipe wall, such that no part of the membrane drags along the pipe wall. This deployment methodology has been successfully demonstrated at several DOE sites to transport specially designed beta and gamma, scintillation detectors into pipes ranging in length up to 250 ft.

  14. Pressure Change in Tee Branch Pipe in Oscillatory Flow

    Daisuke Sakamoto


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of unsteady flow of branch pipes in pneumatic systems. Branch pipes are used in pneumatic pipe systems in various industrial fields. To predict the unsteady pressure changes in the pneumatic piping systems, it is necessary that the dynamic characteristics of branch pipes are at hand, in addition to the dynamic characteristic of single pipe. However, while so many studies are accumulated for a single pipe dynamics, few studies have reported the pressure changes in branch pipes due to oscillatory flow. This paper reports an experimental study on the dynamic characteristics of the pressure change in a pneumatic branch pipe under given oscillatory flow. The paper also proposes a simulation method to predict the pressure changes in a pneumatic branch pipe under oscillatory flow. The validity of simulation is verified for oscillatory flows up to 5 Hz, comparing with the experimental results.

  15. Evaluation of an Impedance Threshold Device as a VIIP Countermeasure

    Ebert, D.; Macias, B.; Sargsyan, A.; Garcia, K.; Stenger, M.; Kemp, D.; Hargens, A.; Johnston, S.


    Visual Impairment/Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) is a top human spaceflight risk for which NASA does not currently have a proven mitigation strategy. Thigh cuffs (Braslets) and lower body negative pressure (LBNP; Chibis) devices have been or are currently being evaluated as a means to reduce VIIP signs and symptoms, but these methods alone may not provide sufficient relief of cephalic venous congestion and VIIP symptoms. Additionally, current LBNP devices are too large and cumbersome for their systematic use as a countermeasure. Therefore, a novel approach is needed that is easy to implement and provides specific relief of symptoms. This investigation will evaluate an impedance threshold device (ITD) as a VIIP countermeasure.

  16. Optimizing the Pipe Diameter of the Pipe Belt Conveyor Based on Discrete Element Method

    Guo, Yong-cun; Wang, Shuang; Hu, Kun; Li, De-yong


    In order to increase the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and reduce lateral pressure of the supporting roller set, this study aims to optimize the pipe diameter of the pipe belt conveyor. A mechanical model of the pipe belt conveyor with six supporting roller sets in the belt bearing section was built based on the infinitesimal method, and the formula for calculating the lateral pressure of each supporting roller was deduced on the basis of reasonable assumption. Simulated analysis was carried out on the operation process of the pipe belt conveyor by using the discrete element method. The result showed that, when the other conditions were certain, as the pipe diameter increased, the average lateral pressure of the supporting roller set increased, with a gradually decreasing increment, which was consistent with the calculated result of the theoretical formula. An optimized pipe diameter under the current conditions was obtained by fitting the curve of the formula for calculating the transport volume of the pipe belt conveyor and its simulation curve. It provided a certain reference value for improving the transport efficiency and prolonging the service life of the pipe belt conveyor.

  17. Sandy PMO Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 Financial Data

    Department of Homeland Security — Sandy PMO: Disaster Relief Appropriations Act of 2013 (Sandy Supplemental Bill) Financial Data. This is the Sandy Supplemental Quarterly Financial Datasets that are...


    X.C.Zhao; Y.D.Zhang; H.W.Zhang; Q.Wu


    A finite element model is developed for the simulation of vibration stress relief (VSR) after welding.For the nonresonant vibration,the reduction in stress strongly depends on the amplitude of vibration.For the resonant vibration,the vibration frequency is the key for stress relief.The vibration frequency should be close to the structure natural frequency for the desired vibration mode.Only small vibration amplitude is required,which will be amplified during vibration.Vibration time does not have a major impact on vibration stress relief.When the amplitude of vibration stress relief is large,the treatment will be more effective.

  19. Study of safety relief valve operation under ATWS conditions. [PWR

    Hutmacher, E.S.; Nesmith, B.J.; Brukiewa, J.B.


    A literature survey and analysis project has been performed to determine if recent (since mid-1975) data has been reported which could influence the current approach to predicting PWR relief valve capacity under ATWS conditions. This study was conducted by the Energy Technology Engineering Center for NRC. Results indicate that the current relief valve capacity model tends to predict less capacity than actually obtains; however, no experimental verification at PWR ATWS conditions was found. Other project objectives were to establish the availability of methods for evaluating reaction forces and back pressure effects on relief valve capacity, and to determine if facilities exist which are capable of testing PWR relief valves at ATWS conditions.

  20. A shear wave ground surface vibration technique for the detection of buried pipes

    Muggleton, J. M.; Papandreou, B.


    A major UK initiative, entitled 'Mapping the Underworld' aims to develop and prove the efficacy of a multi-sensor device for accurate remote buried utility service detection, location and, where possible, identification. One of the technologies to be incorporated in the device is low-frequency vibro-acoustics; the application of this technology for detecting buried infrastructure, in particular pipes, is currently being investigated. Here, a shear wave ground vibration technique for detecting buried pipes is described. For this technique, shear waves are generated at the ground surface, and the resulting ground surface vibrations measured. Time-extended signals are employed to generate the illuminating wave. Generalized cross-correlation functions between the measured ground velocities and a reference measurement adjacent to the excitation are calculated and summed using a stacking method to generate a cross-sectional image of the ground. To mitigate the effects of other potential sources of vibration in the vicinity, the excitation signal can be used as an additional reference when calculating the cross-correlation functions. Measurements have been made at two live test sites to detect a range of buried pipes. Successful detection of the pipes was achieved, with the use of the additional reference signal proving beneficial in the noisier of the two environments.