WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable transport protocol

  1. Design and Analysis of Transport Protocols for Reliable High-Speed Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The design and analysis of transport protocols for reliable communications constitutes the topic of this dissertation. These transport protocols guarantee the sequenced and complete delivery of user data over networks which may lose, duplicate and reorder packets. Reliable transport services are

  2. A Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhudutta Mohanty

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The two important requirements for many Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs are prolonged network lifetime and end-to-end reliability. The sensor nodes consume more energy during data transmission than the data sensing. In WSN, the redundant data increase the energy consumption, latency and reduce reliability during data transmission. Therefore, it is important to support energy efficient reliable data transport in WSNs. In this paper, we present a Hierarchical Energy Efficient Reliable Transport Protocol (HEERTP for the data transmission within the WSN. This protocol maximises the network lifetime by controlling the redundant data transmission with the co-ordination of Base Station (BS. The proposed protocol also achieves end-to-end reliability using a hop-by-hop acknowledgement scheme. We evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol through simulation. The simulation results reveal that our proposed protocol achieves better performance in terms of energy efficiency, latency and reliability than the existing protocols.

  3. Impact of Transport Layer Protocols on Reliable Information Access in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, Kamal; Saeed, Aamir; Kristensen, Thomas le Fevre

    2017-01-01

    Time is critical for certain types of dynamic information (e.g. frequency control) in a smart grid scenario. The usefulness of such information depends upon the arrival within a specific frame of time, which in other case may not serve the purpose and effect controller’s performance....... The question is addressed by analyzing the performance of UDP and TCP over imperfect network conditions to show how the selection of transport layer protocol can dramatically affect controller’s performance. This analysis is based on a quality metric called mismatch probability that considers occurrence...

  4. Fault recovery in the reliable multicast protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) provides a unique, group-based model for distributed programs that need to handle reconfiguration events at the application layer. This model, called membership views, provides an abstraction in which events such as site failures, network partitions, and normal join-leave events are viewed as group reformations. RMP provides access to this model through an application programming interface (API) that notifies an application when a group is reformed as the result of a some event. RMP provides applications with reliable delivery of messages using an underlying IP Multicast (12, 5) media to other group members in a distributed environment even in the case of reformations. A distributed application can use various Quality of Service (QoS) levels provided by RMP to tolerate group reformations. This paper explores the implementation details of the mechanisms in RMP that provide distributed applications with membership view information and fault recovery capabilities.

  5. Space transportation main engine reliability and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Jan C.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are used to illustrate the reliability engineering and aerospace safety of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). A technology developed is called Total Quality Management (TQM). The goal is to develop a robust design. Reducing process variability produces a product with improved reliability and safety. Some engine system design characteristics are identified which improves reliability.

  6. Transportation reliability and trip satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Travel delays and associated costs have become a major problem in Michigan over the : past several decades as congestion has continued to increase, creating significant negative : impacts on travel reliability on many roadways throughout the State. T...

  7. RELIABILITY OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS OF ROCK HAPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stepanov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The ways of increasing of exploitation reliability of dump trucks with the aim of increasing of effectiveness of exploitation of transportation systems of rock heaps at coal mines.

  8. Reliability on the move: safety and reliability in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of transportation has been a significant factor in the development of civilisation as a whole. Our technical ability to move people and goods now seems virtually limitless when one considers for example the achievements of the various space programmes. Yet our current achievements rely heavily on high standards of safety and reliability from equipment and the human component of transportation systems. Recent failures have highlighted our dependence on equipment and human reliability. This book represents the proceedings of the 1989 Safety and Reliability Society symposium held at Bath on 11-12 October 1989. The structure of the book follows the structure of the symposium itself and the papers selected represent current thinking the the wide field of transportation, and the areas of rail (6 papers, three on railway signalling), air including space (two papers), road (one paper), road and rail (two papers) and sea (three papers) are covered. There are four papers concerned with general transport issues. Three papers concerned with the transport of radioactive materials are indexed separately. (author)

  9. Next Generation Reliable Transport Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiang

    the wavelength and fiber assignment problem is proposed and implemented for avionic optical transport networks. Simulation results give out resource consumptions and prove the efficiency of the proposed mechanisms. Finally, a Home Environment Service Knowledge Management system is proposed. Through ontology...... technologies, a knowledge base is constructed to represent the whole information of a home environment. By applying the reasoner tool, the proposed system manages to keep the consistency in a home environment and helps all software configure and update procedures across multiple vendors....... of criticality and security, there are certain physical or logical segregation requirements between the avionic systems. Such segregations can be implemented on the proposed avionic networks with different hierarchies. In order to fulfill the segregation requirements, a tailored heuristic approach for solving...

  10. Cacades: A reliable dissemination protocol for data collection sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y.; Song, W.; Huang, R.; Xu, M.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.; Pei, G.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a fast and reliable data dissemination protocol Cascades to disseminate data from the sink(base station) to all or a subset of nodes in a data collection sensor network. Cascades makes use of the parentmonitor-children analogy to ensure reliable dissemination. Each node monitors whether or not its children have received the broadcast messages through snooping children's rebroadcasts or waiting for explicit ACKs. If a node detects a gap in its message sequences, it can fetch the missing messages from its neighbours reactively. Cascades also considers many practical issues for field deployment, such as dynamic topology, link/node failure, etc.. It therefore guarantees that a disseminated message from the sink will reach all intended receivers and the dissemination is terminated in a short time period. Notice that, all existing dissemination protocols either do not guarantee reliability or do not terminate [1, 2], which does not meet the requirement of real-time command control. We conducted experiment evaluations in both TOSSIM simulator and a sensor network testbed to compare Cascades with those existing dissemination protocols in TinyOS sensor networks, which show that Cascades achieves a higher degree of reliability, lower communication cost, and less delivery delay. ??2009 IEEE.

  11. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  12. A Performance Evaluation of NACK-Oriented Protocols as the Foundation of Reliable Delay- Tolerant Networking Convergence Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iannicca, Dennis; Hylton, Alan; Ishac, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) is an active area of research in the space communications community. DTN uses a standard layered approach with the Bundle Protocol operating on top of transport layer protocols known as convergence layers that actually transmit the data between nodes. Several different common transport layer protocols have been implemented as convergence layers in DTN implementations including User Datagram Protocol (UDP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), and Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate several stand-alone implementations of negative-acknowledgment based transport layer protocols to determine how they perform in a variety of different link conditions. The transport protocols chosen for this evaluation include Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP), Licklider Transmission Protocol (LTP), NACK-Oriented Reliable Multicast (NORM), and Saratoga. The test parameters that the protocols were subjected to are characteristic of common communications links ranging from terrestrial to cis-lunar and apply different levels of delay, line rate, and error.

  13. A class-chest for deriving transport protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strayer, W.T.

    1996-10-01

    Development of new transport protocols or protocol algorithms suffers from the complexity of the environment in which they are intended to run. Modeling techniques attempt to avoid this by simulating the environment. Another approach to promoting rapid prototyping of protocols and protocol algorithms is to provide a pre-built infrastructure that is common to transport protocols, so that the focus is placed on the protocol-specific aspects. The Meta-Transport Library is a library of C++ base classes that implement or abstract out the mundane functions of a protocol, new protocol implementations are derived from base classes. The result is a fully viable user- level transport protocol implementation, with emphasis on modularity. The collection of base classes form a ``class-chest`` of tools .from which protocols can be developed and studied with as little change to a normal UNIX environment as possible.

  14. Design, Implementation, and Verification of the Reliable Multicast Protocol. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd L.

    1995-01-01

    This document describes the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) design, first implementation, and formal verification. RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears an undue portion of the communications load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These guarantees are selectable on a per message basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, a client/server model of delivery, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has been commonly believed that total ordering of messages can only be achieved at great performance expense. RMP discounts this. The first implementation of RMP has been shown to provide high throughput performance on Local Area Networks (LAN). For two or more destinations a single LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any other protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast technology. The design, implementation, and verification activities of RMP have occurred concurrently. This has allowed the verification to maintain a high fidelity between design model, implementation model, and the verification model. The restrictions of implementation have influenced the design earlier than in normal sequential approaches. The protocol as a whole has matured smoother by the inclusion of several different perspectives into the product development.

  15. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zimmermann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  16. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  17. Interoperability and Reliability of Multiplatform MPLS VPN: Comparison of Traffic Engineering with RSVP-TE Protocol and LDP Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Ismail

    2017-10-01

    48% of packet loss per 100 sent packets while on RSVP packet loss percentage is 35.5% per 100 sent packets. Both protocols have interoperability on the third layer of multiplatform MPLS VPN, but on heavy loaded traffic condition, RSVP protocol has better reliability than the LDP protocol.

  18. Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Yong Choi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol based on the connectivity information among the recipients. Enhancing the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC protocol, the reliable multicast MAC protocol significantly reduces the RAK (Request for ACK frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time and enhances the MAC performance. By the analytical performance analysis, the throughputs of the BMMM protocol and our proposed MAC protocol are derived. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol increases the reliable multicast MAC performance for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  19. Reliability Analyses of Groundwater Pollutant Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimakis, Panagiotis

    1997-12-31

    This thesis develops a probabilistic finite element model for the analysis of groundwater pollution problems. Two computer codes were developed, (1) one using finite element technique to solve the two-dimensional steady state equations of groundwater flow and pollution transport, and (2) a first order reliability method code that can do a probabilistic analysis of any given analytical or numerical equation. The two codes were connected into one model, PAGAP (Probability Analysis of Groundwater And Pollution). PAGAP can be used to obtain (1) the probability that the concentration at a given point at a given time will exceed a specified value, (2) the probability that the maximum concentration at a given point will exceed a specified value and (3) the probability that the residence time at a given point will exceed a specified period. PAGAP could be used as a tool for assessment purposes and risk analyses, for instance the assessment of the efficiency of a proposed remediation technique or to study the effects of parameter distribution for a given problem (sensitivity study). The model has been applied to study the greatest self sustained, precipitation controlled aquifer in North Europe, which underlies Oslo`s new major airport. 92 refs., 187 figs., 26 tabs.

  20. Transport Flow Control and Connection Admission Policies for Reliable Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lamont, Louise

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this report was to determine transport protocol performance characteristics over high speed trans-Atlantic ATM connections, using national High Speed Test Networks and Teleglobe's trans...

  1. Design Protocols and Analytical Strategies that Incorporate Structural Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Stephen F.

    1997-01-01

    Al single crystal turbine blade material; map a simplistic failure strength envelope of the material; develop a statistically based reliability computer algorithm, verify the reliability model and computer algorithm, and model stator vanes for rig tests. Thus establishing design protocols that enable the engineer to analyze and predict the mechanical behavior of ceramic composites and intermetallics would mitigate the prototype (trial and error) approach currently used by the engineering community. The primary objective of the research effort supported by this short term grant is the continued creation of enabling technologies for the macroanalysis of components fabricated from ceramic composites and intermetallic material systems. The creation of enabling technologies aids in shortening the product development cycle of components fabricated from the new high technology materials.

  2. Service reliability and urban public transport design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have shown a substantial increase in personal mobility. Urban traffic and transport volumes have been increasing for years. However, the share of public transport in this mobility growth did not change much and still remains rather limited. To ensure the accessibility and

  3. Is gait variability reliable in older adults and Parkinson's disease? Towards an optimal testing protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galna, Brook; Lord, Sue; Rochester, Lynn

    2013-04-01

    Despite the widespread use of gait variability in research and clinical studies, testing protocols designed to optimise its reliability have not been established. This study evaluates the impact of testing protocol and pathology on the reliability of gait variability. To (i) estimate the reliability of gait variability during continuous and intermittent walking protocols in older adults and people with Parkinson's disease (PD), (ii) determine optimal number of steps for acceptable levels of reliability of gait variability and (iii) provide sample size estimates for use in clinical trials. Gait variability was measured twice, one week apart, in 27 older adults and 25 PD participants. Participants walked at their preferred pace during: (i) a continuous 2 min walk and (ii) 3 intermittent walks over a 12 m walkway. Gait variability was calculated as the within-person standard deviation for step velocity, length and width, and step, stance and swing duration. Reliability of gait variability ranged from poor to excellent (intra class correlations .041-.860; relative limits of agreement 34-89%). Gait variability was more reliable during continuous walks. Control and PD participants demonstrated similar reliability. Increasing the number of steps improved reliability, with most improvement seen across the first 30 steps. In this study, we identified testing protocols that improve the reliability of measuring gait variability. We recommend using a continuous walking protocol and to collect no fewer than 30 steps. Early PD does not appear to impact negatively on the reliability of gait variability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. About the Design of QUIC Firefox Transport Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vraj Pandya

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available QUIC (Quick UDP Internet Connections Chrome is an experimental transport layer network protocol designed by Jim Roskind at Google, initially implemented in 2012 and announced publicly in 2013. One of the QUIC's goals is to improve performance of connection-oriented web applications that are currently using the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP. To do that, QUIC achieves a reduced latency and a better stream-multiplexing support to avoid network congestion. In 2015, Firefox Mozilla started to work on an equivalent QUIC transport protocol for their browser. This idea was motivated by the differences between Chrome and Firefox. Despite the fact that Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome are both web browser engines, there are some significant differences between them, such as file hierarchy, open source policies (Firefox is completely, while Chrome is only partial, tabs design, continuous integration, and more. Likewise QUIC Chrome, QUIC Firefox is a new multiplexed and secure transport based on User Datagram Protocol (UDP, designed from the ground up and optimized for Hyper-Text Transfer Protocol 2 (HTTP/2 semantics. While built with HTTP/2 as the primary application protocol, QUIC builds on decades of transport and security experience, and implements mechanisms that make it attractive as a modern general-purpose transport. In addition to describing the main design of QUIC Firefox, this paper will compare Firefox with QUIC Firefox. Our preliminary experimental results support that QUIC Firefox has a faster execution time, less latency time, and a better throughput time than the traditional Firefox.  

  5. An FEC Adaptive Multicast MAC Protocol for Providing Reliability in WLANs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basalamah, Anas; Sato, Takuro

    For wireless multicast applications like multimedia conferencing, voice over IP and video/audio streaming, a reliable transmission of packets within short delivery delay is needed. Moreover, reliability is crucial to the performance of error intolerant applications like file transfer, distributed computing, chat and whiteboard sharing. Forward Error Correction (FEC) is frequently used in wireless multicast to enhance Packet Error Rate (PER) performance, but cannot assure full reliability unless coupled with Automatic Repeat Request forming what is knows as Hybrid-ARQ. While reliable FEC can be deployed at different levels of the protocol stack, it cannot be deployed on the MAC layer of the unreliable IEEE802.11 WLAN due to its inability to exchange ACKs with multiple recipients. In this paper, we propose a Multicast MAC protocol that enhances WLAN reliability by using Adaptive FEC and study it's performance through mathematical analysis and simulation. Our results show that our protocol can deliver high reliability and throughput performance.

  6. The UMTS-AKA Protocols for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Min-Shiang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integration of communication protocols into transport systems is a much adored research area today. Much of seminal work has been reported on the topic of intelligent transportation systems (ITS in the recent years. Many advanced techniques have been garnered to improve online communication and to promote the security, comfort, and efficiency of ITS. Of primary importance to the effective application of ITS is the communication protocol used. A fascinating development is that the yesterday's Global System for Mobile Communication protocol is being replaced by the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System protocol, which is the third-generation mobile technology. This article attempts to identify a suitable communication system for ITS applications. It is impracticable to substantially modify the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol which is in practice because it can disturb the operation of the current system, and thus we explore other possibilities through this research. We investigate a novel protocol to make the original UMTS-IMS-AKA protocol compliant with ITS as well as adaptable into the current UMTS protocol.

  7. Corrections to "Connectivity-Based Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Woo-Yong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We have found the errors in the throughput formulae presented in our paper "Connectivity-based reliable multicast MAC protocol for IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs". We provide the corrected formulae and numerical results.

  8. Shoulder muscle endurance: the development of a standardized and reliable protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Jean-Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shoulder muscle fatigue has been proposed as a possible link to explain the association between repetitive arm use and the development of rotator cuff disorders. To our knowledge, no standardized clinical endurance protocol has been developed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue on shoulder function. Such a test could improve clinical examination of individuals with shoulder disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish a reliable protocol for objective assessment of shoulder muscle endurance. Methods An endurance protocol was developed on a stationary dynamometer (Biodex System 3. The endurance protocol was performed in isotonic mode with the resistance set at 50% of each subject's peak torque as measured for shoulder external (ER and internal rotation (IR. Each subject performed 60 continuous repetitions of IR/ER rotation. The endurance protocol was performed by 36 healthy individuals on two separate occasions at least two days apart. Maximal isometric shoulder strength tests were performed before and after the fatigue protocol to evaluate the effects of the endurance protocol and its reliability. Paired t-tests were used to evaluate the reduction in shoulder strength due to the protocol, while intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC and minimal detectable change (MDC were used to evaluate its reliability. Results Maximal isometric strength was significantly decreased after the endurance protocol (P 0.84. Conclusions Changes in muscular performance observed during and after the muscular endurance protocol suggests that the protocol did result in muscular fatigue. Furthermore, this study established that the resultant effects of fatigue of the proposed isotonic protocol were reproducible over time. The protocol was performed without difficulty by all volunteers and took less than 10 minutes to perform, suggesting that it might be feasible for clinical practice. This protocol could be used to induce

  9. Reliability Evaluation Of The City Transport Buses Under Actual Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rymarz Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to present a reliability comparison of two types of city transport buses. Case study on the example of the well-known brands of city buses: Solaris Urbino 12 and Mercedes-Benz 628 Conecto L used at Municipal Transport Company in Lublin was presented in details. A reliability index for the most failure parts and complex systems for the period of time failures was determined. The analysis covered damages of the following systems: engine, electrical system, pneumatic system, brake system, driving system, central heating and air-conditioning and doors. Reliability was analyzed based on Weibull model. It has been demonstrated, that during the operation significant reliability differences occur between the buses produced nowadays.

  10. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  11. Reliability analysis of neutron transport simulation using Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Bismarck A. de; Borges, Jose C.

    1995-01-01

    This work presents a statistical and reliability analysis covering data obtained by computer simulation of neutron transport process, using the Monte Carlo method. A general description of the method and its applications is presented. Several simulations, corresponding to slowing down and shielding problems have been accomplished. The influence of the physical dimensions of the materials and of the sample size on the reliability level of results was investigated. The objective was to optimize the sample size, in order to obtain reliable results, optimizing computation time. (author). 5 refs, 8 figs

  12. An Energy-Efficient Link Layer Protocol for Reliable Transmission over Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Adnan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In multihop wireless networks, hop-by-hop reliability is generally achieved through positive acknowledgments at the MAC layer. However, positive acknowledgments introduce significant energy inefficiencies on battery-constrained devices. This inefficiency becomes particularly significant on high error rate channels. We propose to reduce the energy consumption during retransmissions using a novel protocol that localizes bit-errors at the MAC layer. The proposed protocol, referred to as Selective Retransmission using Virtual Fragmentation (SRVF, requires simple modifications to the positive-ACK-based reliability mechanism but provides substantial improvements in energy efficiency. The main premise of the protocol is to localize bit-errors by performing partial checksums on disjoint parts or virtual fragments of a packet. In case of error, only the corrupted virtual fragments are retransmitted. We develop stochastic models of the Simple Positive-ACK-based reliability, the previously-proposed Packet Length Optimization (PLO protocol, and the SRVF protocol operating over an arbitrary-order Markov wireless channel. Our analytical models show that SRVF provides significant theoretical improvements in energy efficiency over existing protocols. We then use bit-error traces collected over different real networks to empirically compare the proposed and existing protocols. These experimental results further substantiate that SRVF provides considerably better energy efficiency than Simple Positive-ACK and Packet Length Optimization protocols.

  13. An efficient and reliable multi-hop geographical broadcast protocol in vehicular ad-hoc networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajendran, R.; Jongh, J. de

    2013-01-01

    In Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), disseminating warning messages in a timely and efficient way through wireless short-range communications can save many lives and reduce traffic congestion. A geographical broadcast protocol provides data delivery to specified geographical areas, using

  14. Development of high-reliable real-time communication network protocol for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ki Sang; Kim, Young Sik [Korea National University of Education, Chongwon (Korea); No, Hee Chon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-04-01

    In this research, we first define protocol subsets for SMART(System-integrated Modular Advanced Reactor) communication network based on the requirement of SMART MMIS transmission delay and traffic requirements and OSI(Open System Interconnection) 7 layers' network protocol functions. Also, current industrial purpose LAN protocols are analyzed and the applicability of commercialized protocols are checked. For the suitability test, we have applied approximated SMART data traffic and maximum allowable transmission delay requirement. With the simulation results, we conclude that IEEE 802.5 and FDDI which is an ANSI standard, is the most suitable for SMART. We further analyzed the FDDI and token ring protocols for SMART and nuclear plant network environment including IEEE 802.4, IEEE 802.5, and ARCnet. The most suitable protocol for SMART is FDDI and FDDI MAC and RMT protocol specifications have been verified with LOTOS and the verification results show that FDDI MAC and RMT satisfy the reachability and liveness, but does not show deadlock and livelock. Therefore, we conclude that FDDI MAC and RMT is highly reliable protocol for SMART MMIS network. After that, we consider the stacking fault of IEEE 802.5 token ring protocol and propose a fault tolerant MAM(Modified Active Monitor) protocol. The simulation results show that the MAM protocol improves lower priority traffic service rate when stacking fault occurs. Therefore, proposed MAM protocol can be applied to SMART communication network for high reliability and hard real-time communication purpose in data acquisition and inter channel network. (author). 37 refs., 79 figs., 39 tabs.

  15. The specification-based validation of reliable multicast protocol: Problem Report. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunqing

    1995-01-01

    Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) is a communication protocol that provides an atomic, totally ordered, reliable multicast service on top of unreliable IP multicasting. In this report, we develop formal models for RMP using existing automated verification systems, and perform validation on the formal RMP specifications. The validation analysis help identifies some minor specification and design problems. We also use the formal models of RMP to generate a test suite for conformance testing of the implementation. Throughout the process of RMP development, we follow an iterative, interactive approach that emphasizes concurrent and parallel progress of implementation and verification processes. Through this approach, we incorporate formal techniques into our development process, promote a common understanding for the protocol, increase the reliability of our software, and maintain high fidelity between the specifications of RMP and its implementation.

  16. A review on transport layer protocol performance for delivering video on an adhoc network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman; Suwendri; Al-Akaidi, Marwan

    2017-09-01

    The transport layer protocol is responsible for the end to end data transmission. Transmission control protocol (TCP) provides a reliable connection and user datagram protocol (UDP) offers fast but unguaranteed data transfer. Meanwhile, the 802.11 (wireless fidelity/WiFi) networks have been widely used as internet hotspots. This paper evaluates TCP, TCP variants and UDP performances for video transmission on an adhoc network. The transport protocol - medium access cross-layer is proposed by prioritizing TCP acknowledgement to reduce delay. The NS-2 evaluations show that the average delays increase linearly for all the evaluated protocols and the average packet losses grow logarithmically. UDP produces the lowest transmission delay; 5.4% and 5.8% lower than TCP and TCP variant, but experiences the highest packet loss. Both TCP and TCP Vegas maintain packet loss as low as possible. The proposed cross-layer successfully decreases TCP and TCP Vegas delay about 0.12 % and 0.15%, although losses remain similar.

  17. Technology and equipment to improve reliability of pipeline transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleimanov, D. F.; Shulayev, N. S.; Bondar, K. E.; Laponov, S. V.; Uzinger, A. A.

    2017-10-01

    The article is dedicated to development of technology and hardware design of method pipeline transport reliability improving by improving the isolated coating properties modified by microwave radiation. The article describes the technology of the modification process of the coating and instrumentation production, which allows improving operational properties not only in stationary conditions in the manufacture of the insulation coating, but also during its replacement in the field.

  18. Reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol for working technique assessments in cash register work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm, Peter; Josephson, Malin; Mathiassen, Svend Erik; Kjellberg, Katarina

    2016-06-01

    We evaluated the intra- and inter-observer reliability and criterion validity of an observation protocol, developed in an iterative process involving practicing ergonomists, for assessment of working technique during cash register work for the purpose of preventing upper extremity symptoms. Two ergonomists independently assessed 17 15-min videos of cash register work on two occasions each, as a basis for examining reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing these assessments with meticulous video-based analyses by researchers. Intra-observer reliability was acceptable (i.e. proportional agreement >0.7 and kappa >0.4) for 10/10 questions. Inter-observer reliability was acceptable for only 3/10 questions. An acceptable inter-observer reliability combined with an acceptable criterion validity was obtained only for one working technique aspect, 'Quality of movements'. Thus, major elements of the cashiers' working technique could not be assessed with an acceptable accuracy from short periods of observations by one observer, such as often desired by practitioners. Practitioner Summary: We examined an observation protocol for assessing working technique in cash register work. It was feasible in use, but inter-observer reliability and criterion validity were generally not acceptable when working technique aspects were assessed from short periods of work. We recommend the protocol to be used for educational purposes only.

  19. An improved IEEE 802.11 protocol for reliable data transmission in power distribution fault diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campoccia, F.; Di Silvestre, M.L.; Sanseverino, E.R.; Zizzo, G. [Palermo Univ., Palermo (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    In power systems, on-line transmission between local units and the central unit can be done by means of power line communications or wireless technology. During an electrical fault, the reliability of the distribution system depends on the security of the timely protective and restorative actions on the network. This paper focused on the WiFi system because of its economy and ease of installation. However, WiFi systems are typically managed by the IEEE 802.11 protocol, which is not reliable in terms of security in data communication. In WiFi networks, data is divided into packets and sent in succession to reduce errors within the radio channel. The IEEE 802.11 protocol has high probability for loss of packets or delay in their transmission. In order to ensure the reliability of data transmission times between two terminal units connected by WiFi stations, a new protocol was derived by modifying the IEEE 802.11. The improvements of the new protocol were highlighted and its capability for the diagnostic service was verified. The modified protocol eliminates the danger of collisions between packets and optimizes the transmission time for sending information. 6 refs., 7 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. IRR (Inter-Rater Reliability) of a COP (Classroom Observation Protocol)--A Critical Appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Ning; Feldman, Jill M.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding broad utility of COPs (classroom observation protocols), there has been limited documentation of the psychometric properties of even the most popular COPs. This study attempted to fill this void by closely examining the item and domain-level IRR (inter-rater reliability) of a COP that was used in a federally funded striving readers…

  1. RELIABLE DYNAMIC SOURCE ROUTING PROTOCOL (RDSRP FOR ENERGY HARVESTING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Narasimhan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs carry noteworthy pros over traditional communication. Though, unkind and composite environments fake great challenges in the reliability of WSN communications. It is more vital to develop a reliable unipath dynamic source routing protocol (RDSRPl for WSN to provide better quality of service (QoS in energy harvesting wireless sensor networks (EH-WSN. This paper proposes a dynamic source routing approach for attaining the most reliable route in EH-WSNs. Performance evaluation is carried out using NS-2 and throughput and packet delivery ratio are chosen as the metrics.

  2. CPM Test-Retest Reliability: "Standard" vs "Single Test-Stimulus" Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovsky, Yelena; Miller-Barmak, Adi; Goldstein, Oren; Sprecher, Elliot; Yarnitsky, David

    2016-03-01

    Assessment of pain inhibitory mechanisms using conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is relevant clinically in prediction of pain and analgesic efficacy. Our objective is to provide necessary estimates of intersession CPM reliability, to enable transformation of the CPM paradigm into a clinical tool. Two cohorts of young healthy subjects (N = 65) participated in two dual-session studies. In Study I, a Bath-Thermode CPM protocol was used, with hot water immersion and contact heat as conditioning- and test-stimuli, respectively, in a classical parallel CPM design introducing test-stimulus first, and then the conditioning- and repeated test-stimuli in parallel. Study II consisted of two CPM protocols: 1) Two-Thermodes, one for each of the stimuli, in the same parallel design as above, and 2) single test-stimulus (STS) protocol with a single administration of a contact heat test-stimulus, partially overlapped in time by a remote shorter contact heat as conditioning stimulus. Test-retest reliability was assessed within 3-7 days. The STS-CPM had superior reliability intraclass correlation (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.59) over Bath-Thermode (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.34) or Two-Thermodes (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.21) protocols. The hand immersion conditioning pain had higher reliability than thermode pain (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.76 vs ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.16). Conditioned test-stimulus pain scores were of good (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.62) or fair (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.43) reliability for the Bath-Thermode and the STS, respectively, but not for the Two-Thermodes protocol (ICC 2 ,: 1  = 0.20). The newly developed STS-CPM paradigm was more reliable than other CPM protocols tested here, and should be further investigated for its clinical relevance. It appears that large contact size of the conditioning-stimulus and use of single rather than dual test-stimulus pain contribute to augmentation of CPM reliability. © 2015 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  3. A Smart Collaborative Routing Protocol for Reliable Data Diffusion in IoT Scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zheng-Yang; Zhou, Yu-Tong; Song, Fei

    2018-06-13

    It is knotty for current routing protocols to meet the needs of reliable data diffusion during the Internet of Things (IoT) deployments. Due to the random placement, limited resources and unattended features of existing sensor nodes, the wireless transmissions are easily exposed to unauthorized users, which becomes a vulnerable area for various malicious attacks, such as wormhole and Sybil attacks. However, the scheme based on geographic location is a suitable candidate to defend against them. This paper is inspired to propose a smart collaborative routing protocol, Geographic energy aware routing and Inspecting Node (GIN), for guaranteeing the reliability of data exchanging. The proposed protocol integrates the directed diffusion routing, Greedy Perimeter Stateless Routing (GPSR), and the inspecting node mechanism. We first discuss current wireless routing protocols from three diverse perspectives (improving transmission rate, shortening transmission range and reducing transmission consumption). Then, the details of GIN, including the model establishment and implementation processes, are presented by means of the theoretical analysis. Through leveraging the game theory, the inspecting node is elected to monitor the network behaviors. Thirdly, we evaluate the network performances, in terms of transmission delay, packet loss ratio, and throughput, between GIN and three traditional schemes (i.e., Flooding, GPSR, and GEAR). The simulation results illustrate that the proposed protocol is able to outperform the others.

  4. Test-retest reliability of jump execution variables using mechanography: a comparison of jump protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, John S; Johnson, LuAnn; Tomkinson, Grant; Stein, Jesse; Roemmich, James N

    2018-05-01

    Mechanography during the vertical jump may enhance screening and determining mechanistic causes underlying physical performance changes. Utility of jump mechanography for evaluation is limited by scant test-retest reliability data on force-time variables. This study examined the test-retest reliability of eight jump execution variables assessed from mechanography. Thirty-two women (mean±SD: age 20.8 ± 1.3 yr) and 16 men (age 22.1 ± 1.9 yr) attended a familiarization session and two testing sessions, all one week apart. Participants performed two variations of the squat jump with squat depth self-selected and controlled using a goniometer to 80º knee flexion. Test-retest reliability was quantified as the systematic error (using effect size between jumps), random error (using coefficients of variation), and test-retest correlations (using intra-class correlation coefficients). Overall, jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, evidenced by small systematic errors (mean±95%CI: 0.2 ± 0.07), moderate random errors (mean±95%CI: 17.8 ± 3.7%), and very strong test-retest correlations (range: 0.73-0.97). Differences in random errors between controlled and self-selected protocols were negligible (mean±95%CI: 1.3 ± 2.3%). Jump execution variables demonstrated acceptable reliability, with no meaningful differences between the controlled and self-selected jump protocols. To simplify testing, a self-selected jump protocol can be used to assess force-time variables with negligible impact on measurement error.

  5. Reliable Multihop Broadcast Protocol with a Low-Overhead Link Quality Assessment for ITS Based on VANETs in Highway Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Galaviz-Mosqueda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs have been identified as a key technology to enable intelligent transport systems (ITS, which are aimed to radically improve the safety, comfort, and greenness of the vehicles in the road. However, in order to fully exploit VANETs potential, several issues must be addressed. Because of the high dynamic of VANETs and the impairments in the wireless channel, one key issue arising when working with VANETs is the multihop dissemination of broadcast packets for safety and infotainment applications. In this paper a reliable low-overhead multihop broadcast (RLMB protocol is proposed to address the well-known broadcast storm problem. The proposed RLMB takes advantage of the hello messages exchanged between the vehicles and it processes such information to intelligently select a relay set and reduce the redundant broadcast. Additionally, to reduce the hello messages rate dependency, RLMB uses a point-to-zone link evaluation approach. RLMB performance is compared with one of the leading multihop broadcast protocols existing to date. Performance metrics show that our RLMB solution outperforms the leading protocol in terms of important metrics such as packet dissemination ratio, overhead, and delay.

  6. Test-retest reliability of a balance testing protocol with external perturbations in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Shawn M; Caplan, Ryan M; Aponte, Daniel I; St-Onge, Nancy

    2017-10-01

    External perturbations are utilized to challenge balance and mimic realistic balance threats in patient populations. The reliability of such protocols has not been established. The purpose was to examine test-retest reliability of balance testing with external perturbations. Healthy adults (n=34; mean age 23 years) underwent balance testing over two visits. Participants completed ten balance conditions in which the following parameters were combined: perturbation or non-perturbation, single or double leg, and eyes open or closed. Three trials were collected for each condition. Data were collected on a force plate and external perturbations were applied by translating the plate. Force plate center of pressure (CoP) data were summarized using 13 different CoP measures. Test-retest reliability was examined using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland-Altman plots. CoP measures of total speed and excursion in both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral directions generally had acceptable ICC values for perturbation conditions (ICC=0.46 to 0.87); however, many other CoP measures (e.g. range, area of ellipse) had unacceptable test-retest reliability (ICCbalance testing protocols that include external perturbations should be made to improve test-retest reliability and diminish learning including more extensive participant training and increasing the number of trials. CoP measures that consider all data points (e.g. total speed) are more reliable than those that only consider a few data points. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The reliability of a single protocol to determine endothelial, microvascular and autonomic functions in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bert; Williams, Craig A; Barker, Alan R

    2017-11-01

    Impairments in macrovascular, microvascular and autonomic function are present in asymptomatic youths with clustered cardiovascular disease risk factors. This study determines the within-day reliability and between-day reliability of a single protocol to non-invasively assess these outcomes in adolescents. Forty 12- to 15-year-old adolescents (20 boys) visited the laboratory in a fasted state on two occasions, approximately 1 week apart. One hour after a standardized cereal breakfast, macrovascular function was determined via flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Heart rate variability (root mean square of successive R-R intervals; RMSSD) was determined from the ECG-gated ultrasound images acquired during the FMD protocol prior to cuff occlusion. Microvascular function was simultaneously quantified as the peak (PRH) and total (TRH) hyperaemic response to occlusion in the cutaneous circulation of the forearm via laser Doppler imaging. To address within-day reliability, a subset of twenty adolescents (10 boys) repeated these measures 90 min afterwards on one occasion. The within-day typical error and between-day typical error expressed as a coefficient of variation of these outcomes are as follows: ratio-scaled FMD, 5·1% and 10·6%; allometrically scaled FMD, 4·4% and 9·4%; PRH, 11% and 13·3%; TRH, 29·9% and 23·1%; and RMSSD, 17·6% and 17·6%. The within- and between-day test-retest correlation coefficients for these outcomes were all significant (r > 0·54 for all). Macrovascular, microvascular and autonomic functions can be simultaneously and non-invasively determined in adolescents using a single protocol with an appropriate degree of reproducibility. Determining these outcomes may provide greater understanding of the progression of cardiovascular disease and aid early intervention. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-01-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves...

  9. Reliability analysis of land pipelines for hydrocarbons transportation in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, D.; Cortes, C. [Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The reliability of a land pipeline operated by PEMEX in Mexico was estimated under a range of failure modes. Reliability and safety were evaluated in terms of the pipeline's internal pressure, bending, fracture toughness and its tension failure mode conditions. Loading conditions were applied individually, while bending and tension loads were applied in a combined fashion. The mechanical properties of the steel were also considered along with the degradation effect of internal corrosion resulting from the type of product being transported. A set of internal pressures and mechanical properties were generated randomly using Monte Carlo simulation. Commercial software was used to obtain the pipeline response under each modeled condition. The response analysis was based on the nonlinear finite element method involving a calculation of maximum stresses and stress concentration factors under conditions of corrosion and no corrosion. The margin between maximum stresses due to internal pressure, tension and bending was evaluated along with the margin between stress concentration factor and fracture initiation toughness. The study showed that internal pressure, stress concentration and tension-bending were the critical failure modes. It was suggested that more research should be conducted to improve the modeling of the deteriorating effects of corrosion and to adjust the probability distribution for fracture toughness and the length/depth defect ratio. The consideration of welding geometries along with features of marine pipelines and pipeline products would help to generalize the study to facilitate the creation of codes for the construction, design, inspection and maintenance of pipelines in Mexico. 7 refs., 1 tab., 14 figs.

  10. Specification and Design of a Fault Recovery Model for the Reliable Multicast Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd; Callahan, John R.; Whetten, Brian

    1996-01-01

    The Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) provides a unique, group-based model for distributed programs that need to handle reconfiguration events at the application layer. This model, called membership views, provides an abstraction in which events such as site failures, network partitions, and normal join-leave events are viewed as group reformations. RMP provides access to this model through an application programming interface (API) that notifies an application when a group is reformed as the result of a some event. RMP provides applications with reliable delivery of messages using an underlying IP Multicast media to other group members in a distributed environment even in the case of reformations. A distributed application can use various Quality of Service (QoS) levels provided by RMP to tolerate group reformations. This paper explores the implementation details of the mechanisms in RMP that provide distributed applications with membership view information and fault recovery capabilities.

  11. A transport layer protocol for the future high speed grid computing: SCTP versus fast tcp multihoming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshad, M.J.; Mian, M.S.

    2010-01-01

    TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is designed for reliable data transfer on the global Internet today. One of its strong points is its use of flow control algorithm that allows TCP to adjust its congestion window if network congestion is occurred. A number of studies and investigations have confirmed that traditional TCP is not suitable for each and every type of application, for example, bulk data transfer over high speed long distance networks. TCP sustained the time of low-capacity and short-delay networks, however, for numerous factors it cannot be capable to efficiently deal with today's growing technologies (such as wide area Grid computing and optical-fiber networks). This research work surveys the congestion control mechanism of transport protocols, and addresses the different issues involved for transferring the huge data over the future high speed Grid computing and optical-fiber networks. This work also presents the simulations to compare the performance of FAST TCP multihoming with SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) multihoming in high speed networks. These simulation results show that FAST TCP multihoming achieves bandwidth aggregation efficiently and outperforms SCTP multihoming under a similar network conditions. The survey and simulation results presented in this work reveal that multihoming support into FAST TCP does provide a lot of benefits like redundancy, load-sharing and policy-based routing, which largely improves the whole performance of a network and can meet the increasing demand of the future high-speed network infrastructures (such as in Grid computing). (author)

  12. A reliable transmission protocol for ZigBee-based wireless patient monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shyr-Kuen; Kao, Tsair; Chan, Chia-Tai; Huang, Chih-Ning; Chiang, Chih-Yen; Lai, Chin-Yu; Tung, Tse-Hua; Wang, Pi-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Patient monitoring systems are gaining their importance as the fast-growing global elderly population increases demands for caretaking. These systems use wireless technologies to transmit vital signs for medical evaluation. In a multihop ZigBee network, the existing systems usually use broadcast or multicast schemes to increase the reliability of signals transmission; however, both the schemes lead to significantly higher network traffic and end-to-end transmission delay. In this paper, we present a reliable transmission protocol based on anycast routing for wireless patient monitoring. Our scheme automatically selects the closest data receiver in an anycast group as a destination to reduce the transmission latency as well as the control overhead. The new protocol also shortens the latency of path recovery by initiating route recovery from the intermediate routers of the original path. On the basis of a reliable transmission scheme, we implement a ZigBee device for fall monitoring, which integrates fall detection, indoor positioning, and ECG monitoring. When the triaxial accelerometer of the device detects a fall, the current position of the patient is transmitted to an emergency center through a ZigBee network. In order to clarify the situation of the fallen patient, 4-s ECG signals are also transmitted. Our transmission scheme ensures the successful transmission of these critical messages. The experimental results show that our scheme is fast and reliable. We also demonstrate that our devices can seamlessly integrate with the next generation technology of wireless wide area network, worldwide interoperability for microwave access, to achieve real-time patient monitoring.

  13. A reliable, practical, and economical protocol for inducing diarrhea and severe dehydration in the neonatal calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, P G; Constable, P D; Morin, D E; Drackley, J K; Foreman, J H; Thurmon, J C

    1998-07-01

    Fifteen healthy, colostrum-fed, male dairy calves, aged 2 to 7 d were used in a study to develop a diarrhea protocol for neonatal calves that is reliable, practical, and economical. After instrumentation and recording baseline data, diarrhea and dehydration were induced by administering milk replacer [16.5 mL/kg of body weight (BW), PO], sucrose (2 g/kg in a 20% aqueous solution, p.o.), spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide (1 mg/kg, PO) every 8 h, and furosemide (2 mg/kg, i.m., q6h). Calves were administered sucrose and diuretic agents for 48 h to induce diarrhea and severe dehydration. Clinical changes after 48 h were severe watery diarrhea, severe depression, and marked dehydration (mean, 14% BW loss). Cardiac output, stroke volume, mean central venous pressure, plasma volume, thiocyanate space, blood pH and bicarbonate concentration, base excess, serum chloride concentration, and fetlock temperature were decreased. Plasma lactate concentration, hematocrit, and serum potassium, creatinine, phosphorus, total protein and albumin concentrations were increased. This non-infectious calf diarrhea protocol has a 100% response rate, while providing a consistent and predictable hypovolemic state with diarrhea that reflects most of the clinicopathologic changes observed in osmotic/maldigestive diarrhea caused by infection with rotavirus, coronavirus or cryptosporidia. Limitations of the protocol, when compared to infectious diarrhea models, include failure to induce a severe metabolic acidosis, absence of hyponatremia, renal instead of enteric loss of chloride, renal as well as enteric loss of free water, absence of profound clinical depression and suspected differences in the morphologic and functional effect on intestinal epithelium. Despite these differences, the sucrose/diuretic protocol should be useful in the initial screening of new treatment modalities for calf diarrhea. To confirm their efficacy, the most effective treatment methods should then be examined in

  14. Determining Reliability of a Dual-Task Functional Mobility Protocol for Individuals With Lower Extremity Amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Susan W; Frengopoulos, Courtney; Holmes, Jeff; Viana, Ricardo; Payne, Michael W

    2018-04-01

    To determine the relative and absolute reliability of a dual-task functional mobility assessment. Cross-sectional study. Academic rehabilitation hospital. Individuals (N=60) with lower extremity amputation attending an outpatient amputee clinic (mean age, 58.21±12.59y; 18, 80% male) who were stratified into 3 groups: (1) transtibial amputation of vascular etiology (n=20); (2) transtibial amputation of nonvascular etiology (n=20); and (3) transfemoral or bilateral amputation of any etiology (n=20). Not applicable. Time to complete the L Test measured functional mobility under single- and dual-task conditions. The addition of a cognitive task (serial subtractions by 3's) created dual-task conditions. Single-task performance on the cognitive task was also reported. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) measured relative reliability; SEM and minimal detectable change with a 95% confidence interval (MDC 95 ) measured absolute reliability. Bland-Altman plots measured agreement between assessments. Relative reliability results were excellent for all 3 groups. Values for the dual-task L Test for those with transtibial amputation of vascular etiology (n=20; mean age, 60.36±7.84y; 19, 90% men) were ICC=.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], .94-.99), SEM=1.36 seconds, and MDC 95 =3.76 seconds; for those with transtibial amputation of nonvascular etiology (n=20; mean age, 55.85±14.08y; 17, 85% men), values were ICC=.93 (95% CI, .80-.98), SEM=1.34 seconds, and MDC 95 =3.71 seconds; and for those with transfemoral or bilateral amputation (n=20; mean age, 58.21±14.88y; 13, 65% men), values were ICC=.998 (95% CI, .996-.999), SEM=1.03 seconds, and MDC 95 =2.85 seconds. Bland-Altman plots indicated that assessments did not vary systematically for each group. This dual-task assessment protocol achieved approved levels of relative reliability values for the 3 groups tested. This protocol may be used clinically or in research settings to assess the interaction between cognition

  15. Reliability and fatigue characteristics of a standing hip isometric endurance protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutchler, Jessica A; Weinhandl, Joshua T; Hoch, Matthew C; Van Lunen, Bonnie L

    2015-08-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common consideration when evaluating and rehabilitating athletic injuries. The presence of muscular fatigue has been previously determined by quantifying median frequency (MF) through a power spectral analysis on EMG signals collected throughout an endurance task. Research has not yet determined if a prolonged isometric test in a standing position generates muscular fatigue of the hip. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and fatigue characteristics of a standing hip isometric endurance test. Twenty healthy participants completed one 60-s Maximum Voluntary Isometric Contraction of standing hip flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction. MF of the participants' dominant limb rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed) and adductor longus (ADD) was determined via surface electromyography during two sessions, 30-min apart. Reliability values (ICC2,1) were moderate-to-excellent for all time intervals of each action (FlexionRF: >0.80; ExtensionBF: >0.89; ExtensionGMax: >0.60; AdductionADD: >0.78; AbductionGMed: >0.60) and MF significantly decreased over time for all actions. Results suggest the endurance test is a reliable technique to generate muscular fatigue for hip flexion, extension, adduction and abduction. It can be used as a time efficient fatigue protocol specific to the RF, BF, GMax, ADD and GMed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Service Characteristics Based High Speed Multimedia Transport Protocol

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, C

    1997-01-01

    .... This multimedia protocol will automatically extract service requirements from multimedia applications by selecting certain sets of parameters from user applications to optimally drive the lower level physical network...

  17. Investigating a reduced size real-time transport protocol for low-bandwidth networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kakande, JN

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available in this work as RTP-Lite, requires investigation. A cyclical approach to compression of the RTP headers was used with different compression cycle patterns for Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) transport. Measurements over...

  18. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the standardized ultrasound protocol for assessing subacromial structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougs Kjær, Birgitte; Ellegaard, Karen; Wieland, Ina

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: US-examinations related to shoulder impingement (SI) often vary due to methodological differences, examiner positions, transducers, and recording parameters. Reliable US protocols for examination of different structures related to shoulder impingement are therefore needed. OBJECTIVES...... of the supraspinatus tendon (SUPRA) and subacromial subdeltoid (SASD) bursa in two imaging positions, and the acromial humeral distance (AHD) in one position. Additionally, agreement on dynamic impingement (DI) examination was performed. The intra- and inter-rater reliability was carried out on the same day...

  19. Interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czycholl, I; Kniese, C; Büttner, K; Beilage, E Grosse; Schrader, L; Krieter, J

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on evaluating the interobserver reliability of the 'Welfare Quality(®) Animal Welfare Assessment Protocol for Growing Pigs'. The protocol for growing pigs mainly consists of a Qualitative Behaviour Assessment (QBA), direct behaviour observations (BO) carried out by instantaneous scan sampling and checks for different individual parameters (IP), e.g. presence of tail biting, wounds and bursitis. Three trained observers collected the data by performing 29 combined assessments, which were done at the same time and on the same animals; but they were carried out completely independent of each other. The findings were compared by the calculation of Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficients (RS), Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC) and Limits of Agreements (LoA). There was no agreement found concerning the adjectives belonging to the QBA (e.g. active: RS: 0.50, ICC: 0.30, SDC: 0.38, LoA: -0.05 to 0.45; fearful: RS: 0.06, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.26, LoA: -0.20 to 0.30). In contrast, the BO showed good agreement (e.g. social behaviour: RS: 0.45, ICC: 0.50, SDC: 0.09, LoA: -0.09 to 0.03 use of enrichment material: RS: 0.75, ICC: 0.68, SDC: 0.06, LoA: -0.03 to 0.03). Overall, observers agreed well in the IP, e.g. tail biting (RS: 0.52, ICC: 0.88; SDC: 0.05, LoA: -0.01 to 0.02) and wounds (RS: 0.43, ICC: 0.59, SDC: 0.10, LoA: -0.09 to 0.10). The parameter bursitis showed great differences (RS: 0.10, ICC: 0.0, SDC: 0.35, LoA: -0.37 to 0.40), which can be explained by difficulties in the assessment when the animals moved around quickly or their legs were soiled. In conclusion, the interobserver reliability was good in the BO and most IP, but not for the parameter bursitis and the QBA.

  20. Dynamic Scheduling for Cloud Reliability using Transportation Problem

    OpenAIRE

    P. Balasubramanie; S. K. Senthil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Cloud is purely a dynamic environment and the existing task scheduling algorithms are mostly static and considered various parameters like time, cost, make span, speed, scalability, throughput, resource utilization, scheduling success rate and so on. Available scheduling algorithms are mostly heuristic in nature and more complex, time consuming and does not consider reliability and availability of the cloud computing environment. Therefore there is a need to implement a sch...

  1. a transport layer protocol using adaptive loss recovery method for ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ayhan Kİraz

    Recently, critical projects were developed using wireless sensor network (WSN) such as medical and military ... provide high reliability, low power consumption, low end- to-end ... transmission and lower end-to-end packet latency values.

  2. New SP-values of time and reliability for freight transport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, G. de; Kouwenhoven, M.; Bates, J.; Koster, P.; Verhoef, E.; Tavasszy, L.; Warffemius, P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the methods used in a study on the values of time and reliability in freight transport in the Netherlands. SP surveys were carried out among more than 800 shippers and carriers. A novel feature is that both for the value of time and reliability two additive components are

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  4. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  5. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro; Temple, Dan; Mathiasen, Carsten; Pedersen, Lars A.; Klaps, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband module and a remote radio module is compliant to Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) and to the OBSAI reference point 3 - 01 (RP3-01) interface protocols, respectively. The purpose is to demonstrate ...

  6. Reliability of single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) for dose estimation in quartz at different burial temperatures: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koul, D.K.; Pagonis, V.; Patil, P.

    2016-01-01

    The single aliquot regenerative protocol (SAR) is a well-established technique for estimating naturally acquired radiation doses in quartz. This simulation work examines the reliability of SAR protocol for samples which experienced different ambient temperatures in nature in the range of −10 to 40 °C. The contribution of various experimental variables used in SAR protocols to the accuracy and precision of the method is simulated for different ambient temperatures. Specifically the effects of paleo-dose, test dose, pre-heating temperature and cut-heat temperature on the accuracy of equivalent dose (ED) estimation are simulated by using random combinations of the concentrations of traps and centers using a previously published comprehensive quartz model. The findings suggest that the ambient temperature has a significant bearing on the reliability of natural dose estimation using SAR protocol, especially for ambient temperatures above 0 °C. The main source of these inaccuracies seems to be thermal sensitization of the quartz samples caused by the well-known thermal transfer of holes between luminescence centers in quartz. The simulations suggest that most of this inaccuracy in the dose estimation can be removed by delivering the laboratory doses in pulses (pulsed irradiation procedures). - Highlights: • Ambient temperatures affect the reliability of SAR. • It overestimates the dose with increase in burial temperature and burial time periods. • Elevated temperature irradiation does not correct for these overestimations. • Inaccuracies in dose estimation can be removed by incorporating pulsed irradiation procedures.

  7. Reliability of diagnostic imaging techniques in suspected acute appendicitis: proposed diagnostic protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cura del, J. L.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.; Vela, A. C.; Ibanez, A. M.

    2001-01-01

    To study the utility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in case of suspected appendicitis. To determine the diagnostic yield in terms of different clinical contexts and patient characteristics. to assess the costs and benefits of introducing these techniques and propose a protocol for their use. Negative appendectomies, complications and length of hospital stay in a group of 152 patients with suspected appendicitis who underwent ultrasound and CT were compared with those of 180 patients who underwent appendectomy during the same time period, but had not been selected for the first group: these patients costs for each group were calculated. In the first group, the diagnostic value of the clinical signs was also evaluated. The reliability of the clinical signs was limited, while the results with ultrasound and CT were excellent. The incidence of negative appendectomy was 9.6% in the study group and 12.2% in the control group. Moreover, there were fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay in the first group. Among men, however, the rate of negative appendectomy was lower in the control group. The cost of using ultrasound and CT in the management of appendicitis was only slightly higher than that of the control group. Although ultrasound and CT are not necessary in cases in which the probability of appendicitis is low or in men presenting clear clinical evidence, the use of these techniques is indicated in the remaining cases in which appendicitis is suspected. In children, ultrasound is the technique of choice. In all other patients, if negative results are obtained with one of the two techniques, the other should be performed. (Author) 49 refs

  8. Reliable Transport over SpaceWire for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Focal Plane Electronics (FPE) Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakow, Glenn; Schnurr, Richard; Dailey, Christopher; Shakoorzadeh, Kamdin

    2003-01-01

    combination of requirements necessitates a redundant, fault tolerant, high- speed, low mass, low power network with a low Bit error Rate(1E-9- 1E-12). The ISIM systems team performed many studies of the various network architectures that meeting these requirements. The architecture selected uses the Spacewire protocol, with the addition of a new transport and network layer added to implement end-to-end reliable transport. The network and reliable transport mechanism must be implemented in hardware because of the high average information rate and the restriction on the ability of the detectors to buffer data due to power and size restrictions. This network and transport mechanism was designed to be compatible with existing Spacewire links and routers so that existing equipment and designs may be leveraged upon. The transport layer specification is being coordinated with European Space Agency (ESA), Spacewire Working Group and the Consultative Committee for Space Data System (CCSDS) PlK Standard Onboard Interface (SOIF) panel, with the intent of developing a standard for reliable transport for Spacewire. Changes to the protocol presented are likely since negotiations are ongoing with these groups. A block of RTL VHDL that implements a multi-port Spacewire router with an external user interface will be developed and integrated with an existing Spacewire Link design. The external user interface will be the local interface that sources and sinks packets onto and off of the network (Figure 3). The external user interface implements the network and transport layer and handles acknowledgements and re-tries of packets for reliable transport over the network. Because the design is written in RTL, it may be ported to any technology but will initially be targeted to the new Actel Accelerator series (AX) part. Each link will run at 160 Mbps and the power will be about 0.165 Watt per link worst case in the Actel AX.

  9. Charge transport models for reliability engineering of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bina, M.

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of semiconductor devices is important for the assessment of device lifetimes before production. In this context, this work investigates the influence of the charge carrier transport model on the accuracy of bias temperature instability and hot-carrier degradation models in MOS devices. For this purpose, a four-state defect model based on a non-radiative multi phonon (NMP) theory is implemented to study the bias temperature instability. However, the doping concentrations typically used in nano-scale devices correspond to only a small number of dopants in the channel, leading to fluctuations of the electrostatic potential. Thus, the granularity of the doping cannot be ignored in these devices. To study the bias temperature instability in the presence of fluctuations of the electrostatic potential, the advanced drift diffusion device simulator Minimos-NT is employed. In a first effort to understand the bias temperature instability in p-channel MOSFETs at elevated temperatures, data from direct-current-current-voltage measurements is successfully reproduced using a four-state defect model. Differences between the four-state defect model and the commonly employed trapping model from Shockley, Read and Hall (SRH) have been investigated showing that the SRH model is incapable of reproducing the measurement data. This is in good agreement with the literature, where it has been extensively shown that a model based on SRH theory cannot reproduce the characteristic time constants found in BTI recovery traces. Upon inspection of recorded recovery traces after bias temperature stress in n-channel MOSFETs it is found that the gate current is strongly correlated with the drain current (recovery trace). Using a random discrete dopant model and non-equilibrium greens functions it is shown that direct tunnelling cannot explain the magnitude of the gate current reduction. Instead it is found that trap-assisted tunnelling, modelled using NMP theory, is the cause of this

  10. Optimal protocols and optimal transport in stochastic thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik; Mejía-Monasterio, Carlos; Muratore-Ginanneschi, Paolo

    2011-06-24

    Thermodynamics of small systems has become an important field of statistical physics. Such systems are driven out of equilibrium by a control, and the question is naturally posed how such a control can be optimized. We show that optimization problems in small system thermodynamics are solved by (deterministic) optimal transport, for which very efficient numerical methods have been developed, and of which there are applications in cosmology, fluid mechanics, logistics, and many other fields. We show, in particular, that minimizing expected heat released or work done during a nonequilibrium transition in finite time is solved by the Burgers equation and mass transport by the Burgers velocity field. Our contribution hence considerably extends the range of solvable optimization problems in small system thermodynamics.

  11. The reliability of a maximal isometric hip strength and simultaneous surface EMG screening protocol in elite, junior rugby league athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Grimaldi, Alison; Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A

    2017-02-01

    Firstly to describe the reliability of assessing maximal isometric strength of the hip abductor and adductor musculature using a hand held dynamometry (HHD) protocol with simultaneous wireless surface electromyographic (sEMG) evaluation of the gluteus medius (GM) and adductor longus (AL). Secondly, to describe the correlation between isometric strength recorded with the HHD protocol and a laboratory standard isokinetic device. Reliability and correlational study. A sample of 24 elite, male, junior, rugby league athletes, age 16-20 years participated in repeated HHD and isometric Kin-Com (KC) strength testing with simultaneous sEMG assessment, on average (range) 6 (5-7) days apart by a single assessor. Strength tests included; unilateral hip abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) and bilateral ADD assessed with squeeze (SQ) tests in 0 and 45° of hip flexion. HHD demonstrated good to excellent inter-session reliability for all outcome measures (ICC (2,1) =0.76-0.91) and good to excellent association with the laboratory reference KC (ICC (2,1) =0.80-0.88). Whilst intra-session, inter-trial reliability of EMG activation and co-activation outcome measures ranged from moderate to excellent (ICC (2,1) =0.70-0.94), inter-session reliability was poor (all ICC (2,1) Isometric strength testing of the hip ABD and ADD musculature using HHD may be measured reliably in elite, junior rugby league athletes. Due to the poor inter-session reliability of sEMG measures, it is not recommended for athlete screening purposes if using the techniques implemented in this study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Stream Control Transmission Protocol as a Transport for SIP: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe De Marco

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The dominant signalling protocol both in future wireless and wired networks will be the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP, as pointed out in the 3G IP-based mobile networks specifications, entailing a fully Internet integrated network. The use of SIP in the IP Multimedia Subsytem (IMS of Release 5 involves the development of servers capable to handle a large number of call requests. The signaling traffic associated to such requests could explode, if an intelligent congestion control were not introduced. Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP was born to support transport of SS7 signaling messages. However, many of the SCTP features are also useful for transport of SIP messages, as: congestion control mechanism, good separation among independent messages, multihoming. Indeed, adoption of SCTP as transport of SIP signaling might prove useful in some situations where usual transport protocols, like TCP and UDP, suffer performance degradation. In this paper, we analyse the general framework wherein SIP operates and we discuss the benefits of using SCTP as a transport for SIP, toward fair sharing of network resources. This study is carried on in the context of the implementation of an high-performance SIP Proxy Server. We also present some preliminar results of an implementation of SIP over SCTP/UDP in a real LAN environment.

  13. FLOWER, an Innovative Fuzzy Lower-than-Best-Effort Transport Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Trang, Si Quoc Viet; Lochin, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    We present a new delay-based transport protocol named FLOWER, that aims at providing a Lower-than-Best-Effort (LBE) service. The objective is to propose an alternative to the Low Extra Delay Background Transport (LEDBAT) widely deployed within the official BitTorrent client. Indeed, besides its intra-fairness problem, known as latecomer unfairness, LEDBAT can be too aggressive against TCP, making it ill suited for providing LBE services over certain networks such as constrained wireless netwo...

  14. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a clinical protocol for measuring turnout in collegiate dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Amanda; Lasner, Andrea; Deu, Rajwinder; Oliphant, Seth; Johnson, Kenneth

    2018-02-02

    Reliable methods of measuring turnout in dancers and comparing active turnout (used in class) with functional (uncompensated) turnout are needed. Authors have suggested measurement techniques but there is no clinically useful, easily reproducible technique with established inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. We adapted a technique based on previous research, which is easily reproducible. We hypothesized excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability between experienced physical therapists (PTs) and a briefly trained faculty member from a university's department of dance. Thirty-two participants were recruited from the same dance department. Dancers' active and functional turnout was measured by each rater. We found that our technique for measuring active and functional turnout has excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when performed by two experienced PTs and by one briefly trained university-level dance faculty member. For active turnout, inter-rater reliability was 0.78 among all raters and 0.82 among only the PT raters; intra-rater reliability was 0.82 among all raters and 0.85 among only the PT raters. For functional turnout, inter-rater reliability was 0.86 among all raters and 0.88 among only the PT raters; intra-rater reliability was 0.87 among all raters and 0.88 among only the PT raters. The measurement technique described provides a standardized protocol with excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when performed by experienced PTs or by a briefly trained university-level dance faculty member.

  15. Reliability evaluation of a port oil transportation system in variable operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszynska, Joanna

    2006-01-01

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected parameters are determined. The series 'm out of k n ' multi-state system is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability and risk is constructed. Moreover, reliability and risk evaluation of the multi-state series 'm out of k n ' system in its operation process is applied to the port oil transportation system

  16. Reliability evaluation of a port oil transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna [Department of Mathematics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)]. E-mail: joannas@am.gdynia.pl

    2006-04-15

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected parameters are determined. The series 'm out of k {sub n}' multi-state system is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability and risk is constructed. Moreover, reliability and risk evaluation of the multi-state series 'm out of k {sub n}' system in its operation process is applied to the port oil transportation system.

  17. A reliable protocol for the isolation of viable, chondrogenically differentiated human mesenchymal stem cells from high-density pellet cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Mujib; Hamouda, Houda; Stich, Stefan; Sittinger, Michael; Ringe, Jochen

    2012-12-01

    Administration of chondrogenically differentiated mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) is discussed as a promising approach for the regenerative treatment of injured or diseased cartilage. The high-density pellet culture is the standard culture for chondrogenic differentiation, but cells in pellets secrete extracellular matrix (ECM) that they become entrapped in. Protocols for cell isolation from pellets often result in cell damage and dedifferentiation towards less differentiated MSC. Therefore, our aim was to develop a reliable protocol for the isolation of viable, chondrogenically differentiated MSC from high-density pellet cultures. Human bone marrow MSC were chondrogenically stimulated with transforming growth factor-β3, and the cartilaginous structure of the pellets was verified by alcian blue staining of cartilage proteoglycans, antibody staining of cartilage collagen type II, and quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of the marker genes COL2A1 and SOX9. Trypsin and collagenases II and P were tested alone or in combination, and for different concentrations and times, to find a protocol for optimized pellet digestion. Whereas trypsin was not able to release viable cells, 90-min digestion with 300 U of collagenase II, 20 U of collagenase P, and 2 mM CaCl2 worked quite well and resulted in about 2.5×10(5) cells/pellet. The protocol was further optimized for the separation of released cells and ECM from each other. Cells were alcian blue and collagen type II positive and expressed COL2A1 and SOX9, verifying a chondrogenic character. However, they had different morphological shapes. The ECM was also uniformly alcian blue and collagen type II positive but showed different organizational and structural forms. To conclude, our protocol allows the reliable isolation of a defined number of viable, chondrogenically differentiated MSC from high-density pellet cultures. Such cells, as well as the ECM components, are of interest as

  18. Reliability And Maintenance Analysis Of CCTV Systems Used In Rail Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Siergiejczyk Mirosław; Paś Jacek; Rosiński Adam

    2015-01-01

    CCTV systems are widely used across plethora of industrial areas including transport, where their function is to support transport telematics systems. Among others, they are used to ensure travel safety. This paper presented a reliability and maintenance analysis of CCTV. It led to building a relationships graph and then Chapman–Kolmogorov system of equations was derived to describe it. Drawing on those equations, relationships for calculating probability of system staying in state of full ab...

  19. Planned reliability in the transport and installation of large nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieler, L.

    1988-01-01

    The transport and installation of heavy and bulky large components require detailed planning of all jobs and activities, trained and experienced personnel and corresponding technical equipment for reliable and quality-assured implementation. The correct approach to the planning and implementation of such transports and installations has been confirmed by years of successful performance of these jobs e.g. in reactor pressure vessels and steam generators for nuclear power plants. Large components for nuclear power plants are truly extreme examples but will be all the better suited for demonstrating the problems inherent in transport and installation. (orig.) [de

  20. New values of time and reliability in passenger transport in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenhoven, M.; de Jong, G.; Koster, P.R.; van den Berg, V.A.C.; Verhoef, E.T.; Bates, J.; Warffemius, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have established new values of time (VOTs) and values of travel time reliability (VORs) for use in cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of transport projects in The Netherlands. This was the first national study in The Netherlands (and one of the first world-wide) to investigate these topics empirically

  1. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soszynska, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  2. Reliability and risk evaluation of a port oil pipeline transportation system in variable operation conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soszynska, Joanna, E-mail: joannas@am.gdynia.p [Department of Mathematics, Gdynia Maritime University, ul. Morska 83, 81-225 Gdynia (Poland)

    2010-02-15

    The semi-Markov model of the system operation processes is proposed and its selected characteristics are determined. A system composed on multi-state components is considered and its reliability and risk characteristics are found. Next, the joint model of the system operation process and the system multi-state reliability is applied to the reliability and risk evaluation of the port oil pipeline transportation system. The pipeline system is described and its operation process unknown parameters are identified on the basis of real statistical data. The mean values of the pipeline system operation process unconditional sojourn times in particular operation states are found and applied to determining this process transient probabilities in these states. The piping different reliability structures in various its operation states are fixed and their conditional reliability functions on the basis of data coming from experts are approximately determined. Finally, after applying earlier estimated transient probabilities and system conditional reliability functions in particular operation states the unconditional reliability function, the mean values and standard deviations of the pipeline lifetimes in particular reliability states, risk function and the moment when the risk exceeds a critical value are found.

  3. Interface Assignment-Based AODV Routing Protocol to Improve Reliability in Multi-Interface Multichannel Wireless Mesh Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Suk Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of wireless mesh networks (WMNs has greatly increased, and the multi-interface multichannel (MIMC technic has been widely used for the backbone network. Unfortunately, the ad hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol defined in the IEEE 802.11s standard was designed for WMNs using the single-interface single-channel technic. So, we define a problem that happens when the legacy AODV is used in MIMC WMNs and propose an interface assignment-based AODV (IA-AODV in order to resolve that problem. IA-AODV, which is based on multitarget path request, consists of the PREQ prediction scheme, the PREQ loss recovery scheme, and the PREQ sender assignment scheme. A detailed operation according to various network conditions and services is introduced, and the routing efficiency and network reliability of a network using IA-AODV are analyzed over the presented system model. Finally, after a real-world test-bed for MIMC WMNs using the IA-AODV routing protocol is implemented, the various indicators of the network are evaluated through experiments. When the proposed routing protocol is compared with the existing AODV routing protocol, it performs the path update using only 14.33% of the management frames, completely removes the routing malfunction, and reduces the UDP packet loss ratio by 0.0012%.

  4. A Scalable and Reliable Message Transport Service for the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Kolos, S; Lehmann Miotto, G; Soloviev, I

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) is a large distributed computing system composed of several thousands of interconnected computers and tens of thousands applications. During a run, TDAQ applications produce a lot of control and information messages with variable rates, addressed to TDAQ operators or to other applications. Reliable, fast and accurate delivery of the messages is important for the functioning of the whole TDAQ system. The Message Transport Service (MTS) provides facilities for the reliable transport, the filtering and the routing of the messages, basing on publish-subscribe-notify communication pattern with content-based message filtering. During the ongoing LHC shutdown, the MTS was re-implemented, taking into account important requirements like reliability, scalability and performance, handling of slow subscribers case and also simplicity of the design and the implementation. MTS uses CORBA middleware, a common layer for TDAQ infrastructure, and provides sending/subscribing APIs i...

  5. A reliable, delay bounded and less complex communication protocol for multicluster FANETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiya Zafar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Flying Ad-hoc Networks (FANETs, enabling ad-hoc networking between Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs is gaining importance in several military and civilian applications. The sensitivity of the applications requires adaptive; efficient; delay bounded and scalable communication network among UAVs for data transmission. Due to communication protocol complexity; rigidity; cost of commercial-off-the-shelf (COT components; limited radio bandwidth; high mobility and computational resources; maintaining the desired level of Quality of Service (QoS becomes a daunting task. For the first time in this research we propose multicluster FANETs for efficient network management; the proposed scheme considerably reduces communication cost and optimizes network performance as well as exploit low power; less complex and low cost IEEE 802.15.4 (MAC protocol for intercluster and intracluster communication. In this research both beacon enabled mode and beaconless modes have been investigated with Guaranteed Time Slots (GTS and virtual Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA respectively. The methodology plays a key role towards reserving bandwidth for latency critical applications; eliminate collisions and medium access delays. Moreover analysis ad-hoc routing protocols including two proactive (OLSR, DSDV and one reactive (AODV is also presented. The results shows that the proposed scheme guarantees high packet delivery ratios while maintaining acceptable levels of latency requirements comparable with more complex and dedicatedly designed protocols in literature.

  6. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X.; Large, J.H.

    2004-09-01

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  7. Evaluation of the reliability of transport networks based on the stochastic flow of moving objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Weiwei; Ning, Angelika; Ning Xuanxi

    2008-01-01

    In transport networks, human beings are moving objects whose moving direction is stochastic in emergency situations. Based on this idea, a new model-stochastic moving network (SMN) is proposed. It is different from binary-state networks and stochastic-flow networks. The flow of SMNs has multiple-saturated states, that correspond to different flow values in each arc. In this paper, we try to evaluate the system reliability, defined as the probability that the saturated flow of the network is not less than a given demand d. Based on this new model, we obtain the flow probability distribution of every arc by simulation. An algorithm based on the blocking cutset of the SMN is proposed to evaluate the network reliability. An example is used to show how to calculate the corresponding reliabilities for different given demands of the SMN. Simulation experiments of different size were made and the system reliability precision was calculated. The precision of simulation results also discussed

  8. Coordination Protocols for a Reliable Sensor, Actuator, and Device Network (SADN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Ozaki

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensor, actuator, and device network (SADN is composed of three types of nodes, which are sensor, actuator, and actuation device nodes. Sensor nodes and actuator nodes are interconnected in wireless networks as discussed in wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSANs. Actuator nodes and device nodes are interconnected in types of networks, i.e. wireless and wired network. Sensor nodes sense an physical event and send sensed values of the event to actuator nodes. An actuator node makes a decision on proper actions on receipt of sensed values and then issue the action requests to the device nodes. A device node really acts to the physical world. For example, moves a robot arms by performing the action on receipt of the action request. Messages may be lost and nodes may be faulty. Especially, messages are lost due to noise and collision in a wireless network. We propose a fully redundant model for an SADN where each of sensor, actuator, and device functions is replicated in multiple nodes and each of sensor-actuator and actuator-device communication is realized in many-to-many type of communication protocols. Even if some number of nodes are faulty, the other nodes can perform requested tasks. Here, each sensor node sends sensed values to multiple actuator nodes and each actuator node receives sensed values from multiple sensor nodes. While multiple actuator nodes communicate with multiple replica nodes of a device. Even if messages are lost and some number of nodes are faulty, device nodes can surely receive action requests required for sensed values and the actions are performed. In this paper, we discuss a type of semi-passive coordination (SPC protocol of multiple actuator nodes for multiple sensor nodes. We discuss a type of active coordination protocol for multiple actuator nodes and multiple actuation device nodes. We evaluate the SPC protocol for the sensor-actuator coordination in terms of the number of messages exchanged among

  9. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  10. Reliability And Maintenance Analysis Of CCTV Systems Used In Rail Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siergiejczyk Mirosław

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available CCTV systems are widely used across plethora of industrial areas including transport, where their function is to support transport telematics systems. Among others, they are used to ensure travel safety. This paper presented a reliability and maintenance analysis of CCTV. It led to building a relationships graph and then Chapman–Kolmogorov system of equations was derived to describe it. Drawing on those equations, relationships for calculating probability of system staying in state of full ability SPZ, state of the impendency over safety SZB1 as well as state of unreliability of safety SB were derived.

  11. A Framework for Reliable Reception of Wireless Metering Data using Protocol Side Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior Jacobsen, Rasmus; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    the deterministic protocol structure to obtain side information and group the packets from the same meter. We derive the probability of falsely pairing packets from different senders in the simple case of no channel errors, and show through simulation and data from an experimental deployment the probability...... of false pairing with channel errors. The pairing is an essential step towards recovery of metering data from as many as possible meters under harsh channel conditions. From the experiment we find that more than 15% of all conducted pairings are between two erroneous packets, which sets an upper bound...

  12. An Indication of Reliability of the Two-Level Approach of the AWIN Welfare Assessment Protocol for Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Czycholl

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available To enhance feasibility, the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN assessment protocol for horses consists of two levels: the first is a visual inspection of a sample of horses performed from a distance, the second a close-up inspection of all horses. The aim was to analyse whether information would be lost if only the first level were performed. In this study, 112 first and 112 second level assessments carried out on a subsequent day by one observer were compared by calculating the Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient (RS, Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC, Smallest Detectable Changes (SDC and Limits of Agreements (LoA. Most indicators demonstrated sufficient reliability between the two levels. Exceptions were the Horse Grimace Scale, the Avoidance Distance Test and the Voluntary Human Approach Test (e.g., Voluntary Human Approach Test: RS: 0.38, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.21, LoA: −0.25–0.17, which could, however, be also interpreted as a lack of test-retest reliability. Further disagreement was found for the indicator consistency of manure (RS: 0.31, ICC: 0.38, SDC: 0.36, LoA: −0.38–0.36. For these indicators, an adaptation of the first level would be beneficial. Overall, in this study, the division into two levels was reliable and might therewith have the potential to enhance feasibility in other welfare assessment schemes.

  13. Reliability and accuracy of a video analysis protocol to assess core ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Dawn A; Delgadillo, James Q; Fredericson, Michael; McConnell, Jennifer; Hodgins, Melissa; Besier, Thor F

    2011-03-01

    To develop and test a method to measure core ability in healthy athletes with 2-dimensional video analysis software (SiliconCOACH). Specific objectives were to: (1) develop a standardized exercise battery with progressions of increasing difficulty to evaluate areas of core ability in elite athletes; (2) develop an objective and quantitative grading rubric with the use of video analysis software; (3) assess the test-retest reliability of the exercise battery; (4) assess the interrater and intrarater reliability of the video analysis system; and (5) assess the accuracy of the assessment. Test-retest repeatability and accuracy. Testing was conducted in the Stanford Human Performance Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA. Nine female gymnasts currently training with the Stanford Varsity Women's Gymnastics Team participated in testing. Participants completed a test battery composed of planks, side planks, and leg bridges of increasing difficulty. Subjects completed two 20-minute testing sessions within a 4- to 10-day period. Two-dimensional sagittal-plane video was captured simultaneously with 3-dimensional motion capture. The main outcome measures were pelvic displacement and time that elapsed until failure occurred, as measured with SiliconCOACH video analysis software. Test-retest and interrater and intrarater reliability of the video analysis measures was assessed. Accuracy as compared with 3-dimensional motion capture also was assessed. Levels reached during the side planks and leg bridges had an excellent test-retest correlation (r(2) = 0.84, r(2) = 0.95). Pelvis displacements measured by examiner 1 and examiner 2 had an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.86, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.92). Pelvis displacements measured by examiner 1 during independent grading sessions had an excellent correlation (r(2) = 0.92). Pelvis displacements from the plank and from a set of combined plank and side plank exercises both had an excellent correlation with 3

  14. Reliability of the Star Excursion Balance Test and Two New Similar Protocols to Measure Trunk Postural Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Plaza, Diego; Juan-Recio, Casto; Barbado, David; Ruiz-Pérez, Iñaki; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J

    2018-05-18

    Although the Star Excursion Balance test (SEBT) has shown a good intrasession reliability, the intersession reliability of this test has not been deeply studied. Furthermore, there is an evident high influence of the lower limbs in the performance of the SEBT, so even if it has been used to measure core stability, it is possibly not the most suitable measurement. The aims of this study were to (1) to assess the absolute and relative between-session reliability of the SEBT and 2 novel variations of this test to assess trunk postural control while sitting, ie, the Star Excursion Sitting Test (SEST) and the Star Excursion Timing Test (SETT); and (2) to analyze the relationships between these 3 test scores. Correlational and reliability test-retest study. Controlled laboratory environment. Twenty-seven physically active men (age: 24.54 ± 3.05 years). Relative and absolute reliability of the SEBT, SEST, and SETT were calculated through the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM), respectively. A Pearson correlation analysis was carried out between the variables of the 3 tests. Maximum normalized reach distances were assessed for different SEBT and SEST directions. In addition, composite indexes were calculated for SEBT, SEST, and SETT. The SEBT (dominant leg: ICC = 0.87 [0.73-0.94], SEM = 2.12 [1.66-2.93]; nondominant leg: ICC = 0.74 [0.50-0.87], SEM = 3.23 [2.54-4.45]), SEST (ICC = 0.85 [0.68-0.92], SEM = 1.27 [1.03-1.80]), and SETT (ICC = 0.61 [0.30-0.80], SEM = 2.31 [1.82-3.17]) composite indexes showed moderate-to-high 1-month reliability. A learning effect was detected for some SEBT and SEST directions and for SEST and SETT composite indexes. No significant correlations were found between SEBT and its 2 variations (r ≤ .366; P > .05). A significant correlation was found between the SEST and SETT composite indexes (r = .520; P > .01). SEBT, SEST, and SETT are reliable field protocols to measure postural control. However

  15. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  16. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p

  17. Improving the communication reliability of body sensor networks based on the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Diogo; Afonso, José A

    2014-03-01

    Body sensor networks (BSNs) enable continuous monitoring of patients anywhere, with minimum constraints to daily life activities. Although the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee(®) (ZigBee Alliance, San Ramon, CA) standards were mainly developed for use in wireless sensors network (WSN) applications, they are also widely used in BSN applications because of device characteristics such as low power, low cost, and small form factor. However, compared with WSNs, BSNs present some very distinctive characteristics in terms of traffic and mobility patterns, heterogeneity of the nodes, and quality of service requirements. This article evaluates the suitability of the carrier sense multiple access-collision avoidance protocol, used by the IEEE 802.15.4 and ZigBee standards, for data-intensive BSN applications, through the execution of experimental tests in different evaluation scenarios, in order to take into account the effects of contention, clock drift, and hidden nodes on the communication reliability. Results show that the delivery ratio may decrease substantially during transitory periods, which can last for several minutes, to a minimum of 90% with retransmissions and 13% without retransmissions. This article also proposes and evaluates the performance of the BSN contention avoidance mechanism, which was designed to solve the identified reliability problems. This mechanism was able to restore the delivery ratio to 100% even in the scenario without retransmissions.

  18. Atomistic Force Field for Pyridinium-Based Ionic Liquids: Reliable Transport Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voroshylova, I. V.; Chaban, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)......Reliable force field (FF) is a central issue in successful prediction of physical chemical properties via computer simulations. This work introduces refined FF parameters for six popular ionic liquids (ILs) of the pyridinium family (butylpyridinium tetrafluoroborate, bis......(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, dicyanamide, hexafluorophosphate, triflate, chloride). We elaborate a systematic procedure, which allows accounting for specific cationanion interactions in the liquid phase. Once these interactions are described accurately, all experimentally determined transport properties can be reproduced. We prove...... and elevated temperature. The developed atomistic models provide a systematic refinement upon the well-known Canongia LopesPadua (CL&P) FF. Together with the original CL&P parameters the present models foster a computational investigation of ionic liquids....

  19. Examining the value of travel time reliability for freight transportation to support freight planning and decision-Making [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    As consumers demand greater choice and availability of products, suppliers have responded with more just-in-time delivery and less centralized inventories. Keeping this supply chain working efficiently requires reliable freight transportation. Delays...

  20. Examining the value of travel time reliability for freight transportation to support freight planning and decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents the findings of a valuation study recently conducted in Florida to quantify the : freight users willingness to pay (WTP) for the improvement of transportation-related attributes, : particularly reliability. A stated preference...

  1. Human reliability and risk management in the transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuler, S.; Kasperson, R.E.; Ratick, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper summarizes work on human factor contributions to risks from spent nuclear fuel transportation. Human participation may have significant effects on the levels and types of risks by enabling or initiating incidents and exacerbating adverse consequences. Human errors are defined to be the result of mismatches between perceived system state and actual system state. In complex transportation systems such mismatches may be distributed in time (e.g., during different stages of design, implementation, operation, maintenance) and location (e.g., human error, its identification, and its recovery may be geographically and institutionally separate). Risk management programs may decrease the probability of undesirable events or attenuate the consequences of mismatches. This paper presents a methodology to identify the scope and types of human-task mismatches and to identify potential management options for their prevention, mitigation, or recovery. A review of transportation accident databases, in conjunction with human error models, is used to develop a taxonomy of human errors during design for the pre-identification of potential mismatches or after incidents have occurred to evaluate their causes. Risk management options to improve human reliability are identified by a matrix that relates the multiple stages of a spent nuclear fuel transportation system to management options (e.g., training, data analysis, regulation). The paper concludes with examples to illustrate how the methodology may be applied. (author)

  2. METHODS OF IMPROVING THE RELIABILITY OF THE CONTROL SYSTEM TRACTION POWER SUPPLY OF ELECTRIC TRANSPORT BASED ON AN EXPERT INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Matusevych

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The author proposed the numerous methods of solving the multi-criterion task – increasing of reliability of control system on the basis of expert information. The information, which allows choosing thoughtfully the method of reliability increasing for a control system of electric transport, is considered.

  3. Optimizing the ASC WAN: evaluating network performance tools for comparing transport protocols.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lydick, Christopher L.

    2007-07-01

    The Advanced Simulation & Computing Wide Area Network (ASC WAN), which is a high delay-bandwidth network connection between US Department of Energy National Laboratories, is constantly being examined and evaluated for efficiency. One of the current transport-layer protocols which is used, TCP, was developed for traffic demands which are different from that on the ASC WAN. The Stream Control Transport Protocol (SCTP), on the other hand, has shown characteristics which make it more appealing to networks such as these. Most important, before considering a replacement for TCP on any network, a testing tool that performs well against certain criteria needs to be found. In order to try to find such a tool, two popular networking tools (Netperf v.2.4.3 & v.2.4.6 (OpenSS7 STREAMS), and Iperf v.2.0.6) were tested. These tools implement both TCP and SCTP and were evaluated using four metrics: (1) How effectively can the tool reach a throughput near the bandwidth? (2) How much of the CPU does the tool utilize during operation? (3) Is the tool freely and widely available? And, (4) Is the tool actively developed? Following the analysis of those tools, this paper goes further into explaining some recommendations and ideas for future work.

  4. Sustainability of transport structures - some aspects of the nonlinear reliability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukl, Radomír; Sajdlová, Tereza; Strauss, Alfred; Lehký, David; Novák, Drahomír

    2017-09-01

    Efficient techniques for both nonlinear numerical analysis of concrete structures and advanced stochastic simulation methods have been combined in order to offer an advanced tool for assessment of realistic behaviour, failure and safety assessment of transport structures. The utilized approach is based on randomization of the non-linear finite element analysis of the structural models. Degradation aspects such as carbonation of concrete can be accounted in order predict durability of the investigated structure and its sustainability. Results can serve as a rational basis for the performance and sustainability assessment based on advanced nonlinear computer analysis of the structures of transport infrastructure such as bridges or tunnels. In the stochastic simulation the input material parameters obtained from material tests including their randomness and uncertainty are represented as random variables or fields. Appropriate identification of material parameters is crucial for the virtual failure modelling of structures and structural elements. Inverse analysis using artificial neural networks and virtual stochastic simulations approach is applied to determine the fracture mechanical parameters of the structural material and its numerical model. Structural response, reliability and sustainability have been investigated on different types of transport structures made from various materials using the above mentioned methodology and tools.

  5. Implementing voice over Internet protocol in mobile ad hoc network – analysing its features regarding efficiency, reliability and security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Ahmed Sheikh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Providing secure and efficient real-time voice communication in mobile ad hoc network (MANET environment is a challenging problem. Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP has originally been developed over the past two decades for infrastructure-based networks. There are strict timing constraints for acceptable quality VoIP services, in addition to registration and discovery issues in VoIP end-points. In MANETs, ad hoc nature of networks and multi-hop wireless environment with significant packet loss and delays present formidable challenges to the implementation. Providing a secure real-time VoIP service on MANET is the main design objective of this paper. The authors have successfully developed a prototype system that establishes reliable and efficient VoIP communication and provides an extremely flexible method for voice communication in MANETs. The authors’ cooperative mesh-based MANET implementation can be used for rapidly deployable VoIP communication with survivable and efficient dynamic networking using open source software.

  6. Establishment of optimized MDCK cell lines for reliable efflux transport studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, Dominik; Fricker, Gert

    2014-04-01

    Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells transfected with human MDR1 gene (MDCK-MDR1) encoding for P-glycoprotein (hPgp, ABCB1) are widely used for transport studies to identify drug candidates as substrates of this efflux protein. Therefore, it is necessary to rely on constant and comparable expression levels of Pgp to avoid false negative or positive results. We generated a cell line with homogenously high and stable expression of hPgp through sorting single clones from a MDCK-MDR1 cell pool using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). To obtain control cell lines for evaluation of cross-interactions with endogenous canine Pgp (cPgp) wild-type cells were sorted with a low expression pattern of cPgp in comparison with the MDCK-MDR1. Expression of other transporters was also characterized in both cell lines by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. Pgp function was investigated applying the Calcein-AM assay as well as bidirectional transport assays using (3) H-Digoxin, (3) H-Vinblastine, and (3) H-Quinidine as substrates. Generated MDCK-MDR1 cell lines showed high expression of hPgp. Control MDCK-WT cells were optimized in showing a comparable expression level of cPgp in comparison with MDCK-MDR1 cell lines. Generated cell lines showed higher and more selective Pgp transport compared with parental cells. Therefore, they provide a significant improvement in the performance of efflux studies yielding more reliable results. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Design and Implementation of a MAC Protocol for Timely and Reliable Delivery of Command and Data in Dynamic Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phan Van Vinh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes and implements a new TDMA-based MAC protocol for providing timely and reliable delivery of data and command for monitoring and control networks. In this kind of network, sensor nodes are required to sense data from the monitoring environment periodically and then send the data to a sink. The sink determines whether the environment is safe or not by analyzing the acquired data. Sometimes, a command or control message is sent from the sink to a particular node or a group of nodes to execute the services or request further interested data. The proposed MAC protocol enables bidirectional communication, controls active and sleep modes of a sensor node to conserve energy, and addresses the problem of load unbalancing between the nodes near a sink and the other nodes. It can improve reliability of communication significantly while extending network lifetime. These claims are supported by the experimental results.

  8. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  9. Inter-observer reliability of animal-based welfare indicators included in the Animal Welfare Indicators welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, A; Battini, M; Can, E; Mattiello, S; Stilwell, G

    2018-01-08

    This study was conducted within the context of the Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project and the underlying scientific motivation for the development of the study was the scarcity of data regarding inter-observer reliability (IOR) of welfare indicators, particularly given the importance of reliability as a further step for developing on-farm welfare assessment protocols. The objective of this study is therefore to evaluate IOR of animal-based indicators (at group and individual-level) of the AWIN welfare assessment protocol (prototype) for dairy goats. In the design of the study, two pairs of observers, one in Portugal and another in Italy, visited 10 farms each and applied the AWIN prototype protocol. Farms in both countries were visited between January and March 2014, and all the observers received the same training before the farm visits were initiated. Data collected during farm visits, and analysed in this study, include group-level and individual-level observations. The results of our study allow us to conclude that most of the group-level indicators presented the highest IOR level ('substantial', 0.85 to 0.99) in both field studies, pointing to a usable set of animal-based welfare indicators that were therefore included in the first level of the final AWIN welfare assessment protocol for dairy goats. Inter-observer reliability of individual-level indicators was lower, but the majority of them still reached 'fair to good' (0.41 to 0.75) and 'excellent' (0.76 to 1) levels. In the paper we explore reasons for the differences found in IOR between the group and individual-level indicators, including how the number of individual-level indicators to be assessed on each animal and the restraining method may have affected the results. Furthermore, we discuss the differences found in the IOR of individual-level indicators in both countries: the Portuguese pair of observers reached a higher level of IOR, when compared with the Italian observers. We argue how the

  10. Calf-raise senior: a new test for assessment of plantar flexor muscle strength in older adults: protocol, validity, and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Helô-Isa; Carnide, Filomena; Borja, Edgar; Ramalho, Fátima; Santos-Rocha, Rita; Veloso, António P

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a new field test protocol with a standardized measurement of strength and power in plantar flexor muscles targeted to functionally independent older adults, the calf-raise senior (CRS) test, and also evaluate its reliability and validity. Forty-one subjects aged 65 years and older of both sexes participated in five different cross-sectional studies: 1) pilot (n=12); 2) inter- and intrarater agreement (n=12); 3) construct (n=41); 4) criterion validity (n=33); and 5) test-retest reliability (n=41). Different motion parameters were compared in order to define a specifically designed protocol for seniors. Two raters evaluated each participant twice, and the results of the same individual were compared between raters and participants to assess the interrater and intrarater agreement. The validity and reliability studies involved three testing sessions that lasted 2 weeks, including a battery of functional fitness tests, CRS test in two occasions, accelerometry, and strength assessments in an isokinetic dynamometer. The CRS test presented an excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] =0.90, standard error of measurement =2.0) and interrater reliability (ICC =0.93-0.96), as well as a good intrarater agreement (ICC =0.79-0.84). Participants with better results in the CRS test were younger and presented higher levels of physical activity and functional fitness. A significant association between test results and all strength parameters (isometric, r =0.87, r 2 =0.75; isokinetic, r =0.86, r 2 =0.74; and rate of force development, r =0.77, r 2 =0.59) was shown. This study was successful in demonstrating that the CRS test can meet the scientific criteria of validity and reliability. The test can be a good indicator of ankle strength in older adults and proved to discriminate significantly between individuals with improved functionality and levels of physical activity.

  11. MQARR-AODV: A NOVEL MULTIPATH QOS AWARE RELIABLE REVERSE ON-DEMAND DISTANCE VECTOR ROUTING PROTOCOL FOR MOBILE AD-HOC NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.G. Santhiya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available MANET (Mobile Ad-hoc Network is an infra structure less wireless ad-hoc network that does not require any basic central control. The topology of the network changes drastically due to very fast mobility of nodes. So an adaptive routing protocol is needed for routing in MANET. AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing is the effective and prominent on-demand Ad-hoc routing protocols. During route establishment phase in traditional AODV, only one route reply message will be sent in the reverse path to establish routing path. The high mobility of nodes may affect the reply messages which lead to the retransmission of route request message by the sender which in turn leads to higher communication delay, power consumption and the reduction in the ratio of packets delivered. Sending multiple route reply messages and establishing multiple paths in a single path discovery will reduce the routing overhead involved in maintaining the connection between source and destination nodes. Multipath routing can render high scalability, end-to-end throughput and provide load balancing in MANET. The new proposed novel Multipath QoS aware reliable routing protocol establishes two routes of maximum node disjoint paths and the data transfer is carried out in the two paths simultaneously. To select best paths, the new proposed protocol uses three parameters Link Eminence, MAC overhead and node residual energy. The experimental values prove that the MQARR-AODV protocol achieves high reliability, stability, low latency and outperforms AODV by the less energy consumption, overhead and delay.

  12. Regional transportation operations collaboration and coordination : a primer for working together to improve transportation safety, reliability, and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This primer was written for transportation professionals and public safety officials from cities, counties, and States who are responsible for day-to-day management and operations within a metropolitan region. It is intended to help agencies and orga...

  13. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  14. OTN Transport of Baseband Radio Serial Protocols in C-RAN Architecture for Mobile Network Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra; Kardaras, Georgios; Lanzani, Christian Fabio Alessandro

    This white paper presents a proof of concept implementation of digital baseband radio data transport over Optical Transport Network (OTN) compliant to 3GPP Long Term Evolution – Advanced (LTE-A) standard enabling Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) architecture. The transport between the baseband ...

  15. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar; Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria; Belloch, Vicente; Villanueva, Vicente

    2010-01-01

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  16. The sentence verification task: a reliable fMRI protocol for mapping receptive language in individual subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanjuan, Ana; Avila, Cesar [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain); Forn, Cristina; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Rodriguez-Pujadas, Aina; Garcia-Porcar, Maria [Universitat Jaume I, Departamento de Psicologia Basica, Clinica y Psicobiologia, Castellon de la Plana (Spain); Belloch, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Eresa, Servicio de Radiologia, Valencia (Spain); Villanueva, Vicente [Hospital La Fe, Unidad de Epilepsia, Servicio de Neurologia, Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    To test the capacity of a sentence verification (SV) task to reliably activate receptive language areas. Presurgical evaluation of language is useful in predicting postsurgical deficits in patients who are candidates for neurosurgery. Productive language tasks have been successfully elaborated, but more conflicting results have been found in receptive language mapping. Twenty-two right-handed healthy controls made true-false semantic judgements of brief sentences presented auditorily. Group maps showed reliable functional activations in the frontal and temporoparietal language areas. At the individual level, the SV task showed activation located in receptive language areas in 100% of the participants with strong left-sided distributions (mean lateralisation index of 69.27). The SV task can be considered a useful tool in evaluating receptive language function in individual subjects. This study is a first step towards designing the fMRI task which may serve to presurgically map receptive language functions. (orig.)

  17. The best of both worlds: Building on the COPUS and RTOP observation protocols to easily and reliably measure various levels of reformed instructional practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Travis J; Pilarz, Matthew; Velasco, Jonathan B; Chakraverty, Devasmita; Rosploch, Kaitlyn; Undersander, Molly; Stains, Marilyne

    2015-01-01

    Researchers, university administrators, and faculty members are increasingly interested in measuring and describing instructional practices provided in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses at the college level. Specifically, there is keen interest in comparing instructional practices between courses, monitoring changes over time, and mapping observed practices to research-based teaching. While increasingly common observation protocols (Reformed Teaching Observation Protocol [RTOP] and Classroom Observation Protocol in Undergraduate STEM [COPUS]) at the postsecondary level help achieve some of these goals, they also suffer from weaknesses that limit their applicability. In this study, we leverage the strengths of these protocols to provide an easy method that enables the reliable and valid characterization of instructional practices. This method was developed empirically via a cluster analysis using observations of 269 individual class periods, corresponding to 73 different faculty members, 28 different research-intensive institutions, and various STEM disciplines. Ten clusters, called COPUS profiles, emerged from this analysis; they represent the most common types of instructional practices enacted in the classrooms observed for this study. RTOP scores were used to validate the alignment of the 10 COPUS profiles with reformed teaching. Herein, we present a detailed description of the cluster analysis method, the COPUS profiles, and the distribution of the COPUS profiles across various STEM courses at research-intensive universities. © 2015 T. J. Lund et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  18. OPTIMISATION OF BUFFER SIZE FOR ENHANCING QOS OF VIDEO TRAFFIC USING CROSS LAYERED HYBRID TRANSPORT LAYER PROTOCOL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Matilda

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work [1] and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding the optimum buffer size for enhancing QoS offered to video traffic. Network-centric QoS provisioning approach, along with hybrid transport layer protocol approach is adopted, to arrive at an optimum size which is independent of RTT. In this combinational approach, buffers of routers and end devices are designed to satisfy the various QoS parameters at the transport layer. OPNET Modeler is used to simulate environments for testing the design. Based on the results of simulation it is evident that the hybrid transport layer protocol approach is best suited for transmitting video traffic as it supports the economical design.

  19. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara-Jaque, Ariela; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Kaufmann, Desirée; Forrest, Lucy R

    2015-01-01

    Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to one or other side of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (a)symmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called "repeat-swap modeling" to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that nucleoside transport also

  20. Repeat-swap homology modeling of secondary active transporters: updated protocol and prediction of elevator-type mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eFenollar Ferrer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Secondary active transporters are critical for neurotransmitter clearance and recycling during synaptic transmission and uptake of nutrients. These proteins mediate the movement of solutes against their concentration gradients, by using the energy released in the movement of ions down pre-existing concentration gradients. To achieve this, transporters conform to the so-called alternating-access hypothesis, whereby the protein adopts at least two conformations in which the substrate binding sites are exposed to either the outside or inside of the membrane, but not both simultaneously. Structures of a bacterial homolog of neuronal glutamate transporters, GltPh, in several different conformational states have revealed that the protein structure is asymmetric in the outward- and inward-open states, and that the conformational change connecting them involves a elevator-like movement of a substrate binding domain across the membrane. The structural asymmetry is created by inverted-topology repeats, i.e., structural repeats with similar overall folds whose transmembrane topologies are related to each other by two-fold pseudo-symmetry around an axis parallel to the membrane plane. Inverted repeats have been found in around three-quarters of secondary transporter folds. Moreover, the (asymmetry of these systems has been successfully used as a bioinformatic tool, called repeat-swap modeling to predict structural models of a transporter in one conformation using the known structure of the transporter in the complementary conformation as a template. Here, we describe an updated repeat-swap homology modeling protocol, and calibrate the accuracy of the method using GltPh, for which both inward- and outward-facing conformations are known. We then apply this repeat-swap homology modeling procedure to a concentrative nucleoside transporter, VcCNT, which has a three-dimensional arrangement related to that of GltPh. The repeat-swapped model of VcCNT predicts that

  1. Reliability of the spent fuel identification for flask loading procedure used by COGEMA for fuel transport to La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; Zachar, M.; Pretesacque, P.

    1991-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Identification for Flask Loading (SFIFL) procedure designed by COGEMA is analysed and its reliability calculated. The reliability of the procedure is defined as the probability of transporting only approved fuel elements for a given number of shipments. The procedure describes a non-coherent system. A non-coherent system is the one in which two successive failures could result in a success, from the system mission point of view. A technique that describes the system with the help of its maximal cuts (states) is used for calculations. A maximal cut contains more than one failure which can split into two cuts (sub-states). Cuts splitting will enable us to analyse, in a systematic way, non-coherent systems with independent basic components. (author)

  2. Reliability of the spent fuel identification for flask loading procedure used by COGEMA for fuel transport to La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; Zachar, M.; Pretesacque, P.

    1990-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Identification for Flask Loading, SFIFL, procedure designed by COGEMA is analysed and its reliability is calculated. The reliability of the procedure is defined as the probability of transporting only approved fuel elements for a given number of shipments. The procedure describes a non-coherent system. A non-coherent system is the one in which two successive failures could result in a success, from the system mission point of view. A technique that describes the system with the help of its maximal cuts (states), is used for calculations. A maximal cut contains more than one failure can split into two cuts, (sub-states). Cuts splitting will enable us to analyse, in a systematic way, non-coherent systems with independent basic components. (author)

  3. Effect of standardized training on the reliability of the Cochrane risk of bias assessment tool: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Bruno R; Resta, Nina M; Beckett, Brooke; Israel-Stahre, Nicholas; Diaz, Alison; Johnston, Bradley C; Egger, Matthias; Jüni, Peter; Armijo-Olivo, Susan

    2014-12-13

    The Cochrane risk of bias (RoB) tool has been widely embraced by the systematic review community, but several studies have reported that its reliability is low. We aim to investigate whether training of raters, including objective and standardized instructions on how to assess risk of bias, can improve the reliability of this tool. We describe the methods that will be used in this investigation and present an intensive standardized training package for risk of bias assessment that could be used by contributors to the Cochrane Collaboration and other reviewers. This is a pilot study. We will first perform a systematic literature review to identify randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that will be used for risk of bias assessment. Using the identified RCTs, we will then do a randomized experiment, where raters will be allocated to two different training schemes: minimal training and intensive standardized training. We will calculate the chance-corrected weighted Kappa with 95% confidence intervals to quantify within- and between-group Kappa agreement for each of the domains of the risk of bias tool. To calculate between-group Kappa agreement, we will use risk of bias assessments from pairs of raters after resolution of disagreements. Between-group Kappa agreement will quantify the agreement between the risk of bias assessment of raters in the training groups and the risk of bias assessment of experienced raters. To compare agreement of raters under different training conditions, we will calculate differences between Kappa values with 95% confidence intervals. This study will investigate whether the reliability of the risk of bias tool can be improved by training raters using standardized instructions for risk of bias assessment. One group of inexperienced raters will receive intensive training on risk of bias assessment and the other will receive minimal training. By including a control group with minimal training, we will attempt to mimic what many review authors

  4. Adaptation of a MR imaging protocol into a real-time clinical biometric ultrasound protocol for persons with spinal cord injury at risk for deep tissue injury: A reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaine, Jillian M; Moe, Andrew; Breidahl, William; Bader, Daniel L; Oomens, Cees W J; Lester, Leanne; O'Loughlin, Edmond; Santamaria, Nick; Stacey, Michael C

    2018-02-01

    High strain in soft tissues that overly bony prominences are considered a risk factor for pressure ulcers (PUs) following spinal cord impairment (SCI) and have been computed using Finite Element methods (FEM). The aim of this study was to translate a MRI protocol into ultrasound (US) and determine between-operator reliability of expert sonographers measuring diameter of the inferior curvature of the ischial tuberosity (IT) and the thickness of the overlying soft tissue layers on able-bodied (AB) and SCI using real-time ultrasound. Part 1: Fourteen AB participants with a mean age of 36.7 ± 12.09 years with 7 males and 7 females had their 3 soft tissue layers in loaded and unloaded sitting measured independently by 2 sonographers: tendon/muscle, skin/fat and total soft tissue and the diameter of the IT in its short and long axis. Part 2: Nineteen participants with SCI were screened, three were excluded due to abnormal skin signs, and eight participants (42%) were excluded for abnormal US signs with normal skin. Eight SCI participants with a mean age of 31.6 ± 13.6 years and all male with 4 paraplegics and 4 tetraplegics were measured by the same sonographers for skin, fat, tendon, muscle and total. Skin/fat and tendon/muscle were computed. AB between-operator reliability was good (ICC = 0.81-0.90) for 3 soft tissues layers in unloaded and loaded sitting and poor for both IT short and long axis (ICC = -0.028 and -0.01). SCI between-operator reliability was good in unloaded and loaded for total, muscle, fat, skin/fat, tendon/muscle (ICC = 0.75-0.97) and poor for tendon (ICC = 0.26 unloaded and ICC = -0.71 loaded) and skin (ICC = 0.37 unloaded and ICC = 0.10). A MRI protocol was successfully adapted for a reliable 3 soft tissue layer model and could be used in a 2-D FEM model designed to estimate soft tissue strain as a novel risk factor for the development of a PU. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Modeling Parameters of Reliability of Technological Processes of Hydrocarbon Pipeline Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalay Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of methods of system analysis and parametric reliability theory, the mathematical modeling of processes of oil and gas equipment operation in reliability monitoring was conducted according to dispatching data. To check the quality of empiric distribution coordination , an algorithm and mathematical methods of analysis are worked out in the on-line mode in a changing operating conditions. An analysis of physical cause-and-effect relations mechanism between the key factors and changing parameters of technical systems of oil and gas facilities is made, the basic types of technical distribution parameters are defined. Evaluation of the adequacy the analyzed parameters of the type of distribution is provided by using a criterion A.Kolmogorov, as the most universal, accurate and adequate to verify the distribution of continuous processes of complex multiple-technical systems. Methods of calculation are provided for supervising by independent bodies for risk assessment and safety facilities.

  6. A reliable technique for transfer of radioactivity filled vial from transport container to the processing station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothalkar, Chetan; Dey, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    In Technetium Column Generator Production Facility (TCGPF project) of BRIT, a facility for unloading vial containing radioactive liquid sodium molybdate- 99 Mo solution from the transport cask into the processing station and unsealing the vial to transfer the liquid to a storage bottle has been developed. This is specifically conceptualized for safe handling of radioactivity and minimizing the radiation dose exposure to the personnel working at the time of transferring the radioactivity from the transport cask to a place for further processing. The facility, designed to handle around 1850 GBq activity, has two cells enclosed in 102mm thick lead wall and connected by a gravity actuated trolley conveyor. The first cell handles the transport cask carrying the vial-containing radioactivity, which houses two types of vial lifting gadgets assisted by manually operatable tongs. Gadgets use compressed air. In an experiment, it is found that the HDPE vial lifting gadget using suction cup continue to function up to 30-40 minutes after power failure. The experience shows that gadget using 3-point radial gripper to lift the glass vial will remain in grab position, even if the compressed air supply stops. In this facility the dose receivable, while handling radioactivity by the operator, is likely to be negligibly small (approx. 3.15 x 10 -4 mSv per year at the rate four glass vials/week and 2.25 x 10 -4 mSv per year considering at the rate 1 vial/week for HOPE vial transfer). (author)

  7. Validation of a standard forensic anthropology examination protocol by measurement of applicability and reliability on exhumed and archive samples of known biological attribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Raffaela Arrabaça; Evison, Martin Paul; Costa Junior, Moacyr Lobo da; Silveira, Teresa Cristina Pantozzi; Secchieri, José Marcelo; Guimarães, Marco Aurelio

    2017-10-01

    Forensic anthropology makes an important contribution to human identification and assessment of the causes and mechanisms of death and body disposal in criminal and civil investigations, including those related to atrocity, disaster and trafficking victim identification. The methods used are comparative, relying on assignment of questioned material to categories observed in standard reference material of known attribution. Reference collections typically originate in Europe and North America, and are not necessarily representative of contemporary global populations. Methods based on them must be validated when applied to novel populations. This study describes the validation of a standardized forensic anthropology examination protocol by application to two contemporary Brazilian skeletal samples of known attribution. One sample (n=90) was collected from exhumations following 7-35 years of burial and the second (n=30) was collected following successful investigations following routine case work. The study presents measurement of (1) the applicability of each of the methods: used and (2) the reliability with which the biographic parameters were assigned in each case. The results are discussed with reference to published assessments of methodological reliability regarding sex, age and-in particular-ancestry estimation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. AREVA Developments for an Efficient and Reliable use of Monte Carlo codes for Radiation Transport Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapoutier, Nicolas; Mollier, François; Nolin, Guillaume; Culioli, Matthieu; Mace, Jean-Reynald

    2017-09-01

    In the context of the rising of Monte Carlo transport calculations for any kind of application, AREVA recently improved its suite of engineering tools in order to produce efficient Monte Carlo workflow. Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP or TRIPOLI, are recognized as reference codes to deal with a large range of radiation transport problems. However the inherent drawbacks of theses codes - laboring input file creation and long computation time - contrast with the maturity of the treatment of the physical phenomena. The goals of the recent AREVA developments were to reach similar efficiency as other mature engineering sciences such as finite elements analyses (e.g. structural or fluid dynamics). Among the main objectives, the creation of a graphical user interface offering CAD tools for geometry creation and other graphical features dedicated to the radiation field (source definition, tally definition) has been reached. The computations times are drastically reduced compared to few years ago thanks to the use of massive parallel runs, and above all, the implementation of hybrid variance reduction technics. From now engineering teams are capable to deliver much more prompt support to any nuclear projects dealing with reactors or fuel cycle facilities from conceptual phase to decommissioning.

  9. AREVA Developments for an Efficient and Reliable use of Monte Carlo codes for Radiation Transport Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapoutier Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the rising of Monte Carlo transport calculations for any kind of application, AREVA recently improved its suite of engineering tools in order to produce efficient Monte Carlo workflow. Monte Carlo codes, such as MCNP or TRIPOLI, are recognized as reference codes to deal with a large range of radiation transport problems. However the inherent drawbacks of theses codes - laboring input file creation and long computation time - contrast with the maturity of the treatment of the physical phenomena. The goals of the recent AREVA developments were to reach similar efficiency as other mature engineering sciences such as finite elements analyses (e.g. structural or fluid dynamics. Among the main objectives, the creation of a graphical user interface offering CAD tools for geometry creation and other graphical features dedicated to the radiation field (source definition, tally definition has been reached. The computations times are drastically reduced compared to few years ago thanks to the use of massive parallel runs, and above all, the implementation of hybrid variance reduction technics. From now engineering teams are capable to deliver much more prompt support to any nuclear projects dealing with reactors or fuel cycle facilities from conceptual phase to decommissioning.

  10. Expert system for the reliability assessment of hydro-carbon transporting pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukacs, J.; Nagy, G.; Toeroek, I. [Department of Mechanical Technology, University of Miskolc, Miskolc-Egyetemvaros (Hungary)

    1998-12-31

    Safety operation, condition monitoring, periodical inspection and rehabilitation of high-pressure hydro-carbon transporting pipelines are a complex problem. To answer arising questions is inconceivable without technical-critical evaluation of defects - originated during manufacturing or operation - can be found on the pipeline. This evaluation must be in line with requirements of our age, i.e. it has to assert such concept of which basis is not the `possible worst` but the `just happening wrong`. Solving these problems without application of computer resources is inconceivable in our time. The final purpose of the solution is the expert system and among the components of the expert system primarily the development of the knowledge base is needed. The paper demonstrates a possible structure of the knowledge base, furthermore its fundamental elements and their contents (defect types, evaluation possibilities of defects, categorisation of pipelines) and summaries the prospective advantages of its application. (orig.) 27 refs.

  11. Note: Reliable and non-contact 6D motion tracking system based on 2D laser scanners for cargo transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young-Keun, E-mail: ykkim@handong.edu [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Soo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.

  12. The safety and reliability of the electricity transportation network, and the opening of markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Following a decade in which the electricity sector was concerned by the opening of markets the world over, the year 2003 highlighted the challenges of secure supply and of the safety of electrical systems. Major incidents are nothing new throughout history, and occurred well before the trend towards opening the markets dot underway. However, it is necessary to verify that the rules for the organisation, clarification of responsibilities and regulation make it possible to control the growing complexity of interconnected systems related to opening the market up to competition. Faced with such situations, changes are necessary in Europe. Firstly, it is important to have the second European directive on the internal electricity market introduced everywhere, this directive providing common rules to be met by all key players to ensure greater safety within the electricity system, and strengthening the role of the electricity transport network manager, who is separate from the other players in the market. It is also necessary to draft a third directive, focusing on both security of supply and the operational safety of the European electricity system. (authors)

  13. Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA): a study protocol for a multicentre project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerike, Regine; de Nazelle, Audrey; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Panis, Luc Int; Anaya, Esther; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Boschetti, Florinda; Brand, Christian; Cole-Hunter, Tom; Dons, Evi; Eriksson, Ulf; Gaupp-Berghausen, Mailin; Kahlmeier, Sonja; Laeremans, Michelle; Mueller, Natalie; Orjuela, Juan Pablo; Racioppi, Francesca; Raser, Elisabeth; Rojas-Rueda, David; Schweizer, Christian; Standaert, Arnout; Uhlmann, Tina; Wegener, Sandra; Götschi, Thomas

    2016-01-07

    Only one-third of the European population meets the minimum recommended levels of physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases. Walking and cycling for transport (active mobility, AM) are well suited to provide regular PA. The European research project Physical Activity through Sustainable Transport Approaches (PASTA) pursues the following aims: (1) to investigate correlates and interrelations of AM, PA, air pollution and crash risk; (2) to evaluate the effectiveness of selected interventions to promote AM; (3) to improve health impact assessment (HIA) of AM; (4) to foster the exchange between the disciplines of public health and transport planning, and between research and practice. PASTA pursues a mixed-method and multilevel approach that is consistently applied in seven case study cities. Determinants of AM and the evaluation of measures to increase AM are investigated through a large scale longitudinal survey, with overall 14,000 respondents participating in Antwerp, Barcelona, London, Örebro, Rome, Vienna and Zurich. Contextual factors are systematically gathered in each city. PASTA generates empirical findings to improve HIA for AM, for example, with estimates of crash risks, factors on AM-PA substitution and carbon emissions savings from mode shifts. Findings from PASTA will inform WHO's online Health Economic Assessment Tool on the health benefits from cycling and/or walking. The study's wide scope, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods and health and transport methods, the innovative survey design, the general and city-specific analyses, and the transdisciplinary composition of the consortium and the wider network of partners promise highly relevant insights for research and practice. Ethics approval has been obtained by the local ethics committees in the countries where the work is being conducted, and sent to the European Commission before the start of the survey. The PASTA website

  14. User-oriented end-to-end transport protocols for the real-time distribution of telemetry data from NASA spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooke, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    A set of standard telemetry protocols for downlink data flow facilitating the end-to-end transport of instrument data from the spacecraft to the user in real time is proposed. The direct switching of data by autonomous message 'packets' that are assembled by the source instrument on the spacecraft is discussed. The data system consists thus of a format on a message rather than word basis, and such packet telemetry would include standardized protocol headers. Standards are being developed within the NASA End-to-End Data System (NEEDS) program for the source packet and transport frame protocols. The source packet protocol contains identification of both the sequence number of the packet as it is generated by the source and the total length of the packet, while the transport frame protocol includes a sequence count defining the serial number of the frame as it is generated by the spacecraft data system, and a field specifying any 'options' selected in the format of the frame itself.

  15. Immunochemical protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pound, John D

    1998-01-01

    ... easy and important refinements often are not published. This much anticipated 2nd edition of Immunochemzcal Protocols therefore aims to provide a user-friendly up-to-date handbook of reliable techniques selected to suit the needs of molecular biologists. It covers the full breadth of the relevant established immunochemical methods, from protein blotting and immunoa...

  16. Evaluating the transport, health and economic impacts of new urban cycling infrastructure in Sydney, Australia - protocol paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissel, Chris; Greaves, Stephen; Wen, Li Ming; Capon, Anthony; Crane, Melanie; Standen, Chris

    2013-10-17

    There are repeated calls to build better cycling paths in Australian cities if the proportion of people cycling is to increase. Yet the full range of transport, health, environmental and economic impacts of new cycling infrastructure and the extent to which observed changes are sustained is not well understood. The City of Sydney is currently building a new bicycle network, which includes a new bicycle path separated from road traffic in the south Sydney area. This protocol paper describes a comprehensive method to evaluate this new cycling infrastructure. A cohort of residents within two kilometres of the new bicycle path will be surveyed at baseline before a new section of bicycle path is built, and again 12 and 24 months later to assess changes in travel behaviour, sense of community, quality of life and health behaviours. Residents in a comparable area of Sydney that will not get a new separated bike path will act as a comparison group. At baseline a sub-set of residents who volunteer will also take a small GPS device with them for one week to assess travel behaviour. This research should contribute to the advancement in evaluation and appraisal methods for cycling projects.

  17. An Experimental and Finite Element Protocol to Investigate the Transport of Neutral and Charged Solutes across Articular Cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbabi, Vahid; Pouran, Behdad; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2017-04-23

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a debilitating disease that is associated with degeneration of articular cartilage and subchondral bone. Degeneration of articular cartilage impairs its load-bearing function substantially as it experiences tremendous chemical degradation, i.e. proteoglycan loss and collagen fibril disruption. One promising way to investigate chemical damage mechanisms during OA is to expose the cartilage specimens to an external solute and monitor the diffusion of the molecules. The degree of cartilage damage (i.e. concentration and configuration of essential macromolecules) is associated with collisional energy loss of external solutes while moving across articular cartilage creates different diffusion characteristics compared to healthy cartilage. In this study, we introduce a protocol, which consists of several steps and is based on previously developed experimental micro-Computed Tomography (micro-CT) and finite element modeling. The transport of charged and uncharged iodinated molecules is first recorded using micro-CT, which is followed by applying biphasic-solute and multiphasic finite element models to obtain diffusion coefficients and fixed charge densities across cartilage zones.

  18. [18F]FMeNER-D2: Reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Mitterhauser, Markus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Procedures: Synthesis of [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20–30 GBq [ 18 F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br 2 CD 2 , distillation of 1-bromo-2-[ 18 F]fluoromethane-D2 ([ 18 F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [ 18 F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Results: Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0–2.5 GBq of formulated [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. Conclusions: A first fully automated [ 18 F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization

  19. [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2: Reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami-Mark, Christina [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna (Austria); Zhang, Ming-Rong [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Mitterhauser, Markus [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna (Austria); Lanzenberger, Rupert [Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Hacker, Marcus [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, Wolfgang [Radiochemistry and Biomarker Development Unit, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Medical University of Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna (Austria)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Procedures: Synthesis of [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20–30 GBq [{sup 18}F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br{sub 2}CD{sub 2}, distillation of 1-bromo-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoromethane-D2 ([{sup 18}F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [{sup 18}F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Results: Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0–2.5 GBq of formulated [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. Conclusions: A first fully automated [{sup 18}F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization.

  20. [18F]FMeNER-D2: reliable fully-automated synthesis for visualization of the norepinephrine transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami-Mark, Christina; Zhang, Ming-Rong; Mitterhauser, Markus; Lanzenberger, Rupert; Hacker, Marcus; Wadsak, Wolfgang

    2013-11-01

    In neurodegenerative diseases and neuropsychiatric disorders dysregulation of the norepinephrine transporter (NET) has been reported. For visualization of NET availability and occupancy in the human brain PET imaging can be used. Therefore, selective NET-PET tracers with high affinity are required. Amongst these, [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 is showing the best results so far. Furthermore, a reliable fully automated radiosynthesis is a prerequisite for successful application of PET-tracers. The aim of this work was the automation of [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 radiolabelling for subsequent clinical use. The presented study comprises 25 automated large-scale syntheses, which were directly applied to healthy volunteers and adult patients suffering from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Synthesis of [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 was automated within a Nuclear Interface Module. Starting from 20-30 GBq [(18)F]fluoride, azeotropic drying, reaction with Br2CD2, distillation of 1-bromo-2-[(18)F]fluoromethane-D2 ([(18)F]BFM) and reaction of the pure [(18)F]BFM with unprotected precursor NER were optimized and completely automated. HPLC purification and SPE procedure were completed, formulation and sterile filtration were achieved on-line and full quality control was performed. Purified product was obtained in a fully automated synthesis in clinical scale allowing maximum radiation safety and routine production under GMP-like manner. So far, more than 25 fully automated syntheses were successfully performed, yielding 1.0-2.5 GBq of formulated [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 with specific activities between 430 and 1707 GBq/μmol within 95 min total preparation time. A first fully automated [(18)F]FMeNER-D2 synthesis was established, allowing routine production of this NET-PET tracer under maximum radiation safety and standardization. © 2013.

  1. Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    Electrostatic protocol treatment lens. The purpose of this device is to transport Antiprotons from the new ELENA storage beam to all AD experiments. The electrostatic device was successfully tested in ASACUSA two weeks ago.

  2. Paper presented to the Commission des transports et de l'environnement in the context of the general consultation concerning the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Quebec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-02-01

    Climate change is a major issue facing Quebec's population and future generations. The scientific community generally agrees on the negative effects resulting from global climate change on human health, the environment and the economy. In 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted by industrialized countries, whereby countries agreed to reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) by a certain percentage, calculated from 1990 levels. In the case of Canada, this percentage was 6 per cent, for the first commitment period covering 2008-2012. Quebec's performance on the issue of GHG emissions compares favorably to that of other Canadian provinces, even to that of other industrialized countries. Canada ratified the Kyoto Protocol in December 2002. The Quebec National Assembly called for a parliamentary committee to meet on 18 February 2003 on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol. Hydro-Quebec, since 1997, has favored the ratification of the Kyoto Protocol by the Canadian government. In this document, Hydro-Quebec makes its position known in the context of this debate and the commercial context of the electric power industry in 2003. The first section of the document was devoted to the favorable performance of Hydro-Quebec, on the retroactive and prospective aspects of GHG emissions with regard to the entire electric power industry in Canada. In the second section, an explanation was provided, in the context of deregulation of the electricity market in North America, on the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol in Quebec and in Canada and how it becomes a major commercial issue for Hydro-Quebec. The analysis was conducted in light of the mandate of Hydro-Quebec to provide a secure and reliable service to its customers. refs., 1 fig

  3. Combined evaluation. Plutonium transports in France. Problems of safety and reliability of transport container FS47; Evaluation Conjointe. Transports de plutonium en France. Problemes de surete et de securite du container de transport FS47

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marignac, Y.; Coeytaux, X. [Wise-Paris, 75 (France); Large, J.H. [Nuclear Engineer, Large and Associates, Londres (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-15

    This report concerns the safety and the protection of plutonium dioxide transported from Cogema La Hague to the mixed oxide fuel plant of Marcoule and Cadarache. The French approach of the transport safety is based on the combining of two essential principles: the first one affirms that the performances of the FS47 container in regard of containment (norms TS-R-1 from IAEA for the accidental conditions) is conceived to resist in any situation even terrorism or sabotage. In fact, the IAEA norm follows a probabilistic study without a voluntary attack such a terrorist one. The second principle rests on the ability to prevent the treat of terrorism acts, because of a secrecy policy on the plutonium transport. It appeared that the Green peace association has succeeded several times to know exactly the hours, the trips of the plutonium transport and this simple thing raises more questions than it solves. (N.C.)

  4. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  5. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: Multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.; Zhu, R.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters

  6. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Melnikov, A; Mandelis, A; Halliop, B; Kherani, N P; Zhu, R

    2015-03-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters.

  7. Fast and reliable DNA extraction protocol for identification of species in raw and processed meat products sold on the commercial market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarado Pavel Espinoza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work a protocol for the extraction of DNA from the meat of different animals (beef, pork, and horse was established. The protocol utilized TE lysis buffer with varying concentrations of phenol and chloroform as a base reagent. Reactions were carried out for verying time periods and under differing temperatures. All samples analyzed were obtained from commercial grade meat sourced from the local region. 12 samples were used for methodological optimization with 30 repetitions per sample. Once optimized, purity results for the three species were 1.7 with a concentration (determined spectrophotometrically at 260 nm of 100 μl/ml of DNA. The protocol was tested using 465 different meat samples from different animal species. All meat used was fresh and processed. Results showed a purity of 1.35 ± 0.076 and a DNA concentration of 70 ± 0.31 μl for a time duration of 1.5 hours. These results were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR as reported by several authors. The extracts were tested using different PCR reactions using specific primers for horses. Results suggest that there was 39 positive samples. The proposed methodology provides an efficient way to detect DNA concentration and purity, suitable for amplification with PCR.

  8. Dopamine transporter imaging with [I-123]IPT SPECT in normal controls and Parkinson's patients: Feasibility study of a simplified SPECT scan protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. J.; Bong, J. K.; Nam, K. P.; Yang, S. O.; Moon, D. H.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, H. K.

    1997-01-01

    [I-123]IPT has been used to measure changes in dopamine trasnporters with Parkinson's patients (PP). However, 2 hrs of imaging time without movement of patient's head partially limits its widespread use in routine clinical SPECT protocol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a simplified IPT SPECT scan protocol using three 10 min scan data obtained at 0-10, 55-65, and 110-120 min postinjection and compared to current protocol using 23 scans obtained from O-120 min to quantify dopamine transporter binding in normal controls (NC) and PP. IPT labeled with 6.74±0.88mCi of I-123 was intravenously injected into 12 NC (age: 41±9) and 22 PP (age : 55±8) and the 5 min dynamic SPECT data were acquired for 2 hrs with Trionix triple-headed SPECT camera. SPECT images were reconstructed and attenuation corrected. [I-123] IPT quickly penetratd the blood-brain barrier and began to Ioacalize higher concentrations at the basal ganglia at 20 min after injection. The transporter parameter was measured using a variation of graphical analysis (VGA) and area ratio method (ARM) that derive the distribution volume ratios (R v =V 3 /V 2 for VGA, R A =V 3 /V 2 for ARM ) from multiple scan data without blood data, R v ' and R A ' measured from three 10 min scan data and compared with R v and R A measured from 23 scans for both NC and PP, (R v ', R v ') or NC and PP were (1.83±0.29, 2.21±0.34) and (0.63±0.34, 0.77±0.31), respectively. (R v ', R A ) for NC and PP were (1.11±0.22, 1.62±0.28) and (0.43±0.21, 0.65±0.24), respectively, Both (R v ', R v ) and (R A ', R A ) for NC were clearly separated from those for PP. R' v and R' A underestimated R v and R A by 18.4% and 33.5%, respectively, but R v ' and R A ' showed excellent correlations with R v (r=0.95) and R A (r=0.97), respectively. The results indicate that the three 10 min scan protocol may be feasible and allows us to differentiate dopamine transporter parameters in PP from those in NC

  9. A comprehensive protocol to diagnose and treat pain of muscular origin may successfully and reliably decrease or eliminate pain in a chronic pain population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Norman J; Gracely, Edward J; Keefe, Kelly O

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive protocol is presented to identify muscular causes of regional pain syndromes utilizing an electrical stimulus in lieu of palpation, and combining elements of Prolotherapy with trigger point injections. One hundred seventy-six consecutive patients were evaluated for the presence of muscle pain by utilizing an electrical stimulus produced by the Muscle Pain Detection Device. The diagnosis of "Muscle Pain Amenable to Injection" (MPAI), rather than trigger points, was made if pain was produced for the duration of the stimulation. If MPAI was found, muscle tendon injections (MTI) were offered to patients along with post-MTI physical therapy, providing neuromuscular electrical stimulation followed by a validated exercise program [1]. A control group, evaluated 1 month prior to their actual consultation/evaluation when muscle pain was identified but not yet treated, was used for comparison. Forty-five patients who met criteria completed treatment. Patients' scores on the Brief Pain Inventory decreased an average of 62%; median 70% (P < 0.001) for pain severity and 68%; median 85% (P < 0.001) for pain interference one month following treatment. These changes were significantly greater (P < 0.001) than those observed in the untreated controls. A protocol incorporating an easily reproducible electrical stimulus to diagnose a muscle causing pain in a region of the body followed by an injection technique that involves the entirety of the muscle, and post injection restoration of muscle function, can successfully eliminate or significantly reduce regional pain present for years.

  10. Reliability of iris recognition as a means of identity verification and future impact on transportation worker identification credential

    OpenAIRE

    McLaren, Simon R.

    2008-01-01

    The Department of Homeland Security is deploying the Transportation Worker Identification Credential (TWIC) to U.S. ports to help ensure only authorized individuals having undergone background checks have access to secure areas. Congress mandated the TWIC have a biometric authenticator; DHS chose fingerprints. This thesis argues iris scanning is a better choice because of the nature of the maritime environment and because iris scanning is a more accurate biometric. This thesis also argues th...

  11. Test-retest and interobserver reliability of quantitative sensory testing according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Klein, Thomas; Azad, Shahnaz; Birklein, Frank; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Nitzsche, Dorothee; Stengel, Maike; Valet, Michael; Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is an instrument to assess positive and negative sensory signs, helping to identify mechanisms underlying pathologic pain conditions. In this study, we evaluated the test-retest reliability (TR-R) and the interobserver reliability (IO-R) of QST in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies. In 4 centres, 60 patients (37 male and 23 female, 56.4±1.9years) with lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system were included. QST comprised 13 parameters including detection and pain thresholds for thermal and mechanical stimuli. QST was performed in the clinically most affected test area and a less or unaffected control area in a morning and an afternoon session on 2 consecutive days by examiner pairs (4 QSTs/patient). For both, TR-R and IO-R, there were high correlations (r=0.80-0.93) at the affected test area, except for wind-up ratio (TR-R: r=0.67; IO-R: r=0.56) and paradoxical heat sensations (TR-R: r=0.35; IO-R: r=0.44). Mean IO-R (r=0.83, 31% unexplained variance) was slightly lower than TR-R (r=0.86, 26% unexplained variance, Ptest area (TR-R: r=0.86; IO-R: r=0.83) than in the control area (TR-R: r=0.79; IO-R: r=0.71, each Preliability of QST. We conclude that standardized QST performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good test-retest and interobserver reliability within 2days. With standardized training, observer bias is much lower than random variance. Quantitative sensory testing performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good interobserver and test-retest reliability for use in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies to help identify mechanisms of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Kinetic transport is needed to reliably extract shear viscosity from pA and AA data arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Wu, Bin

    The azimuthal anisotropies $v_n$ of particle spectra measured in proton-nucleus (pA) and nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions play a key role in constraining QCD matter properties like the shear viscosity over entropy density ratio $\\eta/s$. Here, we compare calculations of $v_n$'s from viscous fluid dynamics and from kinetic transport which start both from the same initial conditions and which implement the same matter properties. We observe that both approaches lead to parametrically different $\\eta/s$-dependencies of the elliptic anisotropy $v_2$ and they may thus lead to quantitatively different results for the phenomenologically inferred value of $\\eta/s$. The parametric differences can be traced to the boost-invariant longitudinal expansion of pA and AA collisions which induces in fluid dynamic results of the $\\eta/s$-dependence of $v_2$ a dominant sensitivity on the initial conditions. Transport theory is free of this problem and it accounts for the order of magnitude of experimentally observed signal stren...

  13. Is the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals motivational skills?: EVEM study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérula, Luis Á; Campiñez, Manuel; Bosch, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Arboniés, Juan C; Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Martín Alvarez, Remedios; Prados, Jose A; Martín-Rioboó, Enrique; Massons, Josep; Criado, Margarita; Fernández, José Á; Parras, Juan M; Ruiz-Moral, Roger; Novo, Jesús M

    2012-11-22

    Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people's health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors' communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. - Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change (Pearson product-moment correlation

  14. Is the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals motivational skills?: EVEM study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérula Luis Á

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people’s health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors’ communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. Methods/Design The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. –Scope: Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362. Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach alpha, intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology, generalizability, construct validity and

  15. Generation of a reliable full-length cDNA of infectiousTembusu virus using a PCR-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Cui, Shulin; Qu, Shenghua; Wang, Dan; Liu, Ning; Wang, Fumin; Ning, Kang; Zhang, Bing; Zhang, Dabing

    2016-02-02

    Full-length cDNA of Tembusu virus (TMUV) cloned in a plasmid has been found instable in bacterial hosts. Using a PCR-based protocol, we generated a stable full-length cDNA of TMUV. Different cDNA fragments of TMUV were amplified by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, and cloned into plasmids. Fragmented cDNAs were amplified and assembled by fusion PCR to produce a full-length cDNA using the recombinant plasmids as templates. Subsequently, a full-length RNA was transcribed from the full-length cDNA in vitro and transfected into BHK-21 cells; infectious viral particles were rescued successfully. Following several passages in BKH-21 cells, the rescued virus was compared with the parental virus by genetic marker checks, growth curve determinations and animal experiments. These assays clearly demonstrated the genetic and biological stabilities of the rescued virus. The present work will be useful for future investigations on the molecular mechanisms involved in replication and pathogenesis of TMUV. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. MDP: Reliable File Transfer for Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, James; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith; Parise, Ron; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC by the Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) project to demonstrate the application of the Multicast Dissemination Protocol (MDP) to space missions to reliably transfer files. This work builds on previous work by the OMNI project to apply Internet communication technologies to space communication. The goal of this effort is to provide an inexpensive, reliable, standard, and interoperable mechanism for transferring files in the space communication environment. Limited bandwidth, noise, delay, intermittent connectivity, link asymmetry, and one-way links are all possible issues for space missions. Although these are link-layer issues, they can have a profound effect on the performance of transport and application level protocols. MDP, a UDP-based reliable file transfer protocol, was designed for multicast environments which have to address these same issues, and it has done so successfully. Developed by the Naval Research Lab in the mid 1990's, MDP is now in daily use by both the US Post Office and the DoD. This paper describes the use of MDP to provide automated end-to-end data flow for space missions. It examines the results of a parametric study of MDP in a simulated space link environment and discusses the results in terms of their implications for space missions. Lessons learned are addressed, which suggest minor enhancements to the MDP user interface to add specific features for space mission requirements, such as dynamic control of data rate, and a checkpoint/resume capability. These are features that are provided for in the protocol, but are not implemented in the sample MDP application that was provided. A brief look is also taken at the status of standardization. A version of MDP known as NORM (Neck Oriented Reliable Multicast) is in the process of becoming an IETF standard.

  17. Emergency transportation interventions for reducing adverse pregnancy outcomes in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehiri, John; Alaofè, Halimatou; Asaolu, Ibitola; Chebet, Joy; Esu, Ekpereonne; Meremikwu, Martin

    2018-04-25

    Transportation interventions seek to decrease delay in reaching a health facility for emergency obstetric care and are, thus, believed to contribute to reductions in such adverse pregnancy and childbirth outcomes as maternal deaths, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, there is limited empirical evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of the proposed review is to summarize and critically appraise evidence regarding the effect of emergency transportation interventions on outcomes of labor and delivery in LMICs. The following databases will be searched from inception to March 31, 2018: MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO (PsycINFO and CINAHL), the Cochrane Pregnancy and Child Birth Group's Specialized Register, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. We will search for studies in the grey literature through Google and Google Scholar. We will solicit unpublished reports from such relevant agencies as United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DfID) among others. Data generated from the search will be managed using Endnote Version 7. We will perform quantitative data synthesis if studies are homogenous in characteristics and provide adequate outcome data for meta-analysis. Otherwise, data will be synthesized, using the narrative synthesis approach. Among the many barriers that women in LMICs face in accessing life-saving interventions during labor and delivery, lack of access to emergency transportation is particularly important. This review will provide a critical summary of evidence regarding the impact of transportation interventions on outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth in LMICs. PROSPERO CRD42017080092.

  18. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  19. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  20. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  1. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  2. A Lightweight Protocol for Secure Video Streaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis

    2018-05-14

    The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.

  3. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  4. Accuracy and reliability of the sensory test performed using the laryngopharyngeal endoscopic esthesiometer and rangefinder in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea: protocol for a prospective double-blinded, randomised, exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Cadavid, Luis Fernando; Bastidas, Alirio Rodrigo; Padilla-Ortiz, Diana Marcela; Concha-Galan, Diana Carolina; Bazurto, María Angelica; Vargas, Leslie

    2017-08-21

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSA) might have varying degrees of laryngopharyngeal mechanical hyposensitivity that might impair the brain's capacity to prevent airway collapse during sleep. However, this knowledge about sensory compromises in OSA comes from studies performed using methods with little evidence of their validity. Hence, the purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and accuracy of the measurement of laryngopharyngeal mechanosensitivity in patients with OSA using a recently developed laryngopharyngeal endoscopic esthesiometer and rangefinder (LPEER). The study will be prospective and double blinded, with a randomised crossover assignment of raters performing the sensory tests. Subjects will be recruited from patients with suspected OSA referred for baseline polysomnography to a university hospital sleep laboratory. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability will be evaluated using the Bland-Altman's limits of agreement plot, the intraclass correlation coefficient, and the Pearson or Spearman correlation coefficient, depending on the distribution of the variables. Diagnostic accuracy will be evaluated plotting ROC curves using standard baseline polysomnography as a reference. The sensory threshold values ​​for patients with mild, moderate and severe OSA will be determined and compared using ANOVA or the Kruskal-Wallis test, depending on the distribution of the variables. The LPEER could be a new tool for evaluating and monitoring laryngopharyngeal sensory impairment in patients with OSA. If it is shown to be valid, it could help to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of this condition and potentially help in finding new therapeutic interventions for OSA. The protocol has been approved by the Institutional Review Board of Fundacion Neumologica Colombiana. The results will be disseminated through conference presentations and peer-reviewed publication. This trial was registered at Clinical

  5. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  6. Towards Reliable Integrated Services for Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Reliability issues for various technical systems are discussed and focus is directed towards distributed systems, where communication facilities are vital to maintain system functionality. Reliability in communication subsystems is considered as a resource to be shared among a number of logical c...... applications residing on alternative routes. Details are provided for the operation of RRRSVP based on reliability slack calculus. Conclusions summarize the considerations and give directions for future research....... connections and a reliability management framework is suggested. We suggest a network layer level reliability management protocol RRSVP (Reliability Resource Reservation Protocol) as a counterpart of the RSVP for bandwidth and time resource management. Active and passive standby redundancy by background...

  7. Towards Reliable Integrated Services for Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2003-01-01

    Reliability issues for various technical systems are discussed and focus is directed towards distributed systems, where communication facilities are vital to maintain system functionality. Reliability in communication subsystems is considered as a resource to be shared among a number of logical c...... applications residing on alternative routes. Details are provided for the operation of RRRSVP based on reliability slack calculus. Conclusions summarize the considerations and give directions for future research....... connections and a reliability management framework is suggested. We suggest a network layer level reliability management protocol RRSVP (Reliability Resource Reservation Protocol) as a counterpart of the RSVP for bandwidth and time resource management. Active and passive standby redundancy by background...

  8. L2-LBMT: A Layered Load Balance Routing Protocol for underwater multimedia data transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ze; Tang, Ruichun; Tao, Ye; Sun, Xin; Xu, Xiaowei

    2017-12-01

    Providing highly efficient underwater transmission of mass multimedia data is challenging due to the particularities of the underwater environment. Although there are many schemes proposed to optimize the underwater acoustic network communication protocols, from physical layer, data link layer, network layer to transport layer, the existing routing protocols for underwater wireless sensor network (UWSN) still cannot well deal with the problems in transmitting multimedia data because of the difficulties involved in high energy consumption, low transmission reliability or high transmission delay. It prevents us from applying underwater multimedia data to real-time monitoring of marine environment in practical application, especially in emergency search, rescue operation and military field. Therefore, the inefficient transmission of marine multimedia data has become a serious problem that needs to be solved urgently. In this paper, A Layered Load Balance Routing Protocol (L2-LBMT) is proposed for underwater multimedia data transmission. In L2-LBMT, we use layered and load-balance Ad Hoc Network to transmit data, and adopt segmented data reliable transfer (SDRT) protocol to improve the data transport reliability. And a 3-node variant of tornado (3-VT) code is also combined with the Ad Hoc Network to transmit little emergency data more quickly. The simulation results show that the proposed protocol can balance energy consumption of each node, effectively prolong the network lifetime and reduce transmission delay of marine multimedia data.

  9. Bioremediation protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheehan, David

    1997-01-01

    ..., .. . . . . .. ,. . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . .. 3 2 Granular Nina Sludge Christiansen, Consortia lndra for Bioremediation, M. Mathrani, and Birgitte K. Ahring . 23 PART II PROTOCOLS...

  10. Reliability of diagnostic imaging techniques in suspected acute appendicitis: proposed diagnostic protocol; Indicacion de las tecnicas de diagnostico por la imagen en la sospecha de apendicitis aguda: propuesta de protocolo diagnostico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cura del, J. L.; Oleaga, L.; Grande, D.; Vela, A. C.; Ibanez, A. M. [Hospital de Basureto. Bilbao (Spain)

    2001-07-01

    To study the utility of ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) in case of suspected appendicitis. To determine the diagnostic yield in terms of different clinical contexts and patient characteristics. to assess the costs and benefits of introducing these techniques and propose a protocol for their use. Negative appendectomies, complications and length of hospital stay in a group of 152 patients with suspected appendicitis who underwent ultrasound and CT were compared with those of 180 patients who underwent appendectomy during the same time period, but had not been selected for the first group: these patients costs for each group were calculated. In the first group, the diagnostic value of the clinical signs was also evaluated. The reliability of the clinical signs was limited, while the results with ultrasound and CT were excellent. The incidence of negative appendectomy was 9.6% in the study group and 12.2% in the control group. Moreover, there were fewer complications and a shorter hospital stay in the first group. Among men, however, the rate of negative appendectomy was lower in the control group. The cost of using ultrasound and CT in the management of appendicitis was only slightly higher than that of the control group. Although ultrasound and CT are not necessary in cases in which the probability of appendicitis is low or in men presenting clear clinical evidence, the use of these techniques is indicated in the remaining cases in which appendicitis is suspected. In children, ultrasound is the technique of choice. In all other patients, if negative results are obtained with one of the two techniques, the other should be performed. (Author) 49 refs.

  11. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  12. In silico toxicology protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myatt, Glenn J; Ahlberg, Ernst; Akahori, Yumi; Allen, David; Amberg, Alexander; Anger, Lennart T; Aptula, Aynur; Auerbach, Scott; Beilke, Lisa; Bellion, Phillip; Benigni, Romualdo; Bercu, Joel; Booth, Ewan D; Bower, Dave; Brigo, Alessandro; Burden, Natalie; Cammerer, Zoryana; Cronin, Mark T D; Cross, Kevin P; Custer, Laura; Dettwiler, Magdalena; Dobo, Krista; Ford, Kevin A; Fortin, Marie C; Gad-McDonald, Samantha E; Gellatly, Nichola; Gervais, Véronique; Glover, Kyle P; Glowienke, Susanne; Van Gompel, Jacky; Gutsell, Steve; Hardy, Barry; Harvey, James S; Hillegass, Jedd; Honma, Masamitsu; Hsieh, Jui-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Wen; Hughes, Kathy; Johnson, Candice; Jolly, Robert; Jones, David; Kemper, Ray; Kenyon, Michelle O; Kim, Marlene T; Kruhlak, Naomi L; Kulkarni, Sunil A; Kümmerer, Klaus; Leavitt, Penny; Majer, Bernhard; Masten, Scott; Miller, Scott; Moser, Janet; Mumtaz, Moiz; Muster, Wolfgang; Neilson, Louise; Oprea, Tudor I; Patlewicz, Grace; Paulino, Alexandre; Lo Piparo, Elena; Powley, Mark; Quigley, Donald P; Reddy, M Vijayaraj; Richarz, Andrea-Nicole; Ruiz, Patricia; Schilter, Benoit; Serafimova, Rositsa; Simpson, Wendy; Stavitskaya, Lidiya; Stidl, Reinhard; Suarez-Rodriguez, Diana; Szabo, David T; Teasdale, Andrew; Trejo-Martin, Alejandra; Valentin, Jean-Pierre; Vuorinen, Anna; Wall, Brian A; Watts, Pete; White, Angela T; Wichard, Joerg; Witt, Kristine L; Woolley, Adam; Woolley, David; Zwickl, Craig; Hasselgren, Catrin

    2018-04-17

    The present publication surveys several applications of in silico (i.e., computational) toxicology approaches across different industries and institutions. It highlights the need to develop standardized protocols when conducting toxicity-related predictions. This contribution articulates the information needed for protocols to support in silico predictions for major toxicological endpoints of concern (e.g., genetic toxicity, carcinogenicity, acute toxicity, reproductive toxicity, developmental toxicity) across several industries and regulatory bodies. Such novel in silico toxicology (IST) protocols, when fully developed and implemented, will ensure in silico toxicological assessments are performed and evaluated in a consistent, reproducible, and well-documented manner across industries and regulatory bodies to support wider uptake and acceptance of the approaches. The development of IST protocols is an initiative developed through a collaboration among an international consortium to reflect the state-of-the-art in in silico toxicology for hazard identification and characterization. A general outline for describing the development of such protocols is included and it is based on in silico predictions and/or available experimental data for a defined series of relevant toxicological effects or mechanisms. The publication presents a novel approach for determining the reliability of in silico predictions alongside experimental data. In addition, we discuss how to determine the level of confidence in the assessment based on the relevance and reliability of the information. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. A Passive Testing Approach for Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoping Che

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart systems are today increasingly developed with the number of wireless sensor devices drastically increasing. They are implemented within several contexts throughout our environment. Thus, sensed data transported in ubiquitous systems are important, and the way to carry them must be efficient and reliable. For that purpose, several routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks (WSN. However, one stage that is often neglected before their deployment is the conformance testing process, a crucial and challenging step. Compared to active testing techniques commonly used in wired networks, passive approaches are more suitable to the WSN environment. While some works propose to specify the protocol with state models or to analyze them with simulators and emulators, we here propose a logic-based approach for formally specifying some functional requirements of a novel WSN routing protocol. We provide an algorithm to evaluate these properties on collected protocol execution traces. Further, we demonstrate the efficiency and suitability of our approach by its application into common WSN functional properties, as well as specific ones designed from our own routing protocol. We provide relevant testing verdicts through a real indoor testbed and the implementation of our protocol. Furthermore, the flexibility, genericity and practicability of our approach have been proven by the experimental results.

  14. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  15. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  16. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  17. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  18. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  19. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  20. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  1. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  2. Mac protocols for cyber-physical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Feng

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a literature review of various wireless MAC protocols and techniques for achieving real-time and reliable communications in the context of cyber-physical systems (CPS). The evaluation analysis of IEEE 802.15.4 for CPS therein will give insights into configuration and optimization of critical design parameters of MAC protocols. In addition, this book also presents the design and evaluation of an adaptive MAC protocol for medical CPS, which exemplifies how to facilitate real-time and reliable communications in CPS by exploiting IEEE 802.15.4 based MAC protocols. This book wil

  3. Reliability of IP Tunnels in Military Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pólkowski Marcin

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The military networks, contrary to commercial ones, require standards which provide the highest level of security and reliability. The process to assuring redundancy of the main connections through applying various protocols and transmission media causes problem with time needed to re-establish virtual tunnels between different locations in case of damaged link. This article compares reliability of different IP (Internet Protocol tunnels, which were implemented on military network devices.

  4. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  5. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  6. Performance Evaluation of AODV Routing Protocol in VANET with NS2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Rathi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In intelligent transportation systems, the collaboration between vehicles and the road side units is essential to bring these systems to realization. The emerging Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET is becoming more and more important as it provides intelligent transportation application, comfort, safety, entertainment for people in vehicles. In order to provide stable routes and to get good performance in VANET, there is a need of proper routing protocols must be designed. In this paper, we are working with the very well-known ad-hoc on-demand distance vector (AODV routing protocol. The existing Routing protocol AODV-L which is based on the Link expiration time is extended to propose a more reliable AODV-AD which is based on multichannel MAC protocol. For the performance evaluation of routing protocols, a simulation tool ‘NS2’ has been used. Simulation results show that the proposed AODV-AD protocol can achieves better performances in forms of high Route stability, Packet Delivery ratio and packet loss rate than traditional AODV-L and traditional AODV.

  7. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels : A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siedlecki, M.; De Jong, W.; Verkooijen, A.H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on

  8. Cryptographic Protocols:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geisler, Martin Joakim Bittel

    cryptography was thus concerned with message confidentiality and integrity. Modern cryptography cover a much wider range of subjects including the area of secure multiparty computation, which will be the main topic of this dissertation. Our first contribution is a new protocol for secure comparison, presented...... implemented the comparison protocol in Java and benchmarks show that is it highly competitive and practical. The biggest contribution of this dissertation is a general framework for secure multiparty computation. Instead of making new ad hoc implementations for each protocol, we want a single and extensible...... in Chapter 2. Comparisons play a key role in many systems such as online auctions and benchmarks — it is not unreasonable to say that when parties come together for a multiparty computation, it is because they want to make decisions that depend on private information. Decisions depend on comparisons. We have...

  9. Increase of reliability of contact networks of electric transport, due to increase of strength of the joint unit of pipes of different diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitov, L. S.; Kashapov, N. F.; Gilmanshin, I. R.; Gatiyatov, I. Z.; Kuznetsov, I. L.

    2017-09-01

    The feature of the stress state of the supports of the contact networks is the presence of a joint of pipes of different diameters, the ultimate state of which is determined, as a rule, the strength of the weld. The proposed unit allows to increase the reliability and strength of the connection and also exclude the presence of a weld bead on the outer surface of the pipe of smaller diameter in the place of its attachment to the upper end of the support ring.

  10. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  11. Network Coding Protocols for Smart Grid Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prior, Rui; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Phulpin, Yannick

    2014-01-01

    We propose a robust network coding protocol for enhancing the reliability and speed of data gathering in smart grids. At the heart of our protocol lies the idea of tunable sparse network coding, which adopts the transmission of sparsely coded packets at the beginning of the transmission process b...

  12. Network protocol changes can improve DisCom WAN performance : evaluating TCP modifications and SCTP in the ASC tri-lab environment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolendino, Lawrence F.; Hu, Tan Chang

    2005-06-01

    The Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Distance Computing (DisCom) Wide Area Network (WAN) is a high performance, long distance network environment that is based on the ubiquitous TCP/IP protocol set. However, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the algorithms that govern its operation were defined almost two decades ago for a network environment vastly different from the DisCom WAN. In this paper we explore and evaluate possible modifications to TCP that purport to improve TCP performance in environments like the DisCom WAN. We also examine a much newer protocol, SCTP (Stream Control Transmission Protocol) that claims to provide reliable network transport while also implementing multi-streaming, multi-homing capabilities that are appealing in the DisCom high performance network environment. We provide performance comparisons and recommendations for continued development that will lead to network communications protocol implementations capable of supporting the coming ASC Petaflop computing environments.

  13. Experimental terrestrial soil-core microcosm test protocol. A method for measuring the potential ecological effects, fate, and transport of chemicals in terrestrial ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Voris, P.; Tolle, D.A.; Arthur, M.F.

    1985-06-01

    In order to protect the environment properly and have a realistic appraisal of how a chemical will act in the environment, tests of ecological effects and chemical fate must be performed on complex assemblages of biotic and abiotic components (i.e., microcosms) as well as single species. This protocol is one which could be added to a series of tests recently developed as guidelines for Section 4 of the Toxic Substances Control Act (P.L. 94-469; U.S.C., Section 2601-2629). The terrestrial soil-core microcosm is designed to supply site-specific and possibly regional information on the probable chemical fate and ecological effects resulting from release of a chemical substance to a terrestrial ecosystem. The EPA will use the data resulting from this test system to compare the potential hazards of a chemical with others that have been previously evaluated.

  14. Overview of the InterGroup protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Agarwal, Deborah A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Melliar-Smith, P. Michael [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Moser, Louise E. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2001-03-01

    Existing reliable ordered group communication protocols have been developed for local-area networks and do not, in general, scale well to large numbers of nodes and wide-area networks. The InterGroup suite of protocols is a scalable group communication system that introduces a novel approach to handling group membership, and supports a receiver-oriented selection of service. The protocols are intended for a wide-area network, with a large number of nodes, that has highly variable delays and a high message loss rate, such as the Internet. The levels of the message delivery service range from unreliable unordered to reliable group timestamp ordered.

  15. Analysis of travel time reliability on Indiana interstates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Travel-time reliability is a key performance measure in any transportation system. It is a : measure of quality of travel time experienced by transportation system users and reflects the efficiency : of the transportation system to serve citizens, bu...

  16. Cost-optimization of the IPv4 zeroconf protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohnenkamp, H.C.; van der Stok, Peter; Hermanns, H.; Vaandrager, Frits

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the tradeoff between reliability and effectiveness for the IPv4 Zeroconf protocol, proposed by Cheshire/Adoba/Guttman in 2002, dedicated to the selfconfiguration of IP network interfaces. We develop a simple stochastic cost model of the protocol, where reliability is measured

  17. A Bayesian reliability study on motorized valves for the emergency core cooling, heat transport isolation and shutdown cooling systems at Gentilly-2 Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.E.; Rennick, D.F.; Nainer, A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this is to examine operational data on 32 motorized valves in the emergency core cooling, shutdown cooling and heat transport isolation systems and determine if the evidence would support a reduction in testing frequency of these valves. The methodology used is to examine the data which has accumulated on motorized valve failures since Gentilly-2 first entered service, compare these data with similar data from other sources, and determine whether the evidence indicate that demand-based, wear out type failure mechanisms play a significant role in the recorded failures. The statistical data are then updated, using a Bayesian updating procedure, to obtain revised time based failure rates and demand based probabilities of failure on demand for the motorized valves. The revised failure rates and probabilities are then applied to the fault tree models for the systems of interest to determine what effects there would be, with the current test intervals and with extended test intervals, on the probability of failure of the systems. (author)

  18. Fluidized Bed Gasification as a Mature And Reliable Technology for the Production of Bio-Syngas and Applied in the Production of Liquid Transportation Fuels—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian H.M. Verkooijen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is one of the renewable and potentially sustainable energy sources and has many possible applications varying from heat generation to the production of advanced secondary energy carriers. The latter option would allow mobile services like the transportation sector to reduce its dependency on the fossil fuel supply. This article reviews the state-of-the-art of the fluidization technology applied for the gasification of biomass aimed at the production of gas for subsequent synthesis of the liquid energy carriers via, e.g., the Fischer-Tropsch process. It discusses the advantages of the gasification technology over combustion, considers the size of the conversion plant in view of the local biomass availability, assesses the pros and cons of different gasifier types in view of the application of the product gas. Subsequently the article focuses on the fluidized bed technology to discuss the main process parameters and their influence on the product composition and the operability of the gasifier. Finally a synthesis process (FT is introduced shortly to illustrate the necessary gas cleaning steps in view of the purity requirements for the FT feed gas.

  19. TULIP: A Link-Level Protocol for Improving TCP over Wireless Links

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parsa, Christina; Garcia-Luna-Aceves, J. J

    1999-01-01

    We present the transport unaware link improvement protocol (TULIP), which dramatically improves the performance of TCP over lossy wireless links, without competing with or modifying the transport- or network-layer protocols...

  20. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  1. Reliable multicast for the Grid: a case study in experimental computer science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar; Barcellos, Marinho P; Daw, Michael

    2005-08-15

    In its simplest form, multicast communication is the process of sending data packets from a source to multiple destinations in the same logical multicast group. IP multicast allows the efficient transport of data through wide-area networks, and its potentially great value for the Grid has been highlighted recently by a number of research groups. In this paper, we focus on the use of IP multicast in Grid applications, which require high-throughput reliable multicast. These include Grid-enabled computational steering and collaborative visualization applications, and wide-area distributed computing. We describe the results of our extensive evaluation studies of state-of-the-art reliable-multicast protocols, which were performed on the UK's high-speed academic networks. Based on these studies, we examine the ability of current reliable multicast technology to meet the Grid's requirements and discuss future directions.

  2. Study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    avoidance behaviours, catastrophising, self-efficacy, sport and leisure activity participation, and general quality of life. Follow-up will be 3 and 6 months. The analysis will focus on descriptive statistics and confidence intervals. The qualitative components will follow a thematic analysis approach....... DISCUSSION: This study will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale trial on patients with patellofemoral pain, within the NHS in the UK. We will identify strengths and weaknesses of the proposed protocol and the utility and characteristics of the outcome measures. The results from...... this study will inform the design of a multicentre trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35272486....

  3. Beyond protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Branquart, Etienne; Casaer, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Risk assessment tools for listing invasive alien species need to incorporate all available evidence and expertise. Beyond the wealth of protocols developed to date, we argue that the current way of performing risk analysis has several shortcomings. In particular, lack of data on ecological impact...... information on risk and the exploration of improved methods for decision making on biodiversity management. This is crucial for efficient conservation resource allocation and uptake by stakeholders and the public......., transparency and repeatability of assessments as well as the incorporation of uncertainty should all be explicitly considered. We recommend improved quality control of risk assessments through formalized peer review with clear feedback between assessors and reviewers. Alternatively, a consensus building...

  4. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  5. Analysis of Pervasive Mobile Ad Hoc Routing Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Nadia N.; Liotta, Antonio

    Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are a fundamental element of pervasive networks and therefore, of pervasive systems that truly support pervasive computing, where user can communicate anywhere, anytime and on-the-fly. In fact, future advances in pervasive computing rely on advancements in mobile communication, which includes both infrastructure-based wireless networks and non-infrastructure-based MANETs. MANETs introduce a new communication paradigm, which does not require a fixed infrastructure - they rely on wireless terminals for routing and transport services. Due to highly dynamic topology, absence of established infrastructure for centralized administration, bandwidth constrained wireless links, and limited resources in MANETs, it is challenging to design an efficient and reliable routing protocol. This chapter reviews the key studies carried out so far on the performance of mobile ad hoc routing protocols. We discuss performance issues and metrics required for the evaluation of ad hoc routing protocols. This leads to a survey of existing work, which captures the performance of ad hoc routing algorithms and their behaviour from different perspectives and highlights avenues for future research.

  6. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  7. Establishing monitoring programs for travel time reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Within the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), Project L02 focused on creating a suite of methods by which transportation agencies could monitor and evaluate travel time reliability. Creation of the methods also produced an improved u...

  8. Measure of Truck Delay and Reliability at the Corridor Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Freight transportation provides a significant contribution to our nations economy. A reliable and accessible freight network enables business in the Twin Cities to be more competitive in the Upper Midwest region. Accurate and reliable freight data...

  9. Gateway-Assisted Retransmission for Lightweight and Reliable IoT Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Cheng-Gang; Wu, Mong-Ting; Tsai, Meng-Hsun; Lin, Chia-Ying

    2016-09-22

    Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN) and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) are two protocols supporting publish/subscribe models for IoT devices to publish messages to interested subscribers. Retransmission mechanisms are introduced to compensate for the lack of data reliability. If the device does not receive the acknowledgement (ACK) before retransmission timeout (RTO) expires, the device will retransmit data. Setting an appropriate RTO is important because the delay may be large or retransmission may be too frequent when the RTO is inappropriate. We propose a Gateway-assisted CoAP (GaCoAP) to dynamically compute RTO for devices. Simulation models are proposed to investigate the performance of GaCoAP compared with four other methods. The experiment results show that GaCoAP is more suitable for IoT devices.

  10. Gateway-Assisted Retransmission for Lightweight and Reliable IoT Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ling Chang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Message Queuing Telemetry Transport for Sensor Networks (MQTT-SN and Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP are two protocols supporting publish/subscribe models for IoT devices to publish messages to interested subscribers. Retransmission mechanisms are introduced to compensate for the lack of data reliability. If the device does not receive the acknowledgement (ACK before retransmission timeout (RTO expires, the device will retransmit data. Setting an appropriate RTO is important because the delay may be large or retransmission may be too frequent when the RTO is inappropriate. We propose a Gateway-assisted CoAP (GaCoAP to dynamically compute RTO for devices. Simulation models are proposed to investigate the performance of GaCoAP compared with four other methods. The experiment results show that GaCoAP is more suitable for IoT devices.

  11. Safety and reliability. V. 1. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, C.G.

    1997-01-01

    Proceedings of a 1997 conference on industrial safety and reliability are reported. The first volume looks at risk management, probabilistic safety assessment and management styles in various industrial settings, including nuclear power plants. The second volume addresses safety and reliability in the offshore and transport industries, focusing on the role of staff training and appropriate maintenance routines to effectively reduce accidents and outages. (UK)

  12. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  13. Effectiveness and Limitations of E-Mail Security Protocols

    OpenAIRE

    M. Tariq Banday

    2011-01-01

    Simple Mail Transport Protocol is the most widely adopted protocol for e-mail delivery. However, it lackssecurity features for privacy, authentication of sending party, integrity of e-mail message, nonrepudiationand consistency of e-mail envelope. To make e-mail communication secure and private,e-mail servers incorporate one or more security features using add-on security protocols. The add-onsecurity protocols provide a reasonable security but have several limitations. This paper discussesli...

  14. Analysis of NASA communications (Nascom) II network protocols and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom II (NII) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System, and other projects. NII is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The authors describe various baseline protocol architectures based on current and evolving technologies. They address the internetworking issues suggested for reliable transfer of data over heterogeneous segments. They also describe the NII architecture, topology, system components, and services. A comparative evaluation of the current and evolving technologies was made, and suggestions for further study are described. It is shown that the direction of the NII configuration and the subsystem component design will clearly depend on the advances made in the area of broadband integrated services.

  15. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  16. Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation; Protocol Monitoring Energiebesparing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonekamp, P.G.M. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands); Mannaerts, H. [Centraal Planburea CPB, Den Haag (Netherlands); Tinbergen, W. [Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek CBS, Den Haag (Netherlands); Vreuls, H.H.J. [Nederlandse onderneming voor energie en milieu Novem, Utrecht (Netherlands); Wesselink, B. [Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    On request of the Dutch ministry of Economic Affairs five institutes have collaborated to create a 'Protocol Monitoring Energy Conservation', a common method and database to calculate the amount of energy savings realised in past years. The institutes concerned are the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB), the Energy research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN), the National Agency for Energy and Environment (Novem) and the Netherlands Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). The institutes have agreed upon a clear definition of energy use and energy savings. The demarcation with renewable energy, the saving effects of substitution between energy carriers and the role of import and export of energy have been elaborated. A decomposition method is used to split up the observed change in energy use in a number of effects, on a national and sectoral level. This method includes an analysis of growth effects, effects of structural changes in production and consumption activities and savings on end use or with more efficient conversion processes. To calculate these effects the total energy use is desegregated as much as possible. For each segment a reference energy use is calculated according to the trend in a variable which is supposed to be representative for the use without savings. The difference with the actual energy use is taken as the savings realised. Results are given for the sectors households, industry, agriculture, services and government, transportation and the energy sector; as well as a national figure. A special feature of the protocol method is the application of primary energy use figures in the determination of savings for end users. This means that the use of each energy carrier is increased with a certain amount, according to the conversion losses caused elsewhere in the energy system. The losses concern the base year energy sector and losses abroad for imports of secondary

  17. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  18. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  19. Advanced flooding-based routing protocols for underwater sensor networks

    OpenAIRE

    Isufi, E.; Dol, H.; Leus, G.J.T.

    2016-01-01

    Flooding-based protocols are a reliable solution to deliver packets in underwater sensor networks. However, these protocols potentially involve all the nodes in the forwarding process. Thus, the performance and energy efficiency are not optimal. In this work, we propose some advances of a flooding-based protocol with the goal to improve the performance and the energy efficiency. The first idea considers the node position information in order to reduce the number of relays that may apply flood...

  20. Sub-Transport Layer Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Krigslund, Jeppe; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2014-01-01

    Packet losses in wireless networks dramatically curbs the performance of TCP. This paper introduces a simple coding shim that aids IP-layer traffic in lossy environments while being transparent to transport layer protocols. The proposed coding approach enables erasure correction while being...... oblivious to the congestion control algorithms of the utilised transport layer protocol. Although our coding shim is indifferent towards the transport layer protocol, we focus on the performance of TCP when ran on top of our proposed coding mechanism due to its widespread use. The coding shim provides gains...

  1. Vertical Protocol Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groß, Thomas; Mödersheim, Sebastian Alexander

    2011-01-01

    The security of key exchange and secure channel protocols, such as TLS, has been studied intensively. However, only few works have considered what happens when the established keys are actually used—to run some protocol securely over the established “channel”. We call this a vertical protocol.......e., that the combination cannot introduce attacks that the individual protocols in isolation do not have. In this work, we prove a composability result in the symbolic model that allows for arbitrary vertical composition (including self-composition). It holds for protocols from any suite of channel and application...

  2. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  3. Analysis of the radius and diameter protocols in terms of pricing telecommunication services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna M. Radonjić

    2013-06-01

    client and the server, depending on the current needs of the network. At the transport layer, Diameter uses the TCP or SCTP protocols. When compared to UDP, these protocols provide reliable transmission which is very important for applications exchanging data related to accounting. In addition, the Diameter protocol allows the transmission of accounting information in real time and it incorporates several methods for troubleshooting in order to minimize the loss of accounting data when a failure occurs, which is not the case with RADIUS. Given the present benefits, introduced improvements, flexibility, expandability, IETF and 3GPP's support and the support of big companies, there is a great chance that Diameter will replace RADIUS.   Conclusion   This paper presents a general overview of the RADIUS and Diameter protocols, including some of their basic operations with a special emphasis on accounting applications. The similarities of these protocols are reflected in the support of the same functions in a similar format of the packages. The differences are related to the protocol architectures and the methods of determining authentication, authorization and accounting mechanisms. Regarding accounting aspects, the most important advantages of the Diameter protocol are its possibility to transmit accounting information in real time and implemented mechanisms for troubleshooting in order to minimize the loss of accounting data in case of failure. Owing to to these characteristics, the Diameter protocol achieves a significant advantage over RADIUS in next generation networks.

  4. Performance Comparison of Wireless Sensor Network Standard Protocols in an Aerospace Environment: ISA100.11a and ZigBee Pro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Raymond S.; Barton, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Standards-based wireless sensor network (WSN) protocols are promising candidates for spacecraft avionics systems, offering unprecedented instrumentation flexibility and expandability. Ensuring reliable data transport is key, however, when migrating from wired to wireless data gathering systems. In this paper, we conduct a rigorous laboratory analysis of the relative performances of the ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a protocols in a representative crewed aerospace environment. Since both operate in the 2.4 GHz radio frequency (RF) band shared by systems such as Wi-Fi, they are subject at times to potentially debilitating RF interference. We compare goodput (application-level throughput) achievable by both under varying levels of 802.11g Wi-Fi traffic. We conclude that while the simpler, more inexpensive ZigBee Pro protocol performs well under moderate levels of interference, the more complex and costly ISA100.11a protocol is needed to ensure reliable data delivery under heavier interference. This paper represents the first published, rigorous analysis of WSN protocols in an aerospace environment that we are aware of and the first published head-to-head comparison of ZigBee Pro and ISA100.11a.

  5. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  6. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  7. ASSESSMENT OF RIP-V1 AND OSPF-V2 PROTOCOL WITH CONSIDERATION OF CONVERGENCE CRITERIA AND SENDING PROTOCOLS TRAFFIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Jelodar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Routing Protocols are underlying principles in networks like internet, transport and mobile. Routing Protocols include a series of rules and algorithms that consider routing metric and select the best way for sending healthy data packets from origin to destination. Dynamic routing protocol compatible to topology has a changeable state. RIP and OSPF are dynamic routing protocol that we consider criteria like convergence and sending protocols traffic assessment RIP first version and OSPF second version. By the test we have done on OPNET stimulation we understood that the OSPF protocol was more efficient than RIP protocol.

  8. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  9. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  10. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  11. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  12. The Americleft Speech Project: A Training and Reliability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Kathy L; Baylis, Adriane; Trost-Cardamone, Judith; Cordero, Kelly Nett; Dixon, Angela; Dobbelsteyn, Cindy; Thurmes, Anna; Wilson, Kristina; Harding-Bell, Anne; Sweeney, Triona; Stoddard, Gregory; Sell, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    To describe the results of two reliability studies and to assess the effect of training on interrater reliability scores. The first study (1) examined interrater and intrarater reliability scores (weighted and unweighted kappas) and (2) compared interrater reliability scores before and after training on the use of the Cleft Audit Protocol for Speech-Augmented (CAPS-A) with British English-speaking children. The second study examined interrater and intrarater reliability on a modified version of the CAPS-A (CAPS-A Americleft Modification) with American and Canadian English-speaking children. Finally, comparisons were made between the interrater and intrarater reliability scores obtained for Study 1 and Study 2. The participants were speech-language pathologists from the Americleft Speech Project. In Study 1, interrater reliability scores improved for 6 of the 13 parameters following training on the CAPS-A protocol. Comparison of the reliability results for the two studies indicated lower scores for Study 2 compared with Study 1. However, this appeared to be an artifact of the kappa statistic that occurred due to insufficient variability in the reliability samples for Study 2. When percent agreement scores were also calculated, the ratings appeared similar across Study 1 and Study 2. The findings of this study suggested that improvements in interrater reliability could be obtained following a program of systematic training. However, improvements were not uniform across all parameters. Acceptable levels of reliability were achieved for those parameters most important for evaluation of velopharyngeal function.

  13. Reliability testing of failed fuel location system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieru, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental reliability tests performed in order to prove the reliability parameters for Failed Fuel Location System (FFLS), equipment used to detect in which channel of a particular heat transport loop a fuel failure is located, and to find in which channel what particular bundle pair is failed. To do so, D20 samples from each reactor channel are sequentially monitored to detect a comparatively high level of delayed neutron activity. 15 refs, 8 figs, 2 tabs

  14. The French dosimetry protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutreix, A.

    1985-01-01

    After a general introduction the protocol is divided in five sections dealing with: determination of the quality of X-ray, γ-ray and electron beams; the measuring instrument; calibration of the reference instrument; determination of the reference absorbed dose in the user's beams; determination of the absorbed dose in water at other points, in other conditions. The French protocol is not essentially different from the Nordic protocol and it is based on the experience gained in using both the American and the Nordic protocols. Therefore, only the main difference with the published protocols are discussed. (Auth.)

  15. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  16. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  17. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  18. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  19. Protocol Implementation Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carvalho Quaresma, Jose Nuno; Probst, Christian W.

    2010-01-01

    Users expect communication systems to guarantee, amongst others, privacy and integrity of their data. These can be ensured by using well-established protocols; the best protocol, however, is useless if not all parties involved in a communication have a correct implementation of the protocol and a...... Generator framework based on the LySatool and a translator from the LySa language into C or Java....... necessary tools. In this paper, we present the Protocol Implementation Generator (PiG), a framework that can be used to add protocol generation to protocol negotiation, or to easily share and implement new protocols throughout a network. PiG enables the sharing, verification, and translation...

  20. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  1. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  2. New logistics protocols for distributed interactive simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darrin; Morrison, John; Katz, Warren; Felton, Erik; Herman, Deborah A.

    1995-06-01

    In today's environment, the transportation and maintenance of military forces is nearly as important as combat operations. Rapid deployment to regions of low-intensity conflict will become a very common training scenario for the U.S. military. Thus it is desirable to apply distributed simulation technology to train logistics personnel in their combat support roles. Currently, distributed interactive simulation (DIS) only contains rudimentary logistics protocols. This paper introduces new protocols designed to handle the logistics problem. The Newtonian protocol takes a physics-based approach to modeling interactions on the simulation network. This protocol consists of a family of protocol data units (PDUs) which are used to communicate forces in different circumstances. The protocol implements a small set of physical relations. This represents a flexible and general mechanism to describe battlefield interactions between network entities. The migratory object protocol (MOP) family addresses the transfer of control. General mechanisms provide the means to simulate resupply, repair, and maintenance of entities at any level of abstraction (individual soldier to division). It can also increase the fidelity of mine laying, enable handover of weapons for terminal guidance, allow for the distribution of aggregate-level simulation entities, provide capabilities for the simulation of personnel, etc.

  3. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  4. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  5. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  6. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  7. Design of Bus Protocol Intelligent Initiation System Based On RS485

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Liming

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to design an effective and reliable RS485 bus protocol based on RS485 bus, this paper introduces the structure and transmission mode of the command frame and the response frame, and also introduce four control measures and the communication in order to process quality of this system. The communication protocol is open, tolerant, reliable and fast, and can realize ignition more reliable and accurate in the intelligent initiation system.

  8. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  9. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  10. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  11. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  12. Analysis of Security Protocols by Annotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Han

    . The development of formal techniques, e.g. control flow analyses, that can check various security properties, is an important tool to meet this challenge. This dissertation contributes to the development of such techniques. In this dissertation, security protocols are modelled in the process calculus LYSA......The trend in Information Technology is that distributed systems and networks are becoming increasingly important, as most of the services and opportunities that characterise the modern society are based on these technologies. Communication among agents over networks has therefore acquired a great...... deal of research interest. In order to provide effective and reliable means of communication, more and more communication protocols are invented, and for most of them, security is a significant goal. It has long been a challenge to determine conclusively whether a given protocol is secure or not...

  13. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  14. Network protocols and sockets

    OpenAIRE

    BALEJ, Marek

    2010-01-01

    My work will deal with network protocols and sockets and their use in programming language C#. It will therefore deal programming network applications on the platform .NET from Microsoft and instruments, which C# provides to us. There will describe the tools and methods for programming network applications, and shows a description and sample applications that work with sockets and application protocols.

  15. A Mechanically Proved and an Incremental Development of the Session Initiation Protocol INVITE Transaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaa Filali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP is an application layer signaling protocol used to create, manage, and terminate sessions in an IP based network. SIP is considered as a transactional protocol. There are two main SIP transactions, the INVITE transaction and the non-INVITE transaction. The SIP INVITE transaction specification is described in an informal way in Request for Comments (RFC 3261 and modified in RFC 6026. In this paper we focus on the INVITE transaction of SIP, over reliable and unreliable transport mediums, which is used to initiate a session. In order to ensure the correctness of SIP, the INVITE transaction is modeled and verified using event-B method and its Rodin platform. The Event-B refinement concept allows an incremental development by defining the studied system at different levels of abstraction, and Rodin discharges almost all proof obligations at each level. This interaction between modeling and proving reduces the complexity and helps in assuring that the INVITE transaction SIP specification is correct, unambiguous, and easy to understand.

  16. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  17. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  18. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  19. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  20. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  1. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  2. An Acoustic Charge Transport Imager for High Definition Television Applications: Reliability Modeling and Parametric Yield Prediction of GaAs Multiple Quantum Well Avalanche Photodiodes. Degree awarded Oct. 1997

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, W. D.; Brennan, K. F.; Summers, C. J.; Yun, Ilgu

    1994-01-01

    Reliability modeling and parametric yield prediction of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiodes (APDs), which are of interest as an ultra-low noise image capture mechanism for high definition systems, have been investigated. First, the effect of various doping methods on the reliability of GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well (MQW) avalanche photodiode (APD) structures fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated. Reliability is examined by accelerated life tests by monitoring dark current and breakdown voltage. Median device lifetime and the activation energy of the degradation mechanism are computed for undoped, doped-barrier, and doped-well APD structures. Lifetimes for each device structure are examined via a statistically designed experiment. Analysis of variance shows that dark-current is affected primarily by device diameter, temperature and stressing time, and breakdown voltage depends on the diameter, stressing time and APD type. It is concluded that the undoped APD has the highest reliability, followed by the doped well and doped barrier devices, respectively. To determine the source of the degradation mechanism for each device structure, failure analysis using the electron-beam induced current method is performed. This analysis reveals some degree of device degradation caused by ionic impurities in the passivation layer, and energy-dispersive spectrometry subsequently verified the presence of ionic sodium as the primary contaminant. However, since all device structures are similarly passivated, sodium contamination alone does not account for the observed variation between the differently doped APDs. This effect is explained by the dopant migration during stressing, which is verified by free carrier concentration measurements using the capacitance-voltage technique.

  3. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  4. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  5. Protocol Interoperability Between DDN and ISO (Defense Data Network and International Organization for Standardization) Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    services and protocols above the transport layer are usually implemented as user- callable utilities on the host computers, it is desirable to offer them...Networks, Prentice-hall, New Jersey, 1987 [ BOND 87] Bond , John, "Parallel-Processing Concepts Finally Come together in Real Systems", Computer Design

  6. Using generalizability theory to develop clinical assessment protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Richard A

    2013-04-01

    Clinical assessment protocols must produce data that are reliable, with a clinically attainable minimal detectable change (MDC). In a reliability study, generalizability theory has 2 advantages over classical test theory. These advantages provide information that allows assessment protocols to be adjusted to match individual patient profiles. First, generalizability theory allows the user to simultaneously consider multiple sources of measurement error variance (facets). Second, it allows the user to generalize the findings of the main study across the different study facets and to recalculate the reliability and MDC based on different combinations of facet conditions. In doing so, clinical assessment protocols can be chosen based on minimizing the number of measures that must be taken to achieve a realistic MDC, using repeated measures to minimize the MDC, or simply based on the combination that best allows the clinician to monitor an individual patient's progress over a specified period of time.

  7. Modeling, implementation, and validation of arterial travel time reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Previous research funded by Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) developed a method for estimating : travel time reliability for arterials. This method was not initially implemented or validated using field data. This : project evaluated and r...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Principles of Reliability-Based... the design level of safety and reliability of the equipment; (2) To restore safety and reliability to...

  9. A SURVEY ON MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS FOR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Suruliandi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multicast is a process used to transfer same message to multiple receivers at the same time. This paper presents the simulation and analysis of the performance of six different multicast routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Network (WSN. They are On Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (ODMRP, Protocol for Unified Multicasting through Announcement (PUMA, Multicast Adhoc On demand Distance Vector Protocol (MAODV, Overlay Boruvka-based Adhoc Multicast Protocol (OBAMP, Application Layer Multicast Algorithm (ALMA and enhanced version of ALMA (ALMA-H for WSN. Among them, ODMRP, MAODV and PUMA are reactive protocols while OBAMP, ALMA and ALMA-H are proactive protocols. This paper compares the performance of these protocols with common parameters such as Throughput, Reliability, End-to-End delay and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR with increasing the numbers of nodes and increasing the speed of the nodes. The main objective of this work is to select the efficient multicast routing protocol for WSN among six multicast routing protocol based on relative strength and weakness of each protocol. The summary of above six multicast routing protocols is presented with a table of different performance characteristics. Experimental result shows that ODMRP attains higher throughput, reliability and higher packet delivery ratio than other multicast routing protocol, while incurring far less end-to-end delay.

  10. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  11. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  12. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  13. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  14. Data integration for urban transport planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    Urban transport planning aims at balancing conflicting challenges by promoting more efficient transport systems while reducing negative impacts. The availability of better and more reliable data has not only stimulated new planning methodologies, but also created challenges for efficient data

  15. Safeguarding Schiphol Airports accessibility for freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart; Ebben, Mark; Saanen, Y.A.; Valentin, E.C.; Verbraeck, A.

    2001-01-01

    Automated, underground freight transport should enable sustainable economic growth in the Amsterdam area in the Netherlands. An innovative transport system, which guarantees reliable logistics and which avoids congestion problems, is currently being developed. This logistics system will be highly

  16. Protocol Fuel Mix reporting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    The protocol in this document describes a method for an Electricity Distribution Company (EDC) to account for the fuel mix of electricity that it delivers to its customers, based on the best available information. Own production, purchase and sale of electricity, and certificates trading are taken into account. In chapter 2 the actual protocol is outlined. In the appendixes additional (supporting) information is given: (A) Dutch Standard Fuel Mix, 2000; (B) Calculation of the Dutch Standard fuel mix; (C) Procedures to estimate and benchmark the fuel mix; (D) Quality management; (E) External verification; (F) Recommendation for further development of the protocol; (G) Reporting examples

  17. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  18. Playing With Population Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  19. ATM and Internet protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Bentall, M; Turton, B

    1998-01-01

    Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) is a protocol that allows data, sound and video being transferred between independent networks via ISDN links to be supplied to, and interpreted by, the various system protocols.ATM and Internet Protocol explains the working of the ATM and B-ISDN network for readers with a basic understanding of telecommunications. It provides a handy reference to everyone working with ATM who may not require the full standards in detail, but need a comprehensive guide to ATM. A substantial section is devoted to the problems of running IP over ATM and there is some discussion o

  20. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  1. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  2. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  4. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  5. Mobile Internet Protocol Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brachfeld, Lawrence

    1999-01-01

    ...) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP). Mobile IP allows mobile computers to send and receive packets addressed with their home network IP address, regardless of the IP address of their current point of attachment on the Internet...

  6. Reliable Internet Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    global coordination. IEEE/ACM Trans. Netw., 9(6):681–692, 2001. [39] S. Goldberg, D. Xiao, E. Tromer, B. Barak , and J. Rexford. Path-quality monitoring...RFC 4271). [81] Y. Rekhter, T. Li, and S. Hares. A border gateway protocol 4 (BGP-4), 2006. IETF RFC 4271. [82] E. Rosen , A. Viswanathan, and R. Callon

  7. Analytical procedures for determining the impacts of reliability mitigation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Reliability of transport, especially the ability to reach a destination within a certain amount of time, is a regular concern of travelers and shippers. The definition of reliability used in this research is how travel time varies over time. The vari...

  8. Macroscopic travel time reliability diagrams for freeway networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tu, H.; Li, H.; Van Lint, J.W.C.; Knoop, V.L.; Sun, L.

    2013-01-01

    Travel time reliability is considered to be one of the key indicators of transport system performance. Knowledge of the mechanisms of travel time unreliability enables the derivation of explanatory models with which travel time reliability can be predicted and utilized in traffic management.

  9. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de, E-mail: tcff@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2009-07-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  10. Software for simulating IMRT protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Thelma C.F.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R. de

    2009-01-01

    The Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy - IMRT is an advanced technique to cancer treatment widely used on oncology around the world. The present paper describes the SOFT-RT software which is a tool for simulating IMRT protocol. Also, it will be present a cerebral tumor case of studied in which three irradiation windows with distinct orientation were applied. The SOFT-RT collect and export data to MCNP code. This code simulates the photon transport on the voxel model. Later, a out-module from SOFT-RT import the results and express the dose-response superimposing dose and voxel model in a tree-dimensional graphic representation. The present paper address the IMRT software and its function as well a cerebral tumor case of studied is showed. The graphic interface of the SOFT-RT illustrates the example case. (author)

  11. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  12. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  13. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  14. The Design of Finite State Machine for Asynchronous Replication Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlong; Li, Zhanhuai; Lin, Wei; Hei, Minglei; Hao, Jianhua

    Data replication is a key way to design a disaster tolerance system and to achieve reliability and availability. It is difficult for a replication protocol to deal with the diverse and complex environment. This means that data is less well replicated than it ought to be. To reduce data loss and to optimize replication protocols, we (1) present a finite state machine, (2) run it to manage an asynchronous replication protocol and (3) report a simple evaluation of the asynchronous replication protocol based on our state machine. It's proved that our state machine is applicable to guarantee the asynchronous replication protocol running in the proper state to the largest extent in the event of various possible events. It also can helpful to build up replication-based disaster tolerance systems to ensure the business continuity.

  15. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs. CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  16. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-03-25

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed.

  17. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  18. Reliable Communication in Wireless Meshed Networks using Network Coding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahlevani, Peyman; Paramanathan, Achuthan; Hundebøll, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The advantages of network coding have been extensively studied in the field of wireless networks. Integrating network coding with existing IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is a challenging problem. The IEEE 802.11 MAC does not provide any reliability mechanisms for overheard packets. This paper addresses...... this problem and suggests different mechanisms to support reliability as part of the MAC protocol. Analytical expressions to this problem are given to qualify the performance of the modified network coding. These expressions are confirmed by numerical result. While the suggested reliability mechanisms...

  19. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  20. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  1. [Sampling, storage and transport of biological materials collected from living and deceased subjects for determination of concentration levels of ethyl alcohol and similarly acting substances. A proposal of updating the blood and urine sampling protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiergowski, Marek; Reguła, Krystyna; Pieśniak, Dorota; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Jankowski, Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the most common mistakes committed at the beginning of an analytical procedure. To shorten the time and decrease the cost of determinations of substances with similar to alcohol activity, it is postulated to introduce mass-scale screening analysis of saliva collected from a living subject at the site of the event, with all positive results confirmed in blood or urine samples. If no saliva sample is collected for toxicology, a urine sample, allowing for a stat fast screening analysis, and a blood sample, to confirm the result, should be ensured. Inappropriate storage of a blood sample in the tube without a preservative can cause sample spilling and its irretrievable loss. The authors propose updating the "Blood/urine sampling protocol", with the updated version to be introduced into practice following consultations and revisions.

  2. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  3. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  4. Mechanical reliability analysis of tubes intended for hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahal, Mourad; Khelif, Rabia [Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba (Algeria)

    2013-02-15

    Reliability analysis constitutes an essential phase in any study concerning reliability. Many industrialists evaluate and improve the reliability of their products during the development cycle - from design to startup (design, manufacture, and exploitation) - to develop their knowledge on cost/reliability ratio and to control sources of failure. In this study, we obtain results for hardness, tensile, and hydrostatic tests carried out on steel tubes for transporting hydrocarbons followed by statistical analysis. Results obtained allow us to conduct a reliability study based on resistance request. Thus, index of reliability is calculated and the importance of the variables related to the tube is presented. Reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. Residual stress has been found to greatly increase probability of failure, especially in the early stages of pipe lifetime.

  5. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  6. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  7. An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Ilsun; Kwon, Soonhyun; Choudhary, Gaurav; Sharma, Vishal; Seo, Jung Taek

    2018-06-08

    The Internet of Things (IoT) utilizes algorithms to facilitate intelligent applications across cities in the form of smart-urban projects. As the majority of devices in IoT are battery operated, their applications should be facilitated with a low-power communication setup. Such facility is possible through the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN), but at a constrained bit rate. For long-range communication over LPWAN, several approaches and protocols are adopted. One such protocol is the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN), which is a media access layer protocol for long-range communication between the devices and the application servers via LPWAN gateways. However, LoRaWAN comes with fewer security features as a much-secured protocol consumes more battery because of the exorbitant computational overheads. The standard protocol fails to support end-to-end security and perfect forward secrecy while being vulnerable to the replay attack that makes LoRaWAN limited in supporting applications where security (especially end-to-end security) is important. Motivated by this, an enhanced LoRaWAN security protocol is proposed, which not only provides the basic functions of connectivity between the application server and the end device, but additionally averts these listed security issues. The proposed protocol is developed with two options, the Default Option (DO) and the Security-Enhanced Option (SEO). The protocol is validated through Burrows⁻Abadi⁻Needham (BAN) logic and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA) tool. The proposed protocol is also analyzed for overheads through system-based and low-power device-based evaluations. Further, a case study on a smart factory-enabled parking system is considered for its practical application. The results, in terms of network latency with reliability fitting and signaling overheads, show paramount improvements and better performance for the proposed protocol compared with the two

  8. An Enhanced LoRaWAN Security Protocol for Privacy Preservation in IoT with a Case Study on a Smart Factory-Enabled Parking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsun You

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT utilizes algorithms to facilitate intelligent applications across cities in the form of smart-urban projects. As the majority of devices in IoT are battery operated, their applications should be facilitated with a low-power communication setup. Such facility is possible through the Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN, but at a constrained bit rate. For long-range communication over LPWAN, several approaches and protocols are adopted. One such protocol is the Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN, which is a media access layer protocol for long-range communication between the devices and the application servers via LPWAN gateways. However, LoRaWAN comes with fewer security features as a much-secured protocol consumes more battery because of the exorbitant computational overheads. The standard protocol fails to support end-to-end security and perfect forward secrecy while being vulnerable to the replay attack that makes LoRaWAN limited in supporting applications where security (especially end-to-end security is important. Motivated by this, an enhanced LoRaWAN security protocol is proposed, which not only provides the basic functions of connectivity between the application server and the end device, but additionally averts these listed security issues. The proposed protocol is developed with two options, the Default Option (DO and the Security-Enhanced Option (SEO. The protocol is validated through Burrows–Abadi–Needham (BAN logic and the Automated Validation of Internet Security Protocols and Applications (AVISPA tool. The proposed protocol is also analyzed for overheads through system-based and low-power device-based evaluations. Further, a case study on a smart factory-enabled parking system is considered for its practical application. The results, in terms of network latency with reliability fitting and signaling overheads, show paramount improvements and better performance for the proposed protocol compared with

  9. The reliability of knee joint position testing using electrogoniometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Adele

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current investigation examined the inter- and intra-tester reliability of knee joint angle measurements using a flexible Penny and Giles Biometric® electrogoniometer. The clinical utility of electrogoniometry was also addressed. Methods The first study examined the inter- and intra-tester reliability of measurements of knee joint angles in supine, sitting and standing in 35 healthy adults. The second study evaluated inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of knee joint angle measurements in standing and after walking 10 metres in 20 healthy adults, using an enhanced measurement protocol with a more detailed electrogoniometer attachment procedure. Both inter-tester reliability studies involved two testers. Results In the first study, inter-tester reliability (ICC[2,10] ranged from 0.58–0.71 in supine, 0.68–0.79 in sitting and 0.57–0.80 in standing. The standard error of measurement between testers was less than 3.55° and the limits of agreement ranged from -12.51° to 12.21°. Reliability coefficients for intra-tester reliability (ICC[3,10] ranged from 0.75–0.76 in supine, 0.86–0.87 in sitting and 0.87–0.88 in standing. The standard error of measurement for repeated measures by the same tester was less than 1.7° and the limits of agreement ranged from -8.13° to 7.90°. The second study showed that using a more detailed electrogoniometer attachment protocol reduced the error of measurement between testers to 0.5°. Conclusion Using a standardised protocol, reliable measures of knee joint angles can be gained in standing, supine and sitting by using a flexible goniometer.

  10. Business protocol in integrated Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelová, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The first chapter devotes to definitions of basic terms such as protocol or business protocol, to differences between protocol and etiquette, and between social etiquette and business etiquette. The second chapter focuses on the factors influencing the European business protocol. The third chapter is devoted to the etiquette of business protocol in the European countries. It touches the topics such as punctuality and planning of business appointment, greeting, business cards, dress and appear...

  11. Security Protocols in a Nutshell

    OpenAIRE

    Toorani, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Security protocols are building blocks in secure communications. They deploy some security mechanisms to provide certain security services. Security protocols are considered abstract when analyzed, but they can have extra vulnerabilities when implemented. This manuscript provides a holistic study on security protocols. It reviews foundations of security protocols, taxonomy of attacks on security protocols and their implementations, and different methods and models for security analysis of pro...

  12. Ad hoc mobile wireless networks principles, protocols, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Subir Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The military, the research community, emergency services, and industrial environments all rely on ad hoc mobile wireless networks because of their simple infrastructure and minimal central administration. Now in its second edition, Ad Hoc Mobile Wireless Networks: Principles, Protocols, and Applications explains the concepts, mechanism, design, and performance of these highly valued systems. Following an overview of wireless network fundamentals, the book explores MAC layer, routing, multicast, and transport layer protocols for ad hoc mobile wireless networks. Next, it examines quality of serv

  13. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  14. Exploitation examination of reliability of coal dust systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dojchinovski, Ilija; Trajkovski, Kole

    1997-01-01

    Designers and operators wish is, long, failure free operation at designed parameters of every system. Always we know the system start up time, but we don't know how long this system will operate successfully. Because of that in this article is given a method how, step by step, to determine the reliability of the system. Reliability parameters are obtained from experimental and operational data. When reliability parameters are determined then it is very easy to compare reliability of similar systems, for example excavators, or different systems, such as truck and rubber band transport system. Practical use of the theory of reliability is by purchasing of the systems when manufacturers have to have and present reliability parameters and on this way we can decide which system satisfies our needs regarding the quality-price-reliability. Reliability can be practically used in system operation where: 1) system reliability is maintained with proper start, use and shutdown of the system; 2) a system reliability is maintained with good maintenance organization; 3) a system reliability is maintained with innovations and improvements with final purpose removing of the imperfections experienced through the operation. Reliability is very important parameter in power generation plants. (Author)

  15. A Secured Authentication Protocol for SIP Using Elliptic Curves Cryptography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tien-Ho; Yeh, Hsiu-Lien; Liu, Pin-Chuan; Hsiang, Han-Chen; Shih, Wei-Kuan

    Session initiation protocol (SIP) is a technology regularly performed in Internet Telephony, and Hyper Text Transport Protocol (HTTP) as digest authentication is one of the major methods for SIP authentication mechanism. In 2005, Yang et al. pointed out that HTTP could not resist server spoofing attack and off-line guessing attack and proposed a secret authentication with Diffie-Hellman concept. In 2009, Tsai proposed a nonce based authentication protocol for SIP. In this paper, we demonstrate that their protocol could not resist the password guessing attack and insider attack. Furthermore, we propose an ECC-based authentication mechanism to solve their issues and present security analysis of our protocol to show that ours is suitable for applications with higher security requirement.

  16. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  17. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  18. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  19. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  20. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  1. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  2. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  3. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  4. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  5. A Field-Based Testing Protocol for Assessing Gross Motor Skills in Preschool Children: The Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Harriet G.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Dowda, Marsha; Jeter, Chevy; Jones, Shaverra; Pate, Russell R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable tool for use in assessing motor skills in preschool children in field-based settings. The development of the Children's Activity and Movement in Preschool Study Motor Skills Protocol included evidence of its reliability and validity for use in field-based environments as part of large…

  6. A Protocol for Advanced Psychometric Assessment of Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Cranley, Lisa A.; Gierl, Mark; Cummings, Greta G.; Norton, Peter G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose. In this paper, we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessments of surveys based on the Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing. We use the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey to which this protocol can be applied. Methods. Data mapping, acceptability, reliability, and validity are addressed. Acceptability is assessed with missing data frequencies and the time required to complete the survey. Reliability is assessed with internal consistency coefficients and information functions. A unitary approach to validity consisting of accumulating evidence based on instrument content, response processes, internal structure, and relations to other variables is taken. We also address assessing performance of survey data when aggregated to higher levels (e.g., nursing unit). Discussion. In this paper we present a protocol for advanced psychometric assessment of survey data using the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) as an exemplar survey; application of the protocol to the ACT survey is underway. Psychometric assessment of any survey is essential to obtaining reliable and valid research findings. This protocol can be adapted for use with any nursing survey. PMID:23401759

  7. Maintenance management of railway infrastructures based on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Marco; Garetti, Marco; Centrone, Domenico; Fumagalli, Luca; Piero Pavirani, Gian

    2012-01-01

    Railway infrastructure maintenance plays a crucial role for rail transport. It aims at guaranteeing safety of operations and availability of railway tracks and related equipment for traffic regulation. Moreover, it is one major cost for rail transport operations. Thus, the increased competition in traffic market is asking for maintenance improvement, aiming at the reduction of maintenance expenditures while keeping the safety of operations. This issue is addressed by the methodology presented in the paper. The first step of the methodology consists of a family-based approach for the equipment reliability analysis; its purpose is the identification of families of railway items which can be given the same reliability targets. The second step builds the reliability model of the railway system for identifying the most critical items, given a required service level for the transportation system. The two methods have been implemented and tested in practical case studies, in the context of Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, the Italian public limited company for railway transportation.

  8. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  9. Teleportation protocol with non-ideal conditional local operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Franco, C., E-mail: cdifranco@caesar.ucc.i [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Ballester, D. [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-12

    We analyze teleportation protocol when some of receiver's conditional operations are more reliable than others and a non-maximally entangled channel is shared by the two parts. We show that the average fidelity of teleportation can be maximized by choosing properly the basis in which the sender performs her two-qubit measurement.

  10. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  11. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  12. Immunocytochemical methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Javois, Lorette C

    1999-01-01

    ... monoclonal antibodies to study cell differentiation during embryonic development. For a select few disciplines volumes have been published focusing on the specific application of immunocytochemical techniques to that discipline. What distinguished Immunocytochemical Methods and Protocols from earlier books when it was first published four years ago was i...

  13. Critical Response Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Charlene; Roehrig, Gillian; Bakkum, Kris; Dubinsky, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    This article introduces the Critical Response Protocol (CRP), an arts-based technique that engages students in equitable critical discourse and aligns with the "Next Generation Science Standards" vision for providing students opportunities for language learning while advancing science learning (NGSS Lead States 2013). CRP helps teachers…

  14. Linear Logical Voting Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DeYoung, Henry; Schürmann, Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Current approaches to electronic implementations of voting protocols involve translating legal text to source code of an imperative programming language. Because the gap between legal text and source code is very large, it is difficult to trust that the program meets its legal specification. In r...

  15. Principles of Protocol Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Robin

    This is a new and updated edition of a book first published in 1994. The book introduces the reader to the principles used in the construction of a large range of modern data communication protocols, as used in distributed computer systems of all kinds. The approach taken is rather a formal one...

  16. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  17. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht-Metzger, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As BA has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  18. 2014 Building America House Simulation Protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Engebrecht, C. Metzger [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-03-01

    As Building America has grown to include a large and diverse cross-section of the home building and retrofit industries, it has become more important to develop accurate, consistent analysis techniques to measure progress towards the program's goals. The House Simulation Protocol (HSP) document provides guidance to program partners and managers so they can compare energy savings for new construction and retrofit projects. The HSP provides the program with analysis methods that are proven to be effective and reliable in investigating the energy use of advanced energy systems and of entire houses.

  19. Model Additional Protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rockwood, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the cold war a series of events has changed the circumstances and requirements of the safeguards system. The discovery of a clandestine nuclear weapons program in Iraq, the continuing difficulty in verifying the initial report of Democratic People's Republic of Korea upon entry into force of their safeguards agreement, and the decision of the South African Government to give up its nuclear weapons program and join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons have all played a role in an ambitious effort by IAEA Member States and the Secretariat to strengthen the safeguards system. A major milestone in this effort was reached in May 1997 when the IAEA Board of Governors approved a Model Protocol Additional to Safeguards Agreements. The Model Additional Protocol was negotiated over a period of less than a year by an open-ended committee of the Board involving some 70 Member States and two regional inspectorates. The IAEA is now in the process of negotiating additional protocols, State by State, and implementing them. These additional protocols will provide the IAEA with rights of access to information about all activities related to the use of nuclear material in States with comprehensive safeguards agreements and greatly expanded physical access for IAEA inspectors to confirm or verify this information. In conjunction with this, the IAEA is working on the integration of these measures with those provided for in comprehensive safeguards agreements, with a view to maximizing the effectiveness and efficiency, within available resources, the implementation of safeguards. Details concerning the Model Additional Protocol are given. (author)

  20. Reliability of lifeline networks under seismic hazard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcuk, A. Sevtap; Yuecemen, M. Semih

    1999-01-01

    Lifelines, such as pipelines, transportation, communication and power transmission systems, are networks which extend spatially over large geographical regions. The quantification of the reliability (survival probability) of a lifeline under seismic threat requires attention, as the proper functioning of these systems during or after a destructive earthquake is vital. In this study, a lifeline is idealized as an equivalent network with the capacity of its elements being random and spatially correlated and a comprehensive probabilistic model for the assessment of the reliability of lifelines under earthquake loads is developed. The seismic hazard that the network is exposed to is described by a probability distribution derived by using the past earthquake occurrence data. The seismic hazard analysis is based on the 'classical' seismic hazard analysis model with some modifications. An efficient algorithm developed by Yoo and Deo (Yoo YB, Deo N. A comparison of algorithms for terminal pair reliability. IEEE Transactions on Reliability 1988; 37: 210-215) is utilized for the evaluation of the network reliability. This algorithm eliminates the CPU time and memory capacity problems for large networks. A comprehensive computer program, called LIFEPACK is coded in Fortran language in order to carry out the numerical computations. Two detailed case studies are presented to show the implementation of the proposed model

  1. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  2. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  3. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  4. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  5. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  6. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  7. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  8. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  9. A Geographical Heuristic Routing Protocol for VANETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquiza-Aguiar, Luis; Tripp-Barba, Carolina; Aguilar Igartua, Mónica

    2016-01-01

    Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) leverage the communication system of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). Recently, Delay-Tolerant Network (DTN) routing protocols have increased their popularity among the research community for being used in non-safety VANET applications and services like traffic reporting. Vehicular DTN protocols use geographical and local information to make forwarding decisions. However, current proposals only consider the selection of the best candidate based on a local-search. In this paper, we propose a generic Geographical Heuristic Routing (GHR) protocol that can be applied to any DTN geographical routing protocol that makes forwarding decisions hop by hop. GHR includes in its operation adaptations simulated annealing and Tabu-search meta-heuristics, which have largely been used to improve local-search results in discrete optimization. We include a complete performance evaluation of GHR in a multi-hop VANET simulation scenario for a reporting service. Our study analyzes all of the meaningful configurations of GHR and offers a statistical analysis of our findings by means of MANOVA tests. Our results indicate that the use of a Tabu list contributes to improving the packet delivery ratio by around 5% to 10%. Moreover, if Tabu is used, then the simulated annealing routing strategy gets a better performance than the selection of the best node used with carry and forwarding (default operation). PMID:27669254

  10. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  11. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  12. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  13. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  14. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  15. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  16. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Peter [EECG Consultants, Gaborone (Botswana)

    1998-10-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  17. Regional transport sector mitigation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Peter

    1998-01-01

    The rationale for conducting climate change mitigation studies in the transport sector is on the premise that: The transport sector is the second largest consumer of fossil fuels in the region; The regional transport sector is an area with high opportunity for infrastructural development under UNFCCC financial mechanism; The regional transport sector is crucial in the SADC region for trade and coupled with the Trade Protocol will play a major role in development hence the need to make it efficient in terms of energy demand and provision of services; The sector offers many mitigation options but with a challenge to evaluate their energy saving and GHG saving potential and yet there is need to quantify possible emission reduction for possible future emission trading. This is also a sector with potential to qualify for financing through Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) recently stipulated in the Kyoto Protocol. (au)

  18. Data transmission protocol for Pi-of-the-Sky cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzycki, J.; Kasprowicz, G.; Mankiewicz, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Sitek, P.; Sokolowski, M.; Sulej, R.; Tlaczala, W.

    2006-10-01

    The large amount of data collected by the automatic astronomical cameras has to be transferred to the fast computers in a reliable way. The method chosen should ensure data streaming in both directions but in nonsymmetrical way. The Ethernet interface is very good choice because of its popularity and proven performance. However it requires TCP/IP stack implementation in devices like cameras for full compliance with existing network and operating systems. This paper describes NUDP protocol, which was made as supplement to standard UDP protocol and can be used as a simple-network protocol. The NUDP does not need TCP protocol implementation and makes it possible to run the Ethernet network with simple devices based on microcontroller and/or FPGA chips. The data transmission idea was created especially for the "Pi of the Sky" project.

  19. Satellite Communications Using Commercial Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Griner, James H.; Dimond, Robert; Frantz, Brian D.; Kachmar, Brian; Shell, Dan

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center has been working with industry, academia, and other government agencies in assessing commercial communications protocols for satellite and space-based applications. In addition, NASA Glenn has been developing and advocating new satellite-friendly modifications to existing communications protocol standards. This paper summarizes recent research into the applicability of various commercial standard protocols for use over satellite and space- based communications networks as well as expectations for future protocol development. It serves as a reference point from which the detailed work can be readily accessed. Areas that will be addressed include asynchronous-transfer-mode quality of service; completed and ongoing work of the Internet Engineering Task Force; data-link-layer protocol development for unidirectional link routing; and protocols for aeronautical applications, including mobile Internet protocol routing for wireless/mobile hosts and the aeronautical telecommunications network protocol.

  20. Intelligent transportation systems dependable vehicular communications for improved road safety

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Joaquim; Fonseca, José

    2016-01-01

    This book presents cutting-edge work on the most challenging research issues concerning intelligent transportation systems (ITS), introducing selected, highly relevant advanced research on scheduling and real-time communication for vehicular networks, as well as fault tolerance, test beds and simulations for ITS. The authors define new architectures that support cooperative sensing in ITS and offer guidance for the development of a reference end-to-end implementation. The presented results allow advanced traffic and travel management strategies to be formulated on the basis of reliable and real-time input data. The effectiveness of these new strategies, together with the proposed systems, is assessed in field trials and via simulations. The chapters in this book detail new research findings, algorithms, protocols, and the development of an implementation platform for ITS that merges and integrates heterogeneous data sources into a common system. In addition, they provide a set of advanced tools for the contro...

  1. Epistemic Protocols for Distributed Gossiping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof R. Apt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gossip protocols aim at arriving, by means of point-to-point or group communications, at a situation in which all the agents know each other's secrets. We consider distributed gossip protocols which are expressed by means of epistemic logic. We provide an operational semantics of such protocols and set up an appropriate framework to argue about their correctness. Then we analyze specific protocols for complete graphs and for directed rings.

  2. Symmetric cryptographic protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Ramkumar, Mahalingam

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on protocols and constructions that make good use of symmetric pseudo random functions (PRF) like block ciphers and hash functions - the building blocks for symmetric cryptography. Readers will benefit from detailed discussion of several strategies for utilizing symmetric PRFs. Coverage includes various key distribution strategies for unicast, broadcast and multicast security, and strategies for constructing efficient digests of dynamic databases using binary hash trees.   •        Provides detailed coverage of symmetric key protocols •        Describes various applications of symmetric building blocks •        Includes strategies for constructing compact and efficient digests of dynamic databases

  3. Diplomacy and Diplomatic Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lect. Ph.D Oana Iucu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to observe relationships and determining factors between diplomacyand diplomatic protocol as outlined by historical and contextual analyses. The approach is very dynamic,provided that concepts are able to show their richness, antiquity and polyvalence at the level of connotations,semantics, grammatical and social syntax. The fact that this information is up to date determines anattitude of appreciation and a state of positive contamination.

  4. Automatic Validation of Protocol Narration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo

    2003-01-01

    We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...

  5. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Nemr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children, 29.25 (adult women, 22.75 (adult men, and 27.10 (seniors. CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics.

  6. Dysphonia risk screening protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemr, Katia; Simões-Zenari, Marcia; da Trindade Duarte, João Marcos; Lobrigate, Karen Elena; Bagatini, Flavia Alves

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To propose and test the applicability of a dysphonia risk screening protocol with score calculation in individuals with and without dysphonia. METHOD: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 365 individuals (41 children, 142 adult women, 91 adult men and 91 seniors) divided into a dysphonic group and a non-dysphonic group. The protocol consisted of 18 questions and a score was calculated using a 10-cm visual analog scale. The measured value on the visual analog scale was added to the overall score, along with other partial scores. Speech samples allowed for analysis/assessment of the overall degree of vocal deviation and initial definition of the respective groups and after six months, the separation of the groups was confirmed using an acoustic analysis. RESULTS: The mean total scores were different between the groups in all samples. Values ranged between 37.0 and 57.85 in the dysphonic group and between 12.95 and 19.28 in the non-dysphonic group, with overall means of 46.09 and 15.55, respectively. High sensitivity and specificity were demonstrated when discriminating between the groups with the following cut-off points: 22.50 (children), 29.25 (adult women), 22.75 (adult men), and 27.10 (seniors). CONCLUSION: The protocol demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity in differentiating groups of individuals with and without dysphonia in different sample groups and is thus an effective instrument for use in voice clinics. PMID:27074171

  7. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  8. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  9. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  10. Multivariate performance reliability prediction in real-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.; Lu, H.; Kolarik, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for predicting system performance reliability in real-time considering multiple failure modes. The technique includes on-line multivariate monitoring and forecasting of selected performance measures and conditional performance reliability estimates. The performance measures across time are treated as a multivariate time series. A state-space approach is used to model the multivariate time series. Recursive forecasting is performed by adopting Kalman filtering. The predicted mean vectors and covariance matrix of performance measures are used for the assessment of system survival/reliability with respect to the conditional performance reliability. The technique and modeling protocol discussed in this paper provide a means to forecast and evaluate the performance of an individual system in a dynamic environment in real-time. The paper also presents an example to demonstrate the technique

  11. Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Pearton, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Materials and Reliability Handbook for Semiconductor Optical and Electron Devices provides comprehensive coverage of reliability procedures and approaches for electron and photonic devices. These include lasers and high speed electronics used in cell phones, satellites, data transmission systems and displays. Lifetime predictions for compound semiconductor devices are notoriously inaccurate due to the absence of standard protocols. Manufacturers have relied on extrapolation back to room temperature of accelerated testing at elevated temperature. This technique fails for scaled, high current density devices. Device failure is driven by electric field or current mechanisms or low activation energy processes that are masked by other mechanisms at high temperature. The Handbook addresses reliability engineering for III-V devices, including materials and electrical characterization, reliability testing, and electronic characterization. These are used to develop new simulation technologies for device operation and ...

  12. Field Programmable Gate Array Reliability Analysis Guidelines for Launch Vehicle Reliability Block Diagrams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohammad; Britton, Paul; Hatfield, Glen Spencer; Novack, Steven D.

    2017-01-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) integrated circuits (IC) are one of the key electronic components in today's sophisticated launch and space vehicle complex avionic systems, largely due to their superb reprogrammable and reconfigurable capabilities combined with relatively low non-recurring engineering costs (NRE) and short design cycle. Consequently, FPGAs are prevalent ICs in communication protocols and control signal commands. This paper will identify reliability concerns and high level guidelines to estimate FPGA total failure rates in a launch vehicle application. The paper will discuss hardware, hardware description language, and radiation induced failures. The hardware contribution of the approach accounts for physical failures of the IC. The hardware description language portion will discuss the high level FPGA programming languages and software/code reliability growth. The radiation portion will discuss FPGA susceptibility to space environment radiation.

  13. A high performance totally ordered multicast protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Todd; Whetten, Brian; Kaplan, Simon

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP). RMP provides a totally ordered, reliable, atomic multicast service on top of an unreliable multicast datagram service such as IP Multicasting. RMP is fully and symmetrically distributed so that no site bears un undue portion of the communication load. RMP provides a wide range of guarantees, from unreliable delivery to totally ordered delivery, to K-resilient, majority resilient, and totally resilient atomic delivery. These QoS guarantees are selectable on a per packet basis. RMP provides many communication options, including virtual synchrony, a publisher/subscriber model of message delivery, an implicit naming service, mutually exclusive handlers for messages, and mutually exclusive locks. It has commonly been held that a large performance penalty must be paid in order to implement total ordering -- RMP discounts this. On SparcStation 10's on a 1250 KB/sec Ethernet, RMP provides totally ordered packet delivery to one destination at 842 KB/sec throughput and with 3.1 ms packet latency. The performance stays roughly constant independent of the number of destinations. For two or more destinations on a LAN, RMP provides higher throughput than any protocol that does not use multicast or broadcast.

  14. Study of QoS control and reliable routing method for utility communication network. Application of differentiated service to the network and alternative route establishment by the IP routing protocol; Denryokuyo IP network no QoS seigyo to shinraisei kakuho no hoho. DiffServ ni yoru QoS seigyo no koka to IP ni yoru fuku root ka no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oba, E.

    2000-05-01

    QoS control method which satisfies utilities communication network requirement and alternative route establishment method which is for sustaining communication during a failure are studied. Applicability of DiffServ (Differentiated Service), one of the most promising QoS control method on IP network and studying energetically in IETF WG, is studied and it is found most application used in the utility communication network except for relaying system information could he accommodated to the DiffServ network. An example of the napping of the utility communication applications to the DiffServ PHB (Per Hop Behavior) is shown in this paper. Regarding to the alternative route, usual IP routing protocol cannot establish alternative route which doesn't have common links and nodes in their paths for a destination. IP address duplication with some modification of routing protocol enables such alternative route establishment. MPLS, distance vector algorithm and link state algorithm are evaluated qualitatively, and as a result, we found MPLS is promising way to establish the route. Quantitative evaluation will be future work. (author)

  15. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  16. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  17. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  18. The intergroup protocols: Scalable group communication for the internet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    2000-12-04

    Reliable group ordered delivery of multicast messages in a distributed system is a useful service that simplifies the programming of distributed applications. Such a service helps to maintain the consistency of replicated information and to coordinate the activities of the various processes. With the increasing popularity of the Internet, there is an increasing interest in scaling the protocols that provide this service to the environment of the Internet. The InterGroup protocol suite, described in this dissertation, provides such a service, and is intended for the environment of the Internet with scalability to large numbers of nodes and high latency links. The InterGroup protocols approach the scalability problem from various directions. They redefine the meaning of group membership, allow voluntary membership changes, add a receiver-oriented selection of delivery guarantees that permits heterogeneity of the receiver set, and provide a scalable reliability service. The InterGroup system comprises several components, executing at various sites within the system. Each component provides part of the services necessary to implement a group communication system for the wide-area. The components can be categorized as: (1) control hierarchy, (2) reliable multicast, (3) message distribution and delivery, and (4) process group membership. We have implemented a prototype of the InterGroup protocols in Java, and have tested the system performance in both local-area and wide-area networks.

  19. In Vitro Analysis of Metabolite Transport Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roell, Marc-Sven; Kuhnert, Franziska; Zamani-Nour, Shirin; Weber, Andreas P M

    2017-01-01

    The photorespiratory cycle is distributed over four cellular compartments, the chloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoplasm, and mitochondria. Shuttling of photorespiratory intermediates between these compartments is essential to maintain the function of photorespiration. Specific transport proteins mediate the transport across biological membranes and represent important components of the cellular metabolism. Although significant progress was made in the last years on identifying and characterizing new transport proteins, the overall picture of intracellular metabolite transporters is still rather incomplete. The photorespiratory cycle requires at least 25 transmembrane transport steps; however to date only plastidic glycolate/glycerate transporter and the accessory 2-oxoglutarate/malate and glutamate/malate transporters as well as the mitochondrial transporter BOU1 have been identified. The characterization of transport proteins and defining their substrates and kinetics are still major challenges.Here we present a detailed set of protocols for the in vitro characterization of transport proteins. We provide protocols for the isolation of recombinant transport protein expressed in E. coli or Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the extraction of total leaf membrane protein for in vitro analysis of transporter proteins. Further we explain the process of reconstituting transport proteins in artificial lipid vesicles and elucidate the details of transport assays.

  20. A Protocol of Manual Tests to Measure Sensation and Pain in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostek, Matthew; Polaski, Anna; Kolber, Benedict; Ramsey, Austin; Kranjec, Alexander; Szucs, Kimberly

    2016-12-19

    Numerous qualitative and quantitative techniques can be used to test sensory nerves and pain in both research and clinical settings. The current study demonstrates a quantitative sensory testing protocol using techniques to measure tactile sensation and pain threshold for pressure and heat using portable and easily accessed equipment. These techniques and equipment are ideal for new laboratories and clinics where cost is a concern or a limiting factor. We demonstrate measurement techniques for the following: cutaneous mechanical sensitivity on the arms and legs (von-Frey filaments), radiant and contact heat sensitivity (with both threshold and qualitative assessments using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS)), and mechanical pressure sensitivity (algometer, with both threshold and the VAS). The techniques and equipment described and demonstrated here can be easily purchased, stored, and transported by most clinics and research laboratories around the world. A limitation of this approach is a lack of automation or computer control. Thus, these processes can be more labor intensive in terms of personnel training and data recording than the more sophisticated equipment. We provide a set of reliability data for the demonstrated techniques. From our description, a new laboratory should be able to set up and run these tests and to develop their own internal reliability data.

  1. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  2. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  3. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  4. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  5. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  6. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  7. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  8. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-11-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.).

  9. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  10. A Study on IP Network Recovery through Routing Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Karthik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Internet has taken major role in our communication infrastructure. Such that requirement of internet availability and reliability has increasing accordingly. The major network failure reasons are failure of node and failure of link among the nodes. This can reduce the performance of major applications in an IP networks. The network recovery should be fast enough so that service interruption of link or node failure. The new path taken by the diverted traffic can be computed either at the time of failures or before failures. These mechanisms are known as Reactive and Proactive protocols respectively. In this paper, we surveyed reactive and proactive protocols mechanisms for IP network recovery.

  11. Study and development of a remote biometric authentication protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Bistarelli, Stefano; Claudio, Viti

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the phases of study and implementation of a remote biometric authentication protocol developed during my internship at the I.i.t. of the C.n.r. in Pisa. Starting from the study of authentication history we had a look from the first system used since the 60ies to the latest technology; this helped us understand how we could realize a demonstration working protocol that could achieve a web remote authentication granting good reliability: to do this we choosed to modify the SS...

  12. Research on Connection and Function Reliability of the Oil&Gas Pipeline System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline transportation is the optimal way for energy delivery in terms of safety, efficiency and environmental protection. Because of the complexity of pipeline external system including geological hazards, social and cultural influence, it is a great challenge to operate the pipeline safely and reliable. Therefore, the pipeline reliability becomes an important issue. Based on the classical reliability theory, the analysis of pipeline system is carried out, then the reliability model of the pipeline system is built, and the calculation is addressed thereafter. Further the connection and function reliability model is applied to a practical active pipeline system, with the use of the proposed methodology of the pipeline system; the connection reliability and function reliability are obtained. This paper firstly presented to considerate the connection and function reliability separately and obtain significant contribution to establish the mathematical reliability model of pipeline system, hence provide fundamental groundwork for the pipeline reliability research in the future.

  13. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  14. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division du Personnel

    1999-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.1999, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to:Bureau des cartes, bâtiment 33.1-025Should the 3 spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose 2 passport photographs for a new card.In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.Personnel DivisionTel. 79494/74683

  15. FRENCH PROTOCOL CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2000-01-01

    Senior officials, holders of FRENCH PROTOCOL cards (blue cards) due to expire on 31.12.2000, are requested to return these cards and those of family members, for extension to: Bureau des cartes, Bât 33.1-009/1-015 Should the three spaces for authentication on the back of the card be full, please enclose two passport photographs for a new card. In the case of children aged 14 and over, an attestation of dependency and a school certificate should be returned with the card.

  16. Sincalide - the final protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, E.A.; Notghi, A.; Hesslewood, S.R.; Harding, L.K.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: HIDA biliary studies examine the gallbladder (GB) to give a percentage ejection fraction (EF). Porcine CCK was an accepted agent for stimulating the GB prior to being withdrawn in the UK from 1998. Sincalide (a synthetic CCK) was the suggested replacement. We have tried many administration regimes in an attempt to get results comparable with our established CCK protocols. Dose concentration and length of infusion times have been studied. Initially a dose of 10 ngm/kg/min given over 2 minutes (manufacturer's recommended dose) was used. This gave falsely low ejection fractions. The dose was reduced to 3 ngm/kg/min over 3 minutes as it was felt the higher dose may be causing constriction of the sphincter of Oddi. This gave a slight improvement with 22 % of patients having normal EF (>35 %). The length of infusion was extended to 15 minutes and the dose concentration reduced again to 0.6 ngm/kg/min. 62 % of patients had a normal EF. However, on many of the curves the gallbladder was still contracting on completion of the 15 minute infusion and began to refill immediately after stopping Sincalide. A further change of protocol was indicated. The infusion time was extended to 30 minutes and the dose concentration per minute kept the same. Imaging began at 30 minutes post HIDA injection and continued for a total of 50 minutes. Sincalide infusion began at 35 minutes if a GB was visualized. This protocol has been performed on 17 patients. 53 % of these had a normal result (comparable with a normal rate of 40 % previously established with CCK) with a mean EF of 60 %. The mean EF of patients with abnormal studies was 15 %. Curves showed a plateau by 30 minutes in 94 % of patients indicating that gallbladder contraction was complete. No normal range is available so results were compared with ultrasound (US). All patients who had an abnormal US scan also had abnormal HIDA results. Three patients had a normal US scan and abnormal HIDA study. These are currently

  17. Distributed Network Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    MONITORING AGENCY NAME & ADDRESS(II different from Controlting Office) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of this report) S Office of Naval Research Unclassified...All protocols are extended to networks with changing. topology. S80 8 4 246 DD0I iA 1473 EDITION OF INOV 65 IS OBSOLETE 8 0 24 SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to the netowrk . f) Each node knows its adjacent links, but not necessarily the identity of its neighbors, i.e. the nodes at the other end of the links

  18. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  19. Cyber Security Vulnerability Impact on I and C Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Mark D.; McBride, Justin B.

    2006-01-01

    We present a discussion of the cyber security vulnerability impact on instrument and control reliability. In the discussion we demonstrate the likely vector of attack and vulnerabilities associated with commodity hardware, protocols and communication media. The current fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States utilizes aging analog instrument and control systems which are more frequently suffering from obsolescence and failure. The commodity equipment available now and in the near future incorporates features from information technology systems which compound cyber vulnerabilities

  20. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  1. A software defined RTU multi-protocol automatic adaptation data transmission method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Huiying; Xu, Xingwu; Wang, Zhanfeng; Ma, Weijun; Li, Sheng; Su, Yong; Pan, Yunpeng

    2018-02-01

    Remote terminal unit (RTU) is the core device of the monitor system in hydrology and water resources. Different devices often have different communication protocols in the application layer, which results in the difficulty in information analysis and communication networking. Therefore, we introduced the idea of software defined hardware, and abstracted the common feature of mainstream communication protocols of RTU application layer, and proposed a uniformed common protocol model. Then, various communication protocol algorithms of application layer are modularized according to the model. The executable codes of these algorithms are labeled by the virtual functions and stored in the flash chips of embedded CPU to form the protocol stack. According to the configuration commands to initialize the RTU communication systems, it is able to achieve dynamic assembling and loading of various application layer communication protocols of RTU and complete the efficient transport of sensor data from RTU to central station when the data acquisition protocol of sensors and various external communication terminals remain unchanged.

  2. Security and SCADA protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igure, V. M.; Williams, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    Supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) networks have replaced discrete wiring for many industrial processes, and the efficiency of the network alternative suggests a trend toward more SCADA networks in the future. This paper broadly considers SCADA to include distributed control systems (DCS) and digital control systems. These networks offer many advantages, but they also introduce potential vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries. Inter-connectivity exposes SCADA networks to many of the same threats that face the public internet and many of the established defenses therefore show promise if adapted to the SCADA differences. This paper provides an overview of security issues in SCADA networks and ongoing efforts to improve the security of these networks. Initially, a few samples from the range of threats to SCADA network security are offered. Next, attention is focused on security assessment of SCADA communication protocols. Three challenges must be addressed to strengthen SCADA networks. Access control mechanisms need to be introduced or strengthened, improvements are needed inside of the network to enhance security and network monitoring, and SCADA security management improvements and policies are needed. This paper discusses each of these challenges. This paper uses the Profibus protocol as an example to illustrate some of the vulnerabilities that arise within SCADA networks. The example Profibus security assessment establishes a network model and an attacker model before proceeding to a list of example attacks. (authors)

  3. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2004-01-01

    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  4. Reliability model of SNS linac (spallation neutron source-ORNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A.; Fernandez, P.

    2015-01-01

    A reliability model of SNS LINAC (Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory) has been developed using risk spectrum reliability analysis software and the analysis of the accelerator system's reliability has been performed. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparing them with the SNS operational data. This paper presents the main results and conclusions focusing on the definition of design weaknesses and provides recommendations to improve reliability of the MYRRHA ( linear accelerator. The reliability results show that the most affected SNS LINAC parts/systems are: 1) SCL (superconducting linac), front-end systems: IS, LEBT (low-energy beam transport line), MEBT (medium-energy beam transport line), diagnostics and controls; 2) RF systems (especially the SCL RF system); 3) power supplies and PS controllers. These results are in line with the records in the SNS logbook. The reliability issue that needs to be enforced in the linac design is the redundancy of the systems, subsystems and components most affected by failures. For compensation purposes, there is a need for intelligent fail-over redundancy implementation in controllers. Enough diagnostics has to be implemented to allow reliable functioning of the redundant solutions and to ensure the compensation function

  5. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  6. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  7. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  8. Improving the Reliability of Optimised Link State Routing in a Smart Grid Neighbour Area Network based Wireless Mesh Network Using Multiple Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakubu Tsado

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Reliable communication is the backbone of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI. Within the AMI, the neighbourhood area network (NAN transports a multitude of traffic, each with unique requirements. In order to deliver an acceptable level of reliability and latency, the underlying network, such as the wireless mesh network(WMN, must provide or guarantee the quality-of-service (QoS level required by the respective application traffic. Existing WMN routing protocols, such as optimised link state routing (OLSR, typically utilise a single metric and do not consider the requirements of individual traffic; hence, packets are delivered on a best-effort basis. This paper presents a QoS-aware WMN routing technique that employs multiple metrics in OLSR optimal path selection for AMI applications. The problems arising from this approach are non deterministic polynomial time (NP-complete in nature, which were solved through the combined use of the analytical hierarchy process (AHP algorithm and pruning techniques. For smart meters transmitting Internet Protocol (IP packets of varying sizes at different intervals, the proposed technique considers the constraints of NAN and the applications’ traffic characteristics. The technique was developed by combining multiple OLSR path selection metrics with the AHP algorithminns-2. Compared with the conventional link metric in OLSR, the results show improvements of about 23% and 45% in latency and Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR, respectively, in a 25-node grid NAN.

  9. Quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, J.; Charon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Concern for obtaining high-quality products which will function properly when required to do so is nothing new - it is one manifestation of a conscientious attitude to work. However, the complexity and cost of equipment and the consequences of even temporary immobilization are such that it has become necessary to make special arrangements for obtaining high-quality products and examining what one has obtained. Each unit within an enterprise must examine its own work or arrange for it to be examined; a unit whose specific task is quality assurance is responsible for overall checking, but does not relieve other units of their responsibility. Quality assurance is a form of mutual assistance within an enterprise, designed to remove the causes of faults as far as possible. It begins very early in a project and continues through the ordering stage, construction, start-up trials and operation. Quality and hence reliability are the direct result of what is done at all stages of a project. They depend on constant attention to detail, for even a minor piece of poor workmanship can, in the case of an essential item of equipment, give rise to serious operational difficulties

  10. Framework and indicator testing protocol for developing and piloting quality indicators for the UK quality and outcomes framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, S.M.; Kontopantelis, E.; Hannon, K.; Burke, M.; Barber, A.; Lester, H.E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quality measures should be subjected to a testing protocol before being used in practice using key attributes such as acceptability, feasibility and reliability, as well as identifying issues derived from actual implementation and unintended consequences. We describe the methodologies

  11. [Computerized clinical protocol for occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsench, J; Ferrer, J; Nogueras, J

    1988-11-01

    In making a protocol it is necessary that all members of the team who are going to collect information have the same unity of criterion about the different variables that compose it. The drawing up of this document is as much or more necessary than the protocol itself. In this work we all data collected in the protocol and we give the explanations of each concept.

  12. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  13. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...... identification. Application of the proposed method can be found in many real world systems....

  14. Static Validation of Security Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, P.

    2005-01-01

    We methodically expand protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to specify some of the checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we demonstrate that these techniques ...... suffice to identify several authentication flaws in symmetric and asymmetric key protocols such as Needham-Schroeder symmetric key, Otway-Rees, Yahalom, Andrew secure RPC, Needham-Schroeder asymmetric key, and Beller-Chang-Yacobi MSR...

  15. How reliable are Functional Movement Screening scores? A systematic review of rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Major, Katherine M; Sullivan, S John

    2016-05-01

    Several physical assessment protocols to identify intrinsic risk factors for injury aetiology related to movement quality have been described. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a standardised, field-expedient test battery intended to assess movement quality and has been used clinically in preparticipation screening and in sports injury research. To critically appraise and summarise research investigating the reliability of scores obtained using the FMS battery. Systematic literature review. Systematic search of Google Scholar, Scopus (including ScienceDirect and PubMed), EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition), MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus. Studies meeting eligibility criteria were assessed by 2 reviewers for risk of bias using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies checklist. Overall quality of evidence was determined using van Tulder's levels of evidence approach. 12 studies were appraised. Overall, there was a 'moderate' level of evidence in favour of 'acceptable' (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.6) inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for composite scores derived from live scoring. For inter-rater reliability of composite scores derived from video recordings there was 'conflicting' evidence, and 'limited' evidence for intra-rater reliability. For inter-rater reliability based on live scoring of individual subtests there was 'moderate' evidence of 'acceptable' reliability (κ≥0.4) for 4 subtests (Deep Squat, Shoulder Mobility, Active Straight-leg Raise, Trunk Stability Push-up) and 'conflicting' evidence for the remaining 3 (Hurdle Step, In-line Lunge, Rotary Stability). This review found 'moderate' evidence that raters can achieve acceptable levels of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of composite FMS scores when using live ratings. Overall, there were few high-quality studies, and the quality of several studies was impacted by poor study reporting particularly in relation to

  16. Energy efficient routing protocols for wireless sensor networks: comparison and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganathan Murukesan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor network consists of nodes with limited resources. Hence, it is important to design protocols or algorithms which increases energy efficiency in order to improve the network lifetime. In this paper, techniques used in the network layer (routing of the internet protocol stack to achieve energy efficiency are reviewed. Usually, the routing protocols are classified into four main schemes: (1 Network Structure, (2 Communication Model, (3 Topology Based, and (4 Reliable Routing. In this work, only network structure based routing protocols are reviewed due to the page constraint. Besides, this type of protocols are much popular among the researchers since they are fairly simple to implement and produce good results as presented in this paper. Also, the pros and cons of each protocols are presented. Finally, the paper concludes with possible further research directions.

  17. QoS-aware self-adaptation of communication protocols in a pervasive service middleware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Weishan; Hansen, Klaus Marius; Fernandes, João

    2010-01-01

    Pervasive computing is characterized by heterogeneous devices that usually have scarce resources requiring optimized usage. These devices may use different communication protocols which can be switched at runtime. As different communication protocols have different quality of service (Qo......S) properties, this motivates optimized self-adaption of protocols for devices, e.g., considering power consumption and other QoS requirements, e.g. round trip time (RTT) for service invocations, throughput, and reliability. In this paper, we present an extensible approach for self-adaptation of communication...... protocols for pervasive web services, where protocols are designed as reusable connectors and our middleware infrastructure can hide the complexity of using different communication protocols to upper layers. We also propose to use Genetic Algorithms (GAs) to find optimized configurations at runtime...

  18. Unconditionally Secure Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meldgaard, Sigurd Torkel

    This thesis contains research on the theory of secure multi-party computation (MPC). Especially information theoretically (as opposed to computationally) secure protocols. It contains results from two main lines of work. One line on Information Theoretically Secure Oblivious RAMS, and how....... We construct an oblivious RAM that hides the client's access pattern with information theoretic security with an amortized $\\log^3 N$ query overhead. And how to employ a second server that is guaranteed not to conspire with the first to improve the overhead to $\\log^2 N$, while also avoiding...... they are used to speed up secure computation. An Oblivious RAM is a construction for a client with a small $O(1)$ internal memory to store $N$ pieces of data on a server while revealing nothing more than the size of the memory $N$, and the number of accesses. This specifically includes hiding the access pattern...

  19. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Pepe, Alberto; Pepe, Alberto; Yeomans, Joanne

    2007-01-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should naturally guide authors towards OA publication and CERN wants to help reach a full...

  20. Hippocampal MRI volumetry at 3 Tesla: reliability and practical guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukens, Cécile R L P N; Vlooswijk, Mariëlle C G; Majoie, H J Marian; de Krom, Marc C T F M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Hofman, Paul A M; Jansen, Jacobus F A; Backes, Walter H

    2009-09-01

    Although volumetry of the hippocampus is considered to be an established technique, protocols reported in literature are not described in great detail. This article provides a complete and detailed protocol for hippocampal volumetry applicable to T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images acquired at 3 Tesla, which has become the standard for structural brain research. The protocol encompasses T1-weighted image acquisition at 3 Tesla, anatomic guidelines for manual hippocampus delineation, requirements of delineation software, reliability measures, and criteria to assess and ensure sufficient reliability. Moreover, the validity of the correction for total intracranial volume size was critically assessed. The protocol was applied by 2 readers to the MR images of 36 patients with cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy, 4 patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis, and 20 healthy control subjects. The uncorrected hippocampal volumes were 2923 +/- 500 mm3 (mean +/- SD) (left) and 3120 +/- 416 mm3 (right) for the patient group and 3185 +/- 411 mm3 (left) and 3302 +/- 411 mm3 (right) for the healthy control group. The volume of the 4 pathologic hippocampi of the patients with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis was 2980 +/- 422 mm3. The inter-reader reliability values were determined: intraclass-correlation-coefficient (ICC) = 0.87 (left) and 0.86 (right), percentage volume difference (VD) = 7.0 +/- 4.7% (left) and 6.0 +/- 3.8% (right), and overlap ratio (OR) = 0.82 +/- 0.04 (left) and 0.82 +/- 0.03 (right). The positive Pearson correlation between hippocampal volume and total intracranial volume was found to be low: r = 0.48 (P = 0.03, left) and r = 0.62 (P = 0.004, right) and did not significantly reduce the volumetric variances, showing the limited benefit of the brain size correction. A protocol was described to determine hippocampal volumes based on 3 Tesla MR images with high inter-reader reliability. Although the reliability of hippocampal volumetry at 3 Tesla

  1. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1986-05-01

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  2. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  3. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  4. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  5. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  6. 78 FR 68908 - Proposed Information Collection (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... (Veterans Transportation Service Data Collection); Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health.... This notice solicits comments on the information needed to evaluate the Veterans Transportation Service... receive timely and reliable transportation for the purpose of examination, treatment and care. DATES...

  7. ADAPTIVE GOSSIP BASED PROTOCOL FOR ENERGY EFFICIENT MOBILE ADHOC NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rajeswari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In Gossip Sleep Protocol, network performance is enhanced based on energy resource. But energy conservation is achieved with the reduced throughput. In this paper, it has been proposed a new Protocol for Mobile Ad hoc Network to achieve reliability with energy conservation. Based on the probability (p values, the value of sleep nodes is fixed initially. The probability value can be adaptively adjusted by Remote Activated Switch during the transmission process. The adaptiveness of gossiping probability is determined by the Packet Delivery Ratio. For performance comparison, we have taken Routing overhead, Packet Delivery Ratio, Number of dropped packets and Energy consumption with the increasing number of forwarding nodes. We used UDP based traffic models to analyze the performance of this protocol. We analyzed TCP based traffic models for average end to end delay. We have used the NS-2 simulator.

  8. The value of service reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Benezech , Vincent; Coulombel , Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the e...

  9. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  10. Industrial wireless sensor networks applications, protocols, and standards

    CERN Document Server

    Güngör, V Çagri

    2013-01-01

    The collaborative nature of industrial wireless sensor networks (IWSNs) brings several advantages over traditional wired industrial monitoring and control systems, including self-organization, rapid deployment, flexibility, and inherent intelligent processing. In this regard, IWSNs play a vital role in creating more reliable, efficient, and productive industrial systems, thus improving companies' competitiveness in the marketplace. Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks: Applications, Protocols, and Standards examines the current state of the art in industrial wireless sensor networks and outline

  11. A global protocol for monitoring of coral bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    Oliver, J.; Setiasih, N.; Marshall, P.; Hansen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Coral bleaching and subsequent mortality represent a major threat to the future health and productivity of coral reefs. However a lack of reliable data on occurrence, severity and other characteristics of bleaching events hampers research on the causes and consequences of this important phenomenon. This article describes a global protocol for monitoring coral bleaching events, which addresses this problem and can be used by people with different levels of expertise and resources.

  12. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  13. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  14. Taking the Politics Out of Satellite and Space-Based Communications Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.

    2006-01-01

    After many years of studies, experimentation, and deployment, large amounts of misinformation and misconceptions remain regarding applicability of various communications protocols for use in satellite and space-based networks. This paper attempts to remove much of the politics, misconceptions, and misinformation that have plagued spacebased communications protocol development and deployment. This paper provides a common vocabulary for communications; a general discussion of the requirements for various communication environments; an evaluation of tradeoffs between circuit and packet-switching technologies, and the pros and cons of various link, network, transport, application, and security protocols. Included is the applicability of protocol enhancing proxies to NASA, Department of Defense (DOD), and commercial space communication systems.

  15. RTE - 2015 Reliability Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This report includes a number of results from previous years so that year-to-year comparisons can be drawn and long-term trends analysed. The 2015 report underlines the major factors that have impacted on the reliability of the electrical power system, without focusing exclusively on Significant System Events (ESS). It describes various factors which contribute to present and future reliability and the numerous actions implemented by RTE to ensure reliability today and in the future, as well as the ways in which the various parties involved in the electrical power system interact across the whole European interconnected network

  16. Report: demonstrable progresses of the France according the Kyoto protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document constitutes the report of the France on the demonstrable progresses according the application of the 3 article of the Kyoto protocol. The first chapter is a description of the french climatic policy, as the second presents the tendencies and the projections concerning the greenhouse effect gases emissions. The chapter 3 details the policies effects and the measures ( energy, transport, industry and wastes). The last chapter is devoted to the respect of the other engagements articles 10 and 11 of the Kyoto protocol. (A.L.B.)

  17. Radiologic procedures, policies and protocols for pediatric emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, George A.

    2008-01-01

    Protocol development between radiology and pediatric emergency medicine requires a multidisciplinary approach to manage straightforward as well as complex and time-sensitive needs for emergency department patients. Imaging evaluation requires coordination of radiologic technologists, radiologists, transporters, nurses and coordinators, among others, and might require accelerated routines or occur at sub-optimal times. Standardized protocol development enables providers to design a best practice in all of these situations and should be predicated on evidence, mission, and service expectations. As in any new process, constructive feedback channels are imperative for evaluation and modification. (orig.)

  18. A shortened protocol for assessing cognitive bias in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brydges, Nichola M; Hall, Lynsey

    2017-07-15

    Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals. In particular, the 'cognitive bias' assay has gained popularity in recent years. Major disadvantages of this technique include length of time taken for animals to acquire the task (typically several weeks), negative experiences associated with task training, and issues of motivation. Here we present a shortened cognitive bias protocol using only positive reinforcers which must actively be responded to. The protocol took an average of 4days to complete, and produced similar results to previous, longer methods (minimum 30days). Specifically, rats housed in standard laboratory conditions demonstrated negative cognitive biases when presented with ambiguous stimuli, and took longer to make a decision when faced with an ambiguous stimulus. Compared to previous methods, this protocol is significantly shorter (average 4days vs. minimum 30days), utilises only positive reinforcers to avoid inducing negative affective states, and requires active responses to all cues, avoiding potential confounds of motivational state. We have successfully developed a shortened cognitive bias protocol, suitable for use with laboratory rats. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Gene probes: principles and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aquino de Muro, Marilena; Rapley, Ralph

    2002-01-01

    ... of labeled DNA has allowed genes to be mapped to single chromosomes and in many cases to a single chromosome band, promoting significant advance in human genome mapping. Gene Probes: Principles and Protocols presents the principles for gene probe design, labeling, detection, target format, and hybridization conditions together with detailed protocols, accom...

  20. Developing frameworks for protocol implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Barros Barbosa, C.; de barros Barbosa, C.; Ferreira Pires, Luis

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a method to develop frameworks for protocol implementation. Frameworks are software structures developed for a specific application domain, which can be reused in the implementation of various different concrete systems in this domain. The use of frameworks support a protocol

  1. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  2. Validation of IT-based Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, K. I.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    The communication network designed to transmit control and processing signals in digital Instrument and Control (I and C) systems in Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), should provide a high level of safety and reliability. There are different features between the communication networks of NPPs and other commercial communication networks. Safety and reliability are the most important factors in the communication networks of an NPP rather than efficiency which are important factors of a commercial communication network design. To develop Data Communication Protocol for Nuclear Power Plant, We analyze the design criteria and performance requirements of existing commercial communication protocols based on Information Technology(IT). And also, we examine the adaptability to the communication protocol of an NPP. Based on these results, we developed our own protocol(Nuclear power plant Safety Communication Protocol : NSCP) for NPP I and C, which meet the required specifications through design overall protocol architecture and data frame format, definition of functional requirements and specifications. NSCP is the communication protocol designed for a safety-grade control network in the nuclear power plant. In this report, we had specified NSCP protocol by FDT(Formal Description Technique) and established validation procedures based on the validation methodology. It was confirmed specification error, major function's validity and reachability of NSCP by performing simulation and the validation process using Telelogic Tau tool

  3. Unreliability effects in public transport modelling.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, Niels; Brands, Ties; de Romph, Erik; Aceves Flores, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, transport demand models do not explicitly evaluate the impacts of service reliability of transit. Service reliability of transit systems is adversely experienced by users, as it causes additional travel time and unsecure arrival times. Because of this, travellers are likely to perceive a

  4. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  5. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  6. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  7. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  8. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  9. Protocols for Scholarly Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepe, A.; Yeomans, J.

    2007-10-01

    CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research, has operated an institutional preprint repository for more than 10 years. The repository contains over 850,000 records of which more than 450,000 are full-text OA preprints, mostly in the field of particle physics, and it is integrated with the library's holdings of books, conference proceedings, journals and other grey literature. In order to encourage effective propagation and open access to scholarly material, CERN is implementing a range of innovative library services into its document repository: automatic keywording, reference extraction, collaborative management tools and bibliometric tools. Some of these services, such as user reviewing and automatic metadata extraction, could make up an interesting testbed for future publishing solutions and certainly provide an exciting environment for e-science possibilities. The future protocol for scientific communication should guide authors naturally towards OA publication, and CERN wants to help reach a full open access publishing environment for the particle physics community and related sciences in the next few years.

  10. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  11. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  12. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  13. A GridFTP transport driver for Globus XIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettimuthu, R.; Wantao, L.; Link, J.; Bresnahan, J.

    2008-01-01

    GridFTP is a high-performance, reliable data transfer protocol optimized for high-bandwidth wide-area networks. Based on the Internet FTP protocol, it defines extensions for high-performance operation and security. The Globus implementation of GridFTP provides a modular and extensible data transfer system architecture suitable for wide area and high-performance environments. GridFTP is the de facto standard in projects requiring secure, robust, high-speed bulk data transport. For example, the high energy physics community is basing its entire tiered data movement infrastructure for the Large Hadron Collider computing Grid on GridFTP; the Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory routinely uses GridFTP to move 1 TB a day during production runs; and GridFTP is the recommended data transfer mechanism to maximize data transfer rates on the TeraGrid. Commonly used GridFTP clients include globus-url-copy, uberftp, and the Globus Reliable File Transfer service. In this paper, we present a Globus XIO based client to GridFTP that provides a simple Open/Close/Read/Write (OCRW) interface to the users. Such a client greatly eases the addition of GridFTP support to third-party programs, such as SRB and MPICH-G2. Further, this client provides an easier and familiar interface for applications to efficiently access remote files. We compare the performance of this client with that of globus-url-copy on multiple endpoints in the TeraGrid infrastructure. We perform both memory-to-memory and disk-to-disk transfers and show that the performance of this OCRW client is comparable to that of globus-url-copy. We also show that our GridFTP client significantly outperforms the GPFS WAN on the TeraGrid.

  14. The impact of scheduling on service reliability : Trip-time determination and holding points in long-headway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Boterman, J.W.; Van Nes, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research on optimizing service reliability of longheadway services in urban public transport. Setting the driving time, and thus the departure time at stops, is an important decision when optimizing reliability in urban public transport. The choice of the percentile out of

  15. Reliability Analysis of Wireless Sensor Networks Using Markovian Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates reliability analysis of wireless sensor networks whose topology is switching among possible connections which are governed by a Markovian chain. We give the quantized relations between network topology, data acquisition rate, nodes' calculation ability, and network reliability. By applying Lyapunov method, sufficient conditions of network reliability are proposed for such topology switching networks with constant or varying data acquisition rate. With the conditions satisfied, the quantity of data transported over wireless network node will not exceed node capacity such that reliability is ensured. Our theoretical work helps to provide a deeper understanding of real-world wireless sensor networks, which may find its application in the fields of network design and topology control.

  16. IoT real time data acquisition using MQTT protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmoko, R. A.; Riantini, R.; Hasin, M. K.

    2017-05-01

    The Internet of Things (IoT) provides ease to monitor and to gain sensor data through the Internet [1]. The need of high quality data is increasing to the extent that data monitoring and acquisition system in real time is required, such as smart city or telediagnostic in medical areas [2]. Therefore, an appropriate communication protocol is required to resolve these problems. Lately, researchers have developed a lot of communication protocols for IoT, of which each has advantages and disadvantages. This study proposes the utilization of MQTT as a communication protocol, which is one of data communication protocols for IoT. This study used temperature and humidity sensors because the physical parameters are often needed as parameters of environment condition [3]. Data acquisition was done in real-time and stored in MySQL database. This study is also completed by interface web-based and mobile for online monitoring. This result of this study is the enhancement of data quality and reliability using MQTT protocol.

  17. Effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortijo-Cascajares, Susana; Nacle-López, Inmaculada; García-Escobar, Ignacio; Aguilella-Vizcaíno, María José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Cortés-Funes Castro, Hernán; Calleja-Hernández, Miguel-Ángel

    2013-03-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction (HSR) to antineoplastic drugs can force doctors to stop treatment and seek other alternatives. These alternatives may be less effective, not as well tolerated and/or more expensive. Another option is to use desensitization protocols that induce a temporary state of tolerance by gradually administering small quantities of the antineoplastic drug until the therapeutic dosage is reached. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of oxaliplatin desensitization protocols. A retrospective observational study was carried out between January 2006 and May 2011. The inclusion criteria were patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment with oxaliplatin who had developed an HSR to the drug and who were candidates for continuing the treatment using a desensitization protocol. The patients' clinical records were reviewed and variables were gathered relating to the patient, the treatment, the HSR, and the desensitization protocol administered. The data were analysed using version 18.0 of the statistics program SPSS. A total of 53 desensitization protocols were administered to 21 patients. In 89 % of these cases, no new reactions occurred while the drug was being administered. New reactions of mild severity only occurred in 11 % of cases, and none of these reactions were severe enough for treatment to be stopped. All patients were able to complete the desensitization protocol. This study confirms that oxaliplatin desensitization protocols are safe and effective and allow patients to continue with the treatment that initially caused an HSR.

  18. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective under...

  19. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  20. Deterministic secure communication protocol without using entanglement

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Qing-yu

    2003-01-01

    We show a deterministic secure direct communication protocol using single qubit in mixed state. The security of this protocol is based on the security proof of BB84 protocol. It can be realized with current technologies.

  1. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  2. An Evaluation of Protocols for UAV Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivancic, William D.; Stewart, David E.; Sullivan, Donald V.; Finch, Patrick E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper identifies data transport needs for current and future science payloads deployed on the NASA Global Hawk Unmanned Aeronautical Vehicle (UAV). The NASA Global Hawk communication system and operational constrains are presented. The Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) mission is used to provide the baseline communication requirements as a variety of payloads were utilized in this mission. User needs and desires are addressed. Protocols are matched to the payload needs and an evaluation of various techniques and tradeoffs are presented. Such techniques include utilization rate-base selective negative acknowledgement protocols and possible use of protocol enhancing proxies. Tradeoffs of communication architectures that address ease-of-use and security considerations are also presented.

  3. SIP protocol model for OMNET++

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Kucerak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes our new SIP protocol implementation for the OMNeT++ simulation framework. OMNeT++ simulation framework provides an extensive support of IP related protocols, nevertheless a working SIP protocol implementation is missing. Real measurements were also done using a SIPp traffic generator and the results are compared to those obtained by our new SIP model. Since this work is a part of bigger project concerned strictly on measuring "first response times" over networks with a faulty transmission links, the actually collected statistics are focused only this way.

  4. The HPA photon protocol and proposed electron protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitchford, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Hospital Physicists Association (HPA) photon dosimetry protocol has been produced and was published in 1983. Revised values of some components of Csub(lambda) and refinements introduced into the theory in the last few years have enabled new Csub(lambda) values to be produced. The proposed HPA electron protocol is at present in draft form and will be published shortly. Both protocels are discussed. (Auth.)

  5. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  6. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  7. Pilot testing of SHRP 2 reliability data and analytical products: Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Transportation agencies have realized the importance of performance estimation, measurement, and management. The Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act legislation identifies travel time reliability as one of the goals of the federal highw...

  8. Reliability Improvement of Power Converters by Means of Condition Monitoring of IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Power electronic systems have gradually gained an important status in a wide range of industrial applications such as renewable generation, motor drives, automotive, and railway transportation. Accordingly, recent research makes an effort to improve the reliability of power electronic systems...

  9. Reliable vehicular broadcast using 5G device-to-device communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gholibeigi, Mozhdeh; Sarrionandia, Nora; Karimzadeh Motallebi Azar, Morteza; Baratchi, Mitra; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Heijenk, Geert

    2017-01-01

    With the ever-increasing call for connected vehicles and intelligent transportation applications, vehicular networking have been of significant focus recently. Demands for highly reliable communication challenge the current underlying technology and transformations in vehicular communication are

  10. Valuing long-haul and metropolitan freight travel time and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Most evaluations and economic assessments of transportation proposal and policies in Australia omit a valuation of time spent in transit for individual items or loads of freight. Knowledge of delays and the practical value of reliability can be usefu...

  11. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  12. Protocol: validation of the INCODE barometer to measure the innovation compe-tence through the Rasch Measurement Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Sanchez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This communication presents a protocol in order to show the different phases that must be followed in order to validate the INCODE barometer, which is used to measure the innovation competence, with Rasch Measurement Theory. Five phases are stated: dimensionality analysis, individual reliability and validity analysis of ítems and persons, global reliability and validity analysis, and cathegory analysis.

  13. Real-Time QoS Routing Protocols in Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks: Study and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Adwan; Elleithy, Khaled

    2015-09-02

    Many routing protocols have been proposed for wireless sensor networks. These routing protocols are almost always based on energy efficiency. However, recent advances in complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) cameras and small microphones have led to the development of Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSN) as a class of wireless sensor networks which pose additional challenges. The transmission of imaging and video data needs routing protocols with both energy efficiency and Quality of Service (QoS) characteristics in order to guarantee the efficient use of the sensor nodes and effective access to the collected data. Also, with integration of real time applications in Wireless Senor Networks (WSNs), the use of QoS routing protocols is not only becoming a significant topic, but is also gaining the attention of researchers. In designing an efficient QoS routing protocol, the reliability and guarantee of end-to-end delay are critical events while conserving energy. Thus, considerable research has been focused on designing energy efficient and robust QoS routing protocols. In this paper, we present a state of the art research work based on real-time QoS routing protocols for WMSNs that have already been proposed. This paper categorizes the real-time QoS routing protocols into probabilistic and deterministic protocols. In addition, both categories are classified into soft and hard real time protocols by highlighting the QoS issues including the limitations and features of each protocol. Furthermore, we have compared the performance of mobility-aware query based real-time QoS routing protocols from each category using Network Simulator-2 (NS2). This paper also focuses on the design challenges and future research directions as well as highlights the characteristics of each QoS routing protocol.

  14. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  15. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  16. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  17. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  18. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  19. Validity and Reliability of Baseline Testing in a Standardized Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Kathryn L; Caze, Todd; Maerlender, Arthur

    2017-08-11

    The Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) is a computerized neuropsychological test battery commonly used to determine cognitive recovery from concussion based on comparing post-injury scores to baseline scores. This model is based on the premise that ImPACT baseline test scores are a valid and reliable measure of optimal cognitive function at baseline. Growing evidence suggests that this premise may not be accurate and a large contributor to invalid and unreliable baseline test scores may be the protocol and environment in which baseline tests are administered. This study examined the effects of a standardized environment and administration protocol on the reliability and performance validity of athletes' baseline test scores on ImPACT by comparing scores obtained in two different group-testing settings. Three hundred-sixty one Division 1 cohort-matched collegiate athletes' baseline data were assessed using a variety of indicators of potential performance invalidity; internal reliability was also examined. Thirty-one to thirty-nine percent of the baseline cases had at least one indicator of low performance validity, but there were no significant differences in validity indicators based on environment in which the testing was conducted. Internal consistency reliability scores were in the acceptable to good range, with no significant differences between administration conditions. These results suggest that athletes may be reliably performing at levels lower than their best effort would produce. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. EVA Human Health and Performance Benchmarking Study Overview and Development of a Microgravity Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, Jason; Jarvis, Sarah; Bekdash, Omar; Cupples, Scott; Abercromby, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The primary objective of this study is to develop a protocol to reliably characterize human health and performance metrics for individuals working inside various EVA suits under realistic spaceflight conditions. Expected results and methodologies developed during this study will provide the baseline benchmarking data and protocols with which future EVA suits and suit configurations (e.g., varied pressure, mass, center of gravity [CG]) and different test subject populations (e.g., deconditioned crewmembers) may be reliably assessed and compared. Results may also be used, in conjunction with subsequent testing, to inform fitness-for-duty standards, as well as design requirements and operations concepts for future EVA suits and other exploration systems.

  1. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijens, Laura; Barikroo, Ali; Pilz, Walmari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables

  2. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  3. Antibody engineering: methods and protocols

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chames, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    "Antibody Engineering: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition was compiled to give complete and easy access to a variety of antibody engineering techniques, starting from the creation of antibody repertoires and efficient...

  4. Implementation of postoperative handoff protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Standardised handoff protocols have become necessary patient ... improve the perioperative handoff communications from the cardiac operating theatres to the ICU. ..... as you can imagine, there was push-back to the change.

  5. Nuclear transport - The regulatory dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, L.

    2002-01-01

    The benefits that the peaceful applications of nuclear energy have brought to society are due in no small part to industry's capacity to transport radioactive materials safely, efficiently and reliably. The nuclear transport industry has a vital role in realising a fundamental objective of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as stated in its statute to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world. The context in which transports currently take place is complex, and rapidly changing. In many respects transport is being viewed as an integral market issue and not a subsidiary concern. The availability of carriers drives routing decisions and changes in material flows necessitate new approaches to packaging and transport scenarios. Pressures on the transport sector are not without serious consequences; they can cause delays and in some cases cancellation of planned movements. Complex routings and the necessary use of chartered carriers can push up costs and work against cost efficiency. Since the events of 11 September 2001 the security of nuclear transports has contributed an added dimension to how transports take place. Transports of radioactive material have an outstanding safety record, indeed the transport of such materials could be regarded as a model for the transport of other classes of dangerous goods. This safety record is achieved by two inter-related factors. It is due primarily to well founded regulations developed by such key intergovernmental organisations as the IAEA, with the essential contributions of the member states who participate in the implementation of regulations and the review process. It is due also to the professionalism of those in the industry. There is a necessary synergy between the two - between the regulators whose task it is to make and to enforce the rules for safe, efficient and reliable transport and those whose job it is to transport within the rules. It

  6. Data Exchange Protocol in Repsail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gucma Maciej

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Article presents implantation and theoretical considerations of data exchange protocol developed for the RepSail project, where main objective was design and building innovative hybrid yacht. One of problems during the design process was improper functioning of data exchange protocols that were available in the commercially available devices to mention navigation purpose NMEA183 or 2000 as well as automation dedicated ones (CAN and similar. Author shows the basis of the dedicated format of exchange for in board devices.

  7. The Groningen protocol: another perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Jotkowitz, A B; Glick, S

    2006-01-01

    The Groningen protocol allows for the euthanasia of severely ill newborns with a hopeless prognosis and unbearable suffering. We understand the impetus for such a protocol but have moral and ethical concerns with it. Advocates for euthanasia in adults have relied on the concept of human autonomy, which is lacking in the case of infants. In addition, biases can potentially influence the decision making of both parents and physicians. It is also very difficult to weigh the element of quality of...

  8. Reliability analysis of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; John Arul, A.; Pal Singh, Om; Suryaprakasa Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of reliability analysis of Shutdown System (SDS) of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Reliability analysis carried out using Fault Tree Analysis predicts a value of 3.5 x 10 -8 /de for failure of shutdown function in case of global faults and 4.4 x 10 -8 /de for local faults. Based on 20 de/y, the frequency of shutdown function failure is 0.7 x 10 -6 /ry, which meets the reliability target, set by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The reliability is limited by Common Cause Failure (CCF) of actuation part of SDS and to a lesser extent CCF of electronic components. The failure frequency of individual systems is -3 /ry, which also meets the safety criteria. Uncertainty analysis indicates a maximum error factor of 5 for the top event unavailability

  9. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  10. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  11. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen Ringi, M

    1995-05-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person`s state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs.

  12. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen Ringi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person's state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs

  13. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  14. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  15. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  16. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  17. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  18. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  19. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  20. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...