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Sample records for reliably distinguished psychodynamic

  1. Therapists' thoughts on therapy: clinicians' perceptions of the therapy processes that distinguish schema, cognitive behavioural and psychodynamic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boterhoven De Haan, Katrina L; Lee, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Debates continue over shared factors in therapy processes between different theoretical orientations. By seeking the opinions of practicing clinicians, this study aimed to elucidate the similarities and differences between cognitive-behavioural (CBT), psychodynamic (PDT), and schema therapy (ST) approaches. Forty-eight practitioners aligning with one of the three approaches were asked to identify crucial processes in their therapy using a modified online version of the Psychotherapy Process Q-set. Distinct differences between each theoretical orientation with few shared common factors were found. A comparison with ratings from previous studies indicated that CBT therapists have not changed over the last 20 years, whereas PDT therapists have changed and the differences appeared consistent with modern PDT theory. The differences between the therapy approaches were consistent with theories underlying each model. PDT therapists valued a neutral relationship, CBT therapists emphasized a didactic interaction, and therapists form a ST orientation placed a greater emphasis on emotional involvement.

  2. Karolinske psychodynamic profile (KAPP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Birgit Bork; Søgaard, Ulf

    2006-01-01

    psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil......psykologiske testmetoder, assesment, Karolinska psychodynamic profile (KAPP), psykodynamisk profil...

  3. Psychodynamic Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Inge Nygaard

    2002-01-01

    This chapter/article describes the historical development of the disciplin Psychodynamic Movement. The importance of this disciplin for self-experience and for training in developing a therapist identy for the music therapy students are emphasized. Prototypeexercises developed and simplified...

  4. Assessing Psychodynamic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Joshua; Constantinides, Prometheas; Perry, J Christopher; Drapeau, Martin; Sheptycki, Amanda R

    2015-09-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapies suggest that symptomatic relief is provided, in part, with the resolution of psychic conflicts. Clinical researchers have used innovative methods to investigate such phenomenon. This article aims to review the literature on quantitative psychodynamic conflict rating scales. An electronic search of the literature was conducted to retrieve quantitative observer-rated scales used to assess conflict noting each measure's theoretical model, information source, and training and clinical experience required. Scales were also examined for levels of reliability and validity. Five quantitative observer-rated conflict scales were identified. Reliability varied from poor to excellent with each measure demonstrating good validity. However a small number of studies and limited links to current conflict theory suggest further clinical research is needed.

  5. A Model to Partly but Reliably Distinguish DDOS Flood Traffic from Aggregated One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic is desperately desired by reliable prevention of DDOS attacks. By reliable distinguishing, we mean that flood traffic can be distinguished from aggregated one for a predetermined probability. The basis to reliably distinguish flood traffic from aggregated one is reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks. As is known, reliably distinguishing DDOS flood traffic from aggregated traffic becomes a tough task mainly due to the effects of flash-crowd traffic. For this reason, this paper studies reliable detection in the underlying DiffServ network to use static-priority schedulers. In this network environment, we present a method for reliable detection of signs of DDOS flood attacks for a given class with a given priority. There are two assumptions introduced in this study. One is that flash-crowd traffic does not have all priorities but some. The other is that attack traffic has all priorities in all classes, otherwise an attacker cannot completely achieve its DDOS goal. Further, we suppose that the protected site is equipped with a sensor that has a signature library of the legitimate traffic with the priorities flash-crowd traffic does not have. Based on those, we are able to reliably distinguish attack traffic from aggregated traffic with the priorities that flash-crowd traffic does not have according to a given detection probability.

  6. PHOX2B reliably distinguishes neuroblastoma among small round blue cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yin P; Lee, John P; Bellizzi, Andrew M; Hornick, Jason L

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma shows considerable histological overlap with other small round blue cell tumours. PHOX2B, a transcription factor that is essential for autonomic nervous system development, has been reported as an immunohistochemical marker for neuroblastoma. The aim of this study was to validate the specificity and diagnostic utility of PHOX2B for peripheral neuroblastic tumours. We evaluated 240 cases (133 in whole-tissue sections; 107 in tissue microarrays), including 76 peripheral neuroblastic tumours (median age 2 years; including four adults) and 164 other tumours: 44 Wilms tumours; 20 Ewing sarcomas; 10 each of CIC-rearranged round cell sarcomas, poorly differentiated synovial sarcomas, lymphoblastic lymphomas, alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas, embryonal rhabdomyosarcomas, mesenchymal chondrosarcomas, Merkel cell carcinomas, olfactory neuroblastomas, and melanomas; and five each of NUT midline carcinomas and desmoplastic small round cell tumours. Immunohistochemistry for PHOX2B was performed with a rabbit monoclonal antibody. PHOX2B positivity was defined as the presence of nuclear immunoreactivity in ≥5% of cells. PHOX2B was positive in 70 (92%) peripheral neuroblastic tumours, including 68 of 72 (94%) paediatric and two of four (50%) adult cases. Furthermore, PHOX2B was consistently negative in all non-peripheral neuroblastic tumours, with staining being absent in 160 cases and limited in four cases. PHOX2B is a highly sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for peripheral neuroblastic tumours, including neuroblastoma. PHOX2B reliably distinguishes neuroblastoma from histological mimics such as Wilms tumour, Ewing sarcoma, and CIC-rearranged round cell sarcoma. PHOX2B negativity in two of four adult neuroblastoma cases raises the possibility that some adult neuroblastomas are of a different lineage than paediatric cases. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Does Psychodynamic Environmental Therapy Work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Poul; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the first Danish prospective outcome study of psychodynamic environmental therapy of children in residential treatment with early, serious traumatisation and extential relational disturbances. The study delves beneath the surface and explores the extent to which the children...

  8. Psychodynamics in medically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sara Siris; Kent, Laura K; Muskin, Philip R

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the role of psychodynamics as it applies to the understanding and treatment of medically ill patients in the consultation-liaison psychiatry setting. It provides historical background that spans the eras from Antiquity (Hippocrates and Galen) to nineteenth-century studies of hysteria (Charcot, Janet, and Freud) and into the twentieth century (Flanders Dunbar, Alexander, Engle, and the DSM). The article then discusses the effects of personality on medical illness, treatment, and patients' ability to cope by reviewing the works of Bibring, Kahana, and others. The important contribution of attachment theory is reviewed as it pertains the patient-physician relationship and the health behavior of physically ill patients. A discussion of conversion disorder is offered as an example of psychodynamics in action. This article highlights the important impact of countertransference, especially in terms of how it relates to patients who are extremely difficult and "hateful," and explores the dynamics surrounding the topic of physician-assisted suicide, as it pertains to the understanding of a patient's request to die. Some attention is also given to the challenges surrounding the unique experience of residents learning how to treat medically ill patients on the consultation-liaison service. Ultimately, this article concludes that the use and understanding of psychodynamics and psychodynamic theory allows consultation-liaison psychiatrists the opportunity to interpret the life narratives of medically ill patients in a meaningful way that contributes importantly to treatment.

  9. Practice Parameter for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicus, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This Practice Parameter describes the principles of psychodynamic psychotherapy with children and is based on clinical consensus and available research evidence. It presents guidelines for the practice of child psychodynamic psychotherapy, including indications and contraindications, the setting, verbal and interactive (play) techniques, work with…

  10. A psychodynamic perspective on elections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemens, Norman A

    2010-11-01

    In a democracy, elections are the way in which the collective thought processes of the voters arrive at a decision to direct their government. The author explores how the individual voter assesses and resolves many conflicting internal and external forces to arrive at a vote. The midterm elections of 2010 illustrate the parallel between individual resolution of conflicting forces and the process of a campaign leading to the outcome of an election. The psychodynamic concepts of conflict and compromise, affects, aggression, unconscious forces, mechanisms of defense, superego, and the ego's integrative functions are evident in both the individual voter and the collective electoral process. The author expresses concern about the historical vulnerability of democracies and the unbalancing effect of allowing limitless infusion of anonymous corporate money to pour into campaigns.

  11. Distinguishing between forensic science and forensic pseudoscience: testing of validity and reliability, and approaches to forensic voice comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart

    2014-05-01

    In this paper it is argued that one should not attempt to directly assess whether a forensic analysis technique is scientifically acceptable. Rather one should first specify what one considers to be appropriate principles governing acceptable practice, then consider any particular approach in light of those principles. This paper focuses on one principle: the validity and reliability of an approach should be empirically tested under conditions reflecting those of the case under investigation using test data drawn from the relevant population. Versions of this principle have been key elements in several reports on forensic science, including forensic voice comparison, published over the last four-and-a-half decades. The aural-spectrographic approach to forensic voice comparison (also known as "voiceprint" or "voicegram" examination) and the currently widely practiced auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach are considered in light of this principle (these two approaches do not appear to be mutually exclusive). Approaches based on data, quantitative measurements, and statistical models are also considered in light of this principle. © 2013.

  12. The psychodynamics of borderline psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradi, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The concept of borderline personality disorder (BPD) remains problematic despite psychiatrists' general familiarity with its DSM diagnostic criteria. The diagnosis of BPD is frequently based simply on the DSM checklist of traits and symptoms without knowledge of their origins or significance. Misdiagnosis is common, as is lack of recognition of the full complexity of this severe personality disorder and the nature of the vulnerabilities that underlie its myriad forms of pathology. The stresses of ordinary life are often too much for people with BPD. Knowledge of the nature and origins of their stress points, such as their great fear of loss or rejection, is necessary for adequate diagnosis and treatment. The author addresses how signature features of the disorder relate to psychosocial development, how they correlate with failed developmental milestones, and how they can be understood psychodynamically. This is essential knowledge for psychotherapists because the pathological interpersonal relationships of the borderline patient will be repeated and acted out in the transference, whatever the modality or intensity of treatment.

  13. How reliably can northeast Atlantic sand lances of the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus be distinguished? A comparative application of morphological and molecular methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Thiel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate stock assessments for each of the dominant species of sand lances in the northeast Atlantic Ocean and adjacent areas are not available due to the lack of a reliable identification procedure; therefore, appropriate measures of fisheries management or conservation of sand lances cannot be implemented. In this study, detailed morphological and molecular features are assessed to discriminate between four species of sand lances belonging to the genera Ammodytes and Hyperoplus. Morphological characters described by earlier authors as useful for identification of the genera are confirmed, and two additional distinguishing characters are added. A combination of the following morphological characters is recommended to distinguish between the genera Hyperoplus and Ammodytes: the protrusibility of the premaxillae, the presence of hooked ends of the prevomer, the number of dermal plicae, and the pectoral-fin length as a percentage of the standard length. The discriminant function analysis revealed that morphometric data are not very useful to distinguish the species of each of the two genera. The following meristic characters improve the separation of H. lanceolatus from H. immaculatus: the number of lower arch gill rakers, total number of gill rakers, numbers of caudal vertebrae and total vertebrae, and numbers of dorsal-fin and anal-fin rays. It is confirmed that A. tobianus differs from A. marinus by its belly scales that are organised in tight chevrons, scales which are present over the musculature at the base of the caudal fin, as well as by the lower numbers of dermal plicae, dorsal-fin rays, and total vertebrae. In contrast to the morphological data, mitochondrial COI sequences (DNA barcodes failed to separate unambiguously the four investigated species. Ammodytes tobianus and H. lanceolatus showed an overlap between intraspecific and interspecific K2P genetic distances and cannot be reliably distinguished using the common DNA barcoding

  14. Is There Room for Criticism of Studies of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thombs, Brett D.; Jewett, Lisa R.; Bassel, Marielle

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler declared unequivocally that "empirical evidence supports the efficacy of psychodynamic therapy" (p. 98). He did not mention any specific criticisms that have been made of evidence on psychodynamic psychotherapies or address possible distinctions…

  15. The dream: a psychodynamically informative instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glucksman, M L

    2001-01-01

    The dream is a unique psychodynamically informative instrument for evaluating the subjective correlates of brain activity during REM sleep. These include feelings, percepts, memories, wishes, fantasies, impulses, conflicts, and defenses, as well as images of self and others. Dream analysis can be used in a variety of clinical settings to assist in diagnostic assessment, psychodynamic formulation, evaluation of clinical change, and the management of medically ill patients. Dreams may serve as the initial indicators of transference, resistance, impending crisis, acting-out, conflict resolution, and decision-making. A clinically functional categorization of dreams can facilitate an understanding of psychopathology, psychodynamics, personality structure, and various components of the psychotherapeutic process. Examples of different types of dreams are provided to illustrate their relevance and use in various clinical situations.

  16. Is IPT Time-Limited Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, John C.; Svartberg, Martin; Swartz, Holly A.

    1998-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has sometimes but not always been considered a psychodynamic psychotherapy. The authors discuss similarities and differences between IPT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP), comparing eight aspects: 1) time limit, 2) medical model, 3) dual goals of solving interpersonal problems and syndromal remission, 4) interpersonal focus on the patient solving current life problems, 5) specific techniques, 6) termination, 7) therapeutic stance, and 8) empirical support. The authors then apply both approaches to a case example of depression. They conclude that despite overlaps and similarities, IPT is distinct from STPP.(The Journal of Psychotherapy Practice and Research 1998; 7:185–195) PMID:9631340

  17. Commentary: Coming Full Circle--Psychoanalysis, Psychodynamics, and Forensic Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, Angela M

    2015-12-01

    Drs. Simopoulos and Cohen argue that knowledge of one's unconscious processes improves the forensic psychiatrist's capacity to manage complex forensic situations and to generate forensic formulations and opinions that are demonstrably more valid and reliable, much like competence in cultural assessment and formulation. In practice, the challenges posed by the application of these principles in forensic settings are far outweighed by the potential benefit. Forensic practice is informed by many specialties. Forensic psychiatrists do not have to complete full training in these disciplines to make use of the knowledge and perspectives they offer. The same may not be true of psychodynamic assessment and formulation. Although much can be learned from supervision, case seminars, conferences, and reading, such knowledge does little to foster awareness of one's unconscious processes that by definition operate outside awareness and thus contribute to the vitiating effect of bias. To date, the only method whereby psychiatrists can effectively come to appreciate their own unconscious processes in action is arguably through their own analysis conducted in the course of training in analysis or psychodynamic psychotherapy. © 2015 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.

  18. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  19. Methods and Mechanisms in the Efficacy of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. Shedler summarized a large body of research that shows psychodynamic therapy to have a substantial effect size, comparable to that for many empirically supported treatments. This is an important finding, in part refuting the concerns raised by Bornstein…

  20. [Psychodynamic hypothesis about suicidality in elderly men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Reinhard

    2010-08-01

    Old men are overrepresented in the whole of all suicides. In contrast, only very few elderly men find their way to specialised treatment facilities. Elderly accept psychotherapy more rarely than younger persons. Therefore presentations on the psychodynamics of suicidality in old men are rare and mostly casuistical. By means of a stepwise reconstructable qualitative case comparison of five randomly chosen elderly suicidal men with ideal types of suicidal (younger) men concerning biography, suicidal symptoms and transference, psychodynamic hypothesis of suicidality in elderly men are developed. All patients came into psychotherapy in a specialised academic out-patient clinic for psychodynamic treatment of acute and chronic suicidality. The five elderly suicidal men predominantly were living in long-term, conflictuous sexual relationships and also had ambivalent relationships to their children. Suicidality in old age refers to lifelong existing intrapsychic conflicts, concerning (male) identity, self-esteem and a core conflict between fusion and separation wishes. The body gets a central role in suicidal experiences, being a defensive instance modified by age and/or physical illness, which brings up to consciousness aggressive and envious impulses, but also feelings of emptiness and insecurity, which have to be warded off again by projection into the body. In transference relationships there are on the one hand the regular transference, on the other hand an age specific turned around transference, with their counter transference reactions. The chosen methodological approach serves the systematic finding of hypotheses with a higher degree in evidence than hypotheses generated from single case studies. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

  1. Constructing a systems psychodynamic wellness model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchen Henning

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to construct and refine the SPWM in order to understand psychological wellness at the individual, group and organisational levels. Motivation for the study: There is no psychological wellness model that integrates the principles of systems psychodynamics and positive psychology. Systems psychodynamics traditionally focuses on so-called negative behaviour whilst positive psychology tends to idealise positive behaviour. This research tried to merge these views in order to apply them to individual, group and organisational behaviour. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used qualitative, descriptive and conceptual research. They conducted an in-depth literature study to construct the model. They then refined it using the LP. Main findings: The researchers identified 39 themes. They categorised them into three different levels. Three first-level themes emerged as the highest level of integration: identity, hope and love. The nine second-level themes each consisted of three more themes. They were less complex and abstract than the first-level themes. The least complex 27 third-level themes followed. Practical/managerial implications: One can apply the SPWM as a qualitative diagnostic tool for understanding individual, group and organisational wellness and for consulting on systemic wellness. Contribution/value-add: The SPWM offers a model for understanding individual, group and organisational wellness and for consulting on systemic wellness.

  2. Working with boundaries in systems psychodynamic consulting

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    Henk Struwig

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to produce a set of theoretical assumptions about organisational boundaries and boundary management in organisations and, from these, to develop a set of hypotheses as a thinking framework for practising consulting psychologists when they work with boundaries from a systems psychodynamic stance. Motivation for the study: The researcher used the belief that organisational boundaries reflect the essence of organisations. Consulting to boundary managers could facilitate a deep understanding of organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The researcher followed a case study design. He used systems psychodynamic discourse analysis. It led to six working hypotheses. Main findings: The primary task of boundary management is to hold the polarities of integration and differentiation and not allow the system to become fragmented or overly integrated. Boundary management is a primary task and an ongoing activity of entire organisations. Practical/managerial implications: Organisations should work actively at effective boundary management and at balancing integration and differentiation. Leaders should become aware of how effective boundary management leads to good holding environments that, in turn, lead to containing difficult emotions in organisations. Contribution/value-add: The researcher provided a boundary-consulting framework in order to assist consultants to balance the conceptual with the practical when they consult.

  3. Borderline or Schizotypal? Differential Psychodynamic Assessment in Severe Personality Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAN Riel, Laura; Ingenhoven, Theo J M; VAN Dam, Quin D; Polak, Marike G; Vollema, Meinte G; Willems, Anne E; Berghuis, Han; VAN Megen, Harold

    2017-03-01

    Considerable overlap in symptoms between patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) complicates personality diagnostics. Yet very little is known about the level of psychodynamic functioning of both personality disorders. Psychodynamic assessment procedures may specify personality characteristics relevant for differential diagnosis and treatment planning. In this cross-sectional study we explored the differences and similarities in level of personality functioning and psychodynamic features of patients with severe BPD or STPD. In total, 25 patients with BPD and 13 patients with STPD were compared regarding their level of personality functioning (General Assessment of Personality Disorder), current quasipsychotic features (Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire), and psychodynamic functioning [Developmental Profile (DP) interview and Developmental Profile Inventory (DPI) questionnaire]. Both groups of patients showed equally severe impairments in the level of personality functioning and the presence of current quasipsychotic features. As assessed by the DP interview, significant differential psychodynamic patterns were found on the primitive levels of functioning. Moreover, subjects with BPD had significantly higher scores on the adaptive developmental levels. However, the self-questionnaire DPI was not able to elucidate all of these differences. In conclusion, our study found significant differences in psychodynamic functioning between patients with BPD and STPD as assessed with the DP interview. In complicated diagnostic cases, personality assessment by psychodynamic interviewing can enhance subtle but essential differentiation between BPD and STPD.

  4. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

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    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  5. Some comments on the nature and use of the concept of psyche in psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Crittenden E

    2004-01-01

    The term psyche is central to the field of mental health and dysfunction. And yet the term is seldom talked about directly, and is seldom elaborated by the professionals who function under its rubric. This article elaborates this term, and sets forth a definition for the purposes of psychology and psychodynamics as science in the sense of the establishment of psychological knowledge. Psyche is defined in this article as a hypothetical construct, as outlined in the classic article in the theory of psychological science by MacCorquodale and Meehl (1948). Psyche is to be distinguished from the concept of mind, which is identified here as a strictly phenomenological (subjective) concept. Use of psyche in this way allows it to be utilized in descriptions of its dynamics (psychodynamics), as a central concept in a science which utilizes phenomenological (subjective rather than objective) data.

  6. A Psychodynamic Psychologist in Community Psychiatry: 14 Years of Experience

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    Tânia Roquette

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to critically review the role of a psychodynamic psychologist integrated in a community outpatient clinic of a Psychiatric Department. It describes the characteristics of a psychodynamic intervention that is complementary to the psychiatric approach while sharing a common goal –the suffering patient – and enhancing the knowledge and understanding of several domains like psychopathology, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation and integration. Furthermore it describes how the use of Psychological Assessment led to the formulation of specific individual psychotherapies, spanning 14 years of clinical practice. The paper concludes with some considerations regarding the integration of Psychodynamic Psychology in a multidisciplinary mental health team, addressing issues such as the boundaries between technical characteristics, the appropriateness of language to other disciplines and psychodynamic implications of the different features of this clinical setting.

  7. A Psychodynamic Systems Perspective on Command Relationship during Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Hasselager, Wilfred Bion, Bent Jorgensen, Defensive Mechanisms, Assumption Groups , Psychodynamic System Theory . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...LITERATURE REVIEW Introduction The purpose of this chapter is to give the reader a detailed overview of the theories used as a foundation for the analysis...conclusion, psychodynamic system theory can be visually represented as the two operating levels of the group with an external boundary to the

  8. Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile for Sexual Disorders: KAPP-SD. A proposal for a psychodynamic rating scale for sexual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldati, Lorenzo; Köhl, John; Abraham, Georges; Bianchi Demicheli, Francesco; Wilczek, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Our first objective in this paper was to review the literature on psychodynamic rating scales of sexual disorders. Our second objective, based on the findings from our review, was to develop a psychodynamic rating scale for people with sexual disorders: the KAPP-SD. We developed the KAPP-SD by modifying an existing psychodynamic rating scale, which assesses stable modes of mental functioning and character traits, the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile (KAPP). We removed items 13 and 14 of the KAPP and replaced them with three other items-sexual fantasies, conceptions and role of gender identity, and conceptions and role of sexual orientation. These items are part of the assessment of an individual's sexuality and are used to evaluate a person with a sexual disorder psychodynamically. The KAPP-SD, a modified version of the KAPP, can be found in the Appendix. We developed the KAPP-SD in order to help sex therapists make a rigorous psychodynamic evaluation of persons with sexual disorders, which would give information on the prognosis and on the type of treatment to offer.

  9. Team building from a psychodynamic perspective

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    F. v. N. Cilliers

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to measure the impact of a psychodynamic, Tavistock stance, team building event. Its task is to provide opportunities for learning about team behaviour and dynamics. Consultants offer interpretations in the form of working hypotheses about what is happening in the here-and-now. This refers to the basic assumptions (dependency, fight/flight, pairing and its relevant dynamic concepts. Post measured, qualitative research findings, indicate an increase in knowledge about the teams unconscious behaviour, a realisation of own identity, boundaries, potential and a strong sense of empowerment to act collectively in problem solving. Opsomming Die doel van die navorsing is om die impak van'n psigodinamiese, Tavistock beskouing, spanbou gebeurtems, te meet. Die taak is om leergeleenthede beskikbaar te stel oor eie spangedrag en -dinamika. Konsultantc bicd interpretasies aan in die vorm van werkshipoteses oor die gebeure in die hier-en-nou. Dit verwys na die basiese aannames (afhanklikheid, veg/vlug, afparing en die relevante dinamiese konsepte. Post-gemete, kwalitatiewe navorsingsresultate, dui op n toename in kennis oor die span se onbewuste gedrag, n beset van eie identiteit, grense, potensiaal en 'n sterk sin van bemagtiging om op 'n kollektiewe wyse op te tree in probleemoplossing.

  10. Psychodynamic theory and counseling in predictive testing for Huntington's disease.

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    Tassicker, Roslyn J

    2005-04-01

    This paper revisits psychodynamic theory, which can be applied in predictive testing counseling for Huntington's Disease (HD). Psychodynamic theory has developed from the work of Freud and places importance on early parent-child experiences. The nature of these relationships, or attachments are reflected in adult expectations and relationships. Two significant concepts, identification and fear of abandonment, have been developed and expounded by the psychodynamic theorist, Melanie Klein. The processes of identification and fear of abandonment can become evident in predictive testing counseling and are colored by the client's experience of growing up with a parent affected by Huntington's Disease. In reflecting on family-of-origin experiences, clients can also express implied expectations of the future, and future relationships. Case examples are given to illustrate the dynamic processes of identification and fear of abandonment which may present in the clinical setting. Counselor recognition of these processes can illuminate and inform counseling practice.

  11. Symptoms and Character Traits in Patients Selected for Long-term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Alexander; Weinryb, Robert M.; Gustavsson, Petter J.; Barber, Jacques P.; Schubert, Johan; ÅSBERG, Marie

    1998-01-01

    In this naturalistic study of 55 outpatients selected for long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, two Swedish assessment instruments are presented (the Karolinska Psychodynamic Profile and the Karolinska Scales of Personality), and the significance of psychodynamic criteria for the selection of patients is discussed. Thirty patients (55%) fulfilled criteria for a DSM-III-R diagnosis. The most prominent psychodynamically defined character pathology was found in the areas of coping with aggressive affects; dependency and separation; frustration tolerance; and impulse control. Some psychodynamically defined character traits, particularly poor frustration tolerance, were related to symptomatic suffering. PMID:9407473

  12. Psychodynamic Therapy and Intellectual Disabilities: Dealing with Challenging Behaviour.

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    Berry, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four case studies concerning long-term psychodynamic treatment of German individuals with intellectual disabilities are presented: an aggressive young man with a mild intellectual disability; a young man with multiple disabilities with destructive behavior; a withdrawn young woman with self-destructive behavior; and a young man with autism with…

  13. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy versus Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression: a randomized controlled trial

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    Kool Simone

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has shown that Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy (SPSP is an effective alternative to pharmacotherapy and combined treatment (SPSP and pharmacotherapy in the treatment of depressed outpatients. The question remains, however, how Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy compares with other established psychotherapy methods. The present study compares Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy to the evidence-based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in terms of acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy in the outpatient treatment of depression. Moreover, this study aims to identify clinical predictors that can distinguish patients who may benefit from either of these treatments in particular. This article outlines the study protocol. The results of the study, which is being currently carried out, will be presented as soon as they are available. Methods/Design Adult outpatients with a main diagnosis of major depressive disorder or depressive disorder not otherwise specified according to DSM-IV criteria and mild to severe depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score ≥ 14 are randomly allocated to Short Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Both treatments are individual psychotherapies consisting of 16 sessions within 22 weeks. Assessments take place at baseline (week 0, during the treatment period (week 5 and 10 and at treatment termination (week 22. In addition, a follow-up assessment takes place one year after treatment start (week 52. Primary outcome measures are the number of patients refusing treatment (acceptability; the number of patients terminating treatment prematurely (feasibility; and the severity of depressive symptoms (efficacy according to an independent rater, the clinician and the patient. Secondary outcome measures include general psychopathology, general psychotherapy outcome, pain, health-related quality of life, and cost

  14. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  15. Money and sentiment: a psychodynamic approach to behavioral finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsy, Ildiko; Lefer, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    This article tackles one of the timeliest issues for both practitioners and patients today: sentiment, psychodynamics, and the stock market. Economic bubbles and crashes have occurred regularly through history -- from Holland's 17th century tulip mania, to America's 19th century railway mania, to the 1990s high-tech obsession. Though most investors regard themselves as investing rationally, few do. Instead they react collectively, buying high and selling low in crowds. Being subject to the illusion of control, they follow regressive behavior patterns and irrational, wishful thinking. They are victimized by their own emotions of hope, fear, and uncertainty. Crises happen often in economics. Indeed, the market itself may be quantified as a conglomeration of human sentiment. The relationship between magical thinking and the pictorial language of the market will be explored. Psychodynamic conceptualizations about risk and speculation are discussed, as are the interplay of affects versus judgment, rational thinking, and the knowledge of one's own capacity for stress tolerance.

  16. Autoethnography and Psychodynamics in Interrelational Spaces of the Research Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dybbroe, Betina; Hansson, Birgitte

    2012-01-01

    This article takes the stance that the subjectivity of the researcher is an integral part of the research process. It should be studied as a key to understanding the interrelational processes of meaning in an interview situation. The article demonstrates how the subjectivity of the researcher can...... be made accessible methodologically and methodically by combining a psychodynamic approach with an autoethnographic approach. The methodical question is therefore how the researcher can conduct introspection and at the same time reflect upon and analyse the central object of investigation. The approach...... is psychoanalytically informed, but autoethnography became the actual vehicle for moving beyond reflections on the psychodynamics represented in the texts. The researcher ventured into an introspection of not only the texts, but also her own feelings, fantasies, and bodily experiences at the time of the interview...

  17. Viewing the Disney Movie Frozen through a Psychodynamic Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Christopher; Bhalla, Ruchi

    2015-10-14

    The Disney movie Frozen is the fifth highest grossing movie of all time. In order to better understand this phenomenon and to hypothesize as to why the movie resonated so strongly with audiences, we have interpreted the movie using psychodynamic theory. We pay particular attention to the themes of puberty, adolescence and sibling relationships and discuss examples of ego defenses that are employed by the lead character in relation to these concepts.

  18. Empathy deficit in antisocial personality disorder: a psychodynamic formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malancharuvil, Joseph M

    2012-09-01

    Empathic difficulty is a highly consequential characteristic of antisocial personality structure. The origin, maintenance, and possible resolution of this profound deficit are not very clear. While reconstructing empathic ability is of primary importance in the treatment of antisocial personality, not many proven procedures are in evidence. In this article, the author offers a psychodynamic formulation of the origin, character, and maintenance of the empathic deficiency in antisocial personality. The author discusses some of the treatment implications from this dynamic formulation.

  19. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  20. Group Milieu in systemic and psychodynamic group therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht; Kristensen, Ellids

    Objectives: A recent meta-analysis also concluded that psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for adult with a history of CSA and maintained for at least six months follow-up. The results suggest that different characteristics of therapy moderate the therapeutic outcome. We found in a random......Objectives: A recent meta-analysis also concluded that psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for adult with a history of CSA and maintained for at least six months follow-up. The results suggest that different characteristics of therapy moderate the therapeutic outcome. We found...... in a randomized study of systemic versus psychodynamic group therapy, that the short-term outcome for patients who received systemic group psychotherapy was significantly better than the outcome for patients who received psychodynamic group psychotherapy. The current study assessed the group milieu in both groups....... Methods: This randomized prospective study included 106 women: 52 assigned to psychodynamic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. The Group Environment Scale (GES) was filled in the mid phase of therapy and analysed in three dimensions and 10 subscales. Results: The systemic...

  1. Assessing levels of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" in psychodynamic psychotherapy with children: a case study approach (preliminary findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Bento Gastaud

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To analyze the degree of similarity to a "psychodynamic prototype" during the first year of two children's once-weekly psychodynamic psychotherapy.Methods: This study used a longitudinal, descriptive, repeated-measures design based on the systematic case study method. Two male school children (here referred to as Walter and Peter and their therapists took part in the study. All sessions were video and audio recorded. Ten sessions from each case were selected for analysis in this preliminary study. Trained examiners (randomly selected in pairs independently and blindly evaluated each session using the Child Psychotherapy Q-Set (CPQ. Experts in psychodynamic therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy from several countries rated each of the 100 CPQ items with regard to how well it characterized a hypothetical ideal session of either treatment modality. A series of paired t tests comparing analogous adherence scores within each session were conducted.Results:There were no significant correlations between time elapsed and adherence to the prototypes. Walter's treatment adhered to both prototypes and Peter's treatment did not adhere to either prototype.Conclusion:Child psychotherapy theory and practice are not absolutely coincident. Real psychotherapy sessions do not necessarily resemble the ideal prototypes.

  2. Hypnosis-based psychodynamic treatment in ALS: a longitudinal study on patients and their caregivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Roland Kleinbub

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evidence of psychological treatment efficacy is strongly needed in ALS, particularly regarding long-term effects.Methods: Fifteen patients participated in a hypnosis treatment and self-hypnosis training protocol after an in-depth psychological and neurological evaluation. Patients’ primary caregivers and 15 one-by-one matched control patients were considered in the study.Measurements of anxiety, depression and quality of life were collected at the baseline, post-treatment, and after 3 and 6 months from the intervention. Bayesian linear mixed-models were used to evaluate the impact of treatment and defense style on patients’ anxiety, depression, quality of life, and functional impairment (ALSFRS-r, as well as on caregivers’ anxiety and depression.Results: The statistical analyses revealed an improvement in psychological variables’ scores immediately after the treatment. Amelioration in patients’ and caregivers’ anxiety as well as caregivers’ depression, were found to persist at 3 and 6 months follow-ups. The observed massive use of primitive defense mechanisms was found to have a reliable and constant buffer effect on psychopathological symptoms in both patients and caregivers. Notably, treated patients decline in ALSFRS-r score was observed to be slower than that of control group’s patients.Discussion: Our brief psychodynamic hypnosis-based treatment showed efficacy both at psychological and physical levels in patients with ALS, and was indirectly associated to long-lasting benefits in caregivers. The implications of peculiar psychodynamic factors and mind-body techniques are discussed. Future directions should be oriented toward a convergence of our results and further psychological interventions, in order to delineate clinical best practices for ALS.

  3. SCL-90-R Symptom Profiles and Outcome of Short-Term Psychodynamic Group Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy may not be an optimal treatment for anxiety and agoraphobic symptoms. We explore remission of SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and target symptoms in 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy. Methods. SCL-90-R “target symptom” profile a...

  4. When It Comes to Evaluating Psychodynamic Therapy, the Devil Is in the Details

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anestis, Michael D.; Anestis, Joye C.; Lilienfeld, Scott O.

    2011-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "The efficacy of psychodynamic psychotherapy," by J. Shedler. As Shedler noted, some researchers have reflexively and stridently dismissed psychodynamic therapy (PT) as ineffective without granting outcome studies on this modality a fair hearing. We applaud Shedler's efforts to bring PT into the scientific…

  5. When and Why Should Mental Health Professionals Offer Traditional Psychodynamic Therapy to Cancer Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuppa, David P; Meyer, Fremonta

    2017-05-01

    Given the recent studies promoting time-limited manualized therapies in the oncology setting, clinicians may be reluctant to offer traditional psychodynamic therapy to cancer patients. However, there are no studies directly comparing psychodynamic therapy and other therapy modalities in this patient population and no data suggesting harm from psychodynamic approaches. Therefore, it is inappropriate to draw the conclusion that psychodynamic therapy is inferior to manualized therapy from existing evidence. Manualized treatment, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, is generally short term and therefore may reduce the practitioner's own anxiety stemming from exposure to patients facing grave disability and death. However, manualized treatment is not fully effective in specific clinical scenarios. We present a case reflecting these limitations and advocate for a flexible treatment approach incorporating elements of psychodynamic therapy. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, S

    1994-08-01

    Cognitive-experiential self-theory integrates the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious by assuming the existence of two parallel, interacting modes of information processing: a rational system and an emotionally driven experiential system. Support for the theory is provided by the convergence of a wide variety of theoretical positions on two similar processing modes; by real-life phenomena--such as conflicts between the heart and the head; the appeal of concrete, imagistic, and narrative representations; superstitious thinking; and the ubiquity of religion throughout recorded history--and by laboratory research, including the prediction of new phenomena in heuristic reasoning.

  7. Psychodynamic Factors Behind Online Social Networking and its Excessive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Thomas Cheuk Wing

    2016-03-01

    This article discusses the psychodynamic factors behind the popularity of one form of Internet activity, online social networking (SN). It views online SN as an extension of the social self, organized in a way that is more controllable than real life relating. The SN platforms reward its users with reassuring surfaces and novel self-object experiences while at the same time induces much anxiety. The addictive quality of online SN is understood in the context of collapse of dialectical space and the defensive use of this technology.

  8. Brief Adlerian psychodynamic psychotherapy: theoretical issues and process indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassino, S; Amianto, F; Ferrero, A

    2008-06-01

    Brief psychotherapy is gaining interest worldwide, because of its good cost/effectiveness ratio and proved efficacy. The aim of the paper was to describe the brief Adlerian psychodynamic psychotherapy (B-APP): a brief, psychodynamically oriented psychotherapy referring to the individual psychology (IP). The B-APP theory refers to the following paradigms: 1) the individual represents a psychosomatic unity integrated in the social context; 2) the individual needs to build and regulate the image of the self; 3) bond patterns regulate human relationships and represent the symbolic ''fil rouge'' connecting the elements of the life-style. Its objectives are: 1) an at least partial resolution of the focus problem; 2) a decrease or a non-increase of symptoms; 3) a global increase of quality of life. The results depend on intrapsychic and relational changes. Indications are more relative than absolute. The possibility of identifying a meaningful focus is fundamental. The treatment scheme includes 15 sessions subdivided into 5 phases. B-APP offers a technical approach to brief psychotherapy which is suitable in many fields of psychiatry and liaison medicine such as preventive interventions in at-risk subjects, somatopsychic disorders and liaison psychiatry, personality and eating disorders, and treatment of emotionally disturbed children. It was applied as psychotherapeutic approach in some clinical outcome studies about eating disorders and severe personality disorders displaying a good efficacy.

  9. Executive coaching in diversity from the systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerato Motsoaledi

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the application of systems psychodynamic role analysis and to determine its trustworthiness in assisting executives to work effectively with conscious and unconscious diversity dynamics in their organisations. Motivation for the study: Executives generally struggle to understand the deeper meaning of diversity behaviour that manifests inside and around them, leading to conflict. Without understanding the unconscious meaning of the behaviour, organisations founder easily. Awareness of below-the-surface behaviour leads to insight and taking responsibility for diversity-related behaviours. Research design, approach and method: The researcher coached six executives in South African state departments over a period of 10 months. The coaching addressed and analysed the executives’ organisational roles. She analysed the data using discourse analysis. Main findings: Themes relating to the diversity dynamics of gender, race, ethnicity, authority, disability, language, age, de-authorisation of diversity work and the coaching process emerged. The coaching assisted the executives to gain insights into below-the-surface diversity dynamics, to address diversity in a sustained manner and to take up their organisational roles more effectively. Practical/managerial implications: Coached executives will have a more objective and dynamic experience of diversity issues that manifest in organisations, between colleagues and within themselves. Contribution/value-add: Executive coaching from a systems psychodynamic perspective displays trustworthiness in improving participants’ diversity awareness, especially with regard to gender, race, ethnicity and authorisation.

  10. The systems psychodynamic experiences of organisational transformation amongst support staff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Steyn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The unconscious impact of organisational transformation is often neglected and even denied. This research revealed the manifestation and impact of high levels and different forms of anxiety experienced by employees during transformation. Research objective: The objective was to study and describe the manifesting systems psychodynamic behaviour amongst support staff during organisational transformation. Motivation for the study: Organisational transformation is mostly researched from a leadership viewpoint. Little research data are available on the experiences of support staff on the receiving end of decisions about and implementation of transformation. Research design, approach and method: A qualitative approach within the phenomenological hermeneutic interpretive stance was used. The research was set in a government organisation. A semi-structured interview with four conveniently and purposefully chosen support staff members was thematically analysed using systems psychodynamics as theoretical paradigm. Main findings: Four themes manifested, namely de-authorisation and detachment, being bullied and seduced by leadership, the organisation in the mind as incompetent, and a dangerous and persecutory system. In the discussion, the basic assumptions and relevant constructs are interpreted. Practical implications: Understanding the transformation experiences of support staff could assist the industrial psychologist to facilitate appropriate support in coaching more junior staff towards increasing wellness and work performance. Contribution: Organisational transformation is highlighted as an anxiety provoking experience especially on the lower levels of the organisation. Its potentially deep and complex psychological impact could possibly derail parts of the system if not managed in a psychologically contained manner.

  11. Followership's experiences of organisational leadership: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk Greyvenstein

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was to describe followership’s experiences of organisational leadership from a systems psychodynamic perspective. Motivation for the study: Organisational leadership is under tremendous pressure to perform and often under attack, especially if they do not appear to be caring and supportive. The research was planned to better understand the unconscious nature of this phenomenon. Research design, approach and method: Qualitative, descriptive research was used. Data was collected through psychodynamic Listening Posts and analysed using discourse analysis. Working hypotheses were formulated per theme and integrated into the research hypothesis. Main findings: Six themes manifested, namely a negative leadership view; idealisation of the past and blaming the present; obsession with race and gender; constantly changing identity; unfinished business and the future; and cope and hope. Practical/managerial implications: Leadership seem to focus more on business than followership issues which leads to followers feeling disregarded and de-authorised. As a result followers withhold authorisation from leadership which may be instrumental in leaderships’ difficulties to manage change and transformation effectively. Leadership development needs to incorporate the self-authorisation of leaders as well as the invitation of authorisation by leaders. Contribution/value-add: The data would be useful to leadership towards understanding, repairing and optimising their relationships and organisational impact through people.

  12. Innovative Educational Initiatives to Train Psychodynamic Psychiatrists in Underserved Areas of the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, César A; Michael, Marco Christian; Elvira, Sylvia Detri; Zakaria, Hazli; Kalayasiri, Rasmon; Adlan, Aida Syarinaz A; Moinalghorabaei, Mahdieh; Lukman, Petrin Redayani; San'ati, Mohammad; Duchonova, Katerina; Sullivan, Timothy B

    2018-06-01

    Psychodynamic psychiatry remains a challenging subject to teach in underserved areas, where enthusiasm to learn is substantial. Besides logistical and psychiatric workforce shortcomings, sensible cultural adaptations to make psychodynamic psychiatry relevant outside of high-income countries require creative effort. Innovative pedagogical methods that include carefully crafted mentoring and incorporate videoconferencing in combination with site visits can be implemented through international collaborations. Emphasis on mentoring is essential to adequately train future psychodynamic psychotherapy supervisors. Examples of World Psychiatric Association initiatives in countries such as Indonesia, Iran, Malaysia, and Thailand are presented as possible models to emulate elsewhere. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Distinguishing Hidden Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Kiefer, Stefan; Sistla, A. Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Hidden Markov Chains (HMCs) are commonly used mathematical models of probabilistic systems. They are employed in various fields such as speech recognition, signal processing, and biological sequence analysis. We consider the problem of distinguishing two given HMCs based on an observation sequence that one of the HMCs generates. More precisely, given two HMCs and an observation sequence, a distinguishing algorithm is expected to identify the HMC that generates the observation sequence. Two HM...

  14. Group Milieu in systemic and psychodynamic group therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, Marianne Engelbrecht

    Objectives: A recent meta-analysis also concluded that psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for adult with a history of CSA and maintained for at least six months follow-up. The results suggest that different characteristics of therapy moderate the therapeutic outcome. We found in a random......Objectives: A recent meta-analysis also concluded that psychotherapeutic approaches are beneficial for adult with a history of CSA and maintained for at least six months follow-up. The results suggest that different characteristics of therapy moderate the therapeutic outcome. We found....... Methods: This randomized prospective study included 106 women: 52 assigned to psychodynamic group psychotherapy and 54 assigned to systemic group psychotherapy. The Group Environment Scale (GES) was filled in the mid phase of therapy and analysed in three dimensions and 10 subscales. Results: The systemic...... subscales: Cohesion (pLeader support (p=0.001), Expressiveness (p

  15. Psychodynamic Emotional Regulation in View of Wolpe's Desensitization Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, Merav

    2016-01-01

    The current research belongs to the stream of theoretical integration and establishes a theoretical platform for integrative psychotherapy in anxiety disorders. Qualitative metasynthesis procedures were applied to 40 peer-reviewed psychoanalytic articles involving emotional regulation. The concept of psychodynamic emotional regulation was found to be connected with the categories of desensitization, gradual exposure, containment, and transference. This article presents a model according to which psychoanalytic psychotherapy allows anxiety to be tolerated while following the core principles of systematic desensitization. It is shown that despite the antiresearch image of psychoanalytic psychotherapy, its foundations obey evidence-based principles. The findings imply that anxiety tolerance might be a key goal in which the cumulative wisdom of the different therapies can be used to optimize psychotherapy outcomes.

  16. Drop-out from a psychodynamic group psychotherapy outpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-11-01

    BACKGROUND. Drop-out from psychotherapy is common and represents a considerable problem in clinical practice and research. Aim. To explore pre-treatment predictors of early and late drop-out from psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient unit for non-psychotic disorders in Denmark. Methods. Naturalistic design including 329 patients, the majority with mood, neurotic and personality disorders referred to 39-session group therapy. Predictors were socio-demographic and clinical variables, self-reported symptoms (Symptom Check List-90-Revised) and personality style (Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II). Drop-out was classified into early and late premature termination excluding patients who dropped out for external reasons. Results. Drop-out comprised 20.6% (68 patients) of the sample. Logistic regression revealed social functioning, vocational training, alcohol problems and antisocial behavior to be related to drop-out. However, early drop-outs had prominent agoraphobic symptoms, lower interpersonal sensitivity and compulsive personality features, and late drop-outs cognitive and somatic anxiety symptoms and antisocial personality features. Clinical and psychological variables accounted for the major part of variance in predictions of drop-out, which ranged from 15.6% to 19.5% (Nagelkerke Pseudo R-Square). Conclusion. Social functioning was consistently associated with drop-out, but personality characteristics and anxiety symptoms differentiated between early and late drop-out. Failure to discriminate between stages of premature termination may explain some of the inconsistencies in the drop-out literature. Clinical implications. Before selection of patients to time-limited psychodynamic groups, self-reported symptoms should be thoroughly considered. Patients with agoraphobic symptoms should be offered alternative treatment. Awareness of and motivation to work with interpersonal issues may be essential for compliance with group therapy.

  17. The role of cognitive biases in short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Ueli; Ortega, Diana; Ambresin, Gilles; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; de Roten, Yves

    2018-06-01

    The concept of biased thinking - or cognitive biases - is relevant to psychotherapy research and clinical conceptualization, beyond cognitive theories. The present naturalistic study aimed to examine the changes in biased thinking over the course of a short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and to discover potential links between these changes and symptomatic improvement. This study focuses on 32 self-referred patients consulting for Adjustment Disorder according to DSM-IV-TR. The therapists were experienced psychodynamically oriented psychiatrists and psychotherapists. Coding of cognitive biases (using the Cognitive Errors Rating Scale; CERS) was made by external raters based on transcripts of interviews of psychotherapy; the reliability of these ratings on a randomly chosen 24% of all sessions was established. Based on the Symptom Check List SCL-90-R given before and after, the Reliable Change Index (RCI) was used. The assessment of cognitive errors was done at three time points: early (session 4-7), mid-treatment (session 12-17), and close to the end (after session 20) of the treatment. The results showed that the total frequency of cognitive biases was stable over time (p = .20), which was true both for positive and for negative cognitive biases. In exploring the three main subscales of the CERS, we found a decrease in selective abstraction (p = .02) and an increase in personalization (p = .05). A significant link between RCI scores (outcome) and frequency of positive cognitive biases was found, suggesting that biases towards the positive might have a protective function in psychotherapy. Therapists may be attentive to changes in biased thinking across short-term dynamic psychotherapy for adjustment disorder. Therapists may foster the emergence of positive cognitive biases at mid-treatment for adjustment disorder. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  18. Psychodynamic psychotherapy, religious beliefs, and self-disclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, J G

    1998-01-01

    The intersection of psychodynamic psychotherapy and religious beliefs may present technical challenges for the psychotherapists; particularly if patients request to know more about the therapist's religious beliefs. Contrary to a recent technical recommendation for therapists to self-disclose personal religious beliefs when asked to do so, I suggest that such a request is complex and requires a thoughtful grounding in psychotherapeutic theory. Disclosing personal beliefs to patients runs the risk of being off-task as well as holding oneself out as an exemplar for the patient. Rather than adopt a formulaic response to requests for information, to deepen the understanding of the patient and the work of therapy, the therapist needs a complex understanding based on a careful diagnostic assessment of the patient, as well as an assessment of the current status of the psychotherapeutic venture. The workings of patients' particular transferences are often evident in requests for personal information and require careful evaluation and consideration. Likewise, countertransference elements may influence the type of response offered by the therapist. Using ethical principles as a guide is different from using them as a rule. The nexus of religious belief, psychosocial context, psychotherapy, and self-disclosure provides a potentially rich source of understanding when explored in the psychotherapeutic situation.

  19. Treatment resistance and psychodynamic psychiatry: concepts psychiatry needs from psychoanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Over the last 30 years psychiatry and psychoanalysis have moved in substantially divergent directions. Psychiatry has become rich in methodology but conceptually limited, with a drift toward biological reductionism. Psychoanalysis has remained relatively limited in methodology, but conceptually rich. The rich methodology of psychiatry has led to major contributions in discovering gene by environment interactions, the importance of early adversity, and to recognition of the serious problem posed by treatment resistance. However, psychiatry's biologically reductionistic conceptual focus interferes with the development of a nuanced clinical perspective based on emerging knowledge that might help more treatment resistant patients become treatment responders. This article argues that recognition of the problem of treatment resistance in psychiatry creates a need for it to reconnect with the conceptual richness of psychoanalysis in order to improve patient care. Psychodynamic psychiatry is defined as the relevant intersection of psychiatry and psychoanalysis where this reconnection can occur. I will suggest selected aspects of psychoanalysis that are especially relevant to psychiatry in improving outcomes in work with treatment resistant patients.

  20. Effectiveness of short-term psychodynamic group therapy in a public outpatient psychotherapy unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Short-term psychodynamic group therapy in heterogeneous patient groups is common in the public Danish psychiatric system but is in need of evaluation. AIM: To investigate improvement in 39-session psychodynamic group therapy using three criteria: 1) effect size (Cohen's d), 2...... compared with Danish norms. Clinical implications: Patients referred to public outpatient treatment settings may need alternative or longer treatment than 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy over 3 months.......) and subscales. Analyses were conducted on the total sample and after exclusion of 32 GSI pre-treatment no-cases. RESULTS: The total sample GSI effect size was 0.74 indicating a moderate to large effect size (ranging from 0.67 in depressed to 0.74 in neurotic and personality disorder patients), which increased...

  1. The place of psychodynamic psychotherapy in the integrated treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and trauma recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Eric

    2009-06-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapists treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) sufferers can draw on an accumulated body of trauma studies from their own field to guide their work. However, these reports, often based on case studies or conceptual reviews, do not have the same empirical conclusiveness as more recent evidence-based research demonstrating the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral and body-oriented therapies. In this article, a psychodynamic psychotherapist reflects on his treatment of an Israeli man who developed PTSD after enduring 4 terrorist attacks. The author shows how assimilative integration offered him a theory- and research-based model that helped him comfortably combine separate treatment interventions. He also shows how this model helped him locate with some precision the specific contribution of psychodynamic psychotherapy. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Reviving and Refining Psychodynamic Interpretation of the Wechsler Intelligence Tests: The Verbal Comprehension Subtests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bram, Anthony D

    2017-01-01

    The Wechsler intelligence tests (currently Wechsler, 2008 , 2014) have traditionally been part of the multimethod test battery favored by psychodynamically oriented assessors. In this tradition, assessors have used Wechsler data to make inferences about personality that transcend cognition. Recent trends in clinical psychology, however, have deemphasized this psychodynamic way of working. In this article, I make a conceptual and clinical case for reviving and refining a psychodynamic approach to inference making about personality using the Wechsler Verbal Comprehension subtests. Specifically, I (a) describe the psychological and environmental conditions sampled by the Wechsler tests, (b) discuss the Wechsler tests conceptually in terms of assessing vulnerability to breakdowns in adaptive defensive functioning, (c) review a general framework for inference making, and (d) offer considerations for and illustrate pragmatic application of the Verbal Comprehension subtests data to make inferences that help answer referral questions and have important treatment implications.

  3. Psychodynamic experience enhances recognition of hidden childhood trauma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cohen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental psychology has only recently provided supporting evidence for Freud's and Janet's description of unconscious phenomena. Here, we aimed to assess whether specific abilities, such as personal psychodynamic experience, enhance the ability to recognize unconscious phenomena in peers - in other words, to better detect implicit knowledge related to individual self-experience. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: First, we collected 14 videos from seven healthy adults who had experienced a sibling's cancer during childhood and seven matched controls. Subjects and controls were asked to give a 5-minute spontaneous free-associating speech following specific instructions created in order to activate a buffer zone between fantasy and reality. Then, 18 raters (three psychoanalysts, six medical students, three oncologists, three cognitive behavioral therapists and three individuals with the same experience of trauma were randomly shown the videos and asked to blindly classify them according to whether the speaker had a sibling with cancer using a Likert scale. Using a permutation test, we found a significant association between group and recognition score (ANOVA: p = .0006. Psychoanalysts were able to recognize, above chance levels, healthy adults who had experienced sibling cancer during childhood without explicit knowledge of this history (Power = 88%; p = .002. In contrast, medical students, oncologists, cognitive behavioral therapists and individuals who had the same history of a sibling's cancer were unable to do so. CONCLUSION: This experiment supports the view that implicit recognition of a subject's history depends on the rater's specific abilities. In the case of subjects who did have a sibling with cancer during childhood, psychoanalysts appear better able to recognize this particular history.

  4. A Substance Called Food: Long-Term Psychodynamic Group Treatment for Compulsive Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Deborah C; Nickow, Marcia S; Arseneau, Ric; Gisslow, Mary T

    2015-07-01

    Obesity has proven difficult to treat. Many approaches neglect to address the deep-rooted underlying psychological issues. This paper describes a psychodynamically oriented approach to treating compulsive overeating as an addiction. Common to all addictions is a compulsion to consume a substance or engage in a behavior, a preoccupation with using behavior and rituals, and a lifestyle marked by an inability to manage the behavior and its harmful consequences. The approach represents a shift away from primarily medical models of intervention to integrated models focusing on the psychological underpinnings of obesity. Long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy is recommended as a primary treatment.

  5. Clouds and silver linings: training experiences of psychodynamically oriented mental health trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouff, L C

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the experiences of today's psychodynamically oriented mental health trainees. Recent changes in the training environment, such as the increase in managed care, rise in use of psychotropic medication, the waning popularity of psychodynamic thinking, and reduced funding for psychotherapy training, in general, have all affected current trainees' professional development. In particular, trainees struggle with problems of demoralization, professional isolation, and reduced financial opportunities. Advantages that current trainees experience, as well as suggestions for training directors and trainees, will also be discussed.

  6. The Overall Diagnosis: Psychodynamic Psychiatry, Six-Minute Psychotherapy, and Patient-Centered Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Elizabeth; Mintz, David

    2018-06-01

    Optimal patient care in psychiatry necessitates attention to the treatment relationship and to the patient's experience as an individual. The growth of patient-centered medicine has led to an increased appreciation of the importance of the biopsychosocial formulation, the personhood of both the patient and the physician, the autonomy and authority of the patient, and the therapeutic alliance. Patient-centered medicine, developed by the seminal psychoanalytic theorist Michael Balint, has its roots in psychodynamic concepts. A psychodynamic approach to psychopharmacology improves psychiatric prescribing, and guides the psychiatrist in providing brief, limited psychotherapy, similar to that which the Balints recommended in primary care practice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy versus treatment as usual for first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Bent; Harder, Susanne; Knudsen, Per

    2012-01-01

    manualized individual supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy (SPP) in addition to treatment as usual or with treatment as usual alone (TaU). Symptoms and functional outcomes were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning scale (GAF). The study.......000) and GAF(symptom) (p = 0.010) significantly favored SPP in combination with TaU over TaU alone. In spite of limitations, this study speaks in favor of including supportive psychodynamic psychotherapy in the treatment for patients with schizophrenic first-episode psychoses....

  8. Characterizing locally distinguishable orthogonal product states

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Yuan; Shi, Yaoyun

    2007-01-01

    Bennett et al. \\cite{BDF+99} identified a set of orthogonal {\\em product} states in the $3\\otimes 3$ Hilbert space such that reliably distinguishing those states requires non-local quantum operations. While more examples have been found for this counter-intuitive ``nonlocality without entanglement'' phenomenon, a complete and computationally verifiable characterization for all such sets of states remains unknown. In this Letter, we give such a characterization for the $3\\otimes 3$ space.

  9. ALARA/ALARP distinguished

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, P.

    1992-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the term ALARA, ''as low as reasonably achievable'' and the term ALARP ''as low as reasonably practicable'' are used in regulations, in conditions in licenses, in assessment principles and in guidance notes used in the nuclear industry. In fact the ALARA principle is a cornerstone on which much of radiation protection regulation is based. The words ''reasonably practicable'' in ALARP have an established meaning in UK law and are used extensively in statutes and regulations, in particular The Health and Safety Act 1974. The Select Committee of the House of Lords on the European Communities in 1986 concluded that public opinion will play a much larger part in deciding the future of nuclear power than is usual with questions of science and technology. Under the circumstances it is important to industry and the general public for the terms used in legislation to be clear and unambiguous. This paper by distinguishing the terms ALARA/ALARP, sets the scene for a more disciplined use of the terms. (author)

  10. Psychodynamic Milieu-Therapy and Changes in Personality--What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heede, Tine; Runge, Hanne; Storebo, Ole Jakob; Rowley, Eva; Hansen, Kim Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    This article refers to the results of a prospective effect evaluation study of three psychodynamic milieu-therapeutic institutions for children, which included cognitive and projective testing. After introducing milieu-therapy and explaining its roots in psychoanalytic and developmental thinking, the specific results of the research evaluation are…

  11. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight into how social and cultural dynamics are…

  12. Psychodynamic psychotherapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social anxiety disorder: An efficacy and partial effectiveness trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bögels, S.M.; Wijts, P.; Oort, F.J.; Sallaerts, S.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Comparing the overall and differential effects of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT) versus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for social anxiety disorder (SAD). Design: Patients with a primary SAD (N = 47) were randomly assigned to PDT (N = 22) or CBT (N = 27). Both PDT and CBT consisted

  13. Tracking functional brain changes in patients with depression under psychodynamic psychotherapy using individualized stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Wiswede

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Neurobiological models of depression posit limbic hyperactivity that should normalize after successful treatment. For psychotherapy, though, brain changes in patients with depression show substantial variability. Two critical issues in relevant studies concern the use of unspecific stimulation experiments and relatively short treatment protocols. Therefore changes in brain reactions to individualized stimuli were studied in patients with depression after eight months of psychodynamic psychotherapy. METHODS: 18 unmedicated patients with recurrent major depressive disorder were confronted with individualized and clinically derived content in a functional MRI experiment before (T1 and after eight months (T2 of psychodynamic therapy. A control group of 17 healthy subjects was also tested twice without intervention. The experimental stimuli were sentences describing each participant's dysfunctional interpersonal relationship patterns derived from clinical interviews based on Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics (OPD. RESULTS: At T1 patients showed enhanced activation compared to controls in several limbic and subcortical regions, including amygdala and basal ganglia, when confronted with OPD sentences. At T2 the differences in brain activity between patients and controls were no longer apparent. Concurrently, patients had improved significantly in depression scores. CONCLUSIONS: Using ecologically valid stimuli, this study supports the model of limbic hyperactivity in depression that normalizes after treatment. Without a control group of untreated patients measured twice, though, changes in patients' brain activity could also be attributed to other factors than psychodynamic therapy.

  14. Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ben; Turner, William

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of psychoanalytic/psychodynamic psychotherapy for children and adolescents who have been sexually abused. Method: The Cochrane Collaboration's criteria for data synthesis and study quality assessment were used. Electronic bibliographic databases and web searches were used to identify randomized and…

  15. Don't Leave Teaching to Chance: Learning Objectives for Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Arbuckle, Melissa; Cabaniss, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The way in which the competencies for psychodynamic psychotherapy specified by the Psychiatry Residency Review Committee of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education translate into the day-to-day work of individual supervision remains unstudied and unspecified. The authors hypothesized that despite the existence of…

  16. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight...... are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator....

  17. A Psychodynamic Perspective of Workplace Bullying: Containment, Boundaries and a Futile Search for Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sheila

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a psychodynamic perspective of workplace bullying. It focuses on two related psychoanalytical concepts, containment and boundaries. The life cycle theory of bullying builds on these concepts and describes in-depth the evolving relationship between a bully and a victim. The search for recognition by the bully and victim proves…

  18. A Pilot Use of Team-Based Learning in Psychiatry Resident Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touchet, Bryan K.; Coon, Kim A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Demonstrating psychotherapy competency in trainees will test the resources of psychiatry training programs. The authors outline the phases of team-based learning (TBL). Methods: The University of Oklahoma College of Medicine, Tulsa (OUCM-T), Department of Psychiatry reorganized its psychodynamic psychotherapy didactic course using TBL.…

  19. Missing outcome data in a naturalistic psychodynamic group therapy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2017-01-01

    might have had a reliable improvement in GSI. The SPSS standard statistical imputations procedure estimated that 48.6% of the patients reliably improved in GSI, and 50.2% when therapist evaluations were not included. It is concluded that therapist evaluations are essential in order to avoid bias...

  20. [Psychodynamic and forensic approach of constitutional mythomania: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Thabet, J; Zouari, N; Charfeddine, F; Zouari, L; Maâlej, M

    2012-12-01

    Constitutional mythomania presents several diagnostic, aetiopathogenic and forensic problems for the doctor. We have discussed these aspects through the analysis of a case report. The case report relates to a 43 year-old man, who was subjected to a penal expertise following the emission of cheques without provision. During the examination, he pretended being both a doctor and a lawyer at the same time. He was in charge, among other things, of sale contracts dealing sometimes with high value transactions, obviously without following the required legal procedure. He was pursued subsequently for many other affairs of swindle. Data collected from his medical file indicated that he was the only boy of his family. Since his father had suffered from psychotic episodes, his grandfather had reared him; which he did it in a strictly religious way. He spent his childhood isolated. He was 15 years old when his grandfather died. He had then expressed religious and megalomaniac ideas that had motivated psychiatric management. Later on, he expressed imaginative ideas evoking unsystematized delusion (he pretended to have made a trip to America and to have seen a fish flying and turning into a woman). From a psychodynamic point of view, constitutional mythomania is considered as a borderline personality. It reflects an important narcissisic cleavage. The deceitfulness of the mythomaniac allows him to keep in touch with reality and to avoid mental disintegration. The recognition, by others, of these delusions allows the mythomaniac to have access to his proper level of existence. For a while, to the experts our patient appeared to be suffering from schizophrenia. Therefore, we can apply the Maleval theory to him, which identifies four periods as delusion structuring levels in psychosis : P0 (consequence of the phallic signification deficiency, it includes anxiety, annihilation, perplexity, interrogative attitude), P1 (stage of paranoid delusion), P2 (stage of paranoiac delusion

  1. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies versus 'treatment as usual' in patients with major depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Simonsen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies may be effective interventions for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment...

  2. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  3. Examining the therapeutic relationship and confronting resistances in psychodynamic psychotherapy: a certified public accountant case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manetta, Christopher T; Gentile, Julie P; Gillig, Paulette Marie

    2011-05-01

    Psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective for a variety of mental health symptoms. This form of psychotherapy uses patient self reflection and self examination, as well as the therapeutic relationship between the patient and psychiatrist, to explore maladaptive coping strategies and relationship patterns of the patient. A thorough understanding of resistance and the core conflictual relationship theme afford the psychiatrist the ability to facilitate this work. In this article, the composite case illustrates some of the psychodynamic psychotherapy techniques that can be employed in a psychotherapy case. In this example, the case is about a certified public accountant that came to treatment because of an acute stressor that put her career goals at risk. An acute episode or event can bring to light chronic and ongoing symptoms, which have had a remitting and relapsing course, and leave the patient unable to compensate on his or her own.

  4. Integrated cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic psychotherapy for intimate partner violent men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David M; Kellam, Melanie; Quinn, Jamie; Malnar, Stevie G

    2012-06-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) continue to have widespread negative effects on victims, children who witness IPV, and perpetrators. Current treatments have proven to be only marginally effective in stopping or reducing IPV by men. The two most prominent treatment approaches are feminist sociocultural and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). The feminist sociocultural approach has been criticized for failing to adequately consider the therapeutic alliance, personality factors, and sole focus on patriarchy as the cause for IPV, whereas CBT has been criticized for failing to attend to motivation issues in treatment protocols. This article reviews the effectiveness of current treatments for partner-violent men, examines relationship and personality variables related to IPV and its treatment, and presents an emerging IPV treatment model that combines CBT and psychodynamic therapy. The article addresses how psychodynamic therapy is integrated into the more content-based elements of CBT. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Affect-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression and anxiety through the Internet: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Johansson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a psychological treatment approach that has a growing empirical base. Research has indicated an association between therapist-facilitated affective experience and outcome in psychodynamic therapy. Affect-phobia therapy (APT, as outlined by McCullough et al., is a psychodynamic treatment that emphasizes a strong focus on expression and experience of affect. This model has neither been evaluated for depression nor anxiety disorders in a randomized controlled trial. While Internet-delivered psychodynamic treatments for depression and generalized anxiety disorder exist, they have not been based on APT. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the efficacy of an Internet-based, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT for depression and anxiety disorders.Methods. One hundred participants with diagnoses of mood and anxiety disorders participated in a randomized (1:1 ratio controlled trial of an active group versus a control condition. The treatment group received a 10-week, psychodynamic, guided self-help treatment based on APT that was delivered through the Internet. The treatment consisted of eight text-based treatment modules and included therapist contact (9.5 min per client and week, on average in a secure online environment. Participants in the control group also received online therapist support and clinical monitoring of symptoms, but received no treatment modules. Outcome measures were the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale (PHQ-9 and the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7. Process measures were also included. All measures were administered weekly during the treatment period and at a 7-month follow-up.Results. Mixed models analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed significant interaction effects of group and time on all outcome measures, when comparing treatment to the control group. A large between-group effect size

  6. [Psychotherapy of patients with brain lesions: an integrative model based on neuropsychological and psychodynamic perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouss-Ryngaert, Lisa

    2010-12-01

    Our model of psychotherapy for patients with brain lesions is based on an integrative approach of psychobehavioral symptoms, especially from the neuropsychological and psychodynamic perspectives. Adjustment of technical modalities and aims of psychoanalytical therapy is required for these patients. The analysis of the influence of cognitive disorders on transference and contre-transference plays a major role, including the role of procedural processes in changes in the intersubjective relationship between the patient and the therapist. Two vignettes are presented to illustrate our model, which respects the integrity of the cognitive and psychodynamic approaches and can be implemented by only one therapist, using alternatively each lecture, or by a working team bringing to light the different aspects of the same symptom.

  7. A psychodynamic model of behavior after acute central nervous system damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groswasser, Z; Stern, M J

    1998-02-01

    This article describes a conceptual psychodynamic model for understanding the neurobehavioral manifestations of acute central nervous system damage (ACNSD) displayed by patients during the rehabilitation process. According to the proposed model, patientsO behavioral responses are viewed as their only means of emotional expression and therefore may not be considered entirely abnormal when viewed from the perspective of patientsO interpersonal contexts. An improved understanding of the dynamic processes through which recovering patients with ACNSD journey may lead to better interaction between the patient and the therapeutic environment, the interdisciplinary team, and family members. Combining this proposed psychodynamic model with an emerging understanding of the neurobehavioral foundations of aggression and depression may also lead to a more rational approach to intervention with various psychopharmacologic agents. During the rehabilitation process, understanding patients' cognitive deficits, motivational drives, and emotional needs and proper implementation of medical and environmental treatment can ultimately lead to a better psychosocial outcome.

  8. Psychodynamics in child psychiatry in Sweden, 1945-85: from political vision to treatment ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Karin Zetterqvist; Sandin, Bengt

    2013-09-01

    In this article, changing treatment ideologies and policies in child psychiatric outpatient services in Sweden from 1945 to 1985 are examined. The aim is to discuss the role played by psychoanalytic and psychodynamic thinking in this process of change. When mental health services for children were introduced in the mid-1940s, psychoanalytic thinking was intertwined with the social democratic vision of the Swedish welfare state in which children symbolized the future. In practice, however, treatment ideology was initially less influenced by psychoanalytic thinking. From the early 1960s, child psychiatric services expanded and the number of units increased. By then, the political vision had disappeared, but a treatment ideology began to evolve based on psychodynamic theories, which became dominant in the 1970s.

  9. From classical to eclectic psychodrama: conceptual similarities between psychodrama and psychodynamic and interpersonal group treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipper, David A; Matsumoto, Mia

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to explore the hypothesis that contemporary U.S. psychodramatists evince a shift from strict adherence to the conceptual frame of reference espoused by classical psychodrama toward a degree of sharing concepts with those valued by psychodynamic and interpersonal group therapists. Sixty-two senior psychodramatists ranked a form comprised of 44 concepts. Their rankings were compared to the results of a study by Dies (1992). In general, the results supported the hypothesis.

  10. Heterogeneity of treatment changes after psychodynamic therapy within a one year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Naturalistic psychotherapy effect studies commonly report effect sizes for the total sample. However, a previous study of SCL-90 Global Severity Index (GSI) improvement in a large outpatient sample used a cluster analytic strategy and reported clinical relevant outcome trajectories that could...... and agoraphobic symptoms may be less optimally treated in short-term time limited psychodynamic groups. There is an obvious need for diversity of treatment offers, better integration of psycho-social treatment components, and long-term open ended treatment....

  11. Comparing Psychodynamic Teaching, Supervision, and Psychotherapy Over Videoconferencing Technology with Chinese Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Robert M; Wang, Xiubing; Tune, Jane

    2015-12-01

    How do experts compare teaching, supervision, and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive over the Internet with in-person work? Our methodology was based on the expert opinions of 176 teachers, supervisors, and therapists in the China American Psychoanalytic Alliance (CAPA) who use videoconferencing (VCON) with Chinese students. The results from our online survey indicate: (1), The longer teachers teach, the more effective they rate teaching over VCON; (2), Teaching, supervision, and treatment were all rated in the range of "slightly less effective" than in-person, with supervision rated significantly more effective than teaching and treatment over VCON; (3), When doing psychodynamic treatment over VCON the issues of symptom reduction, exploring mental life, working on transference, relational problems, resistance, privacy issues, countertransference, are all equally rated in the range of "slightly less effective" than in-person treatment; (4), The highest significantly rated indications for treatment over VCON are: "To offer high quality treatment to underserved or remote patients" and "When patient is house-bound or travel would be impractical"; and (5), The highest significantly rated contraindication for treatment over VCON is: "Patient needs close observation due to crisis or decompensation." Overall, this survey suggests that VCON teaching, supervision, and treatment from a psychodynamic perceptive is a worthwhile option when considering its unique contribution to extending services where needed.

  12. Psychodynamic psychotherapy for social phobia: a treatment manual based on supportive-expressive therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichsenring, Falk; Beutel, Manfred; Leibing, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Social phobia is a very frequent mental disorder characterized by an early onset, a chronic unremitting course, severe psychosocial impairments and high socioeconomic costs. To date, no manual for the psychodynamic treatment of social phobia exists. After a brief description of the disorder, a manual for a short-term psychodynamic treatment of social phobia is presented. The treatment is based on Luborsky s supportive-expressive (SE) therapy, which is complemented by treatment elements specific to social phobia. The treatment includes the characteristic elements of SE therapy, that is, setting goals, focus on the Core Conflictual Relationship Theme (CCRT) associated with the patient s symptoms, interpretive interventions to enhance insight into the CCRT, and supportive interventions, in particular fostering a helping alliance. In order to tailor the treatment more specifically to social phobia, treatment elements have been added, for example informing the patient about the disorder and the treatment, a specific focus on shame and on unrealistic demands, and encouraging the patient to confront anxiety-producing situations. More directive interventions are included as well, such as specific prescriptions to stop persisting self-devaluations. The treatment manual is presently being used in a large-scale randomized controlled multicenter study comparing short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy in the treatment of social phobia.

  13. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies versus 'treatment as usual' in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2011-04-27

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies may be effective interventions for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. Cochrane systematic review methodology with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized trials comparing the effect of psychodynamic therapies versus 'treatment as usual' for major depressive disorder. To be included the participants had to be older than 17 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Altogether, we included six trials randomizing a total of 648 participants. Five trials assessed 'interpersonal psychotherapy' and only one trial assessed 'psychodynamic psychotherapy'. All six trials had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis on all six trials showed that the psychodynamic interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (mean difference -3.12 (95% confidence interval -4.39 to -1.86;Pinterpersonal psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy compared with 'treatment as usual' for patients with major depressive disorder. The potential beneficial effect seems small and effects on major outcomes are unknown. Randomized trials with low risk of systematic errors and low risk of random errors are needed.

  14. The effect of interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies versus 'treatment as usual' in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janus Christian Jakobsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies may be effective interventions for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cochrane systematic review methodology with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized trials comparing the effect of psychodynamic therapies versus 'treatment as usual' for major depressive disorder. To be included the participants had to be older than 17 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Altogether, we included six trials randomizing a total of 648 participants. Five trials assessed 'interpersonal psychotherapy' and only one trial assessed 'psychodynamic psychotherapy'. All six trials had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis on all six trials showed that the psychodynamic interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (mean difference -3.12 (95% confidence interval -4.39 to -1.86;P<0.00001, no heterogeneity compared with 'treatment as usual'. Trial sequential analysis confirmed this result. DISCUSSION: We did not find convincing evidence supporting or refuting the effect of interpersonal psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy compared with 'treatment as usual' for patients with major depressive disorder. The potential beneficial effect seems small and effects on major outcomes are unknown. Randomized trials with low risk of systematic errors and low risk of random errors are needed.

  15. Method for distinguishing fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagami, Masaharu; Kurihara, Kunitoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To distinguish correctly and efficiently the kind of fuel substance enclosed in a cladding tube. Method: Elements such as manganess 55, copper 65, vanadium 51, zinc 64, scandium 45 and the like, each having a large neutron absorption cross section and discharging gamma rays of inherent bright line spectra are applied to or mixed in fuel pellets of different kinds in uranium enrichment degree, plutonium concentration, burnable poison concentration or the like. These fuel rods are irradiated with neutron beams, and energy spectra of gamma rays discharged upon this occasion are observed to carry out distinguishing of fuel pellets. (Aizawa, K.)

  16. Psychological experiences in South African society before the 2010 FIFA World Cup from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Koortzen

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to analyse and describe the psychological experiences of South Africans before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Research design, approach and method: The researchers conducted the study from the systems psychodynamic and positive psychology perspectives. The study comprised a qualitative, explorative and social phenomenological study. The researchers conducted interviews with a wide range of their colleagues and clients. Main findings: The results seemed to indicate that South Africans had had a number of positive and negative experiences before the 2010 FIFA World Cup. Practical/managerial implications: The researchers presented the findings as a number of systems psychodynamic and positive psychology themes. Contribution/value-add: This study presents original research that contributes valuable new knowledge to the positive psychology and systems psychodynamic perspectives.

  17. Changes in brain activity of somatoform disorder patients during emotional empathy after multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greck, Moritz; Bölter, Annette F.; Lehmann, Lisa; Ulrich, Cornelia; Stockum, Eva; Enzi, Björn; Hoffmann, Thilo; Tempelmann, Claus; Beutel, Manfred; Frommer, Jörg; Northoff, Georg

    2013-01-01

    Somatoform disorder patients show a variety of emotional disturbances including impaired emotion recognition and increased empathic distress. In a previous paper, our group showed that several brain regions involved in emotional processing, such as the parahippocampal gyrus and other regions, were less activated in pre-treatment somatoform disorder patients (compared to healthy controls) during an empathy task. Since the parahippocampal gyrus is involved in emotional memory, its decreased activation might reflect the repression of emotional memories (which—according to psychoanalytical concepts—plays an important role in somatoform disorder). Psychodynamic psychotherapy aims at increasing the understanding of emotional conflicts as well as uncovering repressed emotions. We were interested, whether brain activity in the parahippocampal gyrus normalized after (inpatient) multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy. Using fMRI, subjects were scanned while they shared the emotional states of presented facial stimuli expressing anger, disgust, joy, and a neutral expression; distorted stimuli with unrecognizable content served as control condition. 15 somatoform disorder patients were scanned twice, pre and post multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy; in addition, 15 age-matched healthy control subjects were investigated. Effects of psychotherapy on hemodynamic responses were analyzed implementing two approaches: (1) an a priori region of interest approach and (2) a voxelwise whole brain analysis. Both analyses revealed increased hemodynamic responses in the left and right parahippocampal gyrus (and other regions) after multimodal psychotherapy in the contrast “empathy with anger”—“control.” Our results are in line with psychoanalytical concepts about somatoform disorder. They suggest the parahippocampal gyrus is crucially involved in the neurobiological mechanisms which underly the emotional deficits of somatoform disorder patients. PMID:23966922

  18. Exploring the meaning of trauma in the South African Police Service: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This study explores individual stories of trauma and their dissonance with the official, dominant discourse on trauma in the South African Police Service (SAPS from a systems psychodynamic perspective.Research purpose: The purpose of the research was, firstly, to explore how trauma experienced by South African Police Service members is constructed or ‘talked about’ and made sense of. Questions and issues that are considered relevant to the primary purpose are: which aspects of the working environment do members consider to be the most stressful, traumatic and difficult to cope with, and what is the effect of the change and transition processes on members’ working experiences?Motivation for the study: The authors set out to explore the role of systems psychodynamics in the experience of trauma and stress in the SAPS.Research design, approach and method: Through this qualitative, explorative, social phenomenological study, contributing circumstances and processes are included as additional discourses in an attempt to deepen understanding. The epistemology viewpoint of the study is found in the social constructionism and the data comprise 15 essays by members of the SAPS, all of which have been analysed from the perspective of systems psychodynamics.Main findings: Although the effect of trauma on police officers can never be negated, the way in which they deal with trauma seems to be different from what was initially believed. Further, their experience of stress is not solely the result of traumatic experiences but rather the result of traumatic experiences and systems psychodynamics operating within their organisation – which includes both organisational stressors or dynamics and transformation dynamics.Practical/managerial implications: The history of psychological trauma indicates that constructions of traumatic stress are strongly related to cultural, social and political circumstances. Current psychoanalytic thinking

  19. Linguistic measures of the referential process in psychodynamic treatment: the English and Italian versions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Rachele; Maskit, Bernard; Bucci, Wilma; De Coro, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    The referential process is defined in the context of Bucci's multiple code theory as the process by which nonverbal experience is connected to language. The English computerized measures of the referential process, which have been applied in psychotherapy research, include the Weighted Referential Activity Dictionary (WRAD), and measures of Reflection, Affect and Disfluency. This paper presents the development of the Italian version of the IWRAD by modeling Italian texts scored by judges, and shows the application of the IWRAD and other Italian measures in three psychodynamic treatments evaluated for personality change using the Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure (SWAP-200). Clinical predictions based on applications of the English measures were supported.

  20. Guidelines for Individual and Group Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Persons Diagnosed with Psychosis and/or Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivezić, Slađana Štrkalj; Petrović, Branka Restek; Urlić, Ivan; Grah, Majda; Mayer, Nina; Stijačić, Dubravka; Jendričko, Tihana; Martić-Biočina, Sanja

    2017-09-01

    The hereby presented guidelines for the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy are based on references and research in the field of individual and group therapy and they refer to psychotherapy for patients suffering from the first psychotic episode, schizophrenia, schizoaffective psychosis, bipolar disorder and paranoid psychosis. The aim was to provide an overview of present literature and to give recommendations based on current knowledge. Clinical experience and research of the outcomes of psychodynamic psychotherapy encourage positioning of such treatments among recommendations for treating various mental disorders, as well as in the field of psychotherapy of patients with psychotic disorders (PD).

  1. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  2. [The significance of psychodynamic relationship factors for psychopathogenesis in childhood Nazi persecution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunk, D; Eggers, C

    1993-02-01

    This study focuses on psychiatric disorders following extreme traumatisation experienced by children born during the Holocaust in World War II. According to numerous epidemiological investigations and case studies on survivors who lived through the Holocaust as children or in adulthood, these traumatic experiences are associated with a higher risk for various psychiatric disturbances during the entire life span. Besides the extreme psychological and physical distress during persecution and following traumatisation (parent-child-separation, discrimination while living in other countries) the coping with the trauma and the development of autonomy and ego-strength is additionally impaired by the specific psychodynamics of families with psychologically altered and disturbed parents. What sort of psychodynamic parent-child relationships developed during traumatisation and after the war in subjects currently suffering from chronic impairment of mental health? Retrospective analysis of 22 cases with applications for pensions of invalids evaluated by diagnostic categories. The implicit pressure on the children to be sensitive to the needs of their deprived parents places a sense of guilt on their attempts to develop autonomy. The parents were experienced as restrictive or overprotective on the one hand or liable to be rejected or to be intolerant on the other. The suffering and trauma continues to be perceived in family communication to the extent that coping with loss of relatives and the development of independence are impaired. The results are discussed critically in terms of current procedures for expertise on pension applications.

  3. Exploring the development of an organisational culture of control and dependency from a systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René van Eeden

    2010-05-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this research was to study the impact of the change process at a plant of a South African production company. Motivations for the study: Problems were experienced in terms of production and a need for transformation at different levels was expressed. Co-dependence in the environment necessitated exploration of intra-organisational dynamics. Research design, approach and method: The study focused on the management team at a specifc plant, but by applying the systems psychodynamic perspective it was possible to also explore the mutual effect of relationships with other systems in the organisation, the company as a whole and the environment. Respondents included the directors of manufacturing and of human resources, the general manager, an 11-member management team and staff representatives. Semi-structured one-to-one interviews, group interviews and a group consultation session were held. Main findings: Hypotheses were formulated regarding the change experienced in the company, the overemphasis of control in the various systems, efforts to move from dependency to interdependence, personal authority as a requirement for interdependent functioning and problems with interrelatedness. Practical/managerial implications: The study illustrates the application of the systems psychodynamic approach in exploring the interaction between and mutual infuence of various organisational systems, especially in times of change. Contribution/value add: At a broader level, the study contributes to the understanding of the application of the theory as well as suggesting the use of a methodology. Recommendations for an intervention of this nature were also made.

  4. A proposed model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Zelda Gillian

    2017-09-01

    Just as Freud used stages of psychosexual development to ground his model of psychoanalysis, it is possible to do the same with Erik Erikson's stages of development with regards to a model of psychodynamic psychotherapy. This paper proposes an eight-stage model of psychodynamic psychotherapy linked to Erik Erikson's eight stages of psychosocial development. Various suggestions are offered. One such suggestion is that as each of Erikson's developmental stages is triggered by a crisis, in therapy it is triggered by the client's search. The resolution of the search often leads to the development of another search, which implies that the therapy process comprises a series of searches. This idea of a series of searches and resolutions leads to the understanding that identity is developmental and therapy is a space in which a new sense of identity may emerge. The notion of hope is linked to Erikson's stage of Basic Trust and the proposed model of therapy views hope and trust as essential for the therapy process. Two clinical vignettes are offered to illustrate these ideas. Psychotherapy can be approached as an eight-stage process and linked to Erikson's eight stages model of development. Psychotherapy may be viewed as a series of searches and thus as a developmental stage resolution process, which leads to the understanding that identity is ongoing throughout the life span. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Outpatient psychodynamic group psychotherapy - outcomes related to personality disorder, severity, age and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvarstein, Elfrida Hartveit; Nordviste, Ola; Dragland, Lone; Wilberg, Theresa

    2017-02-01

    Outpatient group psychotherapy is frequent within specialist services, recruits a mixed population, but effects are poorly documented. This study investigates long-term outcomes for patients with personality disorder (PD) treated in outpatient, psychodynamic groups within secondary mental health service. A naturalistic study (N = 103) with repeated assessments of process and clinical outcomes. Longitudinal statistics are linear mixed models. The main PDs were avoidant, borderline and NOS PD, mean number of PDs 1.4(SD0.7), 60% females and mean initial age 38(SD10) years. Mean treatment duration was 1.5(SD 0.9) years. Therapist alliance and experienced group climate was satisfactory and stable. Improvements were significant (symptom distress, interpersonal problems, occupational functioning and additional mental health services), irrespective of general PD-severity, but not of PD-type, age or gender. The study demonstrates PD NOS benefits across all outcomes, occupational improvements for avoidant PD, despite prevailing symptoms, but generally poorer outcomes for males and age >38 years. For borderline PD, experienced conflict was stronger, treatment duration shorter and outcomes poor for early drop-outs (28%). Psychodynamic group psychotherapy is a recommendable treatment for moderate PDs, which may address avoidant strategies, but may not meet clinical challenges of borderline PD. The outcome differences related to gender and age are noteworthy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The association between retrospective outcome evaluations and pre-post-treatment changes in psychodynamic group-psychotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    In the present study of 203 patients in psychodynamic group psychotherapy, we explore associations between patient and therapist global retrospective outcome evaluations (ROE), and pre-post-treatment changes on the Symptom Check List 90 Revised (SCL-90-R) and non-symptomatic focus of therapy. The......, and associated with personality factors or domains not captured by standard questionnaires....

  7. A Neural Systems-Based Neurobiology and Neuropsychiatry Course: Integrating Biology, Psychodynamics, and Psychology in the Psychiatric Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Timothy; Hughes, John D.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Psychotherapy and biological psychiatry remain divided in psychiatry residency curricula. Behavioral neurobiology and neuropsychiatry provide a systems-level framework that allows teachers to integrate biology, psychodynamics, and psychology. Method: The authors detail the underlying assumptions and outline of a neural systems-based…

  8. Comparison of Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy and Psychodynamic Therapy in the Treatment of Anxiety among University Students: An Effectiveness Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Fiorella; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Ricci Bitti, Pio Enrico

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioural (CBT) and psychodynamic (PDT) therapies in the treatment of anxiety among university students. To this aim, the Symptom Questionnaire (SQ) was completed by 30 students assigned to CBT and by 24 students assigned to PDT, both at the beginning and at the end of…

  9. Comparing Treatment Outcome of Guided Imagery and Music and Psychodynamic Imaginative Trauma Therapy for Women with Complex PTSD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maack, Carola

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether the use of recorded music enhances therapy outcome in psychodynamic trauma therapy for women with Complex PTSD, outcome measures of three groups of patients were compared. One group received 50 hours of outpatient trauma therapy with the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and M....... Participants treated with GIM showed significantly better outcome in all measurements than participants treated with PITT. This indicates that the use of music is beneficial for women with Complex PTSD treated with psychodynamic trauma therapy.......To investigate whether the use of recorded music enhances therapy outcome in psychodynamic trauma therapy for women with Complex PTSD, outcome measures of three groups of patients were compared. One group received 50 hours of outpatient trauma therapy with the Bonny Method of Guided Imagery...... and Music (GIM), another group received 50 hours of outpatient trauma therapy with Psychodynamic Imaginative Trauma Therapy (PITT). The third group was a waiting-list control group of women who had to wait at least nine months for therapy. The participants filled out questionnaires measuring symptoms...

  10. Exploring the meaning of trauma in the South African Police Service: A systems psychodynamic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marna Young

    2012-06-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of the research was, firstly, to explore how trauma experienced by South African Police Service members is constructed or ‘talked about’ and made sense of. Questions and issues that are considered relevant to the primary purpose are: which aspects of the working environment do members consider to be the most stressful, traumatic and difficult to cope with, and what is the effect of the change and transition processes on members’ working experiences? Motivation for the study: The authors set out to explore the role of systems psychodynamics in the experience of trauma and stress in the SAPS. Research design, approach and method: Through this qualitative, explorative, social phenomenological study, contributing circumstances and processes are included as additional discourses in an attempt to deepen understanding. The epistemology viewpoint of the study is found in the social constructionism and the data comprise 15 essays by members of the SAPS, all of which have been analysed from the perspective of systems psychodynamics. Main findings: Although the effect of trauma on police officers can never be negated, the way in which they deal with trauma seems to be different from what was initially believed. Further, their experience of stress is not solely the result of traumatic experiences but rather the result of traumatic experiences and systems psychodynamics operating within their organisation – which includes both organisational stressors or dynamics and transformation dynamics. Practical/managerial implications: The history of psychological trauma indicates that constructions of traumatic stress are strongly related to cultural, social and political circumstances. Current psychoanalytic thinking emphasises the meaning of the real occurrence, which causes trauma by changing the person’s experience of the self in relation to self-objects. Practical implications are the loss of the supportive subculture of the police, the loss

  11. THE NONLINEAR TRAJECTORY OF CHANGE IN PLAY PROFILES OF THREE CHILDREN IN PSYCHODYNAMIC PLAY THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Halfon

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s Play Profiles, which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world. The main aims of the study are to investigate the kinds of Play Profiles expressed in treatment, and to test whether there is emergence of new and more adaptive Play Profiles using dynamic systems theory as a methodological framework.Methods and Procedures: Each session from the long-term psychodynamic treatment (mean number of sessions = 55 of three 6 year old good outcome cases presenting with Separation Anxiety were recorded, transcribed and coded using items from the Children's Play Therapy Instrument, created to assess the play activity of children in psychotherapy, generating discrete and measurable units of play activity arranged along a continuum of four play profiles: Adaptive, Inhibited, Impulsive, and Disorganized. The play profiles were clustered through K-means Algorithm, generating 7 discrete states characterizing the course of treatment and the transitions between these states were analyzed by Markov Transition Matrix, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA and odds ratios comparing the first and second halves of psychotherapy.Results: The Markov Transitions between the states scaled almost perfectly and also showed the ergodicity of the system meaning that the child can reach any state or shift to another one in play. The RQA and odds ratios showed two trends of change, first concerning the decrease in the use of less adaptive strategies, second regarding the reduction of play interruptions.Conclusions: The

  12. Bias Toward Psychodynamic Therapy: Framing the Problem and Working Toward a Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakun, Eric M

    2017-09-01

    Although psychodynamic therapy (PDT) is an evidence-based intervention for a broad spectrum of psychiatric conditions, there is often notable bias in the way PDT is depicted both in the popular media and in the scientific literature. This has contributed to a negative view of PDT, which hampers both patient access to this treatment and researcher access to funding for further research on PDT. The adverse effects of these distortions and biases are detrimental not only to PDT but also to the overall field of psychotherapy, raising questions about its credibility. Here we summarize current evidence for PDT, describe existing biases, and formulate a set of recommendations to foster a more balanced perspective on PDT.

  13. Understanding and working with the psychodynamics of practitioner-patient relationships in the manual therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Danny; Sher, Mannie

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we argue that practitioner-patient relationships in the manual therapies would be strengthened by a deeper understanding of the psychodynamics and emotions of those relationships. We suggest that in many cases, a purely bio-mechanical approach may neglect underlying psychological and emotional reasons of the patient's presenting condition, and consequently, lead to a less than adequate outcome for the patient. We offer easily adopted suggestions that could enhance the practice of practitioners of manual therapies as well as other professions that rely on the application of physical methods of diagnosis and treatment. These suggestions could lead to improved prognosis and increased professional satisfaction for practitioners. This paper describes five key dynamics that characterize practitioner-patient relationships: (i) pain as a form of communication; (ii) the 'heart-sink' patient; (iii) dependency; (iv) the erotic transference; (v) endings and loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Contributions from personality- and psychodynamically oriented assessment to the development of the DSM-5 personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K

    2011-07-01

    Advances in personality assessment over the past 20 years have notably influenced the proposed assessment and classification of personality disorders in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-5]). However, a considerable body of personality assessment and psychodynamically oriented assessment research has significant relevance to the way in which personality disorders are evaluated that appears to have gone unrecognized in the current proposals for DSM-5. In this article, I discuss the ways in which some of these 2 bodies of literature can and should inform the DSM-5 so that the diagnostic nomenclature can be more scientifically and comprehensively informed and consequently improve the clinical utility of a diagnostic system in need of considerable revision.

  15. Feminist psychodynamic psychotherapy of eating disorders. Theoretic integration informing clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, K J

    1996-12-01

    Ideas derived from feminism and psychoanalytic theory can be combined for the integrated treatment of eating disorder patients. For a large subgroup of patients who continue to have a poor quality of life or inadequate symptom control (despite customary psychopharmacologic and cognitive behavioral interventions), feminist psychodynamic psychotherapy may prove lifesaving. This article explores how the patient may come to grasp more deeply the multiple roles her symptom has played in her psychological survival. Practical suggestions to enrich the psychotherapy as the patient traverses the natural struggles of adult life are emphasized. The importance of understanding and working with transference and countertransference issues while helping the patient accept life's paradoxes, ambiguities, and potential avenues for growth are underscored. The author reviews eight specific areas that warrant attention in psychotherapeutic exploration from a feminist psychoanalytic perspective (Culture as Bedrock Issue; Gender as Organizer of Behavior, Ownership of Body; Moral Development; Development of Personal Voice; Emphasis on Adult Development; Sexual Concerns; and Aggressive Conflicts).

  16. The addiction concept and technology: diagnosis, metaphor, or something else? a psychodynamic point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, Todd

    2012-11-01

    Many today suffer from an imbalance between life and life on the screen. When extreme, such as excessive gaming, clinicians retreat to familiar explanations, such as "Internet addiction." But the addiction concept is of limited value, limiting both research and treatment options. This article discusses an alternative. Pathological overuse is seen as a failed solution in which people become entrapped by technology's promise of delivering that which only life can offer, such as the grand adventure simulated in World of Warcraft. A two-part treatment approach of such "simulation entrapment" is described in which both the original problem and the entrapment are treated, the former by traditional psychodynamic psychotherapy and the later by highlighting differences between the technologically mediated experience and traditional experiences of being bodies together. The case of a college student suffering from pathological shame with excessive gaming as the failed solution is offered as an illustration. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Representations of their own sexuality and aging body by old people: phenomenological and psychodynamic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyrignac, Lucile; Bouati, Noureddine; Sagne, Alain; Gavazzi, Gaëtan; Zipper, Anne-Claire

    2017-09-01

    The sexuality of the elderly is rarely mentioned in general medicine although it holds an important place in many old people's life, and sexual well-being is a part of the global well-being according to the World Health Organization. To explore the representations of their own sexuality and aging body by the elderly. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews in 15 healthy elderly people over 65 years of age, living at home. In-depth interviews were transcribed and submitted to qualitative content using a phenomenological and a psychodynamic analysis. The phenomenological approach allows to explore the meaning and significance of the sexuality of older people (their representations and individual experience). The psychodynamic approach allows an analysis of defense mechanisms in verbal and nonverbal behavior. Some elderly maintain a view of their sexuality in accordance with the societal standards existing before the sexual liberalization following the events of May 68 in France. For these people, sexuality is tabooed and only linked to procreation, no longer part of the aging body, and perceived as degraded, then difficult to be approached by general practitioners in relation with defense mechanisms. Other elderly people have managed to free themselves from those previous societal standards. The notion of pleasure is still present in these people and their aging body is perceived as an altered body, difficult to be accepted on account of the pressure for conformity due to actual societal standards. These standards reserve sexuality to young people and convey a picture of a sexuality that would be improper for the elderly. Understanding the representations of their sexuality by the elderly allows GPs a better approach for helping older patients to improve their sexual well-being.

  18. Evaluation of a transdiagnostic psychodynamic online intervention to support return to work: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüdiger Zwerenz

    Full Text Available Given their flexibility, online interventions may be useful as an outpatient treatment option to support vocational reintegration after inpatient rehabilitation. To that purpose we devised a transdiagnostic psychodynamic online intervention to facilitate return to work, focusing on interpersonal conflicts at the workplace often responsible for work-related stress.In a randomized controlled trial, we included employed patients from cardiologic, psychosomatic and orthopedic rehabilitation with work-related stress or need for support at intake to inpatient rehabilitation after they had given written consent to take part in the study. Following discharge, maladaptive interpersonal interactions at the workplace were identified via weekly blogs and processed by written therapeutic comments over 12 weeks in the intervention group (IG. The control group (CG received an augmented treatment as usual condition. The main outcome, subjective prognosis of gainful employment (SPE, and secondary outcomes (psychological complaints were assessed by means of online questionnaires before, at the end of aftercare (3 months and at follow-up (12 months. We used ITT analyses controlling for baseline scores and medical group.N = 319 patients were enrolled into IG and N = 345 into CG. 77% of the IG logged in to the webpage (CG 74% and 65% of the IG wrote blogs. Compared to the CG, the IG reported a significantly more positive SPE at follow-up. Measures of depression, anxiety and psychosocial stressors decreased from baseline to follow-up, whereas the corresponding scores increased in the CG. Correspondingly, somatization and psychological quality of life improved in the IG.Psychodynamic online aftercare was effective to enhance subjective prognosis of future employment and improved psychological complaints across a variety of chronic physical and psychological conditions, albeit with small effect sizes.

  19. Distinguishing psychological characteristics of expert cricket batsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissensteiner, Juanita R; Abernethy, Bruce; Farrow, Damian; Gross, John

    2012-01-01

    This paper sought to determine the psychological characteristics and skills that are fundamental to batting success in the sport of cricket. Following on from the findings of an earlier qualitative investigation which suggested that a favourable mix of psychological attributes and skills are critical to high performance in batting (Weissensteiner et al.(10)), adult-aged batsmen of two different skill levels (highly skilled n=11; lesser skilled n=10) completed a battery of psychological tests that included measures of mental toughness (Mental Toughness Inventory), perfectionism (Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale), coping ability (Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28), and optimism (Attributional Styles Questionnaire). Contrary to the research hypothesis, it was found that the highly skilled batsmen were only distinguishable from batsmen of lesser skill by their higher degree of global mental toughness. The skilled batsmen scored significantly higher on mental toughness dimensions relating to motivation (Personal Bests, Task Value and Commitment), coping skill (Perseverance) and self-belief (Potential). If mental toughness can be reliably predicted at an earlier age, it may be an attribute worthy of inclusion in future talent identification and development programs. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Non-linear Trajectory of Change in Play Profiles of Three Children in Psychodynamic Play Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Halfon, Sibel; ?avdar, Alev; Orsucci, Franco; Schiepek, Gunter K.; Andreassi, Silvia; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children’s “play profiles,” which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children’s coping strategies, and an express...

  1. Art/expressive therapies and psychodynamics of parent-child relationship in concept of sophrology and psychosocial oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Miholić, Damir; Prstačić, Miroslav; Martinec, Renata

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The main aim of this research includes the analysis of the psychodynamics of the changes in the experience of the child and in the parent-child relationship, during the complementary application and supporting creative art/expressive therapy in pediatric oncology, especially in connection with the modern concepts of psychosocial oncology, sophrology, education and rehabilitation sciences. Method: According to initial hypothesis application of complementary and creative art/expressive ...

  2. A new model of techniques for concurrent psychodynamic work with parents of child and adolescent psychotherapy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Kerry Kelly; Novick, Jack

    2013-04-01

    To address the neglect of the importance of parent work in the psychodynamic psychotherapy of children and adolescents, the authors present a model of concurrent dynamic parent work that has demonstrated success with patients of all ages. The model includes dual goals for all therapies, addresses the challenge of confidentiality by differentiating privacy and secrecy, and emphasizes the importance of parent work throughout treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An empirical analysis of mental state talk and affect regulation in two single-cases of psychodynamic child therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Bekar, Ozlem; Gürleyen, Büşra

    2017-06-01

    Literature has shown the importance of mentalizing techniques in symptom remission and emotional understanding; however, no study to date has looked at the dynamic relations between mental state talk and affect regulation in the psychotherapy process. From a psychodynamic perspective, the emergence of the child's capacity to regulate affect through the therapist's reflection on the child's mental states is a core aspect of treatment. In an empirical investigation of 2 single cases with separation anxiety disorder, who were treated in long-term psychodynamic play therapy informed with mentalization principles, the effect of therapists' and children's use of mental state talk on children's subsequent capacity to regulate affect in play was assessed. One case was a positive outcome case, whereas the other did not show symptomatic improvement at the end of treatment. Children's and therapists' utterances in the sessions were coded using the Coding System for Mental State Talk in Narratives, and children's play was coded by Children's Play Therapy Instrument, which generated an index of children's "affect regulation." Time-series Granger Causality tests showed that even though both therapists' use of mental state talk significantly predicted children's subsequent affect regulation, the association between child's mental state talk and affect regulation was only supported for the child who showed clinically significant symptom reduction. This study provided preliminary support that mental state talk in psychodynamic psychotherapy facilitates emotion regulation in play. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Efficacy of psychodynamic short-term psychotherapy for depressed breast cancer patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwerenz Rüdiger

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a lack of psychotherapeutic trials of treatments of comorbid depression in cancer patients. Our study determines the efficacy of a manualized short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy and predictors of outcome by personality and quality of the therapeutic relationship. Methods/design Eligible breast cancer patients with comorbid depression are assigned to short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (up to 20 + 5 sessions or to treatment as usual (augmented by recommendation for counseling center and physician information. We plan to recruit a total of 180 patients (90 per arm in two centers. Assessments are conducted pretreatment, after 6 (treatment termination and 12 months (follow-up. The primary outcome measures are reduction of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and remission of depression as assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM IV Disorders by independent, blinded assessors at treatment termination. Secondary outcomes refer to quality of life. Discussion We investigate the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy in acute care and we aim to identify predictors for acceptance and success of treatment. Trial registration ISRCTN96793588

  5. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  6. Distinguished trajectories in time dependent vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Madrid, J. A. Jimenez; Mancho, Ana M.

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a new definition of distinguished trajectory that generalizes the concepts of fixed point and periodic orbit to aperiodic dynamical systems. This new definition is valid for identifying distinguished trajectories with hyperbolic and nonhyperbolic types of stability. The definition is implemented numerically and the procedure consists of determining a path of limit coordinates. It has been successfully applied to known examples of distinguished trajectories. In the context of high...

  7. [Initial and extension applications for psychodynamic therapy according to the German Guidelines for Psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberz, Klaus; Krumm, Bertram; Adamek, Lucie; Mühlig, Stephan

    2010-01-01

    According to the German Guidelines for Psychotherapy, psychotherapists need the consent of the respective insurance company to commence outpatient therapy. They have two options: (1) To begin a so-called short-term therapy (KZT) for up to 25 sessions--a quick and easy procedure requiring few formal expenses. Afterwards the therapist must provide the reasons for extending the therapy in a formal expert assessment request (extension request). (2) It is also possible to obtain the consent of the insurance company at the beginning of therapy (initial request) for up to 50 sessions (psychodynamic long-term therapy) or even for up to 160 sessions (analytical psychotherapy), both of which require the same expert assessment to be filled out beforehand (LZT). This study examines the initial and extension requests submitted for evaluation for psychodynamic therapies according to the German Guidelines for Psychotherapy. The question is posed as to what influences are important in the selection of therapists for these two types of request. In the context of the MARS study, we evaluated a total of 362 randomly chosen requests submitted between May 2007 and June 2008, 128 of which were initial requests and 234 of which were requests for an extension. The evaluation of the reports proceeded on the basis of a previously developed documentation system with various modules comprising information on the sociodemographics and morbidity of the patients as well as information on the therapists themselves. Further modules are assessed in this review. There were many more requests for an extension submitted than initial requests. Initial requests were preferably made when planning analytical psychotherapy. Patients for whom initial requests were submitted were also distinctly younger. The morbidity of the patients had no noticeable influence on the choice of procedure. In particular, diagnoses that could require crisis intervention were not more common in the requests for an extension

  8. Cognitive-Behavioral and Psychodynamic Therapy in Female Adolescents With Bulimia Nervosa: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefini, Annette; Salzer, Simone; Reich, Günter; Horn, Hildegard; Winkelmann, Klaus; Bents, Hinrich; Rutz, Ursula; Frost, Ulrike; von Boetticher, Antje; Ruhl, Uwe; Specht, Nicole; Kronmüller, Klaus-Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The authors compared cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN) in female adolescents. In this randomized controlled trial, 81 female adolescents with BN or partial BN according to the DSM-IV received a mean of 36.6 sessions of manualized disorder-oriented PDT or CBT. Trained psychologists blinded to treatment condition administered the outcome measures at baseline, during treatment, at the end of treatment, and 12 months after treatment. The primary outcome was the rate of remission, defined as a lack of DSM-IV diagnosis for BN or partial BN at the end of therapy. Several secondary outcome measures were evaluated. The remission rates for CBT and PDT were 33.3% and 31.0%, respectively, with no significant differences between them (odds ratio [OR] = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.35-2.28, p = .82). The within-group effect sizes were h = 1.22 for CBT and h = 1.18 for PDT. Significant improvements in all secondary outcome measures were found for both CBT (d = 0.51-0.82) and PDT (d = 0.24-1.10). The improvements remained stable at the 12-month follow-up in both groups. There were small between-group effect sizes for binge eating (d = 0.23) and purging (d = 0.26) in favor of CBT and for eating concern (d = -0.35) in favor of PDT. CBT and PDT were effective in promoting recovery from BN in female adolescents. The rates of remission for both therapies were similar to those in other studies evaluating CBT. This trial identified differences with small effects in binge eating, purging, and eating concern. Clinical trial registration information-Treating Bulimia Nervosa in Female Adolescents With Either Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) or Psychodynamic Therapy (PDT). http://isrctn.com/; ISRCTN14806095. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Local and Global Distinguishability in Quantum Interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durkin, Gabriel A.; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    A statistical distinguishability based on relative entropy characterizes the fitness of quantum states for phase estimation. This criterion is employed in the context of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and used to interpolate between two regimes of local and global phase distinguishability. The scaling of distinguishability in these regimes with photon number is explored for various quantum states. It emerges that local distinguishability is dependent on a discrepancy between quantum and classical rotational energy. Our analysis demonstrates that the Heisenberg limit is the true upper limit for local phase sensitivity. Only the ''NOON'' states share this bound, but other states exhibit a better trade-off when comparing local and global phase regimes

  10. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  11. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  12. Clinicians' emotional responses and Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual adult personality disorders: A clinically relevant empirical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzillo, Francesco; Lingiardi, Vittorio; Del Corno, Franco; Genova, Federica; Bornstein, Robert F; Gordon, Robert M; McWilliams, Nancy

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between level of personality organization and type of personality disorder as assessed with the categories in the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM; PDM Task Force, 2006) and the emotional responses of treating clinicians. We asked 148 Italian clinicians to assess 1 of their adult patients in treatment for personality disorders with the Psychodiagnostic Chart (PDC; Gordon & Bornstein, 2012) and the Personality Diagnostic Prototype (PDP; Gazzillo, Lingiardi, & Del Corno, 2012) and to complete the Therapist Response Questionnaire (TRQ; Betan, Heim, Zittel-Conklin, & Westen, 2005). The patients' level of overall personality pathology was positively associated with helpless and overwhelmed responses in clinicians and negatively associated with positive emotional responses. A parental and disengaged response was associated with the depressive, anxious, and dependent personality disorders; an exclusively parental response with the phobic personality disorder; and a parental and criticized response with narcissistic disorder. Dissociative disorder evoked a helpless and parental response in the treating clinicians whereas somatizing disorder elicited a disengaged reaction. An overwhelmed and disengaged response was associated with sadistic and masochistic personality disorders, with the latter also associated with a parental and hostile/criticized reaction; an exclusively overwhelmed response with psychopathic patients; and a helpless response with paranoid patients. Finally, patients with histrionic personality disorder evoked an overwhelmed and sexualized response in their clinicians whereas there was no specific emotional reaction associated with the schizoid and the obsessive-compulsive disorders. Clinical implications of these findings were discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Amplification of the concept of erroneous meaning in psychodynamic science and in the consulting room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brookes, Crittenden E

    2007-01-01

    Previous papers dealt with the concept of psyche as that dynamic field which underlies the subjective experience of mind. A new paradigm, psychodynamic science, was suggested for dealing with subjective data. The venue of the psychotherapeutic consulting room is now brought directly into science, expanding the definition of psychotherapy to include both humanistic and scientific elements. Certain concepts were introduced to amplify this new scientific model, including psyche as hypothetical construct, the concept of meaning as replacement for operational validation in scientific investigation, the synonymity of meaning and insight, and the concept of synchronicity, together with the meaning-connected affect of numinosity. The presence of unhealthy anxiety as the conservative ego attempts to preserve its integrity requires a deeper look at the concept of meaning. This leads to a distinction between meaning and erroneous meaning. The main body of this paper amplifies that distinction, and introduces the concept of intolerance of ambiguity in the understanding of erroneous meanings and their connection with human neurosis.

  14. Do Patient Characteristics Predict Outcome of Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for Social Anxiety Disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Wiltink

    Full Text Available Little is known about patient characteristics as predictors for outcome in manualized short term psychodynamic psychotherapy (PDT. No study has addressed which patient variables predict outcome of PDT for social anxiety disorder.In the largest multicenter trial on psychotherapy of social anxiety (SA to date comparing cognitive therapy, PDT and wait list condition N = 230 patients were assigned to receive PDT, of which N = 166 completed treatment. Treatment outcome was assessed based on diverse parameters such as endstate functioning, remission, response, and drop-out. The relationship between patient characteristics (demographic variables, mental co-morbidity, personality, interpersonal problems and outcome was analysed using logistic and linear regressions.Pre-treatment SA predicted up to 39 percent of variance of outcome. Only few additional baseline characteristics predicted better treatment outcome (namely, lower comorbidity and interpersonal problems with a limited proportion of incremental variance (5.5 to 10 percent, while, e.g., shame, self-esteem or harm avoidance did not.We argue that the central importance of pre-treatment symptom severity for predicting outcomes should advocate alternative treatment strategies (e.g. longer treatments, combination of psychotherapy and medication in those who are most disturbed. Given the relatively small amount of variance explained by the other patient characteristics, process variables and patient-therapist interaction should additionally be taken into account in future research.Controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN53517394.

  15. Some problems with non-inferiority tests in psychotherapy research: psychodynamic therapies as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rief, Winfried; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2018-02-14

    In virtually every field of medicine, non-inferiority trials and meta-analyses with non-inferiority conclusions are increasingly common. This non-inferiority approach has been frequently used by a group of authors favoring psychodynamic therapies (PDTs), concluding that PDTs are just as effective as cognitive-behavioral therapies (CBT). We focus on these examples to exemplify some problems associated with non-inferiority tests of psychological treatments, although the problems also apply to psychopharmacotherapy research, CBT research, and others. We conclude that non-inferiority trials have specific risks of different types of validity problems, usually favoring an (erroneous) non-inferiority conclusion. Non-inferiority trials require the definition of non-inferiority margins, and currently used thresholds have a tendency to be inflationary, not protecting sufficiently against degradation. The use of non-inferiority approaches can lead to the astonishing result that one single analysis can suggest both, superiority of the comparator (here: CBT) and non-inferiority of the other treatment (here PDT) at the same time. We provide recommendations how to improve the quality of non-inferiority trials, and we recommend to consider them among other criteria when evaluating manuscripts examining non-inferiority trials. If psychotherapeutic families (such as PDT and CBT) differ on the number of investigating trials, and in the fields of clinical applications, and in other validity aspects mentioned above, conclusions about their general non-inferiority are no more than a best guess, typically expressing the favored approach of the lead author.

  16. Clinical holistic medicine: avoiding the Freudian trap of sexual transference and countertransference in psychodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2008-04-14

    Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an "idealized father" figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem "Freud's Trap". Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM), salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates) are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient's internal affair (i.e., energy work) and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference). This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy.

  17. Economic evaluation of brief psychodynamic interpersonal therapy in patients with multisomatoform disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Chernyak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A brief psychodynamic interpersonal therapy (PIT in patients with multisomatoform disorder has been recently shown to improve health-related quality of life. AIMS: To assess cost-effectiveness of PIT compared to enhanced medical care in patients with multisomatoform disorder. METHOD: An economic evaluation alongside a randomised controlled trial (International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number ISRCTN23215121 conducted in 6 German academic outpatient centres was performed. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated from the statutory health insurance perspective on the basis of quality adjusted life years (QALYs gained at 12 months. Uncertainty surrounding the cost-effectiveness of PIT was presented by means of a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. RESULTS: Based on the complete-case analysis ICER was 41840 Euro per QALY. The results did not change greatly with the use of multiple imputation (ICER = 44222 and last observation carried forward (LOCF approach to missing data (ICER = 46663. The probability of PIT being cost-effective exceeded 50% for thresholds of willingness to pay over 35 thousand Euros per QALY. CONCLUSIONS: Cost-effectiveness of PIT is highly uncertain for thresholds of willingness to pay under 35 thousand Euros per QALY.

  18. Corrective relational experiences in psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy: Antecedents, types, and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Teresa Chen-Chieh; Hill, Clara E; Strauss, Nicole; Heyman, Michelle; Hussain, Mahum

    2016-03-01

    In posttherapy interviews with 31 clients who had recently terminated from individual open-ended psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy, 18 reported having had at least 1 corrective relational experience (CRE) during psychotherapy, whereas 13 did not report any CREs. CREs typically occurred in the context of therapeutic relationships that were primarily positive but also had minor difficulties. Therapists typically facilitated CREs by identifying or questioning client behavior patterns and conveying trustworthiness. Corrective shifts for clients typically involved a new understanding of the therapy experience and variantly involved gaining a new understanding of behavior patterns. Consequences generally included improvements in the therapy relationship and intrapersonal well-being. Qualitatively, the 13 non-CRE clients more frequently reported wishing the therapist's theoretical orientation was a better match than did the 18 CRE clients. Quantitatively, the CRE clients rated themselves as having more interpersonal problems at intake on the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-32 (Barkham, Hardy, & Startup, 1996), had marginally significant improvements in interpersonal functioning over time, rated their therapy alliances higher on the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Revised (Hatcher & Gillaspy, 2006) midtherapy, and rated their therapy alliances higher over time compared with the non-CRE clients. Implications for practice and research are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Shana; Desmet, Mattias; Van Nieuwenhove, Kimberly L H D; Meganck, Reitske; Willemsen, Jochem; Inslegers, Ruth; Feyaerts, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974) particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2) documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009). Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1), Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  20. THE CHALLENGE OF WORKING WITH TEENAGERS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW: PSYCHODYNAMIC WORK INTERVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Emanoeli Moreira da Costa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Socio-educational Reintegration Workers play a role in the custody, safety and monitoring of teenagers, complying with socio-educational measures for having infringed the law according to Brazil’s Child and Teenager Statute. This study in terms of public policies has to do with education and sanction. Further, it discusses collective defense strategies from social reintegration workers, who deal on a daily basis with teenagers in conflict with the law. The methodology applied is based upon Work Psychodynamics.  The study concludes that given their strong unity, social reintegration workers protect themselves from work-related pathologies given that they preserve themselves from isolation by inserting themselves in a space of intersubjective relations that support their work and keep them from fear and anxiety. Collective strength comes through cooperation built around the almost prison-like discipline shown towards teenagers deprived of their freedom. This discipline disguises a collective defense strategy that denies the fact that teenagers in conflict with the law are in a vulnerable psychosocial situation. This collective defense strategy serves under current work conditions to protect social reintegration workers from the fear of building a close relationship with teenagers given the certainty that this relationship will leave the first group at risk and unprotected.

  1. Interactions between Obsessional Symptoms and Interpersonal Ambivalences in Psychodynamic Therapy: An Empirical Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shana Cornelis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The classical symptom specificity hypothesis (Blatt, 1974 particularly associates obsessional symptoms to interpersonal behavior directed at autonomy and separation from others. Cross-sectional group research, however, has yielded inconsistent findings on this predicted association, and a previous empirical case study (Cornelis et al., in press; see Chapter 2 documented obsessional pathology to be rooted in profound ambivalences between autonomous and dependent interpersonal dynamics. Therefore, in the present empirical case study, concrete operationalizations of the classical symptom specificity hypothesis are contrasted to alternative hypotheses based on the observed complexities in Chapter 2. Dynamic associations between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal functioning is further explored, aiming at further contribution to theory building (i.e., through suggestions for potential hypothesis-refinement; Stiles, 2009. Similar to the first empirical case study (Chapter 1, Consensual Qualitative Research for Case studies is used to quantitatively and qualitatively describe the longitudinal, clinical interplay between obsessional symptoms and interpersonal dynamics throughout the process of supportive-expressive psychodynamic therapy. In line with findings from Chapter 1, findings reveal close associations between obsessions and interpersonal dynamics, and therapist interventions focusing on interpersonal conflicts are documented as related to interpersonal and symptomatic alterations. Observations predominantly accord to the ambivalence-hypothesis rather than to the classical symptom specificity hypothesis. Yet, meaningful differences are observed in concrete manifestations of interpersonal ambivalences within significant relationships. Findings are again discussed in light of conceptual and methodological considerations; and limitations and future research indications are addressed.

  2. Using Psychodynamic Interaction as a Valuable Source of Information in Social Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article will address the issue of using understandings of psychodynamic interrelations as a means to grasp how social and cultural dynamics are processed individually and collectively in narratives. I apply the two theoretically distinct concepts of inter- and intrasubjectivity to gain insight into how social and cultural dynamics are processed as subjective experiences and reflected in the interrelational space created in narrative interviews with trainee social educators. By using a combination of interactionist theory and psychosocial theory in the analysis of an interview with a student of social education, I demonstrate how the often conflicting demands and expectations are being played out in the interrelational tension between the researcher (myself and the interviewee or narrator. In a confrontation with “inner” expectations and concerns regarding a future profession and one’s ability to cope, and the “outer” socially and culturally embedded discourses as they are played out in the objectives of self-development and education, the narrative about a forthcoming internship is filled with tension and contradiction. In this article I will demonstrate how such tensions and contradictions are valuable sources of information in understanding the process of becoming a social educator.

  3. Dreaming of you: client and therapist dreams about each other during psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Knox, Sarah; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E; Hess, Shirley A; Miles, Joe; Spangler, Patricia T; Pudasaini, Sakar

    2014-01-01

    Our objectives were to describe the frequency of therapists' dreams about their clients and clients' dreams about their therapists, to determine how therapists and clients who had such dreams differed from those who did not have such dreams, whether therapy process and outcome differed for those who had and did not have such dreams, and to describe the content and consequences of these dreams. Thirteen doctoral student therapists conducted psychodynamic psychotherapy with 63 clients in a community clinic. Therapists who had dreams about clients had higher estimated and actual dream recall than did therapists who did not dream about clients. Qualitative analyses indicated that therapists' dreams yielded insights about the therapist, clients, and therapy; therapists used insights in their work with the clients. Among the clients, only two (who were particularly high in attachment anxiety and who feared abandonment from their therapists) reported dreams that were manifestly about their therapists. Therapists-in-training dreamed more about their clients than their clients dreamed about them. Dreams about clients can be used by therapists to understand themselves, clients, and the dynamics of the therapy relationship.

  4. The Effect of Interpersonal Psychotherapy and other Psychodynamic Therapies versus ‘Treatment as Usual’ in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Interpersonal psychotherapy and other psychodynamic therapies may be effective interventions for major depressive disorder, but the effects have only had limited assessment in systematic reviews. Methods/Principal Findings Cochrane systematic review methodology with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis of randomized trials comparing the effect of psychodynamic therapies versus ‘treatment as usual’ for major depressive disorder. To be included the participants had to be older than 17 years with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder. Altogether, we included six trials randomizing a total of 648 participants. Five trials assessed ‘interpersonal psychotherapy’ and only one trial assessed ‘psychodynamic psychotherapy’. All six trials had high risk of bias. Meta-analysis on all six trials showed that the psychodynamic interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (mean difference −3.12 (95% confidence interval −4.39 to −1.86;Pinterpersonal psychotherapy or psychodynamic therapy compared with ‘treatment as usual’ for patients with major depressive disorder. The potential beneficial effect seems small and effects on major outcomes are unknown. Randomized trials with low risk of systematic errors and low risk of random errors are needed. PMID:21556370

  5. A Distinguish Attack on COSvd Cipher

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Ali Orumiehchi ha; R. Mirghadri

    2007-01-01

    The COSvd Ciphers has been proposed by Filiol and others (2004). It is a strengthened version of COS stream cipher family denoted COSvd that has been adopted for at least one commercial standard. We propose a distinguish attack on this version, and prove that, it is distinguishable from a random stream. In the COSvd Cipher used one S-Box (10×8) on the final part of cipher. We focus on S-Box and use weakness this S-Box for distinguish attack. In addition, found a leak on HNLL that the sub s-bo...

  6. A randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioural therapy versus short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy versus no intervention for patients with hypochondriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per; Birket-Smith, M; Wattar, U

    2011-01-01

    Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim of this ......Hypochondriasis is common in the clinic and in the community. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been found to be effective in previous trials. Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a treatment routinely offered to patients with hypochondriasis in many countries, including Denmark. The aim...... of this study was to test CBT for hypochondriasis in a centre that was not involved in its development and compare both CBT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP) to a waiting-list control and to each other. CBT was modified by including mindfulness and group therapy sessions, reducing the therapist...

  7. The role of avoidant and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits in matching patients with major depression to cognitive behavioral and psychodynamic therapy: A replication study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikkert, Martijn J; Driessen, Ellen; Peen, Jaap; Barber, Jacques P; Bockting, Claudi; Schalkwijk, Frans; Dekker, Jeff; Dekker, Jack J M

    2016-11-15

    Barber and Muenz (1996) reported that cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) was more effective than interpersonal therapy (IPT) for depressed patients with elevated levels of avoidant personality disorder, while IPT was more effective than CBT in patients with elevated levels of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder. These findings may have important clinical implications, but have not yet been replicated. We conducted a study using data from a randomized clinical trial comparing the efficacy of CBT and short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy in the outpatient treatment of depression. We found no evidence indicating that avoidant patients may benefit more from CBT compared to short-term psychodynamic supportive therapy (SPSP). Our results indicate that treatment effect does not depend on the level of avoidance, or obsessive-compulsiveness personality disorders further examine the influence of personality disorders on the effectiveness of CBT or psychodynamic therapy in the treatment of depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  9. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  10. Prediction and moderation of improvement in cognitive-behavioral and psychodynamic psychotherapy for panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara; Porter, Eliora; Gallop, Robert; McCarthy, Kevin S; Graf, Elizabeth; Rudden, Marie; Sharpless, Brian A; Barber, Jacques P

    2017-08-01

    To identify variables predicting psychotherapy outcome for panic disorder or indicating which of 2 very different forms of psychotherapy-panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP) or cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)-would be more effective for particular patients. Data were from 161 adults participating in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) including these psychotherapies. Patients included 104 women; 118 patients were White, 33 were Black, and 10 were of other races; 24 were Latino(a). Predictors/moderators measured at baseline or by Session 2 of treatment were used to predict change on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS). Higher expectancy for treatment gains (Credibility/Expectancy Questionnaire d = -1.05, CI 95% [-1.50, -0.60]), and later age of onset (d = -0.65, CI 95% [-0.98, -0.32]) were predictive of greater change. Both variables were also significant moderators: patients with low expectancy of improvement improved significantly less in PFPP than their counterparts in CBT, whereas this was not the case for patients with average or high levels of expectancy. When patients had an onset of panic disorder later in life (≥27.5 years old), they fared as well in PFPP as CBT. In contrast, at low and mean levels of onset age, CBT was the more effective treatment. Predictive variables suggest possibly fruitful foci for improvement of treatment outcome. In terms of moderation, CBT was the more consistently effective treatment, but moderators identified some patients who would do as well in PFPP as in CBT, thereby widening empirically supported options for treatment of this disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Avoiding the Freudian Trap of Sexual Transference and Countertransference in Psychodynamic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an “idealized father” figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem “Freud's Trap”. Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM, salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient’s internal affair (i.e., energy work and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference. This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy.

  12. Clinical Holistic Medicine: Avoiding the Freudian Trap of Sexual Transference and Countertransference in Psychodynamic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Kandel, Isack; Merrick, Joav

    2008-01-01

    Sexual transference and countertransference can make therapy slow and inefficient when libidinous gratification becomes more important for both the patient and the therapist than real therapeutic progress. Sexual transference is normal when working with a patient's repressed sexuality, but the therapeutic rule of not touching often hinders the integration of sexual traumas, as this needs physical holding. So the patient is often left with sexual, Oedipal energies projected onto the therapist as an “idealized father” figure. The strong and lasting sexual desire for the therapist without any healing taking place can prolong therapy for many years, as it often does in psychodynamic psychotherapy and psychoanalysis. We call this problem “Freud's Trap”. Freud used intimate bodywork, such as massage, in the beginning of his career, but stopped, presumably for moral and political reasons. In the tradition of psychoanalysis, touch is therefore not allowed. Recent research in clinical holistic medicine (CHM), salutogenesis, and sexual healing has shown that touch and bodywork (an integral part of medicine since Hippocrates) are as important for healing as conversational therapy. CHM allows the patient to regress spontaneously to early sexual and emotional traumas, and to heal the deep wounds on body, soul, and sexual character from arrested psychosexual development. CHM treats sexuality in therapy more as the patient’s internal affair (i.e., energy work) and less as a thing going on between the patient and the therapist (i.e., transference). This accelerates healing, and reduces sexual transference and the need for mourning at the end of therapy. PMID:18454245

  13. Psychosomatic regularities of psychotic disorders of women in involution (pathogenesis, clinics, psychodynamic psychotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М. М. Pustovoyt

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of psychotic disorders with onset in the age of involution from broader perspective, guided by modern multidimensional paradigm, was never discussed before. Involutional psychosis is considered as a constellation of the biological changes that are irrefutable in this age period. Certain personality traits and coping strategies can be predisposing to psychotic response, as well as typical features of the “life curve” and external stressors that can run a psychotic reaction. The paper presents the result of our study. This study pays much attention to study of premorbid personality, with emphasis on characteristic features, peculiarities of the emotional reaction and motivation-behavioral area, which completely coincided with characteristics of the narcissistic personality disorder listed in DSM-V (2013. Aim: To explore the psychosomatic pathogenetic connections inherent involutionary psychosis, given pathogenic and pathoplastic impact of premorbid personality structure their syndromic form and dynamics, determine their place on the psychosomatic continuum and develop adequate and pathogenetic justified method of therapy. Methods. Data obtained by the clinical method were confirmed by the results of experimental psychological and neuropsychological researches. Results. Clinical characteristics of psychotic disorders in the patient population showed in the structure of psychosis the existence of two oppositely directed continuums: affective (depressive and delusional. This allows to allocate four main clinical forms of psychosis and their tendency to unite in two clusters that differed each other by the features, and also by their response to therapy and, therefore, by the prognosis. Conclusions: The psychodynamic approach to understanding the involutional psychosis, that was introduced by the author, got natural development in the proposed method of treatment that included complex medication and psychotherapy. The schemes of

  14. Psychodynamic therapy from the perspective of self-organization. a concept of change and a methodological approach for empirical examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumz, Antje; Geyer, Michael; Brähler, Elmar

    2014-01-01

    Observations from therapeutic practice and a series of empirical findings, for example, those on discontinuous change in psychotherapeutic processes, suggest modelling the therapeutic process as a self-organizing system with stable and critical instable phases and abrupt transitions. Here, a concept of psychotherapeutic change is presented that applies self-organization theory to psychodynamic principles. The authors explain the observations and considerations that form the basis of the concept and present some connections with existing findings and concepts. On the basis of this model, they generated two hypotheses regarding the co-occurrence of instability and discontinuous change and the degree of synchrony between the therapist and patient. A study design to test these hypotheses was developed and applied to a single case (psychodynamic therapy). After each session, patient and therapist rated their interaction. A measure of instability was calculated across the resulting time series. Sequences of destabilization were observed. On the basis of points of extreme instability, the process was divided into phases. Local instability maxima were accompanied by significant discontinuous change. Destabilization was highly synchronous in therapist and patient ratings. The authors discussed the concept and the methodological procedure. The approach enables the operationalization of crises and to empirically assess the significance of critical phases and developments within the therapeutic relationship. We present a concept of change that applies self-organization theory to psychodynamic therapy. We empirically tested the hypotheses formulated in the concept based on an extract of 125 long-term psychodynamic therapy sessions. We continuously monitored the therapeutic interaction and calculated a measure of the instability of the assessments. We identified several sequences of stable and unstable episodes. Episodes of high instability were accompanied by discontinuous

  15. Girls who cut: treatment in an outpatient psychodynamic psychotherapy practice with adolescent girls and young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberman, Louise

    2011-01-01

    The observation of deficits in the capacity for mature emotional self-regulation in girls who cut is noted in the literature (Daldin, 1990; Novick & Novick, 1991; Nock et al., 2008). The acquisition of the ability to respond in a healthy manner to stress and challenge, either from outside or inside the self is one of the most important tasks of early development; girls who cut have not accomplished this developmental task or are seriously compromised in their efforts to do so. The connection between this observation, the psychosexual developmental antecedents of this deficit, and psychodynamic approaches to treatment are explored in the literature and in case reviews.

  16. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  17. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  18. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  19. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  20. Is training effective? A study of counseling psychology doctoral trainees in a psychodynamic/interpersonal training clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Clara E; Baumann, Ellen; Shafran, Naama; Gupta, Shudarshana; Morrison, Ashley; Rojas, Andrés E Pérez; Spangler, Patricia T; Griffin, Shauna; Pappa, Laura; Gelso, Charles J

    2015-04-01

    We investigated changes over 12 to 42 months in 23 predoctoral trainees during their externship training in a psychodynamic/interpersonal psychotherapy clinic. Over time, trainees increased in client-rated working alliance and real relationship, therapist-rated working alliance, client-rated interpersonal functioning, ability to use helping skills (e.g., challenges, immediacy), higher-order functioning (e.g., conceptualization ability, countertransference management), feelings about themselves as therapists (e.g., more authentic, more self-aware), and understanding about being a therapist (e.g., theoretical orientation, curiosity about client dynamics). In contrast, trainees did not change in engaging clients (return after intake or for at least 8 sessions), judge-rated psychodynamic techniques in third and ninth sessions across clients (although trainees used more cognitive-behavioral techniques over time in third but not ninth sessions), or changes in client-rated symptomatology. Trainees primarily attributed changes to graduate training, individual and group supervision, research participation, and working with clients. Implications for training and research are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Psychodynamic Treatment of the Criminal Offender: Making the Case for Longer-Term Treatment in a Longer-Term Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulay, Abby L; Kelly, Elspeth; Cain, Nicole M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, prisons and jails have become de facto psychiatric hospitals, responsible for the care and treatment of individuals with serious mental illness. Historically, cognitive-behaviorally informed therapeutic approaches have been the treatment of choice among mental health practitioners in correctional settings. However, inmate-clients often present with complex diagnostic issues that are arguably better served by long-term treatment options, such as psychodynamic psychotherapy. We first review the nature of psychotherapy in the correctional setting, as well as treatment barriers and challenges faced by both mental health providers and inmate-clients. We then review treatment studies that examine the efficacy of various therapeutic techniques in correctional/forensic contexts. Finally, we argue that, due to the complex nature of psychopathology, average length of time incarcerated, and treatment issues that arise in this multifaceted and challenging setting, mental health treatment providers should consider providing psychodynamic treatment modalities when working with incarcerated individuals. We also argue that more research is needed to examine the efficacy of these treatment approaches with inmate-clients.

  2. The treatment of chronic post-traumatic nightmares using psychodynamic-interpersonal psychotherapy: a single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, S; Beail, N

    1997-03-01

    This article presents a single-case experimental study of a woman suffering a traumatized reaction to a road traffic accident (RTA). In addition to meeting the DSM-IV (APA, 1994) criteria for the diagnosis of PTSD, the client suffered recurrent bizarre nightmares. The client reported at assessment, that each night her dreams were dominated by a terrifying hooded cloaked faceless figure. The central aim of the study therefore was to assess the efficacy of a psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) style psychotherapy in the context of an unusual PTSD reaction. The methodology employed an A/B multiple baseline time series design, with six month follow-up. A and B represent a series of dream diary observations under two conditions: assessment/baseline (A) and treatment/intervention (B). Treatment consisted of a manualized psychodynamic-interpersonal (PI) psychotherapy to facilitate insight into the content and meaning of the nightmares. The intervention reduced the frequency and associated distress of the nightmares to zero. Follow-up at six months noted the long-term efficacy of the psychotherapy. The study is discussed with reference to the assimilation model of psychotherapeutic change.

  3. Hornbills can distinguish between primate alarm calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Hugo J.; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Slater, Peter J. B.

    2004-01-01

    Some mammals distinguish between and respond appropriately to the alarm calls of other mammal and bird species. However, the ability of birds to distinguish between mammal alarm calls has not been investigated. Diana monkeys (Cercopithecus diana) produce different alarm calls to two predators: crowned eagles (Stephanoaetus coronatus) and leopards (Panthera pardus). Yellow-casqued hornbills (Ceratogymna elata) are vulnerable to predation by crowned eagles but are not preyed on by leopards and might therefore be expected to respond to the Diana monkey eagle alarm call but not to the leopard alarm call. We compared responses of hornbills to playback of eagle shrieks, leopard growls, Diana monkey eagle alarm calls and Diana monkey leopard alarm calls and found that they distinguished appropriately between the two predator vocalizations as well as between the two Diana monkey alarm calls. We discuss possible mechanisms leading to these responses. PMID:15209110

  4. Distinguishing computable mixtures of quantum states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Ignacio H. López; Senno, Gabriel; de la Torre, Gonzalo; Larotonda, Miguel A.; Bendersky, Ariel; Figueira, Santiago; Acín, Antonio

    2018-05-01

    In this article we extend results from our previous work [Bendersky et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 230402 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.230402] by providing a protocol to distinguish in finite time and with arbitrarily high success probability any algorithmic mixture of pure states from the maximally mixed state. Moreover, we include an experimental realization, using a modified quantum key distribution setup, where two different random sequences of pure states are prepared; these sequences are indistinguishable according to quantum mechanics, but they become distinguishable when randomness is replaced with pseudorandomness within the experimental preparation process.

  5. Michael Tomasello: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Contributions are presented to persons who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology. One of the 2015 award winners is Michael Tomasello, who received this award for "outstanding empirical and theoretical contributions to understanding what makes the human mind unique. Michael Tomasello's pioneering research on the origins of social cognition has led to revolutionary insights in both developmental psychology and primate cognition." Tomasello's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Psicodinâmica do adolescente envolvido com drogas Psychodynamic of the adolescent involved with drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kessler

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O uso e o abuso de drogas pelos adolescentes é cada vez mais prevalente e traz desdobramentos sérios nos vários níveis de seu desenvolvimento e na sua família. O presente trabalho aborda as pesquisas no campo epidemiológico sobre fatores de proteção e de risco para o uso de drogas entre os jovens, que demonstram que fracassos tanto pessoais como familiares, além de eventos estressores durante a vida, estão mais associados com o uso de drogas. No entanto, a presença dos pais, a motivação pessoal e o monitoramento do adolescente, estão associados com o não uso. São descritos os principais estudos prospectivos já realizados nessa área. Em seguida, à luz do pensamento de diversos autores como H. Kohut, J. McDougall, H. Rosenfeld, C. Olievenstein, Khantzian, entre outros, apresentam-se teorias psicodinâmicas relacionadas ao problema das adições e sua evolução ao longo dos anos dentro do paradigma psicanalítico. A aplicação das técnicas baseadas nos modelos psicoterápicos de orientação analítica, em dependentes químicos, é também discutida.Drug abuse amongst adolescents is becoming increasingly prevalent placing serious consequences in their development and their relationship with family and society. The present paper discloses some epidemiological data on protectors and risk factors for drug abuse in this population demonstrating that personal and family stressors during early life are associated with drug abuse. On the other hand, engaged parents, personal motivation and constant monitoring are associated with avoidance of drugs. Major prospective studies in this field are also reviewed. Psychodynamic theories related to addiction and their evolution through the thoughts of authors such as H. Kohut, J. McDougall, H. Rosenfeld, C. Olievenstein, Khantzian, are analyzed. The application of the thecnics based on psychoanalytic psychotherapy in chemical dependents is also discussed.

  7. An investigation on the effectiveness of group psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality dimensions in divorced and non-divorce woman with low marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Mehryar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Present study is aimed at investigating the effectiveness of psychodynamic psychotherapy on the personality characteristics of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction. Materials and Methods: This clinical research conducted in the clients referred to Khane Roshan-e-Doost Psychological Studies Institute. They are evaluated clinically through interviews and questionnaires. So, 45 patients selected and divided in three equal groups of divorced women, non-divorced women (married with low marital satisfaction, and control group. Then, the groups of divorced and non-divorced women with low marital satisfaction participated in 24 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy. To collect data, Cattel’s 16-item questionnaire and Enrich marital satisfaction questionnaire were used. Data analyzed through multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA. Results: The results of this study indicated that training of psychodynamic psychotherapy caused a significant change in personality traits in divorced women and in married women with low marital satisfaction. Only in factor B (intelligent - low intelligence and factor Q1 (conservatism there was no significant difference between experimental and control groups. The results of correlation between personality factors and low marital satisfaction pointed that there is a significant relationship between all factors of personality except the factor of conservatism.  Conclusion: Based on the results, psychodynamic psychotherapy is effective in significant improvement of most of personality traits. Therefore, applying this method can be useful in improving marital personality traits, reducing divorce and maintaining mental health.

  8. Using Psychodynamic, Cognitive Behavioral, and Control Mastery Prototypes to Predict Change: A New Look at an Old Paradigm for Long-Term Single-Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pole, Nnamdi; Ablon, J. Stuart; O'Connor, Lynn E.

    2008-01-01

    This article illustrates a method of testing models of change in individual long-term psychotherapy cases. A depressed client was treated with 208 sessions of control mastery therapy (CMT), an unmanualized approach that integrates elements of psychodynamic therapy (PDT) and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Panels of experts developed prototypes…

  9. Rapid molecular technique to distinguish Fusarium species

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lodolo, EJ

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The nuclear DNA (nDNA) of different isolates of three closely related, toxin-producing Fusarium species, F. moniliforme, F. nygamai and F. napiforme, was compared to ascertain the sensitivity of a molecular method to distinguish these three species...

  10. Entropy of Mixing of Distinguishable Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozliak, Evguenii I.

    2014-01-01

    The molar entropy of mixing yields values that depend only on the number of mixing components rather than on their chemical nature. To explain this phenomenon using the logic of chemistry, this article considers mixing of distinguishable particles, thus complementing the well-known approach developed for nondistinguishable particles, for example,…

  11. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  12. The Non-linear Trajectory of Change in Play Profiles of Three Children in Psychodynamic Play Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfon, Sibel; Çavdar, Alev; Orsucci, Franco; Schiepek, Gunter K; Andreassi, Silvia; Giuliani, Alessandro; de Felice, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Even though there is substantial evidence that play based therapies produce significant change, the specific play processes in treatment remain unexamined. For that purpose, processes of change in long-term psychodynamic play therapy are assessed through a repeated systematic assessment of three children's "play profiles," which reflect patterns of organization among play variables that contribute to play activity in therapy, indicative of the children's coping strategies, and an expression of their internal world. The main aims of the study are to investigate the kinds of play profiles expressed in treatment, and to test whether there is emergence of new and more adaptive play profiles using dynamic systems theory as a methodological framework. Methods and Procedures: Each session from the long-term psychodynamic treatment (mean number of sessions = 55) of three 6-year-old good outcome cases presenting with Separation Anxiety were recorded, transcribed and coded using items from the Children's Play Therapy Instrument (CPTI), created to assess the play activity of children in psychotherapy, generating discrete and measurable units of play activity arranged along a continuum of four play profiles: "Adaptive," "Inhibited," "Impulsive," and "Disorganized." The play profiles were clustered through K -means Algorithm, generating seven discrete states characterizing the course of treatment and the transitions between these states were analyzed by Markov Transition Matrix, Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and odds ratios comparing the first and second halves of psychotherapy. Results: The Markov Transitions between the states scaled almost perfectly and also showed the ergodicity of the system, meaning that the child can reach any state or shift to another one in play. The RQA and odds ratios showed two trends of change, first concerning the decrease in the use of "less adaptive" strategies, second regarding the reduction of play interruptions. Conclusion

  13. ‘You have to keep your head on your shoulders’: A systems psychodynamic perspective on women leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude-Helene Mayer

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background:Women leaders within Higher Education Institutions (HEIs in South Africa have increased in numbers over the past years and they have changed the dynamics in these institutions. Yet, it is a subject that has hardly been explored from the perspective of women leaders. Aim:The aim of this study is to explore the experiences of women leaders in HEIs from a systems psychodynamic perspective using the conflict, identity, boundaries, authority, roles, task (CIBART model, a well-researched model to analyse systems psychodynamics and to gain a deeper understanding of (unconscious dynamics within organisations. Methods:This qualitative study is based on Dilthey‘s modern hermeneutics. Interviews were conducted with 23 women leaders from the Higher Education Resource Services South Africa, network across 8 HEIs. Observations were conducted in one organisation to support the data analysis and interpretation. Data were analysed through content analysis. Findings:Findings show that women leaders re-evaluate and reconstruct themselves constantly within organisations. This continuous re-evaluation and reconstruction become visible through the constructs of the CIBART model. The findings reveal deeper insights into systems psychodynamics, which considers anxiety within the system where women leaders seem to contain such anxiety by mobilising specific defence mechanisms. Certain diversity markers, such as race, gender, mother tongue, position within the organisation and generational belonging play a role in creating the dynamics. Women leaders’ experience of de-authorisation and role confusion impacts significantly on women leadership and their action towards ownership. Practical implications: The study provides new, valuable and context-specific insights into women leadership seen through the lens of the CIBART model, highlighting unconscious dynamics that need practical attention in the HEIs to empower women leaders for gender-specific leadership

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation distinguishes Alzheimer disease from frontotemporal dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benussi, Alberto; Di Lorenzo, Francesco; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cosseddu, Maura; Alberici, Antonella; Caratozzolo, Salvatore; Cotelli, Maria Sofia; Micheli, Anna; Rozzini, Luca; Depari, Alessandro; Flammini, Alessandra; Ponzo, Viviana; Martorana, Alessandro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Borroni, Barbara

    2017-08-15

    To determine whether a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) multiparadigm approach can be used to distinguish Alzheimer disease (AD) from frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Paired-pulse TMS was used to investigate short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF), long-interval intracortical inhibition, and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) to measure the activity of different intracortical circuits in patients with AD, patients with FTD, and healthy controls (HC). The primary outcome measures were sensitivity and specificity of TMS measures, derived from receiver operating curve analysis. A total of 175 participants met the inclusion criteria. We diagnosed 79 patients with AD, 64 patients with FTD, and 32 HC. We found that while patients with AD are characterized by a specific impairment of SAI, FTD shows a remarkable dysfunction of SICI-ICF intracortical circuits. With the use of the best indexes, TMS differentiated FTD from AD with a sensitivity of 91.8% and specificity of 88.6%, AD from HC with a sensitivity of 84.8% and specificity of 90.6%, and FTD from HC with a sensitivity of 90.2% and specificity of 78.1%. These results were confirmed in patients with mild disease. TMS is a noninvasive procedure that reliably distinguishes AD from FTD and HC and, if these findings are replicated in larger studies, could represent a useful additional diagnostic tool for clinical practice. This study provides Class III evidence that TMS measures can distinguish patients with AD from those with FTD. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Activity recognition from minimal distinguishing subsequence mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad; Pao, Hsing-Kuo

    2017-08-01

    Human activity recognition is one of the most important research topics in the era of Internet of Things. To separate different activities given sensory data, we utilize a Minimal Distinguishing Subsequence (MDS) mining approach to efficiently find distinguishing patterns among different activities. We first transform the sensory data into a series of sensor triggering events and operate the MDS mining procedure afterwards. The gap constraints are also considered in the MDS mining. Given the multi-class nature of most activity recognition tasks, we modify the MDS mining approach from a binary case to a multi-class one to fit the need for multiple activity recognition. We also study how to select the best parameter set including the minimal and the maximal support thresholds in finding the MDSs for effective activity recognition. Overall, the prediction accuracy is 86.59% on the van Kasteren dataset which consists of four different activities for recognition.

  16. How reliable are case formulations? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flinn, Lucinda; Braham, Louise; das Nair, Roshan

    2015-09-01

    This systematic literature review investigated the inter-rater and test-retest reliability of case formulations. We considered the reliability of case formulations across a range of theoretical modalities and the general quality of the primary research studies. A systematic search of five electronic databases was conducted in addition to reference list trawling to find studies that assessed the reliability of case formulation. This yielded 18 studies for review. A methodological quality assessment tool was developed to assess the quality of studies, which informed interpretation of the findings. Results indicated inter-rater reliability mainly ranging from slight (.1-.4) to substantial (.81-1.0). Some studies highlighted that training and increased experience led to higher levels of agreement. In general, psychodynamic formulations appeared to generate somewhat increased levels of reliability than cognitive or behavioural formulations; however, these studies also included methods that may have served to inflate reliability, for example, pooling the scores of judges. Only one study investigated the test-retest reliability of case formulations yielding support for the stability of formulations over a 3-month period. Reliability of case formulations is varied across a range of theoretical modalities, but can be improved; however, further research is required to strengthen our conclusions. Clinical implications: The findings from the review evidence some support for case formulation being congruent with the scientist-practitioner approach. The reliability of case formulation is likely to be improved through training and clinical experience. Limitations: The broad inclusion criteria may have introduced heterogeneity into the sample, which may have affected the results. Studies reviewed were limited to peer-reviewed journal articles written in the English language, which may represent a source of publication and selection bias. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Distinguishing hyperhidrosis and normal physiological sweat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorlacius, Linnea; Gyldenløve, Mette; Zachariae, Claus

    2015-01-01

    of this study was to establish reference intervals for normal physiological axillary and palmar sweat production. METHODS: Gravimetric testing was performed in 75 healthy control subjects. Subsequently, these results were compared with findings in a cohort of patients with hyperhidrosis and with the results...... 100 mg/5 min. CONCLUSIONS: A sweat production rate of 100 mg/5 min as measured by gravimetric testing may be a reasonable cut-off value for distinguishing axillary and palmar hyperhidrosis from normal physiological sweat production....

  18. Distinguishing the communicative functions of gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokinen, Kristiina; Navarretta, Costanza; Paggio, Patrizia

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the results of a machine learning experiment conducted on annotated gesture data from two case studies (Danish and Estonian). The data concern mainly facial displays, that are annotated with attributes relating to shape and dynamics, as well as communicative function....... The results of the experiments show that the granularity of the attributes used seems appropriate for the task of distinguishing the desired communicative functions. This is a promising result in view of a future automation of the annotation task....

  19. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S

    2012-02-01

    With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  20. Distinguishing Entailment and Presupposition Under Negation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatri Asti Putri Indarti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Distinguishing entailment from presupposition is quite difficult because their semantic relation seems to be similar. Both entailment and presupposition have an automatic relationship based on the context. However, those semantic relations can still be differentiated by using negation test to show whether a pair is entailment or presupposition. This research focuses on sentences and utterances. Thus, this research aims to analyze and test pairs of entailment and pairs of presupposition by using negation in utterances. The data were twelve comic strips from the Internet and they were analysed by using a negation test. The analysis shows that negation test is useful to test entailment and presupposition in the comic strips. It can be concluded that the difficulty of distinguishing pair of entailment and presupposition in the comic strip using negation test has been successfully solved. In this case, negation test is suitable to test entailment and presupposition. This research can be developed further by other researchers to distinguish entailment and presupposition by using another test if the negation test cannot be used to any further extent.   DOI: https://doi.org/10.24071/llt.2015.180104

  1. Familial identification: population structure and relationship distinguishability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rori V Rohlfs

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.

  2. A view from Riggs: treatment resistance and patient authority-IX. Integrative psychodynamic treatment of psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Jane G

    2008-01-01

    Psychotic spectrum disorders present treatment challenges for patients, families, and clinicians. This article addresses the history of the dualism in the field between biological and psychological approaches to mental disorders, and surveys the contemporary literature about the etiology and treatment of psychotic spectrum disorders. An integrative approach to treatment derived from work at Austen Riggs with previously treatment refractory patients with psychotic spectrum disorders is described that combines individual psycho- dynamic psychotherapy, psychopharmacology, family systems approaches, and intensive psychosocial engagement. Helping patients develop their own authority to join the treatment, use relationships for learning, and understand the meaning of their symptoms is central to the treatment at Austen Riggs. An extended case vignette of a patient diagnosed with a schizoaffective disorder is presented illustrating this integrative psychodynamic treatment approach.

  3. Observing the determinants of the psychotherapeutic process in depressive disorders. A clinical case study within a psychodynamic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmano eOasi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the relationship between depressive disorders, personality configurations, and mental functioning. A years treatment of a young man with the diagnosis of Depression is presented: the clinical and empirical points of view are described in depth through an assessment at the beginning and at one year after of an oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy. SCID I and II and HAMRS were administered to the patient in assessement phase. In the same phase he filled in BDI-II, and DEQ; the psychotherapist completed SWAP-200. These clinician instruments were used again after one year of the treatment. The PDM point of view is also presented. All sessions are audiotaped: twelve verbatim transcripts were coded with the Defense Mechanisms Rating Scale and CCRT. The results show a decrease in depressive symptoms, a change in some personality configurations, but a substantial invariance of the introjective profile, and a modification in mental functioning.

  4. Outcomes of specific interpersonal problems for binge eating disorder: comparing group psychodynamic interpersonal psychotherapy and group cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Balfour, Louise; Presniak, Michelle D; Bissada, Hany

    2012-04-01

    We assessed whether an attachment-based treatment, Group Psychodynamic Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) had a greater impact compared to Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) on Cold/Distant and Intrusive/Needy interpersonal problems. Ninety-five individuals with Binge Eating Disorder (BED) were randomized to GPIP or GCBT and assessed at pre-, post-, and six months post-treatment. Both therapies resulted in a significant decrease in all eight interpersonal problem subscales except the Nonassertive subscale. GPIP resulted in a greater reduction in the Cold/Distant subscale compared to GCBT, but no differences were found for changes in the Intrusive/Needy subscale. GPIP may be most relevant for those with BED who have Cold/Distant interpersonal problems and attachment avoidance.

  5. Distinguishing between symbiotic stars and planetary nebulae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iłkiewicz, K.; Mikołajewska, J.

    2017-10-01

    Context. The number of known symbiotic stars (SySt) is still significantly lower than their predicted population. One of the main problems in finding the total population of SySt is the fact that their spectrum can be confused with other objects, such as planetary nebulae (PNe) or dense H II regions. This problem is reinforced by the fact that in a significant fraction of established SySt the emission lines used to distinguish them from other objects are not present. Aims: We aim at finding new diagnostic diagrams that could help separate SySt from PNe. Additionally, we examine a known sample of extragalactic PNe for candidate SySt. Methods: We employed emission line fluxes of known SySt and PNe from the literature. Results: We found that among the forbidden lines in the optical region of spectrum, only the [O III] and [N II] lines can be used as a tool for distinguishing between SySt and PNe, which is consistent with the fact that they have the highest critical densities. The most useful diagnostic that we propose is based on He I lines, which are more common and stronger in SySt than forbidden lines. All these useful diagnostic diagrams are electron density indicators that better distinguish PNe and ionized symbiotic nebulae. Moreover, we found six new candidate SySt in the Large Magellanic Cloud and one in M 81. If confirmed, the candidate in M 81 would be the farthest known SySt thus far.

  6. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  7. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spehner, Dominique [Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, Institut Fourier, F-38000 Grenoble, France and Laboratoire de Physique et Modélisation des Milieux Condensés, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-07-15

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature.

  8. Quantum correlations and distinguishability of quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spehner, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    A survey of various concepts in quantum information is given, with a main emphasis on the distinguishability of quantum states and quantum correlations. Covered topics include generalized and least square measurements, state discrimination, quantum relative entropies, the Bures distance on the set of quantum states, the quantum Fisher information, the quantum Chernoff bound, bipartite entanglement, the quantum discord, and geometrical measures of quantum correlations. The article is intended both for physicists interested not only by collections of results but also by the mathematical methods justifying them, and for mathematicians looking for an up-to-date introductory course on these subjects, which are mainly developed in the physics literature

  9. Distinguished figures in mechanism and machine science

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book is composed of chapters that focus specifically on technological developments by distinguished figures in the history of MMS (Mechanism and Machine Science).  Biographies of well-known scientists are also included to describe their efforts and experiences, and surveys of their work and achievements, and a modern interpretation of their legacy are presented. After the first two volumes, the papers in this third volume again cover a wide range within the field of the History of Mechanical Engineering with specific focus on MMS and will be of interest and motivation to the work (historical or not) of many.

  10. Introduction to the JPA special issue: Can the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual put the complex person back at the center-stage of personality assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huprich, Steven K; Meyer, Gregory J

    2011-03-01

    We briefly introduce this special issue, which focuses both on the Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual (PDM) and the practice of idiographic, depth-oriented personality assessment. The 7 articles in this issue are diverse in scope but all address these 2 important topics. To set the stage, the special issue opens with a description of the history behind, the purposes of, and the steps taken to develop the PDM, and the next article provides a compelling illustration of depth-oriented personality assessment in the context of a long-term course of psychodynamic treatment. The third and fourth articles describe how the PDM model fosters attention to dynamic processes, not just overt symptoms, and they articulate the challenges and benefits of integrating this model into both the revitalized practice of assessment and diagnosis and the research avenues that will evaluate its validity and utility. The fifth article provides a broad overview of interesting experimental research on implicit processes from personality, social, and cognitive psychology, with implications for understanding and assessing dynamic processes. The sixth article illustrates how a PDM-based assessment of an adolescent boy helpfully contributed to his psychodynamic therapy. Finally, the issue closes with an illuminating article describing a PDM-based training model for the graduated development of assessment and diagnosis skills in a doctoral program. Overall, this special issue helps show how the PDM can invigorate multimethod personality assessment by placing the complex idiographic understanding of a person at the center-stage in the assessment process.

  11. A simple chromosomal marker can reliably distinguishes Poncirus from Citrus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasileiro-Vidal, A C; Dos Santos-Serejo, J A; Soares Filho, W Dos S; Guerra, M

    2007-03-01

    Several chromosome types have been recognized in Citrus and related genera by chromomycin A(3 )(CMA) banding patterns and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). They can be used to characterize cultivars and species or as markers in hybridization and backcrossing experiments. In the present work, characterization of six cultivars of P. trifoliata ("Barnes", "Fawcett", "Flying Dragon", "Pomeroy", "Rubidoux", "USDA") and one P. trifoliata x C. limonia hybrid was performed by sequential analyses of CMA banding and FISH using 5S and 45S rDNA as probes. All six cultivars showed a similar CMA(+) banding pattern with the karyotype formula 4B + 8D + 6F. The capital letters indicate chromosomal types: B, a chromosome with one telomeric and one proximal band; D, with only one telomeric band; F, without bands. In situ hybridization labeling was also similar among cultivars. Three chromosome pairs displayed a closely linked set of 5S and 45S rDNA sites, two of them co-located with the proximal band of the B type chromosomes (B/5S-45S) and the third one co-located with the terminal band of a D pair (D/5S-45S). The B/5S-45S chromosome has never been found in any citrus accessions investigated so far. Therefore, this B chromosome can be used as a marker to recognize the intergeneric Poncirus x Citrus hybrids. The intergeneric hybrid analyzed here displayed the karyotype formula 4B + 8D + 6F, with two chromosome types B/5S-45S and two D/5S-45S. The karyotype formula and the presence of two B/5S-45S chromosomes clearly indicate that the plant investigated is a symmetric hybrid. It also demonstrates the suitability of karyotype analyses to differentiate zygotic embryos or somatic cell fusions involving trifoliate orange germplasm.

  12. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  13. Inequality indicators and distinguishability in economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, J.; Martinás, K.

    2008-03-01

    Money has a material counterpart, such as banknotes or coins, and an ideal expression, monetary units. In the latter case, it is boson-like: individual incomes have no a priori limit, and their units are not distinguishable from each other in economic processes. Individuals, on the other hand, usually occupy one job at a time which makes them akin to fermions. We apply to individual incomes down-to-earth statistical calculations, similar to those for quantum particles, and obtain expressions for the cumulative distribution function, probability density and Lorenz function resulting from the simultaneous use of both statistics. They provide extremely good fits to corresponding data on French income distributions. On this basis, we propose a new entropic inequality indicator.

  14. Distinguishing Asthma Phenotypes Using Machine Learning Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Rebecca; Rattray, Magnus; Prosperi, Mattia; Custovic, Adnan

    2015-07-01

    Asthma is not a single disease, but an umbrella term for a number of distinct diseases, each of which are caused by a distinct underlying pathophysiological mechanism. These discrete disease entities are often labelled as 'asthma endotypes'. The discovery of different asthma subtypes has moved from subjective approaches in which putative phenotypes are assigned by experts to data-driven ones which incorporate machine learning. This review focuses on the methodological developments of one such machine learning technique-latent class analysis-and how it has contributed to distinguishing asthma and wheezing subtypes in childhood. It also gives a clinical perspective, presenting the findings of studies from the past 5 years that used this approach. The identification of true asthma endotypes may be a crucial step towards understanding their distinct pathophysiological mechanisms, which could ultimately lead to more precise prevention strategies, identification of novel therapeutic targets and the development of effective personalized therapies.

  15. Psicoterapia psicodinâmica em grupo para fobia social generalizada Psychodynamic group treatment for generalized social phobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Zippin Knijnik

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo é verificar a efetividade do tratamento psicodinâmico em grupo de pacientes com fobia social generalizada. MÉTODOS: 30 pacientes foram incluídos em um estudo randomizado, simples-cego, comparando Terapia Psicodinâmica de Grupo (TPG com um Grupo de Controle Placebo com Credibilidade (CPC. A TPG foi conduzida em 12 sessões de terapia de orientação psicodinâmica em grupo. Os pacientes do grupo controle receberam um pacote de aulas-discussões e tratamento de apoio por 12 semanas, que foi comparado à TPG. Todos os participantes preencheram a Escala de Liebowitz para Ansiedade Social (LSAS, a Escala Hamilton de Ansiedade (HAM-A e a Escala de Impressão Clínica Global (CGI, na entrevista inicial e na 12ª semana de tratamento. Os dados foram analisados com uma ANOVA de medidas repetidas. Pacientes em vigência de tratamento farmacológico ou psicoterápico foram excluídos. RESULTADOS: Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora na maioria das medidas. Na LSAS, os pacientes da TPG obtiveram melhora superior aos do grupo controle, ao cabo de 12 semanas (F1,28=4.84, p=0.036. Nas medidas basais dos sujeitos que completaram o estudo, não houve diferença entre os grupos em variáveis demográficas e de desfecho. CONCLUSÃO: Neste estudo, a TPG foi superior ao tratamento placebo com credibilidade no tratamento da fobia social generalizada, em um ensaio clínico randomizado, simples-cego, de 12 semanas.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of psychodynamic group therapy in patients with generalized social phobia. METHODS: Thirty patients were included in a randomized single-blind clinical trial comparing psychodynamic group treatment (PGT with a credible placebo control group (CPC. PGT was carried out within a 12-session psychodynamically-oriented group psychotherapy. Control patients received a treatment package of lecture-discussion and support group for 12 weeks which was compared to PGT

  16. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  17. Focal psychodynamic therapy, cognitive behaviour therapy, and optimised treatment as usual in outpatients with anorexia nervosa (ANTOP study): randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Stephan; Wild, Beate; Groß, Gaby; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Teufel, Martin; Schellberg, Dieter; Giel, Katrin E; de Zwaan, Martina; Dinkel, Andreas; Herpertz, Stephan; Burgmer, Markus; Löwe, Bernd; Tagay, Sefik; von Wietersheim, Jörn; Zeeck, Almut; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Schauenburg, Henning; Herzog, Wolfgang

    2014-01-11

    Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for patients with anorexia nervosa, although evidence of efficacy is weak. The Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of OutPatients (ANTOP) study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of two manual-based outpatient treatments for anorexia nervosa--focal psychodynamic therapy and enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy--versus optimised treatment as usual. The ANTOP study is a multicentre, randomised controlled efficacy trial in adults with anorexia nervosa. We recruited patients from ten university hospitals in Germany. Participants were randomly allocated to 10 months of treatment with either focal psychodynamic therapy, enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy, or optimised treatment as usual (including outpatient psychotherapy and structured care from a family doctor). The primary outcome was weight gain, measured as increased body-mass index (BMI) at the end of treatment. A key secondary outcome was rate of recovery (based on a combination of weight gain and eating disorder-specific psychopathology). Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered at http://isrctn.org, number ISRCTN72809357. Of 727 adults screened for inclusion, 242 underwent randomisation: 80 to focal psychodynamic therapy, 80 to enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy, and 82 to optimised treatment as usual. At the end of treatment, 54 patients (22%) were lost to follow-up, and at 12-month follow-up a total of 73 (30%) had dropped out. At the end of treatment, BMI had increased in all study groups (focal psychodynamic therapy 0·73 kg/m(2), enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy 0·93 kg/m(2), optimised treatment as usual 0·69 kg/m(2)); no differences were noted between groups (mean difference between focal psychodynamic therapy and enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy -0·45, 95% CI -0·96 to 0·07; focal psychodynamic therapy vs optimised treatment as usual -0·14, -0·68 to 0·39; enhanced cognitive behaviour therapy vs optimised treatment as usual -0·30

  18. Functional neuroimaging with default mode network regions distinguishes PTSD from TBI in a military veteran population

    OpenAIRE

    Raji, Cyrus A.; Willeumier, Kristen; Taylor, Derek; Tarzwell, Robert; Newberg, Andrew; Henderson, Theodore A.; Amen, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    PTSD and TBI are two common conditions in veteran populations that can be difficult to distinguish clinically. The default mode network (DMN) is abnormal in a multitude of neurological and psychiatric disorders. We hypothesize that brain perfusion SPECT can be applied to diagnostically separate PTSD from TBI reliably in a veteran cohort using DMN regions. A group of 196 veterans (36 with PTSD, 115 with TBI, 45 with PTSD/TBI) were selected from a large multi-site population cohort of individua...

  19. Integral and Multidimensional Linear Distinguishers with Correlation Zero

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdanov, Andrey; Leander, Gregor; Nyberg, Kaisa

    2012-01-01

    Zero-correlation cryptanalysis uses linear approximations holding with probability exactly 1/2. In this paper, we reveal fundamental links of zero-correlation distinguishers to integral distinguishers and multidimensional linear distinguishers. We show that an integral implies zero-correlation li...... weak key assumptions. © International Association for Cryptologic Research 2012....

  20. Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy in Patients with “Male Depression” Syndrome, Hopelessness, and Suicide Risk: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Angeletti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives and Methods. This was an observational study of the efficacy of short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP in a sample of 35 (30 women and 5 men patients with moderate-to-severe “male depression” (Gotland Scale for Male Depression (GSMD ≥ 13 comorbid with unipolar mood disorder (dysthymia and major depression or anxiety disorder. Outcome measures were GSMD and BHS (Beck Hopelessness Scale score changes from baseline. Results. Patients had a strong response to STPP on the GSMD (estimated mean score change (± SE=−9.08 ± 2.74;P<0.01; partial eta squared  =0.50, but not on the BHS (estimated mean score change (± SE=−0.92 ± 1.55;P=0.57; partial eta squared  =0.03. BHS score changes were significantly associated with GSMD score changes (Pearson's r=0.56; P<0.001, even when controlling for the severity of hopelessness at the baseline (partial r=0.62; P<0.001. Conclusions. STPP proved to be effective in patients suffering from “male depression” although hopelessness was only marginally reduced by this treatment which points to the need to better understand how STPP can be involved in the reduction of suicide risk.

  1. The systems psychodynamic experiences of first-year master’s students in industrial and organisational psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Cilliers

    2012-03-01

    Research purpose: The purpose of this research was to describe the systems psychodynamic experiences of first-year master’s students in Industrial and Organisational Psychology. Motivation for the study: Academic staff members tend to forget their own experiences as master’s students, lose touch with their students’ experiences, lose empathy and treat student groups in mechanistic ways. Although the students’ conscious tasks and roles are relatively clear, very little is known about their unconscious experiences. Research design, approach and method: The researchers used qualitative research involving a case study. They collected the data and conducted their analyses by administering a Listening Post (LP and discourse analysis. Two themes emerged, from which the researchers formulated their working and research hypotheses. Main findings: The themes related to anxiety and basic assumption behaviour. The research hypothesis referred to students’ introjections of emotional incompetence. This resulted in exhaustion. Practical/managerial implications: More focused attention to the students’ emotional experiences, by themselves and by academic staff members, could conserve students’ energy for their academic work and relationships. Contribution/value-add: Being master’s students consumes emotional energy that jeopardises students’ academic work and forming relationships. Being aware of these and managing them could help students to achieve better academically.

  2. Focus is key: Panic-focused interpretations are associated with symptomatic improvement in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, John R; Solomonov, Nili; Derubeis, Robert J; Phillips, Alexander C; Busch, Fredric N; Barber, Jacques P; Chambless, Dianne L; Milrod, Barbara L

    2018-04-18

    This study examines whether, in panic-focused psychodynamic psychotherapy (PFPP), interpretations of conflicts that underlie anxiety (panic-focused or PF-interpretations) are specifically associated with subsequent panic disorder (PD) symptom improvement, over and above the provision of non-symptom-focused interpretations. Technique use in Sessions 2 and 10 of a 24-session PFPP protocol was assessed for the 65 patients with complete outcome data randomized to PFPP in a two-site trial of psychotherapies for PD. Sessions were rated in 15-min segments for therapists' use of PF-interpretations, non-PF-interpretations, and PF-clarifications. Robust regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between these interventions and symptom change subsequent to the sampled session. Interpersonal problems were examined as a moderator of the relationship of PF-interpretations to symptom change. At Session 10, but not at Session 2, patients who received a higher degree of PF-interpretations experienced greater subsequent improvement in panic symptoms. Non-PF-interpretations were not predictive. Patients with more interpersonal distress benefitted particularly from the use of PF-interpretations at Session 10. By the middle phase of PFPP, panic-focused interpretations may drive subsequent improvements in panic symptoms, especially among patients with higher interpersonal distress. Interpretations of conflict absent a panic focus may not be especially helpful.

  3. [About the heterogeneity in adolescents with gender identity disorder: differential importance of psychiatric comorbidity and considerations of individual psychodynamics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Alexander; Beier, Klaus M; Vukorepa, Julia; Mersmann, Maik; Albiez, Verena

    2014-01-01

    Gender identity disorder (GID), gender dysphoria (GD) respectively, is considered a multifactorial disease whose etiology is subject to complex bio-psycho-social conditions, each with different weighting. As a result, therapists, who treat children and adolescents with GID/GD, have to deal with a very heterogeneous group with individually varying causes, differing psychopathology and varying disease progression. In addition to general psychiatric aspects of development, particularly psychiatric comorbidity, but also the different individual psychodynamics--i. e. the specific constellation of conflicts and possible ego deficits and structural deficits in the learning history of the person are of differential importance. In regard to the indication for gender reassignment measures this sometimes is relevant for the decision. The difficulties arising for decision making and the usefulness of a systematic evaluation of case reports as a basis for further optimization of the treatment recommendations are illustrated by two case reports. In the course of this, also the disadvantages and potential dangers of too early diagnostic definition and introduction of gender somato-medical and legal measures are shown exemplarily.

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Experienced Impaired Sexual Functioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this clinical follow-up study, we examined the effect of clinical holistic medicine (psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients with poor self-assessed sexual functioning and found that this problem could be solved in 41.67% of the patients ((95% CI: 27.61–56.7%; 1.75 < NNT < 3.62, p = 0.05. The bodywork was inspired by the Marion Rosen method and helped the patients to confront painful emotions from childhood trauma(s, and thus accelerated and deepened the therapy. The goal of therapy was the healing of the whole life of the patient through Antonovsky-salutogenesis. In this process, rehabilitation of the character and purpose of life of the patient was essential, and assisted the patient to recover his or her sense of coherence (existential coherence. We conclude that clinical holistic medicine is the treatment of choice if the patient is ready to explore and assume responsibility for his or her existence (true self, and willing to struggle emotionally in the therapy to reach this important goal. When the patient heals existentially, quality of life, health, and ability to function in general are improved at the same time. The therapy was “mindful” in its focus on existential and spiritual issues. The patients received in average 14.8 sessions at the cost of 1,188 EURO.

  5. Working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A longitudinal actor partner interdependence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Hill, Clara E; Gelso, Charles J; Baumann, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) to examine the dyadic associations of 74 clients and 23 therapists in their evaluations of working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement over time in ongoing psychodynamic or interpersonal psychotherapy. There were significant actor effects for both therapists and clients, with the participant's own ratings of working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their own evaluations of session quality. There were significant client partner effects, with clients' working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their therapists' evaluations of session quality. The client partner real relationship effect was stronger in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' real relationship ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' working alliance ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings when clients made greater improvement than when clients made lesser improvement. For clients' session outcome ratings, there were complex three-way interactions, such that both Client real relationship and working alliance interacted with client improvement and time in treatment to predict clients' session quality. These findings strongly suggest both individual and partner effects when clients and therapists evaluate psychotherapy process and outcome. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. What hath freud wrought? Current confusion and controversies about the clinical practice of psychoanalysis and psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chessick, Richard D

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the current state of psychoanalysis and the challenges to the fundamental premises of Freud's psychoanalysis by those who have shifted to relationship or so-called two-person psychologies in our field. The author begins by briefly describing a parallel to the recent history of psychoanalysis in the sudden rise and fall of scholastic philosophy in the 14th century. He then focuses on contemporary attacks on Freud's psychoanalysis as a science, based on the contention by two-person psychologists that free association by the patient and evenly hovering attention by the analyst are actually impossible. He reviews Freud's idea of psychoanalysis, discusses psychodynamic psychotherapy, both conceived as scientific treatment procedures, and describes the current assault on their metapsychological and epistemological foundations. Returning to the parallel between what happened to medieval scholasticism and what has happened to psychoanalysis, he examines why this happened, and the resulting fragmentation of psychoanalytic practice. The article concludes with suggestions for the integration of various schools of psychoanalysis, reminding us of Benjamin Franklin's warning: "We must, indeed, all hang together or, most assuredly, we shall all hang separately."

  7. Is psychodynamic psychotherapy an effective intervention for individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR of psychosis?: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report a case and to discuss the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PD-P to treat individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR of psychosis. METHODS: An individual at UHR was followed up for 24 months. The baseline evaluation included a psychiatric interview, the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS, the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS, and neuropsychological assessment. He underwent weekly sessions of PD-P for 12 months and was followed up for 12 months after the end of PD-P. The evaluations were at baseline, after 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. No medication was prescribed during the 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: The prodromal symptoms remitted. The initial total score on the SIPS/SOPS was 37 points. After the first 12 months of PD-P, there was a reduction to 12 points on the SIPS/SOPS score, which stabilized in the 24-month follow-up. There was also a slight improvement in his performance on the neuropsychological evaluations. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests that PD-P can reduce prodromal symptoms; nevertheless, a better understanding of the specificity and efficacy of PD-P as an option of treatment for UHR individuals is needed.

  8. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. How bees distinguish black from white

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horridge A

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Adrian Horridge Biological Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Bee eyes have photoreceptors for ultraviolet, green, and blue wavelengths that are excited by reflected white but not by black. With ultraviolet reflections excluded by the apparatus, bees can learn to distinguish between black, gray, and white, but theories of color vision are clearly of no help in explaining how they succeed. Human vision sidesteps the issue by constructing black and white in the brain. Bees have quite different and accessible mechanisms. As revealed by extensive tests of trained bees, bees learned two strong signals displayed on either target. The first input was the position and a measure of the green receptor modulation at the vertical edges of a black area, which included a measure of the angular width between the edges of black. They also learned the average position and total amount of blue reflected from white areas. These two inputs were sufficient to help decide which of two targets held the reward of sugar solution, but the bees cared nothing for the black or white as colors, or the direction of contrast at black/white edges. These findings provide a small step toward understanding, modeling, and implementing in silicon the anti-intuitive visual system of the honeybee, in feeding behavior. Keywords: vision, detectors, black/white, color, visual processing

  10. Distinguishing modified gravity from dark energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertschinger, Edmund; Zukin, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The acceleration of the Universe can be explained either through dark energy or through the modification of gravity on large scales. In this paper we investigate modified gravity models and compare their observable predictions with dark energy models. Modifications of general relativity are expected to be scale independent on superhorizon scales and scale dependent on subhorizon scales. For scale-independent modifications, utilizing the conservation of the curvature scalar and a parametrized post-Newtonian formulation of cosmological perturbations, we derive results for large-scale structure growth, weak gravitational lensing, and cosmic microwave background anisotropy. For scale-dependent modifications, inspired by recent f(R) theories we introduce a parametrization for the gravitational coupling G and the post-Newtonian parameter γ. These parametrizations provide a convenient formalism for testing general relativity. However, we find that if dark energy is generalized to include both entropy and shear stress perturbations, and the dynamics of dark energy is unknown a priori, then modified gravity cannot in general be distinguished from dark energy using cosmological linear perturbations.

  11. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. LDRD 149045 final report distinguishing documents.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Scott A.

    2010-09-01

    This LDRD 149045 final report describes work that Sandians Scott A. Mitchell, Randall Laviolette, Shawn Martin, Warren Davis, Cindy Philips and Danny Dunlavy performed in 2010. Prof. Afra Zomorodian provided insight. This was a small late-start LDRD. Several other ongoing efforts were leveraged, including the Networks Grand Challenge LDRD, and the Computational Topology CSRF project, and the some of the leveraged work is described here. We proposed a sentence mining technique that exploited both the distribution and the order of parts-of-speech (POS) in sentences in English language documents. The ultimate goal was to be able to discover 'call-to-action' framing documents hidden within a corpus of mostly expository documents, even if the documents were all on the same topic and used the same vocabulary. Using POS was novel. We also took a novel approach to analyzing POS. We used the hypothesis that English follows a dynamical system and the POS are trajectories from one state to another. We analyzed the sequences of POS using support vector machines and the cycles of POS using computational homology. We discovered that the POS were a very weak signal and did not support our hypothesis well. Our original goal appeared to be unobtainable with our original approach. We turned our attention to study an aspect of a more traditional approach to distinguishing documents. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) turns documents into bags-of-words then into mixture-model points. A distance function is used to cluster groups of points to discover relatedness between documents. We performed a geometric and algebraic analysis of the most popular distance functions and made some significant and surprising discoveries, described in a separate technical report.

  13. Objective threshold for distinguishing complicated tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin Kyun; Jung, Won Dea [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Estimating the likelihood of human error in a reliable manner is really important for enhancing the safety of a large process control system such as Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). In this regard, from the point of view of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), various kinds of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) methods have been used for several decades in order to systematically evaluate the effect of human error on the safety of NPPs. However, one of the recurrence issues is to determine the level of an important Performance Shaping Factor (PSF) by using a clear and objective manner with respect to the context of a given task. Unfortunately, there is no such criterion for a certain PSF such as the complexity of a task. For this reason, in this study, an objective criterion that is helpful for identifying a complicated task is suggested based on the Task Complexity (TACOM) measure. To this end, subjective difficulty scores rated by high speed train drivers are collected. After that, subjective difficulty scores are compared with the associated TACOM scores being quantified based on tasks to be conducted by high speed train drivers. As a result, it is expected that high speed train drivers feel a significant difficulty when they are faced with tasks of which the TACOM scores are greater than 4.2. Since TACOM measure is a kind of general tool to quantify the complexity of tasks to be done by human operators, it is promising to conclude that this value can be regarded as a common threshold representing what a complicated task is.

  14. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  15. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Experienced Physical Illness and Chronic Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s. Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5, a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality of life (QOL1, and four questions on self-rated ability to love and to function sexually, socially, and at work (ability to sustain a full-time job. Most of the patients had chronic pain that could not be alleviated with drugs. Results showed that 31 patients with the experience of being severely physically ill (mostly from chronic pain, in spite of having consulted their own general practitioner, entered the study. The holistic approach and body therapy accelerated the therapy dramatically and no significant side effects were detected. After the intervention, 38.7% did not feel ill (1.73 < NNT < 4.58 (p = 0.05. Psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork can help patients. When the patients responded to the therapy, the self-assessed mental health, relationship with partner, ability to work, self-assessed quality of life, relationships in general, measured QOL (with the validated questionnaire QOL5, and life's total state (mean of health, QOL and ability were significantly improved, statistically and clinically. Most importantly, all aspects of life were improved simultaneously, due to induction of Antonovsky-salutogenesis. The patients received in average 20 sessions over 14 months at a cost of 1600 EURO. For the treatment responders, the treatment seemingly provided lasting benefits.

  16. Internet-based affect-focused psychodynamic therapy for social anxiety disorder: A randomized controlled trial with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Robert; Hesslow, Thomas; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Jansson, Angelica; Jonsson, Lina; Färdig, Smilla; Karlsson, Josefine; Hesser, Hugo; Frederick, Ronald J; Lilliengren, Peter; Carlbring, Per; Andersson, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with considerable individual suffering and societal costs. Although there is ample evidence for the efficacy of cognitive behavior therapy, recent studies suggest psychodynamic therapy may also be effective in treating SAD. Furthermore, Internet-based psychodynamic therapy (IPDT) has shown promising results for addressing mixed depression and anxiety disorders. However, no study has yet investigated the effects of IPDT specifically for SAD. This paper describes a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a 10-week, affect-focused IPDT protocol for SAD, compared with a wait-list control group. Long-term effects were also estimated by collecting follow-up data, 6, 12, and 24 months after the end of therapy. A total of 72 individuals meeting diagnostic criteria for DSM-IV social anxiety disorder were included. The primary outcome was the self-report version of Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mixed model analyses using the full intention-to-treat sample revealed a significant interaction effect of group and time, suggesting a larger effect in the treatment group than in the wait-list control. A between-group effect size Cohen's d = 1.05 (95% [CI]: [0.62, 1.53]) was observed at termination. Treatment gains were maintained at the 2-year follow-up, as symptom levels in the treated group continued to decrease significantly. The findings suggest that Internet-based affect-focused psychodynamic therapy is a promising treatment for social anxiety disorder. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christiane; Haase, Laura; Seidel, Dorothea; Bayerl, Martin; Gallinat, Jürgen; Herrmann, Uwe; Dannecker, Karin

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic episodes and justify

  18. A pilot RCT of psychodynamic group art therapy for patients in acute psychotic episodes: feasibility, impact on symptoms and mentalising capacity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Montag

    Full Text Available This pilot study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of an assessor-blind, randomised controlled trial of psychodynamic art therapy for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia, and to generate preliminary data on the efficacy of this intervention during acute psychotic episodes. Fifty-eight inpatients with DSM-diagnoses of schizophrenia were randomised to either 12 twice-weekly sessions of psychodynamic group art therapy plus treatment as usual or to standard treatment alone. Primary outcome criteria were positive and negative psychotic and depressive symptoms as well as global assessment of functioning. Secondary outcomes were mentalising function, estimated with the Reading the mind in the eyes test and the Levels of emotional awareness scale, self-efficacy, locus of control, quality of life and satisfaction with care. Assessments were made at baseline, at post-treatment and at 12 weeks' follow-up. At 12 weeks, 55% of patients randomised to art therapy, and 66% of patients receiving treatment as usual were examined. In the per-protocol sample, art therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean reduction of positive symptoms and improved psychosocial functioning at post-treatment and follow-up, and with a greater mean reduction of negative symptoms at follow-up compared to standard treatment. The significant reduction of positive symptoms at post-treatment was maintained in an attempted intention-to-treat analysis. There were no group differences regarding depressive symptoms. Of secondary outcome parameters, patients in the art therapy group showed a significant improvement in levels of emotional awareness, and particularly in their ability to reflect about others' emotional mental states. This is one of the first randomised controlled trials on psychodynamic group art therapy for patients with acute psychotic episodes receiving hospital treatment. Results prove the feasibility of trials on art therapy during acute psychotic

  19. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful,Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork in the Treatment of Experienced Mental Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP complemented with bodywork improved 31 of 54 patients (57.4%, 95% CI: 43.21–70.77% who rated themselves mentally ill before treatment. Calculated from this we find 1.41 500. Of the 54 patients, 40% had already had traditional treatment that did not help them. Bodywork helped the patients to confront repressed painful feelings from childhood and this seemingly accelerated and improved the therapy. The patients received in average 20 sessions over 14 months at a cost of 1600 EURO. For the treatment responders, all measured aspects of life (on a five point Likert Scale improved significantly, simultaneously, and radically: somatic health (from 2.9 to 2.3, self-esteem/relationship to self (from 3.5 to 2.3, relationship to partner (from 4.7 to 2.9 [no partner was rated as “6”], relationship to friends (from 2.5 to 2.0, ability to love (from 3.8 to 2.4, self-assessed sexual ability (from 3.5 to 2.4, self-assessed social ability (from 3.2 to 2.1, self-assessed working ability (from 3.3 to 2.4, and self-assessed quality of life (from 4.0 to 2.3. Quality of life as measured with QOL5 improved (from 3.6 to 2.3 on a scale from 1 to 5; p < 0.001. This general improvement strongly indicated that the patient had healed existentially, i.e., had experienced what Aaron Antonovsky (1923–1994 called “salutogenesis”, defined as the process exactly the opposite of pathogenesis. For the treatment responders, the treatment provided lasting benefits, without the negative side effects of drugs. A lasting, positive effect might also prevent many different types of problems in the future.

  20. Neural activity in relation to clinically derived personality syndromes in depression using a psychodynamic fMRI paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenja eTaubner

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The heterogeneity between patients with depression cannot be captured adequately with existing descriptive systems of diagnosis and neurobiological models of depression. Furthermore, considering the highly individual nature of depression, the application of general stimuli in past research efforts may not capture the essence of the disorder. This study aims to identify subtypes of depression by using empirically-derived personality-syndromes, and to explore neural correlates of the derived personality syndromes.Method: In the present exploratory study an individually tailored and psychodynamically based fMRI paradigm using dysfunctional relationship patterns was presented to 20 chronically depressed patients. Results from the Shedler-Westen-Assessment-Procedure (SWAP-200 were analyzed by Q-factor analysis to identify clinically relevant subgroups of depression and related brain activation.Results: The principle component analysis of SWAP-200 items from all 20 patients lead to a 2-factor solution: Depressive Personality and Emotional-Hostile-Externalizing Personality. Both factors were used in a whole-brain correlational analysis but only the second factor yielded significant positive correlations in four regions: A large cluster in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, the left ventral striatum, a small cluster in the left temporal pole and another small cluster in the right middle frontal gyrus. Discussion: The degree to which patients with depression score high on the factor Emotional-Hostile-Externalizing Personality correlated with relatively higher activity in three key areas involved in emotion processing, evaluation of reward/punishment, negative cognitions, depressive pathology and social knowledge (OFC, ventral striatum, temporal pole. Results may contribute to an alternative description of neural correlates of depression showing differential brain activation dependent on the extent of specific personality syndromes in

  1. Clinical Severity as a Moderator of Outcome in Psychodynamic and Dialectical Behavior Therapies for Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Zeynep; Vinnars, Bo; Gorman, Bernard S; Wilczek, Alexander; Åsberg, Marie; Barber, Jacques P

    2017-12-14

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of initial level of psychiatric severity on treatment outcome in psychodynamic therapy and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder (BPD). It was hypothesized that DBT would lead to better outcome for patients with high psychiatric severity, whereas dynamic treatment would lead to better outcome for patients with lower psychiatric severity. Data from the 5th-year follow-up of the Stockholm City Council's and the Karolinska Institute's Psychotherapy Project were used in the present study. A total of 106 female patients diagnosed with BPD with at least 2 past suicide attempts were randomized into object-relational psychotherapy (ORP; based on transference-focused psychotherapy), DBT, and treatment as usual. Patients' baseline global severity index was used as a moderator. Global Assessment of Functioning (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition [American Psychiatric Association, 1994]) was used to examine outcome. There was a significant 3-way interaction of Time × Treatment × Severity. Post hoc analyses suggested that patients with lower levels of severity had significantly better outcomes in object-relational psychotherapy. For patients with higher severity, the 3 treatments resulted in similar outcomes in terms of level of functioning. Outcome of treatment for BPD might differ significantly for patients depending on their initial levels of overall psychiatric severity. If our findings are replicated for patients with low severity and supported for a high-severity sample, psychiatric severity can be used as a low-cost and effective tool to match patients with BPD to optimal treatments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Interpersonal processes in psychodynamic-interpersonal and cognitive behavioral group therapy: a systematic case study of two groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasca, Giorgio A; Foot, Meredith; Leite, Catherine; Maxwell, Hilary; Balfour, Louise; Bissada, Hany

    2011-09-01

    This mixed method systematic case study applied an interpersonal stage model of the therapeutic process to examine interpersonal processes among a highly adherent Group Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy (GPIP) therapist and a highly adherent Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (GCBT) therapist and their groups of binge eating disordered (BED) patients. This is the first case study to apply the interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy to compare GCBT and GPIP methods and the first to apply the model to group therapy. Early-, middle-, and late-stage transcribed video recordings of sequential interactions among therapists and patients in each of these two time-limited group therapies were analyzed with the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB). We also provide qualitative presentations of the transcripts from each stage as context for the quantitative analyses. BED patients in both groups achieved positive outcomes for binge eating and depression. Consistent with their treatment model, the GPIP therapist was more autonomy-giving, whereas the GCBT therapist was more controlling/directive. The GPIP therapist and her group had high levels of interpersonal complementary interaction sequences in the early stage followed by lower complementarity in the middle stage. The GCBT therapist and her group showed a high-low-high pattern of complementarity across the three stage of therapy. However, overall the GPIP group had higher levels complementarity than the GCBT group. This mixed method case study of group processes based on an interpersonal stage model of psychotherapy suggested specific therapist behaviors in each modality to maximize positive therapeutic interactions at each stage of group therapy. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of focal psychodynamic therapy and enhanced cognitive-behavioural therapy in out-patients with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, N; Wild, B; Zipfel, S; Junne, F; Konnopka, A; Schmidt, U; de Zwaan, M; Herpertz, S; Zeeck, A; Löwe, B; von Wietersheim, J; Tagay, S; Burgmer, M; Dinkel, A; Herzog, W; König, H-H

    2016-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a serious illness leading to substantial morbidity and mortality. The treatment of AN very often is protracted; repeated hospitalizations and lost productivity generate substantial economic costs in the health care system. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the differential cost-effectiveness of out-patient focal psychodynamic psychotherapy (FPT), enhanced cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT-E), and optimized treatment as usual (TAU-O) in the treatment of adult women with AN. The analysis was conducted alongside the randomized controlled Anorexia Nervosa Treatment of OutPatients (ANTOP) study. Cost-effectiveness was determined using direct costs per recovery at 22 months post-randomization (n = 156). Unadjusted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated. To derive cost-effectiveness acceptability curves (CEACs) adjusted net-benefit regressions were applied assuming different values for the maximum willingness to pay (WTP) per additional recovery. Cost-utility and assumptions underlying the base case were investigated in exploratory analyses. Costs of in-patient treatment and the percentage of patients who required in-patient treatment were considerably lower in both intervention groups. The unadjusted ICERs indicated FPT and CBT-E to be dominant compared with TAU-O. Moreover, FPT was dominant compared with CBT-E. CEACs showed that the probability for cost-effectiveness of FTP compared with TAU-O and CBT-E was ⩾95% if the WTP per recovery was ⩾€9825 and ⩾€24 550, respectively. Comparing CBT-E with TAU-O, the probability of being cost-effective remained <90% for all WTPs. The exploratory analyses showed similar but less pronounced trends. Depending on the WTP, FPT proved cost-effective in the treatment of adult AN.

  4. [Charcot, working and 'Male Hysteria': A new approach to the Leçons du mardi (Tuesday Lessons) from the standpoint of psychodynamics of work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinier, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the role of work in Charcot's clinical teaching focusing on cases of male hysteria in The Tuesday's Lessons from 1887 to 1889. Today, we read the work of Charcot in a retrospective way as having ended in a failure: He would have missed the discovery of the sexual unconscious. From the perspective of psychodynamics of work, it appears an alternative way which was present in Charcot, though unfinished, opening on a possible development of a relationship between psychic and body. The role of work in traumatic hysteria has been forgotten by Freud's posterity and this obliteration continues today.

  5. Soil forensics: How far can soil clay analysis distinguish between soil vestiges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, R S; Melo, V F; Abreu, G G F; Sousa, M H; Chaker, J A; Gomes, J A

    2018-03-01

    Soil traces are useful as forensic evidences because they frequently adhere to individuals and objects associated with crimes and can place or discard a suspect at/from a crime scene. Soil is a mixture of organic and inorganic components and among them soil clay contains signatures that make it reliable as forensic evidence. In this study, we hypothesized that soils can be forensically distinguished through the analysis of their clay fraction alone, and that samples of the same soil type can be consistently distinguished according to the distance they were collected from each other. To test these hypotheses 16 Oxisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 1.000m, and 16 Inceptisol samples were collected at distances of between 2m and 300m from each other. Clay fractions were extracted from soil samples and analyzed for hyperspectral color reflectance (HSI), X-ray diffraction crystallographic (XRD), and for contents of iron oxides, kaolinite and gibbsite. The dataset was submitted to multivariate analysis and results were from 65% to 100% effective to distinguish between samples from the two soil types. Both soil types could be consistently distinguished for forensic purposes according to the distance that samples were collected from each other: 1000m for Oxisol and 10m for Inceptisol. Clay color and XRD analysis were the most effective techniques to distinguish clay samples, and Inceptisol samples were more easily distinguished than Oxisol samples. Soil forensics seems a promising field for soil scientists as soil clay can be useful as forensic evidence by using routine analytical techniques from soil science. Copyright © 2017 The Chartered Society of Forensic Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  7. Distinguishing the albedo of exoplanets from stellar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, L. M.; Barros, S. C. C.; Oshagh, M.; Santos, N. C.; Faria, J. P.; Demangeon, O.; Sousa, S. G.; Lendl, M.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Light curves show the flux variation from the target star and its orbiting planets as a function of time. In addition to the transit features created by the planets, the flux also includes the reflected light component of each planet, which depends on the planetary albedo. This signal is typically referred to as phase curve and could be easily identified if there were no additional noise. As well as instrumental noise, stellar activity, such as spots, can create a modulation in the data, which may be very difficult to distinguish from the planetary signal. Aims: We analyze the limitations imposed by the stellar activity on the detection of the planetary albedo, considering the limitations imposed by the predicted level of instrumental noise and the short duration of the obervations planned in the context of the CHEOPS mission. Methods: As initial condition, we have assumed that each star is characterized by just one orbiting planet. We built mock light curves that included a realistic stellar activity pattern, the reflected light component of the planet and an instrumental noise level, which we have chosen to be at the same level as predicted for CHEOPS. We then fit these light curves to try to recover the reflected light component, assuming the activity patterns can be modeled with a Gaussian process. Results: We estimate that at least one full stellar rotation is necessary to obtain a reliable detection of the planetary albedo. This result is independent of the level of noise, but it depends on the limitation of the Gaussian process to describe the stellar activity when the light curve time-span is shorter than the stellar rotation. As an additional result, we found that with a 6.5 magnitude star and the noise level of CHEOPS, it is possible to detect the planetary albedo up to a lower limit of Rp = 0.03 R*. Finally, in presence of typical CHEOPS gaps in the simulations, we confirm that it is still possible to obtain a reliable albedo.

  8. Reliability and validity of risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Heide, Bjornar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate to what extent risk analysis meets the scientific quality requirements of reliability and validity. We distinguish between two types of approaches within risk analysis, relative frequency-based approaches and Bayesian approaches. The former category includes both traditional statistical inference methods and the so-called probability of frequency approach. Depending on the risk analysis approach, the aim of the analysis is different, the results are presented in different ways and consequently the meaning of the concepts reliability and validity are not the same.

  9. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  10. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Distinguished Teaching of Psychology Award recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2009 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is William Buskist. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Teaching Award at the 117th…

  11. Distinguishing attack on five-round Feistel networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Raddum, H

    2003-01-01

    Recently it was shown (by J. Patarin) how to distinguish a general five-round Feistel network from a random permutation using O(2/sup 3n/2/) chosen plaintexts or O(2/sup 7n/4/) known plaintexts. The present authors report improvement of these results and a distinguisher is presented which uses ro...

  12. 5 CFR 838.612 - Distinguishing between annuities and contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Distinguishing between annuities and... Orders Affecting Employee Annuities or Refunds of Employee Contributions Identification of Benefits § 838.612 Distinguishing between annuities and contributions. (a) A court order using “annuities,” “pensions...

  13. Clinical holistic medicine (mindful, short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork) in the treatment of experienced physical illness and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventegodt, Søren; Thegler, Suzette; Andreasen, Tove; Struve, Flemming; Enevoldsen, Lars; Bassaine, Laila; Torp, Margrethe; Merrick, Joav

    2007-03-02

    We investigated the treatment effect of psychodynamic short-term therapy complemented with bodywork on patients who presented with physical illness at the Research Clinic for Holistic Medicine in Copenhagen. Psychodynamic short-term therapy was complemented with bodywork (Marion Rosen) to help patients confront old emotional pain from childhood trauma(s). Patients were measured with a five-item quality of life and health questionnaire (QOL5), a one-item questionnaire of self-assessed quality of life (QOL1), and four questions on self-rated ability to love and to function sexually, socially, and at work (ability to sustain a full-time job). Most of the patients had chronic pain that could not be alleviated with drugs. Results showed that 31 patients with the experience of being severely physically ill (mostly from chronic pain), in spite of having consulted their own general practitioner, entered the study. The holistic approach and body therapy accelerated the therapy dramatically and no significant side effects were detected. After the intervention, 38.7% did not feel ill (1.73 treatment responders, the treatment seemingly provided lasting benefits.

  14. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  15. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  16. The effect of adding psychodynamic therapy to antidepressants in patients with major depressive disorder. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Hansen, Jane Lindschou; Simonsen, Erik; Gluud, Christian

    2012-03-01

    Major depressive disorder afflicts an estimated 17% of individuals during their lifetimes at tremendous suffering and costs. Psychodynamic therapy may be a treatment option for depression, but the effects have only been limitedly assessed in systematic reviews. Using Cochrane systematic review methodology, we compared the benefits and harms of psychodynamic therapy versus 'no intervention' or sham for major depressive disorder. We accepted any co-intervention, including antidepressants, as long as it was delivered similarly in both intervention groups. Trials were identified by searching the Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, MEDLINE via PubMed, EMBASE, Psychlit, Psyc Info, and Science Citation Index Expanded until February 2010. Two authors independently extracted data. We evaluated risk of bias to control for systematic errors. We conducted trial sequential analysis to control for random errors. We included five trials randomizing a total of 365 participants who all received antidepressants as co-intervention. All trials had high risk of bias. Four trials assessed 'interpersonal psychotherapy' and one trial 'short psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy'. Meta-analysis showed that psychodynamic therapy significantly reduced depressive symptoms on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (mean difference -3.01 (95% confidence interval -3.98 to -2.03; Ptherapy to antidepressants might benefit depressed patients, but the possible treatment effect measured on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression is small. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  18. Distinguishability of countable quantum states and von Neumann lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakubo, Ryûitirô; Koike, Tatsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The condition for distinguishability of a countably infinite number of pure states by a single measurement is given. Distinguishability is to be understood as the possibility of an unambiguous measurement. For a finite number of states, it is known that the necessary and sufficient condition of distinguishability is that the states are linearly independent. For an infinite number of states, several natural classes of distinguishability can be defined. We give a necessary and sufficient condition for a system of pure states to be distinguishable. It turns out that each level of distinguishability naturally corresponds to one of the generalizations of linear independence to families of infinite vectors. As an important example, we apply the general theory to von Neumann’s lattice, a subsystem of coherent states which corresponds to a lattice in the classical phase space. We prove that the condition for distinguishability is that the area of the fundamental region of the lattice is greater than the Planck constant, and also find subtle behavior on the threshold. These facts reveal the measurement theoretical meaning of the Planck constant and give a justification for the interpretation that it is the smallest unit of area in the phase space. The cases of uncountably many states and of mixed states are also discussed. (paper)

  19. Psicoterapia psicodinâmica e o tratamento do jogo patológico Psychodynamic psychotherapy and the treatment of pathological gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Rosenthal

    2008-05-01

    ão evitativo de comportamento e defesas psicodinâmicas.OBJECTIVE: The search for empirically based treatments for pathological gambling is in its infancy, with relatively few clinical trials and an absence of naturalistic studies. Treatment retention of gamblers has been a problem; cognitive-behavioral treatment and pharmacotherapy studies report especially high dropout rates. Psychodynamic approaches, with their emphasis on the therapeutic relationship, and the meaning of the patient's self-destructive and seemingly irrational behaviors, and on obstacles to self-forgiveness, might improve outcome. METHOD: After a description of psychodynamic psychotherapy, the literature on both short-term and longer therapies is reviewed regarding their efficacy for a variety of disorders. With regard to pathological gambling, the author summarizes the early (1914-1970 psychoanalytic literature then reviews the more recent psychodynamic psychotherapy literature on pathological gambling. RESULTS: A review of the recent psychodynamic psychotherapy literature on pathological gambling failed to disclose a single randomized controlled study of treatment efficacy or effectiveness. However, there are eight positive outcome studies described as multi-modal eclectic; half of those seem to utilize psychodynamic approaches. Two of the more successful programs are described. CONCLUSIONS: A review of the outcomes literature for psychodynamic psychotherapy demonstrates efficacy for a variety of disorders sufficient to justify a clinical trial for pathological gambling. Short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, with its focus on core issues, may be particularly applicable to the pathological gambler's need to avoid or escape intolerable affects and problems. Longer therapies may be needed to modify an avoidant coping style and defenses.

  20. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  1. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  2. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  3. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  4. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  5. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  6. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  7. Scoring system to distinguish uncomplicated from complicated acute appendicitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atema, J. J.; van Rossem, C. C.; Leeuwenburgh, M. M.; Stoker, J.; Boermeester, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Non-operative management may be an alternative for uncomplicated appendicitis, but preoperative distinction between uncomplicated and complicated disease is challenging. This study aimed to develop a scoring system based on clinical and imaging features to distinguish uncomplicated from complicated

  8. Efficacy of an adjunctive brief psychodynamic psychotherapy to usual inpatient treatment of depression: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A few recent studies have found indications of the effectiveness of inpatient psychotherapy for depression, usually of an extended duration. However, there is a lack of controlled studies in this area and to date no study of adequate quality on brief psychodynamic psychotherapy for depression during short inpatient stay exists. The present article describes the protocol of a study that will examine the relative efficacy, the cost-effectiveness and the cost-utility of adding an Inpatient Brief Psychodynamic Psychotherapy to pharmacotherapy and treatment-as-usual for inpatients with unipolar depression. Methods/Design The study is a one-month randomized controlled trial with a two parallel group design and a 12-month naturalistic follow-up. A sample of 130 consecutive adult inpatients with unipolar depression and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale score over 18 will be recruited. The study is carried out in the university hospital section for mood disorders in Lausanne, Switzerland. Patients are assessed upon admission, and at 1-, 3- and 12- month follow-ups. Inpatient therapy is a manualized brief intervention, combining the virtues of inpatient setting and of time-limited dynamic therapies (focal orientation, fixed duration, resource-oriented interventions). Treatment-as-usual represents the best level of practice for a minimal treatment condition usually proposed to inpatients. Final analyses will follow an intention–to-treat strategy. Depressive symptomatology is the primary outcome and secondary outcome includes measures of psychiatric symptomatology, psychosocial role functioning, and psychodynamic-emotional functioning. The mediating role of the therapeutic alliance is also examined. Allocation to treatment groups uses a stratified block randomization method with permuted block. To guarantee allocation concealment, randomization is done by an independent researcher. Discussion Despite the large number of studies on treatment of depression

  9. Could We Distinguish Child Users from Adults Using Keystroke Dynamics?

    OpenAIRE

    Uzun, Yasin; Bicakci, Kemal; Uzunay, Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    Significant portion of contemporary computer users are children, who are vulnerable to threats coming from the Internet. To protect children from such threats, in this study, we investigate how successfully typing data can be used to distinguish children from adults. For this purpose, we collect a dataset comprising keystroke data of 100 users and show that distinguishing child Internet users from adults is possible using Keystroke Dynamics with equal error rates less than 10 percent. However...

  10. Entropic Lower Bound for Distinguishability of Quantum States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungho Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.

  11. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  12. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  13. A novel distinguishing system for the diagnosis of malignant pancreatic cystic neoplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaoyong, E-mail: shanlixinc@163.com [Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Lu, Di, E-mail: lcyxld@126.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Xu, Xiao, E-mail: zdyyxx@163.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wang, Jianguo, E-mail: 21118059@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Wu, Jian, E-mail: drwujian@hotmail.com [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Yan, Sheng, E-mail: shengyan@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China); Zheng, Shu-sen, E-mail: zyzss@zju.edu.cn [Division of Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou (China)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore a simple and reliable non-invasive distinguishing system for the pre-operative evaluation of malignancy in pancreatic cystic neoplasm (PCN). Methods: This study first enrolled an observation cohort of 102 consecutive PCN patients. Demographic information, results of laboratory examinations, and computed tomography (CT) presentations were recorded and analyzed to achieve a distinguishing model/system for malignancy. A group of 21 patients was then included to validate the model/system prospectively. Results: Based on the 11 malignancy-related features identified by univariate analysis, a distinguishing model for malignancy in PCN was established by multivariate analysis: PCN malignant score = 2.967 × elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (≥6.16 mmol/L) ± 4.496 × asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules ≥ 4 mm) ± 1.679 × septum thickening (≥2 mm) − 5.134. With the optimal cut-off value selected as −2.8 in reference to the Youden index, the proposed system for malignant PCN was established: septum thickening (>2 mm), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm), or elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L, accompanying commonly known malignant signs), the presence of at least one of these 3 features indicated malignancy in PCN. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of this system were 81.4%, 95.8% and 76.9%, respectively. MRI was performed on 32 patients, making correct prediction of malignancy explicitly in only 68.8% (22/32). The subsequent prospective validation study showed that the proposed distinguishing system had a predictive accuracy of 85.7% (18/21). Moreover, a higher model score, or aggregation of the features in the proposed system, indicated a higher grade of malignancy (carcinoma) in PCN. Conclusion: Elevated FBG (>6.16 mmol/L), asymmetrically thickened wall (or mural nodules > 4 mm) and septum thickening (>2 mm) are of great value in differentiating the malignancy in PCN. The developed distinguishing system is

  14. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  15. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  16. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  17. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  18. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  19. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  20. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  1. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  2. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  3. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  4. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  5. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  6. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  7. Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology: Nancy E. Adler

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Nancy E. Adler, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology, is cited for her research on reproductive health examining adolescent decision making with regard to contraception, conscious and preconscious motivations for pregnancy, and perception of risk for sexually transmitted diseases, and for her groundbreaking…

  8. 29 CFR 794.107 - “Establishment” distinguished.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the definition of “enterprise” in section 3(r), as set forth in § 794.106, that the activities of the... § 794.107 “Establishment” distinguished. The “enterprise” referred to in the section 7(b)(3) exemption... “an entire business or enterprise” which may include several separate places of business. (See...

  9. A history of the Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, David A

    2015-01-01

    The Distinguished Service Foundation of Optometry was an organization which sought to encourage research and education to facilitate the conservation of vision through publications and the awarding of medals. It existed from 1927 to 1979, but was most active in the 1930s and 1940s. Its leaders and activities are discussed.

  10. Kelly D. Brownell: Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents a short biography of Kelly D. Brownwell, winner of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology (2012). He won the award for outstanding contributions to our understanding of the etiology and management of obesity and the crisis it poses for the modern world. A seminal thinker in…

  11. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Alice H. Eagly

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Alice H. Eagly, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for her work in the field of social psychology, the psychology of gender, and the use of meta-analytic techniques. She envisions a psychology that extends from individual cognitions to societal structures. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected…

  12. Distinguishing between Exogenous and Endogenous Intent-to-Transfer Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A.; Karoly, Paul; Martin, Jessica L.; Benshoff, Annja

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we distinguish between 2 types of students who intend to transfer and graduate from another institution. During the fall of 2006, 507 first-semester students attending a state university completed a survey. Seventy-six percent of the students indicated that they planned on graduating from the University (intent-to-persist), 16%…

  13. Studies to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human enteric viral infections are considered to be predominantly associated with human wastes, as opposed to animal wastes, and a distinction between these has benefits for water quality control and risk assessment. A variety of techniques have been described to distinguish between human and animal faecal pollution ...

  14. Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions: Steven F. Maier

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Steven F. Maier, winner of the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, is cited for his work in the fields of learned helplessness; cytokines, depressed mood, and cognitive interference; and the brain structures that produce and counteract learned helplessness. In addition to the citation, a biography and selected bibliography of Maier's…

  15. Can Assertiveness be Distinguished From Aggressiveness Using Self Report Data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Paul A.; And Others

    The differences between aggressiveness and assertiveness were examined using the Interpersonal Behavior Survey (IBS), a 136-item self-report questionnaire which was developed to distinguish between assertive and aggressive behaviors. Item level factor analysis was used in scale construction. Results indicated that: (1) the correlation between the…

  16. The Hues of English. NCTE Distinguished Lectures 1969.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Council of Teachers of English, Champaign, IL.

    The third volume in the NCTE Distinguished Lectures Series, this collection of papers includes (1) William Stafford on poetry and the language of everyday life, (2) Fred Stocking linking Shakespeare to his time and all time by analysing "temperance" in Sonnet 18, (3) Alan Downer discussing the nature of comedy in drama and the universal…

  17. Daniel L. Schacter: Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Presents Daniel L. Schacter as one of the winners of the American Psychological Association's Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (2012). Daniel L. Schacter's major theoretical and empirical contributions include groundbreaking research on the psychological and neural foundations of implicit and explicit memory, memory distortions and…

  18. Distinguishing method for contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukazawa, Takuji; Kato, Keiichiro; Koda, Satoshi.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention concerns a method of distinguishing the contamination/radio-activation of radioactive wastes used in processing wastes generated upon dismantling of exhausted nuclear reactors. Especially, contaminated/radio-activation is distinguished for wastes having openings such as pipes and valves, by utilizing scattering of γ-rays or γ-ray to β-ray ratio. That is, ratio of scattered γ-rays and direct γ-rays or ratio of β-rays and γ-rays from radioactive wastes are measured and compared by a radiation detector, to distinguish whether the radioactive wastes contaminated materials or radio-activated materials. For example, when an object to be measured having an opening is contaminated at the inner side, the radiation detector facing to the opening mainly detects high direct γ-rays emitted from the object to be measured while a radiation detector not facing the opening mainly detects high scattered γ-rays relatively. On the other hand, when the object is a radio-activated material, any of the detectors detect scattered γ-rays, so that they can be distinguished by these ratios. (I.S.)

  19. Identical Distinguishable Gas Particles in the Real World

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    particles, it requires more care to identify a gas of identical distinguishable particles ... properties (such as mass, charge, shape, and spin). Adopt an operational ... [6] which might appear to be a physical realization of the proto- typical system of ...

  20. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  1. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  2. 32 CFR 22.205 - Distinguishing assistance from procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procurement contract, is the appropriate instrument, based on the following: (a) Purpose. (1) The grants... purpose is acquisition, then the grants officer shall judge that a procurement contract is the appropriate... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Distinguishing assistance from procurement. 22...

  3. Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Investigation of Soil Salinity to Distinguish Boundary Line between Saline and ... Setting 4 dSm-1 as the limit between saline and non-saline soils in kriging algorithms resulted in a .... number of sample points within the search window,.

  4. The Identification of Conductor-Distinguished Functions of Conducting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumm, Alan J.; Battersby, Sharyn L.; Simon, Kathryn L.; Shankles, Andrew E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify whether conductors distinguish functions of conducting similarly to functions implied in previous research. A sample of 84 conductors with a full range of experience levels (M = 9.8) and of a full range of large ensemble types and ensemble age levels rated how much they pay attention to 82…

  5. Optimally Fortifying Logic Reliability through Criticality Ranking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Bai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With CMOS technology aggressively scaling towards the 22-nm node, modern FPGA devices face tremendous aging-induced reliability challenges due to bias temperature instability (BTI and hot carrier injection (HCI. This paper presents a novel anti-aging technique at the logic level that is both scalable and applicable for VLSI digital circuits implemented with FPGA devices. The key idea is to prolong the lifetime of FPGA-mapped designs by strategically elevating the VDD values of some LUTs based on their modular criticality values. Although the idea of scaling VDD in order to improve either energy efficiency or circuit reliability has been explored extensively, our study distinguishes itself by approaching this challenge through an analytical procedure, therefore being able to maximize the overall reliability of the target FPGA design by rigorously modeling the BTI-induced device reliability and optimally solving the VDD assignment problem. Specifically, we first develop a systematic framework to analytically model the reliability of an FPGA LUT (look-up table, which consists of both RAM memory bits and associated switching circuit. We also, for the first time, establish the relationship between signal transition density and a LUT’s reliability in an analytical way. This key observation further motivates us to define the modular criticality as the product of signal transition density and the logic observability of each LUT. Finally, we analytically prove, for the first time, that the optimal way to improve the overall reliability of a whole FPGA device is to fortify individual LUTs according to their modular criticality. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first to draw such a conclusion.

  6. Mid-level perceptual features distinguish objects of different real-world sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bria; Konkle, Talia; Cohen, Michael A; Alvarez, George A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how perceptual and conceptual representations are connected is a fundamental goal of cognitive science. Here, we focus on a broad conceptual distinction that constrains how we interact with objects--real-world size. Although there appear to be clear perceptual correlates for basic-level categories (apples look like other apples, oranges look like other oranges), the perceptual correlates of broader categorical distinctions are largely unexplored, i.e., do small objects look like other small objects? Because there are many kinds of small objects (e.g., cups, keys), there may be no reliable perceptual features that distinguish them from big objects (e.g., cars, tables). Contrary to this intuition, we demonstrated that big and small objects have reliable perceptual differences that can be extracted by early stages of visual processing. In a series of visual search studies, participants found target objects faster when the distractor objects differed in real-world size. These results held when we broadly sampled big and small objects, when we controlled for low-level features and image statistics, and when we reduced objects to texforms--unrecognizable textures that loosely preserve an object's form. However, this effect was absent when we used more basic textures. These results demonstrate that big and small objects have reliably different mid-level perceptual features, and suggest that early perceptual information about broad-category membership may influence downstream object perception, recognition, and categorization processes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  8. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  9. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  10. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  11. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  12. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  13. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  15. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  16. How to distinguish between bleeding and coagulated extradural hematomas on the plain CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, O.F.; Espersen, J.O.

    1984-01-01

    Four types of extradural hematoma could be separated at examination of the plain CT scan in 54 extradural hematomas. Two major groups appear: the still bleeding hematoma showing either generally low attenuation values of ''holes'', and a coagulated homogenous type with generally high attenuation values. The attenuation values of the bleeding-liquid part of hematoma - were correlated to hemoglobin concentration in blood, to which clots were not related. Seven extradural hematomas grew and coagulated on repeated preoperative CT scans. In two cases intravenous contrast was given to the bleeding type of hematoma, and the contrast media appeared in ''holes'', but not in areas of high attenuation value. It is easy to distinguish between the different types of hematoma on the plain CT scan, and the separation by eye between the still bleeding and the coagulated extradural hematoma seems reliable. (orig.)

  17. The dual process of adolescent immigration and relocation: from country to country and from childhood to adolescence--its reflection in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabany, Ruth; Israeli, Etziona

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presents psychological issues and processes in adolescent patients who have also migrated or relocated from one country to another. Theoretical perspectives related to attachment processes illumine both migration and adolescence as changes for which secure bases are most needed, lost, and sometimes rediscovered. The psychodynamic processes underlying the difficulties encountered by such adolescents, and their meaning, are presented. Relationships with parents, which normally go through separation-individuation and renegotiation of the oedipal crisis, both of which are central to adolescence, are disrupted by migration. Migration poses new challenges and choices while identity formation is evolving during adolescence. These include adopting a new identity, embracing and letting go of the old, and accepting and integrating the new. The dual relationship with identity finds expression, for example, in language. Fluctuations in understanding and not understanding the new and the old language represent the ambivalence toward the new and the old. The developmental roller-coaster of adolescence, which involves more intense use of defense mechanisms, is heightened during immigration. Processes of idealization (of parents, therapist, old country, new culture) rapidly fade with the devaluation of the same targets. Mechanisms of splitting between good and bad, as well as massive repression of issues that are too hard to deal with at this crossroad, are profuse. Hopeful fantasies of rebirth are concurrent with despair, depression, and, in some cases, suicidal thoughts and attempts. Excerpts from a case in psychodynamic psychotherapy are presented, focusing on the evolving new balances: integrating the old and the new by maintaining attachments to the one while forming attachments to the other; relinquishing and mourning the lost paradise of childhood, as well as the old country, friends, culture, smells, and tastes; accepting disappointments when the shining new

  18. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  19. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  20. Distinguishing diffuse alopecia areata (AA) from pattern hair loss (PHL) using CD3(+) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivras, Athanassios; Thompson, Curtis

    2016-05-01

    Distinguishing between diffuse subacute alopecia areata (AA), in which the peribulbar infiltrate is absent, and pattern hair loss is challenging, particularly in cases that lack marked follicular miniaturization and a marked catagen/telogen shift. We sought to distinguish diffuse AA from pattern hair loss using CD3(+) T lymphocytes. A total of 28 cases of subacute AA and 31 cases of pattern hair loss were selected and a 4-mm punch biopsy was performed. All the specimens were processed using the "HoVert" (horizontal and vertical) technique. In all cases, hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemical stains for CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD20 were performed. The presence of CD3(+) lymphocytes within empty follicular fibrous tracts (stela), even without a concomitant peribulbar infiltrate, is a reliable histopathological clue in supporting a diagnosis of AA (sensitivity 0.964, specificity 1, P ≤ .001). Limited tissue for analysis remained in the clinical sample tissue blocks. The presence of CD3(+) T-cells within empty follicular fibrous tracts (stela) supports a diagnosis of AA. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Allozyme electrophoresis as a tool for distinguishing different zooxanthellae symbiotic with giant clams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, B. K.; Monje, V.; Silvestre, V.; Sison, M.; Belda-Baillie, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The taxonomy of zooxanthellae in marine invertebrate symbioses is not well understood owing mainly to their lack of reliable morphological differences. Nevertheless, previous work using protein and DNA electrophoreses has set the stage for advancing our taxonomic understanding of cnidarian zooxanthellae. Here we present the use of allozymes as genetic markers for distinguishing algal isolates from tridacnid hosts. Zooxanthellae from seven Tridacna and Hippopus species were isolated and maintained in axenic clonal cultures over many generations. Of 16 enzyme systems, α- and β-esterase (EST), esterase-F (EST-F), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) were found suitable polymorphic markers of genetic differences among clonal cultures. Of 39 clonal isolates, 97% were found to be genetically distinguishable. This high extent of genetic variation in zooxanthellae within and between clam species was unexpected, and is difficult to explain based solely on the general notion of asexual reproduction in symbiotic zooxanthellae. Our results are also consistent with the occurrence of sexual reproduction in clam zooxanthellae. The close genetic similarity of the symbionts of Tridacna gigas, the largest and fastest-growing clam species, and the difficulty of initiating their clonal cultures in the given nutrient medium, compared with the symbionts of other clam species, are further indicative of possibly distinct algal symbionts in T. gigas. These findings are discussed in light of current taxonomic understanding of these organisms.

  2. Distinguishing advective and powered motion in self-propelled colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Young-Moo; Lammert, Paul E.; Hong, Yiying; Sen, Ayusman; Crespi, Vincent H.

    2017-11-01

    Self-powered motion in catalytic colloidal particles provides a compelling example of active matter, i.e. systems that engage in single-particle and collective behavior far from equilibrium. The long-time, long-distance behavior of such systems is of particular interest, since it connects their individual micro-scale behavior to macro-scale phenomena. In such analyses, it is important to distinguish motion due to subtle advective effects—which also has long time scales and length scales—from long-timescale phenomena that derive from intrinsically powered motion. Here, we develop a methodology to analyze the statistical properties of the translational and rotational motions of powered colloids to distinguish, for example, active chemotaxis from passive advection by bulk flow.

  3. Visibility bound caused by a distinguishable noise particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavenda, Miroslav; Celechovska, Lucie; Dusek, Miloslav; Filip, Radim; Soubusta, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We investigate how the distinguishability of a 'noise' particle degrades interference of the 'signal' particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on a beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the signal photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between the signal and noise photons. When the photons are completely distinguishable in principle but technically indistinguishable, the visibility drops to the value 1/√(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable, the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using a setup with a fiber-optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

  4. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    OpenAIRE

    Frattini, Federico; Massis, Alfredo De; Chiesa, Vittorio; Cassia, Lucio; Campopiano, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners' literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish a...

  5. Distinguishing the rates of gene activation from phenotypic variations

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ye; Lv, Cheng; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-01-01

    Background Stochastic genetic switching driven by intrinsic noise is an important process in gene expression. When the rates of gene activation/inactivation are relatively slow, fast, or medium compared with the synthesis/degradation rates of mRNAs and proteins, the variability of protein and mRNA levels may exhibit very different dynamical patterns. It is desirable to provide a systematic approach to identify their key dynamical features in different regimes, aiming at distinguishing which r...

  6. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua D. Campbell; Christina Yau; Reanne Bowlby; Yuexin Liu; Kevin Brennan; Huihui Fan; Alison M. Taylor; Chen Wang; Vonn Walter; Rehan Akbani; Lauren Averett Byers; Chad J. Creighton; Cristian Coarfa; Juliann Shih; Andrew D. Cherniack

    2018-01-01

    Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV). SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs), DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mes...

  7. General Vertex-Distinguishing Total Coloring of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanjuan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The general vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number of a graph G is the minimum integer k, for which the vertices and edges of G are colored using k colors such that any two vertices have distinct sets of colors of them and their incident edges. In this paper, we figure out the exact value of this chromatic number of some special graphs and propose a conjecture on the upper bound of this chromatic number.

  8. Diagnostic value of chemical shift artifact in distinguishing benign lymphadenopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshchian, Nazanin, E-mail: farshchian.n@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tamari, Saghar; Farshchian, Negin [Department of Radiology, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Madani, Hamid [Department of Pathology, Imam-Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, Mansour [Department of Biostatistics, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza, E-mail: mohammadimotlagh@gmail.com [Medical Biology Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Today, distinguishing metastatic lymph nodes from secondary benign inflammatory ones via using non-invasive methods is increasingly favorable. In this study, the diagnostic value of chemical shift artifact (CSA) in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was evaluated to distinguish benign lymphadenopathy. Subjects and methods: A prospective intraindividual internal review board-approved study was carried out on 15 men and 15 women having lymphadenopathic lesions in different locations of the body who underwent contrast-enhanced dynamic MR imaging at 1.5 T. Then, the imaging findings were compared with pathology reports, using the statistics analyses. Results: Due to the findings of the CSA existence in MRI, a total of 56.7% of the studied lesions (17 of 30) were identified as benign lesions and the rest were malignant, whereas the pathology reports distinguished twelve malignant and eighteen benign cases. Furthermore, the CSA findings comparing the pathology reports indicated that CSA, with confidence of 79.5%, has a significant diagnostic value to differentiate benign lesions from malignant ones. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that CSA in MR imaging has a suitable diagnostic potential nearing readiness for clinical trials. Furthermore, CSA seems to be a feasible tool to differentiate benign lymph nodes from malignant ones; however, further studies including larger numbers of patients are required to confirm our results.

  9. Distinguishing the rates of gene activation from phenotypic variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ye; Lv, Cheng; Li, Fangting; Li, Tiejun

    2015-06-18

    Stochastic genetic switching driven by intrinsic noise is an important process in gene expression. When the rates of gene activation/inactivation are relatively slow, fast, or medium compared with the synthesis/degradation rates of mRNAs and proteins, the variability of protein and mRNA levels may exhibit very different dynamical patterns. It is desirable to provide a systematic approach to identify their key dynamical features in different regimes, aiming at distinguishing which regime a considered gene regulatory network is in from their phenotypic variations. We studied a gene expression model with positive feedbacks when genetic switching rates vary over a wide range. With the goal of providing a method to distinguish the regime of the switching rates, we first focus on understanding the essential dynamics of gene expression system in different cases. In the regime of slow switching rates, we found that the effective dynamics can be reduced to independent evolutions on two separate layers corresponding to gene activation and inactivation states, and the transitions between two layers are rare events, after which the system goes mainly along deterministic ODE trajectories on a particular layer to reach new steady states. The energy landscape in this regime can be well approximated by using Gaussian mixture model. In the regime of intermediate switching rates, we analyzed the mean switching time to investigate the stability of the system in different parameter ranges. We also discussed the case of fast switching rates from the viewpoint of transition state theory. Based on the obtained results, we made a proposal to distinguish these three regimes in a simulation experiment. We identified the intermediate regime from the fact that the strength of cellular memory is lower than the other two cases, and the fast and slow regimes can be distinguished by their different perturbation-response behavior with respect to the switching rates perturbations. We proposed a

  10. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  11. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  12. Moderation of the Alliance-Outcome Association by Prior Depressive Episodes: Differential Effects in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Short-Term Psychodynamic Supportive Psychotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Luaces, Lorenzo; Driessen, Ellen; DeRubeis, Robert J; Van, Henricus L; Keefe, John R; Hendriksen, Mariëlle; Dekker, Jack

    2017-09-01

    Prior studies have suggested that the association between the alliance and depression improvement varies as a function of prior history of depression. We sought to replicate these findings and extend them to short-term psychodynamic supportive psychotherapy (SPSP) in a sample of patients who were randomized to one of these treatments and were administered the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (N=282) at Week 5 of treatment. Overall, the alliance was a predictor of symptom change (d=0.33). In SPSP, the alliance was a modest but robust predictor of change, irrespective of prior episodes (d=0.25-0.33). By contrast, in CBT, the effects of the alliance on symptom change were large for patients with 0 prior episodes (d=0.86), moderate for those with 1 prior episode (d=0.49), and small for those with 2+ prior episodes (d=0.12). These findings suggest a complex interaction between patient features and common vs. specific therapy processes. In CBT, the alliance relates to change for patients with less recurrent depression whereas other CBT-specific processes may account for change for patients with more recurrent depression. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Patterns of Change in Interpersonal Problems During and After Short-term and Long-term Psychodynamic Group Therapy: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjeldstad, Anette; Høglend, Per; Lorentzen, Steinar

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we compared the patterns of change in interpersonal problems between short-term and long-term psychodynamic group therapy. A total of 167 outpatients with mixed diagnoses were randomized to 20 or 80 weekly sessions of group therapy. Interpersonal problems were assessed with the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems at six time points during the 3-year study period. Using linear mixed models, change was linearly modelled in two steps. Earlier (within the first 6 months) and later (during the last 2.5 years) changes in five subscales were estimated. Contrary to what we expected, short-term therapy induced a significantly larger early change than long-term therapy on the cold subscale and there was a trend on the socially avoidant subscale, using a Bonferroni-adjusted alpha. There was no significant difference between short-term and long-term group therapy for improving problems in the areas cold, socially avoidant, nonassertive, exploitable, and overly nurturant over the 3 years.

  14. An investigation of client mood in the initial and final sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcclintock, Andrew S; Stiles, William B; Himawan, Lina; Anderson, Timothy; Barkham, Michael; Hardy, Gillian E

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to examine client mood in the initial and final sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy (PIT) and to determine how client mood is related to therapy outcomes. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to data from a clinical trial comparing CBT with PIT. In this trial, client mood was assessed before and after sessions with the Session Evaluation Questionnaire-Positivity Subscale (SEQ-P). In the initial sessions, CBT clients had higher pre-session and post-session SEQ-P ratings and greater pre-to-post session mood change than did clients in PIT. In the final sessions, these pre, post, and change scores were generally equivalent across CBT and PIT. CBT outcome was predicted by pre- and post-session SEQ-P ratings from both the initial sessions and the final sessions of CBT. However, PIT outcome was predicted by pre- and post-session SEQ-P ratings from the final sessions only. Pre-to-post session mood change was unrelated to outcome in both treatments. These results suggest different change processes are at work in CBT and PIT.

  15. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  16. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  17. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  18. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  19. Cytomorphologic features distinguishing Bethesda category IV thyroid lesions from parathyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid follicular cells share similar cytomorphological features with parathyroid. Without a clinical suspicion, the distinction between a thyroid neoplasm and an intrathyroidal parathyroid can be challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the distinguishing cytomorphological features of parathyroid (including intrathyroidal and Bethesda category IV (Beth-IV thyroid follicular lesions, which carry a 15%–30% risk of malignancy and are often followed up with surgical resection. Methods: A search was performed to identify “parathyroid” diagnoses in parathyroid/thyroid-designated fine-needle aspirations (FNAs and Beth-IV thyroid FNAs (follicular and Hurthle cell, all with diagnostic confirmation through surgical pathology, immunocytochemical stains, Afirma® analysis, and/or clinical correlation. Unique cytomorphologic features were scored (0-3 or noted as present versus absent. Statistical analysis was performed using R 3.3.1 software. Results: We identified five FNA cases with clinical suspicion of parathyroid neoplasm, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid lesion that had an eventual final diagnosis of the parathyroid lesion (all female; age 20–69 years and 12 Beth-IV diagnoses (11 female, 1 male; age 13–64 years. The following cytomorphologic features are useful distinguishing features (P value: overall pattern (0.001, single cells (0.001, cell size compared to red blood cell (0.01, nuclear irregularity (0.001, presence of nucleoli (0.001, nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio (0.007, and nuclear chromatin quality (0.028. Conclusions: There are cytomorphologic features that distinguish Beth-IV thyroid lesions and (intrathyroidal parathyroid. These features can aid in rendering correct diagnoses and appropriate management.

  20. Distinguishing between SU(5) and flipped SU(5)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorsner, Ilja [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34014 Trieste (Italy) and Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Facultad de Fisica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)]. E-mail: fileviez@higgs.fis.puc.cl

    2005-01-13

    We study in detail the d=6 operators for proton decay in the two possible matter unification scenarios based on SU(5) gauge symmetry. We investigate the way to distinguish between these two scenarios. The dependence of the branching ratios for the two body decays on the fermion mixing is presented in both cases. We point out the possibility to make a clear test of flipped SU(5) through the decay channel p->{pi}{sup +}{nu}-bar , and the ratio {tau}(p->K{sup 0}e{sub {alpha}}{sup +})/{tau}(p->{pi}{sup 0}e{sub {alpha}}{sup +})

  1. Improving the distinguishable cluster results: spin-component scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kats, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The spin-component scaling is employed in the energy evaluation to improve the distinguishable cluster approach. SCS-DCSD reaction energies reproduce reference values with a root-mean-squared deviation well below 1 kcal/mol, the interaction energies are three to five times more accurate than DCSD, and molecular systems with a large amount of static electron correlation are still described reasonably well. SCS-DCSD represents a pragmatic approach to achieve chemical accuracy with a simple method without triples, which can also be applied to multi-configurational molecular systems.

  2. How bees distinguish patterns by green and blue modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horridge, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    In the 1920s, Mathilde Hertz found that trained bees discriminated between shapes or patterns of similar size by something related to total length of contrasting contours. This input is now interpreted as modulation in green and blue receptor channels as flying bees scan in the horizontal plane. Modulation is defined as total contrast irrespective of sign multiplied by length of edge displaying that contrast, projected to vertical, therefore, combining structure and contrast in a single input. Contrast is outside the eye; modulation is a phasic response in receptor pathways inside. In recent experiments, bees trained to distinguish color detected, located, and measured three independent inputs and the angles between them. They are the tonic response of the blue receptor pathway and modulation of small-field green or (less preferred) blue receptor pathways. Green and blue channels interacted intimately at a peripheral level. This study explores in more detail how various patterns are discriminated by these cues. The direction of contrast at a boundary was not detected. Instead, bees located and measured total modulation generated by horizontal scanning of contrasts, irrespective of pattern. They also located the positions of isolated vertical edges relative to other landmarks and distinguished the angular widths between vertical edges by green or blue modulation alone. The preferred inputs were the strongest green modulation signal and angular width between outside edges, irrespective of color. In the absence of green modulation, the remaining cue was a measure and location of blue modulation at edges. In the presence of green modulation, blue modulation was inhibited. Black/white patterns were distinguished by the same inputs in blue and green receptor channels. Left-right polarity and mirror images could be discriminated by retinotopic green modulation alone. Colors in areas bounded by strong green contrast were distinguished as more or less blue than the

  3. What distinguishes passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2014-01-01

    While sales flyer ad spending in Denmark has increased over the last decade ,the proportion of consumers declining to receive such flyers has been ever-increasing. To address this paradox, attitudinal and behavioural factors distinguishing passive recipients from active decliners of sales flyers ...... on the Internet.To reach the decliners, retailers could focus on the possibilities of the Internet, but to stop the trend of escalating numbers of decliners, retailers will have to address the perceived inconvenience and uselessness of sales flyers....

  4. How to distinguish dark energy and modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Hao; Zhang Shuangnan

    2008-01-01

    The current accelerated expansion of our universe could be due to an unknown energy component (dark energy) or a modification of general relativity (modified gravity). In the literature it has been proposed that combining the probes of the cosmic expansion history and growth history can distinguish between dark energy and modified gravity. In this work, without invoking nontrivial dark energy clustering, we show that the possible interaction between dark energy and dark matter could make the interacting dark model and the modified gravity model indistinguishable. An explicit example is also given. Therefore, it is required to seek some complementary probes beyond the ones of cosmic expansion history and growth history.

  5. Can We Distinguish between Inflammatory and Neuropathic Pain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary J Bennett

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory and neuropathic pain were once considered to be distinct entities. However, research over the past decade or so has brought to light many shared mechanisms, and the distinction between the two is no longer clear. Consideration of mechanisms, symptoms and the effects of analgesic drugs does not reveal any definitive or universally applicable differentiating factors. Given the present level of understanding, it may not be possible to distinguish between inflammatory and neuropathic pain in a large number of patients, and a satisfying definition of neuropathic pain may not be possible.

  6. Distinguishing and diagnosing contemporary and conventional features of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, Mohamed A

    2014-01-01

    The vast number and variety of erosion lesions encountered today require reconsideration of the traditional definition. Dental erosion associated with modern dietary habits can exhibit unique features that symbolize a departure from the decades-old conventional image known as tooth surface loss. The extent and diversity of contemporary erosion lesions often cause conflicting diagnoses. Specific examples of these features are presented in this article. The etiologies, genesis, course of development, and characteristics of these erosion lesions are discussed. Contemporary and conventional erosion lesions are distinguished from similar defects, such as mechanically induced wear, carious lesions, and dental fluorosis, which affect the human dentition.

  7. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  8. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  9. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  10. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  11. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  12. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  13. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  14. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  15. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  16. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  17. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  18. Smarandachely Adjacent-Vertex-Distinguishing Proper Edge Chromatic Number of Cm∨Kn

    OpenAIRE

    Shunqin Liu

    2016-01-01

    According to different conditions, researchers have defined a great deal of coloring problems and the corresponding chromatic numbers. Such as, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing total chromatic number, adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic number, smarandachely-adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper total chromatic number. And we focus on the smarandachely adjacent-vertex-distinguishing proper edge chromatic...

  19. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  20. Distinguishing deterministic and noise components in ELM time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvejnieks, G.; Kuzovkov, V.N

    2004-01-01

    Full text: One of the main problems in the preliminary data analysis is distinguishing the deterministic and noise components in the experimental signals. For example, in plasma physics the question arises analyzing edge localized modes (ELMs): is observed ELM behavior governed by a complicate deterministic chaos or just by random processes. We have developed methodology based on financial engineering principles, which allows us to distinguish deterministic and noise components. We extended the linear auto regression method (AR) by including the non-linearity (NAR method). As a starting point we have chosen the nonlinearity in the polynomial form, however, the NAR method can be extended to any other type of non-linear functions. The best polynomial model describing the experimental ELM time series was selected using Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC). With this method we have analyzed type I ELM behavior in a subset of ASDEX Upgrade shots. Obtained results indicate that a linear AR model can describe the ELM behavior. In turn, it means that type I ELM behavior is of a relaxation or random type

  1. Distinguishing Intensity Levels of Grassland Fertilization Using Vegetation Indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens L. Hollberg

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring the reaction of grassland canopies on fertilizer application is of major importance to enable a well-adjusted management supporting a sustainable production of the grass crop. Up to date, grassland managers estimate the nutrient status and growth dynamics of grasslands by costly and time-consuming field surveys, which only provide low temporal and spatial data density. Grassland mapping using remotely-sensed Vegetation Indices (VIs has the potential to contribute to solving these problems. In this study, we explored the potential of VIs for distinguishing five differently-fertilized grassland communities. Therefore, we collected spectral signatures of these communities in a long-term fertilization experiment (since 1941 in Germany throughout the growing seasons 2012–2014. Fifteen VIs were calculated and their seasonal developments investigated. Welch tests revealed that the accuracy of VIs for distinguishing these grassland communities varies throughout the growing season. Thus, the selection of the most promising single VI for grassland mapping was dependent on the date of the spectra acquisition. A random forests classification using all calculated VIs reduced variations in classification accuracy within the growing season and provided a higher overall precision of classification. Thus, we recommend a careful selection of VIs for grassland mapping or the utilization of temporally-stable methods, i.e., including a set of VIs in the random forests algorithm.

  2. Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given by the Board of Educational Affairs in recognition of the efforts of psychologists who have made distinguished contributions to education and training, who have produced imaginative innovations, or who have been involved in the developmental phases of programs in education and training in psychology. These contributions might include important research on education and training; the development of effective materials for instruction; the establishment of workshops, conferences, or networks of communication for education and training; achievement and leadership in administration that facilitates education and training; or activity in professional organizations that promote excellence. The Award for Distinguished Contributions to Education and Training in psychology recognizes a specific contribution to education and training. The Career designation is added to the award at the discretion of the Education and Training Awards Committee to recognize continuous significant contributions made over a lifelong career in psychology. This year the Education and Training Awards Committee selected a psychologist for the Career designation. The 2017 recipients of the APA Education and Training Contributions Awards were selected by the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee appointed by the Board of Educational Affairs (BEA). Members of the 2016 Education and Training Awards Committee were Erica Wise, PhD (Chair); Ron Rozensky, PhD; Jane D. Halonen, PhD; Sharon Berry, PhD (Chair Elect); Emil Rodolfa, PhD; and Sylvia A. Rosenfield, PhD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Distinguishing stress fractures from pathologic fractures: a multimodality approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayad, Laura M.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Kawamoto, Satomi; Bluemke, David A.; Fishman, Elliot K.; Frassica, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas stress fractures occur in normal or metabolically weakened bones, pathologic fractures occur at the site of a bone tumor. Unfortunately, stress fractures may share imaging features with pathologic fractures on plain radiography, and therefore other modalities are commonly utilized to distinguish these entities. Additional cross-sectional imaging with CT or MRI as well as scintigraphy and PET scanning is often performed for further evaluation. For the detailed assessment of a fracture site, CT offers a high-resolution view of the bone cortex and periosteum which aids the diagnosis of a pathologic fracture. The character of underlying bone marrow patterns of destruction can also be ascertained along with evidence of a soft tissue mass. MRI, however, is a more sensitive technique for the detection of underlying bone marrow lesions at a fracture site. In addition, the surrounding soft tissues, including possible involvement of adjacent muscle, can be well evaluated with MRI. While bone scintigraphy and FDG-PET are not specific, they offer a whole-body screen for metastases in the case of a suspected malignant pathologic fracture. In this review, we present select examples of fractures that underscore imaging features that help distinguish stress fractures from pathologic fractures, since accurate differentiation of these entities is paramount. (orig.)

  4. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  5. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  6. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  7. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  8. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  9. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  10. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  11. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  12. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  13. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  14. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  15. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  16. The early impact of therapeutic alliance in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy O impacto inicial da aliança terapêutica em psicoterapia psicodinâmica breve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alvaro Marques Marcolino

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODCTION: Therapeutic alliance is a key component of the psychotherapeutic process. This study estimated the impact of the therapeutic alliance as measured by CALPAS-P in an individual brief psychodynamic psychotherapy program. METHODS: To study the impact of the therapeutic alliance patients in psychotherapy answered to the CALPAS-P at the first and third session and to the Self-report Questionnaire (SRQ-20, to the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI and to the Hamilton Anxiety Scale at the beginning and at the end of psychotherapy. RESULTS: The study of the impact of the therapeutic alliance in brief psychodynamic psychotherapy showed that higher TUI scores in the first session were significantly associated to the improvement on the BDI. Patients with best scores in the working alliance, measured at the third PWC session had also significant symptomatic changes. DISCUSSION: The study of the impact of the therapeutic alliance in brief psychotherapy indicated that patients who perceived that their therapists had the best capability to understand and to be involved in their issues had best results in reducing depressive symptoms and patients with higher capability to form the working alliance reached the best psychotherapy outcomes.INTRODUÇÃO: A aliança terapêutica é um conceito central do processo psicoterápico. Este estudo avaliou o impacto da aliança terapêutica em um programa de psicoterapia individual psicodinâmica breve. MÉTODO: Para o estudo do impacto da aliança, pacientes em psicoterapia responderam, ao início e ao final de cada psicoterapia, ao Questionário de auto-avaliação (SRQ-20, ao Inventário de Depressão de Beck (BDI e à Escala de Ansiedade de Hamilton. Responderam também a CALPAS-P ao término da primeira e da terceira sessão. RESULTADOS: Os resultados mostraram que os pacientes com uma pontuação mais alta da TUI na primeira sessão tiveram um impacto significativo sobre a mudança da sintomatologia medida

  17. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  18. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  19. Moderating Effects of Alexithymia on Associations between the Therapeutic Alliance and the Outcome of Brief Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Multisomatoform Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Thomas; Sattel, Heribert; Gündel, Harald; Henningsen, Peter; Kruse, Johannes; Schneider, Gudrun; Lahmann, Claas

    2017-01-01

    This secondary analysis of a trial on brief psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy (PIT) for patients with multisomatoform disorder investigated whether alexithymia moderates the associations between the therapeutic alliance and the outcome of PIT and whether moderating effects of alexithymia remain significant when controlling for depression. Eighty-three patients with multisomatoform disorder receiving PIT were statistically analyzed. Moderation analyses were performed with the SPSS macro PROCESS. The primary outcome (Y), self-reported physical quality of life at 9-month after the end of PIT, was measured with the physical component summary (PCS) of the SF-36 Health Survey. The potential moderator (M) alexithymia was operationalized with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) at pre-treatment and the predictor (X) the therapeutic alliance was rated by both patients and therapists via the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ) at the end of PIT. Moreover, the PCS at pre-treatment functioned as covariate in all moderation models. When the patients' alliance ratings were analyzed, alexithymia did not moderate associations between the alliance and the outcome. When the therapists' alliance ratings were evaluated, alexithymia moderated the relationship between the alliance and the outcome ( p  moderating effect of alexithymia was, however, not statistically significant anymore when adding the pre-treatment depression scores (PHQ-9) as a covariate to the moderation model. The results underline the importance of a good therapists' view of the alliance when treating alexithymic patients and highlight the complex interaction between alexithymia and depression. Future studies are needed to extend the scope of research regarding which psychotherapeutic mechanisms of change are beneficial for which patients.

  20. Self-critical perfectionism, dependency, and symptomatic distress in patients with personality disorder during hospitalization-based psychodynamic treatment: A parallel process growth modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowyck, Benedicte; Luyten, Patrick; Vermote, Rudi; Verhaest, Yannic; Vansteelandt, Kristof

    2017-07-01

    There is growing evidence for the efficacy and effectiveness of psychotherapy in patients with personality disorder (PD), but very little is known about the factors underlying these effects. Two-polarities models of personality development provide an empirically supported approach to studying therapeutic change. Briefly, these models argue that personality pathology is characterized by an imbalance between development of the capacity for self-definition and for relatedness, with an exaggerated emphasis on issues regarding self-definition and relatedness being expressed in high levels of self-critical perfectionism (SCP) and dependency, respectively. This study used data from a study of 111 patients with PD who received long-term hospitalization-based psychodynamic treatment to investigate whether (a) treatment was related to changes in SCP, dependency, and symptomatic distress; (b) these changes could be explained by pretreatment levels of SCP, dependency, and/or symptomatic distress; and (c) changes in these personality dimensions over time were associated with symptomatic improvement. SCP, dependency, and symptomatic distress were assessed at admission (baseline), at 12 and 24 weeks into treatment, and at discharge. Parallel process multilevel growth modeling showed that (a) treatment was associated with a significant decrease in levels of SCP, dependency, and symptomatic distress, whereas (b) pretreatment levels of each of these three factors did not predict the decreases observed, and (c) changes in SCP, but not dependency, were associated with the rate of decrease in symptomatic distress over time. Implications of these findings for our understanding of therapeutic change in the treatment of PD are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence Psicodinâmica da violência de grandes grupos e da violência de massas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This chapter examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression. When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.A partir de Freud, as teorias psicanalíticas a respeito de grandes grupos focalizam principalmente as percepções e os significados que os indivíduos psicologicamente atribuem a eles. Este texto analisa alguns aspectos sobre a psicologia dos grandes grupos e sua psicodinâmica interna e específica. Toma como referência grupos étnicos, nacionais, religiosos e ideológicos cujo pertencimento dos sujeitos iniciou-se na infância. Faz-se uma comparação entre o processo de luto em indivíduos e o processo de luto em grandes grupos para ilustrar por que é necessário investir no conhecimento da psicologia destes últimos, como um objeto específico. Descreve ainda sinais e sintomas de regressão em grandes grupos. Quando há ameaça à identidade coletiva pode ocorrer um processo de violência de massas que obviamente influencia na sua saúde coletiva.

  2. Psicodinâmica da violência de grandes grupos e da violência de massas Large-group psychodynamics and massive violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamik D. Volkan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de Freud, as teorias psicanalistas sobre grandes grupos focalizam, principalmente, as percepções e os significados que, psicologicamente, os indivíduos atribuem a eles. Este texto analisa alguns aspectos sobre a psicologia dos grandes grupos e sua psicodinâmica interna e específica. Toma como referência grupos étnicos, nacionais, religiosos e ideológicos cujo pertencimento dos sujeitos iniciou-se na infância. O autor faz uma comparação entre o processo de luto em indivíduos e o processo de luto em grandes grupos para ilustrar por que é necessário investir no conhecimento da psicologia destes últimos como um objeto específico. O autor descreve, ainda, sinais e sintomas de regressão em grandes grupos. Quando há ameaça à identidade coletiva, pode ocorrer um processo de violência de massas que obviamente influencia a saúde pública.Beginning with Freud, psychoanalytic theories concerning large groups have mainly focused on individuals' perceptions of what their large groups psychologically mean to them. This text examines some aspects of large-group psychology in its own right and studies psychodynamics of ethnic, national, religious or ideological groups, the membership of which originates in childhood. I will compare the mourning process in individuals with the mourning process in large groups to illustrate why we need to study large-group psychology as a subject in itself. As part of this discussion I will also describe signs and symptoms of large-group regression.When there is a threat against a large-group's identity, massive violence may be initiated and this violence in turn, has an obvious impact on public health.

  3. Moderating Effects of Alexithymia on Associations between the Therapeutic Alliance and the Outcome of Brief Psychodynamic-Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Multisomatoform Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Probst

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This secondary analysis of a trial on brief psychodynamic-interpersonal therapy (PIT for patients with multisomatoform disorder investigated whether alexithymia moderates the associations between the therapeutic alliance and the outcome of PIT and whether moderating effects of alexithymia remain significant when controlling for depression. Eighty-three patients with multisomatoform disorder receiving PIT were statistically analyzed. Moderation analyses were performed with the SPSS macro PROCESS. The primary outcome (Y, self-reported physical quality of life at 9-month after the end of PIT, was measured with the physical component summary (PCS of the SF-36 Health Survey. The potential moderator (M alexithymia was operationalized with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20 at pre-treatment and the predictor (X the therapeutic alliance was rated by both patients and therapists via the Helping Alliance Questionnaire (HAQ at the end of PIT. Moreover, the PCS at pre-treatment functioned as covariate in all moderation models. When the patients’ alliance ratings were analyzed, alexithymia did not moderate associations between the alliance and the outcome. When the therapists’ alliance ratings were evaluated, alexithymia moderated the relationship between the alliance and the outcome (p < 0.05: a stronger alliance in the therapists’ perspective was beneficial for the outcome only for patients scoring above 61 on the TAS-20. This moderating effect of alexithymia was, however, not statistically significant anymore when adding the pre-treatment depression scores (PHQ-9 as a covariate to the moderation model. The results underline the importance of a good therapists’ view of the alliance when treating alexithymic patients and highlight the complex interaction between alexithymia and depression. Future studies are needed to extend the scope of research regarding which psychotherapeutic mechanisms of change are beneficial for which patients.

  4. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork Improves Quality of Life, Health, and Ability by Induction of Antonovsky-Salutogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We had a success rate of treating low, self-assessed, global quality of life (measured by QOL1: How would you assess the quality of your life now? with clinical holistic medicine of 56.4% (95% CI: 42.3–69.7% and calculated from this the Number Needed to Treat (NNT as 1.43–2.36. We found that during treatment, (in average 20 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork at a cost of 1600 EURO, the patients entered a state of Antonovsky-salutogenesis (holistic, existential healing, which also improved their self-assessed health and general ability one whole step up a 5-point Likert Scale. The treatment responders radically improved their self-assessed physical health (0.6 step, self-assessed mental health (1.6 step, their relation to self (1.2 step, friends (0.3 step, and partner (2.1 step on a 6-step scale, and their ability to love (1.2 step and work (0.8 step, and to function socially (1.0 step and sexually (0.8 step. It seems that treatment with clinical holistic medicine is the cure of choice when the patients (1 present the triad of low quality of life, poor self-assessed physical and/or mental health, and poor ability to function; and (2 are willing to suffer during the therapy by confronting and integrating old emotional problems and trauma(s from the past. For these patients, the treatment provided lasting benefits, without the negative side effects of drugs. A lasting, positive effect might also prevent many different types of problems in the future. The therapy was “mindful” in its focus on existential and spiritual issues.

  5. Psychodynamic Leadership Approach and Leader-Member Exchange (LMX): A Psychiatric Perspective on Two Leadership Theories and Implications for Training Future Psychiatrist Leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakiotis, Christos

    2017-01-01

    An increased emphasis in recent years on psychiatrists as healthcare leaders has not only drawn attention to the skills they can bring to this role but has also raised questions about how to best train and prepare them to assume leadership responsibilities. Such training should not be conducted in isolation from, and oblivious to, the wide-ranging expertise in human behaviour and relationships that psychiatrists can bring to the leadership arena. The aim of this theoretical paper is to draw attention to how psychiatrists can use their existing knowledge and skill set to inform their understanding of leadership theory and practice. In particular, the Psychodynamic Leadership Approach and Leader-Member Exchange theory are compared and contrasted to illustrate this point. The former represents a less well-known approach to leadership theory and practice whereas the latter is a widely familiar, conventional theory that is regularly taught in leadership courses. Both are underpinned by their emphasis on leader-follower relationships-and human relationships more broadly-and are intuitively appealing to psychiatrists endeavouring to understand aspects of organisational behaviour in the healthcare settings in which they work and lead. The application of these theories to assist reflection on and understanding of professional and personal leadership behaviours through leadership-oriented Balint-style groups and 360-degree appraisal is proposed. It is hoped that this paper will serve to stimulate thought and discussion about how leadership training for future psychiatrists can be tailored to better harness their existing competencies, thereby developing richer formative learning experiences and, ultimately, achieving superior leadership outcomes.

  6. On the possibilities of distinguishing Dirac from Majorana neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zralek, M.

    1997-01-01

    The problem if existing neutrinos are Dirac or Majorana particles is considered in a very pedagogical way. After a few historical remarks we recall the theoretical description of neutral spin 1/2 particles, emphasizing the difference between chirality and helicity which is important in our discussion. Next we describe the properties of neutrinos in the cases when their interactions are given by the standard model and by its extensions (massive neutrinos, right-handed currents, electromagnetic neutrino interaction, interaction with scalar particles). Various processes where the different nature of neutrinos could in principle be visible are reviewed. We clear up misunderstandings which have appeared in last suggestions how to distinguish both types of neutrinos. (author)

  7. Distinguishing fiction from non-fiction with complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, David M.; Carr, Lincoln D.; Jones, Linnea K.; Stevanak, Joe T.

    2014-03-01

    Complex Network Measures are applied to networks constructed from texts in English to demonstrate an initial viability in textual analysis. Texts from novels and short stories obtained from Project Gutenberg and news stories obtained from NPR are selected. Unique word stems in a text are used as nodes in an associated unweighted undirected network, with edges connecting words occurring within a certain number of words somewhere in the text. Various combinations of complex network measures are computed for each text's network. Fisher's Linear Discriminant analysis is used to build a parameter optimizing the ability to separate the texts according to their genre. Success rates in the 70% range for correctly distinguishing fiction from non-fiction were obtained using edges defined as within four words, using 400 word samples from 400 texts from each of the two genres with some combinations of measures such as the power-law exponents of degree distributions and clustering coefficients.

  8. Genetic profiles distinguish different types of hereditary ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanska, Katarina; Malander, Susanne; Staaf, Johan

    2010-01-01

    (HBOC) syndrome and the hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. Genome-wide array comparative genomic hybridization was applied to 12 HBOC associated tumors with BRCA1 mutations and 8 HNPCC associated tumors with mismatch repair gene mutations with 24 sporadic ovarian cancers......Heredity represents the strongest risk factor for ovarian cancer with disease predisposing mutations identified in 15% of the tumors. With the aim to identify genetic classifiers for hereditary ovarian cancer, we profiled hereditary ovarian cancers linked to the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer...... that HBOC and HNPCC associated ovarian cancer develop along distinct genetic pathways and genetic profiles can thus be applied to distinguish between different types of hereditary ovarian cancer....

  9. Distinguishing standard model extensions using monotop chirality at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico,Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dutta, Bhaskar [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Flórez, Andrés [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia); Gao, Yu [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Kamon, Teruki [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics, Kyungpook National University,Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kolev, Nikolay [Department of Physics, University of Regina,SK, S4S 0A2 (Canada); Mueller, Ryan [Department of Physics and Astronomy,Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University,College Station, TX 77843-4242 (United States); Segura, Manuel [Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes,Bogotá, Carrera 1 18A-10, Bloque IP (Colombia)

    2016-12-13

    We present two minimal extensions of the standard model, each giving rise to baryogenesis. They include heavy color-triplet scalars interacting with a light Majorana fermion that can be the dark matter (DM) candidate. The electroweak charges of the new scalars govern their couplings to quarks of different chirality, which leads to different collider signals. These models predict monotop events at the LHC and the energy spectrum of decay products of highly polarized top quarks can be used to establish the chiral nature of the interactions involving the heavy scalars and the DM. Detailed simulation of signal and standard model background events is performed, showing that top quark chirality can be distinguished in hadronic and leptonic decays of the top quarks.

  10. Asymptotic state discrimination and a strict hierarchy in distinguishability norms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitambar, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 62901 (United States); Hsieh, Min-Hsiu [Centre for Quantum Computation and Intelligent Systems (QCIS), Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology (FEIT), University of Technology Sydney - UTS, NSW 2007 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    In this paper, we consider the problem of discriminating quantum states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC) when an arbitrarily small amount of error is permitted. This paradigm is known as asymptotic state discrimination, and we derive necessary conditions for when two multipartite states of any size can be discriminated perfectly by asymptotic LOCC. We use this new criterion to prove a gap in the LOCC and separable distinguishability norms. We then turn to the operational advantage of using two-way classical communication over one-way communication in LOCC processing. With a simple two-qubit product state ensemble, we demonstrate a strict majorization of the two-way LOCC norm over the one-way norm.

  11. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, Suneil A; Swift, Charles R; Bardhan, Karna Dev

    2017-01-01

    Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient's right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient's symptoms. Intrigued by our patient's case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  12. Distinguishing potential sources of genotoxic exposure via HPRT mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molholt, B.; Finette, B.A.

    2000-01-01

    T-cell HPRT (hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase) mutations were used to monitor to environmental mutagens in children who have developed cancer at a persistently high rate in Toms River, New Jersey, USA. A preliminary epidemiological study has found a statistically-significant association between drinking public water (by pregnant mother or infant) and subsequent risk for childhood cancer. Three potential sources of mutagenic exposures in Toms River may have increased the rate of carcinogenic initiation significantly in children: 1. Benzidine-based, other azo-dye and anthraquinone dye wastes released by Ciba-Geigy enterprise; 2. Plastic wastes of Union Carbide enterprise; 3. Radium-224, present in unusually high concentrations in the Cohansey aquifer. Specific patterns of HPRT mutations are utilized to distinguish these various potential sources of carcinogenic exposures in the drinking water of families with childhood cancer and to differentiate chemically or radiologically induced cancers from those which occur spontaneously [ru

  13. Distinguishing zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghebrebrhan, M.; Ibanescu, M.; Johnson, Steven G.; Soljacic, M.; Joannopoulos, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    We examine differences between various zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals, including those that arise from Bragg diffraction, anticrossings, and band repulsion. Zero-group velocity occurs at points where the group velocity changes sign, and therefore is conceptually related to 'left-handed' media, in which the group velocity is opposite to the phase velocity. We consider this relationship more quantitatively in terms of the Fourier decomposition of the modes, by defining a measure of how much the ''average'' phase velocity is parallel to the group velocity--an anomalous region is one in which they are mostly antiparallel. We find that this quantity can be used to qualitatively distinguish different zero-group-velocity points. In one dimension, such anomalous regions are found never to occur. In higher dimensions, they are exhibited around certain zero-group-velocity points, and lead to unusual enhanced confinement behavior in microcavities

  14. Thomas Grisso: Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. To be eligible, this research should have led to innovative applications in an area of psychological practice, including but not limited to assessment, consultation, instruction, or intervention (either direct or indirect). The 2014 recipient is Thomas Grisso. Grisso "has made seminal contributions to the field of forensic psychology and psychiatry through his internationally renowned program of research, which has directly impacted juvenile justice reform worldwide." Grisso's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  15. Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    This award is given to individuals who have made sustained and enduring contributions to international cooperation and the advancement of knowledge in psychology. The 2017 recipient of the APA Award for Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology was selected by the 2016 Committee on International Relations in Psychology (CIRP). The members of the 2016 CIRP were Melissa Morgan Consoli, PhD, and Arpana G. Inman, PhD (Co-chairs); Rehman Abdulrehman, PhD; Gonzalo Bacigalupe, EdD; Frederic Bemak, EdD; Brigitte Khoury, PhD; Susan Nolan, PhD; Nancy Sidun, PsyD; and Danny Wedding, PhD. Dr. Morgan Consoli, Dr. Inman, Dr. Nolan, and Doctor Sidun were members of the subcommittee for the 2017 award. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d = 2N + 1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions. (orig.)

  17. A distinguishing gravitational property for gravitational equation in higher dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadhich, Naresh

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that Einstein gravity is kinematic (meaning that there is no non-trivial vacuum solution; i.e. the Riemann tensor vanishes whenever the Ricci tensor does so) in 3 dimension because the Riemann tensor is entirely given in terms of the Ricci tensor. Could this property be universalized for all odd dimensions in a generalized theory? The answer is yes, and this property uniquely singles out pure Lovelock (it has only one Nth order term in the action) gravity for which the Nth order Lovelock-Riemann tensor is indeed given in terms of the corresponding Ricci tensor for all odd, d=2N+1, dimensions. This feature of gravity is realized only in higher dimensions and it uniquely picks out pure Lovelock gravity from all other generalizations of Einstein gravity. It serves as a good distinguishing and guiding criterion for the gravitational equation in higher dimensions.

  18. Using MT2 to distinguish dark matter stabilization symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Kim, Doojin; Zhu Lijun; Walker, Devin G. E.

    2011-01-01

    We examine the potential of using colliders to distinguish models with parity (Z 2 ) stabilized dark matter (DM) from models in which the DM is stabilized by other symmetries, taking the latter to be a Z 3 symmetry for illustration. The key observation is that a heavier mother particle charged under a Z 3 stabilization symmetry can decay into one or two DM particles along with standard model particles. This can be contrasted with the decay of a mother particle charged under a parity symmetry; typically, only one DM particle appears in the decay chain. The arXiv:1003.0899 studied the distributions of visible invariant mass from the decay of a single such mother particle in order to highlight the resulting distinctive signatures of Z 3 symmetry versus parity symmetry stabilized dark matter candidates. We now describe a complementary study which focuses on decay chains of the two mother particles which are necessarily present in these events. We also include in our analysis the missing energy/momentum in the event. For the Z 3 symmetry stabilized mothers, the resulting inclusive final state can have two, three or four DM particles. In contrast, models with Z 2 symmetry can have only two. We show that the shapes and edges of the distribution of M T2 -type variables, along with ratio of the visible momentum/energy on the two sides of the event, are powerful in distinguishing these different scenarios. Finally we conclude by outlining future work which focuses on reducing combinatoric ambiguities from reconstructing multijet events. Increasing the reconstruction efficiency can allow better reconstruction of events with two or three dark matter candidates in the final state.

  19. Genomic, Pathway Network, and Immunologic Features Distinguishing Squamous Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Campbell

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: This integrated, multiplatform PanCancer Atlas study co-mapped and identified distinguishing molecular features of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs from five sites associated with smoking and/or human papillomavirus (HPV. SCCs harbor 3q, 5p, and other recurrent chromosomal copy-number alterations (CNAs, DNA mutations, and/or aberrant methylation of genes and microRNAs, which are correlated with the expression of multi-gene programs linked to squamous cell stemness, epithelial-to-mesenchymal differentiation, growth, genomic integrity, oxidative damage, death, and inflammation. Low-CNA SCCs tended to be HPV(+ and display hypermethylation with repression of TET1 demethylase and FANCF, previously linked to predisposition to SCC, or harbor mutations affecting CASP8, RAS-MAPK pathways, chromatin modifiers, and immunoregulatory molecules. We uncovered hypomethylation of the alternative promoter that drives expression of the ΔNp63 oncogene and embedded miR944. Co-expression of immune checkpoint, T-regulatory, and Myeloid suppressor cells signatures may explain reduced efficacy of immune therapy. These findings support possibilities for molecular classification and therapeutic approaches. : Campbell et al. reveal that squamous cell cancers from different tissue sites may be distinguished from other cancers and subclassified molecularly by recurrent alterations in chromosomes, DNA methylation, messenger and microRNA expression, or by mutations. These affect squamous cell pathways and programs that provide candidates for therapy. Keywords: genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung squamous cell carcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, cervical squamous cell carcinoma, bladder carcinoma with squamous differentiation, human papillomavirus

  20. Simulated multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish agricultural crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Fernando Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many researchers have shown the potential of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images for agricultural applications, particularly for monitoring regions with limitations in terms of acquiring cloud free optical images. Recently, Brazil and Germany began a feasibility study on the construction of an orbital L-band SAR sensor referred to as MAPSAR (Multi-Application Purpose SAR. This sensor provides L-band images in three spatial resolutions and polarimetric, interferometric and stereoscopic capabilities. Thus, studies are needed to evaluate the potential of future MAPSAR images. The objective of this study was to evaluate multipolarized MAPSAR images simulated by the airborne SAR-R99B sensor to distinguish coffee, cotton and pasture fields in Brazil. Discrimination among crops was evaluated through graphical and cluster analysis of mean backscatter values, considering single, dual and triple polarizations. Planting row direction of coffee influenced the backscatter and was divided into two classes: parallel and perpendicular to the sensor look direction. Single polarizations had poor ability to discriminate the crops. The overall accuracies were less than 59 %, but the understanding of the microwave interaction with the crops could be explored. Combinations of two polarizations could differentiate various fields of crops, highlighting the combination VV-HV that reached 78 % overall accuracy. The use of three polarizations resulted in 85.4 % overall accuracy, indicating that the classes pasture and parallel coffee were fully discriminated from the other classes. These results confirmed the potential of multipolarized MAPSAR images to distinguish the studied crops and showed considerable improvement in the accuracy of the results when the number of polarizations was increased.

  1. Distinguishing CDM dwarfs from SIDM dwarfs in baryonic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Emily; Fitts, Alex B.; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Dwarf galaxies in the nearby Universe are the most dark-matter-dominated systems known. They are therefore natural probes of the nature of dark matter, which remains unknown. Our collaboration has performed several high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations of isolated dwarf galaxies. We simulate each galaxy in standard cold dark matter (ΛCDM) as well as self-interacting dark matter (SIDM, with a cross section of σ/m ~ 1 cm2/g), both with and without baryons, in order to identify distinguishing characteristics between the two. The simulations are run using GIZMO, a meshless-finite-mass hydrodynamical code, and are part of the Feedback in Realistic Environments (FIRE) project. By analyzing both the global properties and inner structure of the dwarfs in varying dark matter prescriptions, we provide a side-by-side comparison of isolated, dark-matter-dominated galaxies at the mass scale where differences in the two models of dark matter are thought to be the most obvious. We find that the edge of classical dwarfs and ultra-faint dwarfs (at stellar masses of ~105 solar masses) provides the clearest window for distinguishing between the two theories. At these low masses, our SIDM galaxies have a cored inner density profile, while their CDM counterparts have “cuspy” centers. The SIDM versions of each galaxy also have measurably lower stellar velocity dispersions than their CDM counterparts. Future observations of ultra faint dwarfs with JWST and 30-m telescopes will be able to discern whether such alternate theories of dark matter are viable.

  2. A method for distinguishing between propagons, diffusions, and locons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Heat Lab, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)

    2016-07-14

    The majority of intuition on phonon transport has been derived from studies of homogenous crystalline solids, where the atomic composition and structure are periodic. For this specific class of materials, the solutions to the equations of motions for the atoms (in the harmonic limit) result in plane wave modulated velocity fields for the normal modes of vibration. However, it has been known for several decades that whenever a system lacks periodicity, either compositional or structural, the normal modes of vibration can still be determined (in the harmonic limit), but the solutions take on different characteristics and many modes may not be plane wave modulated. Previous work has classified the types of vibrations into three primary categories, namely, propagons, diffusions, and locons. One can use the participation ratio to distinguish locons, from propagons and diffusons, which measures the extent to which a mode is localized. However, distinguishing between propagons and diffusons has remained a challenge, since both are spatially delocalized. Here, we present a new method that quantifies the extent to which a mode's character corresponds to a propagating mode, e.g., exhibits plane wave modulation. This then allows for clear and quantitative distinctions between propagons and diffusons. By resolving this issue quantitatively, one can now automate the classification of modes for any arbitrary material or structure, subject to a single constraint that the atoms must vibrate stably around their respective equilibrium sites. Several example test cases are studied including crystalline silicon and germanium, crystalline silicon with different defect concentrations, as well as amorphous silicon, germanium, and silica.

  3. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  4. A rapid minor groove binder PCR method for distinguishing the vaccine strain Brucella abortus 104M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Wenlong; Qin, Lide; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Yueyong; Tan, Pengfei; Chen, Yuqi; Mao, Kairong; Chen, Yiping

    2018-01-24

    Brucellosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by Gram-negative Brucella bacteria. Immunisation with attenuated vaccine is an effective method of prevention, but it can interfere with diagnosis. Live, attenuated Brucella abortus strain 104M has been used for the prevention of human brucellosis in China since 1965. However, at present, no fast and reliable method exists that can distinguish this strain from field strains. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based assays offer a new approach for such discrimination. SNP-based minor groove binder (MGB) and Cycleave assays have been used for rapid identification of four Brucella vaccine strains (B. abortus strains S19, A19 and RB51, and B. melitensis Rev1). The main objective of this study was to develop a PCR assay for rapid and specific detection of strain 104M. We developed a SNP-based MGB PCR assay that could successfully distinguish strain 104M from 18 representative strains of Brucella (B. abortus biovars 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 9, B. melitensis biovars 1, 2 and 3, B. suis biovars 1, 2, 3 and 4, B. canis, B. neotomae, and B. ovis), four Brucella vaccine strains (A19, S19, S2, M5), and 55 Brucella clinical field strains. The assay gave a negative reaction with four non-Brucella species (Escherichia coli, Pasteurella multocida, Streptococcus suis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The minimum sensitivity of the assay, evaluated using 10-fold dilutions of chromosomal DNA, was 220 fg for the 104M strain and 76 fg for the single non-104M Brucella strain tested (B. abortus A19). The assay was also reproducible (intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation = 0.006-0.022 and 0.012-0.044, respectively). A SNP-based MGB PCR assay was developed that could straightforwardly and unambiguously distinguish B. abortus vaccine strain 104M from non-104M Brucella strains. Compared to the classical isolation and identification approaches of bacteriology, this real-time PCR assay has substantial advantages in terms of

  5. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  6. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  7. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  8. Human reliability and human factors in complex organizations: epistemological and critical analysis - practical avenues to action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llory, A.

    1991-08-01

    This article starts out with comment on the existence of persistent problems inherent to probabilistic safety assessments (PSA). It first surveys existing American documents on the subject which make a certain number of criticisms on human reliability analyses, e.g. limitations due to the scant quantities of data available, lack of a basic theoretical model, non-reproducibility of analyses, etc. The article therefore examines and criticizes the epistemological bases of these analyses. One of the fundamental points stressed is that human reliability analyses do not take account of all the special features of the work situation which result in human error (so as to draw up statistical data from a sufficiently representative number of cases), and consequently lose all notion of the 'relationships' between human errors and the different aspects of the working environment. The other key points of criticism concern the collective nature of work which is not taken into account, and the frequent confusion between what operatives actually do and their formally prescribed job-tasks. The article proposes aspects to be given thought in order to overcome these difficulties, e.g. quantitative assessment of the social environment within a company, non-linear model for assessment of the accident rate, analysis of stress levels in staff on off-shore platforms. The method approaches used in these three studies are of the same type, and could be transposed to human-reliability problems. The article then goes into greater depth on thinking aimed at developing a 'positive' view of the human factor (and not just a 'negative' one, i.e. centred on human errors and organizational malfunctions), applying investigation methods developed in the occupational human sciences (occupational psychodynamics, ergonomics, occupational sociology). The importance of operatives working as actors of a team is stressed

  9. Reliability and validity of the German version of the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The assessment of personality organization and its observable behavioral manifestations, i.e. personality functioning, has a long tradition in psychodynamic psychiatry. Recently, the DSM-5 Levels of Personality Functioning Scale has moved it into the focus of psychiatric diagnostics. Based on Kernberg’s concept of personality organization the Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO) was developed for diagnosing personality functioning. The STIPO covers seven dimensions: (1) identity, (2) object relations, (3) primitive defenses, (4) coping/rigidity, (5) aggression, (6) moral values, and (7) reality testing and perceptual distortions. The English version of the STIPO has previously revealed satisfying psychometric properties. Methods Validity and reliability of the German version of the 100-item instrument have been evaluated in 122 psychiatric patients. All patients were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) and were assessed by means of the STIPO. Moreover, all patients completed eight questionnaires that served as criteria for external validity of the STIPO. Results Interrater reliability varied between intraclass correlations of .89 and 1.0, Crohnbach’s α for the seven dimensions was .69 to .93. All a priori selected questionnaire scales correlated significantly with the corresponding STIPO dimensions. Patients with personality disorder (PD) revealed significantly higher STIPO scores (i.e. worse personality functioning) than patients without PD; patients cluster B PD showed significantly higher STIPO scores than patients with cluster C PD. Conclusions Interrater reliability, Crohnbach’s α, concurrent validity, and differential validity of the STIPO are satisfying. The STIPO represents an appropriate instrument for the assessment of personality functioning in clinical and research settings. PMID:23941404

  10. 78 FR 12329 - Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-22

    ... medical devices to take timely action to correct violative devices or remove them from the marketplace...] Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting Requirements; Draft Guidance for... draft guidance entitled ``Distinguishing Medical Device Recalls From Product Enhancements; Reporting...

  11. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  12. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  13. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  14. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  15. Distinguishing Failure to Cure From Complication After Penile Prosthesis Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Miguel; Burnett, Arthur L

    2017-05-01

    A successful penile prosthesis implantation (PPI) surgery can be defined by outcomes beyond the absence of complications. To introduce the concept of failure to cure (FTC) in the context of PPI to more accurately gauge postoperative outcomes after PPI. Consecutive patients from our sexual function registry who underwent PPI from January 2011 to December 2013 were analyzed. Demographics, previous treatment of erectile dysfunction, comorbidities, social history, postoperative problems (POPs), and surgical outcomes were tabulated. Patients completed the International Index of Erection Function (IIEF) and the Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction questionnaires. We defined a complication, according to the Clavien-Dindo classification, as any deviation from the ideal postoperative course that is not inherent in the procedure and does not constitute an FTC. FTC was defined as a POP that was not a complication. The χ 2 tests, t-tests, or Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used. Patient-reported and objective outcomes after PPI. Our enrollment consisted of 185 patients, and we contacted 124 (67%). Of these, 16 (12.9%) had a POP requiring reoperation. Eight patients developed surgical complications (three infections, four erosions, and one chronic pain). Eight patients had FTC (four malpositions and four malfunctions). Factors that correlated with POPs were previous PPI, body mass index higher than 30 kg/m 2 , and previous treatment with intracorporal injections (P .05 for all comparisons). POPs after PPI surgery can be more accurately categorized using the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications to more clearly distinguish surgical complications from FTC. Limitations of our study include its retrospective approach. Our series included a large proportion of patients treated for prostate cancer, which limits the generalizability of our findings. We also had a relatively short median follow-up time of 27 months. Patient-reported outcome

  16. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  17. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  18. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  19. Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology: Neil Lutsky

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The American Psychological Foundation (APF) Charles L. Brewer Award for Distinguished Teaching of Psychology recognizes an outstanding career contribution to the teaching of psychology. The 2011 recipient of the Distinguished Teaching Award is Neil Lutsky. Dorothy W. Cantor, president of the APF, will present the APF Distinguished Teaching Award…

  20. Distinguishing Motor Weakness From Impaired Spatial Awareness: A Helping Hand!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneil A Raju

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Our patient, aged 73 years, had background peripheral neuropathy of unknown cause, stable for several years, which caused some difficulty in walking on uneven ground. He attended for a teaching session but now staggered in, a new development. He had apparent weakness of his right arm, but there was difficulty in distinguishing motor weakness from impaired spatial awareness suggestive of parietal lobe dysfunction. With the patient seated, eyes closed, and left arm outstretched, S.A.R. lifted the patient’s right arm and asked him to indicate when both were level. This confirmed motor weakness. Urgent computed tomographic scan confirmed left subdural haematoma and its urgent evacuation rapidly resolved the patient’s symptoms. Intrigued by our patient’s case, we explored further and learnt that in rehabilitation medicine, the awareness of limb position is commonly viewed in terms of joint position sense. We present recent literature evidence indicating that the underlying mechanisms are more subtle.

  1. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenny Salvagno

    Full Text Available Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher's experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements-some newly created, others previously published-and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others.

  2. A morphometric system to distinguish sheep and goat postcranial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvagno, Lenny; Albarella, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Distinguishing between the bones of sheep and goat is a notorious challenge in zooarchaeology. Several methodological contributions have been published at different times and by various people to facilitate this task, largely relying on a macro-morphological approach. This is now routinely adopted by zooarchaeologists but, although it certainly has its value, has also been shown to have limitations. Morphological discriminant criteria can vary in different populations and correct identification is highly dependent upon a researcher's experience, availability of appropriate reference collections, and many other factors that are difficult to quantify. There is therefore a need to establish a more objective system, susceptible to scrutiny. In order to fulfil such a requirement, this paper offers a comprehensive morphometric method for the identification of sheep and goat postcranial bones, using a sample of more than 150 modern skeletons as a basis, and building on previous pioneering work. The proposed method is based on measurements-some newly created, others previously published-and its use is recommended in combination with the more traditional morphological approach. Measurement ratios, used to translate morphological traits into biometrical attributes, are demonstrated to have substantial diagnostic potential, with the vast majority of specimens correctly assigned to species. The efficacy of the new method is also tested with Discriminant Analysis, which provides a successful verification of the biometrical indices, a statistical means to select the most promising measurements, and an additional line of analysis to be used in conjunction with the others.

  3. Distinguishing quantum from classical oscillations in a driven phase qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, S N; Omelyanchouk, A N; Zagoskin, A M; Savel'ev, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Rabi oscillations are coherent transitions in a quantum two-level system under the influence of a resonant drive, with a much lower frequency dependent on the perturbation amplitude. These serve as one of the signatures of quantum coherent evolution in mesoscopic systems. It was shown recently (Groenbech-Jensen N and Cirillo M 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 067001) that in phase qubits (current-biased Josephson junctions) this effect can be mimicked by classical oscillations arising due to the anharmonicity of the effective potential. Nevertheless, we find qualitative differences between the classical and quantum effects. Firstly, while the quantum Rabi oscillations can be produced by the subharmonics of the resonant frequency ω 10 (multiphoton processes), the classical effect also exists when the system is excited at the overtones, nω 10 . Secondly, the shape of the resonance is, in the classical case, characteristically asymmetric, whereas quantum resonances are described by symmetric Lorentzians. Thirdly, the anharmonicity of the potential results in the negative shift of the resonant frequency in the classical case, in contrast to the positive Bloch-Siegert shift in the quantum case. We show that in the relevant range of parameters these features allow us to distinguish confidently the bona fide Rabi oscillations from their classical Doppelgaenger

  4. Psychogenic Tremor: A Video Guide to Its Distinguishing Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jankovic

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychogenic tremor is the most common psychogenic movement disorder. It has characteristic clinical features that can help distinguish it from other tremor disorders. There is no diagnostic gold standard and the diagnosis is based primarily on clinical history and examination. Despite proposed diagnostic criteria, the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor can be challenging. While there are numerous studies evaluating psychogenic tremor in the literature, there are no publications that provide a video/visual guide that demonstrate the clinical characteristics of psychogenic tremor. Educating clinicians about psychogenic tremor will hopefully lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment. Methods: We selected videos from the database at the Parkinson's Disease Center and Movement Disorders Clinic at Baylor College of Medicine that illustrate classic findings supporting the diagnosis of psychogenic tremor.Results: We include 10 clinical vignettes with accompanying videos that highlight characteristic clinical signs of psychogenic tremor including distractibility, variability, entrainability, suggestibility, and coherence.Discussion: Psychogenic tremor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with tremor, particularly if it is of abrupt onset, intermittent, variable and not congruous with organic tremor. The diagnosis of psychogenic tremor, however, should not be simply based on exclusion of organic tremor, such as essential, parkinsonian, or cerebellar tremor, but on positive criteria demonstrating characteristic features. Early recognition and management are critical for good long-term outcome.

  5. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  6. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2018-03-01

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  7. Bringing to Market Technological Innovation: What Distinguishes Success from Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Frattini

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Commercialization is a critical step in technological innovation. Nevertheless, many scholars believe that it is often the least well-managed activity of the whole innovation process. The launch stage seems to be particularly critical in high-technology markets because of the volatility, interconnectedness and the proliferation of new technologies they experience. However, academic and practitioners’ literature has not, so far, developed a clear understanding of the factors that distinguish an effective commercialization from an unsuccessful one, especially in high-technology environments. This paper discusses the results of a research project that aimed to understand the ingredients for success in the commercialization of a technological innovation. The first stage of the research consisted of a comparative historical analysis of 18 innovations, which were commercialized in consumer high-tech markets in the last 30 years. The analysis advocates that an effective commercialization comprises three sub-strategies: Early adoption strategy, Adoption network configuration strategy and Mainstream adoption strategy, with each one characterized by a coherent set of commercialization dimensions. The relative importance of each sub-strategy in determining the innovation commercial success depends on the type of innovation that is commercialized, be it radical or incremental and discontinuous or continuous.

  8. [Problem and assignment for distinguishing the Usher syndrome type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Hidekane; Takeichi, Norito; Satou, Hiroaki; Ishikawa, Kotaro; Kaga, Kimitaka; Kumakawa, Kozou; Nagai, Kyoko; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Ikezono, Tetsuo; Nakanishi, Hiroshi; Naitou, Yasu; Fukushima, Kunihiro; Tono, Tetsuya; Kimitsuki, Takashi; Nishio, Shinya; Takumi, Yutaka; Usami, Shinichi

    2012-10-01

    Usher syndrome is an autosomal-recessive disorder that causes bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa (RP), and occasionally vestibular dysfunction. Usher syndrome types 1, 2, and 3 can be distinguished by differences in audiovestibular features. The objectives of this retrospective study were to evaluate 26 patients with Usher syndrome clinically. The 26 patients (male: 12 cases, female: 14 cases) with Usher syndrome, with a clinical diagnosis based on symptoms of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and RP, had been registered from 13 hospitals as a multicenter study. We assessed the clinical history and performed audiovestibular and ophthalmologic examinations, and genetic testing. Eleven of the patients were classified as having Usher type 1 (38.5%), 6 with Usher type 2 (23.1%), and 9 with Usher type 3 (38.5%). However, many patients with atypical Usher type 1 (70%) and type 2 (83.3%) were found compared with Usher type 3 (10%). The conductive rate of vestibular examinations including the caloric test (50%) was low. There were many variations in the clinical symptoms in Usher syndrome patients, therefore the classification of Usher types 1, 2, and 3 has been complicated. We have proposed a flowchart for the diagnosis of Usher types 1, 2, and 3.

  9. Distinguishability of quantum states and shannon complexity in quantum cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbekov, I. M.; Molotkov, S. N.

    2017-07-01

    The proof of the security of quantum key distribution is a rather complex problem. Security is defined in terms different from the requirements imposed on keys in classical cryptography. In quantum cryptography, the security of keys is expressed in terms of the closeness of the quantum state of an eavesdropper after key distribution to an ideal quantum state that is uncorrelated to the key of legitimate users. A metric of closeness between two quantum states is given by the trace metric. In classical cryptography, the security of keys is understood in terms of, say, the complexity of key search in the presence of side information. In quantum cryptography, side information for the eavesdropper is given by the whole volume of information on keys obtained from both quantum and classical channels. The fact that the mathematical apparatuses used in the proof of key security in classical and quantum cryptography are essentially different leads to misunderstanding and emotional discussions [1]. Therefore, one should be able to answer the question of how different cryptographic robustness criteria are related to each other. In the present study, it is shown that there is a direct relationship between the security criterion in quantum cryptography, which is based on the trace distance determining the distinguishability of quantum states, and the criterion in classical cryptography, which uses guesswork on the determination of a key in the presence of side information.

  10. Gamma oscillations distinguish mere exposure from other likability effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongthong, Nutchakan; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2014-02-01

    Repeated exposure to neutral stimuli enhances liking for those, which is called mere exposure effect (MEE) (Zajonc, 1968). Its behavioral effects have been extensively investigated. However, the mechanism by which it is generated remains unclear. To elucidate the neural mechanism of the MEE, we recorded electroencephalograms while subjects indicated their preferences for face stimuli with and without MEE induction. According to behavioral data, participants were divided into two groups, one with, and one without MEE tendency. In participants with an MEE tendency, gamma activity (40-60 [Hz]) in the parieto-occipital area was significantly weaker for exposed faces than unexposed ones, indicating a repetition-suppression effect. Gamma activity from sites exhibiting peak repetition-suppression effects was significantly weaker in theoretically genuine MEE trials than non-MEE trials, indicating that emotion processing might influence the MEE. These results suggest that existing theories regarding mechanisms underlying the MEE, namely, fluency misattribution and apprehensiveness reduction might not be mutually exclusive. Moreover, gamma activity might be a potential indicator to distinguish the MEE from other likability effects, at least in the case of human face stimuli. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Distinguishing community benefits: tax exemption versus organizational legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, James D; Landry, Amy

    2012-01-01

    US policymakers continue to call into question the tax-exempt status of hospitals. As nonprofit tax-exempt entities, hospitals are required by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) to report the type and cost of community benefits they provide. Institutional theory indicates that organizations derive organizational legitimacy from conforming to the expectations of their environment. Expectations from the state and federal regulators (the IRS, state and local taxing authorities in particular) and the community require hospitals to provide community benefits to achieve legitimacy. This article examines community benefit through an institutional theory framework, which includes regulative (laws and regulation), normative (certification and accreditation), and cultural-cognitive (relationship with the community including the provision of community benefits) pillars. Considering a review of the results of a 2006 IRS study of tax-exempt hospitals, the authors propose a model of hospital community benefit behaviors that distinguishes community benefits between cost-quantifiable activities appropriate for justifying tax exemption and unquantifiable activities that only contribute to hospitals' legitimacy.

  12. Fimbriae have distinguishable roles in Proteus mirabilis biofilm formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scavone, Paola; Iribarnegaray, Victoria; Caetano, Ana Laura; Schlapp, Geraldine; Härtel, Steffen; Zunino, Pablo

    2016-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis is one of the most common etiological agents of complicated urinary tract infections, especially those associated with catheterization. This is related to the ability of P. mirabilis to form biofilms on different surfaces. This pathogen encodes 17 putative fimbrial operons, the highest number found in any sequenced bacterial species so far. The present study analyzed the role of four P. mirabilis fimbriae (MR/P, UCA, ATF and PMF) in biofilm formation using isogenic mutants. Experimental approaches included migration over catheter, swimming and swarming motility, the semiquantitative assay based on adhesion and crystal violet staining, and biofilm development by immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. Different assays were performed using LB or artificial urine. Results indicated that the different fimbriae contribute to the formation of a stable and functional biofilm. Fimbriae revealed particular associated roles. First, all the mutants showed a significantly reduced ability to migrate across urinary catheter sections but neither swimming nor swarming motility were affected. However, some mutants formed smaller biofilms compared with the wild type (MRP and ATF) while others formed significantly larger biofilms (UCA and PMF) showing different bioarchitecture features. It can be concluded that P. mirabilis fimbriae have distinguishable roles in the generation of biofilms, particularly in association with catheters. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Research leadership: should clinical directors be distinguished researchers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Stephen; Goodall, Amanda H; Bastiampillai, Tarun

    2016-06-01

    Clinical directors established research-led healthcare by combining research, teaching and clinical excellence within the teaching hospitals. This research culture created high clinical standards, which benefited patients, the workforce and healthcare organisations. The current paper explores this research leadership role for clinical directors. It reviews studies arising from the theory of expert leadership, which focuses on the relationship between a leader's core knowledge and organisational performance. More specifically, we examine the expert leader's research track record, the associations with their organisation's performance, and the influence of research activity on clinical excellence. Distinguished researchers still lead the most prestigious teaching hospitals and the most trusted departments of psychiatry in the United States where the clinical directorate structure originated. It is also known that good scholars can improve research output when appointed to leadership positions. This suggests that the clinical director's research track record should be a consideration at a time when research is being embedded in Australia's local health networks. A clinical director's leadership may influence the research performance of their department and contribute to the quality of mental healthcare. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  14. Distinguishing Intrapsychic From Interpersonal Motives in Psychological Theory and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Mark R; Raimi, Kaitlin Toner; Jongman-Sereno, Katrina P; Diebels, Kate J

    2015-07-01

    Many psychological phenomena have been explained primarily in terms of intrapsychic motives to maintain particular cognitive or affective states--such as motives for consistency, self-esteem, and authenticity--whereas other phenomena have been explained in terms of interpersonal motives to obtain tangible resources, reactions, or outcomes from other people. In this article, we describe and contrast intrapsychic and interpersonal motives, and we review evidence showing that these two distinct sets of motives are sometimes conflated and confused in ways that undermine the viability of motivational theories. Explanations that invoke motives to maintain certain intrapsychic states offer a dramatically different view of the psychological foundations of human behavior than those that posit motives to obtain desired interpersonal outcomes. Several phenomena are examined as exemplars of instances in which interpersonal and intrapsychic motives have been inadequately distinguished, if not directly confounded, including cognitive dissonance, the self-esteem motive, biases in judgment and decision making, posttransgression accounts, authenticity, and self-conscious emotions. Our analysis of the literature suggests that theorists and researchers should consider the relative importance of intrapsychic versus interpersonal motives in the phenomena they study and that they should make a concerted effort to deconfound intrapsychic and interpersonal influences in their research. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Transparent reliability model for fault-tolerant safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodsberg, Lars; Hokstad, Per

    1997-01-01

    A reliability model is presented which may serve as a tool for identification of cost-effective configurations and operating philosophies of computer-based process safety systems. The main merit of the model is the explicit relationship in the mathematical formulas between failure cause and the means used to improve system reliability such as self-test, redundancy, preventive maintenance and corrective maintenance. A component failure taxonomy has been developed which allows the analyst to treat hardware failures, human failures, and software failures of automatic systems in an integrated manner. Furthermore, the taxonomy distinguishes between failures due to excessive environmental stresses and failures initiated by humans during engineering and operation. Attention has been given to develop a transparent model which provides predictions which are in good agreement with observed system performance, and which is applicable for non-experts in the field of reliability

  16. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  18. Using fluorescent dissolved organic matter to trace and distinguish the origin of Arctic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Araujo, Rafael; Granskog, Mats A.; Bracher, Astrid; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Dodd, Paul A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change affects the Arctic with regards to permafrost thaw, sea-ice melt, alterations to the freshwater budget and increased export of terrestrial material to the Arctic Ocean. The Fram and Davis Straits represent the major gateways connecting the Arctic and Atlantic. Oceanographic surveys were performed in the Fram and Davis Straits, and on the east Greenland Shelf (EGS), in late summer 2012/2013. Meteoric (fmw), sea-ice melt, Atlantic and Pacific water fractions were determined and the fluorescence properties of dissolved organic matter (FDOM) were characterized. In Fram Strait and EGS, a robust correlation between visible wavelength fluorescence and fmw was apparent, suggesting it as a reliable tracer of polar waters. However, a pattern was observed which linked the organic matter characteristics to the origin of polar waters. At depth in Davis Strait, visible wavelength FDOM was correlated to apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) and traced deep-water DOM turnover. In surface waters FDOM characteristics could distinguish between surface waters from eastern (Atlantic + modified polar waters) and western (Canada-basin polar waters) Arctic sectors. The findings highlight the potential of designing in situ multi-channel DOM fluorometers to trace the freshwater origins and decipher water mass mixing dynamics in the region without laborious samples analyses. PMID:27667721

  19. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-01-01

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in 60 Co, 152 Eu and 228 Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  20. Techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events using segmented germanium detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeninger, K.

    2007-06-05

    Two techniques to distinguish between electron and photon induced events in germanium detectors were studied: (1) anti-coincidence requirements between the segments of segmented germanium detectors and (2) the analysis of the time structure of the detector response. An 18-fold segmented germanium prototype detector for the GERDA neutrinoless double beta-decay experiment was characterized. The rejection of photon induced events was measured for the strongest lines in {sup 60}Co, {sup 152}Eu and {sup 228}Th. An accompanying Monte Carlo simulation was performed and the results were compared to data. An overall agreement with deviations of the order of 5-10% was obtained. The expected background index of the GERDA experiment was estimated. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment was determined. Special statistical tools were developed to correctly treat the small number of events expected. The GERDA experiment uses a cryogenic liquid as the operational medium for the germanium detectors. It was shown that germanium detectors can be reliably operated through several cooling cycles. (orig.)

  1. Trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting by quantitative real-time PCR successfully distinguishes sibling human embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Richard T; Su, Jing; Tao, Xin; Forman, Eric J; Hong, Kathleen H; Taylor, Deanne; Treff, Nathan R

    2014-11-01

    To validate a novel and more practical system for trophectoderm DNA fingerprinting which reliably distinguishes sibling embryos from each other. In this prospective and blinded study two-cell and 5-cell samples from commercially available sibling cell lines and excess DNA from trophectoderm biopsies of sibling human blastocysts were evaluated for accurate assignment of relationship using qPCR-based allelic discrimination from 40 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with low allele frequency variation and high heterozygosity. Cell samples with self relationships averaged 95.1 ± 5.9 % similarity. Sibling relationships averaged 57.2 ± 5.9 % similarity for all 40 SNPs, and 40.8 ± 8.2 % similarity for the 25 informative SNPs. Assignment of relationships was accomplished with 100 % accuracy for cell lines and embryos. These data demonstrate the first trophectoderm qPCR-based DNA fingerprinting technology capable of unequivocal discrimination of sibling human embryos. This methodology will empower research and development of new markers of, and interventions that influence embryonic reproductive potential.

  2. Application of positive mode atmospheric chemical ionisation to distinguish epimeric oleanolic and ursolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townley, Chloe; Brettell, Rhea C; Bowen, Richard D; Gallagher, Richard T; Martin, William H C

    2015-01-01

    A new and more reliable method is reported for distinguishing the equatorial and axial epimers of oleanolic and ursolic acids and related triterpenoids based primarily on the relative abundance of the [M+H](+) and [M+-H(2)O](+) signals in their positive mode atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectra. The rate of elimination of water, which is the principal primary fragmentation of protonated oleanolic and ursolic acids, depends systematically on the stereochemistry of the hydroxyl group in the 3 position. For the b-epimer, in which the 3-hydroxyl substituent is in an equatorial position,[M+-H(2)O](+) is the base peak. In contrast, for the α-epimer, where the 3-hydroxyl group is axial, [M + H](+) is the base peak. This trend, which is general for a range of derivatives of oleanolic and ursolic acids, including the corresponding methyl esters, allows epimeric triterpenoids in these series to be securely differentiated. Confirmatory information is available from the collision-induced dissociation of the [M+-H(2)O](+) primary fragment ions, which follow different pathways for the species derived from axial and equatorial epimers of oleanolic and ursolic acids. These two pieces of independent spectral information permit the stereochemistry of epimeric oleanolic and ursolic acids (and selected derivatives) to be assigned with confidence without relying either on chromatographic retention times or referring to the spectra or other properties of authentic samples of these triterpenoids.

  3. Distinguishing Depressive Pseudodementia from Alzheimer Disease: A Comparative Study of Hippocampal Volumetry and Cognitive Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevki Sahin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Depressive pseudodementia (DPD is a condition which may develop secondary to depression. The aim of this study was to contribute to the differential diagnosis between Alzheimer disease (AD and DPD by comparing the neurocognitive tests and hippocampal volume. Materials and Methods: Patients who met criteria of AD/DPD were enrolled in the study. All patients were assessed using the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Benton Facial Recognition Test (BFRT, Boston Naming Test, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS. Hippocampal volume was measured by importing the coronal T1-weighted magnetic resonance images to the Vitrea 2 workstation. Results: A significant difference was found between the AD and DPD groups on the WMS test, clock-drawing test, Stroop test, Boston Naming Test, MMSE, GDS, and left hippocampal volume. A significant correlation between BFRT and bilateral hippocampal volumes was found in the AD group. No correlation was found among parameters in DPD patients. Conclusions: Our results suggest that evaluation of facial recognition and left hippocampal volume may provide more reliable evidence for distinguishing DPD from AD. Further investigations combined with functional imaging techniques including more patients are needed.

  4. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  5. The ANTOP study: focal psychodynamic psychotherapy, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and treatment-as-usual in outpatients with anorexia nervosa - a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Friederich, Hans-Christoph; Gross, Gaby; Teufel, Martin; Herzog, Wolfgang; Giel, Katrin E; de Zwaan, Martina; Schauenburg, Henning; Schade-Brittinger, Carmen; Schäfer, Helmut; Zipfel, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa is a serious eating disorder leading to high morbidity and mortality as a result of both malnutrition and suicide. The seriousness of the disorder requires extensive knowledge of effective treatment options. However, evidence for treatment efficacy in this area is remarkably weak. A recent Cochrane review states that there is an urgent need for large, well-designed treatment studies for patients with anorexia nervosa. The aim of this particular multi-centre study is to evaluate the efficacy of two standardized outpatient treatments for patients with anorexia nervosa: focal psychodynamic (FPT) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). Each therapeutic approach is compared to a "treatment-as-usual" control group. Methods/Design 237 patients meeting eligibility criteria are randomly and evenly assigned to the three groups – two intervention groups (CBT and FPT) and one control group. The treatment period for each intervention group is 10 months, consisting of 40 sessions respectively. Body weight, eating disorder related symptoms, and variables of therapeutic alliance are measured during the course of treatment. Psychotherapy sessions are audiotaped for adherence monitoring. The treatment in the control group, both the dosage and type of therapy, is not regulated in the study protocol, but rather reflects the current practice of established outpatient care. The primary outcome measure is the body mass index (BMI) at the end of the treatment (10 months after randomization). Discussion The study design surmounts the disadvantages of previous studies in that it provides a randomized controlled design, a large sample size, adequate inclusion criteria, an adequate treatment protocol, and a clear separation of the treatment conditions in order to avoid contamination. Nevertheless, the study has to deal with difficulties specific to the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. The treatment protocol allows for dealing with the typically occurring

  6. Reliability of the Danish version of the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lotte; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Jacobsen, Julie Sandell

    2018-01-01

    Objective: To translate and cross-cultural adapt the short questionnaire to assess health-enhancing physical activity (SQUASH) to Danish, and to investigate the Danish version’s reliability. Methods: The study was conducted according to the COSMIN guidelines. The reliability was evaluated in 53...... and indicates that the Danish version of SQUASH can be used to distinguish between individuals; however, the absolute reliability was poor and SQUASH is not considered suitable for easuring physical activity on an individual level....

  7. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  8. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Daniel L; Gainsbury, Sally M; Delfabbro, Paul H; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-12-01

    Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., "gambling-like game") may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities.

  9. Distinguishing bias from sensitivity effects in multialternative detection tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Devarajan; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Moore, Tirin; Knudsen, Eric I

    2014-08-21

    Studies investigating the neural bases of cognitive phenomena increasingly employ multialternative detection tasks that seek to measure the ability to detect a target stimulus or changes in some target feature (e.g., orientation or direction of motion) that could occur at one of many locations. In such tasks, it is essential to distinguish the behavioral and neural correlates of enhanced perceptual sensitivity from those of increased bias for a particular location or choice (choice bias). However, making such a distinction is not possible with established approaches. We present a new signal detection model that decouples the behavioral effects of choice bias from those of perceptual sensitivity in multialternative (change) detection tasks. By formulating the perceptual decision in a multidimensional decision space, our model quantifies the respective contributions of bias and sensitivity to multialternative behavioral choices. With a combination of analytical and numerical approaches, we demonstrate an optimal, one-to-one mapping between model parameters and choice probabilities even for tasks involving arbitrarily large numbers of alternatives. We validated the model with published data from two ternary choice experiments: a target-detection experiment and a length-discrimination experiment. The results of this validation provided novel insights into perceptual processes (sensory noise and competitive interactions) that can accurately and parsimoniously account for observers' behavior in each task. The model will find important application in identifying and interpreting the effects of behavioral manipulations (e.g., cueing attention) or neural perturbations (e.g., stimulation or inactivation) in a variety of multialternative tasks of perception, attention, and decision-making. © 2014 ARVO.

  10. ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS DISTINGUISHER FOR AGARWOOD QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Trisandi Pasaribu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaharu (Agarwood is described as a fragrant-smelling wood that is usually derived from the trunk of the genus Aquilaria and Gyrinops (both of the family Thymelaeaceae, which have been infected by a particular disease. Based on Indonesian National Standard, agarwood can be classified into various grades, i.e. gubal gaharu, kemedangan and serbuk gaharu. The grading system is based on the color, weight and odor. It seems that such a grading is too subjective for agarwood classification. Therefore, to minimize the subjectivity, more objective agarwood grading is required, which incorporates its chemical composition and resin content. This research was conducted focusing on the analysis of the particular grade of agarwood originating from West Sumatra. The different types of agarwood qualities are: kemedangan C, teri C, kacangan C and super AB. Initially, the obtained agarwood samples were grounded to powder, extracted on a Soxhlet extractor using various organic solvents (i.e. n-hexane, acetone, and methanol. The agarwood-acetone extracts were analyzed using GC-MS to determine its chemical composition. The results showed a positive, linier relationship in which the resin yield increased with the increase in agarwood quality grades. GC-MS analysis revealed that several sesquiterpene groups can be found in kemedangan C, teri C, kacangan C and super AB qualities. It is interesting that aromadendrene could be identified or found in all agarwood quality grades. Therefore, it is presumed that the aromadendrene compounds can act as an effective chemical distinguisher for agarwood, whereby the greater the aromadendrene content, the better is the agarwood grade.

  11. Distinguishing the Clinical Nurse Specialist From Other Graduate Nursing Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, Lynn D; Coke, Lola A

    Today's healthcare environment poses diverse and complex patient care challenges and requires a highly qualified and experienced nursing workforce. To mitigate these challenges are graduate nursing roles, each with a different set of competencies and expertise. With the availability of many different graduate nursing roles, both patients and healthcare professionals can be confused in understanding the benefit of each role. To gain the maximum benefit from each role, it is important that healthcare providers and administrators are able to distinguish the uniqueness of each role to best use the role and develop strategies for effective collaboration and interprofessional interaction. The purpose of this article was to define the role, educational preparation, role differences, and practice competencies for the clinical nurse specialist (CNS), nurse practitioner, clinical nurse leader, and nurse educator/staff development educator roles. A second purpose was to provide role clarity and demonstrate the unique value the CNS brings to the healthcare environment. Using evidence and reviewing role competencies established by varying organizations, each role is presented with similarities and differences among the roles discussed. In addition, collaboration among the identified roles was reviewed, and recommendations were provided for the new and practicing CNSs. Although there are some similarities among the graduate nursing roles such as in educational, licensing, and certification requirements, each role must be understood to gain the full role scope and benefit and glean the anticipated outcomes. Healthcare providers must be aware of the differences in graduate nursing roles, especially in comparing the CNS with other roles to avoid confusion that may lead to roles being underused with a limited job scope. The CNS provides a unique set of services at all system outcome levels and is an essential part of the healthcare team especially in the acute care setting.

  12. Distinguishing Nonpareil marketing group almond cultivars through multivariate analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledbetter, Craig A; Sisterson, Mark S

    2013-09-01

    More than 80% of the world's almonds are grown in California with several dozen almond cultivars available commercially. To facilitate promotion and sale, almond cultivars are categorized into marketing groups based on kernel shape and appearance. Several marketing groups are recognized, with the Nonpareil Marketing Group (NMG) demanding the highest prices. Placement of cultivars into the NMG is historical and no objective standards exist for deciding whether newly developed cultivars belong in the NMG. Principal component analyses (PCA) were used to identify nut and kernel characteristics best separating the 4 NMG cultivars (Nonpareil, Jeffries, Kapareil, and Milow) from a representative of the California Marketing Group (cultivar Carmel) and the Mission Marketing Group (cultivar Padre). In addition, discriminant analyses were used to determine cultivar misclassification rates between and within the marketing groups. All 19 evaluated carpological characters differed significantly among the 6 cultivars and during 2 harvest seasons. A clear distinction of NMG cultivars from representatives of the California and Mission Marketing Groups was evident from a PCA involving the 6 cultivars. Further, NMG kernels were successfully discriminated from kernels representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups with overall kernel misclassification of only 2% using 16 of the 19 evaluated characters. Pellicle luminosity was the most discriminating character, regardless of the character set used in analyses. Results provide an objective classification of NMG almond kernels, clearly distinguishing them from kernels of cultivars representing the California and Mission Marketing Groups. Journal of Food Science © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  13. Distinguishing prognostic and predictive biomarkers: An information theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechidis, Konstantinos; Papangelou, Konstantinos; Metcalfe, Paul D; Svensson, David; Weatherall, James; Brown, Gavin

    2018-05-02

    The identification of biomarkers to support decision-making is central to personalised medicine, in both clinical and research scenarios. The challenge can be seen in two halves: identifying predictive markers, which guide the development/use of tailored therapies; and identifying prognostic markers, which guide other aspects of care and clinical trial planning, i.e. prognostic markers can be considered as covariates for stratification. Mistakenly assuming a biomarker to be predictive, when it is in fact largely prognostic (and vice-versa) is highly undesirable, and can result in financial, ethical and personal consequences. We present a framework for data-driven ranking of biomarkers on their prognostic/predictive strength, using a novel information theoretic method. This approach provides a natural algebra to discuss and quantify the individual predictive and prognostic strength, in a self-consistent mathematical framework. Our contribution is a novel procedure, INFO+, which naturally distinguishes the prognostic vs predictive role of each biomarker and handles higher order interactions. In a comprehensive empirical evaluation INFO+ outperforms more complex methods, most notably when noise factors dominate, and biomarkers are likely to be falsely identified as predictive, when in fact they are just strongly prognostic. Furthermore, we show that our methods can be 1-3 orders of magnitude faster than competitors, making it useful for biomarker discovery in 'big data' scenarios. Finally, we apply our methods to identify predictive biomarkers on two real clinical trials, and introduce a new graphical representation that provides greater insight into the prognostic and predictive strength of each biomarker. R implementations of the suggested methods are available at https://github.com/sechidis. konstantinos.sechidis@manchester.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  14. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2004-01-01

    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  15. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  16. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  17. Quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, J.; Charon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Concern for obtaining high-quality products which will function properly when required to do so is nothing new - it is one manifestation of a conscientious attitude to work. However, the complexity and cost of equipment and the consequences of even temporary immobilization are such that it has become necessary to make special arrangements for obtaining high-quality products and examining what one has obtained. Each unit within an enterprise must examine its own work or arrange for it to be examined; a unit whose specific task is quality assurance is responsible for overall checking, but does not relieve other units of their responsibility. Quality assurance is a form of mutual assistance within an enterprise, designed to remove the causes of faults as far as possible. It begins very early in a project and continues through the ordering stage, construction, start-up trials and operation. Quality and hence reliability are the direct result of what is done at all stages of a project. They depend on constant attention to detail, for even a minor piece of poor workmanship can, in the case of an essential item of equipment, give rise to serious operational difficulties

  18. Distinguishing iron-reducing from sulfate-reducing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapelle, F.H.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, M.A.; McMahon, P.B.

    2009-01-01

    Ground water systems dominated by iron- or sulfate-reducing conditions may be distinguished by observing concentrations of dissolved iron (Fe2+) and sulfide (sum of H2S, HS-, and S= species and denoted here as "H2S"). This approach is based on the observation that concentrations of Fe2+ and H2S in ground water systems tend to be inversely related according to a hyperbolic function. That is, when Fe2+ concentrations are high, H2S concentrations tend to be low and vice versa. This relation partly reflects the rapid reaction kinetics of Fe2+ with H2S to produce relatively insoluble ferrous sulfides (FeS). This relation also reflects competition for organic substrates between the iron- and the sulfate-reducing microorganisms that catalyze the production of Fe2+ and H 2S. These solubility and microbial constraints operate in tandem, resulting in the observed hyperbolic relation between Fe2+ and H 2S concentrations. Concentrations of redox indicators, including dissolved hydrogen (H2) measured in a shallow aquifer in Hanahan, South Carolina, suggest that if the Fe2+/H2S mass ratio (units of mg/L) exceeded 10, the screened interval being tapped was consistently iron reducing (H2 ???0.2 to 0.8 nM). Conversely, if the Fe 2+/H2S ratio was less than 0.30, consistent sulfate-reducing (H2 ???1 to 5 nM) conditions were observed over time. Concomitantly high Fe2+ and H2S concentrations were associated with H2 concentrations that varied between 0.2 and 5.0 nM over time, suggesting mixing of water from adjacent iron- and sulfate-reducing zones or concomitant iron and sulfate reduction under nonelectron donor-limited conditions. These observations suggest that Fe2+/H2S mass ratios may provide useful information concerning the occurrence and distribution of iron and sulfate reduction in ground water systems. ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association.

  19. Distinguishing Osteomyelitis From Ewing Sarcoma on Radiography and MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarville, M. Beth; Chen, Jim Y.; Coleman, Jamie L.; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu; Adderson, Elisabeth E.; Neel, Mike D.; Gold, Robert E.; Kaufman, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine whether clinical and imaging features can distinguish osteomyelitis from Ewing sarcoma (EWS) and to assess the accuracy of percutaneous biopsy versus open biopsy in the diagnosis of these diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three radiologists reviewed the radiographs and MRI examinations of 32 subjects with osteomyelitis and 31 subjects with EWS to determine the presence of 36 imaging parameters. Information on demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, laboratory findings, biopsy type, and biopsy results were recorded. Individual imaging and clinical parameters and combinations of these parameters were tested for correlation with findings from histologic analysis. The diagnostic accuracy of biopsy was also determined. RESULTS On radiography, the presence of joint or metaphyseal involvement, a wide transition zone, a Codman triangle, a periosteal reaction, or a soft-tissue mass, when tested individually, was more likely to be noted in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.05) than in subjects with osteomyelitis. On MRI, permeative cortical involvement and soft-tissue mass were more likely in subjects with EWS (p ≤ 0.02), whereas a serpiginous tract was more likely to be seen in subjects with osteomyelitis (p = 0.04). African Americans were more likely to have osteomyelitis than EWS (p = 0). According to the results of multiple regression analysis, only ethnicity and soft-tissue mass remained statistically significant (p ≤ 0.01). The findings from 100% of open biopsies (18/18) and 58% of percutaneous biopsies (7/12) resulted in the diagnosis of osteomyelitis, whereas the findings from 88% of open biopsies (22/25) and 50% of percutaneous biopsies (3/6) resulted in a diagnosis of EWS. CONCLUSION Several imaging features are significantly associated with either EWS or osteomyelitis, but many features are associated with both diseases. Other than ethnicity, no clinical feature improved diagnostic

  20. Mapping groundwater quality distinguishing geogenic and anthropogenic contribution using NBL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preziosi, Elisabetta; Ducci, Daniela; Condesso de Melo, Maria Teresa; Parrone, Daniele; Sellerino, Mariangela; Ghergo, Stefano; Oliveira, Joana; Ribeiro, Luis

    2015-04-01

    Groundwaters are threatened by anthropic activities and pollution is interesting a large number of aquifers worldwide. Qualitative and quantitative monitoring is required to assess the status and track its evolution in time and space especially where anthropic pressures are stronger. Up to now, groundwater quality mapping has been performed separately from the assessment of its natural status, i.e. the definition of the natural background level of a particular element in a particular area or groundwater body. The natural background level (NBL) of a substance or element allows to distinguish anthropogenic pollution from contamination of natural origin in a population of groundwater samples. NBLs are the result of different atmospheric, geological, chemical and biological interaction processes during groundwater infiltration and circulation. There is an increasing need for the water managers to have sound indications on good quality groundwater exploitation. Indeed the extension of a groundwater body is often very large, in the order of tens or hundreds of square km. How to select a proper location for good quality groundwater abstraction is often limited to a question of facility for drilling (access, roads, authorizations, etc.) or at the most related to quantitative aspects driven by geophysical exploration (the most promising from a transmissibility point of view). So how to give indications to the administrators and water managers about the exploitation of good quality drinking water? In the case of anthropic contamination, how to define which area is to be restored and to which threshold (e.g. background level) should the concentration be lowered through the restoration measures? In the framework of a common project between research institutions in Italy (funded by CNR) and Portugal (funded by FCT), our objective is to establish a methodology aiming at merging together 1) the evaluation of NBL and 2) the need to take into account the drinking water standards

  1. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  2. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...... identification. Application of the proposed method can be found in many real world systems....

  3. Distinguishing centrarchid genera by use of lateral line scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N.M.; Rabeni, C.F.; Stanovick, J.S.

    2007-01-01

    Predator-prey relations involving fishes are often evaluated using scales remaining in gut contents or feces. While several reliable keys help identify North American freshwater fish scales to the family level, none attempt to separate the family Centrarchidae to the genus level. Centrarchidae is of particular concern in the midwestern United States because it contains several popular sport fishes, such as smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, largemouth bass M. salmoides, and rock bass Ambloplites rupestris, as well as less-sought-after species of sunfishes Lepomis spp. and crappies Pomoxis spp. Differentiating sport fish from non-sport fish has important management implications. Morphological characteristics of lateral line scales (n = 1,581) from known centrarchid fishes were analyzed. The variability of measurements within and between genera was examined to select variables that were the most useful in further classifying unknown centrarchid scales. A linear discriminant analysis model was developed using 10 variables. Based on this model, 84.4% of Ambloplites scales, 81.2% of Lepomis scales, and 86.6% of Micropterus scales were classified correctly using a jackknife procedure. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  4. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1986-05-01

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  5. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  6. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  7. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  8. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  9. Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej

    2015-07-29

    Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following

  10. Psicoterapias breves psicodinâmicas: características da produção científica nacional e estrangeira (1980/2003 Brief psychodynamic psychotherapies: Characteristics of national and foreign scientific production (1980/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Medici Pizão Yoshida

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta o levantamento de algumas características formais da produção científica para saber quem, onde e o que tem sido indexado nas bases de dados eletrônicas, sob os verbetes: "psicoterapias breves psicodinâmicas" e "psicoterapias psicodinâmicas de tempo limitado". As produções estrangeira e nacional foram cotejadas e críticas apresentadas. A amostra de 534 resumos (1980 a 2003, publicados em bases nacionais e internacionais, indicou que a produção estrangeira foi quantitativamente superior quanto ao número de referências, periódicos científicos e autores. No entanto, a nacional equipara-se em aspectos tais como: média de referência por autor, predomínio de autoria única e adoção de psicoterapias integrativas, em que influências de outras abordagens, que não a psicodinâmica, são identificadas. Nas duas realidades predominaram, ainda, publicações sobre psicoterapias individuais de adultos, veiculadas por periódicos psiquiátricos. Espera-se que com a expansão das bases de dados da psicologia, esta última característica venha a se reverter, ao menos no Brasil.It presents a survey of some formal characteristics of the scientific production with the aim of knowing whom, where, and what have been indexed in electronic databases, under the entry: "brief psychodynamic psychotherapy" and "time-limited psychodynamic psychotherapy". Foreign and national productions were checked and critiques were presented. The sample of 534 abstracts (1980 to 2003, published in Brazil and abroad, indicated that the foreign production was quantitatively superior concerning the number of references, journals and authors. However, the national production compares in some aspects such as: reference average by author, predominance of unique authorship and adoption of integrative psychotherapy, in which influences of other approaches, rather than the psychodynamic, are identified. In the two realities there was a predominance of publications

  11. The value of service reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Benezech , Vincent; Coulombel , Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the e...

  12. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  13. RTE - 2015 Reliability Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This report includes a number of results from previous years so that year-to-year comparisons can be drawn and long-term trends analysed. The 2015 report underlines the major factors that have impacted on the reliability of the electrical power system, without focusing exclusively on Significant System Events (ESS). It describes various factors which contribute to present and future reliability and the numerous actions implemented by RTE to ensure reliability today and in the future, as well as the ways in which the various parties involved in the electrical power system interact across the whole European interconnected network

  14. Distinguishing "new" from "old" carbon in post mining soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Frouz, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Introduction Soils developing on heaped overburden after open pit coal mining near Sokolov, Czech Republic, provide an exceptional opportunity to study sites of different ages (0-70 years) developing on similar substrate under relatively well-known conditions. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an useful indicator of soil quality and represents an important global carbon pool. Post-mining soils would be a perfect model for long-term study of carbon dynamics. Unfortunately, quantifying SOC in Sokolov post-mining soils is quite complicated, since conventional quantification methods cannot distinguish between SOC derived from plant residues and fossil organic carbon derived from coal and kerogen present in the overburden. Moreover, also inorganic carbon may sometimes bias SOC quantification. Up to now, the only way to directly estimate recently derived SOC in these soils is radiocarbon dating (Rumpel et al. 1999; Karu et al. 2009). However, this method is costly and thus cannot be used routinely. The aim of our study is to find an accessible method to quantify recently derived SOC. We would highly appreciate ideas of other soil scientists, organic geochemists and sedimentologists on how to solve this challenge. Methods and hypotheses A set of 14 soil samples were analysed by radiocarbon (14C-AMS) analysis, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy, Rock-Eval and XRD. For calibration of NIRS, also 125 artificial mixtures were produced by mixing different amounts of claystone, coal and partially decomposed litter. NIRS (1000-2500 nm) as well as younger mid-infrared spectroscopy has been widely applied to soils (Janik et al. 2007; Vasques et al. 2009; Michel et al. 2009). When combined with multivariate chemometric techniques, it can be used to predict concentration of different compounds. No study has yet focused on NIRS application to soils where fossil carbon is found in two chemically different forms - whereas coal is rather aromatic, kerogen in our

  15. Can imaging criteria distinguish enchondroma from grade 1 chondrosarcoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crim, Julia; Schmidt, Robert; Layfield, Lester; Hanrahan, Christopher; Manaster, Betty Jean

    2015-11-01

    To minimize systematic bias and optimize agreement on imaging criteria in order to better define the accuracy of imaging criteria in the diagnosis of grade 1 chondrosarcoma. Study was IRB-approved and HIPAA compliant; informed consent was waived. Records were reviewed and disclosed 53 cases (38 women, 15 men ages 21-76) which were diagnosed as enchondroma or grade 1 chondrosarcoma and had available radiographs, contrast-enhanced MRI, and definitive diagnosis by histology or 5-year follow-up. 2 MSK radiologists read the studies independently after a session where they agreed on criteria for malignancy. Interobserver variability was determined as raw variability and with the kappa statistic. Accuracy was determined compared to final diagnosis. Reliability of imaging features of chondrosarcoma was determined using regression analysis. The correct diagnosis of enchondroma was made on radiographs in 43 (67.2%) of readings, and on MRI in 37/64 (57.8%). The correct diagnosis of chondrosarcoma was made on radiographs in 5/24 (20.8%) of readings, and on MRI in 14/24 (57.8%). A diagnosis of borderline lesion was made in 19/64 (29.7%) of enchondromas on radiographs and 18/64 (28.1%) on MRI. The false positive rate of radiographs for chondrosarcoma was 2/64 (3.1%) and the false positive rate of MRI was 9/64 (14.1%). There was substantial interobserver variability. Cortical thickening and bone expansion were rare but specific signs of chondrosarcoma. Both radiographs and MRI have limitations in the evaluation of low-grade cartilage lesions. MRI has an increased rate of both true-positive and false-positive diagnosis compared to radiographs. Differences in the findings of this study compared to previous literature may reflect the influence of systematic biases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Psychodynamic Perspective of Organizational Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barabasz Adela

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The complex processes and phenomena that are taking place in the contemporary world require new and adequate methods of acting also in the area of management. This means the need for a fresh approach to the process of organization development and change. This paper presents the key concepts stemming from the psychoanalytic approach to organization and management. Its main aim is to discuss the major categories (concepts derived from psychoanalytic theories, which pertain to the issues related to organizational change. Theoretical considerations are complemented by presentation of the data collected during interviews with managers from the examined organization and identification of the defence mechanisms of representatives of the organization’s management.

  17. Psychodynamic treatment of depressed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemporad, J R

    1988-09-01

    Depression may be conceptualized as the response to the loss of meaning or satisfaction sufficient to affect the individual's optimal view of the self. At each stage of the life cycle, the failure to achieve developmental tasks threatens the concept of the self, producing a phase-specific vulnerability to depression. Adolescence presents particular stresses by forcing the youngster to relinquish the relative familiarity and security of a childhood psychosocial role and create a sense of self independent of family, without childhood denial mechanisms, and of value to a new peer culture. Most individuals experience a sense of loss, confusion, apprehension, and dysphoria during this difficult period of transition. Many who seek psychotherapy require only a secure holding environment that will support their self-esteem as they create new avenues of worth and satisfaction. A few, however, are so hampered by psychosocial limitations that they cannot master this developmental passage without more extensive therapeutic assistance.

  18. Distinguishing the elements of a full product basis set needs only projective measurements and classical communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Pingxing; Li Chengzu

    2004-01-01

    Nonlocality without entanglement is an interesting field. A manifestation of quantum nonlocality without entanglement is the possible local indistinguishability of orthogonal product states. In this paper we analyze the character of operators to distinguish the elements of a full product basis set in a multipartite system, and show that distinguishing perfectly these product bases needs only local projective measurements and classical communication, and these measurements cannot damage each product basis. Employing these conclusions one can discuss local distinguishability of the elements of any full product basis set easily. Finally we discuss the generalization of these results to the locally distinguishability of the elements of incomplete product basis set

  19. Task constraints distinguish perspective inferences from perspective use during discourse interpretation in a false belief task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Heather J; Apperly, Ian; Ahmad, Jumana; Bindemann, Markus; Cane, James

    2015-06-01

    Interpreting other peoples' actions relies on an understanding of their current mental states (e.g. beliefs, desires and intentions). In this paper, we distinguish between listeners' ability to infer others' perspectives and their explicit use of this knowledge to predict subsequent actions. In a visual-world study, two groups of participants (passive observers vs. active participants) watched short videos, depicting transfer events, where one character ('Jane') either held a true or false belief about an object's location. We tracked participants' eye-movements around the final visual scene, time-locked to related auditory descriptions (e.g. "Jane will look for the chocolates in the container on the left".). Results showed that active participants had already inferred the character's belief in the 1s preview period prior to auditory onset, before it was possible to use this information to predict an outcome. Moreover, they used this inference to correctly anticipate reference to the object's initial location on false belief trials at the earliest possible point (i.e. from "Jane" onwards). In contrast, passive observers only showed evidence of a belief inference from the onset of "Jane", and did not show reliable use of this inference to predict Jane's behaviour on false belief trials until much later, when the location ("left/right") was auditorily available. These results show that active engagement in a task activates earlier inferences about others' perspectives, and drives immediate use of this information to anticipate others' actions, compared to passive observers, who are susceptible to influences from egocentric or reality biases. Finally, we review evidence that using other peoples' perspectives to predict their behaviour is more cognitively effortful than simply using one's own. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Whole genome sequencing distinguishes between relapse and reinfection in recurrent leprosy cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariane M A Stefani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since leprosy is both treated and controlled by multidrug therapy (MDT it is important to monitor recurrent cases for drug resistance and to distinguish between relapse and reinfection as a means of assessing therapeutic efficacy. All three objectives can be reached with single nucleotide resolution using next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of Mycobacterium leprae DNA present in human skin.DNA was isolated by means of optimized extraction and enrichment methods from samples from three recurrent cases in leprosy patients participating in an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial of uniform MDT in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR. Genome-wide sequencing of M. leprae was performed and the resultant sequence assemblies analyzed in silico.In all three cases, no mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin were found, thus eliminating drug resistance as a possible cause of disease recurrence. However, sequence differences were detected between the strains from the first and second disease episodes in all three patients. In one case, clear evidence was obtained for reinfection with an unrelated strain whereas in the other two cases, relapse appeared more probable.This is the first report of using M. leprae whole genome sequencing to reveal that treated and cured leprosy patients who remain in endemic areas can be reinfected by another strain. Next generation sequencing can be applied reliably to M. leprae DNA extracted from biopsies to discriminate between cases of relapse and reinfection, thereby providing a powerful tool for evaluating different outcomes of therapeutic regimens and for following disease transmission.

  1. Discrete Ramanujan transform for distinguishing the protein coding regions from other regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Wei; Wang, Jiasong; Zhao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Based on the study of Ramanujan sum and Ramanujan coefficient, this paper suggests the concepts of discrete Ramanujan transform and spectrum. Using Voss numerical representation, one maps a symbolic DNA strand as a numerical DNA sequence, and deduces the discrete Ramanujan spectrum of the numerical DNA sequence. It is well known that of discrete Fourier power spectrum of protein coding sequence has an important feature of 3-base periodicity, which is widely used for DNA sequence analysis by the technique of discrete Fourier transform. It is performed by testing the signal-to-noise ratio at frequency N/3 as a criterion for the analysis, where N is the length of the sequence. The results presented in this paper show that the property of 3-base periodicity can be only identified as a prominent spike of the discrete Ramanujan spectrum at period 3 for the protein coding regions. The signal-to-noise ratio for discrete Ramanujan spectrum is defined for numerical measurement. Therefore, the discrete Ramanujan spectrum and the signal-to-noise ratio of a DNA sequence can be used for distinguishing the protein coding regions from the noncoding regions. All the exon and intron sequences in whole chromosomes 1, 2, 3 and 4 of Caenorhabditis elegans have been tested and the histograms and tables from the computational results illustrate the reliability of our method. In addition, we have analyzed theoretically and gotten the conclusion that the algorithm for calculating discrete Ramanujan spectrum owns the lower computational complexity and higher computational accuracy. The computational experiments show that the technique by using discrete Ramanujan spectrum for classifying different DNA sequences is a fast and effective method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Whole genome sequencing distinguishes between relapse and reinfection in recurrent leprosy cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bührer-Sékula, Samira; Benjak, Andrej; Loiseau, Chloé; Singh, Pushpendra; Pontes, Maria A. A.; Gonçalves, Heitor S.; Hungria, Emerith M.; Busso, Philippe; Piton, Jérémie; Silveira, Maria I. S.; Cruz, Rossilene; Schetinni, Antônio; Costa, Maurício B.; Virmond, Marcos C. L.; Diorio, Suzana M.; Dias-Baptista, Ida M. F.; Rosa, Patricia S.; Matsuoka, Masanori; Penna, Maria L. F.; Cole, Stewart T.; Penna, Gerson O.

    2017-01-01

    Background Since leprosy is both treated and controlled by multidrug therapy (MDT) it is important to monitor recurrent cases for drug resistance and to distinguish between relapse and reinfection as a means of assessing therapeutic efficacy. All three objectives can be reached with single nucleotide resolution using next generation sequencing and bioinformatics analysis of Mycobacterium leprae DNA present in human skin. Methodology DNA was isolated by means of optimized extraction and enrichment methods from samples from three recurrent cases in leprosy patients participating in an open-label, randomized, controlled clinical trial of uniform MDT in Brazil (U-MDT/CT-BR). Genome-wide sequencing of M. leprae was performed and the resultant sequence assemblies analyzed in silico. Principal findings In all three cases, no mutations responsible for resistance to rifampicin, dapsone and ofloxacin were found, thus eliminating drug resistance as a possible cause of disease recurrence. However, sequence differences were detected between the strains from the first and second disease episodes in all three patients. In one case, clear evidence was obtained for reinfection with an unrelated strain whereas in the other two cases, relapse appeared more probable. Conclusions/Significance This is the first report of using M. leprae whole genome sequencing to reveal that treated and cured leprosy patients who remain in endemic areas can be reinfected by another strain. Next generation sequencing can be applied reliably to M. leprae DNA extracted from biopsies to discriminate between cases of relapse and reinfection, thereby providing a powerful tool for evaluating different outcomes of therapeutic regimens and for following disease transmission. PMID:28617800

  3. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  4. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  5. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  6. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  7. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  8. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  9. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  10. The challenge of distinguishing figure from ground: reaction to Gelso's work on the real relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Leigh

    2009-05-01

    The motives of the beginning psychotherapist for choosing his or her orientation are an underresearched issue in psychotherapy training. This study focuses on the role of personality-based factors, specifically the epistemological preferences of the therapist that Kolb (1984) has termed "learning style" (LS). The aim of the present study was to explore possible associations between psychology students' developing LSs and their choice of psychotherapeutic orientation (psychodynamic [PDT] vs. cognitive-behavioural [CBT]). Students in a psychologist's program (N = 175) took the Learning Style Inventory in their third semester and, before their formal choice, in their seventh semester. Besides a common trend toward radicalization or purification of their LS, the average PDT student tended to stick to the "feel and watch" style from the third semester to the seventh, whereas the CBT student tended to move toward "think and do." A cluster analysis revealed that the average movement among the CBT students was the result of the forces in two different subgroups, one toward "think" (and, more weakly, "watch"), the other toward "do" (and, more weakly, "feel").

  11. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective under...

  12. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  13. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  14. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  15. Interobserver variability and feasibility of polymerase chain reaction-based assay in distinguishing ischemic colitis from Clostridium difficile colitis in endoscopic mucosal biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiland, Homer O; Procop, Gary W; Goldblum, John R; Tuohy, Marion; Rybicki, Lisa; Patil, Deepa T

    2013-06-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays using stool samples are currently the most effective method of detecting Clostridium difficile. This study examines the feasibility of this assay using mucosal biopsy samples and evaluates the interobserver reproducibility in diagnosing and distinguishing ischemic colitis from C difficile colitis. Thirty-eight biopsy specimens were reviewed and classified by 3 observers into C difficile and ischemic colitis. The findings were correlated with clinical data. PCR was performed on 34 cases using BD GeneOhm C difficile assay. The histologic interobserver agreement was excellent (κ= 0.86) and the agreement between histologic and clinical diagnosis was good (κ = 0.84). All 19 ischemic colitis cases tested negative (100% specificity) and 3 of 15 cases of C difficile colitis tested positive (20% sensitivity). C difficile colitis can be reliably distinguished from ischemic colitis using histologic criteria. The C difficile PCR test on endoscopic biopsy specimens has excellent specificity but limited sensitivity.

  16. Distinguishing the Transcription Regulation Patterns in Promoters of Human Genes with Different Function or Evolutionary Age

    KAUST Repository

    Alam, Tanvir

    2012-01-01

    elements, histone modification marks, and others. Ten-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish protein-coding and non-coding RNAs with accuracy above 80%. Twenty-fold cross-validation tests suggest that our model can distinguish

  17. Neural Indices of Semantic Processing in Early Childhood Distinguish Eventual Stuttering Persistence and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreidler, Kathryn; Wray, Amanda Hampton; Usler, Evan; Weber, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Maturation of neural processes for language may lag in some children who stutter (CWS), and event-related potentials (ERPs) distinguish CWS who have recovered from those who have persisted. The current study explores whether ERPs indexing semantic processing may distinguish children who will eventually persist in stuttering…

  18. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  19. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  20. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  1. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  2. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  3. Distinguishing attack and second-preimage attack on encrypted message authentication codes (EMAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariwibowo, Sigit; Windarta, Susila

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show that distinguisher on CBC-MAC can be applied to Encrypted Message Authentication Code (EMAC) scheme. EMAC scheme in general is vulnerable to distinguishing attack and second preimage attack. Distinguishing attack simulation on AES-EMAC using 225 message modifications, no collision have been found. According to second preimage attack simulation on AES-EMAC no collision found between EMAC value of S1 and S2, i.e. no second preimage found for messages that have been tested. Based on distinguishing attack simulation on truncated AES-EMAC we found collision in every message therefore we cannot distinguish truncated AES-EMAC with random function. Second-preimage attack is successfully performed on truncated AES-EMAC.

  4. Phase-modified CTQW unable to distinguish strongly regular graphs efficiently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahasinghe, A; Wijerathna, J K; Izaac, J A; Wang, J B

    2015-01-01

    Various quantum walk-based algorithms have been developed, aiming to distinguish non-isomorphic graphs with polynomial scaling, within both the discrete-time quantum walk (DTQW) and continuous-time quantum walk (CTQW) frameworks. Whilst both the single-particle DTQW and CTQW have failed to distinguish non-isomorphic strongly regular graph families (prompting the move to multi-particle graph isomorphism (GI) algorithms), the single-particle DTQW has been successfully modified by the introduction of a phase factor to distinguish a wide range of graphs in polynomial time. In this paper, we prove that an analogous phase modification to the single particle CTQW does not have the same distinguishing power as its discrete-time counterpart, in particular it cannot distinguish strongly regular graphs with the same family parameters with the same efficiency. (paper)

  5. Anxiety-linked attentional bias and its modification: Illustrating the importance of distinguishing processes and procedures in experimental psychopathology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Colin; Grafton, Ben

    2016-11-01

    In this review of research concerning anxiety-linked attentional bias, we seek to illustrate a general principle that we contend applies across the breadth of experimental psychopathology. Specifically, we highlight how maintenance of a clear distinction between process and procedure serves to enhance the advancement of knowledge and understanding, while failure to maintain this distinction can foster confusion and misconception. We show how such clear differentiation has permitted the continuous refinement of assessment procedures, in ways that have led to growing confidence in the existence of the putative attentional bias process of interest, and also increasing understanding of its nature. In contrast, we show how a failure to consistently differentiate between process and procedure has contributed to confusion concerning whether or not attentional bias modification reliably alters anxiety vulnerability and dysfunction. As we demonstrate, such confusion can be avoided by distinguishing the process of attentional bias modification from the procedures that have been employed with the intention of evoking this target process. Such an approach reveals that procedures adopted with the intention of eliciting the attentional bias modification process do not always do so, but that successful evocation of the attentional bias modification process quite reliably alters anxiety symptomatology. We consider some of the specific implications for future research concerning attentional bias modification, while also pointing to the broader implications for experimental psychopathology research in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability analysis of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; John Arul, A.; Pal Singh, Om; Suryaprakasa Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of reliability analysis of Shutdown System (SDS) of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Reliability analysis carried out using Fault Tree Analysis predicts a value of 3.5 x 10 -8 /de for failure of shutdown function in case of global faults and 4.4 x 10 -8 /de for local faults. Based on 20 de/y, the frequency of shutdown function failure is 0.7 x 10 -6 /ry, which meets the reliability target, set by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The reliability is limited by Common Cause Failure (CCF) of actuation part of SDS and to a lesser extent CCF of electronic components. The failure frequency of individual systems is -3 /ry, which also meets the safety criteria. Uncertainty analysis indicates a maximum error factor of 5 for the top event unavailability

  7. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  8. Transportation reliability and trip satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Travel delays and associated costs have become a major problem in Michigan over the : past several decades as congestion has continued to increase, creating significant negative : impacts on travel reliability on many roadways throughout the State. T...

  9. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  10. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  11. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen Ringi, M

    1995-05-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person`s state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs.

  12. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen Ringi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person's state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs

  13. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  14. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  15. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  16. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  17. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  18. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  19. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  20. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...