Radio Relics in Cosmological Simulations
M. Hoeft; S. E. Nuza; S. Gottlöber; R. J. van Weeren; H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Brüggen
2011-12-01
Radio relics have been discovered in many galaxy clusters. They are believed to trace shock fronts induced by cluster mergers. Cosmological simulations allow us to study merger shocks in detail since the intra-cluster medium is heated by shock dissipation. Using high resolution cosmological simulations, identifying shock fronts and applying a parametric model for the radio emission allows us to simulate the formation of radio relics. We analyze a simulated shock front in detail. We find a rather broad Mach number distribution. The Mach number affects strongly the number density of relativistic electrons in the downstream area, hence, the radio luminosity varies significantly across the shock surface. The abundance of radio relics can be modeled with the help of the radio power probability distribution which aims at predicting radio relic number counts. Since the actual electron acceleration efficiency is not known, predictions for the number counts need to be normalized by the observed number of radio relics. For the characteristics of upcoming low frequency surveys we find that about thousand relics are awaiting discovery.
Relic abundance of WIMPs in non-standard cosmological scenarios
Yimingniyazi, W.
2007-08-06
In this thesis we study the relic density n{sub {chi}} of non--relativistic long--lived or stable particles {chi} in various non--standard cosmological scenarios. First, we discuss the relic density in the non--standard cosmological scenario in which the temperature is too low for the particles {chi} to achieve full chemical equilibrium. We also investigated the case where {chi} particles are non--thermally produced from the decay of heavier particles in addition to the usual thermal production. In low temperature scenario, we calculate the relic abundance starting from arbitrary initial temperatures T{sub 0} of the radiation--dominated epoch and derive approximate solutions for the temperature dependence of the relic density which can accurately reproduces numerical results when full thermal equilibrium is not achieved. If full equilibrium is reached, our ansatz no longer reproduces the correct temperature dependence of the {chi} number density. However, we can contrive a semi-analytic formula which gives the correct final relic density, to an accuracy of about 3% or better, for all cross sections and initial temperatures. We also derive the lower bound on the initial temperature T{sub 0}, assuming that the relic particle accounts for the dark matter energy density in the universe. The observed cold dark matter abundance constrains the initial temperature T{sub 0} {>=}m{sub {chi}}/23, where m{sub {chi}} is the mass of {chi}. Second, we discuss the {chi} density in the scenario where the the Hubble parameter is modified. Even in this case, an approximate formula similar to the standard one is found to be capable of predicting the final relic abundance correctly. Choosing the {chi} annihilation cross section such that the observed cold dark matter abundance is reproduced in standard cosmology, we constrain possible modifications of the expansion rate at T {proportional_to}m{sub {chi}}/20, well before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. (orig.)
Dark matter relic density in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology
Meehan, Michael T
2014-01-01
The relic density of symmetric and asymmetric dark matter in the Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology is investigated. The reduced expansion rate in this scenario delays particle freeze-out, leading to relic abundances which are suppressed by up to $\\mathcal{O}(10^{-3})$. In this case the annihilation cross section must be reduced by up to two orders of magnitude below the canonical value $\\langle\\sigma v\\rangle \\approx 2\\times 10^{-26}$ cm$^3$s$^{-1}$ to reconcile the predicted dark matter density with observation. We use the latest observational bound $\\Omega_{DM}h^2 = 0.1187 \\pm 0.0017$ to constrain the various model parameters and discuss the implications for direct/indirect dark matter detection experiments as well as dark matter particle models.
Catena, R; Pato, M; Pieri, L; Masiero, A
2010-01-01
Alternative cosmologies, based on extensions of General Relativity, predict modified thermal histories in the Early Universe in the pre Big Bang Nucleosynthesis (BBN) era, epoch which is not directly constrained by cosmological observations. When the expansion rate is enhanced with respect to the standard case, thermal relics typically decouple with larger relic abundances. The correct value of the relic abundance is therefore obtained for larger annihilation cross sections, as compared to standard cosmology. A direct consequence is that indirect detection rates are enhanced. Extending previous analyses of ours, we derive updated astrophysical bounds on the dark matter annihilation cross sections and use them to constrain alternative cosmologies in the pre-BBN era. We also determine the characteristics of these alternative cosmologies in order to provide the correct value of relic abundance for a thermal relic for the (large) annihilation cross section required to explain the PAMELA results on the positron fr...
Dark matter relic density in Gauss-Bonnet braneworld cosmology
Meehan, Michael T.; Whittingham, Ian B., E-mail: Michael.Meehan@my.jcu.edu.au, E-mail: Ian.Whittingham@jcu.edu.au [College of Science, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, 1 James Cook Dr., Townsville 4811 (Australia)
2014-12-01
The relic density of symmetric and asymmetric dark matter in a Gauss-Bonnet (GB) modified Randall-Sundrum (RS) type II braneworld cosmology is investigated. The existing study of symmetric dark matter in a GB braneworld (Okada and Okada, 2009) found that the expansion rate was reduced compared to that in standard General Relativity (GR), thereby delaying particle freeze-out and resulting in relic abundances which are suppressed by up to O(10{sup −2}). This is in direct contrast to the behaviour observed in RS braneworlds where the expansion rate is enhanced and the final relic abundance boosted. However, this finding that relic abundances are suppressed in a GB braneworld is based upon a highly contrived situation in which the GB era evolves directly into a standard GR era, rather than passing through a RS era as is the general situation. This collapse of the RS era requires equating the mass scale m{sub α} of the GB modification and the mass scale m{sub σ} of the brane tension. However, if the GB contribution is to be considered as the lowest order correction from string theory to the RS action, we would expect m{sub α} > m{sub σ}. We investigate the effect upon the relic abundance of choosing more realistic values for the ratio R{sub m} ≡ m{sub α}/m{sub σ} and find that the relic abundance can be either enhanced or suppressed by more than two orders of magnitude. However, suppression only occurs for a small range of parameter choices and, overwhelmingly, the predominant situation is that of enhancement as we recover the usual Randall-Sundrum type behaviour in the limit R{sub m} >> 1. We use the latest observational bound Ω{sub DM}h{sup 2} = 0.1187 ± 0.0017 to constrain the various model parameters and briefly discuss the implications for direct/indirect dark matter detection experiments as well as dark matter particle models.
Towards the detection of cosmological relic neutrino with neutrino capture on a beta decaying nuclei
Messina, M; Mangano, G
2010-01-01
In this paper we report on recent results in the Þeld of the phenomenology of very low energy neutrino interactions. We brießy describe the cross section calculation for Neutrino Capture on Beta decay nuclei (NCB). We show that the resulting cross section open the possibility to detect the cosmological relic neutrinos. With this achievement, the relic neutrino detection has been downscaled from a principle problem to a technological challenge. We also summarise the state of the art about possible detection techniques.
Wen Zhao
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB radiation is an excellent information channel for the detection of relic gravitational waves. However, the detection is contaminated by the B-mode polarization generated by some other effects. In this paper, we discuss the contaminations caused by the cosmological birefringence, which converts the CMB E-mode to the B-mode, and forms the effective noise for the detection of gravitational waves. We find that this contamination is significant, if the rotation angle is large. However, this kind of B-mode can be properly de-rotated, and the effective noises can be greatly reduced. We find that, comparing with the contaminations caused by cosmic weak lensing, the residual polarization generated by the cosmological birefringence is negligible for the detection of relic gravitational waves in the CMB.
Cosmological evolution of thermal relic particles in $f(R)$ gravity
Capozziello, S; Lambiase, G; Pizza, L
2015-01-01
By considering $f(R)$ gravity models, the cosmic evolution is modified with respect to the standard $\\Lambda$CDM scenario. In particular, the thermal history of particles results modified. In this paper, we derive the evolution of relics particles (WIMPs) assuming a reliable $f(R)$ cosmological solution and taking into account observational constraints. The connection to the PAMELA experiment is also discussed. Results are consistent with constraints coming from BICEP2 and PLANCK experiments.
Background of relic gravitons in a perfect fluid in quantum cosmological models
Siffert, Beatriz B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (ICRA/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Cosmologia, Relatividade e Astrofisica; Bessada, Dennis [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Astrofisica
2011-07-01
Full text: We studied the evolution of tensor cosmological perturbations of quantum origin in cosmological scenarios that predict a contracting phase prior to the present expansion phase. These bouncing models constitute a very plausible alternative to the current cosmological paradigm since they may be able to solve some of the cosmological puzzles present in the standard model, such as the horizon and flatness problems, without the requirement of an initial singularity or special initial conditions. While conventional inflationary models give rise to a relic background of gravitational waves that cannot be detected with present experiments, no such prediction had been made so far using quantum bouncing models. We have obtained analytically the graviton's energy density parameter as a function of time and frequency interval - which is the physical quantity to be confronted with observations - predicted by such models with a perfect fluid equation of state. To obtain the final spectrum, we numerically solved the expression for the density parameter for the time variable. The results can then be compared with the predictions from inflationary models and with the sensitivity curves of gravitational waves current detectors, such as the Virgo and Ligo interferometers, and upcoming detectors, like the LISA space mission, to determine the possibility of detection. (author)
Cosmological MHD Simulations of Galaxy Cluster Radio Relics: Insights and Warnings for Observations
Skillman, Samuel W; Hallman, Eric J; O'Shea, Brian W; Burns, Jack O; Li, Hui; Collins, David C; Norman, Michael L
2012-01-01
Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare to observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio rel...
Time-varying cosmological term
Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.
2015-11-01
We present the case of time-varying cosmological term using the Lagrangian formalism characterized by a scalar field ϕ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(ϕ). This model is applied to Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansats to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.
Skillman, Samuel W.; Hallman, Eric J.; Burns, Jack O. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Science, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Xu, Hao; Li, Hui; Collins, David C. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87544 (United States); O' Shea, Brian W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Norman, Michael L., E-mail: samuel.skillman@colorado.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)
2013-03-01
Non-thermal radio emission from cosmic-ray electrons in the vicinity of merging galaxy clusters is an important tracer of cluster merger activity, and is the result of complex physical processes that involve magnetic fields, particle acceleration, gas dynamics, and radiation. In particular, objects known as radio relics are thought to be the result of shock-accelerated electrons that, when embedded in a magnetic field, emit synchrotron radiation in the radio wavelengths. In order to properly model this emission, we utilize the adaptive mesh refinement simulation of the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a galaxy cluster from cosmological initial conditions. We locate shock fronts and apply models of cosmic-ray electron acceleration that are then input into radio emission models. We have determined the thermodynamic properties of this radio-emitting plasma and constructed synthetic radio observations to compare observed galaxy clusters. We find a significant dependence of the observed morphology and radio relic properties on the viewing angle of the cluster, raising concerns regarding the interpretation of observed radio features in clusters. We also find that a given shock should not be characterized by a single Mach number. We find that the bulk of the radio emission comes from gas with T > 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} K, {rho} {approx} 10{sup -28}-10{sup -27} g cm{sup -3}, with magnetic field strengths of 0.1-1.0 {mu}G, and shock Mach numbers of M {approx} 3-6. We present an analysis of the radio spectral index which suggests that the spatial variation of the spectral index can mimic synchrotron aging. Finally, we examine the polarization fraction and position angle of the simulated radio features, and compare to observations.
Beckwith, A. W.
2008-01-01
Sean Carroll's pre-inflation state of low temperature-low entropy provides a bridge between two models with different predictions. The Wheeler-de Witt equation provides thermal input into today's universe for graviton production. Also, brane world models by Sundrum allow low entropy conditions, as given by Carroll & Chen (2005). Moreover, this paper answers the question of how to go from a brane world model to the 10 to the 32 power Kelvin conditions stated by Weinberg in 1972 as necessary for the initiation of quantum gravity processes. This is a way of getting around the fact CMBR is cut off at a red shift of z = 1100. This paper discusses the difference in values of the upper bound of the cosmological constant between a large upper bound predicated for a temperature dependent vacuum energy predicted by Park (2002), and the much lower bound predicted by Barvinsky (2006). with the difference in values in vacuum energy contributing to relic graviton production. This paper claims that this large thermal influx, with a high initial cosmological constant and a large region of space for relic gravitons interacting with space-time up to the z = 1100 CMBR observational limit are interlinked processes delineated in the Lloyd (2002) analogy of the universe as a quantum computing system. Finally, the paper claims that linking a shrinking prior universe via a worm hole solution for a pseudo time dependent Wheeler-De Witt equation permits graviton generation as thermal input from the prior universe, transferred instantaneously to relic inflationary conditions today. The existence of a wormhole is presented as a necessary condition for relic gravitons. Proving the sufficiency of the existence of a worm hole for relic gravitons is a future project.
Observational constrains on a decaying cosmological term
Nakamura, R; Ichiki, K; Nakamura, Riou; Hashimoto, Masa-aki; Ichiki, Kiyotomo
2006-01-01
We investigate the evolution of a universe with a decaying cosmological term (vacuum energy) that is assumed to be a function of the scale factor. In this model, while the cosmological term increases to the early universe, the radiation energy density is lower than the model with the cosmological "constant". We find that the effects of the decaying cosmological term on the expansion rate at the redshift z<2 is negligible. However, the decrease in the radiation density affects on the thermal history of the universe; e.g. the photon decoupling occurs at higher $z$ compared to the case of the standard \\Lambda CDM model. As a consequence, a decaying cosmological term affects on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. We show the angular power spectrum in D\\Lambda CDM model and compare with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) data.
Variable cosmological term $\\Lambda(t)$
Socorro, J; Pimentel, Luis O
2015-01-01
We present the case of time-varying cosmological term $\\Lambda(t)$. The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as $ V(\\phi)=2\\Lambda$, with $\\Lambda$ a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., $ V(\\phi(t))=2\\Lambda(t)$. We Use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field $\\phi$ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential $V(\\phi)$ and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW)cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.
Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)
Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.
2015-11-01
We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.
Inhomogeneous Universe Models with Varying Cosmological Term
Chimento, L P; Chimento, Luis P.; Pavon, Diego
1998-01-01
The evolution of a class of inhomogeneous spherically symmetric universe models possessing a varying cosmological term and a material fluid, with an adiabatic index either constant or not, is studied.
Off-shell dark matter: A cosmological relic of quantum gravity
Saravani, Mehdi; Afshordi, Niayesh
2017-02-01
We study a novel proposal for the origin of cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) which is rooted in the quantum nature of spacetime. In this model, off-shell modes of quantum fields can exist in asymptotic states as a result of spacetime nonlocality (expected in generic theories of quantum gravity) and play the role of CDM, which we dub off-shell dark matter (O f DM ). However, their rate of production is suppressed by the scale of nonlocality (e.g. Planck length). As a result, we show that O f DM is only produced in the first moments of big bang, and then effectively decouples (except through its gravitational interactions). We examine the observational predictions of this model: In the context of cosmic inflation, we show that this proposal relates the reheating temperature to the inflaton mass, which narrows down the uncertainty in the number of e -foldings of specific inflationary scenarios. We also demonstrate that O f DM is indeed cold, and discuss potentially observable signatures on small scale matter power spectrum.
Off-shell Dark Matter: A Cosmological relic of Quantum Gravity
Saravani, Mehdi
2016-01-01
We study a novel proposal for the origin of cosmological cold dark matter (CDM) which is rooted in the quantum nature of spacetime. In this model, off-shell modes of quantum fields can exist in asymptotic states as a result of spacetime nonlocality (expected in generic theories of quantum gravity), and play the role of CDM, which we dub off-shell dark matter (OfDM). However, their rate of production is suppressed by the scale of non-locality (e.g. Planck length). As a result, we show that OfDM is only produced in the first moments of big bang, and then effectively decouples (except through its gravitational interactions). We examine the observational predictions of this model: In the context of cosmic inflation, we show that this proposal relates the reheating temperature to the inflaton mass, which narrows down the uncertainty in the number of e-foldings of specific inflationary scenarios. We also demonstrate that OfDM is indeed cold, and discuss potentially observable signatures on small scale matter power ...
Cosmological models with running cosmological term and decaying dark matter
Szydłowski, Marek; Stachowski, Aleksander
2017-03-01
We investigate the dynamics of the generalized ΛCDM model, which the Λ term is running with the cosmological time. On the example of the model Λ(t) =Λbare + α2/t2 we show the existence of a mechanism of the modification of the scaling law for energy density of dark matter: ρdm ∝a - 3 + λ(t). We use an approach developed by Urbanowski in which properties of unstable vacuum states are analyzed from the point of view of the quantum theory of unstable states. We discuss the evolution of Λ(t) term and pointed out that during the cosmic evolution there is a long phase in which this term is approximately constant. We also present the statistical analysis of both the Λ(t) CDM model with dark energy and decaying dark matter and the ΛCDM standard cosmological model. We use data such as Planck, SNIa, BAO, H(z) and AP test. While for the former we find the best fit value of the parameter Ωα2,0 is negative (energy transfer is from the dark matter to dark energy sector) and the parameter Ωα2,0 belongs to the interval (- 0 . 000040 , - 0 . 000383) at 2- σ level. The decaying dark matter causes to lowering a mass of dark matter particles which are lighter than CDM particles and remain relativistic. The rate of the process of decaying matter is estimated. Our model is consistent with the decaying mechanism producing unstable particles (e.g. sterile neutrinos) for which α2 is negative.
Beckwith, A W
2008-01-01
We present a way to accomodate relic graviton production via worm hole transitions of prior universe thermal / energy density values to our present universe. This is done in the context of providing a mechanism for thermally driven relic gravitons, and also to explain how Park's 2003 observation as to how a thermally scaled vacuum energy value plays a role in forming the early universe emergent field dynamics
Tram, Thomas
2012-01-01
For 13,7 milliarder år siden befandt Universet sig i en meget varm og tæt tilstand, og siden da har det udvidet sig og er blevet afkølet. Kosmologi forsøger at forklare hvordan vores Univers har udviklet sig fra Big Bang og frem til i dag. Udviklingen afhænger af de fundamentale naturlove, så der...
Gelmini, Graciela B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gondolo, Paolo, E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu, E-mail: paolo@physics.utah.edu [Department of Physics, University of Utah, 115 S 1400 E 201, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)
2008-10-15
Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) constitute one of very few probes of cosmology before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). We point out that in scenarios in which the Universe evolves in a non-standard manner during and after WIMP kinetic decoupling, the horizon mass scale at decoupling can be smaller and the dark matter WIMPs can be colder than in standard cosmology. This would lead to much smaller first objects in hierarchical structure formation. In low reheating temperature scenarios the effect may be large enough to noticeably enhance indirect detection signals in GLAST and other detectors, by up to two orders of magnitude.
Chang, S.; Coriano, C. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory; Faraggi, A.E. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. for Fundamental Theory]|[Inst. for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States). School of Natural Sciences
1996-05-15
The authors investigate the cosmological constraints on exotic stable matter states which arise in realistic free fermionic superstring models. These states appear in the superstring models due to a ``Wilson-line`` breaking of the unifying non-Abelian gauge symmetry. In the models that they consider the unifying SO(10) gauge symmetry is broken at the string level to SO(6) x SO(4), SU(5) x U(1) or SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1). The exotic matter states are classified according to the patterns of the SO(10) symmetry breaking. In SO(6) x XO(4) and SU(5) x U(1) type models one obtains fractionally charged states with Q{sub e.m.} = {+-}1/2. In SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) type models one also obtains states with the regular charges under the Standard Model gauge group but with ``fractional`` charges under the U(1){sub z{prime}} symmetry. These states include down-like color triplets and electroweak doublets, as well as states which are Standard Model singlets. By analyzing the renormalizable and nonrenormalizable terms of the superpotential in a specific superstring model, the authors show that these exotic states can be stable. They investigate the cosmological constraints on the masses and relic density of the exotic states. They propose that, while the abundance and the masses of the fractionally charged states are highly constrained, the Standard Model-like states, and in particular the Standard Model singlet, are good dark matter candidates.
On multidimensional solutions in the Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet model with a cosmological term
Kobtsev, A A; Ernazarov, K K
2016-01-01
A D-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet and cosmological term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological metrics is adopted, we overview recent solutions for zero cosmological term and find new examples of solutions for non-zero cosmological term and D = 8 with exponential dependence of scale factors which describe an expansion of our 3-dimensional factor-space and contraction of 4-dimensional internal space.
Cosmology In Terms Of The Deceleration Parameter. Part I
Bolotin, Yu L; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A; Zazunov, L G
2015-01-01
In the early seventies, Alan Sandage defined cosmology as the search for two numbers: Hubble parameter ${{H}_{0}}$ and deceleration parameter ${{q}_{0}}$. The first of the two basic cosmological parameters (the Hubble parameter) describes the linear part of the time dependence of the scale factor. Treating the Universe as a dynamical system it is natural to assume that it is non-linear: indeed, linearity is nothing more than approximation, while non-linearity represents the generic case. It is evident that future models of the Universe must take into account different aspects of its evolution. As soon as the scale factor is the only dynamical variable, the quantities which determine its time dependence must be essentially present in all aspects of the Universe' evolution. Basic characteristics of the cosmological evolution, both static and dynamical, can be expressed in terms of the parameters ${{H}_{0}}$ and ${{q}_{0}}$. The very parameters (and higher time derivatives of the scale factor) enable us to const...
Cosmology In Terms Of The Deceleration Parameter. Part II
Bolotin, Yu L; Lemets, O A; Yerokhin, D A; Zazunov, L G
2015-01-01
In the early seventies, Alan Sandage defined cosmology as the search for two numbers: Hubble parameter ${{H}_{0}}$ and deceleration parameter ${{q}_{0}}$. The first of the two basic cosmological parameters (the Hubble parameter) describes the linear part of the time dependence of the scale factor. Treating the Universe as a dynamical system it is natural to assume that it is non-linear: indeed, linearity is nothing more than approximation, while non-linearity represents the generic case. It is evident that future models of the Universe must take into account different aspects of its evolution. As soon as the scale factor is the only dynamical variable, the quantities which determine its time dependence must be essentially present in all aspects of the Universe' evolution. Basic characteristics of the cosmological evolution, both static and dynamical, can be expressed in terms of the parameters ${{H}_{0}}$ and ${{q}_{0}}$. The very parameters (and higher time derivatives of the scale factor) enable us to const...
Rubakov, V A
2014-01-01
In these lectures we first concentrate on the cosmological problems which, hopefully, have to do with the new physics to be probed at the LHC: the nature and origin of dark matter and generation of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We give several examples showing the LHC cosmological potential. These are WIMPs as cold dark matter, gravitinos as warm dark matter, and electroweak baryogenesis as a mechanism for generating matter-antimatter asymmetry. In the remaining part of the lectures we discuss the cosmological perturbations as a tool for studying the epoch preceeding the conventional hot stage of the cosmological evolution.
Fayet-Iliopoulos Terms in Supergravity and Cosmology
Binétruy, Pierre; Kallosh, Renata E; Van Proeyen, A; Binétruy, Pierre; Dvali, Gia; Kallosh, Renata; Proeyen, Antoine Van
2004-01-01
We clarify the structure of N=1 supergravity in 1+3 dimensions with constant FI terms. The FI terms induce non-vanishing R-charges for the fermions and the superpotential. Therefore the D-term inflation model in supergravity with constant FI terms has to be revisited. We also investigate the case of the so-called anomalous U(1) when a chiral superfield is shifted under U(1). In such a case, in the context of string theory, the FI terms originate from the derivative of the Kaehler potential and they are inevitably field-dependent. This raises an issue of stabilization of the relevant field in applications to cosmology. The recently suggested equivalence between the D-term strings and D-branes of type II theory shows that brane-anti-brane systems produce FI terms in the effective 4d theory, with the Ramond-Ramond axion shifting under the U(1) symmetry. This connection gives the possibility to interpret many unknown properties of D-\\bar{D} systems in the more familiar language of 4d supergravity D-terms, and vic...
LRS Bianchi Type-V Viscous Fluid Universe With a Time Dependent Cosmological Term $\\Lambda$
Pradhan, Anirudh; Singh, C V
2007-01-01
An LRS Bianchi type-V cosmological models representing a viscous fluid distribution with a time dependent cosmological term $\\Lambda$ is investigated. To get a determinate solution, the viscosity coefficient of bulk viscous fluid is assumed to be a power function of mass density. It turns out that the cosmological term $\\Lambda(t)$ is a decreasing function of time, which is consistent with recent observations of type Ia supernovae. Various physical and kinematic features of these models have also been explored.
吴亚波; 李磊
2002-01-01
We establish the double complex Ashtekar gravitational theory with the cosmological term. In particular, by performing the 3+1 decomposition of the double Ashtekar action containing the cosmological term to pass on the Hamiltonian framework, the double Ashtekar constraint equations are derived, which respectively correspond to Lorentzian and Euclidean gravity.
Vittorio, Nicola
2017-01-01
Modern cosmology has changed significantly over the years, from the discovery to the precision measurement era. The data now available provide a wealth of information, mostly consistent with a model where dark matter and dark energy are in a rough proportion of 3:7. The time is right for a fresh new textbook which captures the state-of-the art in cosmology. Written by one of the world's leading cosmologists, this brand new, thoroughly class-tested textbook provides graduate and undergraduate students with coverage of the very latest developments and experimental results in the field. Prof. Nicola Vittorio shows what is meant by precision cosmology, from both theoretical and observational perspectives.
Gasperini, Maurizio
2011-03-01
Preface; Acknowledgements; Notation, units and conventions; 1. A short review of standard and inflationary cosmology; 2. The basic string cosmology equations; 3. Conformal invariance and string effective action; 4. Duality symmetries and cosmological solutions; 5. Inflationary kinematics; 6. The string phase; 7. The cosmic background of relic gravitational waves; 8. Scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the CMB radiation; 9. Dilaton phenomenology; 10. Elements of brane cosmology; Index.
The New Cosmology: Mid-term Report Card for Inflation
Turner, Michael S.
2002-01-01
Inflation has been the driving idea in cosmology for two decades and is a pillar of the New Cosmology. The inflationary paradigm has now passed its first round of significant tests, with two of its three basics predictions confirmed at about the 10% level. The Inflationary Paradigm has some of the truth. Over the next decade the precision of these tests, most of which involve measurements of CMB anisotropy and polarization, will improve 30 fold or more(!), testing inflation more sharply and p...
Charged analogue of Vlasenko–Pronin superdense star with variable cosmological term
Feroze Tooba; Nazeer Ghazala
2016-04-01
The set of three static spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein–Maxwell field equations by Maurya and Gupta, {\\it Astrophys. Space Sci.} 333, 149 (2011) are modified by introducing the variable cosmological term. Motivated by Tiwari et al, {\\it Indian J. Pure Appl. Math.} 31, 1017 (2000), some particular values of the cosmological term are taken to obtain well-behaved solutionsof the Einstein–Maxwell field equations. All the results given by Maurya and Gupta can be obtained as particular cases of our solutions by choosing a cosmological term equal to zero.
Arbey, A.; Mahmoudi, F.
2010-07-01
We describe SuperIso Relic, a public program for evaluation of relic density and flavor physics observables in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). SuperIso Relic is an extension of the SuperIso program which adds to the flavor observables of SuperIso the computation of all possible annihilation and coannihilation processes of the LSP which are required for the relic density calculation. All amplitudes have been generated at the tree level with FeynArts/FormCalc, and widths of the Higgs bosons are computed with FeynHiggs at the two-loop level. SuperIso Relic also provides the possibility to modify the assumptions of the cosmological model, and to study their consequences on the relic density. Catalogue identifier: AEGD_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGD_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: yes No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 2 274 720 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 6 735 649 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C (C99 Standard compliant) and Fortran Computer: 32- or 64-bit PC, Mac Operating system: Linux, MacOS RAM: 100 Mb Classification: 1.9, 11.6 External routines: ISASUGRA/ISAJET and/or SOFTSUSY, FeynHiggs Does the new version supersede the previous version?: No (AEAN_v2_0) Nature of problem: Calculation of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density, as well as flavor physics observables, in order to derive constraints on the supersymmetric parameter space. Solution method: SuperIso Relic uses a SUSY Les Houches Accord file, which can be either generated automatically via a call to SOFTSUSY or ISAJET, or provided by the user. This file contains the masses and couplings of the supersymmetric particles. SuperIso Relic then computes the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density as well as the most constraining flavor physics
Stringy space-time foam, Finsler-like metrics and dark matter relics
Mavromatos, Nick E., E-mail: Nikolaos.Mavromatos@cern.c [CERN, Theory Division, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); King' s College London, Department of Physics, Strand WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom); Sarkar, Sarben; Vergou, Ariadne [King' s College London, Department of Physics, Strand WC2R 2LS, London (United Kingdom)
2011-01-31
We discuss modifications of the thermal dark matter (DM) relic abundances in stringy cosmologies with D-particle space-time foamy backgrounds. As a result of back-reaction of massive DM on the background space-time, owing to its interaction with D-particle defects in the foam, quantum fluctuations are induced in the space-time metric. We demonstrate that these lead to the presence of extra source terms in the Boltzmann equation used to determine the thermal dark matter relic abundances. The source terms are determined by the specific form of the induced metric deformations; the latter depend on the momentum transfer of the DM particle during its interactions with the D-particle defects and so are akin to Finsler metrics. In the case of low string scales, arising from large extra dimensions, our results may have phenomenological implications for the search of viable supersymmetric models.
Nakamura, Riou; Ichiki, Kiyotomo
2008-01-01
We constrain the thermal evolution of the universe with a decaying cosmological term by using the method of the analysis for the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) observation data. The cosmological term is assumed to be a function of the scale factor that increases toward the early universe, and the radiation energy density is lower compared to that in the model with the standard cosmological "constant" (LCDM). The decrease in the radiation density affects the thermal history of the universe; e.g. the photon decoupling occurs at higher-z compared to the case of the standard LCDM model. As a consequence, a decaying cosmological term affects the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. Thanks to the Markov-chain Monte Carlo method, we compare the angular power spectrum in the decaying LCDM model with the CMB data, and we get severe constraints on parameters of the model.
Constraints from SNIa and CMB temperature observations on a Decaying Cosmological term
Thushari, E P Berni Ann; Ikeda, Mikio; Hashimoto, Masa-aki
2011-01-01
We re-investigate the cosmic thermal evolution with a cosmological term which decay into photon. We assume that the cosmological term is a function of the scale factor that increases toward the early universe. We put on the constraints from recent type Ia supernovae (SNIa) by Union-2 compilation and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature at $0.02 < z < 3$. From SNIa, we find that the effects of a decaying cosmological term on the cosmic expansion rate should be very small at $z < 1.5$. On the other hand, we obtain the severe constraints for parameters from the CMB temperature observations. This results mean the temperature can be still lower than the case of the standard cosmological model. Its should only affect the thermal evolution at the earlier epoch. Therefore we need to do analysis precisely such as the newest WMAP observational data.
The New Cosmology Mid-term Report Card for Inflation
Turner, M S
2003-01-01
Inflation has been the driving idea in cosmology for two decades and is a pillar of the New Cosmology. The inflationary paradigm has now passed its first round of significant tests, with two of its three basics predictions confirmed at about the 10% level. The Inflationary Paradigm has some of the truth. Over the next decade the precision of these tests, most of which involve measurements of CMB anisotropy and polarization, will improve 30 fold or more(!), testing inflation more sharply and possibly elucidating the underlying cause. Especially important in this regard is detecting the inflation-produced gravitational waves, either directly or through their CMB polarization signature. While inflation has by no means been verified, its successes have raised the bar for competitor theories: Any alternative must feature the two hallmarks of inflation: superluminal expansion and entropy production.
A new approach to exact solutions construction in scalar cosmology with a Gauss-Bonnet term
Fomin, I. V.; Chervon, S. V.
2017-08-01
We study the cosmological model based on Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity with non-minimal coupling of a scalar field to a Gauss-Bonnet term in four-dimensional (4D) Friedmann universe. We show how constructing the exact solutions by the method based on a confrontation of the Hubble parameter in the model under consideration is achieved with that in a standard scalar field inflationary cosmology.
Long-term consequences of observing an expanding cosmological civilization
Olson, S Jay
2016-01-01
Suppose that advanced civilizations, separated by a cosmological distance and time, wish to maximize their access to cosmic resources by rapidly expanding into the universe. What sort of boundary forms between their expanding domains, and how does the presence of one limit the ambitions of another? We describe a general case for any expansion speed, separation distance, and time. We then specialize to the main question of interest. How are the future prospects for a young and ambitious civilization altered if they can observe the presence of another at a cosmological distance? We treat cases involving the observation of one or two expanding domains. In the single-observation case, we find that almost any plausible detection will be limiting to some extent. Also, practical technological limits to expansion speed (well below the speed of light) play an interesting role. If a domain is visible at the time one embarks on expansion, there exists an optimum value for the "practical speed limit," and if the speed li...
A possible explanation of Galactic Velocity Rotation Curves in terms of a Cosmological Constant
Whitehouse, S B; Whitehouse, Steven B.; Kraniotis, George V.
1999-01-01
This paper describes how the non-gravitational contribution to galactic velo city rotation curves can be explained in terms of a Cosmological Constant ($\\Lambda$).The velocity rotation curve for the nearby galaxy M33 will be analysed in detail while several other galaxies will be superficially studied. It will be shown that the Cosmological Constant leads to a contribution to the acceleration proportional to the radii, at large radii, and depending on the mass of the galaxy. It was found to dominate at approximately 13Kpc for M33. The Cosmological Constant experimentally derived from the M33 data was found to be:$\\Lambda_{Exp}=1.33\\times 10^{-52} cm^{-2}$, which compares favourably with the theoretical value of $\\Lambda_{Theory}=0.91\\times 10^{-54}cm^{-2}$. It will be shown that the Cosmological Constant, in the Weak Field Approximation, leads to a correction term for the Newtonian potential and the corresponding acceleration of a test particle. The extended LNH will then be used to define other cosmological ...
Boero, Ezequiel F
2016-01-01
We present new results on gravitational lensing over a cosmological Robertson-Walker backgrounds which extend and generalize previous works. Our expressions show the presence of new terms and factors which have been neglected in the literature on the subject. The equations derived here for the optcal scalars allow to deal with more general matter content including sources with non trivial components of the energy-momentum tensor. We also discuss the intensity magnification definitions coming from natural geometrical contruction, and as is used in cosmological works. We show that the natural intensity magnification coincides with the standard solid angle magnification.
2008-01-01
Quake damage leaves worst cultural relic loss in 60 years The deadly earthquake in Sichuan has not only taken tens of thousand of lives and left millions homeless, but it has also had a cultural impact. Standing on the rubble of a temple in Dujiangyan City that was heavily dam- aged after the May 12 earthquake,
Supergravity Inflation Free from Harmful Relics
Greene, P B; Murayama, H; Greene, Patrick B.; Kadota, Kenji; Murayama, Hitoshi
2003-01-01
We present a realistic supergravity inflation model which is free from the overproduction of potentially dangerous relics in cosmology, namely moduli and gravitinos which can lead to the inconsistencies with the predictions of baryon asymmetry and nucleosynthesis. The radiative correction turns out to play a crucial role in our analysis which raises the mass of supersymmetry breaking field to intermediate scale. We pay a particular attention to the non-thermal production of gravitinos using the non-minimal Kahler potential we obtained from loop correction. This non-thermal gravitino production however is diminished because of the relatively small scale of inflaton mass and small amplitudes of hidden sector fields.
Quintessence and the relic density of neutralinos
Salati, Pierre
2003-10-09
The archetypal model for the recently discovered dark energy component of the universe is based on the existence of a scalar field whose dynamical evolution comes down today to a non-vanishing cosmological constant. In the past - before big-bang nucleosynthesis for that matter - that scalar field could have gone through a period of kination during which the universe has expanded at a much higher pace than what is currently postulated in the standard radiation dominated cosmology. I examine here the consequences of such a period of kination on the relic abundance of neutralinos and find that the latter could be much higher - by three orders of magnitude - than what is estimated in the canonical derivation. I shortly discuss the implications of this scenario for the dark matter candidates and their astrophysical signatures.
Marsh, David J. E.
2016-07-01
Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also well-motivated within high energy physics, appearing in theories related to CP-violation in the standard model, supersymmetric theories, and theories with extra-dimensions, including string theory, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. I then present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via BBN, the CMB, reionization and structure formation, up to the present-day Universe. Topics covered include: axion dark matter (DM); direct and indirect detection of axions, reviewing existing and future experiments; axions as dark radiation; axions and the cosmological constant problem; decays of heavy axions; axions and stellar astrophysics; black hole superradiance; axions and astrophysical magnetic fields; axion inflation, and axion DM as an indirect probe of inflation. A major focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a DM candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute lower bound on DM particle mass is established. It is ma > 10-24eV from linear observables, extending to ma ≳ 10-22eV from non-linear observables, and has the potential to reach ma ≳ 10-18eV in the future. These bounds are weaker if the axion is not all of the DM, giving rise to limits on the relic density at low mass. This leads to the exciting possibility that the effects of axion DM on structure formation could one day be detected
DISCOVERY OF GIANT RELIC RADIO LOBES STRADDLING THE CLASSICAL DOUBLE RADIO GALAXY 3C452
Sirothia, S. K.; Gopal-Krishna [National Centre for Radio Astrophysics, TIFR, Post Bag No. 3, Pune University Campus, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Wiita, Paul J., E-mail: sirothia@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: krishna@ncra.tifr.res.in, E-mail: wiitap@tcnj.edu [Department of Physics, College of New Jersey, P.O. Box 7718, Ewing, NJ 08628 (United States)
2013-03-01
We report the discovery of a pair of megaparsec size radio lobes of extremely steep spectrum straddling the well-known classical double radio source 3C452. The existence of such fossil lobes was unexpected since for the past several decades this powerful radio galaxy has been regarded as a textbook example of an edge-brightened double radio source of Fanaroff-Riley type II (FR II), which we now show to be a bona fide ''double-double'' radio galaxy (DDRG). Thus, 3C452 presents a uniquely robust example of recurrent nuclear activity in which the restarted jets are expanding non-relativistically within the relic synchrotron plasma from an earlier active phase and hence the inner double fed by them has evolved into a perfectly normal FR II radio source. This situation contrasts markedly with the strikingly narrow inner doubles observed in a few other DDRGs that have been interpreted in terms of compression of the synchrotron plasma of the relic outer lobes at the relativistic bow-shocks driven by the near ballistic propagation of the two inner jets through the relic plasma. A key ramification of this finding is that it cautions against the currently widespread use of FR II classical double radio sources for testing cosmological models and unification schemes for active galactic nuclei.
Can cluster merger shocks reproduce the luminosity and shape distribution of radio relics?
Nuza, Sebastián E.; Gelszinnis, Jakob; Hoeft, Matthias; Yepes, Gustavo
2017-09-01
Radio relics in galaxy clusters are believed to trace merger shock fronts. If cosmological structure formation determines the luminosity, size and shape distributions of radio relics, then merger shocks need to be lighted up in a homogeneous way. We investigate if a mock relic sample, obtained from zoomed galaxy cluster simulations, is able to match the properties of relics measured in the NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). We compile a list of all radio relics known to date and homogeneously measure their parameters in all NVSS images and apply the same procedure to relics in our simulations. Number counts in the mock relic sample increase more steeply towards lower relic flux densities, suggesting an incompleteness of NVSS in this regime. Overall, we find that NVSS and mock samples show similar properties. However, large simulated relics tend to be somewhat smaller and closer to the cluster centre than observed ones. Besides this, the mock sample reproduces very well-known correlations for radio relics, in particular those relating the radio luminosity with the largest linear size and the X-ray luminosity. We show that these correlations are largely governed by the sensitivity of the NVSS observations. Mock relics show a similar orientation with respect to the direction to the cluster centre as the NVSS sample. Moreover, we find that their maximum radio luminosity roughly correlates with cluster mass, although displaying a large scatter. The overall good agreement between NVSS and the mock sample suggests that properties of radio relics are indeed governed by merger shock fronts, emitting in a homogeneous fashion. Our study demonstrates that the combination of mock observations and data from upcoming radio surveys will allow us to shed light on both the origin of radio relics and the nature of the intracluster medium.
Marsh, David J E
2015-01-01
Axions comprise a broad class of particles that can play a major role in explaining the unknown aspects of cosmology. They are also extraordinarily well-motivated within high energy physics, and so axion cosmology offers us a unique view onto these theories. I present a comprehensive and pedagogical view on the cosmology and astrophysics of axion-like particles, starting from inflation and progressing via the CMB and structure formation up to the present-day Universe. I briefly review the motivation and models for axions in particle physics and string theory. The primary focus is on the population of ultralight axions created via vacuum realignment, and its role as a dark matter (DM) candidate with distinctive phenomenology. Cosmological observations place robust constraints on the axion mass and relic density in this scenario, and I review where such constraints come from. I next cover aspects of galaxy formation with axion DM, and ways this can be used to further search for evidence of axions. An absolute l...
Precise Prediction of the Dark Matter Relic Density within the MSSM
Harz, J.; Herrmann, B.; Klasen, M.; Kovarik, K.; Steppeler, P.
With the latest Planck results the dark matter relic density is determined to an unprecedented precision. In order to reduce current theoretical uncertainties in the dark matter relic density prediction, we have calculated next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections to neutralino (co)annihilation processes including Coulomb enhancement effects. We demonstrate that these corrections can have significant impact on the cosmologically favoured MSSM parameter space and are thus of general interest for parameter studies and global fits.
Precise Prediction of the Dark Matter Relic Density within the MSSM
Harz, Julia; Klasen, Michael; Kovarik, Karol; Steppeler, Patrick
2015-01-01
With the latest Planck results the dark matter relic density is determined to an unprecedented precision. In order to reduce current theoretical uncertainties in the dark matter relic density prediction, we have calculated next-to-leading order SUSY-QCD corrections to neutralino (co)annihilation processes including Coulomb enhancement effects. We demonstrate that these corrections can have significant impact on the cosmologically favoured MSSM parameter space and are thus of general interest for parameter studies and global fits.
Anomalous spectral lines and relic quantum nonequilibrium
Underwood, Nicolas G
2016-01-01
We describe general features that might be observed in the line spectra of relic cosmological particles should quantum nonequilibrium be preserved in their statistics. According to our arguments, these features would represent a significant departure from those of a conventional origin. Among other features, we find a possible spectral broadening (for incident photons) that is proportional to the energy resolution of the recording telescope (and so could be orders of magnitude larger than any intrinsic broadening). Notably, for a range of possible initial conditions we find the possibility of spectral line `narrowing' whereby a telescope could observe a spectral line which is narrower than it should conventionally be able to resolve. We briefly discuss implications for the indirect search for dark matter.
SUSY constraints from relic density: High sensitivity to pre-BBN expansion rate
Arbey, A. [Universite de Lyon, Lyon F-69000 (France); Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne F-69622 (France); Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, Observatoire de Lyon, 9 avenue Charles Andre, Saint-Genis Laval cedex F-69561 (France); CNRS, UMR 5574, Ecole Normale Superieure de Lyon, Lyon (France)], E-mail: arbey@obs.univ-lyon1.fr; Mahmoudi, F. [High Energy Physics, Uppsala University, Box 535, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden)
2008-10-30
The sensitivity of the lightest supersymmetric particle relic density calculation to the variation of the cosmological expansion rate before nucleosynthesis is discussed. Such a modification of the expansion rate, even extremely modest and with no consequence on the cosmological observations, can greatly enhance the calculated relic density, and therefore change the constraints on the SUSY parameter space drastically. We illustrate this variation in two examples of SUSY models, and show that it is unsafe to use the lower bound of the WMAP limits in order to constrain supersymmetry. We therefore suggest to use only the upper value {omega}{sub DM}h{sup 2}<0.135.
Relics: penguin population programs.
Sun, L; Xie, Z
2001-01-01
What has been responsible for the increase in Chinstrap penguin populations during the past 40 years in maritime Antarctica? One view ascribes it to an increase in availability of their prey brought on by the decrease in baleen whale stocks. The contrary opinion, attributes it to environmental warming. This causes a gradual decrease in the frequency of cold years with extensive winter sea ice cover. A number of penguin monitoring programs are in progress and are expected to provide some answers to these questions. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish natural variability from anthropogenic change since penguins are easily accessible predators of krill and the feeding range of the penguins has almost overlapped with the krill fishery in time and space in the last four decades. Therefore it is important to reconstruct the change of ancient penguin abundance and distribution in the absence of human activity. Many efforts have focused on surveying the abandoned penguin rookeries, but this method has not been able to give a continuous historical record of penguin populations. In several recent studies, ancient penguin excreta was scooped from the penguin relics in the sediments of the lake on penguin rookery, Ardley Island, maritime Antarctica. In these studies, penguin droppings or guano soil deposited in the lake and changes in sediment geochemistry have been used to calculate penguin population changes based upon the geochemical composition of the sediment core. The results suggest that climate change has a significant impact on penguin populations.
Relic galaxies: where are they?
Peralta de Arriba, P.; Quilis, V.; Trujillo, I.; Cebrián, M.; Balcells, M.
2017-03-01
The finding that massive galaxies grow with cosmic time fired the starting gun for the search of objects which could have survived up to the present day without suffering substantial changes (neither in their structures, neither in their stellar populations). Nevertheless, and despite the community efforts, up to now only one firm candidate to be considered one of these relics is known: NGC 1277. Curiously, this galaxy is located at the centre of one of the most rich near galaxy clusters: Perseus. Is its location a matter of chance? Should relic hunters focus their search on galaxy clusters? In order to reply this question, we have performed a simultaneous and analogous analysis using simulations (Millennium I-WMAP7) and observations (New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue). Our results in both frameworks agree: it is more probable to find relics in high density environments.
Direct detection of relic active and sterile neutrinos
Li, Yu-Feng
2016-01-01
Both active and sterile sub-eV neutrinos can form the cosmic neutrino background in the early Universe. We consider the beta-decaying (e.g., $^3$H) and EC-decaying (e.g., $^{163}$Ho) nuclei as the promising targets to capture relic neutrinos in the laboratory. We calculate the capture rates of relic electron neutrinos and antineutrinos against the corresponding beta decay or electron capture (EC) decay backgrounds in the (3+$N_{\\rm s}$) flavor mixing scheme, and discuss the future prospect in terms of the PTOLEMY project. We stress that such direct measurements of hot DM might not be hopeless in the long term.
Relic keV sterile neutrinos and reionization.
Biermann, Peter L; Kusenko, Alexander
2006-03-10
A sterile neutrino with a mass of several keV can account for cosmological dark matter, as well as explain the observed velocities of pulsars. We show that x rays produced by the decays of these relic sterile neutrinos can boost the production of molecular hydrogen, which can speed up the cooling of gas and the early star formation, which can, in turn, lead to a reionization of the Universe at a high enough redshift to be consistent with the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe results.
Robust Signatures of the Relic Neutrinos in CMB
Bashinsky, S V
2004-01-01
When the perturbations forming the acoustic peaks of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) reentered the horizon and interacted gravitationally with all the matter, neutrinos presumably comprised 41% of the universe energy. CMB experiments have reached a capacity to probe this background of relic neutrinos. I review the neutrino imprints on CMB anisotropy and polarization at the onset of the acoustic oscillations. The discussion addresses the underlying physics, robustness or degeneracy of the imprints with changes of free cosmological parameters, and non-minimal models for the unseen radiation sector with detectable signatures in CMB.
Stochastic Background of Relic Scalar Gravitational Waves tuned by Extended Gravity
De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2009-01-01
A stochastic background of relic gravitational waves is achieved by the so called adiabatically-amplified zero-point fluctuations process derived from early inflation. It provides a distinctive spectrum of relic gravitational waves. In the framework of scalar-tensor gravity, we discuss the scalar modes of gravitational waves and the primordial production of this scalar component which is generated beside tensorial one. Then we analyze different viable $f(R)$-gravities towards the Solar System tests and stochastic gravitational waves background. The aim is to achive experimental bounds for the theory at local and cosmological scales in order to select models capable of addressing the accelerating cosmological expansion without cosmological constant but evading the weak field constraints. It is demonstrated that viable $f(R)$-gravities under consideration not only satisfy the local tests, but additionally, pass the PPN-and stochastic gravitational waves bounds for large classes of parameters.
Bianchi Type-I String Cosmological Model with Bulk Viscosity and Time-Dependent A term
R.K.Tiwari; S.Sharma
2011-01-01
Einstein Geld equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe. Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar ￡ oc 0; the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar 6 oc cr; and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter A on H. The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ Einstein field equations with the cosmological constant is considered in the presence of bulk viscosity in a Bianchi type-I universe.Solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the following conditions:the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar ξ∝θ;the expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar θ∝σ;and ∧ is proportional to the Hubble parameter ∧∝ H.The corresponding interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.
Relic Abundance in Secluded Dark Matter Scenario with Massive Mediator
Okawa, Shohei; Yamanaka, Masato
2016-01-01
The relic abundance of the dark matter (DM) particle $d$ is studied in a secluded DM scenario, in which the $d$ number decreasing process dominantly occurs not through the pair annihilation of $d$ into the standard model particles, but via the $dd \\to mm$ scattering process with a subsequently decaying mediator particle $m$. It is pointed out that the cosmologically observed relic abundance of DM can be accomplished even with a massive mediator having a mass $m_m$ non-negligibly heavy compared with the DM particle mass $m_d$. In the degenerated $d$-$m$ case ($m_d=m_m$), the DM relic abundance is realized by adjusting the $dd \\to mm$ scattering amplitude large enough and by choosing an appropriate mediator particle life-time. The DM evolution in the early universe exhibits characteristic "terrace" behavior, or two-step number density decreasing behavior, having a "fake" freeze-out at the first step. Based on these observations, a novel possibility of the DM model buildings is introduced in which the mediator p...
Improved calculation of relic gravitational waves
2007-01-01
In this paper, we have improved the calculation of the relic gravitational waves (RGW) in two aspects. First, we investigate the transfer function by taking into consideration the redshift-suppression effect, the accelerating expansion effect, the damping effect of free-streaming relativistic particles, and the damping effect of cosmic phase transition, and give a simple approximate analytic expression, which clearly illustrates the dependence on the cosmological parameters.Second, we develop a numerical method to calculate the primordial power spectrum of RGW in a very wide frequency range, where the observed constraints on ns (the scalar spectral index) and Ps(ko) (the amplitude of primordial scalar spectrum) and the Hamilton-Jacobi equation are used. This method is applied to two kinds of inflationary models,which satisfy the current constraints on ns, α (the running of ns) and r (the tensor-scalar ratio). We plot them in the r - Ωg diagram, where Ωg is the strength of RGW, and study their measurements from the cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments and laser interferometers.
Negative Energy Cosmology and the Cosmological Constant
Prokopec, Tomislav
2011-01-01
It is well known that string theories naturally compactify on anti-de Sitter spaces, and yet cosmological observations show no evidence of a negative cosmological constant in the early Universe's evolution. In this letter we present two simple nonlocal modifications of the standard Friedmann cosmology that can lead to observationally viable cosmologies with an initial (negative) cosmological constant. The nonlocal operators we include are toy models for the quantum cosmological backreaction. In Model I an initial quasiperiodic oscillatory epoch is followed by inflation and a late time matter era, representing a dark matter candidate. The backreaction in Model II quickly compensates the negative cosmological term such that the Ricci curvature scalar rapidly approaches zero, and the Universe ends up in a late time radiation era.
The first observations of wide-band interferometers and the spectra of relic gravitons
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-08-01
Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons of cosmological origin extend from frequencies of the order of the aHz up to the GHz range. Since the temperature and polarization anisotropies constrain the low frequency normalization of the spectra, in the concordance paradigm the strain amplitude corresponding to the frequency window of wide-band interferometers turns out to be, approximately, nine orders of magnitude smaller than the astounding signal recently reported and attributed to a binary black hole merger. The backgrounds of relic gravitons expected from the early Universe are compared with the stochastic foregrounds stemming from the estimated multiplicity of the astrophysical sources. It is suggested that while the astrophysical foregrounds are likely to dominate between few Hz and 10 kHz, relic gravitons with frequencies exceeding 100 kHz represent a potentially uncontaminated signal for the next generation of high-frequency detectors currently under scrutiny.
Discovery potential for supernova relic neutrinos with slow liquid scintillator detectors
Wei, Hanyu; Chen, Shaomin
2016-01-01
The detection of supernova relic neutrinos would provide a key support for our current understanding of stellar and cosmological evolution, and precise measurements of them would further give us an insight of the profound universe. In this paper we study the potential to detect supernova relic neutrinos using linear alkyl benzene, LAB, as a slow liquid scintillator, which features a good separation of Cherenkov and scintillation lights, thus providing a new ability in particle identification. We also address key issues of current experiments, including 1) the charged current background of atmospheric neutrinos in water Cherenkov detectors, and 2) the neutral current background of atmospheric neutrinos in typical liquid scintillator detectors. With LAB, a kiloton-scale detector, like the SNO, KamLAND, and the future Jinping neutrino detectors, with $\\mathcal{O}$(10) years of data, would have the sensitivity to discover supernova relic neutrinos, which is comparable to large-volume water Cherenkov, typical liqu...
Discovery potential for supernova relic neutrinos with slow liquid scintillator detectors
Wei, Hanyu; Wang, Zhe; Chen, Shaomin
2017-06-01
Detection of supernova relic neutrinos could provide key support for our current understanding of stellar and cosmological evolution, and precise measurements of these neutrinos could yield novel insights into the universe. In this paper, we studied the detection potential of supernova relic neutrinos using linear alkyl benzene (LAB) as a slow liquid scintillator. The linear alkyl benzene features good separation of Cherenkov and scintillation lights, thereby providing a new route for particle identification. We further addressed key issues in current experiments, including (1) the charged current background of atmospheric neutrinos in water Cherenkov detectors and (2) the neutral current background of atmospheric neutrinos in typical liquid scintillator detectors. A kiloton-scale LAB detector at Jinping with O(10) years of data could discover supernova relic neutrinos with a sensitivity comparable to that of large-volume water Cherenkov detectors, typical liquid scintillator detectors, and liquid argon detectors.
The first observations of wide-band interferometers and the spectra of relic gravitons
Giovannini, Massimo, E-mail: massimo.giovannini@cern.ch [Department of Physics, Theory Division, CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN, Section of Milan-Bicocca, 20126 Milan (Italy)
2016-08-10
Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons of cosmological origin extend from frequencies of the order of the aHz up to the GHz range. Since the temperature and polarization anisotropies constrain the low frequency normalization of the spectra, in the concordance paradigm the strain amplitude corresponding to the frequency window of wide-band interferometers turns out to be, approximately, nine orders of magnitude smaller than the astounding signal recently reported and attributed to a binary black hole merger. The backgrounds of relic gravitons expected from the early Universe are compared with the stochastic foregrounds stemming from the estimated multiplicity of the astrophysical sources. It is suggested that while the astrophysical foregrounds are likely to dominate between few Hz and 10 kHz, relic gravitons with frequencies exceeding 100 kHz represent a potentially uncontaminated signal for the next generation of high-frequency detectors currently under scrutiny.
Turner, Michael S.; Wilczek, Frank
1991-01-01
If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10 to the -6th eV. This bound can be evaded if the universe underwent inflation after PQ-symmetry breaking and if the observable universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small. Consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative is shown.
Wilczek, Frank; Turner, Michael S.
1990-09-01
If Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is broken after inflation, the initial axion angle is a random variable on cosmological scales; based on this fact, estimates of the relic-axion mass density give too large a value if the axion mass is less than about 10-6 eV. This bound can be evaded if the Universe underwent inflation after PQ symmetry breaking and if the observable Universe happens to be a region where the initial axion angle was atypically small, .1 . (ma/10-6eV)0.59. We show consideration of fluctuations induced during inflation severely constrains the latter alternative.
Sanders, Robert H
2016-01-01
The advent of sensitive high-resolution observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation and their successful interpretation in terms of the standard cosmological model has led to great confidence in this model's reality. The prevailing attitude is that we now understand the Universe and need only work out the details. In this book, Sanders traces the development and successes of Lambda-CDM, and argues that this triumphalism may be premature. The model's two major components, dark energy and dark matter, have the character of the pre-twentieth-century luminiferous aether. While there is astronomical evidence for these hypothetical fluids, their enigmatic properties call into question our assumptions of the universality of locally determined physical law. Sanders explains how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) is a significant challenge for cold dark matter. Overall, the message is hopeful: the field of cosmology has not become frozen, and there is much fundamental work ahead for tomorrow's cosmologis...
Impact of SUSY-QCD corrections to neutralino-squark coannihilation on the dark matter relic density
Harz, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [Laboratoire d' Annecy de Physique Theorique, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Klasen, Michael [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster (Germany); Kovarik, Karol [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France)
2012-07-01
A powerful method to constrain the parameter space of theories beyond the Standard Model is to compare the predicted dark matter relic density with data from cosmological precision measurements, in particular from the WMAP satellite. On the particle physics side, the main uncertainty on the relic density arises from the (co-)annihilation cross sections of the dark matter particle. After a motivation for including higher order corrections in the prediction of the relic density, the project DM rate at NLO is presented. This software package allows one to compute the neutralino (co-)annihilation cross sections including SUSY-QCD corrections at the one-loop level and to evaluate their effect on the relic density using a link to the public codes MicrOMEGAs and DarkSUSY. Recent results of the impact of SUSY-QCD corrections on the neutralino pair annihilation cross section are discussed, and first results on neutralino-squark coannihilation are shown.
MULTI-FREQUENCY STUDIES OF RADIO RELICS IN THE GALAXY CLUSTERS A4038, A1664, AND A786
Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S., E-mail: ruta@iucaa.ernet.in [Raman Research Institute, C. V. Raman Avenue, Sadashivanagar, Bangalore 560 080 (India)
2012-01-01
We present a multi-frequency study of radio relics associated with the galaxy clusters A4038, A1664, and A786. Radio images, integrated spectra, spectral index maps, and fits to the integrated spectra in the framework of the adiabatic compression model are presented. Images of the relic in A4038 at 150, 240, and 606 MHz with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope have revealed extended ultra-steep spectrum ({alpha} {approx} -1.8 to -2.7) emission of extent 210 Multiplication-Sign 80 kpc{sup 2}. The model of passively evolving radio lobes compressed by a shock fits the integrated spectrum best. The relic with a circular morphology at the outskirts of the cluster A1664 has an integrated spectral index of {approx} - 1.10 {+-} 0.06 and is best fit by the model of radio lobes lurking for {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} yr. The relic near A786 has a curved spectrum and is best fit by a model of radio lobes lurking for {approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} yr. At 4.7 GHz, a compact radio source, possibly the progenitor of the A786 relic, is detected near the center of the radio relic. The A786 radio relic is thus likely a lurking radio galaxy rather than a site of cosmological shock as has been considered in earlier studies.
Particle physics constraints from future cosmological surveys
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
The next generation of cosmological surveys (of large scale structures, CMB polarisation, 21cm line), approved (Euclid, SKA, ...) or submitted (COrE+, LiteBird), have the potential to return a lot of relevant information for particle physics. I will present and comment some of the most recent sensitivity forecasts related to neutrino physics, light relics and Dark Matter properties.
RELICS: Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey
Coe, Dan A.; RELICS Team
2017-01-01
Hubble and Spitzer imaging programs observing galaxy cluster lenses have delivered some of the highest redshift galaxy candidates to date (z ~ 9 - 11, or 540 - 410 Myr after the Big Bang). These magnified galaxies are intrinsically faint, and thus more representative of the sources believed to be primarily responsible for reionization. Magnified galaxies are also observed brightly enough to be prime targets for detailed follow-up study with current and future observatories, including JWST. Building on the successes of CLASH and the Frontier Fields, we have begun RELICS, the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey. By observing 41 massive clusters for the first time at infrared wavelengths, RELICS will deliver more of the best and brightest high-redshift candidates to the community in time for the November 2017 JWST GO Cycle 1 call for proposals. I will present our early results. I will also discuss prospects for JWST to follow-up known candidates and discover new galaxies at even higher redshifts (z > 11). The discovery efficiency gains from lensing will be even more pronounced at z > 11 if luminosity function faint end slopes are steeper than alpha ~ -2, as suggested by current models and observational extrapolations.
Ivashchuk, V D
2015-01-01
A D-dimensional gravitational model with Gauss-Bonnet term is considered. When ansatz with diagonal cosmological type metrics is adopted, we find solutions with exponential dependence of scale factors (with respect to "synchronous-like" variable) which describe an exponential expansion of "our" 3-dimensional factor-space and obey the observational constraints on the temporal variation of effective gravitational constant G. Among them there are two exact solutions in dimensions D = 22, 28 with constant G and also an infinite series of solutions in dimensions D \\ge 2690 with the variation of G obeying the observational data.
R. K. Tiwari; Sonia Sharma
2011-01-01
We study the non existence of shear in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-Ⅲ string cosmological models with bulk viscosity and variable cosmological term Λ. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar, ε ∝ θ, expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar, θ ∝ σ, and Λ is proportional to the Hubble parameter. The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density. The corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.%@@ We study the non existence of shear in locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type-M string cosmological models with bulk viscosity and variable cosmological term Λ.Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by assuming the conditions: the bulk viscosity is proportional to the expansion scalar, ξ∝θ, expansion scalar is proportional to shear scalar, θ∝σ, and A is proportional to the Hubble parameter.The coefficient of bulk viscosity is assumed to be a power function of mass density.The corresponding physical interpretations of the cosmological solutions are also discussed.
Multidimensional extremal dilatonic black holes in string-like model with cosmological term
Ivashchuk, V D
1996-01-01
A string-like model with the "cosmological constant" \\Lambda is considered. The Maki-Shiraishi multi-black-hole solution \\cite{MS1} is generalized to space-times with a Ricci-flat internal space. For \\Lambda = 0 the obtained solution in the one-black-hole case is shown to coincide with the extreme limit of the charged dilatonic black hole solution \\cite{BI,BM}. The Hawking temperature T_H for the solution \\cite{BI,BM} is presented and its extreme limit is considered. For the string value of dilatonic coupling the temperature T_H does not depend upon the internal space dimension.
Xu, Wei; Meng, Xin-he
2015-01-01
Based on the entropy relations, we derive thermodynamic bound for entropy and area of horizons of Schwarzschild-dS black hole, including the event horizon, Cauchy horizon and negative horizon (i.e. the horizon with negative value), which are all geometrical bound and made up of the cosmological radius. Consider the first derivative of entropy relations together, we get the first law of thermodynamics for all horizons. We also obtain the Smarr relation of horizons by using the scaling discussion. For thermodynamics of all horizons, the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamical variable. Especially for thermodynamics of negative horizon, it is defined well in the $r<0$ side of spacetime. The validity of this formula seems to work well for three-horizons black holes. We also generalize the discussion to thermodynamics for event horizon and Cauchy horizon of Gauss-Bonnet charged flat black holes, as the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant is also considered as thermodynamical variable. These give furthe...
Saadat, H
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study interacting extended Chaplygin gas as dark matter and quintessence scalar field as dark energy with an effective $\\Lambda$-term in Lyra manifold. As we know Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early universe while cosmological constant at the late time. Modified field equations are given and motivation of the phenomenological models discussed in details. Four different models based on the interaction term are investigated in this work. Then, we consider other models where Extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence field play role of dark matter and dark energy respectively with two different forms of interaction between the extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence scalar field for both constant and varying $\\Lambda$. Concerning to the mathematical hardness of the problems we discuss results numerically and graphically. Obtained results give us hope that proposed models can work as good models for the early universe with later stage of evolution containing accelerated expansion.
A Cosmological Model of the Early Universe Based on ECG with Variable Λ-Term in Lyra Geometry
Saadat, H.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we study interacting extended Chaplygin gas as dark matter and quintessence scalar field as dark energy with an effective Λ-term in Lyra manifold. As we know Chaplygin gas behaves as dark matter at the early universe while cosmological constant at the late time. Modified field equations are given and motivation of the phenomenological models discussed in details. Four different models based on the interaction term are investigated in this work. Then, we consider other models where Extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence field play role of dark matter and dark energy respectively with two different forms of interaction between the extended Chaplygin gas and quintessence scalar field for both constant and varying Λ. Concerning to the mathematical hardness of the problems we discuss results numerically and graphically. Obtained results give us hope that proposed models can work as good models for the early universe with later stage of evolution containing accelerated expansion.
Neutralino Relic Density in a Supersymmetric U(1)' Model
Barger, V; Langacker, P; Lee, H S; Barger, Vernon; Kao, Chung; Langacker, Paul; Lee, Hye-Sung
2004-01-01
We study properties of the lightest neutralino (\\chi) and calculate its cosmological relic density in a supersymmetric U(1)' model with a secluded U(1)' breaking sector (the S-model). The lightest neutralino mass is smaller than in the minimal supersymmetric standard model; for instance, m_\\chi < 100 GeV in the limit that the U(1)' gaugino mass is large compared to the electroweak scale. We find that the Z-\\chi-\\chi coupling can be enhanced due to the singlino components in the extended neutralino sector. Neutralino annihilation through the Z-resonance then reproduces the measured cold dark matter density over broad regions of the model parameter space.
Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection
Grishchuk, L P
2001-01-01
The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed)gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported byobservations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In themost favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achievedby the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers inLIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advancedground-based and space-based laser interferometers will be needed. The specificstatistical signature of relic gravitational waves, associated with thephenomenon of squeezing, is a potential reserve for further improvement of thesignal to noise ratio.
Abundance of Asymmetric Dark Matter in Brane World Cosmology
Abdusattar, Haximjan; Iminniyaz, Hoernisa
2016-09-01
Relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles in brane world cosmological scenario is investigated in this article. Hubble expansion rate is enhanced in brane world cosmology and it affects the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter particles. We analyze how the relic abundance of asymmetric Dark Matter is changed in this model. We show that in such kind of nonstandard cosmological scenario, indirect detection of asymmetric Dark Matter is possible if the cross section is small enough which let the anti-particle abundance kept in the same amount with the particle. We show the indirect detection signal constraints can be used to such model only when the cross section and the 5-dimensional Planck mass scale are in appropriate values. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11365022
Special Stamps:Historical Relic Beacons
2002-01-01
In May 2002, the State Postal Bureau issued a set of five stamps picturing historical relic beacons. They are the Mao Beacon, the Jiangxinyu Twin Beacon, the Huaniaoshan Beacon, the Laotieshan Beacon, and
Cosmic relics from the big bang
Hall, L.J.
1988-12-01
A brief introduction to the big bang picture of the early universe is given. Dark matter is discussed; particularly its implications for elementary particle physics. A classification scheme for dark matter relics is given. 21 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
Ernazarov, K.K. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivashchuk, V.D. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); VNIIMS, Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-06-15
We consider a D-dimensional gravitational model with a Gauss-Bonnet term and the cosmological term Λ. We restrict the metrics to diagonal cosmological ones and find for certain Λ a class of solutions with exponential time dependence of three scale factors, governed by three non-coinciding Hubble-like parameters H > 0, h{sub 1} and h{sub 2}, corresponding to factor spaces of dimensions m > 2, k{sub 1} > 1 and k{sub 2} > 1, respectively, with k{sub 1} ≠ k{sub 2} and D = 1 + m + k{sub 1} + k{sub 2}. Any of these solutions describes an exponential expansion of 3d subspace with Hubble parameter H and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant G. We prove the stability of these solutions in a class of cosmological solutions with diagonal metrics. (orig.)
Ernazarov, K.K. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ivashchuk, V.D. [RUDN University, Institute of Gravitation and Cosmology, Moscow (Russian Federation); Center for Gravitation and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-02-15
A D-dimensional gravitational model with a Gauss-Bonnet term and the cosmological term Λ is considered. By assuming diagonal cosmological metrics, we find, for a certain fine-tuned Λ, a class of solutions with exponential time dependence of two scale factors, governed by two Hubble-like parameters H > 0 and h < 0, corresponding to factor spaces of dimensions m > 3 and l > 1, respectively, with (m,l) ≠ (6,6), (7,4), (9,3) and D = 1+m+l. Any of these solutions describes an exponential expansion of three-dimensional subspace with Hubble parameter H and zero variation of the effective gravitational constant G. We prove the stability of these solutions in a class of cosmological solutions with diagonal metrics. (orig.)
Relic Gravitational Waves and Their Detection
Grishchuk, L. P.
2000-01-01
The range of expected amplitudes and spectral slopes of relic (squeezed) gravitational waves, predicted by theory and partially supported by observations, is within the reach of sensitive gravity-wave detectors. In the most favorable case, the detection of relic gravitational waves can be achieved by the cross-correlation of outputs of the initial laser interferometers in LIGO, VIRGO, GEO600. In the more realistic case, the sensitivity of advanced ground-based and space-based laser interferom...
Relics and episcopal Authority in Sasanian Iran
Héctor Ricardo Francisco
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the relationship between episcopacy and the cult of the relics in Sasanian Empire. It will be argued that the cult of martyrs’ relics contributed to the shift in the definition of episcopal Authority in the Church of the East in Fifth Century. In this regard, the tensions over the control of Christian shrines cannot be understood as an actual conflict between preexistent lay and clerical elites.
Pavluchenko, Sergey A.
2017-08-01
In this paper we perform a systematic study of spatially flat [(3+D)+1]-dimensional Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet cosmological models with Λ -term. We consider models that topologically are the product of two flat isotropic subspaces with different scale factors. One of these subspaces is three-dimensional and represents our space and the other is D-dimensional and represents extra dimensions. We consider no ansatz of the scale factors, which makes our results quite general. With both Einstein-Hilbert and Gauss-Bonnet contributions in play, D=3 and the general D\\ge 4 cases have slightly different dynamics due to the different structure of the equations of motion. We analytically study the equations of motion in both cases and describe all possible regimes with special interest on the realistic regimes. Our analysis suggests that the only realistic regime is the transition from high-energy (Gauss-Bonnet) Kasner regime, which is the standard cosmological singularity in that case, to the anisotropic exponential regime with expanding three and contracting extra dimensions. Availability of this regime allows us to put a constraint on the value of Gauss-Bonnet coupling α and the Λ -term - this regime appears in two regions on the (α , Λ ) plane: α 0, α Λ \\le -3/2 and α > 0, α Λ \\le (3D^2 - 7D + 6)/(4D(D-1)), including the entire Λ constrains (α , Λ ) even further: α > 0, D \\ge 2 with (3D^2 - 7D + 6)/(4D(D-1)) \\ge α Λ \\ge - (D+2)(D+3)(D^2 + 5D + 12)/(8(D^2 + 3D + 6)^2).
Relaxing neutrino mass bounds by a running cosmological constant
Bauer, F.; Schrempp, L.
2007-11-15
We establish an indirect link between relic neutrinos and the dark energy sector which originates from the vacuum energy contributions of the neutrino quantum fields. Via renormalization group effects they induce a running of the cosmological constant with time which dynamically influences the evolution of the cosmic neutrino background. We demonstrate that the resulting reduction of the relic neutrino abundance allows to largely evade current cosmological neutrino mass bounds and discuss how the scenario might be probed by the help of future large scale structure surveys and Planck data. (orig.)
Boeyens, Jan CA
2010-01-01
The composition of the most remote objects brought into view by the Hubble telescope can no longer be reconciled with the nucleogenesis of standard cosmology and the alternative explanation, in terms of the LAMBDA-Cold-Dark-Matter model, has no recognizable chemical basis. A more rational scheme, based on the chemistry and periodicity of atomic matter, opens up an exciting new interpretation of the cosmos in terms of projective geometry and general relativity. The response of atomic structure to environmental pressure predicts non-Doppler cosmical redshifts and equilibrium nucleogenesis by alp
Relic abundance of MeV millicharged particles
Dolgov, A D
2016-01-01
The relic abundance of light millicharged particles (MCP) with the electric charge $e' = 5\\cdot 10^{-5} e$ and with the mass slightly below or above the electron mass is calculated. The abundance depends on the mass ratio $\\eta=m_X/m_e$ and for $\\eta<1$ can be high enough to allow MCP to be the cosmological dark matter or to make a noticeable contribution to it. On the other hand, for $\\eta \\gtrsim 1$ the cosmological energy density of MCPs can be quite low, $\\Omega_X h_0^2 \\simeq 0.02$ for scalar MCPs, and $\\Omega_X h_0^2 \\simeq 0.001$ for spin 1/2 fermions. But even the lowest value of $\\Omega_X h_0^2$ is in tension with several existing limits on the MCP abundances and parameters. However, these limits have been derived under some natural or reasonable assumptions on the properties of MCPs. If these assumptions are relaxed, a patch in the mass-charge plot of MCPs may appear, permitting them to be dark matter particles.
Axion cosmology with long-lived domain walls
Hiramatsu, Takashi; Saikawa, Ken'ichi; Sekiguchi, Toyokazu
2012-01-01
We investigate the cosmological constraints on axion models where the domain wall number is greater than one. In these models, multiple domain walls attached to strings are formed, and they survive for a long time. Their annihilation occurs due to the effects of explicit symmetry breaking term which might be raised by Planck-scale physics. We perform three-dimensional lattice simulations and compute the spectra of axions and gravitational waves produced by long-lived domain walls. Using the numerical results, we estimated relic density of axions and gravitational waves. We find that the existence of long-lived domain walls leads to the overproduction of cold dark matter axions, while the density of gravitational waves is too small to observe at the present time. Combining the results with other observational constraints, we find that the whole parameter region of models are excluded unless an unacceptable fine-tuning exists.
Gelmini, Graciela B
1996-01-01
Talks given at the V Taller de Particulas y Campos (V-TPyC) and V Taller Latinoam. de Fenomenologia de las Interac. Fundam. (V-TLFIF), Puebla, Mexico, 10/30 - 11/3 1995. These lectures are devoted to elementary particle physicists and assume the reader has very little or no knowledge of cosmology and astrophysics. After a brief historical introduction to the development of modern cosmology and astro-particles in which the Hot Big Bang model is defined, the Robertson-Walker metric and the dynamics of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology are discussed in section 2. In section 3 the main observational features of the Universe are reviewed, including a description of our neighbourhood, homogeneity and isotropy, the cosmic background radiation, the expansion, the age and the matter content of the Universe. A brief account of the thermal history of the Universe follows in section 4, and relic abundances are discussed in section 5. Section 6 is devoted to primordial nucleosynthesis, section 7 to structure format...
Exploring the spectroscopic properties of relic radiogalaxies
Capetti, Alessandro; Baldi, Ranieri D; Buttiglione, Sara; Axon, David J; Celotti, Annalisa; Chiaberge, Marco
2013-01-01
From an optical spectroscopic survey of 3CR radiogalaxies (RGs) with z<0.3, we discovered three objects characterized by an extremely low level of gas excitation and a large deficit of line emission with respect to RGs of similar radio luminosity. We interpreted these objects as relic active galactic nuclei (AGN), i.e., sources observed after a large drop in their nuclear activity. We here present new spectroscopic observations for these three galaxies and for a group of "candidate" relics. None of the candidates can be convincingly confirmed. From the new data for the three relics, we estimate the density of the line-emitting gas. This enables us to explore the temporal evolution of the line ratios after the AGN "death". The characteristic timescale is the light-crossing time of the emission line region, a few thousand years, too short to correspond to a substantial population of relic RGs. Additional mechanisms of gas ionization, such as "relic shocks" from their past high power phase or stellar sources,...
Ishigure, Yoshiaki; Santa, Akiteru
2016-01-01
Universal extra dimension models with Kaluza-Klein parity provide us excellent candidates for dark matter. We consider phenomenological universal extra dimension models where the Kaluza-Klein (KK) mass spectrum is different from that of the minimal universal extra dimension model, and compute the thermal relic abundance of the first KK mode of the photon taking into account the production of second KK particles. It is pointed out that its thermal relic abundance depends significantly on the mass degeneracy between the KK-photon and other KK particles because of considerable coannihilation effects. The cosmologically favored compactification scale is shown to range from around 1 TeV to a few TeV even in the cases where one of the first KK particles is tightly degenerate with the first KK photon in mass.
Relics as Probes of Galaxy Cluster Mergers
R. J. van Weeren; M. Brüggen; H. J. A. Röttgering; M. Hoeft
2011-12-01
Galaxy clusters grow by mergers with other clusters and galaxy groups. These mergers create shocks within the intracluster medium (ICM). It is proposed that particles can be accelerated to extreme energies within the shocks. In the presence of a magnetic field these particles should then form large regions emitting synchrotron radiation, creating the so-called radio relics. An example of a cluster with relics is CIZA J2242.8+5301. Here we present hydrodynamical simulations of idealized binary cluster collisions with the aim of constraining the merger scenario for this cluster. We conclude that by using the location, size and width of double radio relics we can set constraints on the mass ratios, impact parameters, time scales, and viewing geometries of binary cluster merger events.
Cosmological and supernova neutrinos
Kajino, T. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Aoki, W. [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin - Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cheoun, M.-K. [Department of Physics, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Hayakawa, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Shirakara-Shirane 2-4, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Hidaka, J. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Hirai, Y.; Shibagaki, S. [National Astronomical Observatory, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan and Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kusakabe, M. [School of Liberal Arts and Science, Korea Aerospace University, Goyang 412-791 (Korea, Republic of); Mathews, G. J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Nakamura, K. [Waseda University, Ohkubo 3-4-1, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Pehlivan, Y. [Mimar Sinan GSÜ, Department of Physics, Şişli, İstanbul 34380 (Turkey); Suzuki, T. [Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan)
2014-06-24
The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are the pillars of modern cosmology. It has recently been suggested that axion which is a dark matter candidate in the framework of the standard model could condensate in the early universe and induce photon cooling before the epoch of the photon last scattering. Although this may render a solution to the overproduction problem of primordial {sup 7}Li abundance, there arises another serious difficulty of overproducing D abundance. We propose a hybrid dark matter model with both axions and relic supersymmetric (SUSY) particles to solve both overproduction problems of the primordial D and {sup 7}Li abundances simultaneously. The BBN also serves to constrain the nature of neutrinos. Considering non-thermal photons produced in the decay of the heavy sterile neutrinos due to the magnetic moment, we explore the cosmological constraint on the strength of neutrino magnetic moment consistent with the observed light element abundances. Core-collapse supernovae eject huge flux of energetic neutrinos which affect explosive nucleosynthesis of rare isotopes like {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B, {sup 92}Nb, {sup 138}La and {sup 180}Ta and r-process elements. Several isotopes depend strongly on the neutrino flavor oscillation due to the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effect. Combining the recent experimental constraints on θ{sub 13} with predicted and observed supernova-produced abundance ratio {sup 11}B/{sup 7}Li encapsulated in the presolar grains from the Murchison meteorite, we show a marginal preference for an inverted neutrino mass hierarchy. We also discuss supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) that may indicate the softness of the equation of state (EoS) of nuclear matter and adiabatic conditions of the neutrino oscillation.
Agarwal, Nishant; Khoury, Justin; Trodden, Mark
2009-01-01
We develop a fully covariant, well-posed 5D effective action for the 6D cascading gravity brane-world model, and use this to study cosmological solutions. We obtain this effective action through the 6D decoupling limit, in which an additional scalar degree mode, \\pi, called the brane-bending mode, determines the bulk-brane gravitational interaction. The 5D action obtained this way inherits from the sixth dimension an extra \\pi self-interaction kinetic term. We compute appropriate boundary terms, to supplement the 5D action, and hence derive fully covariant junction conditions and the 5D Einstein field equations. Using these, we derive the cosmological evolution induced on a 3-brane moving in a static bulk. We study the strong- and weak-coupling regimes analytically in this static ansatz, and perform a complete numerical analysis of our solution. Although the cascading model can generate an accelerating solution in which the \\pi field comes to dominate at late times, the presence of a critical singularity prev...
Baurov, Yu A; Baurov, Yu A; Spitalnaya, A A; Abramyan, A A; Solodovnikov, V A
2008-01-01
To the foundation of a principally new short-term forecasting method there has been laid down a theory of surrounding us world's creation and of physical vacuum as a result of interaction of byuons - discrete objects. The definition of the byuon contains the cosmological vector-potential A_g - a novel fundamental vector constant. This theory predicts a new anisotropic interaction of nature objects with the physical vacuum. A peculiar "tap" to gain new energy (giving rise to an earthquake) are elementary particles because their masses are proportional to the modulus of some summary potential A_sum that contains potentials of all known fields. The value of A_sum cannot be larger than the modulus of A_g. In accordance with the experimental results a new force associated with A_sum ejects substance from the area of the weakened A_sum along a conical formation with the opening of 100 +- 10 and the axis directed along the vector A_sum. This vector has the following coordinates in the second equatorial coordinate sy...
China＇s New Cultural Relics Protection Law
XinYuan
2003-01-01
The 30th session of the standing committee of the ninth National People's Congress approved the amended Cultural Relics Protection Law of the People's Republic of China. The new 12，000-word law has a total of 80 articles in eight chapters: General Principles, Unmovable Cultural Relics, Archaeological Excavation, Nuseums' Cultural Relics,
Graviton spectra in string cosmology
Galluccio, Massimo [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Roma-IT); Litterio, Marco [Istituto Astronomico dell' Universita (Roma-IT); Occhionero, Franco [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (Roma-IT)
1996-08-01
We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an ω³ increase and initiates an ω⁻⁷ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.
Graviton Spectra in String Cosmology
Galluccio, M; Occhionero, F; Galluccio, Massimo; Litterio, Marco; Occhionero, Franco
1997-01-01
We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an $\\omega^3$ increase and initiates an $\\omega^{-7}$ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.
Classification of cosmological milestones
Fernández-Jambrina, L
2006-01-01
In this paper causal geodesic completeness of FLRW cosmological models is analysed in terms of generalised power expansions of the scale factor in coordinate time. The strength of the found singularities is discussed following the usual definitions due to Tipler and Krolak. It is shown that while classical cosmological models are both timelike and lightlike geodesically incomplete, certain observationally alllowed models which have been proposed recently are lightlike geodesically complete.
Relic abundance in a secluded dark matter scenario with a massive mediator
Okawa, Shohei; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamanaka, Masato
2017-01-01
The relic abundance of the dark matter (DM) particle d is studied in a secluded DM scenario, in which the d number decreasing process dominantly occurs not through the pair annihilation of d into the standard model particles, but via the d d →m m scattering process with a subsequently decaying mediator particle m . It is pointed out that the cosmologically observed relic abundance of DM can be accomplished even with a massive mediator having a mass mm non-negligibly heavy compared with the DM particle mass md. In the degenerated d -m case (md=mm), the DM relic abundance is realized by adjusting the d d →m m scattering amplitude large enough and by choosing an appropriate mediator particle lifetime. The DM evolution in the early universe exhibits characteristic "terrace" behavior, or two-step number density decreasing behavior, having a "fake" freeze-out at the first step. Based on these observations, a novel possibility of the DM model buildings is introduced in which the mediator particle m is unified with the DM particle d in an approximate dark symmetry multiplet. A pionic DM model is proposed to illustrate this idea in a renormalizable field theory framework.
Fitzhugh, Will
2002-01-01
It seems likely that the history research paper at the high school level is now an endangered species. Focus on creative writing, fear of plagiarism, fascination with PowerPoint presentations, and lack of planning time have been joined by a notable absence of concern about term papers in virtually all the work on state standards. As a result, far…
Relic Radio Bubbles and Cluster Cooling Flows
De Young, D S
2003-01-01
Recent suggestions that buoyant radio emitting cavities in the intracluster medium can cause significant reheating of cooling flows are re-examined when the effects of the intracluster magnetic field are included. Expansion of the cavity creates a tangential magnetic field in the ICM around the radio source, and this field can suppress instabilities that mix the ICM and the radio source. The onset of instability can be delayed for ~100 million years, and calculation of the actual reheating time shows that this may not occur until about 1Gy after creation of the cavity. These results may explain why the relic radio bubbles are still intact at such late times, and it may imply that the role of radio sources in reheating the ICM should be re-examined. In addition, the existence of relic radio cavities may also imply that the particle content of radio source lobes is primarily electrons and protons rather than electrons and positrons.
Particle cosmology comes of age
Turner, M.S.
1987-12-01
The application of modern ideas in particle physics to astrophysical and cosmological settings is a continuation of a fruitful tradition in astrophysics which began with the application of atomic physics, and then nuclear physics. In the past decade particle cosmology and particle astrophysics have been recognized as 'legitimate activities' by both particle physicists and astrophysicists and astronomers. During this time there has been a high level of theoretical activity producing much speculation about the earliest history of the Universe, as well as important and interesting astrophysical and cosmological constraints to particle physics theories. This period of intense theoretical activity has produced a number of ideas most worthy of careful consideration and scrutiny, and even more importantly, amenable to experimental/observational test. Among the ideas which are likely to be tested in the next decade are: the cosmological bound to the number of neutrino flavors, inflation, relic WIMPs as the dark matter, and MSW neutrino oscillations as a solution to the solar neutrino problems. 94 refs.
Relic neutrino asymmetry evolution from first principles
Bell, Nicole F.; Volkas, Raymond R.; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.
1998-01-01
The exact Quantum Kinetic Equations for a two-flavour active-sterile neutrino system are used to provide a systematic derivation of approximate evolution equations for the relic neutrino asymmetry. An extension of the adiabatic approximation for matter-affected neutrino oscillations is developed which incorporates decoherence due to collisions. Exact and approximate expressions for the decoherence and repopulation functions are discussed. A first pass is made over the exact treatment of multi...
Relic gravitational waves from quintessential inflation
Ahmad, Safia; Myrzakulov, R.; Sami, M.
2017-09-01
We study relic gravitational waves in the paradigm of quintessential inflation. In this framework, irrespective of the underlying model, inflation is followed by the kinetic regime. Thereafter, the field energy density remains subdominant before the onset of acceleration. We carry out model-independent analysis to obtain the temperature at the end of inflation and the estimate for the upper bound on the Hubble parameter to circumvent the problem due to relic gravitational waves. In this process, we use Planck 2015 data to constrain the inflationary phase. We demonstrate that the required temperature can be produced by the mechanism of instant preheating. The generic feature of the scenario includes the presence of the kinetic regime after inflation, which results in the blue spectrum of gravitational wave background at high frequencies. We discuss the prospects of detection of relic gravitational wave background in the advanced LIGO and LISA space-born gravitational wave missions. Finally, we consider a concrete model to realize the paradigm of quintessential inflation and show that inflationary as well as postinflationary evolution can be successfully described by the inflaton potential, V (ϕ )∝Exp (-λ ϕn/MPln)(n >1 ) , by suitably constraining the parameters of the model.
Kaluza-Klein relics from warped reheating
Berndsen, Aaron; Stoica, Horace
2007-01-01
It has been suggested that after brane-antibrane inflation in a Klebanov-Strassler (KS) warped throat, metastable Kaluza-Klein (KK) excitations can be formed due to nearly-conserved angular momenta along isometric directions in the throat. If sufficiently long-lived, these relics could conflict with big bang nucleosynthesis or baryogenesis by dominating the energy density of the universe. We make a detailed estimate of the decay rate of such relics using the low energy effective action of type IIB string theory compactified on the throat geometry, with attention to powers of the warp factor. We find that it is necessary to turn on SUSY-breaking deformations of the KS background in order to ensure that the most dangerous relics will decay. The decay rate is found to be much larger than the naive guess based on the dimension of the operators which break the angular isometries of the throat. For an inflationary warp factor of order w ~ 10^{-4}, we obtain the bound M_{3/2} > 10^8 GeV on the scale of SUSY breaking...
On the thermal footsteps of neutralino relic gases
Cabral-Rosetti, L G [Departamento de Posgrado, Centro Interdisciplinario de Investigacion y Docencia en Educacion Tecnica (CIIDET), Av. Universidad 282 Pte., Col. Centro, A. Postal 752, C.P. 76000, Santiago de Queretaro, Qro. (Mexico); Sussman, R A [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (ICN-UNAM). Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Hernandez, X [Instituto de AstronomIa, Circuito de la Investigacion CientI.ca, C.U., Universidad Nacional Autnoma de Mexico (IA-UNAM). Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)
2006-05-15
Current literature suggests that neutralinos are the dominant cold dark matter particle species. Assuming the microcanonical definition of entropy, we examine the local entropy per particle produced between the 'freeze out' era to the present. An 'entropy consistency' criterion emerges by comparing this entropy with the entropy per particle of actual galactic structures given in terms of dynamical halo variables. We apply this criterion to the cases when neutralinos are mostly b-inos and mostly higgsinos, in conjunction with the usual 'abundance' criterion requiring that present neutralino relic density complies with 0.1 < {omega}{sub x-tilde{sup 0}{sub 1}} < 0.3 for h {approx_equal} 0.65. The joint application of both criteria reveals that a better fitting occurs for the b-ino channels, hence the latter seem to be favoured over the higgsino channels. The suggested methodology can be applied to test other annihilation channels of the neutralino, as well as other particle candidates of thermal gases relics.
On the thermal footsteps of Neutralino relic gases
Cabral-Rosetti, L G; Sussman, R A; Cabral-Rosetti, Luis G.; Hernández, Xabier; Sussman, Roberto A.
2006-01-01
Current literature suggests that neutralinos are the dominant cold dark matter particle species. Assuming the microcanonical definition of entropy, we examine the local entropy per particle produced between the ``freeze out'' era to the present. An ``entropy consistency'' criterion emerges by comparing this entropy with the entropy per particle of actual galactic structures given in terms of dynamical halo variables. We apply this criterion to the cases when neutralinos are mosly b-inos and mostly higgsinos, in conjunction with the usual ``abundance'' criterion requiring that present neutralino relic density complies with $0.1 < \\Omega_{\\chic{\\tilde\\chi^0_1}} < 0.3$ for $h\\simeq 0.65$. The joint application of both criteria reveals that a better fitting occurs for the b-ino channels, hence the latter seem to be favoured over the higgsino channels. The suggested methodology can be applied to test other annihilation channels of the neutralino, as well as other particle candidates of thermal gases relics.
Jones, Bernard J. T.
2017-04-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Part I. 100 Years of Cosmology: 1. Emerging cosmology; 2. The cosmic expansion; 3. The cosmic microwave background; 4. Recent cosmology; Part II. Newtonian Cosmology: 5. Newtonian cosmology; 6. Dark energy cosmological models; 7. The early universe; 8. The inhomogeneous universe; 9. The inflationary universe; Part III. Relativistic Cosmology: 10. Minkowski space; 11. The energy momentum tensor; 12. General relativity; 13. Space-time geometry and calculus; 14. The Einstein field equations; 15. Solutions of the Einstein equations; 16. The Robertson–Walker solution; 17. Congruences, curvature and Raychaudhuri; 18. Observing and measuring the universe; Part IV. The Physics of Matter and Radiation: 19. Physics of the CMB radiation; 20. Recombination of the primeval plasma; 21. CMB polarisation; 22. CMB anisotropy; Part V. Precision Tools for Precision Cosmology: 23. Likelihood; 24. Frequentist hypothesis testing; 25. Statistical inference: Bayesian; 26. CMB data processing; 27. Parametrising the universe; 28. Precision cosmology; 29. Epilogue; Appendix A. SI, CGS and Planck units; Appendix B. Magnitudes and distances; Appendix C. Representing vectors and tensors; Appendix D. The electromagnetic field; Appendix E. Statistical distributions; Appendix F. Functions on a sphere; Appendix G. Acknowledgements; References; Index.
Testing Fractional Action Cosmology
Shchigolev, V K
2015-01-01
The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests that gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.
Testing fractional action cosmology
Shchigolev, V. K.
2016-08-01
The present work deals with a combined test of the so-called Fractional Action Cosmology (FAC) on the example of a specific model obtained by the author earlier. In this model, the effective cosmological term is proportional to the Hubble parameter squared through the so-called kinematic induction. The reason of studying this cosmological model could be explained by its ability to describe two periods of accelerated expansion, that is in agreement with the recent observations and the cosmological inflation paradigm. First of all, we put our model through the theoretical tests, which gives a general conception of the influence of the model parameters on its behavior. Then, we obtain some restrictions on the principal parameters of the model, including the fractional index, by means of the observational data. Finally, the cosmography parameters and the observational data compared to the theoretical predictions are presented both analytically and graphically.
Gibbons, Gary W
2013-01-01
In this paper we lay down the foundations for a purely Newtonian theory of cosmology, valid at scales small compared with the Hubble radius, using only Newtonian point particles acted on by gravity and a possible cosmological term. We describe the cosmological background which is given by an exact solution of the equations of motion in which the particles expand homothetically with their comoving positions constituting a central configuration. We point out, using previous work, that an important class of central configurations are homogeneous and isotropic, thus justifying the usual assumptions of elementary treatments. The scale factor is shown to satisfy the standard Raychaudhuri and Friedmann equations without making any fluid dynamic or continuum approximations. Since we make no commitment as to the identity of the point particles, our results are valid for cold dark matter, galaxies, or clusters of galaxies. In future publications we plan to discuss perturbations of our cosmological background from the p...
Condensed matter analogues of cosmology
Kibble, Tom; Srivastava, Ajit
2013-10-01
It is always exciting when developments in one branch of physics turn out to have relevance in a quite different branch. It would be hard to find two branches farther apart in terms of energy scales than early-universe cosmology and low-temperature condensed matter physics. Nevertheless ideas about the formation of topological defects during rapid phase transitions that originated in the context of the very early universe have proved remarkably fruitful when applied to a variety of condensed matter systems. The mathematical frameworks for describing these systems can be very similar. This interconnection has led to a deeper understanding of the phenomena in condensed matter systems utilizing ideas from cosmology. At the same time, one can view these condensed matter analogues as providing, at least in a limited sense, experimental access to the phenomena of the early universe for which no direct probe is possible. As this special issue well illustrates, this remains a dynamic and exciting field. The basic idea is that when a system goes through a rapid symmetry-breaking phase transition from a symmetric phase into one with spontaneously broken symmetry, the order parameter may make different choices in different regions, creating domains that when they meet can trap defects. The scale of those domains, and hence the density of defects, is constrained by the rate at which the system goes through the transition and the speed with which order parameter information propagates. This is what has come to be known as the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. The resultant scaling laws have now been tested in a considerable variety of different systems. The earliest experiments illustrating the analogy between cosmology and condensed matter were in liquid crystals, in particular on the isotropic-to-nematic transition, primarily because it is very easy to induce the phase transition (typically at room temperature) and to image precisely what is going on. This field remains one of the
The unfolding of the historical style in modern cosmology: Emergence, evolution, entrenchment
Pearce, Jacob
2017-02-01
This paper traces the emergence, evolution and subsequent entrenchment of the historical style in the shifting scene of modern cosmological inquiry. It argues that the historical style in cosmology was forged in the early decades of the 20th century and continued to evolve in the century that followed. Over time, the scene of cosmological inquiry has gradually become dominated and entirely constituted by historicist explanations. Practices such as forwards and backwards temporal extrapolation (thinking about the past evolutionary history of the universe with different initial conditions and other parameters) are now commonplace. The non-static geometrization of the cosmos in the early 20th century led to inquires thinking about the cosmos in evolutionary terms. Drawing on the historical approach of Gamow (and contrasting this with the ahistorical approach of Bondi), the paper then argues that the historical style became a major force as inquirers began scouring the universe for fossils and other relics as a new form of scientific practice-cosmic palaeontology. By the 1970s the historical style became the bedrock of the discipline and the presupposition of new lines of inquiry. By the end of the 20th century, the historical style was pushed to its very limits as temporal reasoning began to occur beyond a linear historical narrative. With the atemporal 'ensemble' type multiverse proposals, a certain type of ahistorical reasoning has been reintroduced to cosmological discourse, which, in a sense, represents a radical de-historicization of the historical style in cosmology. Some are now even attempting to explain the laws of physics in terms of their historicity.
Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited
Salas, Pablo F. de [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain); Institute for Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology (TTK),RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Pastor, Sergio [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC-Universitat de València),Parc Científic UV, C/ Catedrático José Beltrán 2, E-46980 Paterna (Valencia) (Spain)
2016-07-28
We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N{sub eff}. We find a value of N{sub eff}=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), predicted in many theoretical models where neutrinos acquire mass. For two sets of NSI parameters allowed by present data, we find that N{sub eff} can be reduced down to 3.040 or enhanced up to 3.059.
Relic neutrino decoupling with flavour oscillations revisited
de Salas, Pablo F
2016-01-01
We study the decoupling process of neutrinos in the early universe in the presence of three-flavour oscillations. The evolution of the neutrino spectra is found by solving the corresponding momentum-dependent kinetic equations for the neutrino density matrix, including for the first time the proper collision integrals for both diagonal and off-diagonal elements. This improved calculation modifies the evolution of the off-diagonal elements of the neutrino density matrix and changes the deviation from equilibrium of the frozen neutrino spectra. However, it does not vary the contribution of neutrinos to the cosmological energy density in the form of radiation, usually expressed in terms of the effective number of neutrinos, N_eff. We find a value of N_eff=3.045, in agreement with previous theoretical calculations and consistent with the latest analysis of Planck data. This result does not depend on the ordering of neutrino masses. We also consider the effect of non-standard neutrino-electron interactions (NSI), ...
Sanders, RH; Papantonopoulos, E
2005-01-01
I discuss the classical cosmological tests, i.e., angular size-redshift, flux-redshift, and galaxy number counts, in the light of the cosmology prescribed by the interpretation of the CMB anisotropies. The discussion is somewhat of a primer for physicists, with emphasis upon the possible systematic
Brandenberger, R H; Brandenberger, Robert H.; Magueijo, Joao
1999-01-01
We review a few off-the-beaten-track ideas in cosmology. They solve a variety of fundamental problems; also they are fun. We start with a description of non-singular dilaton cosmology. In these scenarios gravity is modified so that the Universe does not have a singular birth. We then present a variety of ideas mixing string theory and cosmology. These solve the cosmological problems usually solved by inflation, and furthermore shed light upon the issue of the number of dimensions of our Universe. We finally review several aspects of the varying speed of light theory. We show how the horizon, flatness, and cosmological constant problems may be solved in this scenario. We finally present a possible experimental test for a realization of this theory: a test in which the Supernovae results are to be combined with recent evidence for redshift dependence in the fine structure constant.
A Zoo of Radio Relics: Cluster Cores to Filaments
Ruta Kale; K. S. Dwarakanath
2011-12-01
Radio relics in galaxy clusters can be electrons accelerated at cluster merger shocks or adiabatically compressed fossil radio cocoons or dying radio galaxies. The spectral evolution of radio relics is affected by the surrounding thermal plasma. We present a low frequency study of three radio relics representing environments of dense cluster core (A4038), cluster outskirts (A1664) and filaments (A786). The properties of the relics are found to be consistent with the effect of confinement by external medium if the effects of projection are ignored.
Noises in Detecting Relic Gravitational Wave
LEE Zhi-Jun; WAN Zhen-Zhu
2006-01-01
We analyse the three basic kinds of noises in detecting the relic gravitational wave (GW), which are the noises caused by the thermal radiation in the detecting cavity and by the scattering of the Gaussian beam in the detecting cavity, and noise in the microwave radiometers. The analysis shows that a reasonable signal-to-noise ratio may be achieved for a detecting device with a suitable geometric structure only when the temperature of the environment is no more than T = 0.6 K, and the power of the radiation of the Gaussian beam is no less than P = 105W.
Cosmological solutions with massive gravitons
Chamseddine, Ali H. [Physics Department, American University of Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS-UMR 6083, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); LE STUDIUM, Loire Valley Institute for Advanced Studies, Tours and Orleans (France); I.H.E.S., F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Volkov, Mikhail S., E-mail: volkov@lmpt.univ-tours.fr [Laboratoire de Mathematiques et Physique Theorique CNRS-UMR 6083, Universite de Tours, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France)
2011-10-25
We present solutions describing spatially closed, open, or flat cosmologies in the massive gravity theory within the recently proposed tetrad formulation. We find that the effect of the graviton mass is equivalent to introducing to the Einstein equations a matter source that can consist of several different matter types - a cosmological term, quintessence, gas of cosmic strings, and non-relativistic cold matter.
Relic density computations at NLO: infrared finiteness and thermal correction
Beneke, Martin; Hryczuk, Andrzej
2014-01-01
There is an increasing interest in accurate dark matter relic density predictions, which requires next-to-leading order (NLO) calculations. The method applied up to now uses zero-temperature NLO calculations of annihilation cross sections in the standard Boltzmann equation for freeze-out, and is conceptually problematic, since it ignores the finite-temperature infrared (IR) divergences from soft and collinear radiation and virtual effects. We address this problem systematically by starting from non-equilibrium quantum field theory, and demonstrate on a realistic model that soft and collinear temperature-dependent divergences cancel in the collision term. Our analysis provides justification for the use of the freeze-out equation in its conventional form and determines the leading finite-temperature correction to the annihilation cross section. This turns out to have a remarkably simple structure.
Ryan, M.
1972-01-01
The study of cosmological models by means of equations of motion in Hamiltonian form is considered. Hamiltonian methods applied to gravity seem to go back to Rosenfeld (1930), who constructed a quantum-mechanical Hamiltonian for linearized general relativity theory. The first to notice that cosmologies provided a simple model in which to demonstrate features of Hamiltonian formulation was DeWitt (1967). Applications of the ADM formalism to homogeneous cosmologies are discussed together with applications of the Hamiltonian formulation, giving attention also to Bianchi-type universes. Problems involving the concept of superspace and techniques of quantization are investigated.
Relic Radiation from an Evaporating Black Hole
Farley, A N St J
2007-01-01
We present a non-string-theoretic calculation of the microcanonical entropy of relic integer-spin Hawking radiation -- at fixed total energy $E$. The only conserved macroscopic quantity is the total energy $E$ (the total energy of the relic radiation). Data for a boundary-value approach, with massless, integer-spin perturbations, are set on initial and final space-like hypersurfaces. In the resulting 1-dimensional statistical-mechanics problem, the real part of the (complex) time separation at spatial infinity, $T = {\\mid}T{\\mid}\\exp(-i\\delta), \\delta >0$, is the variable conjugate to the total energy. We count the number of weak-field configurations on the final space-like hypersurface with energy $E$. One recovers the Cardy formula and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, if Re(T) is of the order of the black-hole life- time, leading to a statistical interpretation of black-hole entropy. The microcanonical entropy includes a logarithmic correction to the black-hole area law, which is {\\it universal} (independent...
Weinstein, M
2003-11-19
This paper discusses the problem of inflation in the context of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Cosmology. We show how, after a simple change of variables, one can quantize the problem in a way which parallels the classical discussion. The result is that two of the Einstein equations arise as exact equations of motion; one of the usual Einstein equations (suitably quantized) survives as a constraint equation to be imposed on the space of physical states. However, the Friedmann equation, which is also a constraint equation and which is the basis of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, acquires a welcome quantum correction that becomes significant for small scale factors. We then discuss the extension of this result to a full quantum mechanical derivation of the anisotropy ({delta}{rho}/{rho}) in the cosmic microwave background radiation and the possibility that the extra term in the Friedmann equation could have observable consequences. Finally, we suggest interesting ways in which these techniques can be generalized to cast light on the question of chaotic or eternal inflation. In particular, we suggest that one can put an experimental bound on how far away a universe with a scale factor very different from our own must be, by looking at its effects on our CMB radiation.
Belinski, V
2009-01-01
The talk at international conference in honor of Ya. B. Zeldovich 95th Anniversary, Minsk, Belarus, April 2009. The talk represents a review of the old results and contemporary development on the problem of cosmological singularity.
Lesgourgues, Julien; Miele, Gennaro; Pastor, Sergio
2013-01-01
The role that neutrinos have played in the evolution of the Universe is the focus of one of the most fascinating research areas that has stemmed from the interplay between cosmology, astrophysics and particle physics. In this self-contained book, the authors bring together all aspects of the role of neutrinos in cosmology, spanning from leptogenesis to primordial nucleosynthesis, their role in CMB and structure formation, to the problem of their direct detection. The book starts by guiding the reader through aspects of fundamental neutrino physics, such as the standard cosmological model and the statistical mechanics in the expanding Universe, before discussing the history of neutrinos in chronological order from the very early stages until today. This timely book will interest graduate students and researchers in astrophysics, cosmology and particle physics, who work with either a theoretical or experimental focus.
Wei Xu
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Based on entropy relations, we derive the thermodynamic bound for entropy and the area of horizons for a Schwarzschild–dS black hole, including the event horizon, Cauchy horizon, and negative horizon (i.e., the horizon with negative value, which are all geometrically bound and comprised by the cosmological radius. We consider the first derivative of the entropy relations to obtain the first law of thermodynamics for all horizons. We also obtain the Smarr relation for the horizons using the scaling discussion. For the thermodynamics of all horizons, the cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic variable. In particular, the thermodynamics of the negative horizon are defined well in the r<0 side of space–time. This formula appears to be valid for three-horizon black holes. We also generalize the discussion to thermodynamics for the event horizon and Cauchy horizon of Gauss–Bonnet charged flat black holes because the Gauss–Bonnet coupling constant is also considered to be thermodynamic variable. These results provide further insights into the crucial role played by the entropy relations of multi-horizons in black hole thermodynamics as well as improving our understanding of entropy at the microscopic level.
Yukawa Unified Supersymmetric SO(10) Model Cosmology, Rare Decays and Collider Searches
Baer, Howard W; Díaz, M A; Ferrandis, J; Mercadante, P G; Quintana, P; Tata, Xerxes; Baer, Howard; Brhlik, Michal; Diaz, Marco A.; Ferrandis, Javier; Mercadante, Pedro; Quintana, Pam; Tata, Xerxes
2001-01-01
It has recently been pointed out that viable sparticle mass spectra can be generated in Yukawa unified SO(10) supersymmetric grand unified models consistent with radiative breaking of electroweak symmetry. Model solutions are obtained only if $\\tan\\beta \\sim 50$, $\\mu <0$ and positive $D$-term contributions to scalar masses from SO(10) gauge symmetry breaking are used. In this paper, we attempt to systematize the parameter space regions where solutions are obtained. We go on to calculate the relic density of neutralinos as a function of parameter space. No regions of the parameter space explored were actually cosmologically excluded, and very reasonable relic densities were found in much of parameter space. Direct neutralino detection rates could exceed 1 event/kg/day for a $^{73}$Ge detector, for low values of GUT scale gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$. We also calculate the branching fraction for $b\\to s \\gamma$ decays, and find that it is beyond the 95% CL experimental limits in much, but not all, of the paramete...
Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D; Saunders, Simon
2017-01-01
Following a long-term international collaboration between leaders in cosmology and the philosophy of science, this volume addresses foundational questions at the limit of science across these disciplines, questions raised by observational and theoretical progress in modern cosmology. Space missions have mapped the Universe up to its early instants, opening up questions on what came before the Big Bang, the nature of space and time, and the quantum origin of the Universe. As the foundational volume of an emerging academic discipline, experts from relevant fields lay out the fundamental problems of contemporary cosmology and explore the routes toward finding possible solutions. Written for graduates and researchers in physics and philosophy, particular efforts are made to inform academics from other fields, as well as the educated public, who wish to understand our modern vision of the Universe, related philosophical questions, and the significant impacts on scientific methodology.
Cosmological Perturbations in Antigravity
Oltean, Marius
2014-01-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely-signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the Standard Model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically-complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity", during each successive transition from a Big Crunch to a Big Bang. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, its cosmological solutions are stable at the perturbative level.
Scalar modes of the relic gravitons
Giovannini, Massimo
2015-01-01
In conformally flat background geometries the long wavelength gravitons can be described in the fluid approximation and they induce scalar fluctuations both during inflation and in the subsequent radiation-dominated epoch. While this effect is minute and suppressed for a de Sitter stage of expansion, the fluctuations of the energy-momentum pseudo-tensor of the graviton fluid lead to curvature perturbations that increase with time all along the post-inflationary evolution. An explicit calculation of these effects is presented for a standard thermal history and it is shown that the growth of the curvature perturbations caused by the long wavelength modes is approximately compensated by the slope of the power spectra of the energy density, pressure and anisotropic stress of the relic gravitons.
Detection relic gravitational waves in thermal case
Ghayour, Basem
2016-01-01
The thermal spectrum of relic gravitational waves causes the new amplitude that called `modified amplitude'. Our analysis shows that, there exist some chances for detection of the thermal spectrum in addition to the usual spectrum by Adv.LIGO and Dml detectors. The behaviour of the inflation and reheating stages are often known as power law expansion like $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta}$, $S(\\eta)\\propto \\eta^{1+\\beta_s}$ respectively. The $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ have an unique effect on the shape of the spectrum. We find some upper bounds on the $\\beta$ and $\\beta_s$ by comparison the usual and thermal spectrum with the Adv.LIGO and Dml. As this result gives us more information about the nature of the evolution of inflation and reheating stages.
The refractive index of relic gravitons
Giovannini, Massimo
2016-01-01
The dynamical evolution of the refractive index of the tensor modes of the geometry produces a specific class of power spectra characterized by a blue (i.e. slightly increasing) slope which is directly determined by the competition of the slow-roll parameter and of the rate of variation of the refractive index. Throughout the conventional stages of the inflationary and post-inflationary evolution, the microwave background anisotropies measurements, the pulsar timing limits and the big-bang nucleosythesis constraints set stringent bounds on the refractive index and on its rate of variation. Within the physically allowed region of the parameter space the cosmic background of relic gravitons leads to a potentially large signal for the ground based detectors (in their advanced version) and for the proposed space-borne interferometers. Conversely, the lack of direct detection of the signal will set a qualitatively new bound on the dynamical variation of the refractive index.
Experimental signatures of non-standard pre-BBN cosmologies
Gelmini, Graciela B
2009-01-01
If detected, dark matter particles such as WIMPs and sterile neutrinos will be the earliest relics we can study, the first coming from before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we have no data so far. Here we discuss how different pre-BBN cosmological models affect the properties of these particles, and how these properties could thus allow to determine the evolution of the Universe before BBN.
Experimental signatures of non-standard pre-BBN cosmologies
Gelmini, Graciela B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2009-10-15
If detected, dark matter particles such as WIMPs and sterile neutrinos will be the earliest relics we can study, the first coming from before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we have no data so far. Here we discuss how different pre-BBN cosmological models affect the properties of these particles, and how these properties could thus allow to determine the evolution of the Universe before BBN.
Wesson, P.S.
1979-10-01
The Cosmological Principle states: the universe looks the same to all observers regardless of where they are located. To most astronomers today the Cosmological Principle means the universe looks the same to all observers because density of the galaxies is the same in all places. A new Cosmological Principle is proposed. It is called the Dimensional Cosmological Principle. It uses the properties of matter in the universe: density (rho), pressure (p), and mass (m) within some region of space of length (l). The laws of physics require incorporation of constants for gravity (G) and the speed of light (C). After combining the six parameters into dimensionless numbers, the best choices are: 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 2/, 8..pi..Gl/sup 2/ rho/c/sup 4/, and 2 Gm/c/sup 2/l (the Schwarzchild factor). The Dimensional Cosmological Principal came about because old ideas conflicted with the rapidly-growing body of observational evidence indicating that galaxies in the universe have a clumpy rather than uniform distribution. (SC)
MOND cosmology from holographic principle
Zhang, Hongsheng
2011-01-01
We derive the MOND cosmology which is uniquely corresponding to the original MOND in galaxies via holographic approach of gravity. It inherits the key merit of MOND, that is, it reduces the byronic matter and mysterious non-byronic dark matter (dark matter for short) in the standard cosmology into byronic matter only. For the first time we derive the critical parameter in MOND, i.e., the transition acceleration $a_c$ on cosmological scale. We thus solve the long-standing coincidence problem $a_c\\sim cH_{0}$. More interestingly, a term like age-graphic dark energy emerges naturally. In the frame of this MOND cosmology, we only need byronic matter to describe both dark matter and dark energy in standard cosmology.
On Hamiltonian formulation of cosmologies
K D Krori; S Dutta
2000-03-01
Novello et al [1,2] have shown that it is possible to ﬁnd a pair of canonically conjugate variables (written in terms of gauge-invariant variables) so as to obtain a Hamiltonian that describes the dynamics of a cosmological system. This opens up the way to the usual technique of quantization. Elbaz et al [4] have applied this method to the Hamiltonian formulation of FRW cosmological equations. This note presents a generalization of this approach to a variety of cosmologies. A general Schrödinger wave equation has been derived and exact solutions have been worked out for the stiff matter era for some cosmological models. It is argued that these solutions appear to hint at their possible relevance in the early phase of cosmological evolution.
Has inflation really solved the problems of flatness and absence of relics?
Lieu, Richard
2013-10-01
Among the three cosmological enigma solved by the theory of inflation, viz. (a) large-scale flatness, (b) absence of monopoles and strings and (c) structure formation, the first two are addressed from the viewpoint of the observed scales having originated from very small ones, on which the density fluctuations of the curvaton and relics are inevitably of the order of unity or larger. By analysing strictly classically (and in two different gauges to ensure consistency) the density evolution of the smoothest possible pre-inflationary component - thermal radiation - it is found that the O(1) statistical fluctuations on the thermal wavelength scale present formidable obstacles to the linear theory of amplitude growth by the end of inflation. Since this wavelength scale exited the horizon at an early stage of inflation, it severely limits the number of e-folds of perturbative inflation. With more e-folds than ≈60 there will be even larger fluctuations in the radiation density that ensures inflation keeps making `false starts'. The only `way out' is to invoke a super-homogeneous pre-inflationary fluid, at least on small scales, adding to the fine-tuning and preventing one from claiming that inflation simply `redshifts away' all the relic inhomogeneities; i.e. the theory actually provided no explanation of (a) or (b), merely a tautology.
The Cosmic Linear Anisotropy Solving System (CLASS) IV: efficient implementation of non-cold relics
Lesgourgues, Julien [Institut de Théorie des Phénomènes Physiques, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tram, Thomas, E-mail: lesgourg@lapp.in2p3.fr, E-mail: tram@phys.au.dk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark)
2011-09-01
We present a new flexible, fast and accurate way to implement massive neutrinos, warm dark matter and any other non-cold dark matter relics in Boltzmann codes. For whatever analytical or numerical form of the phase-space distribution function, the optimal sampling in momentum space compatible with a given level of accuracy is automatically found by comparing quadrature methods. The perturbation integration is made even faster by switching to an approximate viscous fluid description inside the Hubble radius, which differs from previous approximations discussed in the literature. When adding one massive neutrino to the minimal cosmological model, CLASS becomes just 1.5 times slower, instead of about 5 times in other codes (for fixed accuracy requirements). We illustrate the flexibility of our approach by considering a few examples of standard or non-standard neutrinos, as well as warm dark matter models.
SUSY-QCD corrections to (co)annihilation and their impact on the relic density
Harz, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [Laboratoire d' Annecy de Physique Theorique, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Klasen, Michael [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Muenster (Germany); Kovarik, Karol [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany); Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France)
2013-07-01
We computed the full O(α{sub s}) supersymmetric QCD corrections for neutralino-stop co-annihilation in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). It is shown that these annihilation channels are phenomenologically relevant within the so-called phenomenological MSSM, in particular in the light of the observation of a Higgs-like particle with a mass of about 126 GeV at the LHC. Numerical results for the co-annihilation cross sections and the predicted neutralino relic density are presented. It will be demonstrated that the impact of including these corrections on the cosmologically preferred region of parameter space is larger than the current experimental uncertainty from WMAP data.
Narimani, Ali; Scott, Douglas
2011-01-01
Although it is possible that some fundamental physical constants could vary in time, it is important to only consider dimensionless combinations, such as the fine structure constant or the equivalent coupling constant for gravity. Once all such dimensionless numbers have been given, then we can be sure that our cosmological picture is governed by the same physical laws as that of another civilization with an entirely different set of units. An additional feature of the standard model of cosmology raises an extra complication, namely that the epoch at which we live is a crucial part of the model. This can be defined by giving the value of any one of the evolving cosmological parameters. It takes some care to avoid inconsistent results for constraints on variable constants, which could be caused by effectively fixing more than one parameter today. We show examples of this effect by considering in some detail the physics of Big Bang nucleosynthesis, recombination and microwave background anisotropies, being care...
Kiselev, V V
2012-01-01
A huge value of cosmological constant characteristic for the particle physics and the inflation of early Universe are inherently related to each other: one can construct a fine-tuned superpotential, which produces a flat potential of inflaton with a constant density of energy V=\\Lambda^4 after taking into account for leading effects due to the supergravity, so that an introduction of small quantum loop-corrections to parameters of this superpotential naturally results in the dynamical instability relaxing the primary cosmological constant by means of inflationary regime. The model phenomenologically agrees with observational data on the large scale structure of Universe at \\Lambda~10^{16} GeV.
Can Higgs Field Have a Cosmological Origin?
刘辽; 裴寿镛
2003-01-01
A proposal of the cosmological origin of Higgs particles is given. We show that the Higgs field could be created from the vacuum quantum conformal fluctuation (VQCF) of Anti-de Sitter space-time, the spontaneous breaking of vacuum symmetry and the mass of a Higgs particle are related to the cosmological constant of our universe,especially the theoretical estimated mass mφ of Higgs particles is mφ = √-2μ2 =√|∧|/π. It seems that the Higgs particles with masses in GeV range may be the relics of the VQCF of Anti-de sitter space in inflational phase of our very early universe.
Model for Thermal Relic Dark Matter of Strongly Interacting Massive Particles.
Hochberg, Yonit; Kuflik, Eric; Murayama, Hitoshi; Volansky, Tomer; Wacker, Jay G
2015-07-10
A recent proposal is that dark matter could be a thermal relic of 3→2 scatterings in a strongly coupled hidden sector. We present explicit classes of strongly coupled gauge theories that admit this behavior. These are QCD-like theories of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, where the pions play the role of dark matter. The number-changing 3→2 process, which sets the dark matter relic abundance, arises from the Wess-Zumino-Witten term. The theories give an explicit relationship between the 3→2 annihilation rate and the 2→2 self-scattering rate, which alters predictions for structure formation. This is a simple calculable realization of the strongly interacting massive-particle mechanism.
Plionis, M.
2004-07-01
The recent scientific efforts in Astrophysics & Cosmology have brought a revolution to our understanding of the Cosmos. Amazing results is the outcome of amazing experiments! The huge scientific, technological & financial effort that has gone into building the 10-m class telescopes as well as many space and balloon observatories, essential to observe the multitude of cosmic phenomena in their manifestations at different wavelengths, from gamma-rays to the millimetre and the radio, has given and is still giving its fruits of knowledge. These recent scientific achievements in Observational and Theoretical Cosmology were presented in the "Multiwavelength Cosmology" conference that took place on beautiful Mykonos island in the Aegean between 17 and 20 June 2003. More than 180 Cosmologists from all over the world gathered for a four-day intense meeting in which recent results from large ground based surveys (AAT/2-df, SLOAN) and space missions (WMAP, Chandra, XMM, ISO, HST) were presented and debated, providing a huge impetus to our knowledge of the Cosmos. The future of the subject (experiments, and directions of research) was also discussed. The conference was devoted mostly on the constraints on Cosmological models and galaxy formation theories that arise from the study of the high redshift Universe, from clusters of galaxies, and their evolution, from the cosmic microwave background, the large-scale structure and star-formation history. Link: http://www.wkap.nl/prod/b/1-4020-1971-8
Stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons: a theoretical appraisal
Giovannini, Massimo
2010-01-01
Stochastic backgrounds or relic gravitons, if ever detected, will constitute a prima facie evidence of physical processes taking place during the earliest stages of the evolution of the plasma. The essentials of the stochastic backgrounds of relic gravitons are hereby introduced and reviewed. The pivotal observables customarily employed to infer the properties of the relic gravitons are discussed both in the framework of the $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm as well as in neighboring contexts. The complementarity between experiments measuring the polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (such as, for instance, WMAP, Capmap, Quad, Cbi, just to mention a few) and wide band interferometers (e.g. Virgo, Ligo, Geo, Tama) is emphasized. While the analysis of the microwave sky strongly constrains the low-frequency tail of the relic graviton spectrum, wide-band detectors are sensitive to much higher frequencies where the spectral energy density depends chiefly upon the (poorly known) rate of post-inflationary expansion.
Gauss-Bonnet gravity, relic coherent gravitons and optical chaos
Crowell, Lawrence B
2011-01-01
We discuss the production of massive relic coherent gravitons in Gauss-Bonnet gravity and their possible imprint in Cosmic Microwave Background. In fact, in the very early universe these relic gravitons could have acted as slow gravity waves. They may have then acted to focus the geodesics of radiation and matter. Therefore, their imprint on the later evolution of the universe could appear as filaments and domain wall in the Universe today. In that case, the effect on Cosmic Microwave Background should be analogous to the effect of water waves, which, in focusing light, create optical caustics which are commonly seen on the bottom of swimming pools. We analyze this important issue by showing how relic massive GWs perturb the trajectories of Cosmic Microwave Background photons (gravitational lensing by relic GWs). The consequence of the type of physics discussed is outlined by illustrating an amplification of what might be called optical chaos.
Quantum Weyl invariance and cosmology
Atish Dabholkar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Equations for cosmological evolution are formulated in a Weyl invariant formalism to take into account possible Weyl anomalies. Near two dimensions, the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal energy-momentum tensor and a slowly decaying vacuum energy. A natural generalization to four dimensions implies a quantum modification of Einstein field equations at long distances. It offers a new perspective on time-dependence of couplings and naturalness with potentially far-reaching consequences for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.
Quantum cosmology near two dimensions
Bautista, Teresa; Dabholkar, Atish
2016-08-01
We consider a Weyl-invariant formulation of gravity with a cosmological constant in d -dimensional spacetime and show that near two dimensions the classical action reduces to the timelike Liouville action. We show that the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal quantum momentum tensor which satisfies the Ward identities in a nontrivial way. The resulting evolution equations for an isotropic, homogeneous universe lead to slowly decaying vacuum energy and power-law expansion. We outline the implications for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.
Quantum Weyl invariance and cosmology
Dabholkar, Atish
2016-09-01
Equations for cosmological evolution are formulated in a Weyl invariant formalism to take into account possible Weyl anomalies. Near two dimensions, the renormalized cosmological term leads to a nonlocal energy-momentum tensor and a slowly decaying vacuum energy. A natural generalization to four dimensions implies a quantum modification of Einstein field equations at long distances. It offers a new perspective on time-dependence of couplings and naturalness with potentially far-reaching consequences for the cosmological constant problem, inflation, and dark energy.
Applications of Cosmological Perturbation Theory
Christopherson, Adam J
2011-01-01
Cosmological perturbation theory is crucial for our understanding of the universe. The linear theory has been well understood for some time, however developing and applying the theory beyond linear order is currently at the forefront of research in theoretical cosmology. This thesis studies the applications of perturbation theory to cosmology and, specifically, to the early universe. Starting with some background material introducing the well-tested 'standard model' of cosmology, we move on to develop the formalism for perturbation theory up to second order giving evolution equations for all types of scalar, vector and tensor perturbations, both in gauge dependent and gauge invariant form. We then move on to the main result of the thesis, showing that, at second order in perturbation theory, vorticity is sourced by a coupling term quadratic in energy density and entropy perturbations. This source term implies a qualitative difference to linear order. Thus, while at linear order vorticity decays with the expan...
Laurent Vial
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A number of small RNA sequences, located in different non-coding sequences and highly preserved across the tree of life, have been suggested to be molecular fossils, of ancient (and possibly primordial origin. On the other hand, recent years have revealed the existence of ubiquitous roles for small RNA sequences in modern organisms, in functions ranging from cell regulation to antiviral activity. We propose that a single thread can be followed from the beginning of life in RNA structures selected only for stability reasons through the RNA relics and up to the current coevolution of RNA sequences; such an understanding would shed light both on the history and on the present development of the RNA machinery and interactions. After presenting the evidence (by comparing their sequences that points toward a common thread, we discuss a scenario of genome coevolution (with emphasis on viral infectious processes and finally propose a plan for the reevaluation of the stereochemical theory of the genetic code; we claim that it may still be relevant, and not only for understanding the origin of life, but also for a comprehensive picture of regulation in present-day cells.
Stellar Relics from the Early Galaxy
T. Sivarani
2013-03-01
We reviewed the recent progress in the field of stellar/galactic archeology, which is a study of the relics from the early galaxy. The oldest and most pristine objects that can be observed in the galaxy are the low mass metal poor stars of the Milky Way. They were formed during the early phases, when the ISM might have been polluted only by the Pop-III supernovae. With the recent large spectroscopic surveys (e.g. HK survey by Beers and collaborators, the Hamburg-ESO survey by Christlieb and collaborators and Sloan Digital Sky Survey) it has been possible to get clues on the nature of the first stars that has contributed to the heavy elements. Most of these metal-poor low mass stars also retain their signature of the early dynamical evolution of the galaxy, which can be studied through their orbits around the galaxy and spatial distribution. Here, we discuss the connection between the chemical and the kinematical properties of metal-poor stars in order to probe the early galaxy formation. We also discuss about the globular clusters, the satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and its possible contribution to the formation of the galaxy halo.
RNA relics and origin of life.
Demongeot, Jacques; Glade, Nicolas; Moreira, Andrés; Vial, Laurent
2009-07-31
A number of small RNA sequences, located in different non-coding sequences and highly preserved across the tree of life, have been suggested to be molecular fossils, of ancient (and possibly primordial) origin. On the other hand, recent years have revealed the existence of ubiquitous roles for small RNA sequences in modern organisms, in functions ranging from cell regulation to antiviral activity. We propose that a single thread can be followed from the beginning of life in RNA structures selected only for stability reasons through the RNA relics and up to the current coevolution of RNA sequences; such an understanding would shed light both on the history and on the present development of the RNA machinery and interactions. After presenting the evidence (by comparing their sequences) that points toward a common thread, we discuss a scenario of genome coevolution (with emphasis on viral infectious processes) and finally propose a plan for the reevaluation of the stereochemical theory of the genetic code; we claim that it may still be relevant, and not only for understanding the origin of life, but also for a comprehensive picture of regulation in present-day cells.
Heckman, Jonathan J; Vafa, Cumrun
2008-01-01
In this paper we study the interplay between the recently proposed F-theory GUTs and cosmology. Despite the fact that the parameter range for F-theory GUT models is very narrow, we find that F-theory GUTs beautifully satisfy most cosmological constraints without any further restrictions. The viability of the scenario hinges on the interplay between various components of the axion supermultiplet, which in F-theory GUTs is also responsible for breaking supersymmetry. In these models, the gravitino is the LSP and develops a mass by eating the axino mode. The radial component of the axion supermultiplet known as the saxion typically begins to oscillate in the early Universe, eventually coming to dominate the energy density. Its decay reheats the Universe to a temperature of ~ 1 GeV, igniting BBN and diluting all thermal relics such as the gravitino by a factor of ~ 10^(-4) - 10^(-5) such that gravitinos contribute a sizable component of the dark matter. In certain cases, non-thermally produced relics such as the ...
Bothun, Greg
2011-10-01
Ever since Aristotle placed us, with certainty, in the Center of the Cosmos, Cosmological models have more or less operated from a position of known truths for some time. As early as 1963, for instance, it was ``known'' that the Universe had to be 15-17 billion years old due to the suspected ages of globular clusters. For many years, attempts to determine the expansion age of the Universe (the inverse of the Hubble constant) were done against this preconceived and biased notion. Not surprisingly when more precise observations indicated a Hubble expansion age of 11-13 billion years, stellar models suddenly changed to produce a new age for globular cluster stars, consistent with 11-13 billion years. Then in 1980, to solve a variety of standard big bang problems, inflation was introduced in a fairly ad hoc manner. Inflation makes the simple prediction that the net curvature of spacetime is zero (i.e. spacetime is flat). The consequence of introducing inflation is now the necessary existence of a dark matter dominated Universe since the known baryonic material could comprise no more than 1% of the necessary energy density to make spacetime flat. As a result of this new cosmological ``truth'' a significant world wide effort was launched to detect the dark matter (which obviously also has particle physics implications). To date, no such cosmological component has been detected. Moreover, all available dynamical inferences of the mass density of the Universe showed in to be about 20% of that required for closure. This again was inconsistent with the truth that the real density of the Universe was the closure density (e.g. Omega = 1), that the observations were biased, and that 99% of the mass density had to be in the form of dark matter. That is, we know the universe is two component -- baryons and dark matter. Another prevailing cosmological truth during this time was that all the baryonic matter was known to be in galaxies that populated our galaxy catalogs. Subsequent
Radiative corrections for the direct detection of neutralino dark matter and its relic density
Steppeler, Patrick Norbert
2016-07-01
entering the Boltzmann equation in many scenarios of the MSSM. The Boltzmann equation allows to determine the neutralino relic density, i.e. to predict their present abundance. This prediction can be checked experimentally and is thus of great phenomenological relevance. Measurements of the temperature fluctuations of the cosmic microwave background permit to determine the relic density precisely. Comparing the theoretical prediction with the experimental finding allows to exclude large fractions of the MSSM parameter space. In order to maximally benefit from the experimental precision, it is necessary to minimise theoretical uncertainties and to include the aforementioned radiative corrections. The radiative corrections to the elastic neutralino-nucleon scattering and the corresponding relic density have been implemented into the numerical package Dark matter at next-to-leading order. With the help of this program, we perform a phenomenological investigation and analyse the impact of the radiative corrections. It turns out that the neutralino relic density depends not on a single but a multitude of gaugino (co)annihilation processes in parallel quite often. The calculated radiative corrections lead to a relative shift of the relic density of up to 10%, which is significantly larger than the experimental uncertainty (±2% at the 1σ confidence level) and demonstrates that these corrections should be included when identifying the cosmologically preferred region of the MSSM. Moreover, we investigate the relation between the relic density and the neutralino-nucleon cross sections. In the spin-independent case, the inclusion of radiative corrections leads to a relative shift roughly +14% in comparison to a tree-level calculation. This shift is comparable to typical recent nuclear uncertainties, which influence the prediction as well. The spin-dependent cross section is subject to even larger shifts and modified by up to -50% by radiative corrections.
Neves, J C S
2015-01-01
In the Nietzschean philosophy, the concept of force from physics is important to build one of its main concepts: the will to power. The concept of force, which Nietzsche found out in the Classical Mechanics, almost disappears in the physics of the XX century with the Quantum Field Theory and General Relativity. Is the Nietzschean world as contending forces, a Dionysian cosmology, possible in the current science?
Alvarez, Enrique
1985-01-01
Some cosmological consequences of the assumption that superstrings are more fundamental objects than ordinary local quantum fields are examined. We study, in particular, the dependence of both the string tension and the temperature of the primordial string soup on cosmic time. A particular scenario is proposed in which the universe undergoes a contracting ``string phase'' before the ordinary ``big bang,'' which according to this picture is nothing but the outcome of the transition from nonlocal to local fundamental physics.
Grant, E.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
During the early Middle Ages (ca 500 to ca 1130) scholars with an interest in cosmology had little useful and dependable literature. They relied heavily on a partial Latin translation of PLATO's Timaeus by Chalcidius (4th century AD), and on a series of encyclopedic treatises associated with the names of Pliny the Elder (ca AD 23-79), Seneca (4 BC-AD 65), Macrobius (fl 5th century AD), Martianus ...
Brax, Philippe
2016-01-01
We investigate scalar-tensor theories where matter couples to the scalar field via a kinetically dependent conformal coupling. These models can be seen as the low-energy description of invariant field theories under a global Abelian symmetry. The scalar field is then identified with the Goldstone mode of the broken symmetry. It turns out that the properties of these models are very similar to the ones of ultralocal theories where the scalar-field value is directly determined by the local matter density. This leads to a complete screening of the fifth force in the Solar System and between compact objects, through the ultralocal screening mechanism. On the other hand, the fifth force can have large effects in extended structures with large-scale density gradients, such as galactic halos. Interestingly, it can either amplify or damp Newtonian gravity, depending on the model parameters. We also study the background cosmology and the linear cosmological perturbations. The background cosmology is hardly different f...
The screening Horndeski cosmologies
Starobinsky, Alexei A.; Sushkov, Sergey V.; Volkov, Mikhail S.
2016-06-01
We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing ``the emergence of time''. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.
BOOK REVIEW: Observational Cosmology Observational Cosmology
Howell, Dale Andrew
2013-04-01
quite heavy on jargon. These terms are at least defined, and listed in boldface. Still, many are brought up once, explained lightly, and are never mentioned again. I can imagine this being overwhelming and confusing for students. In the end, Observational Cosmology is great for getting an overview of what has become quite a complicated field. However, in some areas it goes into great mathematical detail without enough supporting material. In other areas, the details are so scarce that it can come across as a marching through of buzzwords. Still, the book succeeds more than it fails, and the concept behind it is a good one.
Cosmic Neutrinos and Other Light Relics
Meyers, Joel
2016-01-01
Cosmological measurements of the radiation density in the early universe can be used as a sensitive probe of physics beyond the standard model. Observations of primordial light element abundances have long been used to place non-trivial constraints on models of new physics and to inform our understanding of the thermal history to the first few minutes of our present phase of expansion. Precision measurements of the angular power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization will drastically improve our measurement of the cosmic radiation density over the next decade. These improved measurements will either uncover new physics or place much more stringent constraints on physics beyond the standard model, while pushing our understanding of the early universe to much earlier times.
Implications of a stochastic microscopic Finsler cosmology
Mavromatos, Nick E. [University of London, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Mitsou, Vasiliki A. [CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular (IFIC), Valencia (Spain); Sarkar, Sarben; Vergou, Ariadne [University of London, Department of Physics, King' s College London, London (United Kingdom)
2012-03-15
Within the context of supersymmetric space-time (D-particle) foam in string/brane-theory, we discuss a Finsler-induced cosmology and its implications for (thermal) dark matter abundances. This constitutes a truly microscopic model of dynamical space-time, where Finsler geometries arise naturally. The D-particle foam model involves point-like brane defects (D-particles), which provide the topologically non-trivial foamy structures of space-time. The D-particles can capture and emit stringy matter and this leads to a recoil of D-particles. It is indicated how one effect of such a recoil of D-particles is a back-reaction on the space-time metric of Finsler type which is stochastic. We show that such a type of stochastic space-time foam can lead to acceptable cosmologies at late epochs of the Universe, due to the non-trivial properties of the supersymmetric (BPS like) D-particle defects, which are such so as not to affect significantly the Hubble expansion. The restrictions placed on the free parameters of the Finsler type metric are obtained from solving the Boltzmann equation in this background for relic abundances of a Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP) dark matter candidate. It is demonstrated that the D-foam acts as a source for particle production in the Boltzmann equation, thereby leading to enhanced thermal LSP relic abundances relative to those in the Standard {lambda}CDM cosmology. For D-particle masses of order TeV, such effects may be relevant for dark matter searches at colliders. The latter constraints complement those coming from high-energy gamma-ray astronomy on the induced vacuum refractive index that D-foam models entail. We also comment briefly on the production mechanisms of such TeV-mass stringy defects at colliders, which, in view of the current LHC experimental searches, will impose further constraints on their couplings. (orig.)
Heckman, Jonathan J.; Tavanfar, Alireza; Vafa, Cumrun
2010-04-01
In this paper we study the interplay between the recently proposed F-theory GUTs and cosmology. Despite the fact that the parameter range for F-theory GUT models is very narrow, we find that F-theory GUTs beautifully satisfy most cosmological constraints without any further restrictions. The viability of the scenario hinges on the interplay between various components of the axion supermultiplet, which in F-theory GUTs is also responsible for breaking supersymmetry. In these models, the gravitino is the LSP and develops a mass by eating the axino mode. The radial component of the axion supermultiplet known as the saxion typically begins to oscillate in the early Universe, eventually coming to dominate the energy density. Its decay reheats the Universe to a temperature of ˜1GeV, igniting BBN and diluting all thermal relics such as the gravitino by a factor of ˜10-4 - 10-5 such that gravitinos contribute a sizable component of the dark matter. In certain cases, non-thermally produced relics such as the axion, or gravitinos generated from the decay of the saxion can also contribute to the abundance of dark matter. Remarkably enough, this cosmological scenario turns out to be independent of the initial reheating temperature of the Universe. This is due to the fact that the initial oscillation temperature of the saxion coincides with the freeze out temperature for gravitinos in F-theory GUTs. We also find that saxion dilution is compatible with generating the desired baryon asymmetry from standard leptogenesis. Finally, the gravitino mass range in F-theory GUTs is 10 - 100MeV, which interestingly coincides with the window of values required for the decay of the NLSP to solve the problem of 7 Li over-production.
Religion, theology and cosmology
John T. Fitzgerald
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Cosmology is one of the predominant research areas of the contemporary world. Advances in modern cosmology have prompted renewed interest in the intersections between religion, theology and cosmology. This article, which is intended as a brief introduction to the series of studies on theological cosmology in this journal, identifies three general areas of theological interest stemming from the modern scientific study of cosmology: contemporary theology and ethics; cosmology and world religions; and ancient cosmologies. These intersections raise important questions about the relationship of religion and cosmology, which has recently been addressed by William Scott Green and is the focus of the final portion of the article.
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
Integrable Cosmological Potentials
Sokolov, V V
2016-01-01
The problem of classification of the Einstein--Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians $H$ with a single scalar inflaton field $\\varphi$ that possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint $H=0$ is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of first, second, and third degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential $V(\\varphi)$. In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in a parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.
An Improved Cosmological Model
Tsamis, N C
2016-01-01
We study a class of non-local, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller anti-screening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.
Tsamis, N. C.; Woodard, R. P.
2016-08-01
We study a class of nonlocal, action-based, and purely gravitational models. These models seek to describe a cosmology in which inflation is driven by a large, bare cosmological constant that is screened by the self-gravitation between the soft gravitons that inflation rips from the vacuum. Inflation ends with the Universe poised on the verge of gravitational collapse, in an oscillating phase of expansion and contraction that should lead to rapid reheating when matter is included. After the attainment of a hot, dense Universe the nonlocal screening terms become constant as the Universe evolves through a conventional phase of radiation domination. The onset of matter domination triggers a much smaller antiscreening effect that could explain the current phase of acceleration.
Integrable cosmological potentials
Sokolov, V. V.; Sorin, A. S.
2017-05-01
The problem of classification of the Einstein-Friedman cosmological Hamiltonians H with a single scalar inflaton field φ, which possess an additional integral of motion polynomial in momenta on the shell of the Friedman constraint H=0 , is considered. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of the first-, second- and third-degree integrals are derived. These conditions have the form of ODEs for the cosmological potential V(φ) . In the case of linear and quadratic integrals we find general solutions of the ODEs and construct the corresponding integrals explicitly. A new wide class of Hamiltonians that possess a cubic integral is derived. The corresponding potentials are represented in parametric form in terms of the associated Legendre functions. Six families of special elementary solutions are described, and sporadic superintegrable cases are discussed.
Bojowald, Martin
1999-01-01
A complete model of the universe needs at least three parts: (1) a complete set of physical variables and dynamical laws for them, (2) the correct solution of the dynamical laws, and (3) the connection with conscious experience. In quantum cosmology, item (2) is the quantum state of the cosmos. Hartle and Hawking have made the `no-boundary' proposal, that the wavefunction of the universe is given by a path integral over all compact Euclidean 4-dimensional geometries and matter fields that hav...
Fabris, J C; Rodrigues, D C; Batista, C E M; Daouda, M H
2012-01-01
We review the difficulties of the generalized Chaplygin gas model to fit observational data, due to the tension between background and perturbative tests. We argue that such issues may be circumvented by means of a self-interacting scalar field representation of the model. However, this proposal seems to be successful only if the self-interacting scalar field has a non-canonical form. The latter can be implemented in Rastall's theory of gravity, which is based on a modification of the usual matter conservation law. We show that, besides its application to the generalized Chaplygin gas model, other cosmological models based on Rastall's theory have many interesting and unexpected new features.
Cosmology from quantum potential
Farag Ali, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza, 12588 (Egypt); Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Benha University, Benha, 13518 (Egypt); Das, Saurya, E-mail: saurya.das@uleth.c [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Lethbridge, 4401 University Drive, Lethbridge, Alberta, T1K 3M4 (Canada)
2015-02-04
It was shown recently that replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories gives rise to a quantum corrected Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). In this article we derive the second order Friedmann equations from the QRE, and show that this also contains a couple of quantum correction terms, the first of which can be interpreted as cosmological constant (and gives a correct estimate of its observed value), while the second as a radiation term in the early universe, which gets rid of the big-bang singularity and predicts an infinite age of our universe.
Coasting cosmologies with time dependent cosmological constant
Pimentel, L O; Pimentel, Luis O.
1999-01-01
The effect of a time dependent cosmological constant is considered in a family of scalar tensor theories. Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models for vacumm and perfect fluid matter are found. They have a linear expansion factor, the so called coasting cosmology, the gravitational "constant" decreace inversely with time; this model satisfy the Dirac hipotesis. The cosmological "constant" decreace inversely with the square of time, therefore we can have a very small value for it at present time.
Hinterbichler, Kurt; Levy, Aaron; Matas, Andrew
2011-01-01
The symmetron is a scalar field associated with the dark sector whose coupling to matter depends on the ambient matter density. The symmetron is decoupled and screened in regions of high density, thereby satisfying local constraints from tests of gravity, but couples with gravitational strength in regions of low density, such as the cosmos. In this paper we derive the cosmological expansion history in the presence of a symmetron field, tracking the evolution through the inflationary, radiation- and matter-dominated epochs, using a combination of analytical approximations and numerical integration. For a broad range of initial conditions at the onset of inflation, the scalar field reaches its symmetry-breaking vacuum by the present epoch, as assumed in the local analysis of spherically-symmetric solutions and tests of gravity. For the simplest form of the potential, the energy scale is too small for the symmetron to act as dark energy, hence we must add a cosmological constant to drive late-time cosmic acceler...
Chimento, L P; Forte, M [Physics Department, UBA, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L, E-mail: kremer@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: devecchi@fisica.ufpr.br, E-mail: chimento@df.uba.ar [Physics Department, UFPR, 81531-990 Curitiba (Brazil)
2011-07-08
In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.
Newtonian cosmology - Problems of cosmological didactics
Skarzynski, E.
1983-03-01
The article presents different methods of model construction in Newtonian cosmology. Newtonian cosmology is very convenient for discussion of local problems, so the problems presented are of great didactic importance. The constant k receives a new interpretation in relativistic cosmology as the curvature of the space in consequence of the greater informational capacity of Riemann space in comparison to Euclidean space. 11 references.
The megaparsec radio relic in supercluster, Rood No. 27
Harris, D. E.; Stern, C. P.; Willis, A. G.; Dewdney, P. E.
1993-03-01
Observations of extended source of low surface brightness appear as a 'relic' of a currently inactive radio galaxy. The largest dimension is approximately 1.6 Mpc, the fractional polarization is high, and the magnetic field direction appears to be coherent over scales of at least several hundred kpc. Polarization and morphologies of relics are distinct from those of cluster halos, due to the different environment provided by cluster cores compared to that encountered in the outer fringes of the hot gas distribution which produces X-ray emission.
The megaparsec radio relic in supercluster, Rood No. 27
Harris, D. E.; Stern, C. P.; Willis, A. G.; Dewdney, P. E.
1993-01-01
Observations of extended source of low surface brightness appear as a 'relic' of a currently inactive radio galaxy. The largest dimension is approximately 1.6 Mpc, the fractional polarization is high, and the magnetic field direction appears to be coherent over scales of at least several hundred kpc. Polarization and morphologies of relics are distinct from those of cluster halos, due to the different environment provided by cluster cores compared to that encountered in the outer fringes of the hot gas distribution which produces X-ray emission.
Dark Matter Relic Abundance and Light Sterile Neutrinos
Tang, Yi-Lei
2016-01-01
In this paper, we calculate the relic abundance of the dark matter particles when they can annihilate into sterile neutrinos with the mass $\\lesssim 100 \\text{ GeV}$ in a simple model. Unlike the usual standard calculations, the sterile neutrino may fall out of the thermal equilibrium with the thermal bath before the dark matter freezes out. In such case, if the Yukawa coupling between Higgs and sterile neutrino $y_N$ is small, this process gives rise to a larger $\\Omega_{\\text{DM}} h^2$ so we need a larger coupling between dark matter and the sterile neutrino for a correct relic abundance.
Group field cosmology: a cosmological field theory of quantum geometry
Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele
2012-01-01
Following the idea of a field quantization of gravity as realized in group field theory, we construct a minisuperspace model where the wavefunction of canonical quantum cosmology (either Wheeler-DeWitt or loop quantum cosmology) is promoted to a field, the coordinates are minisuperspace variables, the kinetic operator is the Hamiltonian constraint operator, and the action features a nonlinear and possibly nonlocal interaction term. We discuss free-field classical solutions, the quantum propagator, and a mean-field approximation linearizing the equation of motion and augmenting the Hamiltonian constraint by an effective term mixing gravitational and matter variables. Depending on the choice of interaction, this can reproduce, for example, a cosmological constant, a scalar-field potential, or a curvature contribution.
Cosmological perturbations in antigravity
Oltean, Marius; Brandenberger, Robert
2014-10-01
We compute the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a recently proposed Weyl-symmetric theory of two scalar fields with oppositely signed conformal couplings to Einstein gravity. It is motivated from the minimal conformal extension of the standard model, such that one of these scalar fields is the Higgs while the other is a new particle, the dilaton, introduced to make the Higgs mass conformally symmetric. At the background level, the theory admits novel geodesically complete cyclic cosmological solutions characterized by a brief period of repulsive gravity, or "antigravity," during each successive transition from a big crunch to a big bang. For simplicity, we consider scalar perturbations in the absence of anisotropies, with potential set to zero and without any radiation. We show that despite the necessarily wrong-signed kinetic term of the dilaton in the full action, these perturbations are neither ghostlike nor tachyonic in the limit of strongly repulsive gravity. On this basis, we argue—pending a future analysis of vector and tensor perturbations—that, with respect to perturbative stability, the cosmological solutions of this theory are viable.
Narlikar, Jayant Vishnu
2002-01-01
The third edition of this successful textbook is fully updated and includes important recent developments in cosmology. It begins with an introduction to cosmology and general relativity, and goes on to cover the mathematical models of standard cosmology. The physical aspects of cosmology, including primordial nucleosynthesis, the astroparticle physics of inflation, and the current ideas on structure formation are discussed. Alternative models of cosmology are reviewed, including the model of Quasi-Steady State Cosmology, which has recently been proposed as an alternative to Big Bang Cosmology.
Boguna, Marian; Krioukov, Dmitri
2013-01-01
Networks often represent systems that do not have a long history of studies in traditional fields of physics, albeit there are some notable exceptions such as energy landscapes and quantum gravity. Here we consider networks that naturally arise in cosmology. Nodes in these networks are stationary observers uniformly distributed in an expanding open FLRW universe with any scale factor, and two observers are connected if one can causally influence the other. We show that these networks are growing Lorentz-invariant graphs with power-law distributions of node degrees. New links in these networks not only connect new nodes to existing ones, but also appear at a certain rate between existing nodes, as they do in many complex networks.
Vankov, A
1998-01-01
The suggested alternative cosmology is based on the idea of barion symmetric universe, in which our home universe is a representative of multitude of typical matter and antimatter universes. This alternative concept gives a physically reasonable explanation of all major problems of the Standard Cosmological Model. Classification Code MSC: Cosmology 524.8 Key words: standard cosmological model, alternative cosmology, barionic symmetry, typical universe, quasars, cosmic rays.
Dusty Relic to Shining Treasure: Embedded in a Multicultural Environment
Avery, Beth Fuseler; Batman, Cindy
2014-01-01
Far from being dusty old relics who are guardians of the book, embedded librarians need to be proactively leading students through the digital maze of the virtual library. Working with students more than 7,000 miles away changed perceptions of how to teach and learn, and how people interact online. We will share how as embedded librarians we…
ƒ(R Gravity, Relic Coherent Gravitons and Optical Chaos
Lawrence B. Crowell
2014-03-01
Full Text Available We discuss the production of massive relic coherent gravitons in a particular class of ƒ(R gravity, which arises from string theory, and their possible imprint in the Cosmic Microwave Background. In fact, in the very early Universe, these relic gravitons could have acted as slow gravity waves. They may have then acted to focus the geodesics of radiation and matter. Therefore, their imprint on the later evolution of the Universe could appear as filaments and a domain wall in the Universe today. In that case, the effect on the Cosmic Microwave Background should be analogous to the effect of water waves, which, in focusing light, create optical caustics, which are commonly seen on the bottom of swimming pools. We analyze this important issue by showing how relic massive gravity waves (GWs perturb the trajectories of the Cosmic Microwave Background photons (gravitational lensing by relic GWs. The consequence of the type of physics discussed is outlined by illustrating an amplification of what might be called optical chaos.
Spectral age modelling of the `Sausage' cluster radio relic
Stroe, Andra; Harwood, Jeremy J.; Hardcastle, Martin J.; Röttgering, Huub J. A.
2014-12-01
CIZA J2242.8+5301 is a post-core passage, binary merging cluster that hosts a large, thin, arc-like radio relic, nicknamed the `Sausage', tracing a relatively strong shock front. We perform spatially resolved spectral fitting to the available radio data for this radio relic, using a variety of spectral ageing models, with the aim of finding a consistent set of parameters for the shock and radio plasma. We determine an injection index of 0.77^{+0.03}_{-0.02} for the relic plasma, significantly steeper than was found before. Standard particle acceleration at the shock front implies a Mach number M=2.90^{+0.10}_{-0.13}, which now matches X-ray measurements. The shock advance speed is vshock ≈ 2500 km s-1, which places the core passage of the two subclusters 0.6-0.8 Gyr ago. We find a systematic spectral age increase from 0 at the northern side of the relic up to ˜60 Myr at ˜145 kpc into the downstream area, assuming a 0.6 nT magnetic field. Under the assumption of freely ageing electrons after acceleration by the `Sausage' shock, the spectral ages are hard to reconcile with the shock speed derived from X-ray and radio observations. Re-acceleration or unusually efficient transport of particle in the downstream area and line-of-sight mixing could help explain the systematically low spectral ages.
Spectral age modelling of the `Sausage' cluster radio relic
Stroe, Andra; Hardcastle, Martin J; Röttgering, Huub J A
2014-01-01
CIZA J2242.8+5301 is a post-core passage, binary merging cluster that hosts a large, thin, arc-like radio relic, nicknamed the `Sausage', tracing a relatively strong shock front. We perform spatially-resolved spectral fitting to the available radio data for this radio relic, using a variety of spectral ageing models, with the aim of finding a consistent set of parameters for the shock and radio plasma. We determine an injection index of $0.77^{+0.03}_{-0.02}$ for the relic plasma, significantly steeper than was found before. Standard particle acceleration at the shock front implies a Mach number $M=2.90^{+0.10}_{-0.13}$, which now matches X-ray measurements. The shock advance speed is $v_\\mathrm{shock}\\approx2500$ km s$^{-1}$, which places the core passage of the two subclusters $0.6-0.8$ Gyr ago. We find a systematic spectral age increase from $0$ at the northern side of the relic up to $\\sim60$ Myr at $\\sim145$ kpc into the downstream area, assuming a $0.6$ nT magnetic field. Under the assumption of freely-...
The screening Horndeski cosmologies
Starobinsky, Alexei A. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS,Moscow 119334 (Russian Federation); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Sushkov, Sergey V. [Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation); Volkov, Mikhail S. [Laboratoire de Mathématiques et Physique Théorique CNRS-UMR 7350,Université de Tours,Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics,Kazan Federal University,Kremlevskaya street 18, 420008 Kazan (Russian Federation)
2016-06-06
We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a Λ-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the Λ-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the Λ-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing “the emergence of time”. Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyse the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are stable in the future, since all their perturbations stay bounded at late times. However, they all turn out to be unstable in the past, as their perturbations grow violently when one approaches the initial spacetime singularity. We therefore conclude that the model has no viable solutions describing the whole of the cosmological history, although it may describe the current acceleration phase. We also check that the flat space solution is ghost-free in the model, but it may acquire ghost in more general versions of the Horndeski theory.
Small neutrino masses from gravitational θ -term
Dvali, Gia; Funcke, Lena
2016-06-01
We present how a neutrino condensate and small neutrino masses emerge from a topological formulation of gravitational anomaly. We first recapitulate how a gravitational θ -term leads to the emergence of a new bound neutrino state analogous to the η' meson of QCD. Then we show the consequent formation of a neutrino vacuum condensate, which effectively generates small neutrino masses. Afterwards we outline numerous phenomenological consequences of our neutrino mass generation model. The cosmological neutrino mass bound vanishes since we predict the neutrinos to be massless until the phase transition in the late Universe, T ˜meV . Coherent radiation of new light particles in the neutrino sector can be detected in prospective precision experiments. Deviations from an equal flavor rate due to enhanced neutrino decays in extraterrestrial neutrino fluxes can be observed in future IceCube data. These neutrino decays may also necessitate modified analyses of the original neutrino spectra of the supernova SN 1987A. The current cosmological neutrino background only consists of the lightest neutrinos, which, due to enhanced neutrino-neutrino interactions, either bind up, form a superfluid, or completely annihilate into massless bosons. Strongly coupled relic neutrinos could provide a contribution to cold dark matter in the late Universe, together with the new proposed particles and topological defects, which may have formed during neutrino condensation. These enhanced interactions could also be a source of relic neutrino clustering in our Galaxy, which possibly makes the overdense cosmic neutrino background detectable in the KATRIN experiment. The neutrino condensate provides a mass for the hypothetical B -L gauge boson, leading to a gravity-competing force detectable in short-distance measurements. Prospective measurements of the polarization intensities of gravitational waves can falsify our neutrino mass generation model.
Supernova constraints on decaying vacuum cosmology
Carneiro, S; Borges, H A; Alcaniz, J S
2006-01-01
There is mounting observational evidence that the expansion of our Universe is undergoing a late-time acceleration. Among many proposals to describe this phenomenon, the cosmological constant seems to be the simplest and the most natural explanation. However, despite its observational successes, such a possibility exacerbates the well known cosmological constant problem, requiring a natural explanation for its small, but nonzero, value. In this paper we consider a cosmological scenario driven by a varying cosmological term, in which the vacuum energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter. We show that this model is indistinguishable from the standard one in that the early radiation phase is followed by a long dust-dominated era, and only recently the varying cosmological term becomes dominant, accelerating the cosmic expansion. In order to test the viability of this scenario we have used the most recent type Ia supernova data, i.e., the High-Z SN Search (HZS) Team and the Supernova Legacy Survey (...
Wright, Rosemary
1995-01-01
The popularity of Stephen Hawking's work has put cosmology back in the public eye. The question of how the universe began, and why it hangs together, still puzzles scientists. Their puzzlement began two and a half thousand years ago when Greek philosophers first 'looked up at the sky and formed a theory of everything.' Though their solutions are little credited today, the questions remain fresh.The early Greek thinkers struggled to come to terms with and explain the totality of their surroundings; to identitify an original substance from which the universe was compounded; and to reconcil
Shock Acceleration Model for the Toothbrush Radio Relic
Kang, Hyesung; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W.
2017-05-01
Although many of the observed properties of giant radio relics detected in the outskirts of galaxy clusters can be explained by relativistic electrons accelerated at merger-driven shocks, significant puzzles remain. In the case of the so-called Toothbrush relic, the shock Mach number estimated from X-ray observations ({M}{{X}}≈ 1.2{--}1.5) is substantially weaker than that inferred from the radio spectral index ({M}{rad}≈ 2.8). Toward understanding such a discrepancy, we here consider the following diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) models: (1) weak-shock models with {M}{{s}}≲ 2 and a preexisting population of cosmic-ray electrons (CRe) with a flat energy spectrum, and (2) strong-shock models with {M}{{s}}≈ 3 and either shock-generated suprathermal electrons or preexisting fossil CRe. We calculate the synchrotron emission from the accelerated CRe, following the time evolution of the electron DSA, and the subsequent radiative cooling and postshock turbulent acceleration (TA). We find that both models could reproduce reasonably well the observed integrated radio spectrum of the Toothbrush relic, but the observed broad transverse profile requires the stochastic acceleration by downstream turbulence, which we label “turbulent acceleration” or TA to distinguish it from DSA. Moreover, to account for the almost uniform radio spectral index profile along the length of the relic, the weak-shock models require a preshock region over 400 kpc with a uniform population of preexisting CRe with a high cutoff energy (≳ 40 {GeV}). Due to the short cooling time, it is challenging to explain the origin of such energetic electrons. Therefore, we suggest the strong-shock models with low-energy seed CRe (≲ 150 {MeV}) are preferred for the radio observations of this relic.
Cosmological history in York time: inflation and perturbations
Roser, Philipp
2016-01-01
The constant mean extrinsic curvature on a spacelike slice may constitute a physically preferred time coordinate, `York time'. One line of enquiry to probe this idea is to understand processes in our cosmological history in terms of York time. Following a review of the theoretical motivations, we focus on slow-roll inflation and the freezing and Hubble re-entry of cosmological perturbations. We show how the mathematical account of these processes is distinct from the conventional account in terms of standard cosmological or conformal time. We also consider the cosmological York-timeline more broadly and contrast it with the conventional cosmological timeline.
Cosmological history in York time: inflation and perturbations
Roser, Philipp; Valentini, Antony
2017-02-01
The constant mean extrinsic curvature on a spacelike slice may constitute a physically preferred time coordinate, `York time'. One line of enquiry to probe this idea is to understand processes in our cosmological history in terms of York time. Following a review of the theoretical motivations, we focus on slow-roll inflation and the freezing and Hubble re-entry of cosmological perturbations. While the physics is, of course, observationally equivalent, we show how the mathematical account of these processes is distinct from the conventional account in terms of standard cosmological or conformal time. We also consider the cosmological York-timeline more broadly and contrast it with the conventional cosmological timeline.
The screening Horndeski cosmologies
Starobinsky, Alexei A; Volkov, Mikhail S
2016-01-01
We present a systematic analysis of homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies in a particular Horndeski model with Galileon shift symmetry, containing also a $\\Lambda$-term and a matter. The model, sometimes called Fab Five, admits a rich spectrum of solutions. Some of them describe the standard late time cosmological dynamic dominated by the $\\Lambda$-term and matter, while at the early times the universe expands with a constant Hubble rate determined by the value of the scalar kinetic coupling. For other solutions the $\\Lambda$-term and matter are screened at all times but there are nevertheless the early and late accelerating phases. The model also admits bounces, as well as peculiar solutions describing "the emergence of time". Most of these solutions contain ghosts in the scalar and tensor sectors. However, a careful analysis reveals three different branches of ghost-free solutions, all showing a late time acceleration phase. We analyze the dynamical stability of these solutions and find that all of them are...
Luigi Canetti
2002-12-01
Full Text Available This essay analyzes the importance of relics and sanctuaries against the backdrop of the sacralization of Christianity and the latter’s re-elaboration into a religious system that occurred in urban milieux in the late ancient times. The main steps of this process, which came to a climax in the 4th century, are the Christianization of time and space as well as the reinterpretation of Christ’s death in terms of a sacrifice.
Background Study on Supernova Relic Neutrinos Search in SuperK-Gd
Zhang, Yang
2016-01-01
The detection of supernova relic neutrinos could provide precious information on the evolution of the universe, the formation of stars, the mechanism of supernova bursts and the related neutrino physics. Many experiments, such as Kamland, Borexino, Sudbury Neutrino Observatory and Super-Kamiokande have conducted searches for the supernova relic neutrinos. However, no supernova relic neutrino signal has been observed until now. This paper reports the background study on the supernova relic neutrinos search for the future neutrino experiment in SuperK-Gd project. The expected event rate for various background sources and supernova relic neutrino models are calculated, respectively.
Cosmological Axion and neutrino mass constraints from Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data
Di Valentino, Eleonora; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Mena, Olga; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Silk, Joseph
2015-01-01
Axions currently provide the most compelling solution to the strong CP problem. These particles may be copiously produced in the early universe, including via thermal processes. Therefore, relic axions constitute a hot dark matter component and their masses are strongly degenerate with those of the three active neutrinos, as they leave identical signatures in the different cosmological observables. In addition, thermal axions, while still relativistic states, also contribute to the relativistic degrees of freedom, parameterised via $N_{eff}$. We present the cosmological bounds on the relic axion and neutrino masses, exploiting the full Planck mission data, which include polarization measurements. In the mixed hot dark matter scenario explored here, we find the tightest and more robust constraint to date on the sum of the three active neutrino masses, $\\sum m_\
Impact of SUSY-QCD corrections on neutralino-stop co-annihilation and the neutralino relic density
Harz, J; Klasen, M; Kovarik, K; Boulc'h, Q Le
2013-01-01
We have calculated the full O(alpha_s) supersymmetric QCD corrections to neutralino-stop co-annihilation into electroweak vector and Higgs bosons within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We performed a parameter study within the phenomenological MSSM and demonstrated that the studied co-annihilation processes are phenomenologically relevant, especially in the context of a 126 GeV Higgs-like particle. By means of an example scenario we discuss the effect of the full next-to-leading order corrections on the co-annihilation cross section and show their impact on the predicted neutralino relic density. We demonstrate that the impact of these corrections on the cosmologically preferred region of parameter space is larger than the current experimental uncertainty of WMAP data.
Impact of SUSY-QCD corrections on neutralino-stop co-annihilation and the neutralino relic density
Harz, Julia [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Herrmann, Bjoern [Savoie Univ./CNRS, Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; Klasen, Michael [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Kovarik, Karol [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Le Boulc' h, Quentin [Grenoble Univ./CNRS-IN2P3/INPG, Grenoble (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie
2013-02-15
We have calculated the full O({alpha}{sub s}) supersymmetric QCD corrections to neutralino-stop coannihilation into electroweak vector and Higgs bosons within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM).We performed a parameter study within the phenomenological MSSM and demonstrated that the studied co-annihilation processes are phenomenologically relevant, especially in the context of a 126 GeV Higgs-like particle. By means of an example scenario we discuss the effect of the full next-to-leading order corrections on the co-annihilation cross section and show their impact on the predicted neutralino relic density. We demonstrate that the impact of these corrections on the cosmologically preferred region of parameter space is larger than the current experimental uncertainty of WMAP data.
Aref'eva, I. Ya.; Volovich, I. V.
2011-08-01
Classical versions of the Big Bang cosmological models of the universe contain a singularity at the start of time, hence the time variable in the field equations should run over a half-line. Nonlocal string field theory equations with infinite number of derivatives are considered and an important difference between nonlocal operators on the whole real line and on a half-line is pointed out. We use the heat equation method and show that on the half-line in addition to the usual initial data a new arbitrary function (external source) occurs that we call the daemon function. The daemon function governs the evolution of the universe similar to Maxwell's demon in thermodynamics. The universe and multiverse are open systems interacting with the daemon environment. In the simplest case the nonlocal scalar field reduces to the usual local scalar field coupled with an external source which is discussed in the stochastic approach to inflation. The daemon source can help to get the chaotic inflation scenario with a small scalar field.
Possible significance of a new dimensionless ratio in cosmology
Turner, M.S.; Carr, B.J.
1986-05-01
Observations suggest that the mass density of the Universe is dominated, not by ordinary matter, but by exotic particles which are a relic of the Big Bang. In this case, a new dimensionless cosmological ratio arises, the ratio of the mass density in ordinary matter to that in exotic matter, whose value is about 0.1. A priori it might seem remarkable that this ratio should be so close to unity. However, we point out that, for many exotic dark matter candidates, the ratio is related to the fundamental scales of particle physics. A value of order unity arises naturally providing rather simple relationships exist between these scales.
Gravitational waves from first-order cosmological phase transitions
Kosowsky, Arthur; Turner, Michael S.; Watkins, Richard
1992-01-01
A first-order cosmological phase transition that proceeds through the nucleation and collision of true-vacuum bubbles is a potent source of gravitational radiation. Possibilities for such include first-order inflation, grand-unified-theory-symmetry breaking, and electroweak-symmetry breaking. We have calculated gravity-wave production from the collision of two scalar-field vacuum bubbles, and, using an approximation based upon these results, from the collision of 20 to 30 vacuum bubbles. We present estimates of the relic background of gravitational waves produced by a first-order phase transition.
Current status of cosmological MDM model
Mikheeva, E V; Arkhipova, N A; Malinovsky, A M
2000-01-01
An analysis of cosmological models in spatially flat Friedmann Universe with cosmic gravitational wave background and zero $\\Lambda$-term is presented. The number of free parameters is equal to 5, they are $\\sigma_8$, $n$, $\\Omega_\
Tipler, Frank J.
1996-09-01
I show that if Newtonian gravity is formulated in geometrical language, then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as relativistic cosmology. In homogeneous and isotropic universes, the geodesic deviation equation in Newtonian cosmology is proven to be exactly the same as the geodesic deviation equation in relativistic Friedmann cosmologies. This equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: by generalizing the flat-space Newtonian gravity force law to Riemannian metrics, I show that ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any homogeneous and isotropic spatial geometry.
Galtsov, D V
2003-01-01
We discuss isotropic and homogeneous D-brane-world cosmology with non-Abelian Born-Infeld (NBI) matter on the brane. In the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) model the scale non-invariant NBI matter gives rise to an equation of state which asymptotes to the string gas equation $p=-\\epsilon/3$ and ensures a start-up of the cosmological expansion with zero acceleration. We show that the same state equation in the brane-world setup leads to the Tolman type evolution as if the conformal symmetry was effectively restored. This is not precisely so in the NBI model with symmetrized trace, but the leading term in the expansion law is still the same. A cosmological sphaleron solution on the D-brane is presented.
Will Quantum Cosmology Resurrect Chaotic Inflation Model?
Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Won
2016-07-01
The single field chaotic inflation model with a monomial power greater than one seems to be ruled out by the recent Planck and WMAP CMB data while Starobinsky model with a higher curvature term seems to be a viable model. Higher curvature terms being originated from quantum fluctuations, we revisit the quantum cosmology of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the chaotic inflation model. The semiclassical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology with fluctuations of spacetimes and matter when the wave function is peaked around the semiclassical trajectory with quantum corrections a la the de Broglie-Bohm pilot theory.
Will quantum cosmology resurrect chaotic inflation model?
Kim, Sang Pyo
2016-01-01
The single field chaotic inflation model with a monomial power greater than one seems to be ruled out by the recent Planck and WMAP CMB data while Starobinsky model with a higher curvature term seems to be a viable model. Higher curvature terms being originated from quantum fluctuations, we revisit the quantum cosmology of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for the chaotic inflation model. The semiclassical cosmology emerges from quantum cosmology with fluctuations of spacetimes and matter when the wave function is peaked around the semiclassical trajectory with quantum corrections a la the de Broglie-Bohm pilot theory.
Cosmic Evolution in Fractional Action Cosmology
Shchigolev, V K
2013-01-01
For the fractional action cosmological model, derived earlier by the author from the variational principle for a fractional action functional, the exact solutions are obtained. The case of a quasi - vacuum state of matter that fills the universe is considered. Moreover, on the basis of specific ansatz proposed in this paper for the cosmological term, the class of exact solutions of the model equations is obtained. Examples for some given laws of the cosmological term evolution are provided. Besides, a formula for the effective equation of state is derived, and the deceleration parameter of the obtained models is studied.
Mak, M K; Harko, T
2001-01-01
We consider the evolution of a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, filled with a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid, in the presence of variable gravitational and cosmological constants. The basic equation for the Hubble parameter, generalizing the evolution equation in the case of constant gravitational coupling and cosmological term, is derived, under the supplementary assumption that the total energy of the Universe is conserved. By assuming that the cosmological constant is proportional to the square of the Hubble parameter and a power law dependence of the bulk viscosity coefficient, temperature and relaxation time on the energy density of the cosmological fluid, two classes of exact solutions of the field equations are obtained. In the first class of solutions the Universe ends in an inflationary era, while in the second class of solutions the expansion of the Universe is non-inflationary for all times. In both models the cosmological "constant" is a decreasing function of time, while the grav...
Mastrolonardo, Giovanni; Francioso, Ornella; Carrari, Elisa; Brogi, Cristiana; Venturi, Martina; Certini, Giacomo
2017-04-01
) ranged between 2.5% and 15%, that is 1.2% to 4.2% of the C stored in the whole forest ecosystem, including litter, deadwood and above and below biomass. Taking into account the very long residence time of pyrogenic C in soil, charcoal kilns have great environmental significance in terms of climate change mitigation. The results of this study stress the importance of safeguarding relic charcoal kilns as a significant C reservoir, as well as a precious historical memory of the customs and traditions of past generations.
A Population of Relic Intermediate-Mass Black Holes in the Halo of the Milky Way
Rashkov, Valery
2013-01-01
If "seed" central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M_BH-sigma_* relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological "live" host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, sigma_m, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ~2000 (sigma_m=3 km/s) or as few as ~70 (sigma_m=12 km/s) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the M...
Nojiri, S; Oikonomou, V K
2016-01-01
We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to solve the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein-Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology, of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology, of the Type IV singular cosmology and of the $R^2$ inflation cosmology. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, the graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualita...
Kunze, Kerstin E
2016-01-01
Cosmology is becoming an important tool to test particle physics models. We provide an overview of the standard model of cosmology with an emphasis on the observations relevant for testing fundamental physics.
Hair, Death, and Memory: The Making of an American Relic
Abigail Heiniger
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This article traces the transformation of hairworks in America during the mid-nineteenth-century. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin transformed the meaning of hair and hairworks in the American cultural imaginary by endowing Little Evangeline St. Clare’s hair with sacred, moralizing power. Likewise, after the Emancipation Proclamation was issued in 1863, President Abraham Lincoln’s hair achieved nationwide, relic-like significance. The Abraham Lincoln Papers contains six hair requests; these letters demonstrate that the cultural meaning of Lincoln’s hair resembles the fictional power of Eva’s hair in Stowe’s novel. Analyzing this phenomena of relic-like hair modifies our understanding of the unprecedented sentimental reaction to Lincoln’s assassination and particularly the fascination with seeing and approaching the president’s body.
Magnetic domain walls of relic neutrinos as Dark Energy
Yajnik, U A
2006-01-01
The observed Dark Energy component of the cosmic energy density is well fitted by domain wall matter which scales as $S(t)^{-1}$ where $S$ is the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) scale factor. We show that relic neutrinos of the Big Bang can enter a ferromagnetic state governed by Stoner theory provided they are a degenerate gas and possess a magnetic moment. The domain walls of this ferromagnetism behave as Dark Energy. The degeneracy requirement accords with Big Bang nucleosynthesis expectations of large chemical potentials for neutrinos and provides an estimate for the same. At least one of the the mass eigenstate neutrinos would have to possess a magnetic moment greater than $10^{-9}$ Bohr magneton. Any other relic contributing to Hot Dark Matter could also provide an interesting candidate.
A shock front at the radio relic of Abell 2744
Eckert, D.; Jauzac, M.; Vazza, F.; Owers, M. S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Tchernin, C.; Intema, H.; Knowles, K.
2016-09-01
Radio relics are Mpc-scale diffuse radio sources at the peripheries of galaxy clusters which are thought to trace outgoing merger shocks. We present XMM-Newton and Suzaku observations of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 (z = 0.306), which reveal the presence of a shock front 1.5 Mpc east of the cluster core. The surface-brightness jump coincides with the position of a known radio relic. Although the surface-brightness jump indicates a weak shock with a Mach number M=1.7_{-0.3}^{+0.5}, the plasma in the post-shock region has been heated to a very high temperature (˜13 keV) by the passage of the shock wave. The low-acceleration efficiency expected from such a weak shock suggests that mildly relativistic electrons have been re-accelerated by the passage of the shock front.
Numeric Spectrum of Relic Gravitational Waves in Accelerating Universe
ZHANG Yang; ZHAO Wen; YUAN Ye-Fei; XIA Tian-Yang
2005-01-01
@@ The accelerating expansion of the Universe in the present stage is a process that will change the spectrum of relic gravitational waves. Here we present a numerical calculation for the power spectrum of relic gravitational waves in the accelerating Universe. The results show that although the overall features of the power spectrum are similar to those in the non-accelerating models, the amplitude is smaller in order of 10-1. We also find that the spectrum is very sensitive to the index β of the inflationary expansion with the scale factor a(τ) ∝ |τ|1+β. With increase of β, the resulting spectrum tends to be flatter with more power on high frequencies, and the sensitivity of the second science run of the LIGO detectors puts a restriction on the parameterβ＜ -1.8. The influence of reheating followed by the inflation has been examined.
Nonlinear field space cosmology
Mielczarek, Jakub; Trześniewski, Tomasz
2017-08-01
We consider the FRW cosmological model in which the matter content of the Universe (playing the role of an inflaton or quintessence) is given by a novel generalization of the massive scalar field. The latter is a scalar version of the recently introduced nonlinear field space theory, where the physical phase space of a given field is assumed to be compactified at large energies. For our analysis, we choose the simple case of a field with the spherical phase space and endow it with the generalized Hamiltonian analogous to the XXZ Heisenberg model, normally describing a system of spins in condensed matter physics. Subsequently, we study both the homogenous cosmological sector and linear perturbations of such a test field. In the homogenous sector, we find that nonlinearity of the field phase space is becoming relevant for large volumes of the Universe and can lead to a recollapse, and possibly also at very high energies, leading to the phase of a bounce. Quantization of the field is performed in the limit where the nontrivial nature of its phase space can be neglected, while there is a nonvanishing contribution from the Lorentz symmetry breaking term of the Hamiltonian. As a result, in the leading order of the XXZ anisotropy parameter, we find that the inflationary spectral index remains unmodified with respect to the standard case but the total amplitude of perturbations is subject to a correction. The Bunch-Davies vacuum state also becomes appropriately corrected. The proposed new approach is bringing cosmology and condensed matter physics closer together, which may turn out to be beneficial for both disciplines.
Roos, Matts
2015-01-01
The Fourth Edition of Introduction to Cosmology provides a concise, authoritative study of cosmology at an introductory level. Starting from elementary principles and the early history of cosmology, the text carefully guides the student on to curved spacetimes, special and general relativity, gravitational lensing, the thermal history of the Universe, and cosmological models, including extended gravity models, black holes and Hawking's recent conjectures on the not-so-black holes.
Neutralino Relic Density in the CPVMSSM at the ILC
Bélanger, G; Kraml, S; Martyn, H U; Pukhov, A
2009-01-01
We discuss ILC measurements for a specific MSSM scenario with CP phases, where the lightest neutralino, a candidate for dark matter, annihilates through t-channel exchange of light staus. These prospective ILC measurements are used to fit the underlying model parameters. A collider prediction of the relic density of the neutralino from this fit gives 0.116
Davydov, Evgeny
2011-01-01
Vector fields can arise in the cosmological context in different ways, and we discuss both abelian and nonabelian sector. In the abelian sector vector fields of the geometrical origin (from dimensional reduction and Einstein-Eddington modification of gravity) can provide a very non-trivial dynamics, which can be expressed in terms of the effective dilaton-scalar gravity with the specific potential. In the non-abelian sector we investigate the Yang-Mills SU(2) theory which admits isotropic and homogeneous configuration. Provided the non-linear dependence of the lagrangian on the invariant F*F(dual), one can obtain the inflationary regime with the exponential growth of the scale factor. The effective amplitudes of the 'electric' and 'magnetic' components behave like slowly varying scalars at this regime, what allows the consideration of some realistic models with non-linear terms in the Yang-Mills lagrangian.
Re-acceleration model for the "Toothbrush" Radio Relic
Kang, Hyesung
2016-01-01
The Toothbrush radio relic associated the merging cluster 1RXS J060303.3 is presumed to be produced by relativistic electrons accelerated at merger-driven shocks. Since the shock Mach number inferred from the observed radio spectral index, $M_{radio}\\approx 2.8$, is larger than that estimated from X-ray observations, $M_{X-ray}\\lesssim 1.5$, we consider the re-acceleration model in which a weak shock of $M_s\\approx 1.2-1.5$ sweeps through the intracluster plasma with a preshock population of relativistic electrons. We find the models with a power-law momentum spectrum with the slope, $s\\approx 4.6$, and the cutoff Lorentz factor, $\\gamma_{e,c}\\approx 7-8\\times 10^4$ can reproduce reasonably well the observed profiles of radio fluxes and integrated radio spectrum of the head portion of the Toothbrush relic. This study confirms the strong connection between the ubiquitous presence of fossil relativistic plasma originated from AGNs and the shock-acceleration model of radio relics in the intracluster medium.
Re-acceleration Model for Radio Relics with Spectral Curvature
Kang, Hyesung
2016-01-01
Most of the observed features of radio gischt relics such as spectral steepening across the relic width and power-law-like integrated spectrum can be adequately explained by diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) model, in which relativistic electrons are (re-)accelerated at shock waves induced in the intracluster medium. However, Kang & Ryu (2015) showed that the steep spectral curvature in the integrated spectrum above $\\sim 2$ GHz detected in the Sausage relic in cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301 may not be interpreted by simple radiative cooling of postshock electrons. In order to understand such steepening, we here consider a model in which a spherical shock sweeps through and then exits out of a finite-size cloud with fossil relativistic electrons. The ensuing integrated radio spectrum is expected to steepen much more than predicted for aging postshock electrons, since the re-acceleration stops after the cloud-crossing time. Using DSA simulations that are intended to reproduce radio observations of the Sausage ...
A shock at the radio relic position in Abell 115
Botteon, A; Brunetti, G; Dallacasa, D
2016-01-01
We analyzed a deep Chandra observation (334 ks) of the galaxy cluster Abell 115 and detected a shock co-spatial with the radio relic. The X-ray surface brightness profile across the shock region presents a discontinuity, corresponding to a density compression factor $\\mathcal{C}=2.0\\pm0.1$ leading to a Mach number $\\mathcal{M}=1.7\\pm0.1$ ($\\mathcal{M}=1.4-2$ including systematics). Temperatures measured in the upstream and downstream regions are consistent with what expected for such a shock: $T_u=4.3^{+1.0}_{-0.6}\\:\\rm{keV}$ and $T_d=7.9^{+1.4}_{-1.1}\\:\\rm{keV}$ respectively, implying a Mach number $\\mathcal{M}=1.8^{+0.5}_{-0.4}$. So far, only few other shocks discovered in galaxy clusters are consistently detected from both density and temperature jumps. The spatial coincidence between this discontinuity and the radio relic edge strongly supports the view that shocks play a crucial role in powering these synchrotron sources. We suggest that the relic is originated by shock re-acceleration of relativistic el...
Re-Acceleration Model for the "Toothbrush" Radio Relic
Kang, Hyesung
2016-06-01
The Toothbrush radio relic associated with the merging cluster 1RXS J060303.3 is presumed to be produced by relativistic electrons accelerated at merger-driven shocks. Since the shock Mach number inferred from the observed radio spectral index, M_{radio}≈ 2.8, is larger than that estimated from X-ray observations, M_{X}≲ 1.5, we consider the re-acceleration model in which a weak shock of M_s≈ 1.2-1.5 sweeps through the intracluster plasma with a preshock population of relativistic electrons. We find the models with a power-law momentum spectrum with the slope, s≈ 4.6, and the cutoff Lorentz factor, γ_{e,c}≈ 7-8× 10^4 can reproduce reasonably well the observed profiles of radio fluxes and integrated radio spectrum of the head portion of the Toothbrush relic.This study confirms the strong connection between the ubiquitous presence of fossil relativistic plasma originated from AGNs and the shock-acceleration model of radio relics in the intracluster medium.
Tarun Sandeep
2004-10-01
Cosmology is passing through a golden phase of rapid advance. The cosmology workshop at ICGC-2004 attracted a large number of research contributions to diverse topics of cosmology. I attempt to classify and summarize the research work and results of the oral and poster presentations made at the meeting.
Disney, M J
2000-01-01
It is argued that some of the recent claims for cosmology are grossly overblown. Cosmology rests on a very small database: it suffers from many fundamental difficulties as a science (if it is a science at all) whilst observations of distant phenomena are difficult to make and harder to interpret. It is suggested that cosmological inferences should be tentatively made and sceptically received.
Higgsino Dark Matter and the Cosmological Gravitino Problem
Sinha, Kuver
2012-01-01
We motivate Higgsino dark matter from a solution to the cosmological moduli/gravitino problem. Cosmological moduli/gravitino should be heavy enough to decay before the onset of Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, and this requirement typically forces gauginos to have masses above a TeV in Type IIB compactifications. Higgsinos emerge as the viable sub-TeV dark matter candidates if anomaly and modulus mediated contributions to supersymmetry breaking are both competitive. Obtaining the correct relic density in this mass range forces Higgsinos to be produced non-thermally from the decay of a modulus. We outline constraints arising from indirect and direct detection experiments in this context, as well as theoretical constraints such as the overproduction of dark matter from gravitino decay.
Bojowald, Martin
The universe, ultimately, is to be described by quantum theory. Quantum aspects of all there is, including space and time, may not be significant for many purposes, but are crucial for some. And so a quantum description of cosmology is required for a complete and consistent worldview. At any rate, even if we were not directly interested in regimes where quantum cosmology plays a role, a complete physical description could not stop at a stage before the whole universe is reached. Quantum theory is essential in the microphysics of particles, atoms, molecules, solids, white dwarfs and neutron stars. Why should one expect this ladder of scales to end at a certain size? If regimes are sufficiently violent and energetic, quantum effects are non-negligible even on scales of the whole cosmos; this is realized at least once in the history of the universe: at the big bang where the classical theory of general relativity would make energy densities diverge. 1.Lachieze-Rey, M., Luminet, J.P.: Phys. Rept. 254,135 (1995), gr-qc/9605010 2.BSDeWitt1967Phys. Rev.160511131967PhRv..160.1113D0158.4650410.1103/PhysRev.160.1113DeWitt, B.S.: Phys. Rev. 160(5), 1113 (1967) 3.Wiltshire, D.L.: In: Robson B., Visvanathan N., Woolcock W.S. (eds.) Cosmology: The Physics of the Universe, pp. 473-531. World Scientific, Singapore (1996). gr-qc/0101003 4.Isham C.J.: In: DeWitt, B.S., Stora, R. (eds.) Relativity, Groups and Topology II. Lectures Given at the 1983 Les Houches Summer School on Relativity, Groups and Topology, Elsevier Science Publishing Company (1986) 5.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 12, 1769 (2003), gr-qc/0305067 6.Klauder, J.: Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys. 3, 81 (2006), gr-qc/0507113 7.DGiulini1995Phys. Rev. D5110563013381161995PhRvD..51.5630G10.1103/PhysRevD.51.5630Giulini, D.: Phys. Rev. D 51(10), 5630 (1995) 8.Kiefer, C., Zeh, H.D.: Phys. Rev. D 51, 4145 (1995), gr-qc/9402036 9.WFBlythCJIsham1975Phys. Rev. D117684086991975PhRvD..11..768B10.1103/PhysRevD.11.768Blyth, W
Burns, Jack O.; Datta, Abhirup; Hallman, Eric J.
2016-06-01
Galaxy clusters are assembled through large and small mergers which are the most energetic events ("bangs") since the Big Bang. Cluster mergers "stir" the intracluster medium (ICM) creating shocks and turbulence which are illuminated by ~Mpc-sized radio features called relics and halos. These shocks heat the ICM and are detected in x-rays via thermal emission. Disturbed morphologies in x-ray surface brightness and temperatures are direct evidence for cluster mergers. In the radio, relics (in the outskirts of the clusters) and halos (located near the cluster core) are also clear signposts of recent mergers. Our recent ENZO cosmological simulations suggest that around a merger event, radio emission peaks very sharply (and briefly) while the x-ray emission rises and decays slowly. Hence, a sample of galaxy clusters that shows both luminous x-ray emission and radio relics/halos are good candidates for very recent mergers. We are in the early stages of analyzing a unique sample of 48 galaxy clusters with (i) known radio relics and/or halos and (ii) significant archival x-ray observations (>50 ksec) from Chandra and/or XMM. We have developed a new x-ray data analysis pipeline, implemented on parallel processor supercomputers, to create x-ray surface brightness, high fidelity temperature, and pressure maps of these clusters in order to study merging activity. The temperature maps are made using three different map-making techniques: Weighted Voronoi Tessellation, Adaptive Circular Binning, and Contour Binning. In this talk, we will show preliminary results for several clusters, including Abell 2744 and the Bullet cluster. This work is supported by NASA ADAP grant NNX15AE17G.
Chamcham, Khalil; Silk, Joseph; Barrow, John D.; Saunders, Simon
2017-04-01
Part I. Issues in the Philosophy of Cosmology: 1. Cosmology, cosmologia and the testing of cosmological theories George F. R. Ellis; 2. Black holes, cosmology and the passage of time: three problems at the limits of science Bernard Carr; 3. Moving boundaries? – comments on the relationship between philosophy and cosmology Claus Beisbart; 4. On the question why there exists something rather than nothing Roderich Tumulka; Part II. Structures in the Universe and the Structure of Modern Cosmology: 5. Some generalities about generality John D. Barrow; 6. Emergent structures of effective field theories Jean-Philippe Uzan; 7. Cosmological structure formation Joel R. Primack; 8. Formation of galaxies Joseph Silk; Part III. Foundations of Cosmology: Gravity and the Quantum: 9. The observer strikes back James Hartle and Thomas Hertog; 10. Testing inflation Chris Smeenk; 11. Why Boltzmann brains do not fluctuate into existence from the de Sitter vacuum Kimberly K. Boddy, Sean M. Carroll and Jason Pollack; 12. Holographic inflation revised Tom Banks; 13. Progress and gravity: overcoming divisions between general relativity and particle physics and between physics and HPS J. Brian Pitts; Part IV. Quantum Foundations and Quantum Gravity: 14. Is time's arrow perspectival? Carlo Rovelli; 15. Relational quantum cosmology Francesca Vidotto; 16. Cosmological ontology and epistemology Don N. Page; 17. Quantum origin of cosmological structure and dynamical reduction theories Daniel Sudarsky; 18. Towards a novel approach to semi-classical gravity Ward Struyve; Part V. Methodological and Philosophical Issues: 19. Limits of time in cosmology Svend E. Rugh and Henrik Zinkernagel; 20. Self-locating priors and cosmological measures Cian Dorr and Frank Arntzenius; 21. On probability and cosmology: inference beyond data? Martin Sahlén; 22. Testing the multiverse: Bayes, fine-tuning and typicality Luke A. Barnes; 23. A new perspective on Einstein's philosophy of cosmology Cormac O
FLRW viscous cosmological models
Khadekar, G S; Meng, X -H
2016-01-01
In this paper we solve Friedmann equations by considering a universal media as a non-perfect fluid with bulk viscosity and is described by a general "gamma law" equation of state of the form $p= (\\gamma -1) \\rho + \\Lambda(t)$, where the adiabatic parameter $\\gamma$ varies with scale factor $R$ of the metric and $\\Lambda$ is the time dependent cosmological constant. A unified description of the early evolution of the universe is presented by assuming the bulk viscosity and cosmological parameter in a linear combination of two terms of the form: $\\Lambda(t)=\\Lambda_{0} + \\Lambda_{1}\\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$ and $\\zeta = \\zeta_{0} + \\zeta_{1} \\frac{\\dot{R}}{R}$, where $\\Lambda_{0},\\;\\Lambda_{1},\\, \\zeta_{0}$ and $ \\zeta_{1}$ are constants, in which an inflationary phase is followed by the radiation dominated phase. For this general gamma law equation of state, an entirely integrable dynamical equation to the scale factor $R$ is obtained along with its exact solutions. In this framework we demonstrate that the model can...
Tseytlin, Arkady A
1992-01-01
Aspects of string cosmology for critical and non-critical strings are discussed emphasizing the necessity to account for the dilaton dynamics for a proper incorporation of ``large - small" duality. This drastically modifies the intuition one has with Einstein's gravity. For example winding modes, even though contribute to energy density, oppose expansion and if not annihilated will stop the expansion. Moreover we find that the radiation dominated era of the standard cosmology emerges quite naturally in string cosmology. Our analysis of non-critical string cosmology provides a reinterpretation of the (universal cover of the) recently studied two dimensional black hole solution as a conformal realization of cosmological solutions found previously by Mueller.
New Cosmological Solutions in Massive Gravity Theory
Pinho, S. S. A.; Pereira, S. H.; Mendonça, E. L.
2017-04-01
In this paper we present some new cosmological solutions in massive gravity theory. Some homogeneous and isotropic solutions correctly describe accelerated evolutions for the universe. The study was realized considering a specific form to the fiducial metric and found different functions and constant parameters of the theory that guarantee the conservation of the energy momentum tensor. Several accelerating cosmologies were found, all of them reproducing a cosmological constant term proportional to the graviton mass, with a de Sitter type solution for the scale factor. We have also verified that when the fiducial metric is close to the physical metric the solutions are absent, except for some specific open cases.
Tipler, Frank J.
1996-10-01
It is generally believed that it is not possible to rigorously analyze a homogeneous and isotropic cosmological model in Newtonian mechanics. I show on the contrary that if Newtonian gravity theory is rewritten in geometrical language in the manner outlined in 1923-1924 by Élie Cartan [Ann. Ecole Norm. Sup. 40, 325-412 (1923); 41, 1-25 (1924)], then Newtonian cosmology is as rigorous as Friedmann cosmology. In particular, I show that the equation of geodesic deviation in Newtonian cosmology is exactly the same as equation of geodesic deviation in the Friedmann universe, and that this equation can be integrated to yield a constraint equation formally identical to the Friedmann equation. However, Newtonian cosmology is more general than Friedmann cosmology: Ever-expanding and recollapsing universes are allowed in any noncompact homogeneous and isotropic spatial topology. I shall give a brief history of attempts to do cosmology in the framework of Newtonian mechanics.
Cosmological constant, violation of cosmological isotropy and CMB
Urban, Federico R.; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: urban@phas.ubc.ca, E-mail: arz@physics.ubc.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. V6T 1Z1 (Canada)
2009-09-01
We suggest that the solution to the cosmological vacuum energy puzzle does not require any new field beyond the standard model, but rather can be explained as a result of the interaction of the infrared sector of the effective theory of gravity with standard model fields. The cosmological constant in this framework can be presented in terms of QCD parameters and the Hubble constant H as follows, ε{sub vac} ≅ H⋅m{sub q}( q-bar q)/m{sub η'} ≅ (4.3⋅10{sup −3}eV){sup 4}, which is amazingly close to the observed value today. In this work we explain how this proposal can be tested by analyzing CMB data. In particular, knowing the value of the observed cosmological constant fixes univocally the smallest size of the spatially flat, constant time 3d hypersurface which, for instance in the case of an effective 1-torus, is predicted to be around 74 Gpc. We also comment on another important prediction of this framework which is a violation of cosmological isotropy. Such anisotropy is indeed apparently observed by WMAP, and will be confirmed (or ruled out) by future PLANCK data.
Cosmological constant, violation of cosmological isotropy and CMB
Urban, Federico R
2009-01-01
We suggest that the solution to the cosmological vacuum energy puzzle does not require any new field beyond the standard model, but rather can be explained as a result of the interaction of the infrared sector of the effective theory of gravity with standard model fields. The cosmological constant in this framework can be presented in terms of QCD parameters and the Hubble constant $H$ as follows, $\\epsilon_{vac} \\sim H \\cdot m_q\\la\\bar{q}q\\ra /m_{\\eta'} \\sim (4.3\\cdot 10^{-3} \\text{eV})^4$, which is amazingly close to the observed value today. In this work we explain how this proposal can be tested by analyzing CMB data. In particular, knowing the value of the observed cosmological constant fixes univocally the smallest size of the spatially flat, constant time 3d hypersurface which, for instance in the case of an effective 1-torus, is predicted to be around 74 Gpc. We also comment on another important prediction of this framework which is a violation of cosmological isotropy. Such anisotropy is indeed appar...
Cosmological Measurements with General Relativistic Galaxy Correlations
Raccanelli, Alvise; Bertacca, Daniele; Doré, Olivier; Durrer, Ruth
2015-01-01
We investigate the cosmological dependence and the constraining power of large-scale galaxy correlations, including all redshift-distortions, wide-angle, lensing and gravitational potential effects on linear scales. We analyze the cosmological information present in the lensing convergence and in the gravitational potential terms describing the so-called "relativistic effects," and we find that, while smaller than the information contained in intrinsic galaxy clustering, it is not negligible. We investigate how neglecting them does bias cosmological measurements performed by future spectroscopic and photometric large-scale surveys such as SKA and Euclid. We perform a Fisher analysis using the CLASS code, modified to include scale-dependent galaxy bias and redshift-dependent magnification and evolution bias. Our results show that neglecting relativistic terms introduces an error in the forecasted precision in measuring cosmological parameters of the order of a few tens of percent, in particular when measuring ...
The case for the cosmological constant
Varun Sahni
2000-07-01
I present a short overview of current observational results and theoretical models for a cosmological constant. The main motivation for invoking a small cosmological constant (or -term) at the present epoch has to do with observations of high redshift Type Ia supernovae which suggest an accelerating universe. A ﬂat accelerating universe is strongly favoured by combining supernovae observations with observations of CMB anisotropies on degree scales which give the `best-ﬁt’ values ≃ 0.7 and m ≃ 0.3. A time dependent cosmological -term can be generated by scalar ﬁeld models with exponential and power law potentials. Some of these models can alleviate the `ﬁne tuning’ problem which faces the cosmological constant.
General Gauss-Bonnet brane cosmology
Charmousis, Christos; Dufaux, Jean-Francois [LPT, Universite de Paris-Sud, Bat 210, 91405 Orsay (France)
2002-09-21
We consider five-dimensional spacetimes of constant three-dimensional spatial curvature in the presence of a bulk cosmological constant. We find the general solution of such a configuration in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Two classes of non-trivial bulk solutions are found. The first class is valid only under a fine-tuning relation between the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant and the cosmological constant of the bulk spacetime. The second class of solutions are static and are the extensions of the AdS-Schwarzchild black holes. Hence in the absence of a cosmological constant or if the fine-tuning relation is not true, the generalized Birkhoff's staticity theorem holds even in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms. We examine the consequences in braneworld cosmology obtaining the generalized Friedmann equations for a perfect fluid 3-brane and discuss how this modifies the usual scenario.
General Gauss-Bonnet brane cosmology
Charmousis, C; Charmousis, Christos; Dufaux, Jean-Francois
2002-01-01
We consider 5-dimensional spacetimes of constant 3-dimensional spatial curvature in the presence of a bulk cosmological constant. We find the general solution of such a configuration in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Two classes of non-trivial bulk solutions are found. The first class is valid only under a fine tuning relation between the Gauss-Bonnet coupling constant and the cosmological constant of the bulk spacetime. The second class of solutions are static and are the extensions of the AdS-Schwarzchild black holes. Hence in the absence of a cosmological constant or if the fine tuning relation is not true, the generalised Birkhoff's staticity theorem holds even in the presence of Gauss-Bonnet curvature terms. We examine the consequences in brane world cosmology obtaining the generalised Friedmann equations for a perfect fluid 3-brane and discuss how this modifies the usual scenario.
The widest-frequency radio relic spectra: observations from 150 MHz to 30 GHz
Stroe, Andra; Rumsey, Clare; van Weeren, Reinout; Kierdorf, Maja; Donnert, Julius; Jones, Thomas W; Röttgering, Huub J A; Hoeft, Matthias; Rodriguez-Gonzalvez, Carmen; Harwood, Jeremy J; Saunders, Richard D E
2015-01-01
Radio relics are patches of diffuse synchrotron radio emission that trace shock waves. Relics are thought to form when intra-cluster medium electrons are accelerated by cluster merger induced shock waves through the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. In this paper, we present observations spanning 150 MHz to 30 GHz of the `Sausage' and `Toothbrush' relics from the Giant Metrewave and Westerbork telescopes, the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, the Effelsberg telescope, the Arcminute Microkelvin Imager and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. We detect both relics at 30 GHz, where the previous highest frequency detection was at 16 GHz. The integrated radio spectra of both sources clearly steepen above 2 GHz, at the >6$\\sigma$ significance level, supports the spectral steepening previously found in the `Sausage' and the Abell 2256 relic. Our results challenge the widely adopted simple formation mechanism of radio relics and suggest more complicated models have to be developed that, for ...
Dynamical system approach to running $\\Lambda$ cosmological models
Stachowski, Aleksander
2016-01-01
We discussed the dynamics of cosmological models in which the cosmological constant term is a time dependent function through the scale factor $a(t)$, Hubble function $H(t)$, Ricci scalar $R(t)$ and scalar field $\\phi(t)$. We considered five classes of models; two non-covariant parametrization of $\\Lambda$: 1) $\\Lambda(H)$CDM cosmologies where $H(t)$ is the Hubble parameter, 2) $\\Lambda(a)$CDM cosmologies where $a(t)$ is the scale factor, and three covariant parametrization of $\\Lambda$: 3) $\\Lambda(R)$CDM cosmologies, where $R(t)$ is the Ricci scalar, 4) $\\Lambda(\\phi)$-cosmologies with diffusion, 5) $\\Lambda(X)$-cosmologies, where $X=\\frac{1}{2}g^{\\alpha\\beta}\
Fundamental Questions of Practical Cosmology Exploring the Realm of Galaxies
Baryshev, Yurij
2012-01-01
This book guides readers (astronomers, physicists, and university students) through central questions of Practical Cosmology, a term used by the late Allan Sandage to denote the modern scientific endeavor to find the cosmological model best describing the universe of galaxies, its geometry, size, age, and matter composition. The authors draw on their personal experience in astrophysics and cosmology to explain key concepts of cosmology, both observational and theoretical, and to highlight several items which give cosmology its special character. These highlighted items are: - Idiosyncratic features of the “cosmic laboratory” - Malmquist bias in the determination of cosmic distances - Theory of gravitation as a cornerstone of cosmological models - Crucial tests for checking the reality of space expansion - Methods of analyzing the structures of the universe as mapped by galaxies - Usefulness of fractals as a model to describe the large-scale structure - New cosmological physics inherent in the Frie...
Anomaly Mediation and Cosmology
Basboll, A; Jones, D R T
2011-01-01
We consider an extension of the MSSM wherein anomaly mediation is the source of supersymmetry-breaking, and the tachyonic slepton problem is solved by a Fayet-Iliopoulos (FI) $D$-term associated with an additional $U(1)$ symmetry, which also facilitates the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses and a natural source for the Higgs $\\mu$-term. We explore the cosmological consequences of the model, showing that the model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, terminating in the production of cosmic strings. In spite of the presence of a $U(1)$ with an FI term, inflation is effected by the $F$-term, with a $D$-flat tree potential (the FI term being cancelled by non-zero squark and slepton fields). Calculating the 1-loop corrections to the inflaton potential, we estimate the constraints on the parameters of the model from Cosmic Microwave Background data. We briefly discuss the mechanisms for baryogenesis via conventional leptogenesis, the out-of-equilibrium production of neutrinos from the cosmic strings...
Supersymmetric classical cosmology
Escamilla-Rivera, Celia; Urena-Lopez, L Arturo
2010-01-01
In this work a supersymmetric cosmological model is analyzed in which we consider a general superfield action of a homogeneous scalar field supermultiplet interacting with the scale factor in a supersymmetric FRW model. There appear fermionic superpartners associated with both the scale factor and the scalar field, and classical equations of motion are obtained from the super-Wheeler-DeWitt equation through the usual WKB method. The resulting supersymmetric Einstein-Klein-Gordon equations contain extra radiation and stiff matter terms, and we study their solutions in flat space for different scalar field potentials. The solutions are compared to the standard case, in particular those corresponding to the exponential potential, and their implications for the dynamics of the early Universe are discussed in turn.
Splotch: Visualizing Cosmological Simulations
Dolag, K; Gheller, C; Imboden, S
2008-01-01
We present a light and fast, public available, ray-tracer {\\tt Splotch} software tool which supports the effective visualization of cosmological simulations data. We describe the algorithm it relies on, which is designed in order to deal with point-like data, optimizing the ray-tracing calculation by ordering the particles as a function of their ``depth'' defined as a function of one of the coordinates or other associated parameter. Realistic three-dimensional impressions are reached through a composition of the final color in each pixel properly calculating emission and absorption of individual volume elements. We describe several scientific as well as public applications realized with {\\tt Splotch}. We emphasize how different datasets and configurations lead to remarkable different results in terms of the images and animations. A few of these results are available online.
Bell, Nicole F.
2003-01-01
We review the consequences of neutrino mixing in the early universe. For both active-sterile mixing or mixing between three active neutrinos only, the consequences of oscillations depend crucially upon the size of the universe's lepton number (relic neutrino asymmetry.)
Lovell, Mark R; Boyarsky, Alexey; Crain, Robert A; Frenk, Carlos S; Hellwing, Wojciech A; Ludlow, Aaron D; Navarro, Julio F; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom
2016-01-01
We study galaxy formation in sterile neutrino dark matter models that differ significantly from both cold and from `warm thermal relic' models. We use the EAGLE code to carry out hydrodynamic simulations of the evolution of pairs of galaxies chosen to resemble the Local Group, as part of the APOSTLE simulations project. We compare cold dark matter (CDM) with two sterile neutrino models with 7 keV mass: one, the warmest among all models of this mass (LA120) and the other, a relatively cold case (LA10). We show that the lower concentration of sterile neutrino subhalos compared to their CDM counterparts makes the inferred inner dark matter content of galaxies like Fornax (or Magellanic Clouds) less of an outlier in the sterile neutrino cosmologies. In terms of the galaxy number counts the LA10 simulations are \\emph{indistinguishable} from CDM when one takes into account halo-to-halo (or `simulation-to-simulation') scatter. In order for the LA120 model to match the number of Local Group dwarf galaxies, a higher f...
Another Shock for the Bullet Cluster, and the Source of Seed Electrons for Radio Relics
Shimwell, Timothy W,; Markevitch, Maxim; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B. M.; Johnston-Hollitt, M.; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav
2015-01-01
With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E 0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2:30:11025 WHz(exp -1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94% of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster - a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re- )acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming from a local remnant of a radio galaxy, which we are lucky to catch before its complete disruption. If this scenario, in which a relic forms when a shock crosses a well-defined region of the ICM polluted with aged relativistic plasma - as opposed to the usual assumption that seeds are uniformly mixed in the ICM - is also the case for other relics, this may explain a number of peculiar properties of peripheral relics.
Cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric gravity
Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee
2016-01-01
We develop the model proposed by Cort\\^es, Gomes & Smolin, to predict cosmological signatures of time-asymmetric extensions of general relativity they proposed recently. Within this class of models the equation of motion of chiral fermions is modified by a torsion term. This term leads to a dispersion law for neutrinos that associates a new time-varying energy with each particle. We find a new neutrino contribution to the Friedmann equation resulting from the torsion term in the Ashtekar connection. In this note we explore the phenomenology of this term and observational consequences for cosmological evolution. We show that constraints on the critical energy density will ordinarily render this term unobservably small, a maximum of order $10^{-25}$ of the neutrino energy density today. However, if the time-asymmetric dark energy is tuned to cancel the cosmological constant, the torsion effect may be a dark matter candidate.
Supernova Relic Neutrino Search at Super-Kamiokande
Bays, K; Abe, K; Hayato, Y; Iyogi, K; Kameda, J; Koshio, Y; Marti, L; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakayama, S; Obayashi, Y; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takenaga, Y; Ueno, K; Kajita, K Ueshima S Yamada T Yokozawa H Kaji T; Kaneyuki, K; McLachlan, T; Okumura, K; Pik, L K; Martens, K; Vagins, M; Labarga, L; Kearns, E; Litos, M; Raaf, J L; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Kropp, W R; Mine, S; Regis, C; Renshaw, A; Smy, M B; Sobel, H W; Ganezer, K S; Hill, J; Keig, W E; Cho, S; Jang, J S; Kim, J Y; Lim, I T; Albert, J; Scholberg, K; Walter, C W; Wendell, R; Wongjirad, T; Ishizuka, T; Tasaka, S; Learned, J G; Matsuno, S; Smith, S; Hasegawa, T; Ishida, T; Ishii, T; Kobayashi, T; Nakadaira, T; Nakamura, K; Nishikawa, K; Oyama, Y; Sakashita, K; Sekiguchi, T; Tsukamoto, T; Suzuki, A T; Takeuchi, Y; Ikeda, M; Matsuoka, K; Minamino, A; Murakami, A; Nakaya, T; Fukuda, Y; Itow, Y; Mitsuka, G; Miyake, M; Tanaka, T; Hignight, J; Imber, J; Jung, C K; Taylor, I; Yanagisawa, C; Kibayashi, A; Ishino, H; Mino, S; Sakuda, M; Mori, T; Toyota, H; Kuno, Y; Kim, S B; Yang, B S; Okazawa, H; Choi, Y; Nishijima, K; Koshiba, M; Totsuka, Y; Yokoyama, M; Heng, Y; Chen, S; Zhang, H; Yang, Z; Mijakowski, P; Connolly, K; Dziomba, M; Wilkes, R J
2011-01-01
A new Super-Kamiokande (SK) search for Supernova Relic Neutrinos (SRNs) was conducted using 2853 live days of data. Sensitivity is now greatly improved compared to the 2003 SK result, which placed a flux limit near many theoretical predictions. This more detailed analysis includes a variety of improvements such as increased efficiency, a lower energy threshold, and an expanded data set. New combined upper limits on SRN flux are between 2.8 and 3.0 nu_e cm^-2 s^-1 > 16 MeV total positron energy (17.3 MeV E_nu).
Predicting the neutralino relic density in the MSSM more precisely
Harz, Julia; Klasen, Michael; Kovařík, Karol; Steppeler, Patrick
2016-01-01
The dark matter relic density being a powerful observable to constrain models of new physics, the recent experimental progress calls for more precise theoretical predictions. On the particle physics side, improvements are to be made in the calculation of the (co)annihilation cross-section of the dark matter particle. We present the project DM@NLO which aims at calculating the neutralino (co)annihilation cross-section in the MSSM including radiative corrections in QCD. In the present document, we briefly review selected results for different (co)annihilation processes. We then discuss the estimation of the associated theory uncertainty obtained by varying the renormalization scale. Finally, perspectives are discussed.
Investigation of laser cleaning on bronze cultural relics
Ling, Xiulan; Wang, Gao; Zhang, Chen
2016-05-01
The effects of laser cleaning on the corrosion layers of bronze cultural relics were studied using a pulsed fiber laser. The laser cleaning threshold value of the corrosion layers was obtained. It was found that the corrosion layer was removed successfully by employing a laser fluence value of 0.32 J cm-2 and scanning for three times. To obtain experimental evidence, laser con-focal scanning microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS), laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser Raman spectroscopy were employed to investigate the cleaning efficiency of corrosion layers on specimens.
A Search for supernova relic neutrinos at Super-Kamiokande
Iida, Takashi; Bays, Kirk, E-mail: iida@suketto.icrr.u-tokyo.ac.j [ICRR, University of Tokyo, Mozumi, Hida, Gifu (Japan)
2010-01-01
Supernova relic neutrinos (SRN) are the diffuse supernova neutrino background from all past supernovae. No experiment has succeeded in detecting SRN yet. Currently, the Super-Kamiokande experiment has the world's best flux upper limit of 1.2 {nu}-bar {sub e}/cm{sup 2}/sec for E{sub v} < 19.3 MeV. We have worked to improve this value by improving the data analysis. We have achieved better reduction efficiency and lowered the analysis energy threshold by developing a new spallation cut as well as optimizing other cuts.
Relic Gravitational Waves and Trans-Planckian Physics
WU Pu-Xun; YU Hong-Wei
2005-01-01
@@ Assuming that the effects of trans-Planckian physics are encoded in the choice of initial conditions, mode by mode, for vacuum states at the time when its wavelength becomes equal to the scale of new physics (Planck's scale for example), we calculate the spectrum of energy densities of total relic gravitational waves from de Sitter inflation to the matter dominated universe. Our results show that the spectrum acquires corrections due to the consideration of trans-Planckian physics and these corrections depend sensitively on the vacuum state that was actually realized at the beginning of the inflation.
Dynamical system approach to running Λ cosmological models
Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland)
2016-11-15
We study the dynamics of cosmological models with a time dependent cosmological term. We consider five classes of models; two with the non-covariant parametrization of the cosmological term Λ: Λ(H)CDM cosmologies, Λ(a)CDM cosmologies, and three with the covariant parametrization of Λ: Λ(R)CDM cosmologies, where R(t) is the Ricci scalar, Λ(φ)-cosmologies with diffusion, Λ(X)-cosmologies, where X = (1)/(2)g{sup αβ}∇{sub α}∇{sub β}φ is a kinetic part of the density of the scalar field. We also consider the case of an emergent Λ(a) relation obtained from the behaviour of trajectories in a neighbourhood of an invariant submanifold. In the study of the dynamics we used dynamical system methods for investigating how an evolutionary scenario can depend on the choice of special initial conditions. We show that the methods of dynamical systems allow one to investigate all admissible solutions of a running Λ cosmology for all initial conditions. We interpret Alcaniz and Lima's approach as a scaling cosmology. We formulate the idea of an emergent cosmological term derived directly from an approximation of the exact dynamics. We show that some non-covariant parametrization of the cosmological term like Λ(a), Λ(H) gives rise to the non-physical behaviour of trajectories in the phase space. This behaviour disappears if the term Λ(a) is emergent from the covariant parametrization. (orig.)
Incorporation of Mach's Principle in ΛFRW Cosmology that depends dynamically of the distance range
Falcon, N.
2017-07-01
It postulates a FRW cosmological model without dark matter and cosmological term depending the distance scale, in addition to incorporate Mach's principle, is consistent with the observations: rotation curves of the galaxies, the nucleosynthesis primordial and CMB. The dynamic expression of Cosmological term is an alternative to non-baryonic dark matter and a reinterpretation of dark energy.
Colliders as a simultaneous probe of supersymmetric dark matter and Terascale cosmology
Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Lykken, Joseph D.; /Fermilab
2006-08-01
Terascale supersymmetry has the potential to provide a natural explanation of the dominant dark matter component of the standard {Lambda}CDM cosmology. However once we impose the constraints on minimal supersymmetry parameters from current particle physics data, a satisfactory dark matter abundance is no longer prima facie natural. This Neutralino Tuning Problem could be a hint of nonstandard cosmology during and/or after the Terascale era. To quantify this possibility, we introduce an alternative cosmological benchmark based upon a simple model of quintessential inflation. This benchmark has no free parameters, so for a given supersymmetry model it allows an unambiguous prediction of the dark matter relic density. As a example, we scan over the parameter space of the CMSSM, comparing the neutralino relic density predictions with the bounds from WMAP. We find that the WMAP-allowed regions of the CMSSM are an order of magnitude larger if we use the alternative cosmological benchmark, as opposed to {Lambda}CDM. Initial results from the CERN Large Hadron Collider will distinguish between the two allowed regions.
Asymmetric dark matter annihilation as a test of non-standard cosmologies
Gelmini, Graciela B.; Huh, Ji-Haeng; Rehagen, Thomas, E-mail: gelmini@physics.ucla.edu, E-mail: jhhuh@physics.ucla.edu, E-mail: trehagen@physics.ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), 475 Portola Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
2013-08-01
We show that the relic abundance of the minority component of asymmetric dark matter can be very sensitive to the expansion rate of the Universe and the temperature of transition between a non-standard pre-Big Bang Nucleosynthesis cosmological phase and the standard radiation dominated phase, if chemical decoupling happens before this transition. In particular, because the annihilation cross section of asymmetric dark matter is typically larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology, the decrease in relic density of the minority component in non-standard cosmologies with respect to the majority component may be compensated by the increase in annihilation cross section, so that the annihilation rate at present of asymmetric dark matter, contrary to general belief, could be larger than that of symmetric dark matter in the standard cosmology. Thus, if the annihilation cross section of the asymmetric dark matter candidate is known, the annihilation rate at present, if detectable, could be used to test the Universe before Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, an epoch from which we do not yet have any data.
Zentner, A R
2003-01-01
Improvements in observational techniques have transformed cosmology into a field inundated with ever-expanding, high-quality data sets and driven cosmology toward a standard model where the classic cosmological parameters are accurately measured. I briefly discuss some of the methods used to determine cosmological parameters, particularly primordial nucleosynthesis, the magnitude- redshift relation of supernovae, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. I demonstrate how cosmological data can be used to complement particle physics and constrain extensions to the Standard Model. Specifically, I present bounds on light particle species and the properties of unstable, weakly-interacting, massive particles. Despite the myriad successes of the emerging standard cosmological model, unanswered questions linger. Numerical simulations of structure formation predict galactic central densities that are considerably higher than observed. They also reveal hundreds of satellites orbiting Milky Way-like galaxies while th...
Barbour, J B [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester (United States)
2007-02-07
to a far better review article or book on modern cosmology. The doubters' case is threadbare at best, as Alain Blanchard put it rather more politely in his panel contribution. The Burbidges and Halton Arp reiterate the difficulties that these eminent scientists have long had in reconciling certain observations with the standard model. Most workers in the field are aware of their views and find they lack substance, especially Arp's worries about some close coincidences between the observed positions of low-redshift galaxies and high-redshift quasars. Virtually everyone believes that they have no statistical significance. Arp's belief that some quasars have non-cosmological redshifts and are being spewed out of nearby exploding galactic centres raises eyebrows. For me the most worthwhile of the 'rebel' papers is Narlikar's. Its first half is a thought-provoking survey of the many modifications through which the big-bang model has passed. He calls them additions of epicycles and in some cases I think he has a point. But his rival theory seems very far fetched and makes my point about Hamlet's ghost. The steady-state theory just will not die: in 1994, Hoyle, G. Burbidge, and Narlikar published the quasi-steady-state theory (The Astrophysical Journal 410 437) in which the universe expands, not perfectly steadily but 'in mini-creation events at regular intervals and in response the universe oscillates on a short-term period of about 50 Gyr while it also has a steady (exponential) long-term expansion at a characteristic time scale of about 1000 Gyr.' I won't go into details, but this looks like a whopping epicycle on the steady-state model{exclamation_point} Wickramasinghe's paper is on iron whiskers, which have now taken over from standard dust as the agents that must transform starlight into the microwave background. In my view the two best papers in the volume are those of the panellists Alain Blanchard (in favour of
Balbi Amedeo
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.
Combination and interpretation of observables in Cosmology
Virey Jean-Marc
2010-04-01
Full Text Available The standard cosmological model has deep theoretical foundations but need the introduction of two major unknown components, dark matter and dark energy, to be in agreement with various observations. Dark matter describes a non-relativistic collisionless fluid of (non baryonic matter which amount to 25% of the total density of the universe. Dark energy is a new kind of fluid not of matter type, representing 70% of the total density which should explain the recent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. Alternatively, one can reject this idea of adding one or two new components but argue that the equations used to make the interpretation should be modified consmological scales. Instead of dark matter one can invoke a failure of Newton's laws. Instead of dark energy, two approaches are proposed : general relativity (in term of the Einstein equation should be modified, or the cosmological principle which fixes the metric used for cosmology should be abandonned. One of the main objective of the community is to find the path of the relevant interpretations thanks to the next generation of experiments which should provide large statistics of observationnal data. Unfortunately, cosmological in formations are difficult to pin down directly fromt he measurements, and it is mandatory to combine the various observables to get the cosmological parameters. This is not problematic from the statistical point of view, but assumptions and approximations made for the analysis may bias our interprettion of the data. Consequently, a strong attention should be paied to the statistical methods used to make parameters estimation and for model testing. After a review of the basics of cosmology where the cosmological parameters are introduced, we discuss the various cosmological probes and their associated observables used to extract cosmological informations. We present the results obtained from several statistical analyses combining data of diferent nature but
López-Corredoira, M.
2009-08-01
Certain results of observational cosmology cast critical doubt on the foundations of standard cosmology but leave most cosmologists untroubled. Alternative cosmological models that differ from the Big Bang have been published and defended by heterodox scientists; however, most cosmologists do not heed these. This may be because standard theory is correct and all other ideas and criticisms are incorrect, but it is also to a great extent due to sociological phenomena such as the ``snowball effect'' or ``groupthink''. We might wonder whether cosmology, the study of the Universe as a whole, is a science like other branches of physics or just a dominant ideology.
Inhomogeneous Big Bang Cosmology
Wagh, S M
2002-01-01
In this letter, we outline an inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang cosmology. For the inhomogeneous spacetime used here, the universe originates in the infinite past as the one dominated by vacuum energy and ends in the infinite future as the one consisting of "hot and relativistic" matter. The spatial distribution of matter in the considered inhomogeneous spacetime is {\\em arbitrary}. Hence, observed structures can arise in this cosmology from suitable "initial" density contrast. Different problems of the standard model of Big Bang cosmology are also resolved in the present inhomogeneous model. This inhomogeneous model of the Big Bang Cosmology predicts "hot death" for the universe.
Friedmann cosmology with decaying vacuum density
Borges, H A
2005-01-01
Among the several proposals to solve the incompatibility between the observed small value of the cosmological constant and the huge value obtained by quantum field theories, we can find the idea of a decaying vacuum energy density, leading from high values at early times of universe evolution to the small value observed nowadays. In this paper we consider a variation law for the vacuum density recently proposed by Schutzhold on the basis of quantum field estimations in the curved, expanding background, characterized by a vacuum density proportional to the Hubble parameter. We show that, in the context of an isotropic and homogeneous, spatially flat model, the corresponding solutions retain the well established features of the standard cosmology, and, in addition, are in accordance with the observed cosmological parameters. Our scenario presents an initial phase dominated by radiation, followed by a dust era long enough to permit structure formation, and by an epoch dominated by the cosmological term, which te...
A Thousand Problems in Cosmology: Horizons
Bolotin, Yu L
2013-01-01
This is one chapter of the collection of problems in cosmology, in which we assemble the problems that concern one of the most distinctive features of general relativity and cosmology---the horizons. The first part gives an elementary introduction into the concept in the cosmological context, then we move to more formal exposition of the subject and consider first simple, and then composite models, such as $\\Lambda$CDM. The fourth section elevates the rigor one more step and explores the causal structure of different simple cosmological models in terms of conformal diagrams. The section on black holes relates the general scheme of constructing conformal diagrams for stationary black hole spacetimes. The consequent parts focus on more specific topics, such as the various problems regarding the Hubble sphere, inflation and holography. This version contains only formulations of 97 problems. The full collection, with solutions included, is available in the form of a wiki-based resource at http://universeinproblem...
Effects of QCD bound states on dark matter relic abundance
Liew, Seng Pei
2016-01-01
We study scenarios where there exists an exotic massive particle charged under QCD in the early Universe. We calculate the formation and dissociation rates of bound states formed by pairs of these particles, and apply the results in dark matter (DM) coannihilation scenarios, including also the Sommerfeld effect. We find that on top of the Sommerfeld enhancement, bound-state effects can further significantly increase the largest possible DM masses which can give the observed DM relic abundance, by $\\sim 30 - 100\\%$ with respect to values obtained by considering the Sommerfeld effect only, for the color triplet or octet exotic particles we consider. In particular, it indicates that the Bino DM mass in the right-handed stop-Bino coannihilation scenario in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) can reach $\\sim 2.5$ TeV. We also apply the bound-state effects in the calculations of relic abundance of long-lived or metastable massive colored particles, and discuss the implications on the B...
Effects of QCD bound states on dark matter relic abundance
Liew, Seng Pei; Luo, Feng
2017-02-01
We study scenarios where there exists an exotic massive particle charged under QCD in the early Universe. We calculate the formation and dissociation rates of bound states formed by pairs of these particles, and apply the results in dark matter (DM) coannihilation scenarios, including also the Sommerfeld effect. We find that on top of the Sommerfeld enhancement, bound-state effects can further significantly increase the largest possible DM masses which can give the observed DM relic abundance, by ˜ 30-100% with respect to values obtained by considering the Sommerfeld effect only, for the color triplet or octet exotic particles we consider. In particular, it indicates that the Bino DM mass in the right-handed stop-Bino coannihilation scenario in the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) can reach ˜ 2.5 TeV, even though the potential between the stop and antistop prior to forming a bound state is repulsive. We also apply the bound-state effects in the calculations of relic abundance of long-lived or metastable massive colored particles, and discuss the implications on the BBN constraints and the abundance of a super-weakly interacting DM. The corrections for the bound-state effect when the exotic massive colored particles also carry electric charges, and the collider bounds are also discussed.
Re-Acceleration Model for the "Sausage" Radio Relic
Kang, Hyesung
2016-08-01
The Sausage radio relic is the arc-like radio structure in the cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, whose observed properties can be best understood by synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons accelerated at a merger-driven shock.However, there remain a few puzzles that cannot be explained by the shock acceleration model with only in-situ injection. In particular, the Mach number inferred from the observed radio spectral index, M_{radio}≈ 4.6, while the Mach number estimated from X-ray observations, M_{X-ray}≈ 2.7. In an attempt to resolve such a discrepancy, here we consider the re-acceleration model in which a shock of M_s≈ 3 sweeps through the intracluster gas with a pre-existing population of relativistic electrons. We find that observed brightness profiles at multi frequencies provide strong constraints on the spectral shape of pre-existing electrons. The models with a power-law momentum spectrum with the slope, s≈ 4.1, and the cutoff Lorentz factor, γ_{e,c}≈ 3-5× 10^4, can reproduce reasonably well the observed spatial profiles of radio fluxes and integrated radio spectrum of the Sausage relic.The possible origins of such relativistic electrons in the intracluster medium remain to be investigated further.
SCRMS: An RFID and Sensor Web-Enabled Smart Cultural Relics Management System.
Xiao, Changjiang; Chen, Nengcheng; Li, Dandan; Lv, You; Gong, Jianya
2016-12-30
Cultural relics represent national or even global resources of inestimable value. How to efficiently manage and preserve these cultural relics is a vitally important issue. To achieve this goal, this study proposed, designed, and implemented an RFID and Sensor Web-enabled smart cultural relics management system (SCRMS). In this system, active photovoltaic subtle energy-powered Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is used for long-range contactless identification and lifecycle management of cultural relics during their storage and circulation. In addition, different types of ambient sensors are integrated with the RFID tags and deployed around cultural relics to monitor their environmental parameters, helping to ensure that they remain in good condition. An Android-based smart mobile application, as middleware, is used in collaboration with RFID readers to collect information and provide convenient management for the circulation of cultural relics. Moreover, multiple sensing techniques are taken advantage of simultaneously for preservation of cultural relics. The proposed system was successfully applied to a museum in the Yongding District, Fujian Province, China, demonstrating its feasibility and advantages for smart and efficient management and preservation of cultural relics.
Effective perfect fluids in cosmology
Ballesteros, Guillermo [Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche Enrico Fermi, Piazza del Viminale 1, I-00184 Rome (Italy); Bellazzini, Brando, E-mail: guillermo.ballesteros@unige.ch, E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Padova and INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)
2013-04-01
We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.
Causal compensated perturbations in cosmology
Veeraraghavan, S.; Stebbins, A. (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley (USA) Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto (Canada))
1990-12-01
A theoretical framework is developed to calculate linear perturbations in the gravitational and matter fields which arise causally in response to the presence of stiff matter sources in a FRW cosmology. It is shown that, in order to satisfy energy and momentum conservation, the gravitational fields of the source must be compensated by perturbations in the matter and gravitational fields, and the role of such compensation in containing the initial inhomogeneities in their subsequent evolution is discussed. A complete formal solution is derived in terms of Green functions for the perturbations produced by an arbitrary source in a flat universe containing cold dark matter. Approximate Green function solutions are derived for the late-time density perturbations and late-time gravitational waves in a universe containing a radiation fluid. A cosmological energy-momentum pseudotensor is defined to clarify the nature of energy and momentum conservation in the expanding universe. 55 refs.
Noncommutative Fluid and Cosmological Perturbations
Das, Praloy
2016-01-01
In the present paper we have developed a Non-Commutative (NC) generalization of perfect fluid model from first principles, in a Hamiltonian framework. The noncommutativity is introduced at the Lagrangian (particle) coordinate space brackets and the induced NC fluid bracket algebra for the Eulerian (fluid) field variables is derived. Together with a Hamiltonian this NC algebra generates the generalized fluid dynamics that satisfies exact local conservation laws for mass and energy thereby maintaining mass and energy conservation. However, nontrivial NC correction terms appear in charge and energy fluxes. Other non-relativistic spacetime symmetries of the NC fluid are also discussed in detail. This constitutes the NC fluid dynamics and kinematics. In the second part we construct an extension of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmological model based on the NC fluid dynamics presented here. We outline the way in which NC effects generate cosmological perturbations bringing in anisotropy and inhomogeneity in th...
The death of FRII radio sources and their connection with radio relics
Kaiser, C R; Kaiser, Christian R.; Cotter, Garret
2002-01-01
Radio relic sources in galaxy clusters are often described as the remnants of powerful radio galaxies. Here we develop a model for the evolution of such relics after the jets cease to supply energy to the lobes. This includes the treatment of a relic overpressured with respect to its gaseous surroundings even after the jets switch off. We also determine the radio emission of relics for a large variety of assumptions. We take into account the evolution of the strength of the magnetic field during the phase of relativistic particle injection into the lobes. The resulting spectra show mild steepening at around 1 GHz but avoid any exponential spectral cut-offs. The model calculations are used to fit the observed spectra of six radio relics. The quality of the fits is excellent for {\\it all} models discussed. Unfortunately, this implies that it is virtually impossible to determine any of the important source parameters from the observed radio emission alone.
Double Relics in the Outskirts of A3376: Accretion Flows Meet Merger Shocks?
Ruta Kale; K. S. Dwarakanath; Joydeep Bagchi; Surajit Paul
2011-12-01
The case of spectacular ring-like double radio relics in the merging, rich galaxy cluster A3376 is of great interest to study non-thermal phenomena at cluster outskirts.We present the first low frequency (330 and 150 MHz) images of the double relics using the GMRT. With our GMRT 330 MHz map and the VLA 1400 MHz map (Bagchi et al. 2006), we have constructed and analyzed the distribution of spectral indices over the radio relics. We find flat spectral indices at the outer edges of both the relics and a gradual steepening of spectral indices toward the inner regions. This supports the model of outgoing merger shock waves. The eastern relic has a complex morphology and spectral index distribution toward the inner region. This will be discussed in the context of the effect of large-scale accretion flows on the outgoing merger shocks as reported in the recent simulations.
Development of ancestors' cultivation revealed in phytolith assemblages from Guangfulin relics
无
2003-01-01
Shanghai Museum has got great achievements in re-excavating Guangfulin relics. It is the first time that the cultural remains of Wangyoufang type is found above the Liangzhu cultural remains which comes from East Henan Province, providing previous materials for researching culture evolution around Taihu Lake. Samples were taken from the immature soil layer and cultural layers of Guangfulin relics for phytolith analysis. According to the systemic research for the archaeological remains and phytolith fossil, the phytoliths in Guangfulin relics can be divided into four zones. The development of rice agriculture and living condition of Guangfulin ancestors was discussed based on the existing rice fan-shaped phytolith, rice shell phytolith, diatom fossil and archaeology evidence in the same layer. The Guangfulin relics has gradually developed since a high sea level 5000 years ago, and the broad rice agriculture has simultaneously developed. The newly re-excavated relics provides valuable materials for the research of ancestors and ancient culture in Shanghai.
LI Fang-Yu; CHEN Zhen-Ya; YI Ying
2005-01-01
@@ It is shown that the coupling system between fractal membranes and a Gaussian beam passing through a static magnetic field has strong selection capability for the stochastic relic gravitational wave (GW) background. The relic G W components propagating along the positive direction of the symmetrical axis of the Gaussian beam might generate an optimal electromagnetic perturbation, while the perturbation produced by the relic GW components propagating along the negative and perpendicular directions to the symmetrical axis will be much less than the former, and the influence of the random fluctuation of the relic GWs to such effect can be neglected. The high-frequency relic GWs satisfying the parameters requirement (h ～ 10-31 or larger), frequency resonance and "direction coupling", in principle, would be selectable and measurable in seconds.
Primitive environment control for preservation of pit relics in archeology museums of China.
Gu, Zhaolin; Luo, Xilian; Meng, Xiangzhao; Wang, Zanshe; Ma, Tao; Yu, Chuck; Rong, Bo; Li, Ku; Li, Wenwu; Tan, Ying
2013-02-01
Immovable historical relics in some archeology museums of China suffer deterioration due to their improper preservation environment. The existing environmental control systems used in archeology museums are often designed for the amenities of visitors, and these manipulated environments are often inappropriate for the conservation of abiotic relics. This paper points out that the large open space of the existing archeology museum could be a cause of deterioration of the relics from the point of view of indoor air convective flow. The paper illustrates the need to introduce a local pit environmental control, which could reintegrate a pit primitive environment for the preservation of the historical relics by using an air curtain system, orientated to isolate the unearthed relics, semiexposed in pits to the large gallery open space of the exhibition hall.
Phantom cosmologies and fermions
Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Kremer, Gilberto M
2007-01-01
Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the "phantomization" process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes.
Vilenkin, Alexander, E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.ed [Institute of Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)
2010-01-01
The 'new standard cosmology', based on the theory of inflation, has very impressive observational support. I review some outstanding problems of the new cosmology and the global view of the universe - the multiverse - that it suggests. I focus in particular on prospects for further observational tests of inflation and of the multiverse.
McAllister, Liam P.; Silverstein, Eva
2007-10-22
We give an overview of the status of string cosmology. We explain the motivation for the subject, outline the main problems, and assess some of the proposed solutions. Our focus is on those aspects of cosmology that benefit from the structure of an ultraviolet-complete theory.
Cosmological implications of Geometrothermodynamics
Luongo, Orlando
2013-01-01
We use the formalism of Geometrothermodynamics to derive a series of fundamental equations for thermodynamic systems. It is shown that all these fundamental equations can be used in the context of relativistic cosmology to derive diverse scenarios which include the standard cosmological model, a unified model for dark energy and dark matter, and an effective inflationary model.
Cosmological Implications of Geometrothermodynamics
Luongo, O.; Quevedo, H.
2015-01-01
We use the formalism of Geometrothermodynamics to derive a series of fundamental equations for thermodynamic systems. It is shown that all these fundamental equations can be used in the context of relativistic cosmology to derive diverse scenarios which include the standard cosmological model, a unified model for dark energy and dark matter, and an effective inflationary model.
Neutrino properties from cosmology
Hannestad, S.
2013-01-01
In recent years precision cosmology has become an increasingly powerful probe of particle physics. Perhaps the prime example of this is the very stringent cosmological upper bound on the neutrino mass. However, other aspects of neutrino physics, such as their decoupling history and possible non-s...
Schulte-Ladbeck, Regina; Brinks, Elias; Kravtsov, Andrey
2010-01-01
Dwarf galaxies provide opportunities for drawing inferences about the processes in the early universe by observing our "cosmological backyard"-the Local Group and its vicinity. This special issue of the open-access journal Advances in Astronomy is a snapshot of the current state of the art of dwarf-galaxy cosmology.
Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: T.Koivisto@ThPhys.Uni-Heidelberg.d [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany); Nunes, Nelson J. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Heidelberg, 69120 (Germany)
2010-03-01
Cosmology of self-interacting three-forms is investigated. The minimally coupled canonical theory can naturally generate a variety of isotropic background dynamics, including scaling, possibly transient acceleration and phantom crossing. An intuitive picture of the cosmological dynamics is presented employing an effective potential. Numerical solutions and analytical approximations are provided for scenarios which are potentially important for inflation or dark energy.
On counterterms in cosmological perturbation theory
Goswami, Gaurav
2014-01-01
Cosmological perturbation theory is the theory of fluctuations (scalar as well as tensor) around the inflationary cosmological background solution. It is important to understand the details of the process of renormalization in this theory. In more familiar applications of quantum field theory, the dependence on the external momenta of the dimensionally regulated expression of the one-loop contribution to a correlator determines the number of counter terms (and their forms) required to renormalize it. In this work, it is pointed out that in cosmological perturbation theory, though this still happens, it happens in a completely different way such that in the late time limit, the information about the number and forms of counter terms required gets erased. This is to be compared with what happens in spontaneous symmetry breaking where the use of fluctuation fields around a chosen vacuum seems to suggest that more counter terms shall be needed to renormalize the theory than are actually required. We also comment ...
Note on the semiclassicality of cosmological perturbations
Donà, Pietro; Marcianò, Antonino
2016-12-01
Moving from the consideration that matter fields must be treated in terms of their fundamental quantum counterparts, we show straightforward arguments, within the framework of ordinary quantum mechanics and quantum field theory, in order to convince readers that cosmological perturbations must be addressed in term of the semiclassical limit of the expectation value of quantum fields. We first take into account cosmological perturbations originated by a quantum scalar field, and then extend our treatment in order to account for the expectation values of bilinears of Dirac fermion fields. The latter can indeed transform as scalar quantities under diffeomorphisms, as well as all the other bilinear of the Dirac fields that belong to the Clifford algebra. This is the first of a series of works that is intended to prove that cosmological quantum perturbations can actually be accounted for in terms of Dirac fermion fields, which must be treated as fundamental quantum objects, and their dynamics.
CHEN Zhilong; ZHANG Ping; LI Juxi
2007-01-01
By analyzing the ten burials that have been unearthed at the Yang Emperor Mausoleum of the Han Dynasty, and China's first wholly underground protection and exhibition hall of relics that is under construction, the article expounds the importance of relic site protection through underground space. In particular, it discusses the preservation of historical and cultural relics, the harmonious relationship between architecture and nature, and the collection and security of cultural relics.
Kehagias, Alex
2016-01-01
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to both scalar and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic d...
Classical and quantum cosmology
Calcagni, Gianluca
2017-01-01
This comprehensive textbook is devoted to classical and quantum cosmology, with particular emphasis on modern approaches to quantum gravity and string theory and on their observational imprint. It covers major challenges in theoretical physics such as the big bang and the cosmological constant problem. An extensive review of standard cosmology, the cosmic microwave background, inflation and dark energy sets the scene for the phenomenological application of all the main quantum-gravity and string-theory models of cosmology. Born of the author's teaching experience and commitment to bridging the gap between cosmologists and theoreticians working beyond the established laws of particle physics and general relativity, this is a unique text where quantum-gravity approaches and string theory are treated on an equal footing. As well as introducing cosmology to undergraduate and graduate students with its pedagogical presentation and the help of 45 solved exercises, this book, which includes an ambitious bibliography...
Cosmology and particle physics
Turner, Michael S.
1988-01-01
The interplay between cosmology and elementary particle physics is discussed. The standard cosmology is reviewed, concentrating on primordial nucleosynthesis and discussing how the standard cosmology has been used to place constraints on the properties of various particles. Baryogenesis is discussed, showing how a scenario in which the B-, C-, and CP-violating interactions in GUTs provide a dynamical explanation for the predominance of matter over antimatter and for the present baryon-to-photon ratio. It is shown how the very early dynamical evolution of a very weakly coupled scalar field which is initially displaced from the minimum of its potential may explain a handful of very fundamental cosmological facts which are not explained by the standard cosmology.
Testing loop quantum cosmology
Wilson-Ewing, Edward
2017-03-01
Loop quantum cosmology predicts that quantum gravity effects resolve the big-bang singularity and replace it by a cosmic bounce. Furthermore, loop quantum cosmology can also modify the form of primordial cosmological perturbations, for example by reducing power at large scales in inflationary models or by suppressing the tensor-to-scalar ratio in the matter bounce scenario; these two effects are potential observational tests for loop quantum cosmology. In this article, I review these predictions and others, and also briefly discuss three open problems in loop quantum cosmology: its relation to loop quantum gravity, the trans-Planckian problem, and a possible transition from a Lorentzian to a Euclidean space-time around the bounce point.
Ryden, Barbara
2002-01-01
Introduction to Cosmology provides a rare combination of a solid foundation of the core physical concepts of cosmology and the most recent astronomical observations. The book is designed for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students and assumes no prior knowledge of general relativity. An emphasis is placed on developing the readers' physical insight rather than losing them with complex math. An approachable writing style and wealth of fresh and imaginative analogies from "everyday" physics are used to make the concepts of cosmology more accessible. The book is unique in that it not only includes recent major developments in cosmology, like the cosmological constant and accelerating universe, but also anticipates key developments expected in the next few years, such as detailed results on the cosmic microwave background.
Zhao, Wen
2016-01-01
The foundation of modern cosmology relies on the so-called cosmological principle which states an homogeneous and isotropic distribution of matter in the universe on large scales. However, recent observations, such as the temperature anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, the motion of galaxies in the universe, the polarization of quasars and the acceleration of the cosmic expansion, indicate preferred directions in the sky. If these directions have a cosmological origin, the cosmological principle would be violated, and modern cosmology should be reconsidered. In this paper, by considering the preferred axis in the CMB parity violation, we find that it coincides with the preferred axes in CMB quadrupole and CMB octopole, and they all align with the direction of the CMB kinematic dipole. In addition, the preferred directions in the velocity flows, quasar alignment, anisotropy of the cosmic acceleration, the handedness of spiral galaxies, and the angular distribution of the fine-structu...
Verde, L
2013-01-01
This is the summary of two lectures that aim to give an overview of cosmology. I will not try to be too rigorous in derivations, nor to give a full historical overview. The idea is to provide a "taste" of cosmology and some of the interesting topics it covers. The standard cosmological model is presented and I highlight the successes of cosmology over the past decade or so. Keys to the development of the standard cosmological model are observations of the cosmic microwave background and of large-scale structure, which are introduced. Inflation and dark energy and the outlook for the future are also discussed. Slides from the lectures are available from the school website: physicschool.web.cern.ch/PhysicSchool/CLASHEP/CLASHEP2011/.
Cosmological and astrophysical implications of sterile neutrinos
Petraki, Kalliopi
The discovery of neutrino masses suggests that the Standard Model should be supplemented with new gauge-singlet fermions, often called sterile neutrinos. The interplay among the new couplings introduced in the Standard Model can accommodate the neutrino oscillation data for a variety of choices: the new particles can be extremely heavy and practically unobservable, or they can be light, in which case they can solve several long-standing puzzles. It has been shown, for example, that sterile neutrinos in some range of masses can account for dark matter, their emission from a supernova can explain pulsar kicks, arid their decays can play an important role in the formation of the first stars. Though indirect, these clues indicate that sterile neutrinos can be the minimal solution to a variety of unsolved problems. This emphasizes the importance of investigating further the consequences of these new degrees of freedom for cosmology and astrophysics. In this dissertation, I explore the possible role of sterile neutrinos of different mass scales in some cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. A minimal extension of the Higgs sector of the Standard Model, with a gauge- singlet boson coupled to sterile neutrinos, can provide a consistent framework for the theory of neutrino masses, and can produce a relic population of keV sterile neutrinos via decays of the singlet Higgs. The latter can account for the dark matter of the universe. The mechanism operates around the electroweak scale, and has interesting consequences for the electroweak phase transition. Relic sterile neutrinos produced via decays at the electroweak scale constitute colder dark matter than those produced via other previously suggested mechanisms. The primordial thermal content of dark matter has important implications for the formation of cosmic structures, such as clusters and galaxies. The assessment of the relevant properties suggests that sterile neutrinos produced at the electroweak scale are a
Duality extended Chaplygin cosmologies with a big rip
Chimento, L P; Chimento, Luis P.; Lazkoz, Ruth
2006-01-01
We consider modifications to the Friedmann equation motivated by recent proposals along these lines pursuing an explanation to the observed late time acceleration. Here we show those modifications can be framed within a theory with self-interacting gravity, where the term self-interaction refers here to the presence of functions of $\\rho$ and $p$ in the right hand side of the Einstein equations. We then discuss the construction of the duals of the cosmologies generated within that framework. After that we investigate the modifications required to generate generalized and modified Chaplygin cosmologies and show that their duals belong to a larger family of cosmologies we call extended Chaplygin cosmologies. Finally, by letting the parameters of those models take values not earlier considered in the literature we show some representatives of that family of cosmologies display sudden future singularities, which indicates their behavior is rather different from generalized or modified Chaplygin gas cosmologies. T...
Imprints of relic gravitational waves on pulsar timing
Tong, Ming-Lei; Zhao, Cheng-Shi; Gao, Feng; Yan, Bao-Rong; Yang, Ting-Gao; Gao, Yu-Ping
2015-01-01
Relic gravitational waves (RGWs) , a background originated during inflation, would give imprints on the pulsar timing residuals. This makes RGWs be one of important sources for detection using the method of pulsar timing. In this paper, we discuss the effects of RGWs on the single pulsar timing, and give quantitively the timing residuals caused by RGWs with different model parameters. In principle, if the RGWs are strong enough today, they can be detected by timing a single millisecond pulsar with high precision after the intrinsic red noise in pulsar timing residuals were understood, even though observing simultaneously multiple millisecond pulsars is a more powerful technique in extracting gravitational wave signals. We corrected the normalization of RGWs using observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), which leads to the amplitudes of RGWs being reduced by two orders of magnitude or so compared to our previous works. We made new constraints on RGWs using the recent observations from the Parkes ...
Neutralino relic density from ILC measurements in the CPV MSSM
Bélanger, G; Kraml, Sabine; Martyn, H -U; Pukhov, A
2008-01-01
We discuss ILC measurements for a specific MSSM scenario with CP phases, where the lightest neutralino is a good candidate for dark matter, annihilating efficiently through t-channel exchange of light staus. These prospective (CP-even) ILC measurements are then used to fit the underlying model parameters. A collider prediction of the relic density of the neutralino from this fit gives 0.116
Relic density of dark matter in the NMSSM
Bélanger, G; Hugonie, C; Pukhov, A E; Semenov, A
2005-01-01
We present a code to compute the relic density of dark matter in the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM). Dominant corrections to the Higgs masses are calculated with NMHDECAY as well as theoretical and collider constraints. All neutralino annihilation and coannihilation processes are then computed with an extended version of micrOMEGAs, taking into acount higher order corrections to Higgs vertices. We explore the parameter space of the NMSSM and consider in particular the case of a bino LSP, of a mixed bino-higgsino LSP and of a singlino LSP. As compared to the MSSM, neutralino annihilation is often more efficient as it can take place via (additional) Higgs resonances as well as annihilation into light Higgs states. Models with a large singlino component can be compatible with WMAP constraints.
Underground Searches for Cold Relics of the Early Universe
Baudis, L
2005-01-01
We have strong evidence on all cosmic scales, from galaxies to the largest structures ever observed, that there is more matter in the universe than we can see. Galaxies and clusters would fly apart unless they would be held together by material which we call dark, because it does not shine in photons. Although the amount of dark matter and its distribution are fairly well established, we are clueless regarding its composition. Leading candidates are Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs), which are 'cold' thermal relics of the Big Bang, ie moving non-relativistically at the time of structure formation. These particles can be detected via their interaction with nuclei in deep-underground, low-background detectors. Experiments dedicated to observe WIMP interactions for the first time reach sensitivities allowing to probe the parameter space predicted by supersymmetric theories of particle physics. Current results of high sensitivity direct detection experiments are discussed and the most promising project...
Galactic abundances as a relic neutrino detection scheme
Riis, Anna Sejersen; Thomas Zinner, Nikolaj; Hannestad, Steen
2011-01-01
We propose to use the threshold-free process of neutrino capture on beta-decaying nuclei (NCB) using all available candidate nuclei in the Milky Way as target material in order to detect the presence of the Cosmic neutrino background. By integrating over the lifetime of the galaxy one might be able....... Secondly, relic neutrinos have so low energy that their de Broglie wavelengths are macroscopic and they may therefore scatter coherently on the electronic cloud of the candidate atoms. One must therefore compare the cross sections for the two processes (induced beta-decay by neutrino capture, and coherent...... scattering of the neutrinos on atomic nuclei) before drawing any conclusions. Finally, the density of target nuclei in the galaxy must be calculated. We assume supernovae as the only production source and approximate the neutrino density as a homogenous background. Here we perform the full calculation...
On the spacetime connecting two aeons in conformal cyclic cosmology
Araujo, A; Pereira, J G; Sampson, A C; Savi, L L
2015-01-01
It is shown that the contraction limit of a de Sitter spacetime for the cosmological term going to infinity satisfies a number of properties, including the Weyl curvature hypothesis, which qualify it as a candidate to represent the bridging spacetime connecting two aeons in Penrose's conformal cyclic cosmology.
Roberts, Alex
2016-08-01
Recently, a new framework for describing the multiverse has been proposed which is based on the principles of quantum mechanics. The framework allows for well-defined predictions, both regarding global properties of the universe and outcomes of particular experiments, according to a single probability formula. This provides complete unification of the eternally inflating multiverse and many worlds in quantum mechanics. We elucidate how cosmological parameters can be calculated in this framework, and study the probability distribution for the value of the cosmological constant. We consider both positive and negative values, and find that the observed value is consistent with the calculated distribution at an order of magnitude level. In particular, in contrast to the case of earlier measure proposals, our framework prefers a positive cosmological constant over a negative one. These results depend only moderately on how we model galaxy formation and life evolution therein. We explore supersymmetric theories in which the Higgs mass is boosted by the non-decoupling D-terms of an extended U(1) X gauge symmetry, defined here to be a general linear combination of hypercharge, baryon number, and lepton number. Crucially, the gauge coupling, gX, is bounded from below to accommodate the Higgs mass, while the quarks and leptons are required by gauge invariance to carry non-zero charge under U(1)X. This induces an irreducible rate, sigmaBR, for pp → X → ll relevant to existing and future resonance searches, and gives rise to higher dimension operators that are stringently constrained by precision electroweak measurements. Combined, these bounds define a maximally allowed region in the space of observables, (sigmaBR, mX), outside of which is excluded by naturalness and experimental limits. If natural supersymmetry utilizes non-decoupling D-terms, then the associated X boson can only be observed within this window, providing a model independent 'litmus test' for this broad
Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics,24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2016-05-25
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
Nojiri, S.; Odintsov, S. D.; Oikonomou, V. K.
2016-06-01
We combine the unimodular gravity and mimetic gravity theories into a unified theoretical framework, which is proposed to provide a suggestive proposal for a framework that may assist in the discussion and search for a solution to the cosmological constant problem and the dark matter issue. After providing the formulation of the unimodular mimetic gravity and investigating all the new features that the vacuum unimodular gravity implies, by using the underlying reconstruction method, we realize some well known cosmological evolutions, with some of these being exotic for the ordinary Einstein-Hilbert gravity. Specifically we provide the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity description of the de Sitter cosmology and of the perfect fluid with constant equation of state cosmology. As we demonstrate, these cosmologies can be realized by vacuum mimetic unimodular gravity, without the existence of any matter fluid source. Moreover, we investigate how cosmologically viable cosmologies, which are compatible with the recent observational data, can be realized by the vacuum unimodular mimetic gravity. Since in some cases, a graceful exit from inflation problem might exist, we provide a qualitative description of the mechanism that can potentially generate the graceful exit from inflation in these theories, by searching for the unstable de Sitter solutions in the context of unimodular mimetic theories of gravity.
Kehagias, A.; Riotto, A.
2016-05-01
Symmetries play an interesting role in cosmology. They are useful in characterizing the cosmological perturbations generated during inflation and lead to consistency relations involving the soft limit of the statistical correlators of large-scale structure dark matter and galaxies overdensities. On the other hand, in observational cosmology the carriers of the information about these large-scale statistical distributions are light rays traveling on null geodesics. Motivated by this simple consideration, we study the structure of null infinity and the associated BMS symmetry in a cosmological setting. For decelerating Friedmann-Robertson-Walker backgrounds, for which future null infinity exists, we find that the BMS transformations which leaves the asymptotic metric invariant to leading order. Contrary to the asymptotic flat case, the BMS transformations in cosmology generate Goldstone modes corresponding to scalar, vector and tensor degrees of freedom which may exist at null infinity and perturb the asymptotic data. Therefore, BMS transformations generate physically inequivalent vacua as they populate the universe at null infinity with these physical degrees of freedom. We also discuss the gravitational memory effect when cosmological expansion is taken into account. In this case, there are extra contribution to the gravitational memory due to the tail of the retarded Green functions which are supported not only on the light-cone, but also in its interior. The gravitational memory effect can be understood also from an asymptotic point of view as a transition among cosmological BMS-related vacua.
Robertson-Walker cosmological models with perfect fluid in general relativity
Rishi Kumar Tiwari
2011-01-01
Einstein's field equations with variable gravitational and cosmological constants are considered in the presence of perfect fluid for a Robertson-Walker universe by assuming the cosmological term to be proportional to R-m (R is a scale factor and m is a constant). A variety of solutions is presented. The physical significance of the cosmological models has also been discussed.
Shock acceleration as origin of the radio relic in A521?
Giacintucci, S; Macario, G; Dallacasa, D; Brunetti, G; Markevitch, M; Cassano, R; Bardelli, S; Athreya, R
2008-01-01
We present new high sensitivity observations of the radio relic in A521 carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 327 MHz and with the Very Large Array at 4.9 and 8.5 GHz. We imaged the relic at these frequencies and carried out a detailed spectral analysis, based on the integrated radio spectrum between 235 MHz and 4.9 GHz, and on the spectral index image in the frequency range 327-610 MHz. To this aim we used the new GMRT observations and other proprietary as well as archival data. We also searched for a possible shock front co-located with the relic on a short archival Chandra X-ray observation of the cluster. The integrated spectrum of the relic is consistent with a single power law; the spectral index image shows a clear trend of steepening going from the outer portion of the relic toward the cluster centre. We discuss the origin of the source in the light of the theoretical models for the formation of cluster radio relics. Our results on the spectral properties of the relic are consistent ...
AGN duty cycle and relic emission in the low frequency sky
Pandey-Pommier, M.; Intema, H.; Heald, G.
2016-12-01
Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) are amongst the brightest sources in the radio sky that deposit large amount of energy in the interstellar and intergalactic medium (ISM, IGM) via their jets. Recurrent flaring episodes in the AGN jets can terminate at large-scale faint diffuse 'relic' emission around them. These relic emissions are rare and represent the end stage of their life cycle. They show very steep spectrum giving insights of AGN duty cycle, their past activity history and surrounding environment properties. High sensitivity and arcsec scale observations at very low frequencies are needed to detect such rare relic emission and disentangle the details of their morphology. In this paper we highlight the important database provided by low frequency surveys to search for relic radio sources and discuss in particular the relic emission from the AGNs detected in the LOFAR Multi frequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS) and TIFR GMRT Sky Survey (TGSS), both surveys performed with SKA pathfinder telescopes. The radio spectrum from 2 different types of relic radio galaxies (B2 0924+30 and 4C 35.06) are investigated and a correlation between the mean particle age of the relic emission and the central AGN properties is derived.
Magnetogenesis in bouncing cosmology
Qian, Peng; Easson, Damien A; Guo, Zong-Kuan
2016-01-01
We consider the process of magnetogenesis in the context of nonsingular bounce cosmology. We show that large primordial magnetic fields can be generated during contraction without encountering strong coupling and backreaction issues. The fields may seed large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strengths. This result leads to a theoretical constraint on the relation of the energy scale of the bounce cosmology to the number of effective e-folding of the contracting phase in the case of scale invariance for the power spectrum of primordial magnetic fields. We show that this constraint can be satisfied in a sizable region of the parameter space for the nonsingular bounce cosmology.
Cosmology Theory and Observations
Dolgov, A D
1998-01-01
The comparison of the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM) with astronomical observations, i.e. theory versus experiment, and with the Minimal Standard Model (MSM) in particle physics, i.e. theory versus theory, is discussed. The main issue of this talk is whether cosmology indicates new physics beyond the standard $SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)$ model with minimal particle content. The answer to this question is strongly and definitely "YES". New, yet unknown, physics exists and cosmology presents very weighty arguments in its favor.
Magnetogenesis in bouncing cosmology
Qian, Peng; Cai, Yi-Fu; Easson, Damien A.; Guo, Zong-Kuan
2016-10-01
We consider the process of magnetogenesis in the context of nonsingular bounce cosmology. We show that large primordial magnetic fields can be generated during contraction without encountering strong coupling and backreaction issues. The fields may seed large-scale magnetic fields with observationally interesting strengths. This result leads to a theoretical constraint on the relation of the energy scale of the bounce cosmology to the number of effective e -foldings of the contracting phase in the case of scale invariance for the power spectrum of primordial magnetic fields. We show that this constraint can be satisfied in a sizable region of the parameter space for the nonsingular bounce cosmology.
Cosmology, Epistemology and Chaos
Unno, Wasaburo
1992-03-01
We may consider the following three fundamental epistemological questions concerning cosmology. Can cosmology at last understand the origin of the universe? Can computers at last create? Can life be formed at last synthetically? These questions are in some sense related to the liar paradox containing the self-reference and, therefore, may not be answered by recursive processes in finite time. There are, however, various implications such that the chaos may break the trap of the self- reference paradox. In other words, Goedel's incompleteness theorem would not apply to chaos, even if the chaos can be generated by recursive processes. Internal relations among cosmology, epistemology and chaos must be investigated in greater detail
Cosmological lepton asymmetry with a nonzero mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$
Castorina, Emanuele; Lattanzi, Massimiliano; Lesgourgues, Julien; Mangano, Gianpiero; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pastor, Sergio
2012-01-01
While the baryon asymmetry of the Universe is nowadays well measured by cosmological observations, the bounds on the lepton asymmetry in the form of neutrinos are still significantly weaker. We place limits on the relic neutrino asymmetries using some of the latest cosmological data, taking into account the effect of flavor oscillations. We present our results for two different values of the neutrino mixing angle \\theta_{13}, and show that for large \\theta_{13} the limits on the total neutrino asymmetry become more stringent, diluting even large initial flavor asymmetries. In particular, we find that the present bounds are still dominated by the limits coming from Big Bang Nucleosynthesis, while the limits on the total neutrino mass from cosmological data are essentially independent of \\theta_{13}. Finally, we perform a forecast for COrE, taken as an example of a future CMB experiment, and find that it could improve the limits on the total lepton asymmetry approximately by up to a factor 5.
A curiosity about the dust matter in the cosmological context
Ghalee, Amir
2013-01-01
We propose a model for the dust matter in the cosmological context. The model contains a scalar field with a kinetic term non-minimally coupled to gravity. By investigating the background and perturbative equations, it is demonstrated that the scalar field has the same dynamics as the dust matter. We have also considered the cosmological constant in the model. It turns out that the model has not exotic behaviour. Thus, a universe including the scalar field and the cosmological constant, evolves just as the our universe. Moreover, we have added the quadratic term in the action. It is shown that the quadratic term can be ruled out by its consequences.
Quantum cosmological metroland model
Anderson, Edward [DAMTP, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Franzen, Anne, E-mail: ea212@cam.ac.u, E-mail: a.t.franzen@uu.n [Spinoza Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)
2010-02-21
Relational particle mechanics is useful for modelling whole-universe issues such as quantum cosmology or the problem of time in quantum gravity, including some aspects outside the reach of comparably complex mini-superspace models. In this paper, we consider the mechanics of pure shape and not scale of four particles on a line, so that the only physically significant quantities are ratios of relative separations between the constituents' physical objects. Many of our ideas and workings extend to the N-particle case. As such models' configurations resemble depictions of metro lines in public transport maps, we term them 'N-stop metrolands'. This 4-stop model's configuration space is a 2-sphere, from which our metroland mechanics interpretation is via the 'cubic' tessellation. This model yields conserved quantities which are mathematically SO(3) objects like angular momenta but are physically relative dilational momenta (i.e. coordinates dotted with momenta). We provide and interpret various exact and approximate classical and quantum solutions for 4-stop metroland; from these results one can construct expectations and spreads of shape operators that admit interpretations as relative sizes and the 'homogeneity of the model universe's contents', and also objects of significance for the problem of time in quantum gravity (e.g. in the naive Schroedinger and records theory timeless approaches).
Shafi, Qaisar [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Barr, Steven [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Gaisser, Thomas [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States); Stanev, Todor [Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE (United States)
2015-03-31
1. Executive Summary (April 1, 2012 - March 31, 2015) Title: Particle Theory, Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology Qaisar Shafi University of Delaware (Principal Investigator) Stephen M. Barr, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Thomas K. Gaisser, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) Todor Stanev, University of Delaware (Co-Principal Investigator) The proposed research was carried out at the Bartol Research included Professors Qaisar Shafi Stephen Barr, Thomas K. Gaisser, and Todor Stanev, two postdoctoral fellows (Ilia Gogoladze and Liucheng Wang), and several graduate students. Five students of Qaisar Shafi completed their PhD during the period August 2011 - August 2014. Measures of the group’s high caliber performance during the 2012-2015 funding cycle included pub- lications in excellent refereed journals, contributions to working groups as well as white papers, and conference activities, which together provide an exceptional record of both individual performance as well as overall strength. Another important indicator of success is the outstanding quality of the past and current cohort of graduate students. The PhD students under our supervision regularly win the top departmental and university awards, and their publications records show excellence both in terms of quality and quantity. The topics covered under this grant cover the frontline research areas in today’s High Energy Theory & Phenomenology. For Professors Shafi and Barr they include LHC related topics including supersymmetry, collider physics, fl vor physics, dark matter physics, Higgs boson and seesaw physics, grand unifi and neutrino physics. The LHC two years ago discovered the Standard Model Higgs boson, thereby at least partially unlocking the secrets behind electroweak symmetry breaking. We remain optimistic that new and exciting physics will be found at LHC 14, which explain our focus on physics beyond the Standard Model. Professors Shafi continued his
Harz, Julia; Klasen, Michael; Kovařík, Karol; Steppeler, Patrick
2015-01-01
The latest Planck data allow one to determine the dark matter relic density with previously unparalleled precision. In order to achieve a comparable precision on the theory side, we have calculated the full $\\mathcal{O}(\\alpha_s)$ corrections to the most relevant annihilation and coannihilation processes for relic density calculations within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). The interplay of these processes is discussed. The impact of the radiative corrections on the resulting relic density is found to be larger than the experimental uncertainty of the Planck data.
Cosmology in time asymmetric extensions of general relativity
Leon, Genly
2015-01-01
We investigate the cosmological behavior in a universe governed by time asymmetric extensions of general relativity, which is a novel modified gravity based on the addition of new, time-asymmetric, terms on the Hamiltonian framework, in a way that the algebra of constraints and local physics remain unchanged. Nevertheless, at cosmological scales these new terms can have significant effects that can alter the universe evolution, both at early and late times, and the freedom in the choice of the involved modification function makes the scenario able to produce a huge class of cosmological behaviors. For basic ansatzes of modification, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis, extracting the stable late time solutions. Amongst others, we find that the universe can result in dark-energy dominated, accelerating solutions, even in the absence of an explicit cosmological constant, in which the dark energy can be quintessence-like, phantom-like, or behave as an effective cosmological constant. Moreover, it can result...
Xiaoqi, J.
2015-08-01
As the popularization of cultural relics and the rapid development of cultural tourism industry, a large number of cultural relic tourism resources goes into public eyes. Activation of relics has became an important way for tourist to contact and understand culture relics. The way of how to properly interpret the historical sense and cultural uniqueness to the masses of tourists in order to achieve social service functions of relic resources has always been research focal point of site protection and utilization, so nowadays it has important significance to protection and utilization of heritage resources in our country. From the point of activation of relics and based on the analysis of resource characteristic, the paper in depth discuss ways of activation of relics of the Old Summer Palace, in order to provide reference for sustainable development of sites tourism in China.
Building Cosmological Frozen Stars
Kastor, David
2016-01-01
Janis-Newman-Winicour (JNW) spacetimes generalize the Schwarzschild solution to include a massless scalar field. Although suffering from naked singularities, they share the `frozen star' features of Schwarzschild black holes. Cosmological versions of the JNW spacetimes were discovered some time ago by Husain, Martinez and Nunez and by Fonarev. Unlike Schwarzschild-deSitter black holes, these solutions are dynamical, and the scarcity of exact solutions for dynamical black holes in cosmological backgrounds motivates their further study. Here we show how the cosmological JNW spacetimes can be built, starting from simpler, static, higher dimensional, vacuum `JNW brane' solutions via two different generalized dimensional reduction schemes that together cover the full range of JNW parameter space. Cosmological versions of a BPS limit of charged dilaton black holes are also known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the charged, dilaton black hole family. We expect that understanding this second da...
Solomon, Adam R
2015-01-01
The accelerating expansion of the Universe poses a major challenge to our understanding of fundamental physics. One promising avenue is to modify general relativity and obtain a new description of the gravitational force. Because gravitation dominates the other forces mostly on large scales, cosmological probes provide an ideal testing ground for theories of gravity. In this thesis, we describe two complementary approaches to the problem of testing gravity using cosmology. In the first part, we discuss the cosmological solutions of massive gravity and its generalisation to a bimetric theory. These theories describe a graviton with a small mass, and can potentially explain the late-time acceleration in a technically-natural way. We describe these self-accelerating solutions and investigate the cosmological perturbations in depth, beginning with an investigation of their linear stability, followed by the construction of a method for solving these perturbations in the quasistatic limit. This allows the predictio...
Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry
Maxim Khlopov
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.
Cosmological Ontology and Epistemology
Page, Don N
2014-01-01
In cosmology, we would like to explain our observations and predict future observations from theories of the entire universe. Such cosmological theories make ontological assumptions of what entities exist and what their properties and relationships are. One must also make epistemological assumptions or metatheories of how one can test cosmological theories. Here I shall propose a Bayesian analysis in which the likelihood of a complete theory is given by the normalized measure it assigns to the observation used to test the theory. In this context, a discussion is given of the trade-off between prior probabilities and likelihoods, of the measure problem of cosmology, of the death of Born's rule, of the Boltzmann brain problem, of whether there is a better principle for prior probabilities than mathematical simplicity, and of an Optimal Argument for the Existence of God.
Holland, Jonathan
2014-01-01
A new approach to cosmology and space-time is developed, which emphasizes the description of the matter degrees of freedom of Einstein's theory of gravity by a family of K\\"ahler-Einstein Fano manifolds.
Cosmological Probes for Supersymmetry
Khlopov, Maxim
2015-01-01
The multi-parameter character of supersymmetric dark-matter models implies the combination of their experimental studies with astrophysical and cosmological probes. The physics of the early Universe provides nontrivial effects of non-equilibrium particles and primordial cosmological structures. Primordial black holes (PBHs) are a profound signature of such structures that may arise as a cosmological consequence of supersymmetric (SUSY) models. SUSY-based mechanisms of baryosynthesis can lead to the possibility of antimatter domains in a baryon asymmetric Universe. In the context of cosmoparticle physics, which studies the fundamental relationship of the micro- and macro-worlds, the development of SUSY illustrates the main principles of this approach, as the physical basis of the modern cosmology provides cross-disciplinary tests in physical and astronomical studies.
Tensors, relativity, and cosmology
Dalarsson, Mirjana
2015-01-01
Tensors, Relativity, and Cosmology, Second Edition, combines relativity, astrophysics, and cosmology in a single volume, providing a simplified introduction to each subject that is followed by detailed mathematical derivations. The book includes a section on general relativity that gives the case for a curved space-time, presents the mathematical background (tensor calculus, Riemannian geometry), discusses the Einstein equation and its solutions (including black holes and Penrose processes), and considers the energy-momentum tensor for various solutions. In addition, a section on relativistic astrophysics discusses stellar contraction and collapse, neutron stars and their equations of state, black holes, and accretion onto collapsed objects, with a final section on cosmology discussing cosmological models, observational tests, and scenarios for the early universe. This fully revised and updated second edition includes new material on relativistic effects, such as the behavior of clocks and measuring rods in m...
Quantum Cosmology: Effective Theory
Bojowald, Martin
2012-01-01
Quantum cosmology has traditionally been studied at the level of symmetry-reduced minisuperspace models, analyzing the behavior of wave functions. However, in the absence of a complete full setting of quantum gravity and detailed knowledge of specific properties of quantum states, it remained difficult to make testable predictions. For quantum cosmology to be part of empirical science, it must allow for a systematic framework in which corrections to well-tested classical equations can be derived, with any ambiguities and ignorance sufficiently parameterized. As in particle and condensed-matter physics, a successful viewpoint is one of effective theories, adapted to specific issues one encounters in quantum cosmology. This review presents such an effective framework of quantum cosmology, taking into account, among other things, space-time structures, covariance, the problem of time and the anomaly issue.
Cosmological diagrammatic rules
Giddings, Steven B
2010-01-01
A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ``in-in" correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.
Cosmological diagrammatic rules
Giddings, Steven B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sloth, Martin S., E-mail: giddings@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: sloth@cern.ch [CERN, Physics Department, Theory Unit, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)
2010-07-01
A simple set of diagrammatic rules is formulated for perturbative evaluation of ''in-in'' correlators, as is needed in cosmology and other nonequilibrium problems. These rules are both intuitive, and efficient for calculational purposes.
Ryden, Barbara
2017-01-01
This second edition of Introduction to Cosmology is an exciting update of an award-winning textbook. It is aimed primarily at advanced undergraduate students in physics and astronomy, but is also useful as a supplementary text at higher levels. It explains modern cosmological concepts, such as dark energy, in the context of the Big Bang theory. Its clear, lucid writing style, with a wealth of useful everyday analogies, makes it exceptionally engaging. Emphasis is placed on the links between theoretical concepts of cosmology and the observable properties of the universe, building deeper physical insights in the reader. The second edition includes recent observational results, fuller descriptions of special and general relativity, expanded discussions of dark energy, and a new chapter on baryonic matter that makes up stars and galaxies. It is an ideal textbook for the era of precision cosmology in the accelerating universe.
Townsend, Paul K [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2004-12-07
For gravity coupled to N scalar fields, with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N + 1)-dimensional 'augmented' target space of Lorentzian signature (1, N), timelike if V > 0, null if V = 0 and spacelike if V < 0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an 'acceleration subcone' of the 'lightcone'. Non-flat (k = {+-}1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N + 2, of signature (1, N + 1) for k = -1 and signature (2, N) for k = +1. This formalism is illustrated by cosmological solutions of models with an exponential potential, which are comprehensively analysed; the late-time behaviour for other potentials of current interest is deduced by comparison.
Lorentzian Condition in Holographic Cosmology
Hertog, Thomas; Vreys, Yannick
2016-01-01
We derive a sufficient set of conditions on the Euclidean boundary theory in dS/CFT for it to predict classical, Lorentzian bulk evolution at large spatial volumes. Our derivation makes use of a canonical transformation to express the bulk wave function at large volume in terms of the sources of the dual partition function. This enables a sharper formulation of dS/CFT. The conditions under which the boundary theory predicts classical bulk evolution are stronger than the criteria usually employed in quantum cosmology. We illustrate this in a homogeneous isotropic minisuperspace model of gravity coupled to a scalar field in which we identify the ensemble of classical histories explicitly.
Lorentzian condition in holographic cosmology
Hertog, Thomas; Monten, Ruben; Vreys, Yannick
2017-01-01
We derive a sufficient set of conditions on the Euclidean boundary theory in dS/CFT for it to predict classical, Lorentzian bulk evolution at large spatial volumes. Our derivation makes use of a canonical transformation to express the bulk wave function at large volume in terms of the sources of the dual partition function. This enables a sharper formulation of dS/CFT. The conditions under which the boundary theory predicts classical bulk evolution are stronger than the criteria usually employed in quantum cosmology. We illustrate this in a homogeneous isotropic minisuperspace model of gravity coupled to a scalar field in which we identify the ensemble of classical histories explicitly.
Astrophysics and Cosmology: International Partnerships
Blandford, Roger
2016-03-01
Most large projects in astrophysics and cosmology are international. This raises many challenges including: --Aligning the sequence of: proposal, planning, selection, funding, construction, deployment, operation, data mining in different countries --Managing to minimize cost growth through reconciling different practices --Communicating at all levels to ensure a successful outcome --Stabilizing long term career opportunities. There has been considerable progress in confronting these challenges. Lessons learned from past collaborations are influencing current facilities but much remains to be done if we are to optimize the scientific and public return on the expenditure of financial and human resources.
Daywitt W. C.
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Both the big-bang and the quasi-steady-state cosmologies originate in some type of Planck state. This paper presents a new cosmological theory based on the Planck- vacuum negative-energy state, a state consisting of a degenerate collection of negative- energy Planck particles. A heuristic look at the Einstein field equation provides a con- vincing argument that such a vacuum state could provide a theoretical explanation for the visible universe.
Accelerating Cosmologies from Compactification
Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2003-01-01
A solution of the (4+n)-dimensional vacuum Einstein equations is found for which spacetime is compactified on a compact hyperbolic manifold of time-varying volume to a flat four-dimensional FLRW cosmology undergoing accelerated expansion in Einstein conformal frame. This shows that the `no-go' theorem forbidding acceleration in `standard' (time-independent) compactifications of string/M-theory does not apply to `cosmological' (time-dependent) hyperbolic compactifications.
Relativistic cosmological hydrodynamics
Hwang, J
1997-01-01
We investigate the relativistic cosmological hydrodynamic perturbations. We present the general large scale solutions of the perturbation variables valid for the general sign of three space curvature, the cosmological constant, and generally evolving background equation of state. The large scale evolution is characterized by a conserved gauge invariant quantity which is the same as a perturbed potential (or three-space curvature) in the comoving gauge.
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor
Harrington, Kathleen; Ali, Aamir; Appel, John W; Bennett, Charles L; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T; Colazo, Felipe; Dahal, Sumit; Denis, Kevin; Dünner, Rolando; Eimer, Joseph; Essinger-Hileman, Thomas; Fluxa, Pedro; Halpern, Mark; Hilton, Gene; Hinshaw, Gary F; Hubmayr, Johannes; Iuliano, Jeffery; Karakla, John; McMahon, Jeff; Miller, Nathan T; Moseley, Samuel H; Palma, Gonzalo; Parker, Lucas; Petroff, Matthew; Pradenas, Bastián; Rostem, Karwan; Sagliocca, Marco; Valle, Deniz; Watts, Duncan; Wollack, Edward; Xu, Zhilei; Zeng, Lingzhen
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from inflation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70\\% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad f...
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS)
Harrington, Kathleen; Marriange, Tobias; Aamir, Ali; Appel, John W.; Bennett, Charles L.; Boone, Fletcher; Brewer, Michael; Chan, Manwei; Chuss, David T.; Colazo, Felipe; Denis, Kevin; Moseley, Samuel H.; Rostem, Karwan; Wollack, Edward
2016-01-01
The Cosmology Large Angular Scale Surveyor (CLASS) is a four telescope array designed to characterize relic primordial gravitational waves from in ation and the optical depth to reionization through a measurement of the polarized cosmic microwave background (CMB) on the largest angular scales. The frequencies of the four CLASS telescopes, one at 38 GHz, two at 93 GHz, and one dichroic system at 145/217 GHz, are chosen to avoid spectral regions of high atmospheric emission and span the minimum of the polarized Galactic foregrounds: synchrotron emission at lower frequencies and dust emission at higher frequencies. Low-noise transition edge sensor detectors and a rapid front-end polarization modulator provide a unique combination of high sensitivity, stability, and control of systematics. The CLASS site, at 5200 m in the Chilean Atacama desert, allows for daily mapping of up to 70% of the sky and enables the characterization of CMB polarization at the largest angular scales. Using this combination of a broad frequency range, large sky coverage, control over systematics, and high sensitivity, CLASS will observe the reionization and recombination peaks of the CMB E- and B-mode power spectra. CLASS will make a cosmic variance limited measurement of the optical depth to reionization and will measure or place upper limits on the tensor-to-scalar ratio, r, down to a level of 0.01 (95% C.L.).
Building cosmological frozen stars
Kastor, David; Traschen, Jennie
2017-02-01
Janis–Newman–Winicour (JNW) solutions generalize Schwarzschild to include a massless scalar field. While they share the familiar infinite redshift feature of Schwarzschild, they suffer from the presence of naked singularities. Cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes were discovered some years ago, in the most general case, by Fonarev. Fonarev solutions are also plagued by naked singularities, but have the virtue, unlike e.g. Schwarzschild–deSitter, of being dynamical. Given that exact dynamical cosmological black hole solutions are scarce, Fonarev solutions merit further study. We show how Fonarev solutions can be obtained via generalized dimensional reduction from simpler static vacuum solutions. These results may lead towards constructions of actual dynamical cosmological black holes. In particular, we note that cosmological versions of extremal charged dilaton black holes are known. JNW spacetimes represent a different limiting case of the family of charged dilaton black holes, which have been important in the context of string theory, and better understanding their cosmological versions of JNW spacetimes thus provides a second data point towards finding cosmological versions of the entire family.
Bag, Satadru; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune 411007 (India); Shtanov, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kiev 03680 (Ukraine); Unnikrishnan, Sanil, E-mail: satadru@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: shtanov@bitp.kiev.ua, E-mail: sanil@lnmiit.ac.in [Department of Physics, The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur 302031 (India)
2014-07-01
We explore the possibility of emergent cosmology using the effective potential formalism. We discover new models of emergent cosmology which satisfy the constraints posed by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). We demonstrate that, within the framework of modified gravity, the emergent scenario can arise in a universe which is spatially open/closed. By contrast, in general relativity (GR) emergent cosmology arises from a spatially closed past-eternal Einstein Static Universe (ESU). In GR the ESU is unstable, which creates fine tuning problems for emergent cosmology. However, modified gravity models including Braneworld models, Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) and Asymptotically Free Gravity result in a stable ESU. Consequently, in these models emergent cosmology arises from a larger class of initial conditions including those in which the universe eternally oscillates about the ESU fixed point. We demonstrate that such an oscillating universe is necessarily accompanied by graviton production. For a large region in parameter space graviton production is enhanced through a parametric resonance, casting serious doubts as to whether this emergent scenario can be past-eternal.
String cosmology versus standard and inflationary cosmology
Gasperini, M
2000-01-01
This paper presents a review of the basic, model-independent differences between the pre-big bang scenario, arising naturally in a string cosmology context, and the standard inflationary scenario. We use an unconventional approach in which the introduction of technical details is avoided as much as possible, trying to focus the reader's attention on the main conceptual aspects of both scenarios. The aim of the paper is not to conclude in favour either of one or of the other scenario, but to raise questions that are left to the reader's meditation. Warnings: the paper does not contain equations, and is not intended as a complete review of all aspects of string cosmology.
Cosmological perturbations in teleparallel Loop Quantum Cosmology
Haro, Jaime
2013-01-01
Cosmological perturbations in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) could be studied from two totally different ways. The first one, called holonomy corrected LQC, is performed in the Hamiltonian framework, where the Asthekar connection is replaced by a suitable sinus function (holonomy correction), in order to have a well-defined quantum analogue. The alternative approach is based in the fact that isotropic LQC could be also obtained as a particular case of teleparallel $F(T)$ gravity (teleparallel LQC). Then, working in the Lagrangian framework and using the well-know perturbation equations in $F(T)$ gravity, we have obtained, in teleparallel LQC, the equations for scalar and tensor perturbations, and the corresponding Mukhanov-Sasaki equations. For scalar perturbations, our equation only differs from the one obtained by holonomy corrections in the velocity of sound, leading both formulations, essentially to the same scale invariant power spectrum when a matter-dominated universe is considered. However for tensor pe...
Cosmological constraints on a light nonthermal sterile neutrino
Acero, Mario A
2009-01-01
Although the MiniBooNE experiment has severely restricted the possible existence of light sterile neutrinos, a few anomalies persist in oscillation data, and the possibility of extra light species contributing as a subdominant hot (or warm) component is still interesting. In many models, this species would be in thermal equilibrium in the early universe and share the same temperature as active neutrinos, but this is not necessarily the case. In this work, we fit up-to-date cosmological data with an extended LambdaCDM model, including light relics with a mass typically in the range 0.1 -10 eV. We provide, first, some nearly model-independent constraints on their current density and velocity dispersion, and second, some constraints on their mass, assuming that they consist either in early decoupled thermal relics, or in non-resonantly produced sterile neutrinos. Our results can be used for constraining most particle-physics-motivated models with three active neutrinos and one extra light species. For instance, ...
The fluctuation-dissipation dynamics of cosmological scalar fields
Bartrum, Sam; Rosa, Joao G
2014-01-01
We show that dissipative effects have a significant impact on the evolution of cosmological scalar fields, leading to friction, entropy production and field fluctuations. We explicitly compute the dissipation coefficient for different scalar fields within the Standard Model and some of its most widely considered extensions, in different parametric regimes. We describe the generic consequences of fluctuation-dissipation dynamics in the post-inflationary universe and analyze in detail two important effects. Firstly, we show that dissipative friction delays the process of spontaneous symmetry breaking and may even damp the the motion of a Higgs field sufficiently to induce a late period of warm inflation. Along with dissipative entropy production, this may parametrically dilute the abundance of dangerous thermal relics. Secondly, we show that dissipation can generate the observed baryon asymmetry without symmetry restoration, and we develop in detail a model of dissipative leptogenesis. We further show that this...
Affine Quantization and the Initial Cosmological Singularity
Fanuel, Michaël
2012-01-01
A toy model for quantum cosmology is suggested and quantized in the light of the Affine Coherent State Quantization procedure. The quantum corrections to the classical dynamics seem to provide a potential barrier term, as already suggested in other models studied in the literature. The possible application of this method to more realistic minisuperspace models is envisaged.
Multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations
Gong, Jinn-Ouk
2016-01-01
We provide a concise review on multi-field inflation and cosmological perturbations. We discuss convenient and physically meaningful bases in terms of which perturbations can be systematically studied. We give formal accounts on the gauge fixing conditions and present the perturbation action in two gauges. We also briefly review non-linear perturbations.
Exploring Bouncing Cosmologies with Cosmological Surveys
Cai, Yi-Fu
2014-01-01
In light of the recent observational data coming from the sky we have two significant directions in the field of theoretical cosmology recently. First, we are now able to make use of present observations, such as the Planck and BICEP2 data, to examine theoretical predictions from the standard inflationary $\\Lambda$CDM which were made decades of years ago. Second, we can search for new cosmological signatures as a way to explore physics beyond the standard cosmic paradigm. In particular, a subset of early universe models admit a nonsingular bouncing solution that attempts to address the issue of the big bang singularity. These models have achieved a series of considerable developments in recent years, in particular in their perturbative frameworks, which made brand-new predictions of cosmological signatures that could be visible in current and forthcoming observations. In this article we present two representative paradigms of very early universe physics. The first is the so-called new matter (or matter-ekpyro...
Can the cosmological constant undergo abrupt changes?
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro; Rosabal, A; Cabo, Alejandro; Garcia-Chung, Alejandro; Rosabal, Alejandro
2005-01-01
The existence of a simple spherically symmetric and static solution of the Einstein equations in the presence of a cosmological constant vanishing outside a definite value of the radial distance is investigated. A particular succession of field configurations, which are solutions of the Einstein equations in the presence of the considered cosmological term and auxiliary external sources, is constructed. Then, it is shown that the associated succession of external sources tend to zero in the sense of the generalized functions. The type of weak solution that is found becomes the deSitter homogeneous space-time for the interior region, and the Schwartzschild space in the outside zone.
On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking
Linde, Andrei
2016-01-01
We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer $S$ and the inflaton $\\Phi$, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields $S$ and $\\Phi$ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield $P$ one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.
Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits
Hwang, Jai-Chan
2012-06-01
Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).
Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits
Hwang, Jai-chan
2012-01-01
Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, "philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies". (Whitehead 1925)
Brane-world cosmology with black strings
Gergely, László Á.
2006-07-01
We consider the simplest scenario when black strings/cigars penetrate the cosmological brane. As a result, the brane has a Swiss-cheese structure, with Schwarzschild black holes immersed in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker brane. There is no dark radiation in the model, the cosmological regions of the brane are characterized by a cosmological constant Λ and flat spatial sections. Regardless of the value of Λ, these brane-world universes forever expand and forever decelerate. The totality of source terms in the modified Einstein equation sum up to a dust, establishing a formal equivalence with the general relativistic Einstein-Straus model. However in this brane-world scenario with black strings the evolution of the cosmological fluid strongly depends on Λ. For Λ≤0 it has positive energy density ρ and negative pressure p and at late times it behaves as in the Einstein-Straus model. For (not too high) positive values of Λ the cosmological evolution begins with positive ρ and negative p, but this is followed by an epoch with both ρ and p positive. Eventually, ρ becomes negative, while p stays positive. A similar evolution is present for high positive values of Λ, however in this case the evolution ends in a pressure singularity, accompanied by a regular behavior of the cosmic acceleration. This is a novel type of singularity appearing in brane-worlds.
FRW Cosmology in Ghost Free Massive Gravity
Comelli, D; Nesti, F; Pilo, L
2011-01-01
We study FRW homogeneous cosmological solutions in the recently found ghost free massive gravity. In previous works it was shown that when the additional extra metric, needed to generate the mass term, is taken as non-dynamical and flat, no homogeneous FRW cosmology exists. We show that, when the additional metric is a dynamical field, a perfectly safe FRW universe exists. FRW solutions fall in two branches. In the first branch the massive deformation is equivalent to an effectively generated cosmological constant whose scale is determined by the graviton mass. The second branch is quite rich: we have FRW cosmology in the presence of a "gravitational" fluid. The control parameter xi is the ratio of the two conformal factors. When xi is large, generically the cosmological evolution greatly differs from GR at the early time. In the small xi region, the evolution is similar to GR and the universe flows at late time toward an attractor represented by a dS phase.
Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology
Turner, M.S. (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst. Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States))
1992-01-01
In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the initial data'' for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.
Mechanism for a Decaying Cosmological Constant
Bisabr, Y
2002-01-01
A mechanism is introduced to reduce a large cosmological constant to a sufficiently small value consistent with observational upper limit. The basic ingradient in this mechanism is a distinction which has been made between the two unit systems used on cosmology and particle physics. We have used a conformal invariant gravitational model to define a particular conformal frame in terms of the large scale properties of the universe. It is then argued that the contributions of mass scales in particle physics to the vacuum energy density should be considered in a different conformal frame. In this manner a cancellation mechanism is presented in which the conformal factor plays a key role to relax the large effective cosmological constant.
Conformal symmetries of FRW accelerating cosmologies
Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Riotto, A. [Department of Theoretical Physics and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP) 24 quai E. Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland)
2014-07-15
We show that any accelerating Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) cosmology with equation of state w<−1/3 (and therefore not only a de Sitter stage with w=−1) exhibits three-dimensional conformal symmetry on future constant-time hypersurfaces if the bulk theory is invariant under bulk conformal Killing vectors. We also offer an alternative derivation of this result in terms of conformal Killing vectors and show that long wavelength comoving curvature perturbations of the perturbed FRW metric are just conformal Killing motions of the FRW background. We then extend the boundary conformal symmetry to the bulk for accelerating cosmologies. Our findings indicate that one can easily generate perturbations of scalar fields which are not only scale invariant, but also fully conformally invariant on super-Hubble scales. Measuring a scale-invariant power spectrum for the cosmological perturbation does not automatically imply that the universe went through a de Sitter stage.
Decaying Lambda cosmology, varying G and holography
Carneiro, S
2004-01-01
We discuss a class of uniform and isotropic, spatially flat, decaying Lambda cosmologies, in the realm of a model where the gravitation constant G is a function of the cosmological time. Besides the usual de Sitter solution, the models at late times are characterized by a constant ratio between the matter and total energy densities. One of them presents a coasting expansion where the matter density parameter is equal to 1/3, and the age of the universe satisfies Ht = 1. From considerations in line with the holographic conjecture, it is argued that, among the non-decelerating solutions, the coasting expansion is the only acceptable from a thermodynamic viewpoint, and that the time varying cosmological term must be proportional to the square of the Hubble parameter, a result earlier obtained using different arguments.
Statefinder diagnostic in a torsion cosmology
Li, Xin-zhou; Xi, Ping
2009-01-01
We apply the statefinder diagnostic to the torsion cosmology, in which an accounting for the accelerated universe is considered in term of a Riemann-Cartan geometry: dynamic scalar torsion. We find that there are some typical characteristic of the evolution of statefinder parameters for the torsion cosmology that can be distinguished from the other cosmological models. Furthermore, we also show that statefinder diagnostic has a direct bearing on the critical points. The statefinder diagnostic divides the torsion parameter $a_1$ into differential ranges, which is in keeping with the requirement of dynamical analysis. In addition, we fit the scalar torsion model to ESSENCE supernovae data and give the best fit values of the model parameters.
Cosmological Perturbations: Vorticity, Isocurvature and Magnetic Fields
Christopherson, Adam J
2014-01-01
In this paper I review some recent, interlinked, work undertaken using cosmological perturbation theory -- a powerful technique for modelling inhomogeneities in the Universe. The common theme which underpins these pieces of work is the presence of non-adiabatic pressure, or entropy, perturbations. After a brief introduction covering the standard techniques of describing inhomogeneities in both Newtonian and relativistic cosmology, I discuss the generation of vorticity. As in classical fluid mechanics, vorticity is not present in linearized perturbation theory (unless included as an initial condition). Allowing for entropy perturbations, and working to second order in perturbation theory, I show that vorticity is generated, even in the absence of vector perturbations, by purely scalar perturbations, the source term being quadratic in the gradients of first order energy density and isocurvature, or non-adiabatic pressure perturbations. This generalizes Crocco's theorem to a cosmological setting. I then introduc...
Inflation after COBE: Lectures on inflationary cosmology
Turner, M.S. [Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Enrico Fermi Inst.]|[Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States)
1992-12-31
In these lectures I review the standard hot big-bang cosmology, emphasizing its successes, its shortcomings, and its major challenge-a detailed understanding of the formation of structure in the Universe. I then discuss the motivations for and the fundamentals of inflationary cosmology, particularly emphasizing the quantum origin of metric (density and gravity-wave) perturbations. Inflation addresses the shortcomings of the standard cosmology and provides the ``initial data`` for structure formation. I conclude by addressing the implications of inflation for structure formation, evaluating the various cold dark matter models in the light of the recent detection of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic background radiation by COBE. In the near term, the study of structure formation offers a powerful probe of inflation, as well as specific inflationary models.
The cosmology of interacting spin-2 fields
Tamanini, Nicola [Department of Mathematics, University College London, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Saridakis, Emmanuel N. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece); Koivisto, Tomi S., E-mail: n.tamanini.11@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: Emmanuel_Saridakis@baylor.edu, E-mail: t.s.koivisto@astro.uio.no [Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, N-0315 Oslo (Norway)
2014-02-01
We investigate the cosmology of interacting spin-2 particles, formulating the multi-gravitational theory in terms of vierbeins and without imposing any Deser-van Nieuwen-huizen-like constraint. The resulting multi-vierbein theory represents a wider class of gravitational theories if compared to the corresponding multi-metric models. Moreover, as opposed to its metric counterpart which in general seems to contain ghosts, it has already been proved to be ghost-free. We outline a discussion about the possible matter couplings and we focus on the study of cosmological scenarios in the case of three and four interacting vierbeins. We find rich behavior, including de Sitter solutions with an effective cosmological constant arising from the multi-vierbein interaction, dark-energy solutions and nonsingular bouncing behavior.
A stellar relic from the early Milky Way
Christlieb, N; Beers, T C; Gustafsson, B; Korn, A J; Barklem, P S; Karlsson, T; Mizuno-Wiedner, M; Rossi, S; Christlieb, Norbert; Bessell, Michael S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Gustafsson, Bengt; Korn, Andreas; Barklem, Paul S.; Karlsson, Torgny; Mizuno-Wiedner, Michelle; Rossi, Silvia
2002-01-01
The chemical composition of the most metal-deficient stars reflects the composition of the gas from which they formed. These old stars provide crucial clues to the star formation history and the synthesis of chemical elements in the early Universe. They are the local relics of epochs otherwise observable only at very high redshifts; if totally metal-free (``population III'') stars could be found, this would allow the direct study of the pristine gas from the Big Bang. Earlier searches for such stars found none with an iron abundance less than 1/10,000 that of the Sun, leading to the suggestion that low-mass stars could only form from clouds above a critical iron abundance. Here we report the discovery of a low-mass star with an iron abundance as low as 1/200,000 of the solar value. This discovery suggests that population III stars could still exist, that is, that the first generation of stars also contained long-lived low-mass objects. The previous failure to find them may be an observational selection effect...
Re-acceleration model for the `Sausage' Radio Relic
Kang, Hyesung
2016-01-01
The Sausage radio relic is the arc-like radio structure in the cluster CIZA J2242.8+5301, whose observed properties can be best understood by synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons accelerated at a merger-driven shock. However, there remain a few puzzles that cannot be explained by the shock acceleration model with only in-situ injection. In particular, the Mach number inferred from the observed radio spectral index, $M_{\\rm radio}\\approx 4.6$, while the Mach number estimated from X-ray observations, $M_{\\rm X-ray}\\approx 2.7$. In an attempt to resolve such a discrepancy, here we consider the re-acceleration model in which a shock of $M_s\\approx 3$ sweeps through the intracluster gas with a pre-existing population of relativistic electrons. We find that observed brightness profiles at multi frequencies provide strong constraints on the spectral shape of pre-existing electrons. The models with a power-law momentum spectrum with the slope, $s\\approx 4.1$, and the cutoff Lorentz factor, $\\gamma_{e,c}\\a...
A double radio relic in the merging galaxy cluster ZwCl 0008.8+5215
van Weeren, R J; Rottgering, H J A; Bruggen, M; Intema, H T; van Velzen, S
2011-01-01
Some merging galaxy clusters host diffuse elongated radio sources, also called radio relics. It is proposed that these radio relics trace shock waves in the intracluster medium created during a cluster merger event. Within the shock waves particles are accelerated to relativistic energies, and in the presence of a magnetic field synchrotron radiation will be emitted. Here we present GMRT and WSRT observations of a new double relic in the galaxy cluster ZwCl 0008.8+5215. Optical V, R, and I band images of the cluster were taken with the INT. An optical spectrum, to determine the redshift of the cluster, was taken with the WHT. Our observations show the presence of a double radio relic in the galaxy cluster ZwCl 0008.8+5215, for which we find a spectroscopic redshift of z = 0.1032 \\pm 0.0018 from an optical spectrum of one of the cD galaxies. The spectral index of the two relics steepens inwards to the cluster center. For part of the relics, we measure a polarization fraction in the range ~ 5-25%. A ROSAT X-ray...
Another shock for the Bullet cluster, and the source of seed electrons for radio relics
Shimwell, Timothy W; Brown, Shea; Feretti, Luigina; Gaensler, B M; Johnston-Hollitt, M; Lage, Craig; Srinivasan, Raghav
2015-01-01
With Australia Telescope Compact Array observations, we detect a highly elongated Mpc-scale diffuse radio source on the eastern periphery of the Bullet cluster 1E0657-55.8, which we argue has the positional, spectral and polarimetric characteristics of a radio relic. This powerful relic (2.3+/-0.1 x 10^25 W Hz^-1) consists of a bright northern bulb and a faint linear tail. The bulb emits 94% of the observed radio flux and has the highest surface brightness of any known relic. Exactly coincident with the linear tail we find a sharp X-ray surface brightness edge in the deep Chandra image of the cluster -- a signature of a shock front in the hot intracluster medium (ICM), located on the opposite side of the cluster to the famous bow shock. This new example of an X-ray shock coincident with a relic further supports the hypothesis that shocks in the outer regions of clusters can form relics via diffusive shock (re-)acceleration. Intriguingly, our new relic suggests that seed electrons for reacceleration are coming...
Flower symbolism and the cult of relics in medieval Serbia
Popović Danica
2008-01-01
Full Text Available The Life of archbishop Eustathios I [Jevstatije] (1279-1286, deserving head of the medieval Serbian Church and a saint, is a very interesting source for studying the cult of relics with the Serbs. This is not surprising considering that the Life was penned by one of the most illustrious of Eustathios' successors on the church throne, Daniel II [Danilo], a learned Athonite and unquestionable master of the hagiographie literary genre. In his account of the life of his distinguished predecessor, Daniel describes extensively the events constituting the key stage in the glorification of a saint, namely Eustathios' death and posthumous occurrences at his grave. As most holy men, Eustathios foresaw his own death, and he departed from this world serenely. He was buried, with due honours, in the 'marble grave' he had prepared for himself in the cathedral church of Holy Saviour at Žiča. In keeping with the well-established saint-making process, a few years after the funeral 'extraordinary signs' began to occur at the archbishop's grave, in this particular case, candlelight and a multitude of murmuring voices followed by the miraculous cure of an incurably ill person. These occurrences preceded the great miracle which, to the best of my knowledge, is unparalleled in the medieval Serbian practice of relic veneration. Namely, 'one day they found growing from his marble grave three flowers endowed with wondrous beauty and impossible to liken to anything else. For, indeed, they were not of earthly humidity or of union with flowers that grow from earth; but, o wonder, how a dry stone standing for so long in the church could send forth fragrant flowers, to the renewal of the sanctified one's body'. Flower metaphors occur in the Service to the holy archbishop Eustathios, yet another piece penned by Daniel II, notably in his paraphrases of Psalm 92, 12-14 ('The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree: he shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon. These that be
Unity of cosmological inflation attractors.
Galante, Mario; Kallosh, Renata; Linde, Andrei; Roest, Diederik
2015-04-10
Recently, several broad classes of inflationary models have been discovered whose cosmological predictions, in excellent agreement with Planck, are stable with respect to significant modifications of the inflaton potential. Some classes of models are based on a nonminimal coupling to gravity. These models, which we call ξ attractors, describe universal cosmological attractors (including Higgs inflation) and induced inflation models. Another class describes conformal attractors (including Starobinsky inflation and T models) and their generalization to α attractors. The aim of this Letter is to elucidate the common denominator of these attractors: their robust predictions stem from a joint pole of order 2 in the kinetic term of the inflaton field in the Einstein frame formulation prior to switching to the canonical variables. Model-dependent differences only arise at subleading level in the kinetic term. As a final step towards the unification of the different attractors, we introduce a special class of ξ attractors which is fully equivalent to α attractors with the identification α=1+(1/6ξ). While r is generically predicted to be of the order 1/N^{2}, there is no theoretical lower bound on r in this class of models.
Silk, Joseph
2008-11-01
The field of cosmology has been transformed since the glorious decades of the 1920's and 1930's when theory and observation converged to develop the current model of the expanding universe. It was a triumph of the theory of general relativity and astronomy. The first revolution came when the nuclear physicists entered the fray. This marked the debut of the hot big bang, in which the light elements were synthesized in the first three minutes. It was soon realised that elements like carbon and iron were synthesized in exploding stars. However helium, as well as deuterium and lithium, remain as George Gamow envisaged, the detritus of the big bang. The climax arrived with one of the most remarkable discoveries of the twentieth century, the cosmic microwave background radiation, in 1964. The fossil glow turned out to have the spectrum of an ideal black body. One could not imagine a stronger confirmation of the hot and dense origin of the universe. This discovery set the scene for the next major advance. It was now the turn of the particle physicists, who realized that the energies attained near the beginning of the universe, and unachievable in any conceivable terrestrial accelerator, provided a unique testing ground for theories of grand unification of the fundamental forces. This led Alan Guth and Andrei Linde in 1980 to propose the theory of inflation, which solved outstanding puzzles of the big bang. One could now understand why the universe is so large and homogeneous, and the origin of the seed fluctuations that gave rise to large-scale structure. A key prediction was that the universe should have Euclidean geometry, now verified to a precision of a few percent. Modern cosmology is firmly embedded in particle physics. It merits a text written by a particle physicist who can however appreciate the contributions of astronomy that provide the foundation and infrastructure for the theory of the expanding universe. There are now several such texts available. The most
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University,4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics and Department of Physics, Stanford University,382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94306 (United States); Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University and SLAC,2575 Sand Hill Road, M/S 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)
2016-10-12
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with “flat” (including toroidal) and “open” (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are “flat” or “open”. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with “flat” or “open” topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology
Agarwal, Abhineet
2014-01-01
An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. non-renormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early universe is the Tachyacoustic (or Speedy Sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study Thermal Tachyacoustic Cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early universe, around the scale of Grand Unified Theories (GUT scale; $T\\sim 10^{15}$ GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by $25$ orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of ten...
Thermal tachyacoustic cosmology
Agarwal, Abhineet; Afshordi, Niayesh
2014-08-01
An intriguing possibility that can address pathologies in both early Universe cosmology (i.e. the horizon problem) and quantum gravity (i.e. nonrenormalizability), is that particles at very high energies and/or temperatures could propagate arbitrarily fast. A concrete realization of this possibility for the early Universe is the tachyacoustic (or speedy sound) cosmology, which could also produce a scale-invariant spectrum for scalar cosmological perturbations. Here, we study thermal tachyacoustic cosmology (TTC), i.e. this scenario with thermal initial conditions. We find that a phase transition in the early Universe, around the scale of the grand unified theory (GUT scale; T ˜1015 GeV), during which the speed of sound drops by 25 orders of magnitude within a Hubble time, can fit current CMB observations. We further discuss how production of primordial black holes constrains the cosmological acoustic history, while coupling TTC to Horava-Lifshitz gravity leads to a lower limit on the amplitude of tensor modes (r≳10-3), that are detectable by CMBpol (and might have already been seen by the BICEP-Keck Collaboration).
Conceptual Problems in Cosmology
Vieira, F J Amaral
2011-01-01
In this essay a critical review of present conceptual problems in current cosmology is provided from a more philosophical point of view. In essence, a digression on how could philosophy help cosmologists in what is strictly their fundamental endeavor is presented. We start by recalling some examples of enduring confrontations among philosophers and physicists on what could be contributed by the formers to the day-time striving of the second ones. Then, a short review of the standard model Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walter (FLRW) of cosmology is given. It seems apparent that cosmology is living a golden age with the advent of observations of high precision. Nonetheless, a critical revisiting of the direction in which it should go on appears also needed, for misconcepts like "quantum backgrounds for cosmological classical settings" and "quantum gravity unification" have not been properly constructed up-to-date. Thus, knowledge-building in cosmology, more than in any other field, should begin with visions of...
Inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
Kleban, Matthew; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-10-01
In homogeneous and isotropic Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmology, the topology of the universe determines its ultimate fate. If the Weak Energy Condition is satisfied, open and flat universes must expand forever, while closed cosmologies can recollapse to a Big Crunch. A similar statement holds for homogeneous but anisotropic (Bianchi) universes. Here, we prove that arbitrarily inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies with ``flat'' (including toroidal) and ``open'' (including compact hyperbolic) spatial topology that are initially expanding must continue to expand forever at least in some region at a rate bounded from below by a positive number, despite the presence of arbitrarily large density fluctuations and/or the formation of black holes. Because the set of 3-manifold topologies is countable, a single integer determines the ultimate fate of the universe, and, in a specific sense, most 3-manifolds are ``flat'' or ``open''. Our result has important implications for inflation: if there is a positive cosmological constant (or suitable inflationary potential) and initial conditions for the inflaton, cosmologies with ``flat'' or ``open'' topology must expand forever in some region at least as fast as de Sitter space, and are therefore very likely to begin inflationary expansion eventually, regardless of the scale of the inflationary energy or the spectrum and amplitude of initial inhomogeneities and gravitational waves. Our result is also significant for numerical general relativity, which often makes use of periodic (toroidal) boundary conditions.
朱洪; 许权辉; 费玲玲; 杨强
2014-01-01
在系统阐述安徽灵璧磬云山地质公园地质遗迹类型与特征基础上，依据《中国国家地质公园建设技术要求和工作指南》地质遗迹（景观）评价系统中的菲什拜因-罗森伯格模型，对地质遗迹进行综合评价研究。结果表明：磬云山地质公园地质遗迹丰富多样、形态典型、景观稀有、保存良好，其中尤以典型岩石、沉积构造、古生物遗迹、古地震遗迹、古采矿遗迹最为典型，属于国家级资源，具有较高的科学价值、观赏价值和旅游开发价值。%After systematic introduction of types and features of geologic relics in the Qingyunshan Geological Park, Lingbi, Anhui, this paper performed a comprehensive assessment of the relics according to Fishbein Rosenberg model, which indicated that the relics are diversified, typical in form, rare in landscape and well preserved, especially, the typical rocks, sedimentary structure, paleotological relic, ancient seismic relic, ancient mining relic are most representative, belonging national resources and having high values in terms of science, view and tourism development.
Observational constraints on late-time \\Lambda(t) cosmology
Carneiro, S; Pigozzo, C; Alcaniz, J S
2007-01-01
The cosmological constant, i.e., the energy density stored in the true vacuum state of all existing fields in the Universe, is the simplest and the most natural possibility to describe the current cosmic acceleration. However, despite its observational successes, such a possibility exacerbates the well known cosmological constant problem, requiring a natural explanation for its small, but nonzero, value. In this paper we study cosmological consequences of a scenario driven by a varying cosmological term, in which the vacuum energy density decays linearly with the Hubble parameter. We test the viability of this scenario and study a possible way to distinguish it from the current standard cosmological model by using recent observations of type Ia supernova (Supernova Legacy Survey Collaboration), measurements of the baryonic acoustic oscillation from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the position of the first peak of the cosmic microwave background angular spectrum from the three-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotr...
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
Darabi, F
2015-01-01
In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz's representations of perfect fluid and find the solutions. Moreover, we study the quantum cosmology using the canonical quantization procedure and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmological considerations. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de...
Axions : Theory and Cosmological Role
Kawasaki, Masahiro; Nakayama, Kazunori
2013-01-01
We review recent developments on axion cosmology. Topics include : axion cold dark matter, axions from topological defects, axion isocurvature perturbation and its non-Gaussianity and axino/saxion cosmology in supersymmetric axion model.
Bonometto, S A; Musco, I; Mainini, R; Maccio', A V
2014-01-01
Models including an energy transfer from CDM to DE are widely considered in the literature, namely to allow DE a significant high-z density. Strongly Coupled cosmologies assume a much larger coupling between DE and CDM, together with the presence of an uncoupled warm DM component, as the role of CDM is mostly restricted to radiative eras. This allows us to preserve small scale fluctuations even if the warm particle, possibly a sterile neutrino, is quite light, O(100 eV). Linear theory and numerical simulations show that these cosmologies agree with LCDM on supergalactic scales; e.g., CMB spectra are substantially identical. Simultaneously, simulations show that they significantly ease problems related to the properties of MW satellites and cores in dwarfs. SC cosmologies also open new perspectives on early black hole formation, and possibly lead towards unificating DE and inflationary scalar fields.
Evolving Horava Cosmological Horizons
Fathi, Mohsen
2016-01-01
Several sets of radially propagating null congruence generators are exploited in order to form 3-dimensional marginally trapped surfaces, referred to as black hole and cosmological apparent horizons in a Horava universe. Based on this method, we deal with the characteristics of the 2-dimensional space-like spheres of symmetry and the peculiarities of having trapping horizons. Moreover, we apply this method in standard expanding and contracting FLRW cosmological models of a Horava universe to investigate the conditions under which the extra parameters of the theory may lead to trapped/anti-trapped surfaces both in the future and in the past. We also include the cases of negative time, referred to as the finite past, and discuss the formation of anti-trapped surfaces inside the cosmological apparent horizons.
Stornaiolo, C
2002-01-01
In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.
Bojowald, Martin
2016-01-01
A cosmological model with two global internal times shows that time reparameterization invariance, and therefore covariance, is not guaranteed by deparameterization. In particular, it is impossible to derive proper-time effective equations from a single deparameterized model if quantum corrections from fluctuations and higher moments are included. The framework of effective constraints shows how proper-time evolution can consistently be defined in quantum cosmological systems, such that it is time reparameterization invariant when compared with other choices of coordinate time. At the same time, it allows transformations of moment corrections in different deparameterizations of the same model, indicating partial time reparameterization of internal-time evolution. However, in addition to corrections from moments such as quantum fluctuations, also factor ordering corrections may appear. The latter generically break covariance in internal-time formulations. Fluctuation effects in quantum cosmology are therefore ...
Townsend, P K; Townsend, Paul K.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.
2004-01-01
For gravity coupled to N scalar fields with arbitrary potential V, it is shown that all flat (homogeneous and isotropic) cosmologies correspond to geodesics in an (N+1)-dimensional `extended target space' of Lorentzian signature (1,N), timelike if V>0 and spacelike if V<0. Accelerating cosmologies correspond to timelike geodesics that lie within an `acceleration subcone' of the `lightcone'. Non-flat (k=-1,+1) cosmologies are shown to evolve as projections of geodesic motion in a space of dimension N+2, of signature (1,N+1) for k=-1 and signature (2,N) for k=+1. We illustrate these results for various potentials of current interest, including exponential and inverse power potentials.
General relativity and cosmology
Bucher, Martin
2015-01-01
This year marks the hundredth anniversary of Einstein's 1915 landmark paper "Die Feldgleichungen der Gravitation" in which the field equations of general relativity were correctly formulated for the first time, thus rendering general relativity a complete theory. Over the subsequent hundred years physicists and astronomers have struggled with uncovering the consequences and applications of these equations. This contribution, which was written as an introduction to six chapters dealing with the connection between general relativity and cosmology that will appear in the two-volume book "One Hundred Years of General Relativity: From Genesis and Empirical Foundations to Gravitational Waves, Cosmology and Quantum Gravity," endeavors to provide a historical overview of the connection between general relativity and cosmology, two areas whose development has been closely intertwined.
Tartaglia, Angelo
2015-01-01
Starting from some relevant facts concerning the behaviour of the universe over large scale and time span, the analogy between the geometric approach of General Relativ- ity and the classical description of an elastic strained material continuum is discussed. Extending the elastic deformation approach to four dimensions it is shown that the accelerated expansion of the universe is recovered. The strain field of space-time repro- duces properties similar to the ones ascribed to the dark energy currently called in to explain the accelerated expansion. The strain field in the primordial universe behaves as radiation, but asymptotically it reproduces the cosmological constant. Subjecting the theory to a number of cosmological tests confirms the soundness of the approach and gives an optimal value for the one parameter of the model, i.e. the bulk modulus of the space-time continuum. Finally various aspects of the Strained State Cosmology (SSC) are discussed and contrasted with some non-linear massive gravity theor...
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Maxim Khlopov
2016-01-01
The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetr...
Brane cosmology in teleparallel gravity
Atazadeh, K
2014-01-01
We consider cosmology of brane-world scenario in the frame work of teleparallel gravity in that way matter is localized on the brane. We show that the cosmology of such branes is different from the standard cosmology in teleparallelism. In particular, we obtain a class of new solutions with a constant five-dimensional radius and cosmologically evolving brane in the context of constant torsion $f(T)$ gravity.
Cosmological attractors in massive gravity
Dubovsky, S; Tkachev, I I
2005-01-01
We study Lorentz-violating models of massive gravity which preserve rotations and are invariant under time-dependent shifts of the spatial coordinates. In the linear approximation the Newtonian potential in these models has an extra ``confining'' term proportional to the distance from the source. We argue that during cosmological expansion the Universe may be driven to an attractor point with larger symmetry which includes particular simultaneous dilatations of time and space coordinates. The confining term in the potential vanishes as one approaches the attractor. In the vicinity of the attractor the extra contribution is present in the Friedmann equation which, in a certain range of parameters, gives rise to the cosmic acceleration.
Relativistic Cosmology Revisited
Crothers S. J.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available In a previous paper the writer treated of particular classes of cosmological solutions for certain Einstein spaces and claimed that no such solutions exist in relation thereto. In that paper the assumption that the proper radius is zero when the line-element is singular was generally applied. This general assumption is unjustified and must be dropped. Consequently, solutions do exist in relation to the aforementioned types, and are explored herein. The concept of the Big Bang cosmology is found to be inconsistent with General Relativity
Cervantes-Cota, Jorge L
2014-01-01
We review the role of fluids in cosmology by first introducing them in General Relativity and then applied to a FRW Universe's model. We describe how relativistic and non-relativistic components evolve in the background dynamics. We also introduce scalar fields to show that they are able to yield an inflationary dynamics at very early times (inflation) and late times (quintessence). Then, we proceed to study the thermodynamical properties of the fluids and, lastly, its perturbed kinematics. We make emphasis in the constrictions of parameters by recent cosmological probes.
Silk, Joseph
2011-01-01
Horizons of Cosmology: Exploring Worlds Seen and Unseen is the fourth title published in the Templeton Science and Religion Series, in which scientists from a wide range of fields distill their experience and knowledge into brief tours of their respective specialties. In this volume, highly esteemed astrophysicist Joseph Silk explores the vast mysteries and speculations of the field of cosmology in a way that balances an accessible style for the general reader and enough technical detail for advanced students and professionals. Indeed, while the p
The Cosmological Mass Function
Monaco, P
1997-01-01
This thesis aims to review the cosmological mass function problem, both from the theoretical and the observational point of view, and to present a new mass function theory, based on realistic approximations for the dynamics of gravitational collapse. Chapter 1 gives a general introduction on gravitational dynamics in cosmological models. Chapter 2 gives a complete review of the mass function theory. Chapters 3 and 4 present the ``dynamical'' mass function theory, based on truncated Lagrangian dynamics and on the excursion set approach. Chapter 5 reviews the observational state-of-the-art and the main applications of the mass function theories described before. Finally, Chapter 6 gives conclusions and future prospects.
2011-01-01
The twentieth century elevated our understanding of the Universe from its early stages to what it is today and what is to become of it. Cosmology is the weapon that utilizes all the scientific tools that we have created to feel less lost in the immensity of our Universe. The standard model is the theory that explains the best what we observe. Even with all the successes that this theory had, two main questions are still to be answered: What is the nature of dark matter and dark energy? This book attempts to understand these questions while giving some of the most promising advances in modern cosmology.
2012-01-01
This volume tells of the quest for cosmology as seen by some of the finest cosmologists in the world. It starts with "Galaxy Formation from Start to Finish" and ends with "The First Supermassive Black Holes in the Universe," exploring in between the grand themes of galaxies, the early universe, expansion of the universe, dark matter and dark energy. This up-to-date collection of review articles offers a general introduction to cosmology and is intended for all probing into the profound questions on where we came from and where we are going.
Zucker, M. H.
This paper is a critical analysis and reassessment of entropic functioning as it applies to the question of whether the ultimate fate of the universe will be determined in the future to be "open" (expanding forever to expire in a big chill), "closed" (collapsing to a big crunch), or "flat" (balanced forever between the two). The second law of thermodynamics declares that entropy can only increase and that this principle extends, inevitably, to the universe as a whole. This paper takes the position that this extension is an unwarranted projection based neither on experience nonfact - an extrapolation that ignores the powerful effect of a gravitational force acting within a closed system. Since it was originally presented by Clausius, the thermodynamic concept of entropy has been redefined in terms of "order" and "disorder" - order being equated with a low degree of entropy and disorder with a high degree. This revised terminology more subjective than precise, has generated considerable confusion in cosmology in several critical instances. For example - the chaotic fireball of the big bang, interpreted by Stephen Hawking as a state of disorder (high entropy), is infinitely hot and, thermally, represents zero entropy (order). Hawking, apparently focusing on the disorderly "chaotic" aspect, equated it with a high degree of entropy - overlooking the fact that the universe is a thermodynamic system and that the key factor in evaluating the big-bang phenomenon is the infinitely high temperature at the early universe, which can only be equated with zero entropy. This analysis resolves this confusion and reestablishes entropy as a cosmological function integrally linked to temperature. The paper goes on to show that, while all subsystems contained within the universe require external sources of energization to have their temperatures raised, this requirement does not apply to the universe as a whole. The universe is the only system that, by itself can raise its own
Poulin, Vivian; Serpico, Pasquale Dario
2015-03-06
The standard theory of electromagnetic cascades onto a photon background predicts a quasiuniversal shape for the resulting nonthermal photon spectrum. This has been applied to very disparate fields, including nonthermal big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). However, once the energy of the injected photons falls below the pair-production threshold the spectral shape is much harder, a fact that has been overlooked in past literature. This loophole may have important phenomenological consequences, since it generically alters the BBN bounds on nonthermal relics; for instance, it allows us to reopen the possibility of purely electromagnetic solutions to the so-called "cosmological lithium problem," which were thought to be excluded by other cosmological constraints. We show this with a proof-of-principle example and a simple particle physics model, compared with previous literature.
TURBULENT COSMIC-RAY REACCELERATION AT RADIO RELICS AND HALOS IN CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES
Fujita, Yutaka [Department of Earth and Space Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Takizawa, Motokazu [Department of Physics, Yamagata University, 1-4-12 Kojirakawa-machi, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Yamazaki, Ryo [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, Fuchinobe, Chuou-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan); Akamatsu, Hiroki [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA Utrecht (Netherlands); Ohno, Hiroshi, E-mail: fujita@vega.ess.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Tohoku Bunkyo College, 515 Katayachi, Yamagata 990-2316 (Japan)
2015-12-20
Radio relics are synchrotron emission found on the periphery of galaxy clusters. From the position and the morphology, it is often believed that the relics are generated by cosmic-ray (CR) electrons accelerated at shocks through a diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. However, some radio relics have harder spectra than the prediction of the standard DSA model. One example is observed in the cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214, which is often called the “Toothbrush Cluster.” Interestingly, the position of the relic is shifted from that of a possible shock. In this study, we show that these discrepancies in the spectrum and the position can be solved if turbulent (re)acceleration is very effective behind the shock. This means that for some relics turbulent reacceleration may be the main mechanism to produce high-energy electrons, contrary to the common belief that it is the DSA. Moreover, we show that for efficient reacceleration, the effective mean free path of the electrons has to be much smaller than their Coulomb mean free path. We also study the merging cluster 1E 0657−56, or the “Bullet Cluster,” in which a radio relic has not been found at the position of the prominent shock ahead of the bullet. We indicate that a possible relic at the shock is obscured by the observed large radio halo that is generated by strong turbulence behind the shock. We propose a simple explanation of the morphological differences of radio emission among the Toothbrush, the Bullet, and the Sausage (CIZA J2242.8+5301) Clusters.
Tracing low-mass galaxy clusters using radio relics: the discovery of Abell 3527-bis
de Gasperin, F.; Intema, H. T.; Ridl, J.; Salvato, M.; van Weeren, R.; Bonafede, A.; Greiner, J.; Cassano, R.; Brüggen, M.
2017-01-01
Context. Galaxy clusters undergo mergers that can generate extended radio sources called radio relics. Radio relics are the consequence of merger-induced shocks that propagate in the intra cluster medium (ICM). Aims: In this paper we analyse the radio, optical and X-ray data from a candidate galaxy cluster that has been selected from the radio emission coming from a candidate radio relic detected in NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Our aim is to clarify the nature of this source and prove that under certain conditions radio emission from radio relics can be used to trace relatively low-mass galaxy clusters. Methods: We observed the candidate galaxy cluster with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at three different frequencies. These datasets have been analysed together with archival data from ROSAT in the X-ray and with archival data from the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) telescope in four different optical bands. Results: We confirm the presence of a 1 Mpc long radio relic located in the outskirts of a previously unknown galaxy cluster. We confirm the presence of the galaxy cluster through dedicated optical observations and using archival X-ray data. Due to its proximity and similar redshift to a known Abell cluster, we named it Abell 3527-bis. The galaxy cluster is amongst the least massive clusters known to host a radio relic. Conclusions: We showed that radio relics can be effectively used to trace a subset of relatively low-mass galaxy clusters that might have gone undetected in X-ray or Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys. This technique might be used in future deep, low-frequency surveys such as those carried on by the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR), the Upgraded GMRT (uGMRT) and, ultimately, the Square Kilometre Array (SKA).
Is There a Cosmological Constant?
Kochanek, Christopher
2002-07-01
The grant contributed to the publication of 18 refereed papers and 5 conference proceedings. The primary uses of the funding have been for page charges, travel for invited talks related to the grant research, and the support of a graduate student, Charles Keeton. The refereed papers address four of the primary goals of the proposal: (1) the statistics of radio lenses as a probe of the cosmological model (#1), (2) the role of spiral galaxies as lenses (#3), (3) the effects of dust on statistics of lenses (#7, #8), and (4) the role of groups and clusters as lenses (#2, #6, #10, #13, #15, #16). Four papers (#4, #5, #11, #12) address general issues of lens models, calibrations, and the relationship between lens galaxies and nearby galaxies. One considered cosmological effects in lensing X-ray sources (#9), and two addressed issues related to the overall power spectrum and theories of gravity (#17, #18). Our theoretical studies combined with the explosion in the number of lenses and the quality of the data obtained for them is greatly increasing our ability to characterize and understand the lens population. We can now firmly conclude both from our study of the statistics of radio lenses and our survey of extinctions in individual lenses that the statistics of optically selected quasars were significantly affected by extinction. However, the limits on the cosmological constant remain at lambda sigma confidence level, which is in mild conflict with the results of the Type la supernova surveys. We continue to find that neither spiral galaxies nor groups and clusters contribute significantly to the production of gravitational lenses. The lack of group and cluster lenses is strong evidence for the role of baryonic cooling in increasing the efficiency of galaxies as lenses compared to groups and clusters of higher mass but lower central density. Unfortunately for the ultimate objective of the proposal, improved constraints on the cosmological constant, the next large survey
Ekpyrotic and Cyclic Cosmology
Lehners, Jean-Luc
2008-01-01
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/rho >> 1 (where P is the average pressure and rho the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, thei...
Quantum cosmological metroland model
Anderson, E.; Franzen, A.T.
2010-01-01
Relational particle mechanics is useful for modelling whole-universe issues such as quantum cosmology or the problem of time in quantum gravity, including some aspects outside the reach of comparably complex mini-superspace models. In this paper, we consider the mechanics of pure shape and not scale
Cosmological dynamical systems
Leon, Genly
2014-01-01
In this book are studied, from the perspective of the dynamical systems, several Universe models. In chapter 1 we give a bird's eye view on cosmology and cosmological problems. Chapter 2 is devoted to a brief review on some results and useful tools from the qualitative theory of dynamical systems. They provide the theoretical basis for the qualitative study of concrete cosmological models. Chapters 1 and 2 are a review of well-known results. Chapters 3, 4, 5 and 6 are devoted to our main results. In these chapters are extended and settled in a substantially different, more strict mathematical language, several results obtained by one of us in arXiv:0812.1013 [gr-qc]; arXiv:1009.0689 [gr-qc]; arXiv:0904.1577[gr-qc]; and arXiv:0909.3571 [hep-th]. In chapter 6, we provide a different approach to the subject discussed in astro-ph/0503478. Additionally, we perform a Poincar\\'e compactification process allowing to construct a global phase space containing all the cosmological information in both finite and infinite...
Relativistic cosmology; Cosmologia Relativista
Bastero-Gil, M.
2015-07-01
Relativistic cosmology is nothing but the study of the evolution of our universe expanding from the General Theory of Relativity, which describes the gravitational interaction at any scale and given its character far-reaching is the force that dominate the evolution of the universe. (Author)
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmology
Lehners, Jean-Luc [Princeton Center for Theoretical Science, Jadwin Hall, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 (United States)], E-mail: jlehners@princeton.edu
2008-09-15
Ekpyrotic and cyclic cosmologies provide theories of the very early and of the very late universe. In these models, the big bang is described as a collision of branes - and thus the big bang is not the beginning of time. Before the big bang, there is an ekpyrotic phase with equation of state w=P/({rho}) >>1 (where P is the average pressure and {rho} the average energy density) during which the universe slowly contracts. This phase resolves the standard cosmological puzzles and generates a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological perturbations containing a significant non-Gaussian component. At the same time it produces small-amplitude gravitational waves with a blue spectrum. The dark energy dominating the present-day cosmological evolution is reinterpreted as a small attractive force between our brane and a parallel one. This force eventually induces a new ekpyrotic phase and a new brane collision, leading to the idea of a cyclic universe. This review discusses the detailed properties of these models, their embedding in M-theory and their viability, with an emphasis on open issues and observational signatures.
Sefusatti, Emiliano; /Fermilab /CCPP, New York; Crocce, Martin; Pueblas, Sebastian; Scoccimarro, Roman; /CCPP, New York
2006-04-01
The present spatial distribution of galaxies in the Universe is non-Gaussian, with 40% skewness in 50 h{sup -1} Mpc spheres, and remarkably little is known about the information encoded in it about cosmological parameters beyond the power spectrum. In this work they present an attempt to bridge this gap by studying the bispectrum, paying particular attention to a joint analysis with the power spectrum and their combination with CMB data. They address the covariance properties of the power spectrum and bispectrum including the effects of beat coupling that lead to interesting cross-correlations, and discuss how baryon acoustic oscillations break degeneracies. They show that the bispectrum has significant information on cosmological parameters well beyond its power in constraining galaxy bias, and when combined with the power spectrum is more complementary than combining power spectra of different samples of galaxies, since non-Gaussianity provides a somewhat different direction in parameter space. In the framework of flat cosmological models they show that most of the improvement of adding bispectrum information corresponds to parameters related to the amplitude and effective spectral index of perturbations, which can be improved by almost a factor of two. Moreover, they demonstrate that the expected statistical uncertainties in {sigma}s of a few percent are robust to relaxing the dark energy beyond a cosmological constant.
Skaanes, Thea
2015-01-01
Abstract: This article concerns Hadza cosmology examined through objects, rituals and the Hadza concept of epeme. A brief background to the Hadza and the eldwork that informs this study is followed by a close analysis of three key objects that are central to the argument presented. The objects ar...
B B Bhowmik; A Rajput
2004-06-01
Anisotropic Bianchi Type-I cosmological models have been studied on the basis of Lyra's geometry. Two types of models, one with constant deceleration parameter and the other with variable deceleration parameter have been derived by considering a time-dependent displacement field.
Some epistemic questions of cosmology
Grujic, Petar V
2007-01-01
We discuss a number of fundamental aspects of modern cosmological concepts, from the phenomenological, observational, theoretical and epistemic points of view. We argue that the modern cosmology, despite a great advent, in particular in the observational sector, is yet to solve important problems, posed already by the classical times. In particular the stress is put on discerning the scientific features of modern cosmological paradigms from the more speculative ones, with the latter immersed in some aspects deeply into mythological world picture. We finally discuss the principal paradigms, which are present in the modern cosmological studies and evaluate their epistemic merits. KEY WORDS: cosmology, epistemology, methodology, mythology, philosophy of science
Arnowitt, R.; Arusano, A.; Dutta, B.; Kamon, T.; Kolev, N.; Simeon, P.; Toback, D.; Wagner, P.
2007-11-01
The SUSY signals in the dominant stau-neutralino co-annihilation region at LHC are investigated. The region is consistent with the WMAP measurement of the cold dark matter relic density as well as all other current experimental bounds within the mSUGRA framework. The signals are characterized by an existence of very low-energy tau leptons in the final state due to small mass difference (ΔM) between ˜ τ and ˜ \\chi01 (5-15 GeV). We show that for ΔM = 9 GeV and M{˜ g} = 850 GeV with 30 fb-1 of data, we can measure ΔM to 15% and M{˜ g} to 6%.
Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.
Lorentz violation in brane cosmology, accelerated expansion and fundamental constants
Ahmadi, F; Sepangi, H R
2006-01-01
The notion of Lorentz violation in four dimensions is extended to a 5-dimensional brane-world scenario by utilizing a dynamical vector field assumed to point in the bulk direction, with Lorentz invariance holding on the brane. The cosmological consequences of this theory consisting of the time variation in the gravitational coupling $G$ and cosmological term $\\Lambda_4$ are explored. The brane evolution is addressed by studying the generalized Friedmann and Raychaudhuri equations. The behavior of the expansion scale factor is then considered for different possible scenarios where the bulk cosmological constant is zero, positive or negative.
Large numbers hypothesis. IV - The cosmological constant and quantum physics
Adams, P. J.
1983-01-01
In standard physics quantum field theory is based on a flat vacuum space-time. This quantum field theory predicts a nonzero cosmological constant. Hence the gravitational field equations do not admit a flat vacuum space-time. This dilemma is resolved using the units covariant gravitational field equations. This paper shows that the field equations admit a flat vacuum space-time with nonzero cosmological constant if and only if the canonical LNH is valid. This allows an interpretation of the LNH phenomena in terms of a time-dependent vacuum state. If this is correct then the cosmological constant must be positive.
Tracing low-mass galaxy clusters with radio relics: the discovery of Abell 3527-bis
de Gasperin, F; Ridl, J; Salvato, M; van Weeren, R; Bonafede, A; Greiner, J; Cassano, R; Bruggen, M
2016-01-01
Galaxy clusters undergo mergers that can generate extended radio sources called radio relics. Radio relics are the consequence of merger-induced shocks that propagate in the intra cluster medium (ICM). In this paper we analyse the radio, optical and X-ray data from a candidate galaxy cluster that has been selected from the radio emission coming from a candidate radio relic detected in NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS). Our aim is to clarify the nature of this source and prove that under certain conditions radio emission from radio relics can be used to trace relatively low-mass galaxy clusters. We have observed the candidate galaxy cluster with the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) at three different frequencies. These datasets have been analysed together with archival data from ROSAT in the X-ray and with archival data from the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical/Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) telescope in four different optical bands. We confirm the presence of a 1 Mpc long radio relic located in the outskirts of a previ...
Challenges to our understanding of radio relics: X-ray observations of the Toothbrush cluster
Ogrean, G. A.; Brüggen, M.; van Weeren, R. J.; Röttgering, H.; Croston, J. H.; Hoeft, M.
2013-07-01
The cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 is a merging galaxy cluster that hosts three radio relics and a giant radio halo. The northern relic, the Toothbrush, is 1.9 Mpc long and has an unusual linear morphology. According to simple diffusive shock acceleration theory, its radio spectral index indicates a Mach number of 3.3-4.6. Here, we present results from a deep XMM-Newton observation of the cluster. We observe two distinct cluster cores that have survived the merger. The presence of three shocks at or near the locations of the radio relics is confirmed by density and temperature discontinuities. However, the observation poses several puzzles that challenge our understanding of radio relics: (i) at the Toothbrush, the shock Mach number is not larger than 2, in apparent conflict with the shock strength predicted from the radio spectrum; (ii) at the Toothbrush, the shock front is, in part, spatially offset from the radio emission; (iii) at the eastern relic, we detect a temperature jump corresponding to a Mach number of approximately 2.5, but there is no associated surface brightness discontinuity. We discuss possible explanations for these findings.
Challenges to our understanding of radio relics: X-ray observations of the Toothbrush cluster
Ogrean, G A; van Weeren, R J; Röttgering, H; Croston, J H; Hoeft, M
2013-01-01
The cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 is a merging galaxy cluster that hosts three radio relics and a giant radio halo. The northern relic, the Toothbrush, is 1.9-Mpc long and has an unusual linear morphology. According to simple diffusive shock acceleration theory, its radio spectral index indicates a Mach number of 3.3-4.6. Here, we present results from a deep XMM-Newton observation of the cluster. We observe two distinct cluster cores that have survived the merger. The presence of three shocks at or near the locations of the radio relics is confirmed by density and temperature discontinuities. However, the observation poses several puzzles that challenge our understanding of radio relics: (i) at the Toothbrush, the shock Mach number is not larger than 2, in apparent conflict with the shock strength predicted from the radio spectrum; (ii) at the Toothbrush, the shock front is, in part, spatially offset from the radio emission; (iii) at the eastern relic, we detect a temperature jump corresponding to a Mach number o...
Turbulent Cosmic Ray Reacceleration at Radio Relics and Halos in Clusters of Galaxies
Fujita, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Ohno, Hiroshi
2015-01-01
Radio relics are synchrotron emission found on the periphery of galaxy clusters. From the position and the morphology, it is often believed that the relics are generated by cosmic ray (CR) electrons accelerated at shocks through diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) mechanism. However, some radio relics have harder spectra than the prediction of the standard DSA model. One example is observed in the cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214, which is often called the ``toothbrush cluster''. Interestingly, the position of the relic is shifted from that of a possible shock. In this study, we show that these discrepancies in the spectrum and the position can be solved if turbulent (re)acceleration is very effective behind the shock. This means that for some relics turbulent reacceleration may be the main mechanism to produce high energy electrons, contrary to the common belief that it is the DSA. Moreover, we show that for efficient reacceleration, the effective mean free path of the electrons has to be much smaller than their Cou...
Two new confirmed massive relic galaxies: red nuggets in the present-day Universe
Ferré-Mateu, Anna; Trujillo, Ignacio; Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Vazdekis, Alexandre; Mezcua, Mar; Balcells, Marc; Domínguez, Lilian
2017-01-01
We confirm two new local massive relic galaxies, i.e. untouched survivors of the early universe massive population: Mrk 1216 and PGC 032873. Both show early and peaked formation events within very short timescales (formation histories remain virtually unchanged out to several effective radii, even when considering the steeper IMF values inferred out to ˜3 effective radii. Their morphologies, kinematics and density profiles are like those found in the z>2 massive population, setting them apart of the typical z˜0 massive early-type galaxies. We find that there seems to exist a degree of relic that is related on how far into the path to become one of these typical z˜0 massive galaxies the compact relic has undergone. This path is partly dictated by the environment the galaxy lives in. For galaxies in rich environments, such as the previously reported relic galaxy NGC 1277, the most extreme properties (e.g. sizes, short formation timescales, larger super-massive black holes) are expected, while lower density environments will have galaxies with delayed and/or extended star formations, slightly larger sizes and not that extreme black hole masses. The confirmation of 3 relic galaxies up to a distance of 106 Mpc implies a lower limit in the number density of these red nuggets in the local universe of 6× 10-7 Mpc3, which is within the theoretical expectations.
Light higgsino dark matter from non-thermal cosmology
Aparicio, Luis [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Cicoli, Michele [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy,TAMU, College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Muia, Francesco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Quevedo, Fernando [ICTP,Strada Costiera 11, Trieste 34014 (Italy); DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences,Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2016-11-08
We study the scenario of higgsino dark matter in the context of a non-standard cosmology with a period of matter domination prior to Big Bang nucleosynthesis. Matter domination changes the dark matter relic abundance if it ends via reheating to a temperature below the higgsino thermal freeze-out temperature. We perform a model independent analysis of the higgsino dark matter production in such scenario. We show that light higgsino-type dark matter is possible for reheating temperatures close to 1 GeV. We study the impact of dark matter indirect detection and collider physics in this context. We show that Fermi-LAT data rule out non-thermal higgsinos with masses below 300 GeV. Future indirect dark matter searches from Fermi-LAT and CTA will be able to cover essentially the full parameter space. Contrary to the thermal case, collider signals from a 100 TeV collider could fully test the non-thermal higgsino scenario. In the second part of the paper we discuss the motivation of such non-thermal cosmology from the perspective of string theory with late-time decaying moduli for both KKLT and LVS moduli stabilisation mechanisms. We finally describe the impact of embedding higgsino dark matter in these scenarios.
Light Higgsino Dark Matter from Non-thermal Cosmology
Aparicio, Luis; Cicoli, Michele; Muia, Francesco; Quevedo, Fernando
2016-01-01
We study the scenario of higgsino dark matter in the context of a non-standard cosmology with a period of matter-domination prior to Big-Bang nucleosynthesis. Matter-domination changes the dark matter relic abundance if it ends via reheating to a temperature below the higgsino thermal freeze-out temperature. We perform a model independent analysis of the higgsino dark matter production in such scenario. We show that light higgsino-type dark matter is possible for reheating temperatures close to 1 GeV. We study the impact of dark matter indirect detection and collider physics in this context. We show that Fermi-LAT data rules out non-thermal higgsinos with masses below 300 GeV. Future indirect dark matter searches from Fermi-LAT and CTA would be able to cover essentially the full parameter space. Contrary to the thermal case, collider signals from a 100 TeV collider could fully test the non-thermal higgsino. In the second part of the paper we discuss the motivation of such non-thermal cosmology from the perspe...
Tibetan Cultural Interpretations of Two Relics Unearthed in Sanxingdui
Tong Mei
2016-01-01
This article is the fourth article re-lated to the research of “Zhangzhung·rGyalron· Sanxingdui and Jinsha”—Tibetan cultural interpre-tations of relics unearthed in Sanxingdui and Jin-sha. The main focus of the article is Tibetan cul-tural interpretations of the vertical-eyed bronze mask and the copper statue of a man with an ani-mal head crown in Sanxingdui Museum. 1 . Vertical-eyed bronze mask and Miwo Lon-glong The bronze cultural relics unearthed in Sanx-ingdui or even Jinsha have broad and deep links to ancient Tibetan culture. The vertical-eyed bronze mask is the most typical of the numerous bronze objects depicting human heads. In the following discussion, we would like to give an interpretation of the symbolic meaning of the bronze objects de-picting human heads. In order to draw inferences about other cases from one instance, we would like to choose two typical cases: choosing the vertical-eyed bronze mask as our model of cultural relic, and choosing langshi jiazu ( the Lang family clan) as our model of Tibetan ancient literature. It is generally stated that the eyes of the verti-cal-eyed bronze mask kept in Sanxingdui museum roughly meets the appearance of the Shu people ’ s ancestors, the Cancong, who are recorded as hav-ing “vertical eyes” in the historical books. Some people also believe that “vertical eyes” means“upright eyes”, just like the eye in the forehead of the God Erlang in Chinese ancient myth, so the image might be a statue of an ancestor god. Addi-tionally, some connect it with the frontlet of kuilong ( a sacred dragon in Chinese myth ) , and believe that it is related to zhulong( another sacred dragon in Chinese myth) who has a human head, a dragon ( snake) body, and “upright eyes”. Langshi Jiazu is an important document for studying the political and religious unification sys-tem in Tibetan areas during the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties, meanwhile, it is also an essential material for the study of the Gesar Epic
Cosmological axion and neutrino mass constraints from Planck 2015 temperature and polarization data
Eleonora Di Valentino
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Axions currently provide the most compelling solution to the strong CP problem. These particles may be copiously produced in the early universe, including via thermal processes. Therefore, relic axions constitute a hot dark matter component and their masses are strongly degenerate with those of the three active neutrinos, as they leave identical signatures in the different cosmological observables. In addition, thermal axions, while still relativistic states, also contribute to the relativistic degrees of freedom, parameterized via Neff. We present the cosmological bounds on the relic axion and neutrino masses, exploiting the full Planck mission data, which include polarization measurements. In the mixed hot dark matter scenario explored here, we find the tightest and more robust constraint to date on the sum of the three active neutrino masses, ∑mν<0.136 eV at 95% CL, as it is obtained in the very well-known linear perturbation regime. The Planck Sunyaev–Zeldovich cluster number count data further tightens this bound, providing a 95% CL upper limit of ∑mν<0.126 eV in this very same mixed hot dark matter model, a value which is very close to the expectations in the inverted hierarchical neutrino mass scenario. Using this same combination of data sets we find the most stringent bound to date on the thermal axion mass, ma<0.529 eV at 95% CL.
Dark matter production mechanisms with a nonthermal cosmological history: A classification
Kane, Gordon L.; Kumar, Piyush; Nelson, Brent D.; Zheng, Bob
2016-03-01
We perform a comprehensive study of models of dark matter (DM) in a Universe with a nonthermal cosmological history, i.e. with a phase of pressureless matter domination before the onset of big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). Such cosmological histories are generically predicted by UV completions that contain gravitationally coupled scalar fields (moduli). We classify the different production mechanisms for DM in this framework, generalizing previous works by considering a wide range of DM masses/couplings and allowing for DM to be in equilibrium with a "dark" sector. We identify four distinct parametric regimes for the production of relic DM, and derive accurate semianalytic approximations for the DM relic abundance. Our results are particularly relevant for supersymmetric theories, in which the standard nonthermally produced DM candidates are disfavored by indirect-detection constraints. We also comment on experimental signals in this framework, focusing on novel effects involving the power spectrum of DM density perturbations. In particular, we identify a class of models where the spectrum of DM density perturbations is sensitive to the pressureless matter-dominated era before BBN, giving rise to interesting astrophysical signatures to be looked for in the future. A worthwhile future direction would be to study well-motivated theoretical models within this framework and carry out detailed studies of the pattern of expected experimental signals.
Lemaître Class Dark Energy Model for Relaxing Cosmological Constant
Irina Dymnikova
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Cosmological constant corresponds to the maximally symmetric cosmological term with the equation of state p = − ρ . Introducing a cosmological term with the reduced symmetry, p r = − ρ in the spherically symmetric case, makes cosmological constant intrinsically variable component of a variable cosmological term which describes time-dependent and spatially inhomogeneous vacuum dark energy. Relaxation of the cosmological constant from the big initial value to the presently observed value can be then described in general setting by the spherically symmetric cosmology of the Lemaître class. We outline in detail the cosmological model with the global structure of the de Sitter spacetime distinguished by the holographic principle as the only stable product of quantum evaporation of the cosmological horizon entirely determined by its quantum dynamics. Density of the vacuum dark energy is presented by semiclassical description of vacuum polarization in the spherically symmetric gravitational field, and its initial value is chosen at the GUT scale. The final non-zero value of the cosmological constant is tightly fixed by the quantum dynamics of evaporation and appears in the reasonable agreement with its observational value.
Some exact solutions in K-essence theory isotropic cosmology
Pimentel, Luis O
2016-01-01
We use a simple form of the K-essence theory and apply it to the classic isotropic cosmological model and seek exact solutions. The particular form of the kinetic term that we choose is $K \\left(\\phi, X \\right)= K_0(\\phi)X^m +K_1$. The resulting field equations in the homogeneous and isotropic cosmology (FRW)is considered. Several exact solutions are obtained.
Cosmological perturbations in massive gravity with doubly coupled matter
Gümrükçüoğlu, A Emir; Mukohyama, Shinji
2014-01-01
We investigate the cosmological perturbations around FLRW solutions to non- linear massive gravity with a new effective coupling to matter proposed recently. Unlike the case with minimal matter coupling, all five degrees of freedom in the gravity sector propagate on generic self-accelerating FLRW backgrounds. We study the stability of the cosmological solutions and put constraints on the parameters of the theory by demanding the correct sign for the kinetic terms for scalar, vector and tensor perturbations.
Cosmological perturbations in massive gravity with doubly coupled matter
Gümrükçüoğlu, A. Emir; Heisenberg, Lavinia; Mukohyama, Shinji
2015-02-01
We investigate the cosmological perturbations around FLRW solutions to non- linear massive gravity with a new effective coupling to matter proposed recently. Unlike the case with minimal matter coupling, all five degrees of freedom in the gravity sector propagate on generic self-accelerating FLRW backgrounds. We study the stability of the cosmological solutions and put constraints on the parameters of the theory by demanding the correct sign for the kinetic terms for scalar, vector and tensor perturbations.
Realistic cosmological model with dynamical cancellation of vacuum energy
Dolgov, A D
2003-01-01
We propose a model with a compensating scalar field whose back reaction to the cosmological curvature cancels possible vacuum energy density down to the terms of the order of the time dependent critical energy density. Thus the model simultaneously solves the mystery of the compensation of vacuum energy with the accuracy of 120 orders of magnitude and explains existence of the observed dark energy. At an early stage the suggested cosmological model might experience exponential expansion without an additional inflaton field.
Brane-world cosmology with black strings
Gergely, L A
2006-01-01
We consider the simplest scenario when black strings (cigars) penetrate the cosmological brane. As a result, the brane has a Swiss-cheese structure, with Schwarzschild black holes immersed in a Friedmann-Lema\\^{\\i}tre-Robertson-Walker brane. There is no dark radiation in the model, the cosmological regions of the brane are characterized by a cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ and flat spatial sections. Regardless of the value of $\\Lambda$, these brane-world universes forever expand and forever decelerate. The totality of source terms in the modified Einstein equation sum up to a dust, establishing a formal equivalence with the general relativistic Einstein-Straus model. However in this brane-world scenario with black strings the evolution of the cosmological fluid strongly depends on $\\Lambda$. For $\\Lambda$ less or equal to zero it has positive energy density $\\rho$ and negative pressure $p$ and at late times it behaves as in the Einstein-Straus model. For (not too high) positive values of $\\Lambda$ the cosmolo...
Entanglement inside the cosmological apparent horizon
Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cinthia, Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, Napoli (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), Via F. Crispi 7, I-67100, L' Aquila (Italy); Luongo, Orlando [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Cinthia, Napoli (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Napoli, Via Cinthia, Napoli (Italy); Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México (UNAM), México (Mexico)
2014-06-13
Highlights: • We consider cosmological dark energy. • Entanglement between cosmological eras is the source. • Negativity is the leading parameter. • We consider the violation of energy conditions. - Abstract: Possible connections between quantum entanglement and cosmological eras are considered. In particular, assuming that two epochs are each other entangling, by measuring the entanglement degree, it is possible to recover dynamical properties of the universe. In particular, the effects of dark energy could be due to the entanglement between states, since a negative pressure arises at late times. In this process, we choose as ruler to quantify the “entanglement weight”, the so-called negativity of entanglement. It follows that a natural anti-gravitational effect occurs when the cosmological eras are entangled. Thus, dark energy could be seen as a straightforward consequence of entanglement. Specifically, our results can be compared with observational data. In doing so, it is possible to show that a pressureless term is recovered at a certain epoch dominating over dark energy and ruling the structure formation.
Cosmological implications of Heisenberg's principle
Gonzalo, Julio A
2015-01-01
The aim of this book is to analyze the all important implications of Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle for a finite universe with very large mass-energy content such as ours. The earlier and main contributors to the formulation of Quantum Mechanics are briefly reviewed regarding the formulation of Heisenberg's Principle. After discussing “indeterminacy” versus ”uncertainty”, the universal constants of physics are reviewed and Planck's units are given. Next, a novel set of units, Heisenberg–Lemaitre units, are defined in terms of the large finite mass of the universe. With the help of Heisenberg's principle, the time evolution of the finite zero-point energy for the universe is investigated quantitatively. Next, taking advantage of the rigorous solutions of Einstein's cosmological equation for a flat, open and mixed universe of finite mass, the most recent and accurate data on the “age” (to) and the expansion rate (Ho) of the universe and their implications are reconsidered.
Initial conditions for cosmological perturbations
Ashtekar, Abhay
2016-01-01
Penrose proposed that the big bang singularity should be constrained by requiring that the Weyl curvature vanishes there. The idea behind this past hypothesis is attractive because it constrains the initial conditions for the universe in geometric terms and is not confined to a specific early universe paradigm. However, the precise statement of Penrose's hypothesis is tied to classical space-times and furthermore restricts only the gravitational degrees of freedom. These are encapsulated only in the tensor modes of the commonly used cosmological perturbation theory. Drawing inspiration from the underlying idea, we propose a quantum generalization of Penrose's hypothesis using the Planck regime in place of the big bang, and simultaneously incorporating tensor as well as scalar modes. Initial conditions selected by this generalization constrain the universe to be as homogeneous and isotropic in the Planck regime \\emph{as permitted by the Heisenberg uncertainty relations}.
A classical cosmological model for triviality
Salehi, H; Rashidi, R
2004-01-01
The aim of this paper is to study the triviality of $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in a classical gravitational model. Starting from a conformal invariant scalar tensor theory with a self-interaction term $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$, we investigate the effect of a conformal symmetry breaking emerging from the gravitational coupling of the large-scale distribution of matter in the universe. Taking in this cosmological symmetry breaking phase the infinite limit of the maximal length (the size of the universe) and the zero limit of the minimal length (the Planck length) implies triviality, i.e. a vanishing coupling constant $\\lambda$. It suggests that the activity of the self-interaction term $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ in the cosmological context implies that the universe is finite and a minimal fundamental length exists.
Some Dynamical Effects of the Cosmological Constant
Axenides, M.; Floratos, E. G.; Perivolaropoulos, L.
Newton's law gets modified in the presence of a cosmological constant by a small repulsive term (antigravity) that is proportional to the distance. Assuming a value of the cosmological constant consistent with the recent SnIa data (Λ~=10-52 m-2), we investigate the significance of this term on various astrophysical scales. We find that on galactic scales or smaller (less than a few tens of kpc), the dynamical effects of the vacuum energy are negligible by several orders of magnitude. On scales of 1 Mpc or larger however we find that the vacuum energy can significantly affect the dynamics. For example we show that the velocity data in the local group of galaxies correspond to galactic masses increased by 35% in the presence of vacuum energy. The effect is even more important on larger low density systems like clusters of galaxies or superclusters.
Cosmological Perturbations in Extended Massive Gravity
Gumrukcuoglu, A Emir; Lin, Chunshan; Mukohyama, Shinji; Trodden, Mark
2013-01-01
We study cosmological perturbations around self-accelerating solutions to two extensions of nonlinear massive gravity: the quasi-dilaton theory and the mass-varying theory. We examine stability of the cosmological solutions, and the extent to which the vanishing of the kinetic terms for scalar and vector perturbations of self-accelerating solutions in massive gravity is generic when the theory is extended. We find that these kinetic terms are in general non-vanishing in both extensions, though there are constraints on the parameters and background evolution from demanding that they have the correct sign. In particular, the self-accelerating solutions of the quasi-dilaton theory are always unstable to scalar perturbations with wavelength shorter than the Hubble length.
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
Darabi, F.; Mousavi, M.
2016-10-01
In a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) space-time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger-Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT) massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.
Classical and quantum cosmology of minimal massive bigravity
F. Darabi
2016-10-01
Full Text Available In a Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW space–time background we study the classical cosmological models in the context of recently proposed theory of nonlinear minimal massive bigravity. We show that in the presence of perfect fluid the classical field equations acquire contribution from the massive graviton as a cosmological term which is positive or negative depending on the dynamical competition between two scale factors of bigravity metrics. We obtain the classical field equations for flat and open universes in the ordinary and Schutz representation of perfect fluid. Focusing on the Schutz representation for flat universe, we find classical solutions exhibiting singularities at early universe with vacuum equation of state. Then, in the Schutz representation, we study the quantum cosmology for flat universe and derive the Schrodinger–Wheeler–DeWitt equation. We find its exact and wave packet solutions and discuss on their properties to show that the initial singularity in the classical solutions can be avoided by quantum cosmology. Similar to the study of Hartle–Hawking no-boundary proposal in the quantum cosmology of de Rham, Gabadadze and Tolley (dRGT massive gravity, it turns out that the mass of graviton predicted by quantum cosmology of the minimal massive bigravity is large at early universe. This is in agreement with the fact that at early universe the cosmological constant should be large.
Dark matter relic density from observations of supersymmetry at the ILC
Lehtinen, Suvi-Leena; List, Jenny
2016-01-01
Supersymmetry can explain the observed dark matter relic density with a neutralino dark matter particle and a coannihilating, almost mass-degenerate sparticle. If this were the case in nature, a linear electron positron collider like the ILC could discover the two sparticles if their masses are in the kinematic reach of the collider. This contribution discusses which observations are necessary at the ILC for predicting the dark matter relic density correctly and for confirming that the observed lightest neutralino is the only kind of dark matter. We take the case of stau coannihilation as an example.
Domènech, Guillem
2016-01-01
From higher dimensional theories, e.g. string theory, one expects the presence of non-minimally coupled scalar fields. We review the notion of conformal frames in cosmology and emphasize their physical equivalence, which holds at least at a classical level. Furthermore, if there is a field, or fields, which dominates the universe, as it is often the case in cosmology, we can use such notion of frames to treat our system, matter and gravity, as two different sectors. On one hand, the gravity sector which describes the dynamics of the geometry and on the other hand the matter sector which has such geometry as a playground. We use this interpretation to build a model where the fact that a curvaton couples to a particular frame metric could leave an imprint in the CMB.
Relativistic Fractal Cosmologies
Ribeiro, Marcelo B
2009-01-01
This article reviews an approach for constructing a simple relativistic fractal cosmology whose main aim is to model the observed inhomogeneities of the distribution of galaxies by means of the Lemaitre-Tolman solution of Einstein's field equations for spherically symmetric dust in comoving coordinates. This model is based on earlier works developed by L. Pietronero and J.R. Wertz on Newtonian cosmology, whose main points are discussed. Observational relations in this spacetime are presented, together with a strategy for finding numerical solutions which approximate an averaged and smoothed out single fractal structure in the past light cone. Such fractal solutions are shown, with one of them being in agreement with some basic observational constraints, including the decay of the average density with the distance as a power law (the de Vaucouleurs' density power law) and the fractal dimension in the range 1 <= D <= 2. The spatially homogeneous Friedmann model is discussed as a special case of the Lemait...
Wormholes in viscous cosmology
Wang, Deng
2016-01-01
We study the wormhole spacetime configurations in bulk viscosity cosmology. Considering three classes of viscous models, i.e., bulk viscosity as a function of Hubble parameter $H$, temperature $T$ and dark energy density $\\rho$, respectively, we obtain nine wormhole solutions. Through the analysis for the anisotropic solutions, we conclude that, to some extent, these three classes of viscous models have very high degeneracy with each other. Subsequently, without the loss of generality, to investigate the traversabilities, energy conditions and stability for the wormhole solution, we study the wormhole solution of the constant redshift function of the viscous $\\omega$CDM model with a constant bulk viscosity coefficient. We obtain the following conclusions: the value of traversal velocity decreases for decreasing bulk viscosity, and the traversal velocity for a traveler depends on not only the wormhole geometry but also the effects of cosmological background evolution; the null energy condition will be violated...
Rich, James
2009-01-01
The book is aimed at astrophysics students and professional physicists who wish to understand the basics of cosmology and general relativity as well as the observational foundations of the LambdaCDM model of the Universe. The book provides a self-contained introduction to general relativity that is based on the homogeneity and isotropy of the local universe. The simplicity of this space allows general relativity to be presented in a very elementary manner while laying the foundation for the treatment of more complicated problems. The new edition presents the most recent observations, including those of CMB anisotropies by WMAP and of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations by SDSS. Future observational and theoretical challenges for the understanding of dark energy and dark matter are discussed. From 1st edition reviews: "The book provides a comprehensive and thorough explication of current cosmology at a level appropriate for a beginning graduate student or an advanced and motivated undergraduate. ... This is an extrem...
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.
2016-08-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of (1 +z ).
The Cosmological Memory Effect
Tolish, Alexander
2016-01-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to memory depends only on the cosmological scale factor at the source and observation events, not on the detailed expansion history of the universe. In particular, for sources at the same luminosity distance, the memory effect in a spatially flat FLRW spacetime is enhanced over the Minkowski case by a factor of $(1 + z)$.
Holography from quantum cosmology
Rashki, M
2014-01-01
The Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of deformation quantization is applied to the closed Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmological model. We show that the phase space average for the surface of the apparent horizon is quantized in units of the Planck's surface, and that the total entropy of the universe is also quantized. Taking into account these two concepts, it is shown that 't Hooft conjecture on the cosmological holographic principle (CHP) in radiation and dust dominated quantum universes is satisfied as a manifestation of quantization. This suggests that the entire universe (not only inside the apparent horizon) can be seen as a two-dimensional information structure encoded on the apparent horizon.
Steinhardt, Paul Joseph
1995-01-01
Observational tests during the next decade may determine if the evolution of the Universe can be understood from fundamental physical principles, or if special initial conditions, coincidences, and new, untestable physical laws must be invoked. The inflationary model of the Universe is an important example of a predictive cosmological theory based on physical principles. In this talk, we discuss the distinctive fingerprint that inflation leaves on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy. We then suggest a series of five milestone experimental tests of the microwave background which could determine the validity of the inflationary hypothesis within the next decade. The paper is a Review based on a Plenary talk given at the Snowmass Workshop on Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 1995 It will appear in the Proceedings edited by E. Kolb and R.Peccei. Software package for computing filter functions and band power estimates available thru world-wide-web at http://dept.physics.upenn.edu/~www/as tro-cosmo/ .
Kadota, K; Kadota, Kenji; Stewart, Ewan D.
2003-01-01
We present a modular cosmology scenario where the difficulties encountered in conventional modular cosmology are solved in a self-consistent manner, with definite predictions to be tested by observation. Notably, the difficulty of the dilaton finding its way to a precarious weak coupling minimum is made irrelevant by having eternal modular inflation at the vacuum supersymmetry breaking scale after the dilaton is stabilised. Neither this eternal inflation nor the subsequent non-slow-roll modular inflation destabilise the dilaton from its precarious minimum due to the low energy scale of the inflation and consequent small back reaction on the dilaton potential. The observed flat CMB spectrum is obtained from fluctuations in the angular component of a modulus near a symmetric point, which are hugely magnified by the roll down of the modulus to Planckian values, allowing them to dominate the final curvature perturbation. We also give precise calculations of the spectral index and its running.
Cosmological extrapolation of MOND
Kiselev, V V
2011-01-01
Regime of MOND, which is used in astronomy to describe the gravitating systems of island type without the need to postulate the existence of a hypothetical dark matter, is generalized to the case of homogeneous distribution of usual matter by introducing a linear dependence of the critical acceleration on the size of region under consideration. We show that such the extrapolation of MOND in cosmology is consistent with both the observed dependence of brightness on the redshift for type Ia supernovae and the parameters of large-scale structure of Universe in the evolution, that is determined by the presence of a cosmological constant, the ordinary matter of baryons and electrons as well as the photon and neutrino radiation without any dark matter.
Merritt, David
2017-02-01
I argue that some important elements of the current cosmological model are "conventionalist" in the sense defined by Karl Popper. These elements include dark matter and dark energy; both are auxiliary hypotheses that were invoked in response to observations that falsified the standard model as it existed at the time. The use of conventionalist stratagems in response to unexpected observations implies that the field of cosmology is in a state of 'degenerating problemshift' in the language of Imre Lakatos. I show that the 'concordance' argument, often put forward by cosmologists in support of the current paradigm, is weaker than the convergence arguments that were made in the past in support of the atomic theory of matter or the quantization of energy.
Telling Three from Four Neutrinos with Cosmology
Abazajian, Kevork N
2003-01-01
New results, namely the independent determination of the deuterium abundance in several quasar absorption systems, refined calculations of the predicted primordial helium abundance, and the complementary determination of anisotropies in the cosmological baryon density by observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), allow for a reevaluation of the constraints on the relativistic particle content of the universe at primordial nucleosynthesis. Expressed in terms of the neutrino energy density, we find 1.5 < N_\
Harko, Tiberiu; Mak, M K
2014-01-01
Gravitationally coupled scalar fields $\\phi $, distinguished by the choice of an effective self-interaction potential $V(\\phi )$, simulating a temporarily non-vanishing cosmological term, can generate both inflation and late time acceleration. In scalar field cosmological models the evolution of the Hubble function is determined, in terms of the interaction potential, by a Riccati type equation. In the present work we investigate scalar field cosmological models that can be obtained as solutions of the Riccati evolution equation for the Hubble function. Four exact integrability cases of the field equations are presented, representing classes of general solutions of the Riccati evolution equation, and their cosmological properties are investigated in detail.
Noncommutative Quantum Cosmology
García-Compéan, H; Ramírez, C
2001-01-01
We propose a model for noncommutative quantum cosmology by means of a deformation of minisuperspace. For the Kantowski-Sachs metric we are able to find the exact solution to the deformed Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We construct wave packets and show that noncommutativity could remarkably modify the quantum behavior of the universe. We discuss the relation with space-time noncommutativity and exhibit a program to search for the influence of noncommutativity at early times in the universe.
The Cosmological Memory Effect
Tolish, Alexander; Wald, Robert M.
2016-01-01
The "memory effect" is the permanent change in the relative separation of test particles resulting from the passage of gravitational radiation. We investigate the memory effect for a general, spatially flat FLRW cosmology by considering the radiation associated with emission events involving particle-like sources. We find that if the resulting perturbation is decomposed into scalar, vector, and tensor parts, only the tensor part contributes to memory. Furthermore, the tensor contribution to m...
Cosmology and astrophysics 1992
Krauss, L M
1992-01-01
I review recent developments in cosmology and astrophysics relevant to particle physics, focussing on the following questions: What's new in 1992? What have we learned since the last ICHEP meeting in 1990? and What are the prospects for the future? AMong the topics explicitly discussed are: COBE, Large Scale Structure, and Dark Matter; Bib Bang Nucleosynthesis; the Solar Neutrino Problem; and High Energy Gamma Ray PHysics.
Vidotto, Francesca
2015-01-01
The application of quantum theory to cosmology raises a number of conceptual questions, such as the role of the quantum-mechanical notion of "observer" or the absence of a time variable in the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. I point out that a relational formulation of quantum mechanics, and more in general the observation that evolution is always relational, provides a coherent solution to this tangle of problems.
String Scale Cosmological Constant
Chalmers, Gordon
2006-01-01
The cosmological constant is an unexplained until now phenomena of nature that requires an explanation through string effects. The apparent discrepancy between theory and experiment is enourmous and has already been explained several times by the author including mechanisms. In this work the string theory theory of abolished string modes is documented and given perturbatively to all loop orders. The holographic underpinning is also exposed. The matching with the data of the LIGO and D0 experi...
Spectral and polarization study of the double relics in Abell 3376 using the GMRT and the VLA
Kale, Ruta; Bagchi, Joydeep; Paul, Surajit
2012-01-01
Double radio relics in galaxy clusters are rare phenomena that trace shocks in the outskirts of merging galaxy clusters. We have carried out a spectral and polarization study of the spectacular double relics in the galaxy cluster A3376 using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope at 150 and 325 MHz and the Very Large Array at 1400 MHz. The polarization study at 1400 MHz reveals a high degree of polarization (~30%) and aligned magnetic field vectors (not corrected for Faraday rotation) in the eastern relic. A highly polarized (>60%) filamentary radio source of size ~300 kpc near the eastern relic and north of the bent-jet radio galaxy is detected for the first time. The western relic is less polarized and does not show aligned magnetic field vectors. The distribution of spectral indices between 325 and 1400 MHz over the radio relics show steepening from the outer to the inner edges of the relics. The spectral indices of the eastern and the western relics imply Mach numbers in the range 2.2 to 3.3. Remarkable feat...
Revisiting Cosmological parameter estimation
Prasad, Jayanti
2014-01-01
Constraining theoretical models with measuring the parameters of those from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data is one of the most active areas in cosmology. WMAP, Planck and other recent experiments have shown that the six parameters standard $\\Lambda$CDM cosmological model still best fits the data. Bayesian methods based on Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling have been playing leading role in parameter estimation from CMB data. In one of the recent studies \\cite{2012PhRvD..85l3008P} we have shown that particle swarm optimization (PSO) which is a population based search procedure can also be effectively used to find the cosmological parameters which are best fit to the WMAP seven year data. In the present work we show that PSO not only can find the best-fit point, it can also sample the parameter space quite effectively, to the extent that we can use the same analysis pipeline to process PSO sampled points which is used to process the points sampled by Markov Chains, and get consistent res...
Einstein's cosmological considerations
Janzen, Daryl
2014-01-01
The objective of this paper is not simply to present an historical overview of Einstein's cosmological considerations, but to discuss the central role they played in shaping the paradigm of relativistic cosmology. This, we'll show, was a result of both his actions and, perhaps more importantly, his inactions. Accordingly, discussion won't simply be restricted to Einstein's considerations, as we'll analyse relevant contributions to the relativistic expansion paradigm during the approximately twenty years following Slipher's first redshift measurements in 1912. Our aim is to shed some light on why we think some of the things we do, with the idea that a better understanding of the reasoning that fundamentally influenced the common idea of our expanding universe might help to resolve some of the significant problems that modern cosmology now faces; and we eventually use this knowledge to probe the foundations of the standard model. Much of the information we present, including many of the historical details, we e...
Symmetries of homogeneous cosmologies
Cotsakis, S; Pantazi, H; Cotsakis, Spiros; Leach, Peter; Pantazi, Hara
1998-01-01
We reformulate the dynamics of homogeneous cosmologies with a scalar field matter source with an arbitrary self-interaction potential in the language of jet bundles and extensions of vector fields. In this framework, the Bianchi-scalar field equations become subsets of the second Bianchi jet bundle, $J^2$, and every Bianchi cosmology is naturally extended to live on a variety of $J^2$. We are interested in the existence and behaviour of extensions of arbitrary Bianchi-Lie and variational vector fields acting on the Bianchi variety and accordingly we classify all such vector fields corresponding to both Bianchi classes $A$ and $B$. We give examples of functions defined on Bianchi jet bundles which are constant along some Bianchi models (first integrals) and use these to find particular solutions in the Bianchi total space. We discuss how our approach could be used to shed new light to questions like isotropization and the nature of singularities of homogeneous cosmologies by examining the behaviour of the vari...
Magueijo, Joao; Kibble, T W B
2013-01-01
Using the chiral representation for spinors we present a particularly transparent way to generate the most general spinor dynamics in a theory where gravity is ruled by the Einstein-Cartan-Holst action. In such theories torsion need not vanish, but it can be re-interpreted as a 4-fermion self-interaction within a torsion-free theory. The self-interaction may or may not break parity invariance, and may contribute positively or negatively to the energy density, depending on the couplings considered. We then examine cosmological models ruled by a spinorial field within this theory. We find that while there are cases for which no significant cosmological novelties emerge, the self-interaction can also turn a mass potential into an upside-down Mexican hat potential. Then, as a general rule, the model leads to cosmologies with a bounce, for which there is a maximal energy density, and where the cosmic singularity has been removed. These solutions are stable, and range from the very simple to the very complex.
Scientific Realism and Primordial Cosmology
Azhar, Feraz
2016-01-01
We discuss scientific realism from the perspective of modern cosmology, especially primordial cosmology: i.e. the cosmological investigation of the very early universe. We first (Section 2) state our allegiance to scientific realism, and discuss what insights about it cosmology might yield, as against "just" supplying scientific claims that philosophers can then evaluate. In particular, we discuss: the idea of laws of cosmology, and limitations on ascertaining the global structure of spacetime. Then we review some of what is now known about the early universe (Section 3): meaning, roughly, from a thousandth of a second after the Big Bang onwards(!). The rest of the paper takes up two issues about primordial cosmology, i.e. the very early universe, where "very early" means, roughly, much earlier (logarithmically) than one second after the Big Bang: say, less than $10^{-11}$ seconds. Both issues illustrate that familiar philosophical threat to scientific realism, the under-determination of theory by data---on a...
Double Field Theory Inspired Cosmology
Wu, Houwen
2014-01-01
Double field theory proposes a generalized spacetime action possessing manifest T-duality on the level of component fields. We calculate the cosmological solutions of double field theory with vanishing Kalb-Ramond field. It turns out that double field theory provides a more consistent way to construct cosmological solutions than the standard string cosmology. We find two sets of solutions in double field theory cosmology, respecting or violating the strong (weak) constraint. Both sets of solutions naturally contain the pre- and post-big bang evolutions in one single line element. This novel feature opens a window for possible resolution of the cosmic amnesia. We also demonstrate that the scale factor duality in the standard string cosmology is nothing but the T-duality in double field theory. The scale dual dilatons in the standard string cosmology is simply the usual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\phi$ and dual diffeomorphic scalar dilaton $\\tilde\\phi$ in double field theory. Furthermore, we identify the "sh...
Benoit-Lévy, Aurélien; Chardin, Gabriel
2014-05-01
We study an unconventional cosmology, in which we investigate the consequences that antigravity would pose to cosmology. We present the main characteristics of the Dirac-Milne Universe, a cosmological model where antimatter has a negative active gravitational mass. In this non-standard Universe, separate domains of matter and antimatter coexist at our epoch without annihilation, separated by a gravitationally induced depletion zone. We show that this cosmology does not require a priori the Dark Matter and Dark Energy components of the standard model of cosmology. Additionally, inflation becomes an unnecessary ingredient. Investigating this model, we show that the classical cosmological tests such as primordial nucleosynthesis, Type Ia supernovæ and Cosmic Microwave Background are surprisingly concordant.
Loop Quantum Cosmology Gravitational Baryogenesis
Odintsov, S D
2016-01-01
Loop Quantum Cosmology is an appealing quantum completion of classical cosmology, which brings along various theoretical features which in many cases offer remedy or modify various classical cosmology aspects. In this paper we address the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism in the context of Loop Quantum Cosmology. As we demonstrate, when Loop Quantum Cosmology effects are taken into account in the resulting Friedmann equations for a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, then even for a radiation dominated Universe, the predicted baryon-to-entropy ratio from the gravitational baryogenesis mechanism is non-zero, in contrast to the Einstein-Hilbert case, in which case the baryon-to-entropy ratio is zero. We also discuss various other cases apart from the radiation domination case, and we discuss how the baryon-to-entropy ratio is affected from the parameters of the quantum theory. In addition, we use illustrative exact solutions of Loop Quantum Cosmology and we investigate under which circumstances the bar...
Inflation and the cosmological constant
FENG Chaojun
2014-08-01
Full Text Available By assuming the cosmological “constant” is no longer a constant during the inflation epoch,it is found that the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem is solved.In the meanwhile,inflation models could predict a large tensor-to-scalar ratio,correct power spectral index and a larger running of it.Furthermore,the e-folding number is large enough to overcome the horizon,flatness problems in the Big Bang cosmology.
Brane and Nonisotropic Bianchi Cosmology
Naboulsi, R
2003-01-01
In this letter, we use Einstein field equations in the presence of gravitino cosmological density derived in a previous paper [1] to study a spatially honogenous, nonisotropic cosmological model, in particular the Bianchi IV model. We find a axisymmetric Universe, free of singularity in the past, asymptotically flat as time grows, and admit the presence of gravitino mass as missing energy and positive cosmological constant as Lambda > 3m^2.
Cosmological Black Holes on Branes
Rogatko, Marek
2003-01-01
We examined analytically a cosmological black hole domain wall system. Using the C-metric construction we derived the metric for the spacetime describing an infinitely thin domain wall intersecting a cosmological black hole. We studied the behaviour of the scalar field describing a self-interacting cosmological domain wall and find the approximated solution valid for large distances. The thin wall approximation and the back raection problem were elaborated finding that the topological kink so...
Quintessential Maldacena-Maoz Cosmologies
McInnes, Brett
2004-01-01
Maldacena and Maoz have proposed a new approach to holographic cosmology based on Euclidean manifolds with disconnected boundaries. This approach appears, however, to be in conflict with the known geometric results [the Witten-Yau theorem and its extensions] on spaces with boundaries of non-negative scalar curvature. We show precisely how the Maldacena-Maoz approach evades these theorems. We also exhibit Maldacena-Maoz cosmologies with [cosmologically] more natural matter content, namely quin...
Moving mesh cosmology: tracing cosmological gas accretion
Nelson, Dylan; Genel, Shy; Sijacki, Debora; Keres, Dusan; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars; 10.1093/mnras/sts595
2013-01-01
We investigate the nature of gas accretion onto haloes and galaxies at z=2 using cosmological hydrodynamic simulations run with the moving mesh code AREPO. Implementing a Monte Carlo tracer particle scheme to determine the origin and thermodynamic history of accreting gas, we make quantitative comparisons to an otherwise identical simulation run with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET-3. Contrasting these two numerical approaches, we find significant physical differences in the thermodynamic history of accreted gas in haloes above 10^10.5 solar masses. In agreement with previous work, GADGET simulations show a cold fraction near unity for galaxies forming in massive haloes, implying that only a small percentage of accreted gas heats to an appreciable fraction of the virial temperature during accretion. The same galaxies in AREPO show a much lower cold fraction, <20% in haloes above 10^11 solar masses. This results from a hot gas accretion rate which, at this same halo mass, is an order o...
Beckwith, Andrew, E-mail: beckwith@iibep.org [71 Lakewood court, apt 7, Moriches, New York, 11955 (United States)
2011-07-08
We make explicit an idea by Padmanabhan in DICE 2010, as to finding 'atoms of space-time' permitting a thermodynamic treatment of emergent structure similar to Gibbs treatment of statistical physics. That is, an ensemble of gravitons is used to give an 'atom' of space-time congruent with relic GW. The idea is to reduce the number of independent variables to get a simple emergent space-time structure of entropy. An electric field, based upon the cosmological Schwinger principle, is linked to relic heat flux, with entropy production tied in with candidates as to inflaton potentials. The effective electric field links with the Schwinger 1951s result of an E field leading to pairs of e{sup +}e{sup -} charges nucleated in space-time volume V {center_dot} t. Note that in most inflationary models, the assumption is for a magnetic field, not an electric field. An electric field permits a kink-anti-kink construction of an emergent structure, which includes Glinka's recent pioneering approach to a Multiverse. Also an E field allows for an emergent relic particle frequency range between one and 100 GHz. The novel contribution is a relic E field, instead of a B field, in relic space-time 'atom' formation and vacuum nucleation of the same.
Cosmological Reflection of Particle Symmetry
Maxim Khlopov
2016-08-01
Full Text Available The standard model involves particle symmetry and the mechanism of its breaking. Modern cosmology is based on inflationary models with baryosynthesis and dark matter/energy, which involves physics beyond the standard model. Studies of the physical basis of modern cosmology combine direct searches for new physics at accelerators with its indirect non-accelerator probes, in which cosmological consequences of particle models play an important role. The cosmological reflection of particle symmetry and the mechanisms of its breaking are the subject of the present review.
An introduction to modern cosmology
Liddle, Andrew
2015-01-01
An Introduction to Modern Cosmology Third Edition is an accessible account of modern cosmological ideas. The Big Bang Cosmology is explored, looking at its observational successes in explaining the expansion of the Universe, the existence and properties of the cosmic microwave background, and the origin of light elements in the universe. Properties of the very early Universe are also covered, including the motivation for a rapid period of expansion known as cosmological inflation. The third edition brings this established undergraduate textbook up-to-date with the rapidly evolving observation
$\\Psi$-Epistemic Quantum Cosmology?
Evans, Peter W; Thébault, Karim P Y
2016-01-01
This paper provides a prospectus for a new way of thinking about the wavefunction of the universe: a $\\Psi$-epistemic quantum cosmology. We present a proposal that, if successfully implemented, would resolve the cosmological measurement problem and simultaneously allow us to think sensibly about probability and evolution in quantum cosmology. Our analysis draws upon recent work on the problem of time in quantum gravity, upon causally-symmetric local hidden variable theories, and upon a dynamical origin for the cosmological arrow of time. Our conclusion weighs the strengths and weaknesses of the approach and points towards paths for future development.
Cosmological constant and vacuum energy: old and new ideas
Sola, Joan
2013-01-01
The cosmological constant (CC) term in Einstein's equations, Lambda, was first associated to the idea of vacuum energy density. Notwithstanding, it is well-known that there is a huge, in fact appalling, discrepancy between the theoretical prediction and the observed value picked from the modern cosmological data. This is the famous, and extremely difficult, ``CC problem''. Paradoxically, the recent observation at the CERN Large Hadron Collider of a Higgs-like particle, should actually be considered ambivalent: on the one hand it appears as a likely great triumph of particle physics, but on the other hand it wide opens Pandora's box of the cosmological uproar, for it may provide (alas!) the experimental certification of the existence of the electroweak (EW) vacuum energy, and thus of the intriguing reality of the CC problem. Even if only counting on this contribution to the inventory of vacuum energies in the universe, the discrepancy with the cosmologically observed value is already of 55 orders of magnitude....
Locally Rotationally Symmetric Bianchi Type-I Model with Time Varying (A) Term
R.K.Tiwari; Navin Kumar Jha
2009-01-01
We investigate the locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) Bianchi type-Ⅰ cosmological model for stiff matter and a vacuum solution with a cosmological term proportional to R~(-m) (R is the scale factor and m is a positive constant).The cosmological term decreases with time.We obtain that for both the cases the present universe is accelerating with a large fraction of cosmological density in the form of a cosmological term.
The Radio Relics and Halo of El Gordo, a Massive $z=0.870$ Cluster Merger
Lindner, Robert R; Hughes, John P; Battaglia, Nick; Gupta, Neeraj; Knowles, Kenda; Marriage, Tobias A; Menanteau, Felipe; Moodley, Kavilan; Reese, Erik D; Srianand, Raghunathan
2013-01-01
We present 610 MHz and 2.1 GHz imaging of the massive SZE-selected z=0.870 cluster merger ACT-CL J0102-4915 (El Gordo), obtained with the GMRT and the ATCA, respectively. We detect two complexes of radio relics separated by 3.4' (1.6 Mpc) along the system's NW-to-SE collision axis that have high integrated polarizations (33%) and steep spectral indices, consistent with creation via Fermi acceleration by shocks in the ICM. From the spectral index of the relics, we compute a Mach number of 2.55 and shock speed of 4300^{+800}_{-500} km/s. With our ATCA data, we compute the Faraday rotation measure across the NW relic and find a mean value of 11 rad/m^2 and standard deviation of 6 rad/m^2. With the integrated line-of-sight gas density derived from new Chandra observations, our RM measurement implies B_parallel~0.01 \\mu G in the cluster outskirts. The extremely narrow shock widths in the relics (0.6. [abridged
The Relic Neutralino Surface at a 100 TeV collider
Bramante, Joseph; Martin, Adam; Ostdiek, Bryan; Plehn, Tilman; Schell, Torben; Takeuchi, Michihisa
2014-01-01
We map the parameter space for MSSM neutralino dark matter which freezes out to the observed relic abundance, in the limit that all superpartners except the neutralinos and charginos are decoupled. In this space of relic neutralinos, we show the dominant dark matter annihilation modes, the mass splittings among the electroweakinos, direct detection rates, and collider cross-sections. The mass difference between the dark matter and the next-to-lightest neutral and charged states is typically much less than electroweak gauge boson masses. With these small mass differences, the relic neutralino surface is accessible to a future 100 TeV hadron collider, which can discover inter-neutralino mass splittings down to 1~GeV and thermal relic dark matter neutralino masses up to 1.5 TeV with a few inverse attobarns of luminosity. This coverage is a direct consequence of the increased collider energy: the Standard Model events with missing transverse momentum in the TeV range have mostly hard electroweak radiation, distin...
Last scattering, relic gravitons and the circular polarization of the CMB
Giovannini, Massimo
2010-01-01
The tensor contribution to the $V$-mode polarization induced by a magnetized plasma at last scattering vanishes exactly. Conversely a polarized background of relic gravitons cannot generate a $V$-mode polarization. The reported results suggest that, in the magnetized $\\Lambda$CDM paradigm, the dominant source of circular dichroism stems from the large-scale fluctuations of the spatial curvature.
Relating the baryon asymmetry to the thermal relic dark matter density
McDonald, John
2011-04-01
We present a generic framework, baryomorphosis, which modifies the baryon asymmetry to be naturally of the order of a typical thermal relic weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) density. We consider a simple scalar-based model to show how this is possible. This model introduces a sector in which a large initial baryon asymmetry is injected into particles (”annihilons”), ϕB, ϕ^B, of mass ˜100GeV-1TeV. ϕBϕ^B annihilations convert the initial ϕB, ϕ^B asymmetry to a final asymmetry with a thermal relic WIMP-like density. This subsequently decays to a conventional baryon asymmetry whose magnitude is naturally related to the density of thermal relic WIMP dark matter. In this way the two coincidences of baryons and dark matter, i.e. why their densities are similar to each other and why they are both similar to a WIMP thermal relic density (the “WIMP miracle”), may be understood. The model may be tested by the production of annihilons at colliders.
Deuterium Abundance in Consciousness and Current Cosmology
Rauscher, Elizabeth A.
We utilize the deuterium-hydrogen abundances and their role in setting limits on the mass and other conditions of cosmogenesis and cosmological evolution. We calculate the dependence of a set of physical variables such as density, temperature, energy mass, entropy and other physical variable parameters through the evolution of the universe under the Schwarzschild conditions as a function from early to present time. Reconciliation with the 3°K and missing mass is made. We first examine the Schwarzschild condition; second, the geometrical constraints of a multidimensional Cartesian space on closed cosmologies, and third we will consider the cosmogenesis and evolution of the universe in a multidimensional Cartesian space, obeying the Schwarzschild condition. Implications of this model for matter creation are made. We also examine experimental evidence for closed versus open cosmologies; x-ray detection of the "missing mass" density. Also the interstellar deuterium abundance, along with the value of the Hubble constant set a general criterion on the value of the curvature constant, k. Once the value of the Hubble constant, H is determined, the deuterium abundance sets stringent restrictions on the value of the curvature constant k by an detailed discussion is presented. The experimental evidences for the determination of H and the primary set of coupled equations to determine D abundance is given. 'The value of k for an open, closed, or flat universe will be discussed in terms of the D abundance which will affect the interpretation of the Schwarzschild, black hole universe. We determine cosmology solutions to Einstein's field obeying the Schwarzschild solutions condition. With this model, we can form a reconciliation of the black hole, from galactic to cosmological scale. Continuous creation occurs at the dynamic blackhole plasma field. We term this new model the multiple big bang or "little whimper model". We utilize the deuteriumhydrogen abundances and their role in