Sample records for reliable simple safe

  1. Ex vivo normothermic machine perfusion is safe, simple, and reliable: results from a large animal model.

    Nassar, Ahmed; Liu, Qiang; Farias, Kevin; D'Amico, Giuseppe; Tom, Cynthia; Grady, Patrick; Bennett, Ana; Diago Uso, Teresa; Eghtesad, Bijan; Kelly, Dympna; Fung, John; Abu-Elmagd, Kareem; Miller, Charles; Quintini, Cristiano


    Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) is an emerging preservation modality that holds the potential to prevent the injury associated with low temperature and to promote organ repair that follows ischemic cell damage. While several animal studies have showed its superiority over cold storage (CS), minimal studies in the literature have focused on safety, feasibility, and reliability of this technology, which represent key factors in its implementation into clinical practice. The aim of the present study is to report safety and performance data on NMP of DCD porcine livers. After 60 minutes of warm ischemia time, 20 pig livers were preserved using either NMP (n = 15; physiologic perfusion temperature) or CS group (n = 5) for a preservation time of 10 hours. Livers were then tested on a transplant simulation model for 24 hours. Machine safety was assessed by measuring system failure events, the ability to monitor perfusion parameters, sterility, and vessel integrity. The ability of the machine to preserve injured organs was assessed by liver function tests, hemodynamic parameters, and histology. No system failures were recorded. Target hemodynamic parameters were easily achieved and vascular complications were not encountered. Liver function parameters as well as histology showed significant differences between the 2 groups, with NMP livers showing preserved liver function and histological architecture, while CS livers presenting postreperfusion parameters consistent with unrecoverable cell injury. Our study shows that NMP is safe, reliable, and provides superior graft preservation compared to CS in our DCD porcine model. © The Author(s) 2014.

  2. Fracture-Safe and Fatigue-Reliable Structures

    M. N. James


    Full Text Available Learning from history is, by popular account, something at which human beings are not particularly good; George Bernard Shaw having stated that “we learn from history that we learn nothing from history”, while the Spanish philosopher George Santayana apparently claimed that “those who cannot learn from history are doomed to repeat it”.1 This is certainly true in the field of structural integrity where, some 150 years after the first full-scale structural fatigue tests were carried out, fracture-safe and fatigue-reliable design can be achieved to a statistical probability in complex and sophisticated structures, such as aircraft. Alongside this, however, failures of large, and expensive, welded structures can still occur from such simple causes as inadequate communication, and lack of awareness of the importance of the design of structural details to the overall fatigue life and failure. This paper considers several examples of such difficulties in the context of the development of fatigue design philosophies and the success or otherwise of learning from the history of failures.

  3. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production


    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation.

  4. A Very Simple Safe-Bayesian Random Forest.

    Quadrianto, Novi; Ghahramani, Zoubin


    Random forests works by averaging several predictions of de-correlated trees. We show a conceptually radical approach to generate a random forest: random sampling of many trees from a prior distribution, and subsequently performing a weighted ensemble of predictive probabilities. Our approach uses priors that allow sampling of decision trees even before looking at the data, and a power likelihood that explores the space spanned by combination of decision trees. While each tree performs Bayesian inference to compute its predictions, our aggregation procedure uses the power likelihood rather than the likelihood and is therefore strictly speaking not Bayesian. Nonetheless, we refer to it as a Bayesian random forest but with a built-in safety. The safeness comes as it has good predictive performance even if the underlying probabilistic model is wrong. We demonstrate empirically that our Safe-Bayesian random forest outperforms MCMC or SMC based Bayesian decision trees in term of speed and accuracy, and achieves competitive performance to entropy or Gini optimised random forest, yet is very simple to construct.

  5. Transoperative refusion: a simple and safe method in emergency surgery

    Luiz Carlos Buarque Gusmão


    Full Text Available The objective is to reinforce the importance of blood reinfusion as a cheap, safe and simple method, which can be used in small hospitals, especially those in which there is no blood bank. Moreover, even with the use of devices that perform the collection and filtration of blood, more recent studies show that the cost-benefit ratio is much better when autologous transfusion is compared with blood transfusions, even when there is injury to hollow viscera and blood contamination. It is known that the allogeneic blood transfusion carries a number of risks to patients, among them are the coagulation disorders mediated by excess enzymes in the conserved blood, and deficiency in clotting factors, mainly the Factor V, the proacelerin. Another factor would be the risk of contamination with still unknown pathogens or that are not investigated during screening for selection of donors, such as the West Nile Fever and Creutzfeldt-Jacob, better known as "Mad Cow" disease. Comparing both methods, we conclude that blood autotransfusion has numerous advantages over heterologous transfusion, even in large hospitals. We are not against blood transfusions, just do not agree that the patient's own blood is discarded without making sure there will be enough blood in stock to get him out of the hemorrhagic shock.

  6. Transoperative refusion: a simple and safe method in emergency surgery.

    Gusmão, Luiz Carlos Buarque; Valoes, Sérgio Henrique Chagas; Leitão Neto, José da Silva


    The objective is to reinforce the importance of blood reinfusion as a cheap, safe and simple method, which can be used in small hospitals, especially those in which there is no blood bank. Moreover, even with the use of devices that perform the collection and filtration of blood, more recent studies show that the cost-benefit ratio is much better when autologous transfusion is compared with blood transfusions, even when there is injury to hollow viscera and blood contamination. It is known that the allogeneic blood transfusion carries a number of risks to patients, among them are the coagulation disorders mediated by excess enzymes in the conserved blood, and deficiency in clotting factors, mainly the Factor V, the proacelerin. Another factor would be the risk of contamination with still unknown pathogens or that are not investigated during screening for selection of donors, such as the West Nile Fever and Creutzfeldt-Jacob, better known as "Mad Cow" disease. Comparing both methods, we conclude that blood autotransfusion has numerous advantages over heterologous transfusion, even in large hospitals. We are not against blood transfusions, just do not agree that the patient's own blood is discarded without making sure there will be enough blood in stock to get him out of the hemorrhagic shock.

  7. A simple method to evaluate the reliability of OWAS observations.

    de Bruijn, I; Engels, J A; van der Gulden, J W


    Slides showing nurses in different working postures were used to determine the reliability of OWAS observations. Each slide could be looked at for 3 seconds, while a new slide was shown every 30 seconds to resemble the normal practice of observation. Two observers twice scored a series of slides, some of them being identical at both viewings. To reduce effects of recall there was a time interval of 4 weeks or more between the two viewings and the slides were in a different order the second time. Different series were used to evaluate inter- and intra-observer reliability. The OWAS scores of corresponding slides were compared. In almost all comparisons percentages of agreement over 85% and kappa's over 0.6 were found, which is considered as good agreement. The procedure described seems to be a useful and simple technique to determine such reliability.

  8. A 'simple anterior fish excluder' (SAFE for mitigating penaeid-trawl bycatch.

    Matthew J McHugh

    Full Text Available Various plastic strips and sheets (termed 'simple anterior fish excluders'-SAFEs were positioned across the openings of penaeid trawls in attempts at reducing the unwanted bycatches of small teleosts. Initially, three SAFEs (a single wire without, and with small and large plastic panels were compared against a control (no SAFE on paired beam trawls. All SAFEs maintained targeted Metapenaeus macleayi catches, while the largest plastic SAFE significantly reduced total bycatch by 51% and the numbers of Pomatomus saltatrix, Mugil cephalus and Herklotsichthys castelnaui by up to 58%. A redesigned SAFE ('continuous plastic' was subsequently tested (against a control on paired otter trawls, significantly reducing total bycatch by 28% and P. saltatrix and H. castelnaui by up to 42%. The continuous-plastic SAFE also significantly reduced M. macleayi catches by ~7%, but this was explained by ~5% less wing-end spread, and could be simply negated through otter-board refinement. Further work is required to refine the tested SAFEs, and to quantify species-specific escape mechanisms. Nevertheless, the SAFE concept might represent an effective approach for improving penaeid-trawl selectivity.

  9. On Reliable Transmission of Data over Simple Wireless Channels

    Pawel Gburzynski


    Full Text Available Standard protocols for reliable data transmission over unreliable channels are based on various Automatic Repeat reQuest (ARQ schemes, whereby the sending node receives feedback from the receiver and retransmits the missing data. We discuss this issue in the context of one-way data transmission over simple wireless channels characteristic of many sensing and monitoring applications. Using a specific project as an example, we demonstrate how the constraints of a low-cost embedded wireless system get in the way of a workable solution precluding the use of popular schemes based on windows and periodic acknowledgments. We also propose an efficient solution to the problem and demonstrate its advantage over the traditional protocols.

  10. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program. Igniters and Safe and Arm Device Analysis.


    currenk is applied to the squibs which ignite the pyrogen motor. Hot gases from the pyrogen motor exhaust up the blast tube to the rocket motor...acts as a back- up in case of failure of the primary ignition spark plug. The hot gas igniter has a burn-time of 80 to 100 milliseconds. It consists of...Reliability The data collected todate indicates two separate character- istics effecting the reliability of igniters and safe and arm devices. The first

  11. Test-retest reliability of the safe driving behavior measure for community-dwelling elderly drivers.

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Lee, Joo-Hyun; Han, Sang-Woo


    [Purpose] The Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) is a self-report measurement tools that assesses the safe-driving behaviors of the elderly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the SDBM among community-dwelling elderly drivers. [Subjects and Methods] A total of sixty-one community-dwelling elderly were enrolled to investigate the reliability of the SDBM. The SDBM was assessed in two sessions that were conducted three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. That test-retest reliability of overall scores and three domain scores of the SDBM were statistically evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC (2.1)]. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify bivariate associations among the three domains of the SDBM. [Results] The SDBM demonstrated excellent rest-retest reliability for community-dwelling elderly drivers. The Cronbach alpha coefficients of the three domains of person-vehicle (0.979), person-environment (0.944), and person-vehicle-environment (0.971) of the SDBM indicate high internal consistency. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM is a reliable measure for evaluating the safe- driving of automobiles by community-dwelling elderly, and is adequate for detecting changes in scores in clinical settings.

  12. Temporary balloon occlusion of internal carotid artery : a simple and reliable clinical test.

    Sudhakar K


    Full Text Available Balloon test occlusion of internal carotid artery has been frequently used in preoperative evaluation of patients with carotid aneurysms, fistulas and skull based neoplasms in whom arterial sacrifice is planned or considered as a possible part of therapy. We present our experience of the test in 28 patients. The test was positive in four and negative in twenty four patients. The results are compared with cross-compression angiography and the outcome following internal carotid artery sacrifice. There were no complications related to the test and the results accurately predicted the tolerance to occlusion of artery. We found the test safe, simple to perform and reliable to preoperatively detect patients at risk of ischaemic stroke following surgical ligation or endovascular occlusion of internal carotid artery.

  13. The development of the Czech Republic electric industry - Reliable, safe and responsible source mix

    Vrba, Miroslav; Jez, Jiri; Ptacek, Jiri


    The paper focuses on the development of the Czech Republic electric industry in close perspective and the prediction of its expected future in period up to 2030. The goal of the paper is to specify methods and procedures applied within periodic assessment of Czech electric power sector balance outlook for the State authorities. A necessity to respect economic recession and politicization of the issue of power sector development has invoked that these items are added to commonly used procedures. A key criterion is the reliable and safe electricity supply by adequate source mix for acceptable prices and environmental aspects.

  14. Reliable JavaScript how to code safely in the world's most dangerous language

    Spencer, Lawrence


    Create more robust applications with a test-first approach to JavaScript Reliable JavaScript, How to Code Safely in the World's Most Dangerous Language demonstrates how to create test-driven development for large-scale JavaScript applications that will stand the test of time and stay accurate through long-term use and maintenance. Taking a test-first approach to software architecture, this book walks you through several patterns and practices and explains what they are supposed to do by having you write unit tests. Write the code to pass the unit tests, so you not only develop your technique

  15. Simple, Safe, and Cost-Effective Technique for Resected Stomach Extraction in Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy

    Serhan Derici


    Full Text Available Background. Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG has become a popular operation during the recent years. This procedure requires resection of 80–90% of the stomach. Extraction of gastric specimen is known to be a challenging and costly stage of the operation. In this paper, we report results of a simple and cost-effective specimen extraction technique which was applied to 137 consecutive LSG patients. Methods. Between October 2013 and October 2015, 137 laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy surgeries were performed at Dokuz Eylul University General Surgery Department, Upper Gastrointestinal Surgery Unit. All specimens were extracted through a 15 mm trocar site without using any special device. Results. We noticed one superficial incisional surgical site infection and treated this patient with oral antibiotics. No cases of trocar site hernia were observed. Conclusion. Different techniques have been described for specimen extraction. This simple technique allows extraction of specimen safely in a short time and does not require any special device.

  16. Reliability and validity of the Safe Routes to school parent and student surveys

    Evenson Kelly R


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability and validity of the U.S. National Center for Safe Routes to School's in-class student travel tallies and written parent surveys. Over 65,000 tallies and 374,000 parent surveys have been completed, but no published studies have examined their measurement properties. Methods Students and parents from two Charlotte, NC (USA elementary schools participated. Tallies were conducted on two consecutive days using a hand-raising protocol; on day two students were also asked to recall the previous days' travel. The recall from day two was compared with day one to assess 24-hour test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was assessed by comparing parent-reports of students' travel mode with student-reports of travel mode. Two-week test-retest reliability of the parent survey was assessed by comparing within-parent responses. Reliability and validity were assessed using kappa statistics. Results A total of 542 students participated in the in-class student travel tally reliability assessment and 262 parent-student dyads participated in the validity assessment. Reliability was high for travel to and from school (kappa > 0.8; convergent validity was lower but still high (kappa > 0.75. There were no differences by student grade level. Two-week test-retest reliability of the parent survey (n = 112 ranged from moderate to very high for objective questions on travel mode and travel times (kappa range: 0.62 - 0.97 but was substantially lower for subjective assessments of barriers to walking to school (kappa range: 0.31 - 0.76. Conclusions The student in-class student travel tally exhibited high reliability and validity at all elementary grades. The parent survey had high reliability on questions related to student travel mode, but lower reliability for attitudinal questions identifying barriers to walking to school. Parent survey design should be improved so that responses clearly indicate

  17. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Nasrin Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  18. A Simple and Safe Procedure to Repair Rectal Prolapse Perineally Using Stapling Devices

    Fumitake Hata


    Full Text Available Rectal prolapses are not life-threatening, however the bleeding and fecal incontinence associated with them significantly erode quality of life and can cause concern among patients' caregivers in nursing homes. Many procedures have been reported that repair rectal prolapses, and the procedure used depends on the severity of the prolapse; however, the treatments are yet to be established. Here we report a simple and safe procedure to repair rectal prolapse perineally using stapling devices. We performed this procedure on 5 patients within a short time. All patients were followed up for over 24 months and none had any recurrences of their rectal prolapses. No complications occurred during the operations and postoperative periods. Most patients who have prolapses are elderly and fragile, so the treatment must be easy, safe, and rapid. While rectal prolapse is not life-threatening, the goal of treatment is to alleviate its symptoms. The procedure we describe is consistent with this concept. We suggest that this procedure, which uses surgical stapling devices, might be a better option for the treatment of complete rectal prolapse. We will continue to surgically correct complete rectal prolapses and investigate the long-term outcomes of the procedure.

  19. Causing Communication Closure: Safe Program Composition with Reliable Non-FIFO Channels

    Engelhardt, Kai


    A semantic framework for analyzing safe composition of distributed programs is presented. Its applicability is illustrated by a study of program composition when communication is reliable but not necessarily FIFO\\@. In this model, special care must be taken to ensure that messages do not accidentally overtake one another in the composed program. We show that barriers do not exist in this model. Indeed, no program that sends or receives messages can automatically be composed with arbitrary programs without jeopardizing their intended behavior. Safety of composition becomes context-sensitive and new tools are needed for ensuring it. A notion of \\emph{sealing} is defined, where if a program $P$ is immediately followed by a program $Q$ that seals $P$ then $P$ will be communication-closed--it will execute as if it runs in isolation. The investigation of sealing in this model reveals a novel connection between Lamport causality and safe composition. A characterization of sealable programs is given, as well as effic...

  20. UAV Research at NASA Langley: Towards Safe, Reliable, and Autonomous Operations

    Davila, Carlos G.


    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) are fundamental components in several aspects of research at NASA Langley, such as flight dynamics, mission-driven airframe design, airspace integration demonstrations, atmospheric science projects, and more. In particular, NASA Langley Research Center (Langley) is using UAVs to develop and demonstrate innovative capabilities that meet the autonomy and robotics challenges that are anticipated in science, space exploration, and aeronautics. These capabilities will enable new NASA missions such as asteroid rendezvous and retrieval (ARRM), Mars exploration, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), pollution measurements in historically inaccessible areas, and the integration of UAVs into our everyday lives all missions of increasing complexity, distance, pace, and/or accessibility. Building on decades of NASA experience and success in the design, fabrication, and integration of robust and reliable automated systems for space and aeronautics, Langley Autonomy Incubator seeks to bridge the gap between automation and autonomy by enabling safe autonomous operations via onboard sensing and perception systems in both data-rich and data-deprived environments. The Autonomy Incubator is focused on the challenge of mobility and manipulation in dynamic and unstructured environments by integrating technologies such as computer vision, visual odometry, real-time mapping, path planning, object detection and avoidance, object classification, adaptive control, sensor fusion, machine learning, and natural human-machine teaming. These technologies are implemented in an architectural framework developed in-house for easy integration and interoperability of cutting-edge hardware and software.

  1. Design Development Test and Evaluation (DDT and E) Considerations for Safe and Reliable Human Rated Spacecraft Systems

    Miller, James; Leggett, Jay; Kramer-White, Julie


    A team directed by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) collected methodologies for how best to develop safe and reliable human rated systems and how to identify the drivers that provide the basis for assessing safety and reliability. The team also identified techniques, methodologies, and best practices to assure that NASA can develop safe and reliable human rated systems. The results are drawn from a wide variety of resources, from experts involved with the space program since its inception to the best-practices espoused in contemporary engineering doctrine. This report focuses on safety and reliability considerations and does not duplicate or update any existing references. Neither does it intend to replace existing standards and policy.

  2. A Simple and Reliable Method of Design for Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

    Srinivasarao, Mantri; Sudha, K. Rama; Bhanu, C. V. K.


    Standalone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems are seen as a promoting method of electrifying areas of developing world that lack power grid infrastructure. Proliferations of these systems require a design procedure that is simple, reliable and exhibit good performance over its life time. The proposed methodology uses simple empirical formulae and easily available parameters to design SAPV systems, that is, array size with energy storage. After arriving at the different array size (area), performance curves are obtained for optimal design of SAPV system with high amount of reliability in terms of autonomy at a specified value of loss of load probability (LOLP). Based on the array to load ratio (ALR) and levelized energy cost (LEC) through life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, it is shown that the proposed methodology gives better performance, requires simple data and is more reliable when compared with conventional design using monthly average daily load and insolation.

  3. A Simple and Reliable Method of Design for Standalone Photovoltaic Systems

    Srinivasarao, Mantri; Sudha, K. Rama; Bhanu, C. V. K.


    Standalone photovoltaic (SAPV) systems are seen as a promoting method of electrifying areas of developing world that lack power grid infrastructure. Proliferations of these systems require a design procedure that is simple, reliable and exhibit good performance over its life time. The proposed methodology uses simple empirical formulae and easily available parameters to design SAPV systems, that is, array size with energy storage. After arriving at the different array size (area), performance curves are obtained for optimal design of SAPV system with high amount of reliability in terms of autonomy at a specified value of loss of load probability (LOLP). Based on the array to load ratio (ALR) and levelized energy cost (LEC) through life cycle cost (LCC) analysis, it is shown that the proposed methodology gives better performance, requires simple data and is more reliable when compared with conventional design using monthly average daily load and insolation.

  4. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette


    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  5. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette


    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  6. Rotational knee laxity: Reliability of a simple measurement device in vivo

    Zantop Thore


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Double bundle ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated to decrease rotational knee laxity. However, there is no simple, commercially-available device to measure knee rotation. The investigators developed a simple, non-invasive device to measure knee rotation. In conjunction with a rigid boot to rotate the tibia and a force/moment sensor to allow precise determination of torque about the knee, a magnetic tracking system measures the axial rotation of the tibia with respect to the femur. This device has been shown to have acceptable levels of test re-test reliability to measure knee rotation in cadaveric knees. Methods The objective of this study was to determine reliability of the device in measuring knee rotation of human subjects. Specifically, the intra-tester reliability within a single testing session, test-retest reliability between two testing sessions, and inter-tester reliability were assessed for 11 male subjects with normal knees. Results The 95% confidence interval for rotation was less than 5° for intra-tester, test-retest, and inter-tester reliability, and the standard error of measurement for the differences between left and right knees was found to be less than 3°. Conclusion It was found that the knee rotation measurements obtained with this device have acceptable limits of reliability for clinical use and interpretation.

  7. Effects of Irritant Chemicals on Aedes aegypti Resting Behavior: Is There a Simple Shift to Untreated "Safe Sites"?


    Effects of Irritant Chemicals on Aedes aegypti Resting Behavior: Is There a Simple Shift to Untreated ‘‘Safe Sites’’? Hortance Manda*, Luana M. Arce... aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant...overall impact. Methods: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU) were evaluated

  8. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang


    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  9. A simple, reliable, and no-destructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure

    Yuan, Jinpeng; Zhao, Yanting; Chang, Xuefang; Xiao, Liantuan; Jia, Suotang


    We present a simple, reliable, and no-destructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to collision rate constant between cold atoms and background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curve of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atom systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.


    Xu Weili; Lin Zhongqin; Chen Guanlong


    A simple and reliable contact algorithm for static-implicit FE code is proposed.It can overcome missjudgement and error-judgement,and improve convergence effectively,and can apply friction boundary condition conveniently.Based on the proposed contact algorithm,some typical sheet metal forming processes and one benchmark of NUMISHEET 93 are simulated by static-implicit FE code developed by the authors and their group.

  11. A simple, robust and reliable wind diesel concept for remote power supply

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.


    The paper introduces a Wind Diesel concept suitable for remote communities, the 'Simple, Robust and Reliable Concept' developed at Riso. All components are standard components, the system is self regulating using the component controllers and there is no power electronics. The paper documents...... a performance in terms of fuel savings and power quality that makes the concept a commercially viable option for including wind power in remote power supply systems....

  12. A Simple, Safe Technique for Thorough Seroma Evacuation in the Outpatient Setting

    Julie E. Park, MD, FACS


    Full Text Available Summary: Seroma formation, a common postoperative complication in reconstructive cases, can lead to capsular contracture and increased office visits and expenses. The authors present a safe, novel technique for ensuring the thorough removal of serous fluid in the outpatient setting. By relying on access with an angiocatheter, potential injury to permanent implants is minimized. The use of low continuous wall suction obviates the need of manual suction via multiple syringes and offers a rapid and thorough evacuation of all types of seromas.

  13. Validity and reliability of the safe driving behavior measure in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

    Song, Chiang-Soon; Choi, Yoo-Im; Hong, So-Young


    [Purpose] Driving is a vital component of recovery for stroke survivors facilitating restoration of their family roles and reintegration back into their communities and associations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Safe Driving Behavior Measure (SDBM) in community-dwelling self-drivers post-stroke. [Subjects and Methods] Participants were sixty-seven community-dwelling self-drivers who had received a diagnosis of first stroke in the past twelve months. To investigate the validity and reliability of the SDBM, this study evaluated two sessions, held three days apart in a quiet and well-organized assessment room. Cronbach's alpha and the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient [ICC (2.1)] were used to evaluate statistically concurrent validity and reliability of the overall and three domain scores. Pearson's correlations were used to quantify the bivariate associations among the three domains. [Results] The Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the three domains of person-vehicle (0.989), person-environment (0.997), and person-vehicle-environment (0.968) of the SDBM indicated high internal consistency in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke, in addition to excellent rest-retest reliability. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that the SDBM could be a reliable measure to evaluate automobile driving in community-dwelling self-drivers with stroke.

  14. Hybrids - Best of both worlds. [liquid and solid propellants mated for safe reliable and low cost launch vehicles

    Goldberg, Ben E.; Wiley, Dan R.


    An overview is presented of hybrid rocket propulsion systems whereby combining solids and liquids for launch vehicles could produce a safe, reliable, and low-cost product. The primary subsystems of a hybrid system consist of the oxidizer tank and feed system, an injector system, a solid fuel grain enclosed in a pressure vessel case, a mixing chamber, and a nozzle. The hybrid rocket has an inert grain, which reduces costs of development, transportation, manufacturing, and launch by avoiding many safety measures that must be taken when operating with solids. Other than their use in launch vehicles, hybrids are excellent for simulating the exhaust of solid rocket motors for material development.

  15. Safe retaining pressures for pressurized tunnel face using nonlinear failure criterion and reliability theory

    YANG Xiao-li; YAO Cong; ZHANG Jia-hua


    Based on the active failure mechanism and passive failure mechanism for a pressurized tunnel face, the analytical solutions of the minimum collapse pressure and maximum blowout pressure that could maintain the stability of pressurized tunnel faces were deduced using limit analysis in conjunction with nonlinear failure criterion under the condition of pore water pressure. Due to the objective existence of the parameter randomness of soil, the statistical properties of random variables were determined by the maximum entropy principle, and the Monte Carlo method was employed to calculate the failure probability of a pressurized tunnel. The results show that the randomness of soil parameters exerts great influence on the stability of a pressurized tunnel, which indicates that the research should be done on the topic of determination of statistical distribution for geotechnical parameters and the level of variability. For the failure probability of a pressurized tunnel under multiple failure modes, the corresponding safe retaining pressures and optimal range of safe retaining pressures are calculated by introducing allowable failure probability and minimum allowable failure probability. The results can provide practical use in the pressurized tunnel engineering.

  16. Factors in reliable treatment plant operation for the production of safe water.

    Hendry, Bruce A


    This contribution to the International Congress on Production of Safe Water, Izmir, Turkey, 20-24 January, 2009, relates to general aspects of a water supply undertaking rather than to particular technologies or chemistries for water treatment. The paper offers a "creative problem solving" approach following Fogler and LeBlanc (Strategies for creative problem solving. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1995) as a model for generating sustainable solutions when water quality and safety problems arise. Such a structured approach presents a systematic methodology that can promote communication and goal-sharing across the inter-related, but often isolated and dispersed, functions of water scientists and researchers, engineers, operations managers, government departments and communities. A problem-solving strategy, or "heuristic", invokes five main steps (define; generate; decide; implement; evaluate). Associated with each step are various creative and enabling techniques, many of which are quite familiar to us in one form or another, but which we can use more effectively in combination and through our increased awareness and practice. For example, taking a fresh view of a problem can be promoted by a variety of "lateral thinking" tools. First-hand investigation of a problem can trigger new thinking about the real problem and its origins. A good strategy implementation will always address each and every step (though not necessarily every possible technique) and will use them at various stages in the search for and implementation of solutions. The creative nature of our experience with a problem-solving heuristic develops our facility to cope better with complex formal situations, as well as with less formal or everyday problem situations. A few anecdotes are presented that illustrate some of the author's experiences relating to factors involved in safe water supply. Here, the term "factors" may signify people and organisations as agents, as well as meaning those aspects of a problem

  17. A Simple and Safe Technique for CT Guided Lung Nodule Marking prior to Video Assisted Thoracoscopic Surgical Resection Revisited

    James A. Stephenson


    Full Text Available Aim. We describe our experience of a simple, safe, and reproducible technique for lung nodule marking prethoracoscopic metastasectomy. Thoracoscopic lung nodule resection reduces patient discomfort, complications, higher level of care, hospital stay, and cost; however, small deeply placed lung nodules are difficult to locate and resect thoracoscopically. Materials and Methods. We describe and review the success of our novel technique, where nodules are identified on a low dose CT and marked with methylene blue using CT fluoroscopy guidance immediately prior to surgery. Results. 30 nodules were marked with a mean size of 8 mm (4–18 mm located at a mean depth of 17 mm, distributed through both lungs. Dye was detected at the pleural surface in 97% of the patients and at the nodule in 93%. There were no major complications. Thoracoscopic resection was possible in 90%. Conclusion. This is a simple and safe method of lung nodule marking to facilitate thoracoscopic resection in cases where this may not be technically possible due to nodule location.

  18. Measuring the Safety of Excreta Disposal Behavior in India with the New Safe San Index: Reliability, Validity and Utility

    Marion W. Jenkins


    Full Text Available Methods to assess household excreta disposal practices are critical for informing public health outcomes of efforts to improve sanitation in developing countries. We present a new metric, the Safe San Index (SSI, to quantify the hygienic safety of a household’s defecation and human feces disposal practices in India, where behavioral outcomes from on-going public expenditures to construct household sanitation facilities and eliminate open defecation are poorly measured. We define hygienic safety of feces disposal as capture in a hygienic sanitation facility. The SSI consists of 15 self-report items and two sub-scales, Latrine Use Frequency and Seven-Day Open Defecation Rate. Households are scored on a standardized scale from 0 (no defecation safely captured to 100 (all defecation safely captured. We present results of a pilot study in Odisha, India to apply the Index to assess excreta disposal behaviors among rural households and evaluate the reliability and validity of the Index for estimating the rate of correct and consistent sanitation facility usage of household with an improved latrine.

  19. Exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis with missing data: A simple method for SPSS users

    Bruce Weaver


    Full Text Available Missing data is a frequent problem for researchers conducting exploratory factor analysis (EFA or reliability analysis. The SPSS FACTOR procedure allows users to select listwise deletion, pairwise deletion or mean substitution as a method for dealing with missing data. The shortcomings of these methods are well-known. Graham (2009 argues that a much better way to deal with missing data in this context is to use a matrix of expectation maximization (EM covariances(or correlations as input for the analysis. SPSS users who have the Missing Values Analysis add-on module can obtain vectors ofEM means and standard deviations plus EM correlation and covariance matrices via the MVA procedure. But unfortunately, MVA has no /MATRIX subcommand, and therefore cannot write the EM correlations directly to a matrix dataset of the type needed as input to the FACTOR and RELIABILITY procedures. We describe two macros that (in conjunction with an intervening MVA command carry out the data management steps needed to create two matrix datasets, one containing EM correlations and the other EM covariances. Either of those matrix datasets can then be used asinput to the FACTOR procedure, and the EM correlations can also be used as input to RELIABILITY. We provide an example that illustrates the use of the two macros to generate the matrix datasets and how to use those datasets as input to the FACTOR and RELIABILITY procedures. We hope that this simple method for handling missing data will prove useful to both students andresearchers who are conducting EFA or reliability analysis.

  20. A simple method to hide data loggers safely in observation wells.

    Lorenzen, Gunnar; Sprenger, Christoph; Pekdeger, Asaf


    Submersible data loggers are widely used for groundwater monitoring, but their application often runs the risk of hardware and data loss through vandalism or theft. During a field study in India, the authors of this article experienced that well locks attract the attention of unauthorized persons and do not provide secure protection in unattended areas. To minimize the risk of losing data loggers, a cheap and simple solution has been invented to hide the instruments and associated attachments below the ground surface, inside observation wells. It relies on attaching the logger to a length of small-diameter pipe that is submerged at the bottom of the well, instead of attaching it to the top of the well. The small-diameter pipe with the logger is connected to a small bottle containing a magnet that floats on the water surface of the well and can be recovered using another bottle also with a magnet. A logger that is concealed in this way is difficult to detect and access without knowledge of the method and adequate removal tools. The system was tested and successfully applied for monitoring shallow observation wells at three field sites in Greater Delhi, India. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Administer and collect medical questionnaires with Google documents: a simple, safe, and free system

    Rakib Uddin RAYHAN


    Full Text Available Aim: Questionnaires are an invaluable resource for clinical trials. They serve to estimate disease burden and clinical parameters associated with a particular study. However, current researchers are tackling budget constraints, loss of funding opportunities, and rise of research associated fees. We aimed at exploring alternative avenues taking advantage of the free Google docs software for questionnaire administration. This presents an opportunity to reduce costs while simultaneously increasing efficiency and data fidelity. Material and Methods: Google documents were used as a platform to create online questionnaires that were automatically hosted via a unique URL. Password protected access to the URL link and a unique study ID gave patients around the clock access from anywhere in the world. Unique study ID ensured confidentially of all self-reported data. Patient responses were secured using a “Cloud” database where the data was automatically sorted, scaled and scored by custom Excel formulas. Researchers downloaded real-time questionnaire responses in multiple formats (e.g. excel which was then analyzed with a statistical software of choice. Results: This simple workflow provided instant questionnaire scores that eliminated the use for paper-based responses and subsequent manual entry of data. Ease of access to online questionnaires provided convenience to patients leading to better response rates and increase in data fidelity. The system also allowed for real time monitoring of patient’s progress on completing questionnaires. Online questionnaires had 100% completion rate compared to paper-based questionnaires. Conclusions: Google docs can serve as an efficient and free platform to administer questionnaires to a clinical population without sacrificing quality, security, and fidelity of data.

  2. 5 steps to delivering safe, secure and reliable rail solutions for the nuclear industry

    Connelly, C. [Direct Rail Services, Warrington (United Kingdom)


    Direct Rail Services (DRS) has been operating since October 1995, following the decision by parent company, British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), to create a strategic rail transport service. The decision came after the privatisation of the rail network in the UK, when the former British Rail was superseded by a range of private organisations responsible for separate areas of the industry. Individual companies became responsible for aspects such as the operation and maintenance of the network infrastructure and for passenger and freight train services. Rather than enter into contractual arrangements with third party contractors, DRS was formed - securing both the access and reliability of transport routes and availability of the rail network, providing greater guarantees about the levels of service delivery. The strategy of bringing this area of transport in house was concurrent with that of international transport, utilising its own fleet of ships for overseas fuel movements. Freight operations began in October 1995, with the first services operating between Sellafield and the low level radioactive waste facility at Drigg.

  3. Simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic antigens for Taenia solium cysticercosis.

    Sako, Yasuhito; Itoh, Sonoyo; Okamoto, Munehiro; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira


    SUMMARY Cysticercosis caused by infection with the larval stage of Taenia solium is an important cause of neurological disease worldwide and immunodiagnosis is important for the control and elimination of cysticercosis. In the present study, we established a simple and reliable preparation of immunodiagnostic low-molecular-weight antigens (LMWAgs) from T. solium cyst fluids by a cation-exchange chromatography (CEC). Banding patterns of LMWAgs on SDS-PAGE were different between isolates from Ecuador and China. All cysticercosis patient sera and some echinococcosis patient sera recognized both LMWAgs by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), but sera from healthy persons were not positive. There was no statistical difference in immunodiagnostic performance of LMWAgs prepared from different geographical isolates. These results indicated that these novel immunodiagnostic antigen preparations could contribute the control and prevention of cysticercosis in endemic areas, especially developing countries.

  4. Five simple guidelines for establishing basic authenticity and reliability of newly generated fungal ITS sequences

    R. Henrik Nilsson


    Full Text Available Molecular data form an important research tool in most branches of mycology. A non-trivial proportion of the public fungal DNA sequences are, however, compromised in terms of quality and reliability, contributing noise and bias to sequence-borne inferences such as phylogenetic analysis, diversity assessment, and barcoding. In this paper we discuss various aspects and pitfalls of sequence quality assessment. Based on our observations, we provide a set of guidelines to assist in manual quality management of newly generated, near-full-length (Sanger-derived fungal ITS sequences and to some extent also sequences of shorter read lengths, other genes or markers, and groups of organisms. The guidelines are intentionally non-technical and do not require substantial bioinformatics skills or significant computational power. Despite their simple nature, we feel they would have caught the vast majority of the severely compromised ITS sequences in the public corpus. Our guidelines are nevertheless not infallible, and common sense and intuition remain important elements in the pursuit of compromised sequence data. The guidelines focus on basic sequence authenticity and reliability of the newly generated sequences, and the user may want to consider additional resources and steps to accomplish the best possible quality control. A discussion on the technical resources for further sequence quality management is therefore provided in the supplementary material.

  5. Development of a simple reliable radiographic scoring system to aid the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.

    Lancelot M Pinto

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: Chest radiography is sometimes the only method available for investigating patients with possible pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB with negative sputum smears. However, interpretation of chest radiographs in this context lacks specificity for PTB, is subjective and is neither standardized nor reproducible. Efforts to improve the interpretation of chest radiography are warranted. OBJECTIVES: To develop a scoring system to aid the diagnosis of PTB, using features recorded with the Chest Radiograph Reading and Recording System (CRRS. METHODS: Chest radiographs of outpatients with possible PTB, recruited over 3 years at clinics in South Africa were read by two independent readers using the CRRS method. Multivariate analysis was used to identify features significantly associated with culture-positive PTB. These were weighted and used to generate a score. RESULTS: 473 patients were included in the analysis. Large upper lobe opacities, cavities, unilateral pleural effusion and adenopathy were significantly associated with PTB, had high inter-reader reliability, and received 2, 2, 1 and 2 points, respectively in the final score. Using a cut-off of 2, scores below this threshold had a high negative predictive value (91.5%, 95%CI 87.1,94.7, but low positive predictive value (49.4%, 95%CI 42.9,55.9. Among the 382 TB suspects with negative sputum smears, 229 patients had scores <2; the score correctly ruled out active PTB in 214 of these patients (NPV 93.4%; 95%CI 89.4,96.3. The score had a suboptimal negative predictive value in HIV-infected patients (NPV 86.4, 95% CI 75,94. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed scoring system is simple, and reliably ruled out active PTB in smear-negative HIV-uninfected patients, thus potentially reducing the need for further tests in high burden settings. Validation studies are now required.

  6. Reliability of the interpretation of coronary angiography by the simple visual method

    Guimarães Jorge Augusto Nunes


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of inter and intraobserver reproducibility of by the visual method interpretation of cineangiogram in a clinically based context. METHODS: Five interventional cardiologists analyzed 11 segments of 8 coronary cineangiograms at a two month apart sessions. The percent luminal reduction by the lesions were analyzed by two different classifications: in one (A the lesions were graded in 0% = absent, 1-50% = mild, 51 - 69 = moderate, and > or = 70% = severe; the other classification (B was a dichotomic one : or = 70%=significant lesions. The agreement were measured by the kappa (k index. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement was moderate for classification A (1st measurement, k = 0.36 -- 0.63, k m = 0.49; 2nd measurement, k = 0.39-0.68, k m = 0.52 and good for classification B (1st measurement, k = 0.55-0.73, k m = 0.63; 2nd measurement, k = 0.37-0.82, k m = 0.61. Intraobserver levels of agreement were k = 0.57-0.95 for classification A and 0.62-1.0 for classification B. CONCLUSION: The higher level of reproducibility obtained by adopting the dichotomous criteria usually considered for ischemic limits demonstrates that in the present clinical context, the reliability of the simple visual method is adequate for the identification of patients with clinically significant lesions and candidates for myocardial revascularization procedures.

  7. A simple and reliable method to blood type monkeys using serum samples.

    Chen, Song; Wei, Qing; Li, Junhua; Xiang, Ying; Guo, Hui; Ichim, Thomas E; Chen, Shi; Chen, Gang


    Monkeys are frequently used in experimental transplantation research because of their physical traits and availability. As ABO incompatibility may result in humoral injury, it is important to identify the ABO blood typing of monkeys before transplantation. However, monkeys lack expression of ABH antigens on red blood cells, which makes accurate determination of the blood type difficult. The gel agglutination assay has been widely used as a routine blood grouping test clinically for more than 10 years. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and the interference factors of using the gel system (including the direct gel system and the reverse gel system) for ABO typing in rhesus monkeys (n = 38) and cynomolgus monkeys (n = 26). Immunohistochemistry assay was used to obtain the accurate blood type data of monkeys. The results revealed that the direct gel system was ineffective in blood typing of monkeys, whereas the reverse gel system assay, which is based on preabsorbed serum, provided reproducible results that were confirmed by histologic analysis. We conclude that the reverse gel system assay with use of preabsorbed serum is a simple and reliable method for ABO typing of monkeys.

  8. A simple and reliable methodology to detect egg white in art samples

    Michela Gambino; Francesca Cappitelli; Cristina Cattò; Aristodemo Carpen; Pamela Principi; Lisa Ghezzi; Ilaria Bonaduce; Eugenio Galano; Pietro Pucci; Leila Birolo; Federica Villa; Fabio Forlani


    A protocol for a simple and reliable dot-blot immunoassay was developed and optimized to test work of art samples for the presence of specific proteinaceus material (i.e. ovalbumin-based). The analytical protocol has been extensively set up with respect, among the other, to protein extraction conditions, to densitometric analysis and to the colorimetric reaction conditions. Feasibility evaluation demonstrated that a commercial scanner and a free image analysis software can be used for the data acquisition and elaboration, thus facilitating the application of the proposed protocol to commonly equipped laboratories and to laboratories of museums and conservation centres. The introduction of method of standard additions in the analysis of fresh and artificially aged laboratory-prepared samples, containing egg white and various pigments, allowed us to evaluate the matrix effect and the effect of sample aging and to generate threshold density values useful for the detection of ovalbumin in samples from ancient works of art. The efficacy of the developed dot-blot immunoassay was proved testing microsamples from 13th–16th century mural paintings of Saint Francesco Church in Lodi (Italy). Despite the aging, the altered conditions of conservation, the complex matrix, and the micro-size of samples, the presence of ovalbumin was detected in all those mural painting samples where mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis unambiguously detected ovalbumin peptides.

  9. Biomonitoring of boron: Development and characterization of a simple, reliable and quality controlled biomonitoring method.

    Michalke, Bernhard


    Boron exposure is of interest and concern from an occupational point of view. Usual daily boron intake is related to boron blood plasma concentration boron biomonitoring, typically in urine, thus is mandatory for occupational health control institutions. This paper reports on the development of a simple, fast and reliable boron determination procedure based on inductively coupled plasma - optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Major aims for this method were simplicity in sample preparation, low risk for artifacts and interferences, high precision and accuracy, possibly low costs, including lower costs for element selective detection, short total analysis time and suitability for occupational health laboratories. Precision data (serial or day-to-day) from urine and doped urine were very good: <1.5 or <2%. Accuracy was calculated from analysis of a certified reference material (ERM-CD 281), as 99% or according to recoveries of doped concentrations ranging from 102 to 109% recovery. For cross-checking ICP-OES determinations, samples were analyzed also by quadrupole ICP-qMS and by sectorfield ICP-sf-MS at low and medium resolution. Both systems confirmed ICP-OES measurements when using (11)B for quantification. Determinations based on (10)B however showed some bias, except with ICP-sf-MS at medium resolution. The observed elevated signals are discussed with respect to the known Ne(++) interference (as an impurity in Ar), which is not separated in low resolving quadrupole ICP-MS systems or ICP-sf-MS at low resolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-R-3-hydroxyhexanoate) nanoparticles with polyethylenimine coat as simple, safe, and versatile vehicles for cell targeting

    Wu, Linping; Wang, Danyang; Parhamifar, Ladan;


    A simple and highly safe poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-R-3-hydroxyhexanoate) nanoparticulate delivery system that targets different cell types is developed. A sub-cytotoxic level of polyethylenimine coat mediates universal cell targeting. Internalized nanoparticles traffic along endolysosomal...... compartments, endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi complex. Nanoparticles have no detrimental effects on cell morphology and respiration....

  11. The development and reliability of a simple field based screening tool to assess core stability in athletes.

    O'Connor, S; McCaffrey, N; Whyte, E; Moran, K


    To adapt the trunk stability test to facilitate further sub-classification of higher levels of core stability in athletes for use as a screening tool. To establish the inter-tester and intra-tester reliability of this adapted core stability test. Reliability study. Collegiate athletic therapy facilities. Fifteen physically active male subjects (19.46 ± 0.63) free from any orthopaedic or neurological disorders were recruited from a convenience sample of collegiate students. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed to establish inter-tester and intra-tester reliability. Excellent ICC values were observed in the adapted core stability test for inter-tester reliability (0.97) and good to excellent intra-tester reliability (0.73-0.90). While the 95% CI were narrow for inter-tester reliability, Tester A and C 95% CI's were widely distributed compared to Tester B. The adapted core stability test developed in this study is a quick and simple field based test to administer that can further subdivide athletes with high levels of core stability. The test demonstrated high inter-tester and intra-tester reliability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An approach to the design of a simple, radiation hard, highly integrated and reliable, lightweight satellite bus

    Nock, K. T.; Salazar, R. P.; Buck, C.; Eisenman, D.


    A spacecraft system concept has been developed which uses ion propulsion and a small, simple, lightweight design approach to carry out a focused lunar science mission. The design relies on existing technology to achieve high reliability and the possibility of a near-term launch. Key characteristics of the mission are highly focused objectives, low launch costs, minimization of development risks and design simplicity. The spacecraft for the lunar mission is described with particular emphasis on the design and reliability approaches used. The degree of adaptability of this basic class of spacecraft bus is discussed with particular emphasis on its application as a technology testbed vehicle. Several potential mission applications are reviewed.

  13. A simple method to test the geometrical reliability of digital reconstructed radiograph (DRR).

    Pallotta, Stefania; Bucciolini, Marta


    In radiotherapy treatment portal images and digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) are the most frequently used image-guidance systems to monitor patient set-up during clinical routine. DRR is therefore a critical element in the process of virtual simulation and patient position verification in radiotherapy. The aim of this work was to assess the geometric reliability of the DRR generated by XiO, Pinnacle, Odyssey and Ocentra-Masterplan Treatment Planning Systems (TPS). Instead of the Computed Tomography (CT) images of a quality assurance phantom two synthetic phantoms were created and used to asses the linearity and the ray tracing reliability of the DRR generators. The obtained results demonstrate that the linearity and the reliability of DRR generators was less than 1 pixel for all TPSs.

  14. Reliability and validity of a simple and clinically applicable pain stimulus

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus;


    , but it is not commonly assessed in clinical practice. Whereas a range of tools and procedures for the quantitative sensory testing of pain sensitivity is available for laboratory pain research, most experimental pain stimuli are not well suited for clinical practice. In the current study, a simple and inexpensive......-clamp seems a potentially useful instrument for quantitative sensory testing in a clinical setting....

  15. Reliability and Criterion Validity of a Novel Clinical Test of Simple and Complex Reaction Time in Athletes1

    Eckner, James T.; Richardson, James K.; Kim, Hogene; Joshi, Monica S.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.


    Summary Slowed reaction time (RT) represents both a risk factor for and a consequence of sport concussion. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and criterion validity of a novel clinical test of simple and complex RT, called RTclin, in contact sport athletes. Both tasks were adapted from the well-known ruler drop test of RT and involve manually grasping a falling vertical shaft upon its release, with the complex task employing a go/no-go paradigm based on a slight cue. In 46 healthy contact sport athletes (24 males; M = 16.3 yr., SD = 5.0; 22 women: M age= 15.0 yr., SD = 4.0) whose sports included soccer, ice hockey, American football, martial arts, wrestling, and lacrosse, the latency and accuracy of simple and complex RTclin had acceptable test-retest and inter-rater reliabilities and correlated with a computerized criterion standard, the Axon Computerized Cognitive Assessment Tool. Medium to large effect sizes were found. The novel RTclin tests have acceptable reliability and criterion validity for clinical use and hold promise as concussion assessment tools. PMID:26106803

  16. Reliability and validity of a simple and clinically applicable pain stimulus

    O'Neill, Søren; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Manniche, Claus


    and the stimulus-response relationship was examined with a set of 6 different clamps.Conclusions: Clamp pain was sensitive to changes in pain sensitivity provoked by conditioned pain modulation (CPM). Test/re-test reliability of the spring-clamp pain was better for healthy volunteers over a period of days, than...... for hospital patients over a period of weeks. A strong correlation (ρ = 0.73, P > 0.0001) was found between clamp force and evoked pain intensity. Correlation to other pain stimuli varied, with a strong correlation between pre and post-CPM clamp pain intensity (ρ = 0.81, P > 0.0001), moderate correlation...

  17. Measurement of volatilized mercury by a mini-system: a simple, reliable and reproducible technique

    Cursino Luciana


    Full Text Available A simple and easy new technique for volatilized mercury determination in biological systems was developed. This technique is fast and sensitive and can overcome the problems that arise due to the extremely low readings during the measurements and reproducibility in biological material (bacteria. It measures directly the volatilized metallic mercury of bacteria by means of a chemical adsorbent in a coupled mini-system, as a modified technique for mercury in air analysis. It is potentially of interest to the bioremediation and bacterial mercury resistance communities

  18. Effects of irritant chemicals on Aedes aegypti resting behavior: is there a simple shift to untreated "safe sites"?

    Hortance Manda


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have identified the behavioral responses of Aedes aegypti to irritant and repellent chemicals that can be exploited to reduce man-vector contact. Maximum efficacy of interventions based on irritant chemical actions will, however, require full knowledge of variables that influence vector resting behavior and how untreated "safe sites" contribute to overall impact. METHODS: Using a laboratory box assay, resting patterns of two population strains of female Ae. aegypti (THAI and PERU were evaluated against two material types (cotton and polyester at various dark:light surface area coverage (SAC ratio and contrast configuration (horizontal and vertical under chemical-free and treated conditions. Chemicals evaluated were alphacypermethrin and DDT at varying concentrations. RESULTS: Under chemical-free conditions, dark material had significantly higher resting counts compared to light material at all SAC, and significantly increased when material was in horizontal configuration. Cotton elicited stronger response than polyester. Within the treatment assays, significantly higher resting counts were observed on chemical-treated dark material compared to untreated light fabric. However, compared to matched controls, significantly less resting observations were made on chemical-treated dark material overall. Most importantly, resting observations on untreated light material (or "safe sites" in the treatment assay did not significantly increase for many of the tests, even at 25% SAC. Knockdown rates were ≤5% for all assays. Significantly more observations of flying mosquitoes were made in test assays under chemical-treatment conditions as compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: When preferred Ae. aegypti resting sites are treated with chemicals, even at reduced treatment coverage area, mosquitoes do not simply move to safe sites (untreated areas following contact with the treated material. Instead, they become agitated

  19. Simple and reliable procedure for PCR amplification of genomic DNA from yeast cells using short sequencing primers

    Haaning, J; Oxvig, C; Overgaard, Michael Toft;


    Yeast is widely used in molecular biology. Heterologous expression of recombinant proteins in yeast involves screening of a large number of recombinants. We present an easy and reliable procedure for amplifying genomic DNA from freshly grown cells of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris...... by means of PCR without any prior DNA purification steps. This method involves a simple boiling step of whole yeast cells in the presence of detergent, and subsequent amplification of genomic DNA using short sequencing primers in a polymerase chain reaction assay with a decreasing annealing temperature...

  20. A Simple, Reliable, and Inexpensive Intraoperative External Expansion System for Enhanced Autologous Structural Fat Grafting

    Oranges, Carlo M.; Tremp, Mathias; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Largo, René D.


    External volume expansion of the recipient site by suction has been proposed as a way of improving fat graft survival. The objective of this study was to present an innovative and simple intraoperative external expansion system to enhance small-volume autologous fat grafting (40–80 mL) and to discuss its background and its mechanism of action. In this system, expansion is performed using a complete vacuum delivery system known as the Kiwi VAC-6000M with a PalmPump (Clinical Innovations). The recipient site is rapidly expanded intraoperatively 10 times for 30 seconds each with a negative pressure of up to 550 mm Hg before autologous fat injection. During this repetitive stimulation, the tissues become grossly expanded, developing macroscopic swelling that regresses slowly over the course of hours following the cessation of the stimulus. The system sets various mechanisms in motion, including scar release, mechanical stimulation, edema, ischemia, and inflammation, which provide an environment conducive for cell proliferation and angiogenesis. In order to maintain the graft construct in its expansive state, all patients are encouraged postoperatively to use the Kiwi three times daily for one minute per session over the course of three days. The handling of this system is simple for both the patients and the surgeon. Satisfactory clinical outcomes have been achieved without significant complications. PMID:27689056

  1. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.


    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  2. Radon Adsorbed in Activated Charcoal--A Simple and Safe Radiation Source for Teaching Practical Radioactivity in Schools and Colleges

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.


    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal.…

  3. A simple and reliable implementation of all-fiber velocity interferometer

    Tao, Tianjiong; Wang, Xiang; Weng, Jidong; Ma, Heli; Liu, Shenggang


    This work reports a fiber velocity interferometer (FVI), mainly used for velocity profile measurements of materials in dynamic compression experiments. This FVI generates two pairs of orthogonal signals with only one fiber-coupled optical hybrid to achieve push-pull analysis, which is traditionally obtained by a set of discrete optical components in a velocity interferometer system for any reflector (VISAR). These signals are received differentially by two balanced detectors. Common mode fluctuations of signals caused by rapid changes in light intensity are suppressed in this way, and the signals will not easily exceed the dynamic range of recorders anymore. Furthermore, a dual-core fiber probe is used to reduce disturbance from unwanted lights. At the Institute of Fluid Physics, FVI has been successfully applied in high-speed measurements up to several kilometers per second with almost the same precision of the heterodyne velocimetry (HV), which is now considered to be a reliable and accurate technique.

  4. Reliability of some ageing nuclear power plant system: a simple stochastic model

    Suarez-Antola, Roberto [Catholic University of Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay). School of Engineering and Technologies; Ministerio de Industria, Energia y Mineria, Montevideo (Uruguay). Direccion Nacional de Energia y Tecnologia Nuclear; E-mail:


    The random number of failure-related events in certain repairable ageing systems, like certain nuclear power plant components, during a given time interval, may be often modelled by a compound Poisson distribution. One of these is the Polya-Aeppli distribution. The derivation of a stationary Polya-Aeppli distribution as a limiting distribution of rare events for stationary Bernouilli trials with first order Markov dependence is considered. But if the parameters of the Polya-Aeppli distribution are suitable time functions, we could expect that the resulting distribution would allow us to take into account the distribution of failure-related events in an ageing system. Assuming that a critical number of damages produce an emergent failure, the above mentioned results can be applied in a reliability analysis. It is natural to ask under what conditions a Polya-Aeppli distribution could be a limiting distribution for non-homogeneous Bernouilli trials with first order Markov dependence. In this paper this problem is analyzed and possible applications of the obtained results to ageing or deteriorating nuclear power plant components are considered. The two traditional ways of modelling repairable systems in reliability theory: the 'as bad as old' concept, that assumes that the replaced component is exactly under the same conditions as was the aged component before failure, and the 'as good as new' concept, that assumes that the new component is under the same conditions of the replaced component when it was new, are briefly discussed in relation with the findings of the present work. (author)

  5. A Simple and Reliable Method for the Evaluation of the Exposed Field Near the GSM Antenna

    Algenti Lala


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a simple, accurate and very efficient method for the evaluation of the field in the vicinity of GSM antennas of the radio base-station in urban areas. The method is based on the replacement of the antenna panel with a group of discrete source emitters. A geometrical approximation is used for the evaluation of the environment’s influence also. The calculated results are compared with results taken from the use of NARDA SRM 3000 measuring equipment. The presented method could be successfully used for the exposure evaluation of the electromagnetic field emitted by GSM antennas of the base-station in urban areas.

  6. The stop screw technique--a simple and reliable method in treating flexible flatfoot in children.

    Jerosch, Joerg; Schunck, Jochem; Abdel-Aziz, Hazem


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stop screw method inserted with a minimal invasive technique in the treatment of flexible flatfoot in children. We evaluated the results in a series of 21 flat feet in the age group ranging from 8 to 14 years between 1999 and 2007. The correction was evaluated clinically by assessment of heel valgus angle, range of motion of the ankle joint, and the photopodographic grading. The radiological assessment was performed by measuring the talonavicular angulation (Meary's line). At time of follow-up there was significant improvement in the heel valgus angle during rest and during tiptoe standing, significant improvement in the dorsiflexion from neutral position, and in podographic grading. Radiologically talonavicular angulation improved significantly from 162+/-8.9 degrees preoperatively to 174+/-5.8 degrees postoperatively. We can conclude that subtalar arthroereisis is relatively simple, effective, and minimally invasive procedure in treating flexible flatfoot in pediatric age.

  7. Radioiodination of monoclonal antibodies, proteins and peptides for diagnosis and therapy. A review of standardized, reliable and safe procedures for clinical grade levels kBq to GBq in the Goettingen/Marburg experience

    Behr, Th.M.; Gotthardt, M.; Behe, M. [Marburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Becker, W. [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine


    Simple and reliable methodologies for radioiodination of proteins and peptides are described. The labeling systems are easy to assemble, capable of radioiodinating any protein or, with slight modifications, also peptide (molecular mass 1000-300,000) from kBq to GBq levels of activity for use in diagnosis and/or therapy. Furthermore, the procedures are feasible in any nuclear medicine department. Gigabecquerel amounts of activity can be handled safely. The most favored iodination methodology relies on the lodogen system, a mild oxidating agent without reducing agents. Thus, protein degradation is minimized. Labeling yields are between 60 and 90%, and immunoreactivities remain {>=}85%. Other radioiodination methods (chloramine-T, Bolton-Hunter) are described and briefly discussed. (orig.)

  8. ZyFISH: a simple, rapid and reliable zygosity assay for transgenic mice.

    Donal McHugh

    Full Text Available Microinjection of DNA constructs into fertilized mouse oocytes typically results in random transgene integration at a single genomic locus. The resulting transgenic founders can be used to establish hemizygous transgenic mouse lines. However, practical and experimental reasons often require that such lines be bred to homozygosity. Transgene zygosity can be determined by progeny testing assays which are expensive and time-consuming, by quantitative Southern blotting which is labor-intensive, or by quantitative PCR (qPCR which requires transgene-specific design. Here, we describe a zygosity assessment procedure based on fluorescent in situ hybridization (zyFISH. The zyFISH protocol entails the detection of transgenic loci by FISH and the concomitant assignment of homozygosity using a concise and unbiased scoring system. The method requires small volumes of blood, is scalable to at least 40 determinations per assay, and produces results entirely consistent with the progeny testing assay. This combination of reliability, simplicity and cost-effectiveness makes zyFISH a method of choice for transgenic mouse zygosity determinations.

  9. A simple and reliable formula for assessment of maximum volumetric productivities in photobioreactors.

    Cornet, Jean-François; Dussap, Claude-Gilles


    This article establishes and discusses the consistency and the range of applicability of a simple but general and predictive analytical formula, enabling to easily assess the maximum volumetric biomass growth rates (the productivities) in several kinds of photobioreactors with more or less 15% of deviation. Experimental validations are performed on photobioreactors of very different conceptions and designs, cultivating the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis, on a wide range of volumes and hemispherical incident light fluxes. The practical usefulness of the proposed formula is demonstrated by the fact that it appears completely independent of the characteristics of the material phase (as the type of reactor, the kind of mixing, the biomass concentration...), according to the first principle of thermodynamics and to the Gauss-Ostrogradsky theorem. Its ability to give the maximum (only) kinetic performance of photobioreactors cultivating many different photoautotrophic strains (cyanobacteria, green algae, eukaryotic microalgae) is theoretically discussed but experimental results are reported to a future work of the authors or to any other contribution arising from the scientific community working in the field of photobioreactor engineering and potentially interested by this approach.

  10. A simple, reliable quantitative score for grading chest X-ray in adult asthma

    Al-Said A. Haffor


    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to rate the level of spread of the morphological changes on chest X-ray (CXR, using the modified Shwachman–Kulczycki (S–K rating scale, in relation to changes in routinely measurable parameters in outpatient clinic, such as frequency of respiration (FR, heart rate (HR, wheeze (WHZ and peak expiratory flow (PEF. Asthma patients were classified into 4 groups; Group-1 ⩽ 2 visits per week with reversible symptoms, Group-2 two visits per week with irreversible symptoms, Group-3: 3–4 visits per week with irreversible symptoms; Group-4: patients with severe shortness of breath in whom SaO2 was threatening, hence were admitted as inpatients. CXR for group-2 showed bilateral increase in perihelia marking, bronchovascular markings but normal lungs fields and ruled out for costophrenic angles. Group-3 showed hyperinflation, obvious perihelia marking associated with bronchial thickening and blocking as well as unfolding aorta, with significantly (p < 0.05 lower PEF, higher HR, FR and WHZ than group 1 and 2. There was also some evidence of bronchial edema with clearly observed fleeting terminal bronchial opacities. CXR for Group-4 showed, extensive atelectasis secondary to obstruction and infection due to bronchiolitis and/or signs of right heart failure. Intra-classcorrelation coefficient showed a significant (p < 0.05 reliability among evaluators of CXR, implying its consistent applicability. Based on the results of the present study it can be concluded that monitoring PEF, FR, WHZ and HR parameters in outpatient clinic can be an objective estimate of the S–K score in order to classify the severity of asthma-induced-morphological changes in CXR.

  11. Developing safe and reliable LNG supply chains in teh new global environment: experience and lessons from six continents

    Meyer, Ernst; Danielsen, Hans Kristian; Dweck, Jacob; Mareino, Vince; Eriksen, Remi


    This paper explores the dynamics of risk management in the context of specific recent experiences in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) business. The paper notes the overall success of the LNG business in ensuring safety and reliability, and highlights the opportunities and dangers of recent business growth. Risks are organised by theme, with focuses on politics and regulation, safety and security, environmental impact, public perception, technological innovation, cost and time management, competence and quality of assets, and harsh climates. Developers and other stakeholders are encouraged to draw lessons from these experiences when attempting to model the interplay of social, commercial and technical factors in LNG project development. (auth)

  12. Radon adsorbed in activated charcoal—a simple and safe radiation source for teaching practical radioactivity in schools and colleges

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Mustapha, Amidu O.; Karunakara, N.


    Simple procedures for teaching practical radioactivity are presented in a way that attracts students' attention and does not make them apprehensive about their safety. The radiation source is derived from the natural environment. It is based on the radioactivity of radon, a ubiquitous inert gas, and the adsorptive property of activated charcoal. Radon gas from ambient air in the laboratory was adsorbed into about 70 g of activated charcoal inside metallic canisters. Gamma radiation was subsequently emitted from the canisters, following the radioactive decay of radon and its progenies. The intensities of the emitted gamma-rays were measured at suitable intervals using a NaI gamma-ray detector. The counts obtained were analysed and used to demonstrate the radioactive decay law and determine the half-life of radon. In addition to learning the basic properties of radioactivity the students also get practical experience about the existence of natural sources of radiation in the environment.

  13. Bedside thoracic ultrasonography of the fourth intercostal space reliably determines safe removal of tube thoracostomy after traumatic injury.

    Kwan, Rita O; Miraflor, Emily; Yeung, Louise; Strumwasser, Aaron; Victorino, Gregory P


    Thoracic ultrasonography is more sensitive than chest radiography (CXR) in detecting pneumothorax; however, the role of ultrasonography to determine resolution of pneumothorax after thoracostomy tube placement for traumatic injury remains unclear. We hypothesized that ultrasonography can be used to determine pneumothorax resolution and facilitate efficient thoracostomy tube removal. We sought to compare the ability of thoracic ultrasonography at the second through fifth intercostal space (ICS) to detect pneumothorax with that of CXR and determine which ICS maximizes the positive and negative predictive value of thoracic ultrasonography for detecting clinically relevant pneumothorax resolution. A prospective, blinded clinical study of trauma patients requiring tube thoracostomy placement was performed at a university-based urban trauma center. A surgeon performed daily thoracic ultrasonographies consisting of midclavicular lung evaluation for pleural sliding in ICS 2 through 5. Ultrasonography findings were compared with findings on concurrently obtained portable CXR. Of the patients, 33 underwent 119 ultrasonographies, 109 of which had concomitant portable CXR results for comparison. Ultrasonography of ICS 4 or 5 was better than ICS 2 and 3 at detecting a pneumothorax, with a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 92%. The positive and negative predictive values for ICS 2 were 46% and 93% and for ICS 3 were 63% and 92%, respectively. Bedside, surgeon-performed, thoracic ultrasonography of ICS 4 for pneumothorax can safely and efficiently determine clinical resolution of traumatic pneumothorax and aid in the timely removal of thoracostomy tubes. Diagnostic study, level II.

  14. Safe and simple detection of sparse hydrogen by Pd-Au alloy/air based 1D photonic crystal sensor

    Mitra, S.; Biswas, T.; Chattopadhyay, R.; Ghosh, J.; Bysakh, S.; Bhadra, S. K.


    A simple integrated hydrogen sensor using Pd-Au alloy/air based one dimensional photonic crystal with an air defect layer is theoretically modeled. Structural parameters of the photonic crystal are delicately scaled to generate photonic band gap frequencies in a visible spectral regime. An optimized defect thickness permits a localized defect mode operating at a frequency within the photonic band gap region. Hydrogen absorption causes modification in the band gap characteristics due to variation of refractive index and lattice parameters of the alloy. As a result, the transmission peak appeared due to the resonant defect state gets shifted. This peak shifting is utilized to detect sparse amount of hydrogen present in the surrounding environment. A theoretical framework is built to calculate the refractive index profile of hydrogen loaded alloy using density functional theory and Bruggeman's effective medium approximation. The calculated refractive index variation of Pd3Au alloy film due to hydrogen loading is verified experimentally by measuring the reflectance characteristics. Lattice expansion properties of the alloy are studied through X-ray diffraction analyses. The proposed structure shows about 3 nm red shift of the transmission peak for a rise of 1% atomic hydrogen concentration in the alloy.

  15. Is sealing cuff pressure, easy, reliable and safe technique for endotracheal tube cuff inflation?: A comparative study

    Roshdi R Al-metwalli


    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the three common methods of endotracheal tube cuff inflation (sealing pressure, precise standard pressure or finger estimation regarding the effective tracheal seal and the incidence of post-intubation airway complications. Methods: Seventy-five adult patients scheduled for N 2 O free general anesthesia were enrolled in this study. After induction of anesthesia, endotracheal tubes size 7.5 mm for female and 8.0 mm for male were used. Patients were randomly assigned into one of three groups. Control group (n=25, the cuff was inflated to a pressure of 25 cm H 2 O; sealing group (n=25, the cuff was inflated to prevent air leaks at airway pressure of 20 cm H 2 O and finger group (n=25, the cuff was inflated using finger estimation. Tracheal leaks, incidence of sore throat, hoarseness and dysphagia were tested. Results: Although cuff pressure was significantly low in the sealing group compared to the control group (P<0.001, the incidence of sore throat was similar in both groups. On the other hand, cuff pressure as well as the incidence of sore throat were significantly higher in the finger group compared to both the control and the sealing group (P<0.001 and P=0.008. The incidence of dysphagia and hoarseness were similar in the three groups. None of the patients in the three groups developed air leak around the endotracheal tube cuff. Conclusions: In N 2 O, free anesthesia sealing cuff pressure is an easy, undemanding and safe alternative to the standard technique, regarding effective sealing and low incidence of sore throat.

  16. An EULAR study group pilot study on reliability of simple capillaroscopic definitions to describe capillary morphology in rheumatic diseases.

    Smith, Vanessa; Beeckman, Sam; Herrick, Ariane L; Decuman, Saskia; Deschepper, Ellen; De Keyser, Filip; Distler, Oliver; Foeldvari, Ivan; Ingegnoli, Francesca; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Riccieri, Valeria; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Sulli, Alberto; Voskuyl, Alexandre; Cutolo, Maurizio


    To propose simple capillaroscopic definitions for interpretation of capillaroscopic morphologies and to assess inter-rater reliability. The simple definitions proposed were: normal--hairpin, tortuous or crossing; abnormal--not hairpin, not tortuous and not crossing; not evaluable--whenever rater undecided between normal and abnormal. Based upon an aimed kappa of 0.80 and default prevalences of normal (0.4), abnormal (0.4) and not evaluable (0.2) capillaries, 90 single capillaries were presented to three groups of raters: experienced independent raters, n = 5; attendees of the sixth EULAR capillaroscopy course, n = 34; novices after a 1-h course, n = 11. Inter-rater agreement was assessed by calculation of proportion of agreement and by kappa coefficients. Mean kappa based on 90 capillaries was 0.47 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.54) for expert raters, 0.40 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.44) for attendees and 0.46 (95% CI: 0.41, 0.52) for novices, with overall agreements of 67% (95% CI: 63, 71), 63% (95% CI: 60, 65) and 67% (95% CI: 63, 70), respectively. Comparing only normal vs the combined groups of abnormal and not evaluable capillaries did increase the kappa: 0.51 (95% CI: 0.37 ,: 0.65), 0.53 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.58) and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.62). On the condition that the capillaries were classifiable, the mean kappa was 0.62 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.74) for expert raters (n = 65), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.83) for attendees (n = 20) and 0.81 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.89) for novices (n = 44). This multicentre, international study showed moderate reliability of simple capillaroscopic definitions for describing morphology of capillaries by rheumatologists with varying levels of expertise. Novices were capable of distinguishing normal from abnormal capillaries by means of a 1-h training session. In future studies, the class not evaluable may be obsolete. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  17. The effect of peptide adsorption on signal linearity and a simple approach to improve reliability of quantification☆

    Warwood, Stacey; Byron, Adam; Humphries, Martin J.; Knight, David


    reliable, it is essential that the relationship between signal intensity and concentration is linear, without a significant intercept. Here, we show that peptide adsorption can severely affect this relationship, even under controlled conditions, and we demonstrate simple methodologies that can be used to moderate and predict this effect. These findings thus enable the quantification of proteins with increased robustness and reliability. PMID:23665148

  18. A Simple Negative Interaction in the Positive Transcriptional Feedback of a Single Gene Is Sufficient to Produce Reliable Oscillations

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M.; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso


    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  19. Simple & Safe Genomic DNA Isolation.

    Moss, Robert; Solomon, Sondra


    A procedure for purifying DNA using either bacteria or rat liver is presented. Directions for doing a qualitative DNA assay using diphenylamine and a quantitative DNA assay using spectroscopy are included. (KR)

  20. A simple, rapid and reliable protocol to localize hydrogen peroxide in large plant organs by DAB-mediated tissue printing

    Yonghua eLiu


    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 is a major reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays diverse roles in plant development and stress responses. However, its localization in large and thick plant organs (e.g. stem, roots and fruits, other than leaves, has proven to be challenging due to the difficulties for the commonly used H2O2-specific chemicals, such as 3, 3’-diaminobenzidine (DAB, cerium chloride (CeCl3 and 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCF-DA, to penetrate those organs. Theoretically, the reaction of endogenous H2O2 with these chemicals could be facilitated by using thin organ sections. However, the rapid production of wound-induced H2O2 associated with this procedure inevitably disturbs the original distribution of H2O2 in vivo. Here, by employing tomato seedling stems and fruits as testing materials, we report a novel, simple and rapid protocol to localize H2O2 in those organs using DAB-mediated tissue printing. The rapidity of the protocol (within 15 s completely avoided the interference of wound-induced H2O2 during experimentation. Moreover, the H2O2 signal on the printing was stable for at least 1 h with no or little background produced. We conclude that DAB-mediated tissue printing developed here provide a new feasible and reliable method to localize H2O2 in large plant organs, hence should have broad applications in studying ROS biology.

  1. Simple, reliable and fast spectrofluorometric method for determination of plasma Verteporfin (Visudyne) levels during photodynamic therapy for choroidal neovascularization.

    Aquaron, R; Forzano, O; Murati, J L; Fayet, G; Aquaron, C; Ridings, B


    Photodynamic therapy with Verteporfin, a potent photosensitizer dye, is a very effective treatment for age related macular degeneration due to choroidal neovascularization. Photodynamic therapy offers the potential for selective tissue injury in part attributable to preferential localization of Verteporfin, administrated by intravenous infusion, to the choroidal neovascularization complex and irradiation of the complex with non-laser thermal light at 690 nm resulting in at least temporary thrombosis and vessel closure. Verteporfin is a benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A formulated as a unilamellar liposome. In the blood Verteporfin is associated with lipoprotein fractions and is rapidly cleared via a receptor-mediated uptake mechanism due the high expression of LDL receptors in neovascular tissues. Verteporfin was undetectable in plasma 24 hr after infusion of the recommended dose: 6 mg/m2 of body surface area. The main side effect is photosensitivity of skin which is usually short-lived (24-48 hr) with a low incidence (2.3%). As skin photosensitivity depends on circulating rather than tissue drug levels, we investigate the possibility of developing a simple, fast and reliable spectrofluorometric method to measure plasma Verteporfin levels. Fluorescence emission spectrum (550-750 nm) of 1:10 saline diluted plasma with lambda exc=430 nm showed a characteristic emission peak at 692 nm, the height being proportional to the Verteporfin levels. The sensitivity is around 100 ng/ml and the pharmacokinetics of Verteporfin has been studied from 0 to 5 hr after infusion in six patients older than 65 years with age-related macular degeneration.

  2. A simple, rapid and reliable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) specific antibodies in cattle serum, plasma and bulk milk

    Kramps, J.A.; Maanen, van C.; Wetering, van de G.; Stienstra, G.; Quak, S.; Brinkhof, J.; Ronsholt, L.; Nylin, B.


    To detect Bovine Virus Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV)-specific antibodies in cattle serum, plasma and bulk milk, a simple, reliable and rapid blocking ELISA ("Ceditest") has been developed using two monoclonal antibodies ("WB112" and "WB103") directed to different highly conserved epitopes on the non-struct

  3. Reliable and simple spectrophotometric determination of sun protection factor: A case study using organic UV filter-based sunscreen products.

    Yang, Soo In; Liu, Shuanghui; Brooks, Geoffrey J; Lanctot, Yves; Gruber, James V


    Current in vitro SPF screening method for plant oil body (oleosome)-based SPF products possesses significant inconsistency and low reliability in the SPF rating. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the reliability and reproducibility of spectrophotometrically determined sun protection factor (SPF) from oleosome-based SPF products. The secondary objective was the data comparison of the spectrophotometric measurements against in vivo SPF testing to establish a reliable in vitro test method as a screening assay. Octyl methoxycinnamate (UVB filter) and avobenzone (UVA filter) were loaded into safflower oil bodies and formulated into oil-in-water emulsion-based finished products. To evaluate the reliability between in vivo and spectrophotometric test methods, samples were dispatched to a clinical laboratory, and the reported SPF values were compared with spectrophotometric test results. The observed SPF from the in vivo and spectrophotometric test results demonstrated a high correlation for SPF 30 products. Proportional correlation between the two evaluation methods was observed for SPF 15 and 50 products with slightly lesser accuracy with a smaller number of population tested in the clinical studies. A reliable spectrophotometric screening method for oil body-based SPF formulas has been developed using two broadly used organic UV sunscreen actives as a case study. The results demonstrated a high level of reproducibility and reliability compared to the US FDA-guided in vivo SPF testing method. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Design and Development of Low Cost, Simple, Rapid and Safe, Modified Field Kits for the Visual Detection and Determination of Arsenic in Drinking Water Samples

    Y. Anjaneyulu


    Full Text Available Arsenic is naturally found in surface and ground waters and the inorganic forms of arsenic are the most toxic forms. The adverse health effects of arsenic may involve the respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, nervous, and haematopoietic systems. Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a global problem widely seen in Bangladesh and West Bengal of the Indian sub continent. As there is a great demand for field test kits due to the anticipated reduction of the US EPA arsenic standard from 50ppb to 10ppb a field kit which offers rapid, simple and safe method for precise estimation of arsenic at 10ppb in drinking water samples is developed. Field methods, based on the mercuric-bromide-stain, consist of three different major parts, which are carried out stepwise. The first part of the procedure is to remove serious interference caused by hydrogen sulphide. In commercially available kits either the sulphide is oxidized to sulphate and the excess oxidizing reagent removed prior to the hydride generation step or, the hydrogen sulphide is filtered out by passing the gas stream through a filter impregnated with lead acetate during the hydride generation step. The present method employs cupric chloride in combination with ferric chloride or Fenton’s reagent for the removal of hydrogen sulphide, which is rapid, simple and more efficient. Other interferences at this step of the analyses are normally not expected for drinking water analysis. In the second step, the generation of the arsine gas involves the classical way of using zinc metal and hydrochloric acid, which produce the ‘nascent’ hydrogen, which is the actual reducing agent. Hydrochloric acid can be replaced by sulfamic acid, which is solid and avoids a major disadvantage of having to handle a corrosive liquid in the field. The arsine gas produces a yellowish spot on the reagent paper. Depending on the arsenic content, either, Yellow – H

  5. Simple and rapid preparation of [{sup 11}C]DASB with high quality and reliability for routine applications

    Haeusler, D.; Mien, L.-K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Nics, L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Nutritional Sciences, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Ungersboeck, J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Philippe, C. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Lanzenberger, R.R. [Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Kletter, K.; Dudczak, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Mitterhauser, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Hospital Pharmacy of the General Hospital of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Wadsak, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET, Medical University of Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)], E-mail:


    [{sup 11}C]DASB combines all major prerequisites for a successful SERT-ligand, providing excellent biological properties and in-vivo behaviour. Thus, we aimed to establish a fully automated procedure for the synthesis and purification of [{sup 11}C]DASB with a high degree of reliability reducing the overall synthesis time while conserving high yields and purity. The optimized [{sup 11}C]DASB synthesis was applied in more than 60 applications with a very low failure rate (3.2%). We obtained yields up to 8.9 GBq (average 5.3{+-}1.6 GBq). Radiochemical yields based on [{sup 11}C]CH{sub 3}I, (corrected for decay) were 66.3{+-}6.9% with a specific radioactivity (A{sub s}) of 86.8{+-}24.3 GBq/{mu}mol (both at the end of synthesis, EOS). Time consumption was kept to a minimum, resulting in 43 min from end of bombardment to release of the product after quality control. Form our data, it is evident that the presented method can be implemented for routine preparations of [{sup 11}C]DASB with high reliability.

  6. Initial antibiotic treatment for acute simple appendicitis in children is safe: Short-term results from a multicenter, prospective cohort study

    Gorter, R.R.; Lee, J.H. van der; Cense, H.A.; Kneepkens, C.M.; Wijnen, M.H.W.A.; Hof, K.H. In 't; Offringa, M.; Heij, H.A.


    BACKGROUND: Initial antibiotic treatment for acute appendicitis has been shown to be safe in adults; so far, not much is known about the safety and efficacy of this treatment in children. The aims of this study were to investigate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating ini

  7. Note: Design and construction of a simple and reliable printed circuit board-substrate Bradbury-Nielsen gate for ion mobility spectrometry

    Du, Yongzhai; Cang, Huaiwen; Wang, Weiguo; Han, Fenglei; Chen, Chuang; Li, Lin; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang


    A less laborious, structure-simple, and performance-reliable printed circuit board (PCB) based Bradbury-Nielsen gate for high-resolution ion mobility spectrometry was introduced and investigated. The gate substrate was manufactured using a PCB etching process with small holes (Φ 0.1 mm) drilled along the gold-plated copper lines. Two interdigitated sets of rigid stainless steel spring wire (Φ 0.1 mm) that stands high temperature and guarantees performance stability were threaded through the holes. Our homebuilt ion mobility spectrometer mounted with the gate gave results of about 40 for resolution while keeping a signal intensity of over 0.5 nano-amperes.

  8. Note: Design and construction of a simple and reliable printed circuit board-substrate Bradbury-Nielsen gate for ion mobility spectrometry.

    Du, Yongzhai; Cang, Huaiwen; Wang, Weiguo; Han, Fenglei; Chen, Chuang; Li, Lin; Hou, Keyong; Li, Haiyang


    A less laborious, structure-simple, and performance-reliable printed circuit board (PCB) based Bradbury-Nielsen gate for high-resolution ion mobility spectrometry was introduced and investigated. The gate substrate was manufactured using a PCB etching process with small holes (Φ 0.1 mm) drilled along the gold-plated copper lines. Two interdigitated sets of rigid stainless steel spring wire (Φ 0.1 mm) that stands high temperature and guarantees performance stability were threaded through the holes. Our homebuilt ion mobility spectrometer mounted with the gate gave results of about 40 for resolution while keeping a signal intensity of over 0.5 nano-amperes.

  9. A Reliable and Simple Method for Fabricating a Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Electrospray Ionization Chip with a Corner-Integrated Emitter

    Qian, Xiang; Xu, Jie; Yu, Cilong; Chen, Yan; Yu, Quan; Ni, Kai; Wang, Xiaohao


    Monolithically integrated emitters have been increasingly applied to microfluidic devices that are coupled to mass spectrometers (MS) as electrospray ionization sources (ESI). A new method was developed to fabricate a duplicable structure which integrated the emitter into a poly(dimethylsiloxane) chip corner. Two photoresist layers containing a raised base which guaranteed the precise integration of the electrospray tip emitter and ensured that the cutting out of the tip exerted no influence even during repeated prototyping were used to ease the operation of the process. Highly stable ESI-MS performance was obtained and the results were compared with those of a commercial fused-silica capillary source. Furthermore, chip-to-chip and run-to-run results indicated both reliability and reproducibility during repeated fabrication. These results reveal that the proposed chip can provide an ideal ion source for MS across many applications, especially with the perspective to be widely used in portable MS during on-site analysis. PMID:25894936

  10. Validity and reliability of a simple, low cost measure to quantify children’s dietary intake in afterschool settings

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Austin, S. Bryn; Giles, Catherine; Cradock, Angie L.; Lee, Rebekka M.; Gortmaker, Steven L.


    Interest in evaluating and improving children’s diets in afterschool settings has grown, necessitating the development of feasible yet valid measures for capturing children’s intake in such settings. This study’s purpose was to test the criterion validity and cost of three unobtrusive visual estimation methods compared to a plate-weighing method: direct on-site observation using a 4-category rating scale and off-site rating of digital photographs taken on-site using 4- and 10-category scales. Participants were 111 children in grades 1–6 attending four afterschool programs in Boston, MA in December 2011. Researchers observed and photographed 174 total snack meals consumed across two days at each program. Visual estimates of consumption were compared to weighed estimates (the criterion measure) using intra-class correlations. All three methods were highly correlated with the criterion measure, ranging from 0.92–0.94 for total calories consumed, 0.86–0.94 for consumption of pre-packaged beverages, 0.90–0.93 for consumption of fruits/vegetables, and 0.92–0.96 for consumption of grains. For water, which was not pre-portioned, coefficients ranged from 0.47–0.52. The photographic methods also demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability: 0.84–0.92 for the 4-point and 0.92–0.95 for the 10-point scale. The costs of the methods for estimating intake ranged from $0.62 per observation for the on-site direct visual method to $0.95 per observation for the criterion measure. This study demonstrates that feasible, inexpensive methods can validly and reliably measure children’s dietary intake in afterschool settings. Improving precision in measures of children’s dietary intake can reduce the likelihood of spurious or null findings in future studies. PMID:25596895

  11. A Reliable and Simple Method for Fabricating a Poly(Dimethylsiloxane Electrospray Ionization Chip with a Corner-Integrated Emitter

    Xiang Qian


    Full Text Available Monolithically integrated emitters have been increasingly applied to microfluidic devices that are coupled to mass spectrometers (MS as electrospray ionization sources (ESI. A new method was developed to fabricate a duplicable structure which integrated the emitter into a poly(dimethylsiloxane chip corner. Two photoresist layers containing a raised base which guaranteed the precise integration of the electrospray tip emitter and ensured that the cutting out of the tip exerted no influence even during repeated prototyping were used to ease the operation of the process. Highly stable ESI-MS performance was obtained and the results were compared with those of a commercial fused-silica capillary source. Furthermore, chip-to-chip and run-to-run results indicated both reliability and reproducibility during repeated fabrication. These results reveal that the proposed chip can provide an ideal ion source for MS across many applications, especially with the perspective to be widely used in portable MS during on-site analysis.

  12. Is the simple auger coring method reliable for below-ground standing biomass estimation in Eucalyptus forest plantations?

    Levillain, Joseph; Thongo M'Bou, Armel; Deleporte, Philippe; Saint-André, Laurent; Jourdan, Christophe


    Despite their importance for plant production, estimations of below-ground biomass and its distribution in the soil are still difficult and time consuming, and no single reliable methodology is available for different root types. To identify the best method for root biomass estimations, four different methods, with labour requirements, were tested at the same location. The four methods, applied in a 6-year-old Eucalyptus plantation in Congo, were based on different soil sampling volumes: auger (8 cm in diameter), monolith (25 × 25 cm quadrate), half Voronoi trench (1·5 m(3)) and a full Voronoi trench (3 m(3)), chosen as the reference method. With the reference method (0-1m deep), fine-root biomass (FRB, diameter biomass (MRB diameter 2-10 mm) at 2·0 t ha(-1), coarse-root biomass (CRB, diameter >10 mm) at 5·6 t ha(-1) and stump biomass at 6·8 t ha(-1). Total below-ground biomass was estimated at 16·2 t ha(-1) (root : shoot ratio equal to 0·23) for this 800 tree ha(-1) eucalypt plantation density. The density of FRB was very high (0·56 t ha(-1)) in the top soil horizon (0-3 cm layer) and decreased greatly (0·3 t ha(-1)) with depth (50-100 cm). Without labour requirement considerations, no significant differences were found between the four methods for FRB and MRB; however, CRB was better estimated by the half and full Voronoi trenches. When labour requirements were considered, the most effective method was auger coring for FRB, whereas the half and full Voronoi trenches were the most appropriate methods for MRB and CRB, respectively. As CRB combined with stumps amounted to 78 % of total below-ground biomass, a full Voronoi trench is strongly recommended when estimating total standing root biomass. Conversely, for FRB estimation, auger coring is recommended with a design pattern accounting for the spatial variability of fine-root distribution.

  13. Rarity-weighted richness: a simple and reliable alternative to integer programming and heuristic algorithms for minimum set and maximum coverage problems in conservation planning.

    Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul


    Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts.

  14. A Simple and Reliable PDMS and SU-8 Irreversible Bonding Method and Its Application on a Microfluidic-MEA Device for Neuroscience Research

    Yufei Ren


    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and SU-8 are currently two very commonly used polymeric materials in the microfluidics field for biological applications. However; there is a pressing need to find a simple, reliable, irreversible bonding method between these two materials for their combined use in innovative integrated microsystems. In this paper, we attempt to investigate the aminosilane-mediated irreversible bonding method for PDMS and SU-8 with X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS surface analysis and bonding strength tests. Additionally, the selected bonding method was applied in fabricating a microelectrode array (MEA device, including microfluidic features, which allows electrophysiological observations on compartmentalized neuronal cultures. As there is a growing trend towards microfluidic devices for neuroscience research, this type of integrated microdevice, which can observe functional alterations on compartmentalized neuronal culture, can potentially be used for neurodegenerative disease research and pharmaceutical development.

  15. 轧机安全联轴器用安全销的可靠性分析与处理%Reliability Analysis and Treatment of Safety Pin of Mill's Safe Coupling



    The Special Steel Division has a continuous rolling mill for long stainless steel products. The safety pin on the safe coupling of the mill was broken frequently in the operation to affect the normal production. An analysis is made of how to ensure the reliability of the safety pin of the mill' s safe coupling from material selec, tion, dimension calculation, manufacture and heat treatment, and operation and maintenance management to hope that helps the people who run into the same problem.%特钢事业部不锈钢长型材是一条连续轧制的生产线。在运行过程中,轧机安全联轴器的安全销一度频繁断裂,影响生产的正常进行。该文围绕如何确保轧机安全联轴器安全销的可靠,对其材料选择尺寸计算、加工制造、热处理以及使用维护中的管理进行分析,以期能对同行们有所帮助。

  16. Seismic reliability analysis of large electric power systems

    何军; 李杰


    Based on the De. Morgan laws and Boolean simplification, a recursive decomposition method is introduced in this paper to identity the main exclusive safe paths and failed paths of a network. The reliability or the reliability bound of a network can be conveniently expressed as the summation of the joint probabilities of these paths. Under the multivariate normal distribution assumption, a conditioned reliability index method is developed to evaluate joint probabilities of various exclusive safe paths and failed paths, and, finally, the seismic reliability or the reliability bound of an electric power system.Examples given in thc paper show that the method is very simple and provides accurate results in the seismic reliability analysis.

  17. Safe environments.


    A new film on the Social Care Institute for Excellence website aims to encourage health and social care organisations to create safe environments in which staff can raise concerns as part of normal practice. Key points raised in the film include that managers should listen to what whistleblowers say and ensure the concerns raised are managed well, and that open cultures in which concerns can be raised help build safer working environments and effective learning organisations. You can view the film at

  18. Safe cycling!

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    The HSE Unit will be running a cycling safety campaign at the entrances to CERN's restaurants on 14, 15 and 16 May. Pop along to see if they can persuade you to get back in the saddle!   With summer on its way, you might feel like getting your bike out of winter storage. Well, the HSE Unit has come up with some original ideas to remind you of some of the most basic safety rules. This year, the prevention campaign will be focussing on three themes: "Cyclists and their equipment", "The bicycle on the road", and "Other road users". This is an opportunity to think about the condition of your bike as well as how you ride it. From 14 to 16 May, representatives of the Swiss Office of Accident Prevention and the Touring Club Suisse will join members of the HSE Unit at the entrances to CERN's restaurants to give you advice on safe cycling (see box). They will also be organising three activity stands where you can test your knowle...

  19. An improved protocol for the preparation of protoplasts from an established Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture and infection with RNA of turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus: a simple and reliable method.

    Schirawski, J; Planchais, S; Haenni, A L


    An improved method for preparation of protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana cells grown in suspension culture is presented. This method is fast, reliable and can be used for the production of virtually an unlimited number of protoplasts at any time. These protoplasts can be transformed efficiently with RNA from turnip yellow mosaic tymovirus (TYMV) by polyethyleneglycol-mediated transfection. The simple transfection procedure has been optimized at various steps. Replication of TYMV can be monitored routinely by detection of the coat protein in as few as 2 x 10(4) infected protoplasts.

  20. Assuring reliability program effectiveness.

    Ball, L. W.


    An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.

  1. Fast and simultaneous detection of heavy metals using a simple and reliable microchip-electrochemistry route: An alternative approach to food analysis.

    Chailapakul, Orawon; Korsrisakul, Sarawadee; Siangproh, Weena; Grudpan, Kate


    This paper reports, for the first, the fast and simultaneous detection of prominent heavy metals, including: lead, cadmium and copper using microchip CE with electrochemical detection. The direct amperometric detection mode for microchip CE was successfully applied to these heavy metal ions. The influences of separation voltage, detection potential, as well as the concentration and pH value of the running buffer on the response of the detector were carefully assayed and optimized. The results clearly show that reliable analysis for lead, cadmium, and copper by the degree of electrophoretic separation occurs in less than 3min using a MES buffer (pH 7.0, 25mM) and l-histidine, with 1.2kV separation voltage and -0.8V detection potential. The detection limits for Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 1.74, 0.73 and 0.13microM (S/N=3). The %R.S.D. of each peak current was foods.

  2. Optogenetic Evocation of Field Inhibitory Postsynaptic Potentials in Hippocampal Slices: A Simple and Reliable Approach for Studying Pharmacological Effects on GABAA and GABAB Receptor-Mediated Neurotransmission

    Julien eDine


    Full Text Available The GABAergic system is the main source of inhibition in the mammalian brain. Consequently, much effort is still made to develop new modulators of GABAergic synaptic transmission. In contrast to glutamatergic postsynaptic potentials (PSPs, accurate monitoring of GABA receptor-mediated PSPs (GABAR-PSPs and their pharmacological modulation in brain tissue invariably requires the use of intracellular recording techniques. However, these techniques are expensive, time- and labor-consuming, and, in case of the frequently employed whole-cell patch-clamp configuration, impact on intracellular ion concentrations, signaling cascades, and pH buffering systems. Here, we describe a novel approach to circumvent these drawbacks. In particular, we demonstrate in mouse hippocampal slices that selective optogenetic activation of interneurons leads to prominent field inhibitory GABAAR- and GABABR-PSPs in area CA1 which are easily and reliably detectable by a single extracellular recording electrode. The field PSPs exhibit typical temporal and pharmacological characteristics, display pronounced paired-pulse depression, and remain stable over many consecutive evocations. Additionally validating the methodological value of this approach, we further show that the neuroactive steroid 5-THDOC (5 µM shifts the inhibitory GABAAR-PSPs towards excitatory ones.

  3. How people with low vision cycle safely

    Jelijs, Bart; Melis-Dankers, Bart; de Waard, Dick; Heutink, Jochem


    In the Netherlands, the ability to cycle safely and responsibly is important for independent mobility across the lifespan. In addition, cycling can be important in maintaining physical health. But when can a visually challenged person use a bicycle safely? Opinions vary, but there are no reliable -

  4. How people with low vision cycle safely

    Jelijs, Bart; Melis-Dankers, Bart; de Waard, Dick; Heutink, Jochem


    In the Netherlands, the ability to cycle safely and responsibly is important for independent mobility across the lifespan. In addition, cycling can be important in maintaining physical health. But when can a visually challenged person use a bicycle safely? Opinions vary, but there are no reliable -

  5. Type Safe Extensible Programming

    Chae, Wonseok


    Software products evolve over time. Sometimes they evolve by adding new features, and sometimes by either fixing bugs or replacing outdated implementations with new ones. When software engineers fail to anticipate such evolution during development, they will eventually be forced to re-architect or re-build from scratch. Therefore, it has been common practice to prepare for changes so that software products are extensible over their lifetimes. However, making software extensible is challenging because it is difficult to anticipate successive changes and to provide adequate abstraction mechanisms over potential changes. Such extensibility mechanisms, furthermore, should not compromise any existing functionality during extension. Software engineers would benefit from a tool that provides a way to add extensions in a reliable way. It is natural to expect programming languages to serve this role. Extensible programming is one effort to address these issues. In this thesis, we present type safe extensible programming using the MLPolyR language. MLPolyR is an ML-like functional language whose type system provides type-safe extensibility mechanisms at several levels. After presenting the language, we will show how these extensibility mechanisms can be put to good use in the context of product line engineering. Product line engineering is an emerging software engineering paradigm that aims to manage variations, which originate from successive changes in software.

  6. A Simple, Rapid and Reliable Method to Determine Imipramine and Desipramine in Mouse Serum Using Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Zhao, Jing; Shin, Yujin; Chun, Kwang-Hoon; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Lee, Jeongmi


    A rapid and sensitive ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometric (UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS) method was developed for quantification of imipramine, one of the most widely used tricyclic antidepressants, and desipramine, an active metabolite of imipramine, in mouse serum. The developed method included a simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile in 50 μL of serum and analyte separation on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 column using a gradient elution of acetonitrile with 0.1% formic acid and 20 mM ammonium formate. As a result, the entire analysis time was imipramine and desipramine, and calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.0-1,000.0 and 5.0-250.0 ng mL(-1) for imipramine and desipramine, respectively. Intraday precisions at three levels were 2.2-3.6 and 1.7-4.2% for imipramine and desipramine, respectively, whereas interday precisions were 2.6-5.0 and 2.0-8.4% for imipramine and desipramine, respectively. Accuracy ranged between 93.6 and 106.6% for imipramine and 94.1 and 106.4% for desipramine. Absolute recovery was 96.0-97.6% for imipramine and 87.0-99.5% for desipramine. Finally, the described method was applied to mice administered with imipramine, demonstrating the suitability for quantification of imipramine and desipramine for therapeutic drug monitoring or bioequivalence studies.

  7. Traveling Safely with Medicines

    ... Medications Safely My Medicine List How to Administer Traveling Safely with Medicines Planes, trains, cars – even boats ... your trip, ask your pharmacist about how to travel safely with your medicines. Make sure that you ...

  8. Safe Finger Tourniquet--Ideas.

    Wei, Lin-Gwei; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Hwang, Chun-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Wen; Chiu, Wen-Kuan; Li, Chun-Chang; Wang, Hsian-Jenn


    Tourniquets are often needed for optimized phalangeal surgeries. However, few surgeons forget to remove them and caused ischemic injuries. We have a modified method to create a safe finger tourniquet for short duration finger surgeries, which can avoid such tragedy. It is done by donning a glove, cutting the tip of the glove over the finger of interest, and rolling the glove finger to the base. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 54 patients underwent digital surgical procedures with our safe finger tourniquet. Because the glove cannot be forgotten to be removed, the tourniquet must be released and removed. This is a simple and efficient way to apply a safe finger tourniquet by using hand rubber glove for a short-term bloodless finger surgery and can achieve an excellent surgical result.

  9. Safe domain and elementary geometry

    Richard, J M


    A classical problem of mechanics involves a projectile fired from a given point with a given velocity whose direction is varied. This results in a family of trajectories whose envelope defines the border of a 'safe' domain. In the simple cases of a constant force, harmonic potential and Kepler or Coulomb motion, the trajectories are conic curves whose envelope in a plane is another conic section which can be derived either by simple calculus or by geometrical considerations. The case of harmonic forces reveals a subtle property of the maximal sum of distances within an ellipse.

  10. Are Detox Diets Safe?

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Are Detox Diets Safe? KidsHealth > For Teens > Are Detox Diets Safe? ... las dietas de desintoxicación? What Is a Detox Diet? The name sounds reassuring — everyone knows that anything ...

  11. Safe havens in Europe

    Paldam, Martin


    Eleven safe havens exist in Europe providing offshore banking and low taxes. Ten of these states are very small while Switzerland is moderately small. All 11 countries are richer than their large neighbors. It is shown that causality is from small to safe haven to wealth, and that theoretically...... of the safe havens, but it still explains, why they are rich. Microstates offer a veil of anonymity to funds passing through, and Switzerland offers safe storage of funds....

  12. 影响本安电源可靠性的因素及解决方法%The influence factors for the reliability of the intrinsically safe power



    According to explosion-proof principle and requirement of safety certification mark, this paper analyzes the problem which possibly appears during the production checking and intrinsic safety explosion test. By resolv-ing the circuit consisting of low-dropout regulator, the technical factors influencing the stability of intrinsically safe circuit have been presented. The paper also suggested corresponding solution based on analysis of the discreteness of low dropout regulator, the temperature-drift characteristics of limiting current, differential pressure distribution, max output capacity, heat dissipation, and related electrical specification. In the end, the paper lists all the notice during the design of intrinsically safe circuit, safe explosion-proof test, and manufacturing process.%  矿用本安型仪器需按照安全标志国家中心的要求进行防爆检验。针对由于设计或防爆检验时本安参数测量存在的不合理问题,从防爆原理、安全标志认证要求入手,对本安电路在防爆检验和生产检验过程中可能出现的问题进行了分析;通过对基于低压差稳压器组成的电路进行实例解析,找出了影响本质安全型电路可靠性的技术因素。在分析低压差稳压器的离散性、极限电流温漂特性、压差分配、最大输出能力、散热等电气特性的基础上,提出相应的解决办法。给出了本质安全型电路在设计、防爆检验以及生产中的注意事项。

  13. Clear & Simple

    ... Cultural Respect Language Access Talking to Your Doctor Research Underway Plain Language Clear & Simple What is Clear & Simple? Clear & Simple ... schedule? A: Pretesting need not be an elaborate, time-consuming research project and depends on: How quickly you work, ...

  14. Reliability and validity of Geriatric Mental State Scale (community simple version in Uyghur)%维吾尔文版老年精神状况量表社区简版的信效度研究

    潘欣欣; 李萍


    Objective:To translate and evaluate the reliability and validity of Geriatric Mental State Scale (GMSA),com-munity simple version in Uygur.Methods:GMSA was translated and revised;a total of 294 Uyghur elderly over 60 years old in outpatient and community were surveyed by Uyghur version GMSA,to evaluate the reliability and validity of GMSA;finally a total of 100 patients fitted in the diagnosis.Results:The total Cronbach’sαcoef-ficient of Uyghur version GMSA was 0.963;inter rater reliability was 0.930;test retest reliability of full scale was 0.870.Expert content validity(CVI value)was 0.856;the doctor diagnose of Chinese Classification and Diagnostic Criteria of Mental Disorders,version 3(CCMD 3)was used as the standard criterion related validation,the diagnosis coincidence rate of senile depression was 84.00%;sensitivity was 85.42%;specificity was 82.69%;the positive predictive value was 82.00%,and the negative predictive value was 86.00%;Kappa=0.680(P<0.01 ).Conclusions:GMSA in Uyghur had good reliability,validity and diagnostic performance;it could be used to screen depression symptom in patients from Uygur elderly population in community in Xin-j iang.%[目的]翻译并评价维吾尔文版老年精神状况量表社区简版(GMSA)的信效度。[方法]翻译并修订 GMSA,采用维吾尔文版GMSA在门诊和社区对294例60岁以上的维吾尔族老年人进行调查评价其信效度,并对100例老年人进行拟合诊断。[结果]维吾尔文版GMSA的总Cronbach’sα系数为0.963;评定者间信度为0.930;总量表的重测信度为0.870。专家内容效度(CVI)为0.856;以中国精神疾病分类方案与诊断标准第3版(CCMD 3)医生诊断为标准测定校标效度,老年抑郁症的诊断符合率为84.00%,灵敏度为85.42%,特异度为82.69%,阳性预测值为82.00%,阴性预测值为86.00%,Kappa=0.680(P<0.01)。[结论]维吾尔文版 GM-SA具有较好的信度及效度,诊断效能较好,可以在新疆社区维吾尔族老

  15. Reliability and safety engineering

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao


    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  16. Risk Propensity and Safe Medication Administration.

    Gonzales, Kelly


    To examine the relationship between risk propensity and safe medication administration, while also providing additional evidence of validity and reliability on the Safe Administration of Medication (SAM) Scale. A convenience sample of nursing students from a private Midwest university in the United States was invited to participate in the study. Fourth-year nursing students completed 2 instruments: revised Domain-Specific Risk-Taking and Risk Perception (DOSPERT) Scale, which measures risk propensity, and the SAM Scale, which measures knowledge and performance of safe medication administration. Second-year nursing students completed the SAM Scale; their scores were used to provide evidence of construct validity. This study demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between personal risk taking in the area of health/safety and safe medication administration in nursing students. No statistically significant relationship was found between risk perception and safe medication administration. In addition, the study provided evidence of the validity and reliability of the SAM Scale. This study is among the first to demonstrate a relationship between risk propensity and safe medication administration. Further research into personal risk taking, risk perception and its impact on patient safety, specifically safe medication administration, is needed.

  17. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.


    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  18. Asymptotically Safe Dark Matter

    Sannino, Francesco; Shoemaker, Ian M.


    We introduce a new paradigm for dark matter (DM) interactions in which the interaction strength is asymptotically safe. In models of this type, the coupling strength is small at low energies but increases at higher energies, and asymptotically approaches a finite constant value. The resulting...... searches are the primary ways to constrain or discover asymptotically safe dark matter....

  19. Medications: Using Them Safely

    ... young children. Store a medication syringe in a safe place out of the reach of kids. Other options ... Keep this number posted in an easily visible place in case you need it. Safe Disposal Do not give leftover medicine to others. ...

  20. Sensor data fusion for lateral safe applications

    Amditis, A; Floudas, N.; Polychronopoulos, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, B. van den; Oechsle, F.


    This paper describes the algorithms that are being developed for the perception layer of the PReVENT subproject LATERAL SAFE. These algorithms aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, present at the lateral and rear field of the ego-vehicle. The work presented

  1. Sensor data fusion for lateral safe applications

    Amditis, A; Floudas, N.; Polychronopoulos, A.; Bank, D.; Broek, B. van den; Oechsle, F.


    This paper describes the algorithms that are being developed for the perception layer of the PReVENT subproject LATERAL SAFE. These algorithms aim at achieving a reliable representation of the objects and their kinematics, present at the lateral and rear field of the ego-vehicle. The work presented

  2. MEMS reliability

    Hartzell, Allyson L; Shea, Herbert R


    This book focuses on the reliability and manufacturability of MEMS at a fundamental level. It demonstrates how to design MEMs for reliability and provides detailed information on the different types of failure modes and how to avoid them.

  3. Simple machines

    Graybill, George


    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  4. Software reliability

    Bendell, A


    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  5. Implicit attitudes towards risky and safe driving

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Sømhovd, Mikael Julius; Møller, Mette;

    ; further, self-reports of the intention to drive safely (or not) are socially sensitive. Therefore, we examined automatic preferences towards safe and risky driving with a Go/No-go Association Task (GNAT). The results suggest that (1) implicit attitudes towards driving behavior can be measured reliably...... with the GNAT; (2) implicit attitudes towards safe driving versus towards risky driving may be separable constructs. We propose that research on driving behavior may benefit from routinely including measures of implicit cognition. A practical advantage is a lesser susceptibility to social desirability biases......, compared to self-report methods. Pending replication in future research, the apparent dissociation between implicit attitudes towards safe versus risky driving that we observed may contribute to a greater theoretical understanding of the causes of unsafe and risky driving behavior....

  6. The value of reliability

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders


    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...

  7. The first safe country

    Raffaela Puggioni


    Full Text Available The Dublin II Regulation makes the first safe country of refuge solelyresponsible for refugees and asylum seekers. In the case of Italy, thefirst responsible country has not been acting responsibly.

  8. Stretching Safely and Effectively

    ... it safely and effectively. By Mayo Clinic Staff Stretching may take a back seat to your exercise routine. The main concern is exercising, not stretching, right? Not so fast. Stretching may help you: ...

  9. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Jordan, David


    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  10. Karate: Keep It Safe.

    Jordan, David


    Safety guidelines for each phase of a karate practice session are presented to provide an accident-free and safe environment for teaching karate in a physical education or traditional karate training program. (JMF)

  11. Stay Safe and Healthy This Winter!


    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy during the winter holiday season.  Created: 11/23/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 11/23/2010.

  12. The Food-Safe Schools Action Guide

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2007


    "The Food-Safe School Needs Assessment and Planning Guide" is a tool that can help schools assess their food safety policies, procedures, and programs and develop plans for improvement. This tool includes a simple, straightforward questionnaire, score card, and planning guide that give administrators, school staff, families, and students a chance…

  13. Safe Separators for Treewidth

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.


    A set of vertices S Í V is called a safe separator for treewidth, if S is a separator of G, and the treewidth of G equals the maximum of the treewidth over all connected components W of G - S of the graph, obtained by making S a clique in the subgraph of G, induced by W È S. We show that such safe s

  14. Vitamins, Are They Safe?

    Hadi Hamishehkar; Farhad Ranjdoost; Parina Asgharian; Ata Mahmoodpoor; Sarvin Sanaie


    The consumption of a daily multivitamin among people all over the world is dramatically increasing in recent years. Most of the people believe that if vitamins are not effective, at least they are safe. However, the long term health consequences of vitamins consumption are unknown. This study aimed to assess the side effects and possible harmful and detrimental properties of vitamins and to discuss whether vitamins can be used as safe health products or dietary supplements. We performed a MED...

  15. Safe biodegradable fluorescent particles

    Martin, Sue I.; Fergenson, David P.; Srivastava, Abneesh; Bogan, Michael J.; Riot, Vincent J.; Frank, Matthias


    A human-safe fluorescence particle that can be used for fluorescence detection instruments or act as a safe simulant for mimicking the fluorescence properties of microorganisms. The particle comprises a non-biological carrier and natural fluorophores encapsulated in the non-biological carrier. By doping biodegradable-polymer drug delivery microspheres with natural or synthetic fluorophores, the desired fluorescence can be attained or biological organisms can be simulated without the associated risks and logistical difficulties of live microorganisms.

  16. 46 CFR 169.619 - Reliability.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reliability. 169.619 Section 169.619 Shipping COAST... Electrical Steering Systems § 169.619 Reliability. (a) Except where the OCMI judges it impracticable, the... be below that necessary for the safe navigation of the vessel. (c) The strength and reliability...

  17. A Simple, Safe Method for Preparation of Biodiesel

    Behnia, Mahin S.; Emerson, David W.; Steinberg, Spencer M.; Alwis, Rasika M.; Duenas, Josue A.; Serafino, Jessica O.


    An experiment suitable for organic chemistry students is described. Biodiesel, a "green" fuel, consists of methyl or ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids called FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) or FAEES (fatty acid ethyl esters). A quick way to make FAMES is a base-catalyzed transesterification of oils or fats derived from plants or from animal…

  18. A Simple, Safe Method for Preparation of Biodiesel

    Behnia, Mahin S.; Emerson, David W.; Steinberg, Spencer M.; Alwis, Rasika M.; Duenas, Josue A.; Serafino, Jessica O.


    An experiment suitable for organic chemistry students is described. Biodiesel, a "green" fuel, consists of methyl or ethyl esters of long-chain fatty acids called FAMES (fatty acid methyl esters) or FAEES (fatty acid ethyl esters). A quick way to make FAMES is a base-catalyzed transesterification of oils or fats derived from plants or from animal…

  19. An Automated Safe-to-Mate (ASTM) Tester

    Nguyen, Phuc; Scott, Michelle; Leung, Alan; Lin, Michael; Johnson, Thomas


    Safe-to-mate testing is a common hardware safety practice where impedance measurements are made on unpowered hardware to verify isolation, continuity, or impedance between pins of an interface connector. A computer-based instrumentation solution has been developed to resolve issues. The ASTM is connected to the circuit under test, and can then quickly, safely, and reliably safe-to-mate the entire connector, or even multiple connectors, at the same time.




    Full Text Available Purpose of this study is to access the safety and efficacy of direct trocar insertion (DTI for accessing the abdominal cavity for operative laparoscopy without prior pneumoperitoneum. DTI is one of the safe and effective alternative to veress needle inser tion , open access (Hassan’s technique and visual entry systems (disposable optic trocars and endotip visual cannula in laparoscopic surgery. METHODS: The study included 2480 patients who has undergone laparoscopic procedures at civil hospital , Jalandhar from Nov . 2003 to Sept . 2012 and at Punjab Institu t e of Medical Sciences ( PIMS Jalandhar from S ept . 2012 to June 2014. Procedures include 2310 laparoscopic cholecystectomies , 148 laparoscopic appendectomies , 10 cases of TAPP Groin hernia repairs and 12 cases of simple ovarian cysts. For DTI , abdominal wall was lifted and trocar was pushed through the fascia and muscle layer. The surgeon felt click when the trocar had pierced the peritoneum and entered the abdominal cavity. RESULTS: Direct trocar insertio n was feasible in 100% of patients. There was no evidence of intestinal or vascular injury during trocar placement. Peritoneal access and creation of laparoscopic workspace were attained faster and more efficiently by the DTI technique. CONCLUSIONS: DTI is a fast , safe and reliable alternative to traditional techniques of primary port placement in laparoscopic procedures for creation of pnuemoperitoneum.

  1. The IFR route to safe, reliable and inexhaustible power

    Hannum, W. H.

    The Integral Fast Reactor is a closed reactor fuel cycle composed of a metal fuelled, tank type, sodium cooled fast reactor; an electrochemical process for recovery of actinides from spent fuel; a simplified refabrication technology; and the associated waste processing technology. Feasibility of the reactor concept is established. Favorable safety attributes are recognized. The integral fuel cycle demonstration is being assembled. Good progress is being made in developing the associated waste processing technology.

  2. The Safe Lambda Calculus

    Blum, William


    Safety is a syntactic condition of higher-order grammars that constrains occurrences of variables in the production rules according to their type-theoretic order. In this paper, we introduce the safe lambda calculus, which is obtained by transposing (and generalizing) the safety condition to the setting of the simply-typed lambda calculus. In contrast to the original definition of safety, our calculus does not constrain types (to be homogeneous). We show that in the safe lambda calculus, there is no need to rename bound variables when performing substitution, as variable capture is guaranteed not to happen. We also propose an adequate notion of beta-reduction that preserves safety. In the same vein as Schwichtenberg's 1976 characterization of the simply-typed lambda calculus, we show that the numeric functions representable in the safe lambda calculus are exactly the multivariate polynomials; thus conditional is not definable. We also give a characterization of representable word functions. We then study the ...

  3. Safe Surgery Trainer


    CDRL A001 For: Safe Surgery Trainer Prime Contract: N00014-14-C-0066 For the Period July 1, 2015 to July 31, 2015 Submitted: 15 Aug 2015...DATE 15 AUG 2015 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 01-07-2015 to 31-07-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Safe Surgery Trainer 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b... Surgery Trainer ONR N00014-14-C-0066 Unclassified Unclassified Use or disclosure of the data contained on this page is subject to the restriction

  4. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  5. Reliability Engineering

    Lazzaroni, Massimo


    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  6. Safe Manual Jettison

    Barton, Jay


    In space, the controlled release of certain cargoes is no less useful than the maritime jettisons from which they take their name but is also much more dangerous. Experience has shown that jettisons can be performed safely, but the process is complicated with the path to performing a jettison taking months or even years. In the background, time is also required to write procedures, train the crew, configure the vehicle, and many other activities. This paper outlines the current process used by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for manual jettisons, detailing the methods used to assure that the jettisons and the jettisoned objects are as safe as achievable and that the crew is adequately trained to be able to affect the safe jettison. The goal of this paper is not only to capture what it takes to perform safe jettisons in the near Earth environment but to extrapolate this knowledge to future space exploration scenarios that will likely have Extravehicular Activity (EVA) and International Partner (IP) interfaces.

  7. Keeping Food Safe


    This CDC Kidtastics podcast discusses things kids and parents can do to help prevent illness by keeping food safe.  Created: 5/27/2009 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 5/27/2009.

  8. Effective and Safe Ships

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Amdahl, Jørgen; Rutgersson, Olle


    A Joint Nordic Research project "Effecive and Safe Ships" is presented. The project is aiming to develop methods and tools for quantitative evaluation fo ship safety. This report is the report of the preliminary phase where the plan for the main project is developed. The objectives of the project...

  9. Swimming Safely (A Cup of Health with CDC)


    In the summertime, families will be flocking to pools for relaxation and relief from the heat. A few simple precautions can help ensure a safe day in the water. In this podcast, Michele Hlavsa discusses ways to stay safe at the pool.  Created: 5/22/2014 by MMWR.   Date Released: 5/22/2014.

  10. Safe use of nanomaterials


    The use of nanomaterials  is on the increase worldwide, including at CERN. The HSE Unit has established a safety guideline to inform you of the main requirements for the safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials at CERN.   A risk assessment tool has also been developed which guides the user through the process of evaluating the risk for his or her activity. Based on the calculated risk level, the tool provides a list of recommended control measures.   We would therefore like to draw your attention to: Safety Guideline C-0-0-5 - Safe handling and disposal of nanomaterials; and Safety Form C-0-0-2 - Nanomaterial Risk Assessment   You can consult all of CERN’s safety rules and guidelines here. Please contact the HSE Unit for any questions you may have.   The HSE Unit

  11. The rating reliability calculator

    Solomon David J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  12. Expert system aids reliability

    Johnson, A.T. [Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Houston, TX (United States)


    Quality and Reliability are key requirements in the energy transmission industry. Tennessee Gas Co. a division of El Paso Energy, has applied Gensym`s G2, object-oriented Expert System programming language as a standard tool for maintaining and improving quality and reliability in pipeline operation. Tennessee created a small team of gas controllers and engineers to develop a Proactive Controller`s Assistant (ProCA) that provides recommendations for operating the pipeline more efficiently, reliably and safely. The controller`s pipeline operating knowledge is recreated in G2 in the form of Rules and Procedures in ProCA. Two G2 programmers supporting the Gas Control Room add information to the ProCA knowledge base daily. The result is a dynamic, constantly improving system that not only supports the pipeline controllers in their operations, but also the measurement and communications departments` requests for special studies. The Proactive Controller`s Assistant development focus is in the following areas: Alarm Management; Pipeline Efficiency; Reliability; Fuel Efficiency; and Controller Development.

  13. Escola segura Safe school

    Edson Ferreira Liberal


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão das estratégias para tornar o ambiente escolar seguro. Inicialmente os autores contextualizam a violência e os acidentes no ambiente escolar e fazem recomendações, baseadas em dados da literatura, para a implantação de escolas seguras. FONTE DE DADOS: Artigos publicados entre 1993 e 2005 na base de dados MEDLINE. Dados nacionais epidemiológicos e da literatura também foram pesquisados. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Há evidência crescente de que a intervenção tem múltiplos componentes. O foco político é a prática em educação em saúde com o envolvimento de toda a comunidade. O norte dessas intervenções é ajudar estudantes e toda a comunidade a adotar um comportamento seguro e saudável. As escolas estão assumindo um envolvimento crescente na promoção da saúde, prevenção de doenças e prevenção de trauma. Nesse contexto de prevenção de causas externas de morbimortalidade, é importante reconhecer o risco ambiental, locais e comportamentos de risco como favoráveis ao trauma e à violência, além de um novo conceito de acidentes como algo que possa ser evitado. CONCLUSÃO: A implementação da escola segura representa uma nova direção promissora para o trabalho preventivo baseado na escola. É importante notar que uma escola segura deve intervir não meramente na sua estrutura física, mas também torná-la tão segura quanto possível, trabalhando com a comunidade escolar por meio de educação em saúde, discutindo principalmente o comportamento saudável.OBJECTIVE: To review the strategies to make school a safe environment. The paper first addresses the social context of accidents and violence in the school environment, and makes recommendations, based on the literature data, for the implementation of safe schools. SOURCE OF DATA: Articles published between 1993 and 2005 in the MEDLINE database. Brazilian epidemiological and literature data have also been searched. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is

  14. Safe motherhood at risk?

    Thompson, A


    Health professionals' negative attitudes toward clients often exacerbate the problems women face in terms of health status and access to health care. Thus, the health professionals can themselves be obstacles to women seeking the health care they need. A key challenge to midwives, in addition to providing technically competent services, is gaining insight into the people for whom they are responsible so that childbirth traditions are treated with respect and women are offered dignity. Safe motherhood requires intersectoral collaboration. Many innovative approaches to safe motherhood are based on the community's participation in planning services that meet the needs of women. Other approaches are based on decentralization of services. For example, a large university teaching hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, set up birthing centers around the city to take the pressure off the hospital. Midwives head up these centers, which are close to the women's homes. Decentralization of delivery services has improved the physical and emotional outcomes for mothers and newborns. Midwives must be prepared to articulate concerns about inequalities and deficiencies in the health care system in order to persuade the government to change. Women, including midwives, need to form multidisciplinary alliances to work together to effect change. The front-line workers in maternity care are midwives. They should adopt the following strategies to become even more effective in their efforts to make motherhood safer. They should listen to what women say about their needs. They should scale services to a manageable, human scale. They should learn the skills to become politically active advocates. They should work with other midwives, women, leaders, and other professional groups. Motherhood can be safe when women have more control over their own decision making, the education to liberate themselves to make their own decisions, and access to skilled care.

  15. Keeping food safe.

    Conde, Crystal


    Legislation passed during this year's legislative session will help the Texas Department of State Health Services (DSHS) identify the source of food-borne illness outbreaks. Senate Bill 81 increases the number of food wholesalers and warehouse operators that must obtain licenses from DSHS. DSHS enforcement activities include follow-up inspections at establishments that have problems, sending warning letters, holding management meetings with the firms, and providing technical assistance. When a food-borne illness outbreak involves a Texas manufacturer, wholesaler, or warehouse, DSHS can recall contaminated products, close establishments temporarily until they can ensure their food is safe or close them permanently, and levy fines.

  16. Probably safe or live

    Katoen, Joost-Pieter; Song, Lei; Zhang, Lijun


    This paper presents a formal characterisation of safety and liveness properties for fully probabilistic systems. As for the classical setting, it is established that any (probabilistic tree) property is equivalent to a conjunction of a safety and liveness property. A simple algorithm is provided to

  17. Reliability and Security - Convergence or Divergence



    Full Text Available Reliability, as every technical field, must adapt to the new demands imposed by reality. Started initially as a field designed to control and ensure the smooth functionality of an element or technical system, reliability has reached the stage where the discussion is about the reliability management, similar to the other top-level fields. Security has its own contribution to the reliability of a system; a reliable system is a system with reliable security. In order for a system to be reliable, that means clear and safe, all its components must be reliable. In the following pages we will talk about the two main facts - reliability and security - to determine both the convergence and the divergence points.

  18. Cool and Safe: Multiplicity in Safe Innovation at Unilever

    Penders, Bart


    This article presents the making of a safe innovation: the application of ice structuring protein (ISP) in edible ices. It argues that safety is not the absence of risk but is an active accomplishment; innovations are not "made safe afterward" but "safe innovations are made". Furthermore, there are multiple safeties to be accomplished in the…

  19. The assessment of safe nursing care: development and psychometric evaluation.

    Rashvand, Farnoosh; Ebadi, Abbas; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba; Salsali, Mahvash; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Griffiths, Pauline; Sieloff, Christina


    To develop an instrument for the assessment of safe nursing care (ASNC) within the Iranian context and psychometrically evaluate its reliability and validity. There is a need for a valid and reliable instrument to assess how nurses employ the components of safe nursing care in clinical practice in non-Western countries. This methodological study was conducted in two phases: (1) a qualitative phase of instrument development, and (2) a quantitative phase of psychometric evaluation of the assessment of safe nursing care (ASNC). The instrument's content validity was assessed by experts in the field of safe nursing care. The reliability of this instrument was examined using internal consistency reliability and intra-rater reliability analysis. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted to establish the instrument's initial construct validity. The instrument developed was a questionnaire with 32 items. The Cronbach's alpha of the scale was 0.92, and Intra-class Correlation Coefficient for intra-rater reliability was 0.78. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in a four-factor solution: (1) evaluation of nursing skills, (2) assessing the patient's psychological needs, (3) assessing the patient's physical need, and (4) Assessing nurses' teamwork. The four factors accounted for 63.54% of the observed variance. The ASNC can be applied to a wide variety of settings because of the broad range of methods utilised to generate items and domains, its comprehensive consideration of the principles of safe care, and its initial reliability and validity. The ASNC can help nurse managers assess whether clinical nurses are prepared to apply their safe care skills in clinical practice. It can also be used by clinical nurses to assess their own and peers' practice to detect potential areas for improvement in nursing care and help nurse managers with planning appropriate quality improvement programmes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Microelectronics Reliability


    convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release...testing for reliability prediction of devices exhibiting multiple failure mechanisms. Also presented was an integrated accelerating and measuring ...13  Table 2  T, V, F and matrix versus  measured  FIT

  1. Create a Safe Classroom



    随着教育的不断发展与进步,教师的作用与学生的角色已日益成为教育者与研究人员关注的焦点。但是,同时我们也应该高度重视教学课堂的重要性,努力创造一个让学生无论从心理上还是情感上都感到“安全”的教室。创造一个愉悦,友好,轻松,同时又具有很好教学效果的教学环境并不只是一种理想,笔者认为是切实可行的。本文主要探讨了如何去创造这样“安全”的教室。本文第一部分讨论了教师的形象问题,第二部分围绕师生关系展开,第三部分探讨了如何营造一种愉悦气氛,第四部分阐述了培养学生自信的重要性。%With the advancement of education ,the role of teacher and the role of learner have respectively draw increasing attention from the educators and researchers. But equal emphasis should be given to the classroom, the very place where learning takes place. And great efforts should be made to create a psychologically or emotionally safe classroom. A pleasant, friendly, relaxed but effective classroom is not something ideal as some teachers once thought, but rather practicable.This paper just discusses the ways of creating a safe classroom and gives some of my personal reflections, with Part One touching upon the image of the teacher; Part Two embracing the importance of teacher-students relationship; Part Three focusing on the pleasant climate in a safe classroom; Part Four featuring the student’s high-self-esteem.

  2. A Safe and Welcoming Place.

    Zingher, Gary


    Focuses on the theme of safe and comforting places for children, and how libraries can help provide safe havens for children. Presents a survey of safe places in selected works of children's literature. Includes a sampler of creative activities focusing on the theme, and a list of resources (books and videotapes). (AEF)

  3. Safe pill-dispensing.

    Testa, Massimiliano; Pollard, John


    Each patient is supplied with a smart-card containing a Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) chip storing a unique identification code. The patient places the Smart-card on a pill-dispenser unit containing an RFID reader. The RFID chip is read and the code sent to a Base-station via a wireless Bluetooth link. A database containing both patient details and treatment information is queried at the Base-station using the RFID as the search key. The patient's treatment data (i.e., drug names, quantities, time, etc.) are retrieved and sent back to the pill-dispenser unit via Bluetooth. Appropriate quantities of the required medications are automatically dispensed, unless the patient has already taken his/her daily dose. Safe, confidential communication and operation is ensured.

  4. Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    (and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  5. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Philippe eVillers


    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  6. [Percutaneous alcoholization of simple serous cysts of the kidney].

    Aboutaieb, R; Joual, A; Ousehal, A; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S


    Benign renal cysts are usually asymptomatic: They require a minimally invasive treatment if they cause complaints such as flank pain or other compressive complications. During a 6 month period, 14 patients were treated for benign renal cyst using an ultrasound guided puncture. Presenting complaints were flank pain (12 cases), hypertension (1 case), polycythaemia (1 case). Only cyst of 5 centimeters diameter or more were assigned to this treatment. After needle puncture, the cyst was evacuated and then filled with sterile 95% alcohol. Clinical and anatomical results, after 6 months, were good in 9 cases, 2 cases showed good anatomical results with persistence of initial symptoms, and there were 3 failures corresponding to large cysts of 10 cm diameter or more. Percutaneous alcoholization of moderate benign cysts is a safe, simple and reliable method.

  7. Safe Zones: Creating LGBT Safe Space Ally Programs

    Poynter, Kerry John; Tubbs, Nancy Jean


    This article discusses model LGBT Safe Space Ally programs. These programs, often called "Safe Zones," include self selected students, faculty, and employees who publicly show support by displaying stickers, signs, and other identifiable items. Issues covered in the article include history, development, training, membership, assessment, and…

  8. Grid reliability

    Saiz, P; Rocha, R; Andreeva, J


    We are offering a system to track the efficiency of different components of the GRID. We can study the performance of both the WMS and the data transfers At the moment, we have set different parts of the system for ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. None of the components that we have developed are VO specific, therefore it would be very easy to deploy them for any other VO. Our main goal is basically to improve the reliability of the GRID. The main idea is to discover as soon as possible the different problems that have happened, and inform the responsible. Since we study the jobs and transfers issued by real users, we see the same problems that users see. As a matter of fact, we see even more problems than the end user does, since we are also interested in following up the errors that GRID components can overcome by themselves (like for instance, in case of a job failure, resubmitting the job to a different site). This kind of information is very useful to site and VO administrators. They can find out the efficien...

  9. Safe monsplasty technique.

    Patoué, Audrey; De Runz, Antoine; Carloni, Raphael; Aillet, Sylvie; Watier, Eric; Bertheuil, Nicolas


    To improve their health and quality of life, obese patients undergo consultation after weight loss. In these patients, the sub-umbilical abdominal and pubic regions are often characterized by redundant skin, creating aesthetic and functional discomfort. Monsplasty is an important step in abdominoplasty or bodylift procedures. We report on an original technique used to correct deformity in the pubic region following weight loss. All interventions were performed by the same surgeon between April and December 2015. On stretched skin, we drew two lines 5 cm lateral to the median line on both sides and connected them with the arc of a circle placed 7 cm from the vulvar fork. Then, monsplasty marks extend to abdominal fold. During lower abdominal contouring, we performed monsplasty with three separate stitches between the camper fascia and aponeurosis of the abdominal muscle. The aim was to bring tension to the pubic region without additional surgical procedure. We report on 21 consecutive cases of monsplasty following lower trunk contouring. No reoperation was performed due to complication or aesthetic demand (no under- or over-correction occurred). No complication (e.g. edema, seroma, disturbance of sensibility) was observed in the pubic area. The results were stable 1 year after surgery. We report on a simple, rapid, and reproducible monsplasty technique for all stages of Pittsburgh classifications, which achieved favorable results with no complication. We recommend performance of this effective technique simultaneously with abdominoplasty or bodylift procedures. IV.

  10. Lipoabdominoplasty: An exponential advantage for a consistently safe and aesthetic outcome

    J R Kanjoor


    Full Text Available Background: Extensive liposuction along with limited dissection of abdominal flaps is slowly emerging as a well proven advantageous method over standard abdominoplasty. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study analyzed 146 patients managed for the abdominal contour deformities from March 2004 to February 2010. A simple method to project the post operative outcome by rotation of a supine lateral photograph to upright posture in 46 patients prospectively has succeeded in projecting a predictable result. All patients were encouraged to practice chest physiotherapy in ′tummy tuck′ position during the preoperative counseling. Aggressive liposuction of entire upper abdomen, a limited dissection in the midline, plication of diastasis of rectus whenever indicated, panniculectomy and neoumblicoplasty were done in all patients. Results: The patients had a mean age of 43, youngest being 29 and oldest 72 years. Majority were of normal weight (94%. Twelve were morbidly obese; 57 patients had undergone previous abdominal surgeries; 49 patients had associated hernias. Lipoabdominoplasty yielded a satisfactory result in 110 (94% patients. The postoperative patient had a definitely less heavy harmonious abdomen with improved waistline. The complications were more with higher BMI, fat thickness of more than 7 cm and prolonged operating time when other procedures were combined. Conclusions: Extensive liposuction combined with limited dissection method applied to all abdominoplasty patients yielded consistently safe, reliable and predictable aesthetic results with less complications and faster recovery. The simple photographic manipulation has helped project the postoperative outcome reliably. The preoperative chest physiotherapy in tummytuck position helped prevent chest complications.

  11. An integrated approach to assessing the fracture safe margins of fusion reactor structures

    Odette, G.R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)


    Design and operation of fusion reactor structures will require an appropriate data base closely coupled to a reliable failure analysis method to safely manage irradiation embrittlement. However, ongoing irradiation programs will not provide the information on embrittlement necessary to accomplish these objectives. A new engineering approach is proposed based on the concept of a master toughness-temperature curve indexed on an absolute temperature scale using shifts to account for variables such as size scales, crack geometry and loading rates as well as embrittlement. While providing a simple practical engineering expedient, the proposed method can also be greatly enhanced by fundamental mechanism based models of fracture and embrittlement. Indeed, such understanding is required for the effective use of small specimen test methods, which is a integral element in developing the necessary data base.

  12. Basics for Handling Food Safely

    ... o a rm ct a s tion Basics for Handling Food Safely Safe steps in food handling, cooking, and storage are essential to prevent foodborne ... and soap for 20 seconds before and after handling food. · Don’t cross-contaminate. Keep raw meat, ...

  13. More than a Safe Space

    Sadowski, Michael


    Over the past three decades, much of the conversation about LGBTQ students in schools has centered on safety--anti-bullying policies, the "safe space" of gay-straight alliances, and "safe zones" marked by rainbow-colored stickers on classroom doors. In this article, Michael Sadowski argues that it's time to move beyond safety…

  14. Shock Safe Nepal: team one

    Oosterhof, A.J.; Düzgün, B.C.; Spelt, C.J.; De Stoppelaar, A.O.; Van Wijnbergen, E.C.M.


    As a response to the 2015 Nepal earthquakes Shock Safe Nepal was founded to function as platform intended to contribute to the development of knowledge on earthquake safe housing. The project started on initiative of the Consul General of Nepal to The Netherlands Cas de Stoppelaar and the faculty of

  15. Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot

    Weiss, Markus; Vutskits, Laszlo; Hansen, Tom G


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The term 'safe use of anesthesia in children is ill-defined and requires definition of and focus on the 'safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia'. RECENT FINDINGS: The Safe Anesthesia For Every Tot initiative ( has been set up during the last year to focus...... on the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia. This initiative aims to provide guidance on markers of quality anesthesia care. The introduction and implementation of national regulations of 'who, where, when and how' are required and will result in an improved perioperative outcome in vulnerable children....... The improvement of teaching, training, education and supervision of the safe conduct of pediatric anesthesia are the main goals of the initiative. SUMMARY: This initiative addresses the well known perioperative risks in young children, perioperative causes for cerebral morbidity as well as gaps...

  16. Extreme value distribution and reliability of nonlinear stochastic structures

    Chen Jianbing; Li Jie


    A new approach to evaluate the extreme value distribution (EVD) of the response and reliability of general multi-DOF nonlinear stochastic structures is proposed. The approach is based on the recently developed probability density evolution method, which enables the instantaneous probability density functions of the stochastic responses to be captured.In the proposed method, a virtual stochastic process is first constructed to satisfy the condition that the extreme value of the response equals the value of the constructed process at a certain instant of time. The probability density evolution method is then applied to evaluate the instantaneous probability density function of the response, yielding the EVD. The reliability is therefore available through a simple integration over the safe domain. A numerical algorithm is developed using the Number Theoretical Method to select the discretized representative points. Further, a hyper-ball is imposed to sieve the points from the preceding point set in the hypercube. In the numerical examples, the EVD of random variables is evaluated and compared with the analytical solution. A frame structure is analyzed to capture the EVD of the response and the dynamic reliability. The investigations indicate that the proposed approach provides reasonable accuracy and efficiency.

  17. Software Reliability Cases: The Bridge Between Hardware, Software and System Safety and Reliability

    Herrmann, D.S.; Peercy, D.E.


    High integrity/high consequence systems must be safe and reliable; hence it is only logical that both software safety and software reliability cases should be developed. Risk assessments in safety cases evaluate the severity of the consequences of a hazard and the likelihood of it occurring. The likelihood is directly related to system and software reliability predictions. Software reliability cases, as promoted by SAE JA 1002 and 1003, provide a practical approach to bridge the gap between hardware reliability, software reliability, and system safety and reliability by using a common methodology and information structure. They also facilitate early insight into whether or not a project is on track for meeting stated safety and reliability goals, while facilitating an informed assessment by regulatory and/or contractual authorities.

  18. Hardware and software reliability estimation using simulations

    Swern, Frederic L.


    The simulation technique is used to explore the validation of both hardware and software. It was concluded that simulation is a viable means for validating both hardware and software and associating a reliability number with each. This is useful in determining the overall probability of system failure of an embedded processor unit, and improving both the code and the hardware where necessary to meet reliability requirements. The methodologies were proved using some simple programs, and simple hardware models.

  19. Frontiers of reliability

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K


    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  20. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

  1. How Safe Is Your Job?

    Nocera, Joseph; And Others


    Five articles address the realities of coping with downsizing: "Living with Layoffs" (Nocera); "How Safe Is Your Job?" (Lieber); "Career Makeover" (Robinson); "Ma Bell's Orphans" (O'Reilly); and "Where Are They Now?" (Martin). (SK)

  2. Alcohol use and safe drinking

    ... this page: // Alcohol use and safe drinking To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Alcohol use involves drinking beer, wine, or hard liquor. ...

  3. Antibiotics and Pregnancy: What's Safe?

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take antibiotics during pregnancy? Answers from Roger W. Harms, M. ... 2014 Original article: ...

  4. Simple technique for facial dimple

    Ahmed Hassan El-Sabbagh


    Full Text Available Background: Subjects seeking aesthetic surgery for facial dimples are increasing in number. Literature on dimple creation surgery are sparse. Various techniques have been used with their own merits and disadvantages. Materials and Methods: Facial dimples were created in 23 cases. All the subjects were females. Five cases were bilateral and the rest were unilateral. Results: Minor complications such as swelling and hematoma were observed in four cases. Infection occurred in two cases. Most of the subjects were satisfied with the results. Conclusions: Suturing technique is safe, reliable and an easily reproducible way to create facial dimple. Level of Evidence: IV: Case series.

  5. Halloween: Have Fun and Stay Safe and Healthy!


    Halloween is a fun time for kids, but it's no fun if you get sick or hurt. In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics offer some simple ways to stay safe and healthy on Halloween.  Created: 10/25/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/25/2010.

  6. Inexpensive and Safe DNA Gel Electrophoresis Using Household Materials

    Ens, S.; Olson, A. B.; Dudley, C.; Ross, N. D., III; Siddiqi, A. A.; Umoh, K. M.; Schneegurt, M. A.


    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic…

  7. Inexpensive and Safe DNA Gel Electrophoresis Using Household Materials

    Ens, S.; Olson, A. B.; Dudley, C.; Ross, N. D., III; Siddiqi, A. A.; Umoh, K. M.; Schneegurt, M. A.


    Gel electrophoresis is the single most important molecular biology technique and it is central to life sciences research, but it is often too expensive for the secondary science classroom or homeschoolers. A simple safe low-cost procedure is described here that uses household materials to construct and run DNA gel electrophoresis. Plastic…

  8. Staying Safe in the Water


    In this podcast, Dr. Julie Gilchrist, a pediatrician and medical epidemiologist from CDC’s Injury Center, talks about staying safe in the water. Tips are for all audiences, with a focus on preventing drownings and keeping children safe in and around the pool, lake, or ocean.  Created: 5/15/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 5/19/2008.

  9. Robotic-Assisted Simple Prostatectomy: An Overview.

    Holden, Marc; Parsons, J Kellogg


    Despite widespread use of medical therapy for benign prostatic hyperplasia, a need remains for robust surgical therapy in select patients. Robotic-assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) is an efficacious and safe therapy for patients with bladder outlet obstruction owing to large volume prostates. Data from 13 published cohorts suggest functional outcomes equivalent to open simple prostatectomy with substantially decreased length of hospital stay and risk of transfusion. However, there are few longer term data.

  10. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Eugen Zaitsev


    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  11. Delta-Reliability

    Eugster, P.; Guerraoui, R.; Kouznetsov, P.


    This paper presents a new, non-binary measure of the reliability of broadcast algorithms, called Delta-Reliability. This measure quantifies the reliability of practical broadcast algorithms that, on the one hand, were devised with some form of reliability in mind, but, on the other hand, are not considered reliable according to the ``traditional'' notion of broadcast reliability [HT94]. Our specification of Delta-Reliability suggests a further step towards bridging the gap between theory and...

  12. Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams

    Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.


    Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.

  13. Simple, Reliable, Scalable and Energy Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    Guo, C.


    Wireless communication and networking technology has facilitated people to be connected with each other closely. Cellular network is evolving now from the third generation to the fourth generation. In the meanwhile we are experiencing the demand for wireless networks which can facilitate the communi

  14. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V


    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  15. Wrist arthrography: a simple method

    Berna-Serna, Juan D.; Reus, Manuel; Alonso, Jose [Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, Department of Radiology, El Palmar (Murcia) (Spain); Martinez, Francisco; Domenech-Ratto, Gines [University of Murcia, Department of Human Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Murcia (Spain)


    A technique of wrist arthrography is presented using an adhesive marker-plate with radiopaque coordinates to identify precisely sites for puncture arthrography of the wrist and to obviate the need for fluoroscopic guidance. Radiocarpal joint arthrography was performed successfully in all 24 cases, 14 in the cadaveric wrists and 10 in the live patients. The arthrographic procedure described in this study is simple, safe, and rapid, and has the advantage of precise localisation of the site for puncture without need for fluoroscopic guidance. (orig.)

  16. Flywheel Rotor Safe-Life Technology

    Ratner, J. K. H.; Chang, J. B.; Christopher, D. A.; McLallin, Kerry L. (Technical Monitor)


    Since the 1960s, research has been conducted into the use of flywheels as energy storage systems. The-proposed applications include energy storage for hybrid and electric automobiles, attitude control and energy storage for satellites, and uninterruptible power supplies for hospitals and computer centers. For many years, however, the use of flywheels for space applications was restricted by the total weight of a system employing a metal rotor. With recent technological advances in the manufacturing of composite materials, however, lightweight composite rotors have begun to be proposed for such applications. Flywheels with composite rotors provide much higher power and energy storage capabilities than conventional chemical batteries. However, the failure of a high speed flywheel rotor could be a catastrophic event. For this reason, flywheel rotors are classified by the NASA Fracture Control Requirements Standard as fracture critical parts. Currently, there is no industry standard to certify a composite rotor for safe and reliable operation forth( required lifetime of the flywheel. Technical problems hindering the development of this standard include composite manufacturing inconsistencies, insufficient nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for detecting defects and/or impact damage, lack of standard material test methods for characterizing composite rotor design allowables, and no unified proof (over-spin) test for flight rotors. As part of a flywheel rotor safe-life certification pro-ram funded b the government, a review of the state of the art in composite rotors is in progress. The goal of the review is to provide a clear picture of composite flywheel rotor technologies. The literature review has concentrated on the following topics concerning composites and composite rotors: durability (fatigue) and damage tolerance (safe-life) analysis/test methods, in-service NDE and health monitoring techniques, spin test methods/ procedures, and containment options

  17. [Drug information for safe use].

    Watanabe, Shinichi


    Various information on pharmaceuticals is provided to healthcare professionals in order to ensure the safe use of pharmaceuticals. In addition to package inserts that contain information on indication, dosage, and administration, some review reports of new drugs which contain the summary of the results of clinical trials submitted for new drug application and review process as well as manuals for handling disorders due to adverse drug reactions which contain early symptoms and information on treatment of serious adverse reactions are provided. Information on drugs is renewed based on drug reactions reported to the authority. It is important that pharmacists comprehend this information and have the updated information on drugs, and disseminate this information to other healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses etc. for the safe use of pharmaceuticals. Pharmacists who have completed a six-year course are expected to utilize all this information and contribute to the safe use of pharmaceuticals.

  18. A simple tool to measure patient perceptions of operative birth

    Siassakos, D; Clark, J; Sibanda, T; Attilakos, G; Jefferys, A; Cullen, L; Bisson, D; Draycott, T


    ... T. A simple tool to measure patient perceptions of operative birth. BJOG 2009;116:1755-1761. Objective  To assess the feasibility and validity of a maternal satisfaction measurement tool, the SaFE study Patient Perception Score...

  19. A Simple Experimental Demonstration of Microbial Growth and Interaction.

    Wainwright, Milton


    Described is a simple, safe, and inexpensive experiment which allows secondary school pupils to observe how fungi and bacteria grow and interact with each other. Included are discussions of materials, methods, observations, and a historical comment. (Author/CW)

  20. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  1. Safe and Liquid Mortgage Bonds

    Dick-Nielsen, Jens; Gyntelberg, Jacob; Lund, Jesper

    This paper shows that strict match pass-through funding of covered bonds provides safe and liquid mortgage bonds. Despite a 30% drop in house prices during the 2008 global crisis Danish mortgage bonds remained as liquid as most European government bonds. The Danish pass-through system effectively...... eliminates credit risk from the investor's perspective. Similar to other safe bonds, funding liquidity becomes the main driver of mortgage bond liquidity and this creates commonality in liquidity across markets and countries. These findings have implications for how to design a robust mortgage bond system...

  2. VLSI Reliability in Europe

    Verweij, Jan F.


    Several issue's regarding VLSI reliability research in Europe are discussed. Organizations involved in stimulating the activities on reliability by exchanging information or supporting research programs are described. Within one such program, ESPRIT, a technical interest group on IC reliability was

  3. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  4. Sound Security,Safe Beijing


    @@ With the approach of the long a waited event,Chinese authorities have geared up to intensify security preparations.In line with the"people-oriented"and"athletes-centered"ideas,Beijing will spare no efforts to provide quality services and to build a safe and cornfort able environment that will satisfy all the Games' participants.

  5. Safe-haven CDS Premia

    Klingler, Sven; Lando, David

    We argue that Credit Default Swap (CDS) premia for safe-haven sovereigns, like Germany and the United States, are driven to a large extent by regulatory requirements under which derivatives dealing banks have an incentive to buy CDS to hedge counterparty credit risk of their counterparties. We...

  6. Staying Safe on the Water


    In this podcast for all audiences, Dr. Julie Gilchrist from CDC's Injury Center outlines tips for safe boating.  Created: 6/5/2008 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control (NCIPC).   Date Released: 6/8/2008.

  7. 99 Tips for Safe Schools.

    Kaufer, Steve

    This pamphlet highlights 99 tips for maintaining safe schools. Areas of interest include: alarm systems and control of access, vandalism, parent education, transportation, school design, personnel training, and graffiti. The majority of the pointers deal with maintaining and implementing various forms of electronic surveillance and strategies for…

  8. Fire-safe hydrocarbon fuels

    Fodor, G.E.; Weatherford, W.D. Jr.; Wright, B.R.


    A stabilized, fire-safe, aqueous hydrocarbon fuel emulsion prepared by mixing: a diesel fuel; an emulsifier (consisting of oleyl diethanolamide, diethanolamine, and diethanolamine soap of oleic acid) which has been treated with about 0 to 7 1/2 of oleic acid. A modified version of this fuel also contains 0 to 0.5% of an antimisting agent, and water.

  9. The Malawi Safe Motherhood Project

    Improvement of the maternal health monitoring system is one of the rnaj or outputs of the Malawi Safe Motherhood Project. In. 1998, the Project ... Operations research was necessary to ensure the correct siting of the registers used for data ... certain defined obstetric functions per 500 000 population. 1.6 BEOC BEOC EEOC ...

  10. How to Safely Give Ibuprofen

    ... for the correct dosage. To give: Check the expiration date to make sure it's not expired. If it ... 3 tablets Reviewed by: Karla R. Hughes, RPh Date reviewed: March 2015 previous 1 • 2 • 3 For Teens For Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist Headaches ...

  11. How to Safely Give Acetaminophen

    ... of acetaminophen. And be sure to: Check the expiration date to make sure it's not expired. If it ... tablets Reviewed by: Elana Pearl Ben-Joseph, MD Date reviewed: September 2015 previous ... Kids For Parents MORE ON THIS TOPIC Medications: Using Them Safely Talking to the Pharmacist How ...

  12. Thermodynamics of asymptotically safe theories

    Rischke, Dirk H.; Sannino, Francesco


    We investigate the thermodynamic properties of a novel class of gauge-Yukawa theories that have recently been shown to be completely asymptotically safe, because their short-distance behaviour is determined by the presence of an interacting fixed point. Not only do all the coupling constants freeze...

  13. Planning and Designing Safe Facilities

    Seidler, Todd


    Those who manage physical education, athletic, and recreation programs have a number of legal duties that they are expected to carry out. Among these are an obligation to take reasonable precautions to ensure safe programs and facilities for all participants, spectators, and staff. Physical education and sports facilities that are poorly planned,…

  14. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    Smith, Julie M.


    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  15. Remarks on asymptotically safe inflation

    Tye, S.-H. Henry; Xu, Jiajun


    We comment on Weinberg’s interesting analysis of asymptotically safe inflation [S. Weinberg, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 81, 083535 (2010).10.1103/PhysRevD.81.083535]. We find that even if the gravity theory exhibits an ultraviolet fixed point, the energy scale during inflation is way too low to drive the theory close to the fixed point value. We choose the specific renormalization group flow away from the fixed point towards the infrared region that reproduces the Newton’s constant and today’s cosmological constant. We follow this renormalization group flow path to scales below the Planck scale to study the stability of the inflationary scenario. Again, we find that some fine-tuning is necessary to get enough e folds of inflation in the asymptotically safe inflationary scenario.

  16. Safe abortion: a woman's right.

    Sangala, Vanessa


    Complications of induced abortion sadly remain significant causes of maternal mortality and morbidity around the world, but only in countries that do not provide access to safe abortion services. This article presents a brief account of how high maternal mortality from induced abortion became history in the UK and the dire consequences to women's health that unsafe abortion still has in many countries of the world. It gives a brief overview of the methods available to evacuate the uterus, with particular reference to manual vacuum aspiration. The status of the law in different countries is discussed, together with the need for health professionals to interpret repressive laws in ways that enables them to care for women who seek their help. Safe abortion services are cost effective, essential services for women. Men are part and parcel of the reason women resort to terminating a pregnancy, and, together with the countless children whose lives are dependent on a healthy caring mother, are also beneficiaries of safe abortion services. There can be no excuse for continuing to deny these services to so many women around the world.

  17. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Mod Ali, N


    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  18. Reliability and diagnostic of modular systems

    J. Kohlas


    Full Text Available Reliability and diagnostic are in general two problems discussed separately. Yet the two problems are in fact closely related to each other. Here, this relation is considered in the simple case of modular systems. We show, how the computation of reliability and diagnostic can efficiently be done within the same Bayesian network induced by the modularity of the structure function of the system.

  19. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R


    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  20. Enlightenment on Computer Network Reliability From Transportation Network Reliability

    Hu Wenjun; Zhou Xizhao


    Referring to transportation network reliability problem, five new computer network reliability definitions are proposed and discussed. They are computer network connectivity reliability, computer network time reliability, computer network capacity reliability, computer network behavior reliability and computer network potential reliability. Finally strategies are suggested to enhance network reliability.

  1. Reliability based fatigue design and maintenance procedures

    Hanagud, S.


    A stochastic model has been developed to describe a probability for fatigue process by assuming a varying hazard rate. This stochastic model can be used to obtain the desired probability of a crack of certain length at a given location after a certain number of cycles or time. Quantitative estimation of the developed model was also discussed. Application of the model to develop a procedure for reliability-based cost-effective fail-safe structural design is presented. This design procedure includes the reliability improvement due to inspection and repair. Methods of obtaining optimum inspection and maintenance schemes are treated.

  2. Type-safe pattern combinators

    Rhiger, Morten


    Macros still haven't made their way into typed higher-order programming languages such as Haskell and Standard ML. Therefore, to extend the expressiveness of Haskell or Standard ML, one must express new linguistic features in terms of functions that fit within the static type systems of these lan...... of these languages. This is particularly challenging when introducing features that span across multiple types and that bind variables. We address this challenge by developing, in a step by step manner, mechanisms for encoding patterns and pattern matching in Haskell in a type-safe way....

  3. Towards Safe Robotic Surgical Systems

    Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafael


    A proof of safety is paramount for an autonomous robotic surgical system to ensure that it does not cause trauma to patients. However, a proof of safety is rarely constructed, as surgical systems are too complex to be dealt with by most formal verification methods. In this paper, we design...... a controller for motion compensation in beating-heart surgery, and prove that it is safe, i.e., the surgical tool is kept within an allowable distance and orientation of the heart. We solve the problem by simultaneously finding a control law and a barrier function. The motion compensation system is simulated...

  4. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Bodin, Michael


    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  5. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley


    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  6. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    Chen, Mu-Chun, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Fallbacher, Maximilian, E-mail: [Physik–Department T30, Technische Universität München, James–Franck–Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Ratz, Michael, E-mail: [Physik–Department T30, Technische Universität München, James–Franck–Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Trautner, Andreas, E-mail: [Physik–Department T30, Technische Universität München, James–Franck–Straße 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S., E-mail: [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); TUM Institute for Advanced Study, Lichtenbergstraße 2a, 85748 Garching (Germany); Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Ludwig–Maximilians–Universität München, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)


    We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  7. Anomaly-safe discrete groups

    Mu-Chun Chen


    Full Text Available We show that there is a class of finite groups, the so-called perfect groups, which cannot exhibit anomalies. This implies that all non-Abelian finite simple groups are anomaly-free. On the other hand, non-perfect groups generically suffer from anomalies. We present two different ways that allow one to understand these statements.

  8. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.


    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  9. Viking Lander reliability program

    Pilny, M. J.


    The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.

  10. A simple system of parenteral nutrition.


    The practical problems involved in the preparation and delivery of parenteral nutrition may result in such treatment being withheld from patients who would benefit from it. A simple and reliable system is described which has been developed to overcome the more common problems.

  11. Keeping you safe by making machine tools safe


    CERN’s third safety objective for 2012 concerns the safety of equipment - and machine tools in particular.   There are three prerequisites for ensuring that a machine tool can be used safely: ·      the machine tool must comply with Directive 2009/104/EC, ·      the layout of the workshop must be compliant, and ·      everyone who uses the machine tool must be trained. Provided these conditions are met, the workshop head can grant authorisation to use the machine tool. To fulfil this objective, an inventory of the machine tools must be drawn up and the people responsible for them identified. The HSE Unit's Safety Inspection Service produces compliance reports for the machine tools. In order to meet the third objective set by the Director-General, the section has doubled its capacity to carry out inspections: ...

  12. Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely

    ... Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Teaching Kids About Using Medicine Safely Share Tweet Linkedin ... video for tips from an FDA pediatrician on teaching older kids about using medicine safely. To view ...

  13. Dementia - keeping safe in the home

    ... this page: // Dementia - keeping safe in the home To use the ... make sure the homes of people who have dementia are safe for them. Safety Tips for the ...

  14. Safe, reliable desulfurization of high and very high H{sub 2}S loadings by UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}; Sichere, zuverlaessige Entschwefelung hoher und sehr hoher H{sub 2}S-Beladungen durch UgnCleanTubes {sup registered}

    Zoelsmann, Herbert [UGN-Umwelttechnik GmbH, Gera (Germany); Hilgert, Walter [Rietzler-Gruppe GmbH, Nuernberg (Germany)


    UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 for complete, safe desulfurization of biogas/biogenic fuel gases (hydrolysis and pyrolysis gas, landfill gas, sewage gas,..), natural gas and associated petroleum gases and industrial production exhaust gases are market introduced and tested worldwide. In particular, the complete surrender of gas cooling, gas drying and gas reheating, the H{sub 2}S removal to zero level and proven in practice loading capacity of up to % 80 percent characterize the UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 external as a cost-effective, efficient and sustainable desulfurization medium. The further development of the pellets to the UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - that is, to internally hollow pellets with correspondingly enlarged, outer surface - is the next logical step to further improve performance whilst fully retaining the advantages of pellets. [German] UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 zur vollstaendigen, sicheren Entschwefelung von Biogas/biogenen Brenngasen (Hydrolyse- und Pyrolysegas, Deponiegas, Klaergas,...), Erdgas und Erdoelbegleitgasen sowie industriellen Produktionsabgasen sind markteingefuehrt und weltweit erprobt. Insbesondere der vollstaendige Verzicht auf Gaskuehlung, Gastrocknung und Gaswiederaufheizung, die H{sub 2}S-Entfernung auf Nullniveau sowie die in der Praxis nachgewiesene Beladungskapazitaet von bis zu 80-Gew% zeichnen die UgnCleanPellets {sup registered} S 3.5 als ein kostenguenstiges, effizientes und nachhaltiges externes Entschwefelungsmedium aus. Die Weiterentwicklung der Pellets zu den UgnCleanTubes {sup registered} S 3.5 - d.h. zu innen hohlen Pellets mit entsprechend vergroesserter, aeusserer Oberflaeche - ist der naechste konsequente Schritt zur weiteren Leistungssteigerung bei vollstaendiger Beibehaltung der Vorteile der Pellets.

  15. Wavelength Stabilized High Brightness Direct Diode Pumps for Solid State LIDAR Systems at Eye-Safe Wavelengths Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a high power, high efficiency, high reliability compact eye-safe LIDAR source. The diode pump source is an electrically series-connected array of single...

  16. 30 CFR 57.11001 - Safe access.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 57.11001 Section 57.11001 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Travelways-Surface and Underground § 57.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided...

  17. 30 CFR 56.11001 - Safe access.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safe access. 56.11001 Section 56.11001 Mineral... HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Travelways § 56.11001 Safe access. Safe means of access shall be provided and maintained to all working places....

  18. Developing Safe Schools Partnerships with Law Enforcement

    Rosiak, John


    Safe schools are the concern of communities throughout the world. If a school is safe, and if children feel safe, students "are better able to learn. But what are the steps to make" this happen? First, it is important to understand the problem: What are the threats to school safety? These include crime-related behaviors that find their way to…

  19. Reliability based design optimization: Formulations and methodologies

    Agarwal, Harish

    Modern products ranging from simple components to complex systems should be designed to be optimal and reliable. The challenge of modern engineering is to ensure that manufacturing costs are reduced and design cycle times are minimized while achieving requirements for performance and reliability. If the market for the product is competitive, improved quality and reliability can generate very strong competitive advantages. Simulation based design plays an important role in designing almost any kind of automotive, aerospace, and consumer products under these competitive conditions. Single discipline simulations used for analysis are being coupled together to create complex coupled simulation tools. This investigation focuses on the development of efficient and robust methodologies for reliability based design optimization in a simulation based design environment. Original contributions of this research are the development of a novel efficient and robust unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization, the development of an innovative decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology, the application of homotopy techniques in unilevel reliability based design optimization methodology, and the development of a new framework for reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty. The unilevel methodology for reliability based design optimization is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the traditional nested formulation. Numerical test problems show that the unilevel methodology can reduce computational cost by at least 50% as compared to the nested approach. The decoupled reliability based design optimization methodology is an approximate technique to obtain consistent reliable designs at lesser computational expense. Test problems show that the methodology is computationally efficient compared to the nested approach. A framework for performing reliability based design optimization under epistemic uncertainty is also developed

  20. Working safely with electronics racks

    Simon Baird, HSE Unit Head


    Think of CERN and you’ll probably think of particle accelerators and detectors. These are the tools of the trade in particle physics, but behind them are the racks of electronics that include power supplies, control systems and data acquisition networks.   Inside an electronics rack: danger could be lurking if the rack is not powered off. In routine operation, these are no more harmful than the home entertainment system in your living room. But unscrew the cover and it’s a different matter. Even after following appropriate training, and with formal authorisation from your group leader or equivalent to carry out electrical work or any work in the vicinity of electrical hazards, and even with extensive experience of carrying out such operations, it’s important to incorporate safe working practices into your routine. At CERN, before the racks of electronics reach their operational configurations for the accelerators and detectors, they play a vital role in test set-ups ...

  1. Safe Distribution of Declarative Processes

    Hildebrandt, Thomas; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Slaats, Tijs


    process model generalizing labelled prime event structures to a systems model able to finitely represent ω-regular languages. An operational semantics given as a transition semantics between markings of the graph allows DCR Graphs to be conveniently used as both specification and execution model....... The technique for distribution is based on a new general notion of projection of DCR Graphs relative to a subset of labels and events identifying the set of external events that must be communicated from the other processes in the network in order for the distribution to be safe.We prove that for any vector...... of projections that covers a DCR Graph that the network of synchronously communicating DCR Graphs given by the projections is bisimilar to the original global process graph. We exemplify the distribution technique on a process identified in a case study of an cross-organizational case management system carried...

  2. The Difference Safe Spaces Make

    Kendric Coleman


    Full Text Available In the last decade, lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT students have become very visible at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs, but this visibility is not reflected in some colleges’ student programs and activities. Only a few notable HBCUs, such as Howard University and Spelman College, have made a concerted effort. Acknowledging that the LGBT community is significant and exists, and fostering such support, comes up against a steep wall of religious tradition and doctrines, and conservative administrations. It is imperative that HBCUs address LGBT issues and create and support a safe space for students to articulate their identity. Meanwhile, many LGBT students on these campuses find voice and understanding in Black scholars and writers such as Audre Lorde’s Zami: A New Spelling of My Name and Charles Michael Smith’s Fighting Words: Personal Essays by Black Gay Men.

  3. Is herniography useful and safe?

    Hureibi, K.A., E-mail: [Musgrove Park Hospital, Taunton TA1 5DA (United Kingdom); McLatchie, Gregor R., E-mail: [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom); Kidambi, Ananta V., E-mail: [University Hospital of Hartlepool, Holdforth Road, Hartlepool TS24 9AH (United Kingdom)


    117 consecutive herniograms were reviewed for patients who had symptoms suggestive of hernia but with no evidence or inconclusive findings on physical examination. The traditional approach has been to explore patients with suspected occult hernias. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of herniography in minimizing needless groin exploration and to evaluate its safety. Thirty-three herniograms were positive and showed unilateral and bilateral inguinal hernias. There were no false positive examinations and two false negative examinations. No complications were present. Patients with positive herniograms were explored, and operative findings correlated well with herniographic findings. Twenty-four patients were referred to other specialities. Follow-up in clinic and telephone interviews showed symptomatic improvement in the majority of patients. Herniography is useful in evaluating obscure groin pain and occult hernias. It is a safe procedure and more cost effective than a negative exploration or diagnostic laparoscopy.

  4. How safe is Bubble Soccer?

    Halani, Sameer H; Riley, Jonathan P; Pradilla, Gustavo; Ahmad, Faiz U


    Traumatic neurologic injury in contact sports is a rare but serious consequence for its players. These injuries are most commonly associated with high-impact collisions, for example in football, but are found in a wide variety of sports. In an attempt to minimize these injuries, sports are trying to increase safety by adding protection for participants. Most recently is the seemingly 'safe' sport of Bubble Soccer, which attempts to protect its players with inflatable plastic bubbles. We report a case of a 16-year-old male sustaining a cervical spine burst fracture with incomplete spinal cord injury while playing Bubble Soccer. To our knowledge, this is the first serious neurological injury reported in the sport.

  5. Safe foods for allergic people

    Nørhede, Pia; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Bennett, L.

    food companies avoid being a part of such a tragic story? The EuroPrevall project has developed a new website on the management of food allergens,, which is aimed at the food industry. Content on the new website about food allergy: • Basal knowledge about food allergy such as how...... big the problem is, possible causes, prevention, symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. • The European law. The labelling law is the only law specifically mentioning food allergy. But both the general food law and the hygiene law require food companies to provide safe foods. • Guidance to the food...... industry on how to handle food allergens in the food production including how to minimise the risk of unintentional presence of allergens in a product. • Access to the InformAll database that contains detailed information about almost 100 foods, which may cause allergy. The database covers both...

  6. Inflation from Asymptotically Safe Theories

    Nielsen, Niklas Grønlund; Sannino, Francesco; Svendsen, Ole


    of the existence of a controllable ultraviolet interacting fixed point. The scalar couplings at the ultraviolet fixed point and their overall running are predicted by the geometric structure of the underlying theory. We analyse the minimal and non-minimal coupling to gravity of these theories and the consequences......We investigate models in which inflation is driven by an ultraviolet safe and interacting scalar sector stemming from a new class of nonsupersymmetric gauge field theories. These new theories, differently from generic scalar models, are well defined to arbitrary short distances because...... for inflation. In the minimal coupling case the theory requires large non-perturbative quantum corrections to the quantum potential for the theory to agree with data, while in the non- minimal coupling case the perturbative regime in the couplings of the theory is preferred. Requiring the theory to reproduce...

  7. Safe motherhood: when to begin.

    Verma, M; Chhatwal, J; Mathew, E


    Two thousand five hundred college girls were assessed for their knowledge and attitudes regarding sex, pregnancy and child rearing with the help of a pretested questionnaire. The site of menstruation was known to only 35.3% of the girls. The knowledge about the time and site of conception was 25.3% and 58.2%, respectively. Only 16.3% of the respondents knew the normal route of delivery although the duration of normal pregnancy was known to majority (87.7%). The girls were aware of the ideal timing of abortion (67.5%) but the safe method and legality were poorly known facts. Only 5% of the girls believed in pre-marital sex. More than half (54.9%) of the girls knew about some form of contraceptive, Copper-T being the best known. Nearly one fifth of the girls were either undecided or wished family members to decide about antenatal check-ups. The need for better diet and injections during pregnancy was well known although few (15.2%) were aware of the injections being tetanus toxoid. Only about 10% wanted a home delivery but one fourth felt that a Dai or a relative was suitable for conducting the delivery. An overwhelming majority of the students stated that knowledge about above facts was important and they would like to learn about them preferably during college education. It is recommended that 'Family life education' be provided during pre-adolescent and adolescent years to ensure a safe motherhood and a healthy child.

  8. Reliability of a Shuttle reaction timer

    Hays, Russell D.; Mazzocca, Augustus D.; Rashid, Michael; Siconolfi, Steven F.


    Reaction, movement, and task times refer to the times needed to initially respond to a stimulus, make the specific movement, and complete the entire task. This study evaluated the reliability of a simple reaction timer designed to mimic a Space Shuttle task (turning on an overhead switch).

  9. SafeZone: A Hierarchical Inter-Domain Authenticated Source Address Validation Solution

    Li, Jie; Xu, Ke


    Next generation Internet is highly concerned about the issue of reliability. Principally, the foundation of reliability is authentication of the source IP address. With the signature-and-verification based defense mechanisms available today, unfortunately, there is a lack of hierarchical architecture, which makes the structure of the trust alliance excessively flat and single. Moreover, with the increasing scale of the trust alliance, costs of validation grow so quickly that they do not adapt to incremental deployment. Via comparison with traditional solutions, this article proposes a hierarchical, inter-domain authenticated source address validation solution named SafeZone. SafeZone employs two intelligent designs, lightweight tag replacement and a hierarchical partitioning scheme, each of which helps to ensure that SafeZone can construct trustworthy and hierarchical trust alliances without the negative influences and complex operations on de facto networks. Extensive experiments also indicate that SafeZone ...

  10. Analysis of the SAFE-30 resistance-heated test data

    van Duyn, Lee B.; Poston, David I.; Reid, Robert S.


    The Heatpipe Power System (HPS) is one possible system that could produce near-term, low-cost space fission power. One of the main ways that it achieves these goals is by designing the system for inexpensive testing. Nuclear testing is often a long and expensive process. The HPS utilizes electrical resistance heaters to simulate the nuclear heat, which if done correctly can reduce development time and cost. The purpose of the SAFE-30 testing is to verify core thermal performance and to evaluate the usefulness of this type of resistance heated testing. The Safe Affordable Fission Engine (SAFE) is a derivative of the HPS designed for producing electricity in space. A 30 kWt SAFE model was built by Los Alamos National Laboratory and recently tested at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The SAFE-30 had 12 heatpipes and 48 electrical heaters to simulate the nuclear fuel. The SAFE-30 tests that were done were regulated and monitored using approximately 84 thermocouples. The heaters were controlled using variable current and voltage, which made it possible to obtain a specific input power. Attaching water-jacket calorimeters to the heatpipes made it feasible to obtain the power output from the core using simple heat transfer calculations. These actual temperatures and power values were then compared to a computational model that uses nuclear data and thermal properties. Near the completion of testing, a Stirling engine was attached to the core heatpipes to verify thermal coupling and produce electricity. This paper describes how the tests were conducted and what pieces of hardware were used to model potential environments. It also explains the results of the tests as well as the different conditions that they were tested under. Finally, it analyzes the overall data for the successful tests and confirms it to be comparable to the theoretical thermal calculations done by the computer code. .

  11. Simple pulmonary eosinophilia

    Pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia; Loffler syndrome; Eosinophilic pneumonia; Pneumonia - eosinophilic ... A rare complication of simple pulmonary eosinophilia is a severe type of pneumonia called acute idiopathic eosinophilic pneumonia.




    Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.

  13. Measurement System Reliability Assessment

    Kłos Ryszard


    Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.

  14. Reliable knowledge discovery

    Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni


    Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc

  15. Reliability of fluid systems

    Kopáček Jaroslav


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.

  16. Circuit design for reliability

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson


    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  17. What is a safe lift?

    Espinoza, Kathy


    In a perfect world, a "safe" lift would be 51 pounds if the object is within 7 inches from the front of the body, if it is at waist height, if it is directly in front of the person, if there is a handle on the object, and if the load inside the box/bucket doesn't shift once lifted. If the load to be lifted does not meet all of these criteria, then it is an unsafe lift, and modifications must be made. Modifications would include lightening the load, getting help, or using a mechanical lifting device. There is always a way to turn an unsafe lift into a safer lift. An excellent resource for anyone interested in eliminating some of the hazards associated with lifting is the "Easy Ergonomics" publication from Cal/OSHA. This booklet offers practical advice on how to improve the workplace using engineering and administrative controls, problem-solving strategies and solutions, and a vast amount of ergonomics information and resources. "Easy Ergonomics" can be obtained by calling Cal/OSHA's education and training unit in Sacramento at 800-963-9424. A free copy can be obtained via

  18. Fail-safe neutron shutter used for thermal neutron radiography

    Sachs, R.D.; Morris, R.A.


    A fail-safe, reliable, easy-to-use neutron shutter was designed, built, and put into operation at the Omega West Reactor, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The neutron shutter will be used primarily to perform thermal neutron radiography, but is also available for a highly collimated source of thermal neutrons (neutron flux = 3.876 x 10/sup 6/ (neutrons)/(cm/sup 2/.s)). Neutron collimator sizes of either 10.16 by 10.16 cm or 10.16 by 30.48 cm are available.

  19. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)


    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  20. A Simple "Tubeless" Telescope

    Straulino, S.; Bonechi, L.


    Two lenses make it possible to create a simple telescope with quite large magnification. The set-up is very simple and can be reproduced in schools, provided the laboratory has a range of lenses with different focal lengths. In this article, the authors adopt the Keplerian configuration, which is composed of two converging lenses. This instrument,…

  1. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Herald, Christine


    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  2. LED system reliability

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.


    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific ex

  3. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...

  4. Improving machinery reliability

    Bloch, Heinz P


    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  5. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  6. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William


    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  7. Chapter 9: Reliability

    Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert


    This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.

  8. Midwifery education for safe motherhood.

    O'Heir, J M


    To determine the useability (relevance, clarity and quality of content), applicability (ease of use) and accessibility (structure and form) of a series of new safe motherhood midwifery education modules. Questionnaire survey and focus group discussions, preceded by a two week clinical skills course and an eight day orientation to using the modules. Nursing and midwifery education institutions, regional training centres, acute-care hospital facilities and community settings in Ethiopia, Fiji, Lesotho, Mozambique and Nepal. Thirty-six teachers, 82 midwives, nurse-midwives and auxiliary nurse-midwives from practice settings, and 60 post basic midwifery students. Overall it was found that the introductory information and the technical content of the modules were easy to understand and use as were the instructions for both teachers and students. The presentation of the material was orderly and easy to follow; the language was comprehensible; and the illustrations were appropriate, clear and facilitated teaching. The teachers found that they were able to use most of the teaching/learning methods, teach most of the skills in the modules, and use the guidelines for assessing competence. The main difficulties encountered included adherence to the recommended time frame for some of the classroom sessions; the limited availability of clinical cases for teaching the specific skills in the modules and time limitations in the clinical area for practising the skills; and the provision of transport for community visits, data to complete community profiles, and time to complete other planned community activities. The students identified the need for a set of learning materials which they could take with them for future reference, and both teachers and students expressed concern about resources to support, and legislation to cover, the application of the skills taught/learned. The modules have the potential to strengthen and support the education of midwives in developing countries

  9. How safe is blood, really?

    Klein, Harvey G


    Blood is safer than it has ever been, however the progression of transfusion from dangerous intervention to reliable supportive care been non-linear. Disparities resulting from geography, economy, and social class persist. Some risks are known, others are unknown but predictable, and still others may be totally unpredictable. Among the known risks are infectious and immunologic events that can be calculated per unit of blood transfused. These risks vary by component. Among the unknown risks are the potential for emerging pathogens transmitted by blood and for processing or storage lesions to result in short or long-term toxicity. National registries provide some reassurance that transfusion may not affect mortality significantly beyond the first few weeks after administration. Nevertheless, transmission of novel pathogens, repeated allogeneic stimulation, and infusion of cytokines or chemokines may have unrecognized consequences. Blood safety can be effected dramatically with small investment in developing countries. In the developed world, technologies such as pathogen inactivation, antigen camouflage, component substitutes, or cell expansion promise relatively small advances in safety at substantial cost. No strategy guarantees zero-risk.

  10. Design of intrinsically safe power supply

    LI Rui-jin; JIN Lin


    Aiming to make a high power direct current supply safely used in coal mine production,this paper made a deep research on characteristics of intrinsically safe power supply,using the mathematical model established according to coal mine intrinsic safety standards.It provides theory support for the application of high power intrinsically safe power supply.The released energy of output short circuit of switch power supply,and the close related factors that influence the biggest output short-circuit spark discharge energy are the theoretical basis of the power supply.It is shown how to make a high power intrinsically safe power supply using the calculated values in the mathematical model,and take values from intrinsically safe requirements parameters scope,then this theoretical calculation value can be developed as the ultimate basis for research of the power supply.It gets the identification method of intrinsically safe from mathematics model of intrinsically safe power supply characteristics study,which solves the problem of theory and application of designing different power intrinsically safe power supply,and designs a kind of high power intrinsically safe power supply through this method.

  11. A reliable fluorescent stain for fungi in tissue sections and clinical specimens.

    Holländer, H; Keilig, W; Bauer, J; Rothemund, E


    A simple and reliable staining technique is described using the fluorescent brightener Blankophor BA which binds specifically to fungal cell wall components. Potential diagnostic applications are shown.

  12. Safe and Effective Ag Nanoparticles Immobilized Antimicrobial NanoNonwovens

    Song, Jie; Chen, Menglin; Regina, Viduthalai R.


    and possibility of introduction of secondary pollution. Here, we present a novel strategy to produce a safe and effective antimicrobial nanononwoven material by immobilizing AgNPs on a rigid polymer nanofibrous matrix through simple co-electrospinning of pre-prepaired AgNPs and polystyrene (PS). Distribution...... of the AgNPs on the surface of PS fibers was achieved by tuning fiber diameters during electrospinning. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the AgNPs distributed at the fiber surface were still covered by a layer of polymer, which inhibited their antimicrobial activity. UV/ozone treatment...

  13. Photovoltaic system reliability

    Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others


    This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.

  14. Structural Reliability Methods

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  15. Simple Kidney Cysts

    ... Information Kidney Disease Simple Kidney Cysts Related Topics Section Navigation Kidney Disease Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease Amyloidosis & ... for a Child with Kidney Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Failure Choosing a ...

  16. Simple MHD Equilibria

    Schnack, Dalton D.

    In this lecture we will examine some simple examples of MHD equilibrium configurations. These will all be in cylindrical geometry. They form the basis for more complicated equilibrium states in toroidal geometry.


    Yuriy Michaylovic Chinyuchin


    Full Text Available The article deals with procedural guidelines for delayed damage aircraft safe flights. This methodological support is intended to form the aircraft type minimum equipment list (MEL.It is suggested to use airworthiness provision as the basic criterion for MEL determination. In order to develop methodological support of safe flights with delayed damage it is suggested to follow the well-known methods of statistical and constructive analyses and theory of estimation methods. Functional system reliability of delayed damage flights isanalyzed alongside with functional system failure types and consequences.Modeling reckons upon the opportunity to analyze the functional system failure-free operation for any predetermined specified operation time, including the time between overhauls. Functional system failure-free operation analyses and estima- tion by means of suggested model supposes step-by-step approach in solvation of the following problems: every component of the functional system reliability estimation; failure-free operation of the functional system in the whole.Thus it is possible to determine and forecast acceptable rates of failure probability for every analyzed component considering airworthiness requirements at the aircraft maintenance facility.The initial data for modeling is the functional systems and parts failure statistic database accumulated from a cer- tain maintenance facility operation experience.The suggested mathematical support for MEL formation allows to update manufacturer specified MEL for the air-craft maintenance facility.

  18. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)


    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  19. Semantic markup of sensor capabilities: how simple it too simple?

    Rueda-Velasquez, C. A.; Janowicz, K.; Fredericks, J.


    Semantics plays a key role for the publication, retrieval, integration, and reuse of observational data across the geosciences. In most cases, one can safely assume that the providers of such data, e.g., individual scientists, understand the observation context in which their data are collected,e.g., the used observation procedure, the sampling strategy, the feature of interest being studied, and so forth. However, can we expect that the same is true for the technical details of the used sensors and especially the nuanced changes that can impact observations in often unpredictable ways? Should the burden of annotating the sensor capabilities, firmware, operation ranges, and so forth be really part of a scientist's responsibility? Ideally, semantic annotations should be provided by the parties that understand these details and have a vested interest in maintaining these data. With manufactures providing semantically-enabled metadata for their sensors and instruments, observations could more easily be annotated and thereby enriched using this information. Unfortunately, today's sensor ontologies and tool chains developed for the Semantic Web community require expertise beyond the knowledge and interest of most manufacturers. Consequently, knowledge engineers need to better understand the sweet spot between simple ontologies/vocabularies and sufficient expressivity as well as the tools required to enable manufacturers to share data about their sensors. Here, we report on the current results of EarthCube's X-Domes project that aims to address the questions outlined above.

  20. Reliable Electronic Equipment

    N. A. Nayak


    Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.

  1. Reliability prediction techniques

    Whittaker, B.; Worthington, B.; Lord, J.F.; Pinkard, D.


    The paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying reliability assessment techniques to mining equipment. A number of techniques are identified and described and examples of their use in assessing mining equipment are given. These techniques include: reliability prediction; failure analysis; design audit; maintainability; availability and the life cycle costing. Specific conclusions regarding the usefulness of each technique are outlined. The choice of techniques depends upon both the type of equipment being assessed and its stage of development, with numerical prediction best suited for electronic equipment and fault analysis and design audit suited to mechanical equipment. Reliability assessments involve much detailed and time consuming work but it has been demonstrated that the resulting reliability improvements lead to savings in service costs which more than offset the cost of the evaluation.

  2. Reliability of power connections

    BRAUNOVIC Milenko


    Despite the use of various preventive maintenance measures, there are still a number of problem areas that can adversely affect system reliability. Also, economical constraints have pushed the designs of power connections closer to the limits allowed by the existing standards. The major parameters influencing the reliability and life of Al-Al and Al-Cu connections are identified. The effectiveness of various palliative measures is determined and the misconceptions about their effectiveness are dealt in detail.

  3. Safety analysis and realization of safe information transmission optical LAN on high-speed railway

    Tao, Ying; Wu, Chongqing; Li, Zuoyi


    High-speed railway that has been progressing very quickly is one of the greatest techniques in present time because of its high speed, economy, comfort, environment benefits and other advantages. And among all of these, safe is the backbone and lifeline, so the chief task in developing high-speed railway is to establish safety guarantee system. Also in this safety guarantee system, train control is one of the key techniques to guarantee safe train operation and to advance ability of transportation, so operation safe is located in the hardcore position. That is to say, it is imperative to set up a safe, real-time and reliable automatic train control system. And we can easily find out that this kind of system is now developed and applied in many countries. Important information related to train control, such as the received and transmitted information of track-sided equipment, is called safe information, because it deals with train operation's safe, reliability, and even directly with people's life and wealth. It is so important that if there were some kind of fault with its making, transmission, or processing, fatal accident would occur. So to some degree, it is impossible to transmit and process this information through present railway communication network because of the former's extreme importance and the latter's no safe capability. Therefore, a specific communication network that mainly considers about safe transmission and management should be established in order to realize the specific function for this specific information. High-speed railway safe information transmission optical LAN, which adopts optical fiber as transmission media and transmits safe information, is a kind of LAN designed for the request for safe, real-time and highly reliable automatic train control system in the process of our country's high-speed railway construction and commonly train speed. In this paper, after analyzing the characteristics of automatic train control system and the

  4. Creating Safe Spaces for Music Learning

    Hendricks, Karin S.; Smith, Tawnya D.; Stanuch, Jennifer


    This article offers a practical model for fostering emotionally safe learning environments that instill in music students a positive sense of self-belief, freedom, and purpose. The authors examine the implications for music educators of creating effective learning environments and present recommendations for creating a safe space for learning,…

  5. Improved water does not mean safe water

    MacDonald, L. H.; Guo, Y.; Schwab, K. J.


    This work presents a model for estimating global access to drinking water that meets World Health Organization (WHO) water quality guidelines. The currently accepted international estimate of global access to safe water, the WHO and United Nations Children's Fund's (UNICEF) Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) report, estimates the population with access to water service infrastructure that is classified as improved and unimproved. The JMP report uses access to improved water sources as a proxy for access to safe water, but improved water sources do not always meet drinking water quality guidelines. Therefore, this report likely overestimates the number of people with access to safe water. Based on the JMP estimate, the United Nations has recently announced that the world has reached the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) target for access to safe water. Our new framework employs a statistical model that incorporates source water quality, water supply interruptions, water storage practices, and point of use water treatment to estimate access to safe water, resulting in a figure that is lower than the JMP estimate of global access to safe water. We estimate that at least 28% of the world does not have access to safe water today, as compared to the JMP estimate of 12%. These findings indicate that much more work is needed on the international scale to meet the MDG target for access to safe water.

  6. Safe Haven Laws and School Social Work

    Kopels, Sandra


    "Safe haven" laws are designed to protect infants from being killed or otherwise harmed. This article examines the safe haven laws from the states that comprise the Midwest School Social Work Council and the variations between these laws regarding the age of the infant, where the infant can be left, who is allowed to leave the infant, whether…

  7. Safe Haven Laws as "Crime Control Theater"

    Hammond, Michelle; Miller, Monica K.; Griffin, Timothy


    Objectives: This article examines safe haven laws, which allow parents to legally abandon their infants. The main objective is to determine whether safe haven laws fit the criteria of "crime control theater", a term used to describe public policies that produce the appearance, but not the effect, of crime control, and as such are essentially…

  8. Implementation of an Improved Safe Operating Envelope

    Prime, Robyn; McIntyre, Mark [NB Power Nuclear, P.O. Box 600, Lepreau, NB (Canada); Reeves, David [Atlantic Nuclear Services Ltd., PO Box 1268 Fredericton, NB (Canada)


    This paper is a continuation of the paper presented at IYNC 2004 on 'The Definition of a Safe Operating Envelope'. The current paper concentrates on the implementation process of the Safe Operating Envelope employed at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. (authors)

  9. Virus Alert: Ten Steps to Safe Computing.

    Gunter, Glenda A.


    Discusses computer viruses and explains how to detect them; discusses virus protection and the need to update antivirus software; and offers 10 safe computing tips, including scanning floppy disks and commercial software, how to safely download files from the Internet, avoiding pirated software copies, and backing up files. (LRW)

  10. Calculating reliability measures for ordinal data.

    Gamsu, C V


    Establishing the reliability of measures taken by judges is important in both clinical and research work. Calculating the statistic of choice, the kappa coefficient, unfortunately is not a particularly quick and simple procedure. Two much-needed practical tools have been developed to overcome these difficulties: a comprehensive and easily understood guide to the manual calculation of the most complex form of the kappa coefficient, weighted kappa for ordinal data, has been written; and a computer program to run under CP/M, PC-DOS and MS-DOS has been developed. With simple modification the program will also run on a Sinclair Spectrum home computer.

  11. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)


    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  12. Sensitivity Analysis of Component Reliability



    In a system, Every component has its unique position within system and its unique failure characteristics. When a component's reliability is changed, its effect on system reliability is not equal. Component reliability sensitivity is a measure of effect on system reliability while a component's reliability is changed. In this paper, the definition and relative matrix of component reliability sensitivity is proposed, and some of their characteristics are analyzed. All these will help us to analyse or improve the system reliability.

  13. A simple nasal anemometer for clinical purposes.

    Hutters, B; Brøndsted, K


    There is a need for clinical methods which give more direct information about the behaviour of the velopharyngeal mechanism in natural speech than do the examination methods normally applied to patients suffering from velopharyngeal insufficiency. One possibility is the recording of nasal airflow in order to detect nasal emission of air. The purpose of the present study is to examine the qualities and the characteristics of a simple and cheap nasal anemometer. As this type of flowmeter is considered less reliable than most other flowmeters, its limitations must be clearly understood and accounted for in drawing conclusions. Therefore, nasal airflow in speech obtained with this flowmeter is discussed in relation to nasal airflow obtained by the more reliable pneumotachograph and in relation to nasal airflow data found in the literature. The tests made here suggest that, at least for the type of speech material and measurements used in the present study, reliable nasal airflow data can be obtained by the anemometer.

  14. Reliability and validity of triage systems in paediatric emergency care

    M. van Veen (Mirjam); H.A. Moll (Henriëtte)


    textabstractBackground. Triage in paediatric emergency care is an important tool to prioritize seriously ill children. Triage can also be used to identify patients who do not need urgent care and who can safely wait. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the literature on reliability

  15. GNRH antagonists in oocyte donor cycles the key to safe, simple and efficient stimulation protocols /

    Bodri, Daniel


    Descripció del recurs: 22 juliol 2011 Introducción: Desde su primera descripción en 1984 las indicaciones de donación de óvulos han ido aumentando, lo que ha provocado un incremento progresivo en el número de ciclos realizados a nivel mundial. Aunque esta técnica de reproducción garantiza una elevada tasa de embarazo en la receptora, los profesionales también se esfuerzan en convertir el tratamiento para la donante en un proceso sencillo y seguro. Durante los últimos diez años los antagoni...

  16. A simple and safe method for single HLA-antigen-typing by a solid phase assay.

    Häcker-Shahin, B; Giannitsis, D J


    A rapid solid phase assay for detection of single HLA-antigens on platelets was developed. The platelets were attached to the surface of polystyrene microtitre plate wells by means of a sodium carbonate buffer and centrifugation. Uncovered areas were blocked by a gelatin blocking buffer. After incubation with commercially available anti-HLA-sera the bound anti-HLA-specific antibodies directed against HLA-antigens present on the platelets were made visible by anti-IgG-coated indicator red cells and a brief centrifugation. A positive result, meaning the presence of an HLA-antigen, was indicated by a slight red cell adherence over the reaction surface. In the absence of the HLA-antigen no binding occurred and the indicator red cells formed a small red disc-like pellet.

  17. Assessment of the Reliability of Concrete Bridges

    Middleton, C. R.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    a significant shift in emphasis for the highways authorities around the world away from the design of new structures over to maintaining the existing infrastructure. As a result, bridge owners are seeking improved ways of inspecting, assessing, maintaining and repairing their existing stock of bridges...... in the wake of ever increasing traffic loads and volumes, and an ageing population of bridges subject to various mechanisms of deterioration. The goal is to optimise the allocation of limited resources whilst maintaining their bridges in a safe and serviceable condition. Reliability analysis is one tool being...

  18. The SafeCOP ECSEL Project: Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems Using Wireless Communication

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Hansson, Hans


    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled "Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication" (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016 -- 2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...

  19. Embracing Safe Ground Test Facility Operations and Maintenance

    Dunn, Steven C.; Green, Donald R.


    Conducting integrated operations and maintenance in wind tunnel ground test facilities requires a balance of meeting due dates, efficient operation, responsiveness to the test customer, data quality, effective maintenance (relating to readiness and reliability), and personnel and facility safety. Safety is non-negotiable, so the balance must be an "and" with other requirements and needs. Pressure to deliver services faster at increasing levels of quality in under-maintained facilities is typical. A challenge for management is to balance the "need for speed" with safety and quality. It s especially important to communicate this balance across the organization - workers, with a desire to perform, can be tempted to cut corners on defined processes to increase speed. Having a lean staff can extend the time required for pre-test preparations, so providing a safe work environment for facility personnel and providing good stewardship for expensive National capabilities can be put at risk by one well-intending person using at-risk behavior. This paper documents a specific, though typical, operational environment and cites management and worker safety initiatives and tools used to provide a safe work environment. Results are presented and clearly show that the work environment is a relatively safe one, though still not good enough to keep from preventing injury. So, the journey to a zero injury work environment - both in measured reality and in the minds of each employee - continues. The intent of this paper is to provide a benchmark for others with operational environments and stimulate additional sharing and discussion on having and keeping a safe work environment.


    Gaguk Margono


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare unidimensional reliability and multidimensional reliability of instrument students’ satisfaction as an internal costumer. Multidimensional reliability measurement is rarely used in the field of research. Multidimensional reliability is estimated by using Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA on the Structural Equation Model (SEM. Measurements and calculations are described in this article using instrument students’ satisfaction as an internal costumer. Survey method used in this study and sampling used simple random sampling. This instrument has been tried out to 173 students. The result is concluded that the measuringinstrument of students’ satisfaction as an internal costumer by using multidimensional reliability coefficient has higher accuracy when compared with a unidimensional reliability coefficient. Expected in advanced research used another formula multidimensional reliability, including when using SEM.

  1. Reliable dynamic in-vehicle navigation

    Kaparias, I.


    Having started off from luxury makes and models, in-vehicle navigation systems are now gradually spreading through the entire vehicle fleet, as drivers appreciate their usefulness. Increasingly sophisticated systems are being developed, having much more advanced functions than simple driving directions. This thesis presents a new approach for in-vehicle navigation, in which travel time reliability is incorporated in the route finding component of the navigation system. Based on historical tra...

  2. Reliability assessment of underground shaft closure

    Fossum, A.F. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Munson, D.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    The intent of the WIPP, being constructed in the bedded geologic salt deposits of Southeastern New Mexico, is to provide the technological basis for the safe disposal of radioactive Transuranic (TRU) wastes generated by the defense programs of the United States. In determining this technological basis, advanced reliability and structural analysis techniques are used to determine the probability of time-to-closure of a hypothetical underground shaft located in an argillaceous salt formation and filled with compacted crushed salt. Before being filled with crushed salt for sealing, the shaft provides access to an underground facility. Reliable closure of the shaft depends upon the sealing of the shaft through creep closure and recompaction of crushed backfill. Appropriate methods are demonstrated to calculate cumulative distribution functions of the closure based on laboratory determined random variable uncertainty in salt creep properties.

  3. InaSAFE applications in disaster preparedness

    Pranantyo, Ignatius Ryan; Fadmastuti, Mahardika; Chandra, Fredy


    Disaster preparedness activities aim to reduce the impact of disasters by being better prepared to respond when a disaster occurs. In order to better anticipate requirements during a disaster, contingency planning activities can be undertaken prior to a disaster based on a realistic disaster scenario. InaSAFE is a tool that can inform this process. InaSAFE is a free and open source software that estimates the impact to people and infrastructure from potential hazard scenarios. By using InaSAFE, disaster managers can develop scenarios of disaster impacts (people and infrastructures affected) to inform their contingency plan and emergency response operation plan. While InaSAFE provides the software framework exposure data and hazard data are needed as inputs to run this software. Then InaSAFE can be used to forecast the impact of the hazard scenario to the exposure data. InaSAFE outputs include estimates of the number of people, buildings and roads are affected, list of minimum needs (rice and clean water), and response checklist. InaSAFE is developed by Indonesia's National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB) and the Australian Government, through the Australia-Indonesia Facility for Disaster Reduction (AIFDR), in partnership with the World Bank - Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR). This software has been used in many parts of Indonesia, including Padang, Maumere, Jakarta, and Slamet Mountain for emergency response and contingency planning.


    Тамаргазін, О. А.; Національний авіаційний університет; Власенко, П. О.; Національний авіаційний університет


    Airline's operational structure for Reliability program implementation — engineering division, reliability  division, reliability control division, aircraft maintenance division, quality assurance division — was considered. Airline's Reliability program structure is shown. Using of Reliability program for reducing costs on aircraft maintenance is proposed. Рассмотрена организационная структура авиакомпании по выполнению Программы надежности - инженерный отдел, отделы по надежности авиацио...

  5. Ultra reliability at NASA

    Shapiro, Andrew A.


    Ultra reliable systems are critical to NASA particularly as consideration is being given to extended lunar missions and manned missions to Mars. NASA has formulated a program designed to improve the reliability of NASA systems. The long term goal for the NASA ultra reliability is to ultimately improve NASA systems by an order of magnitude. The approach outlined in this presentation involves the steps used in developing a strategic plan to achieve the long term objective of ultra reliability. Consideration is given to: complex systems, hardware (including aircraft, aerospace craft and launch vehicles), software, human interactions, long life missions, infrastructure development, and cross cutting technologies. Several NASA-wide workshops have been held, identifying issues for reliability improvement and providing mitigation strategies for these issues. In addition to representation from all of the NASA centers, experts from government (NASA and non-NASA), universities and industry participated. Highlights of a strategic plan, which is being developed using the results from these workshops, will be presented.

  6. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    Mrig, L. (ed.)


    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  7. [Metformin - new data for an "old", but efficient, safe and reliable antidiabetic drug].

    Winkler, Gábor


    Metformin is the basic drug of antihyperglycemic therapy in type 2 diabetes: according to actual therapeutic guidelines, it should be given in the absence of contraindications or intolerance during the whole course of the disease even after the initiation of insulin therapy. Recently more and more details have been explored regarding the molecular background of its effects, however, in parallel with the enormous growing knowledge, the number of questions still waiting to be answered has also grown. This review article deals with data already crystallized as well as with details not definitely cleared up. Genetic polymorphisms as well as potential drug interactions influencing the effects of metformin are also briefly summarized.

  8. Boost DNS Privacy, Reliability, and Efficiency with opDNS Safe Query Elimination

    Waldvogel, Marcel; Zink, Thomas


    SRV records, DNSSEC, and DANE among others fortify the Domain Name System as the central information hub behind the Internet. Largely hidden from the user, an increasing number of protocol and trust decisions are contingent on DNS. Neglect or attacks on DNS have much more impact today than ever, now endangering security far beyond denial of service. Opportunistic Persistent DNS (opDNS) addresses these problems by abandoning pessimistic caching and eliminating unnecessary traffic. Today's DNS ...

  9. Simple guide to Skype

    Winter, Rick


    Simple Guides give you Just the Facts Get up to speed with Skypefast! Simple Guides: get you started quickly. No extra clutter, no extra reading. Learn how to set up Skype, as well as how to add and set up all your friends, family, and other contacts. Find out about all the features of Skype, how to change views, set your status and conduct video and audio only calls. Learn about all the different things you can do to contact your friends and family on Skype for free, and start having fun!

  10. Droids Made Simple

    Mazo, Gary


    If you have a Droid series smartphone - Droid, Droid X, Droid 2, or Droid 2 Global - and are eager to get the most out of your device, Droids Made Simple is perfect for you. Authors Martin Trautschold, Gary Mazo and Marziah Karch guide you through all of the features, tips, and tricks using their proven combination of clear instructions and detailed visuals. With hundreds of annotated screenshots and step-by-step directions, Droids Made Simple will transform you into a Droid expert, improving your productivity, and most importantly, helping you take advantage of all of the cool features that c

  11. Excel 2010 Made Simple

    Katz, Abbott


    Get the most out of Excel 2010 with Excel 2010 Made Simple - learn the key features, understand what's new, and utilize dozens of time-saving tips and tricks to get your job done. Over 500 screen visuals and clear-cut instructions guide you through the features of Excel 2010, from formulas and charts to navigating around a worksheet and understanding Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) and macros. Excel 2010 Made Simple takes a practical and highly effective approach to using Excel 2010, showing you the best way to complete your most common spreadsheet tasks. You'll learn how to input, format,

  12. Safe production model for small mines

    Calizaya F.; Suryanto S.


    Presented a "safe production model" that can be adopted by small mine opera-tors to achieve their production targets safely and efficiently. The model consists of eightelements ranging from management commitment and leadership to safety account-abilityand communication. The model is developed considering the mine operators' resourcelimitations and the workers' training needs. The study concludes with a summary of asample survey that is conducted to validate the model and estimate a parameter for eachmine and determine its position in the safe production scale.

  13. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Kammerer, Catherine C.


    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  14. Conditional Reliability Coefficients for Test Scores.

    Nicewander, W Alan


    The most widely used, general index of measurement precision for psychological and educational test scores is the reliability coefficient-a ratio of true variance for a test score to the true-plus-error variance of the score. In item response theory (IRT) models for test scores, the information function is the central, conditional index of measurement precision. In this inquiry, conditional reliability coefficients for a variety of score types are derived as simple transformations of information functions. It is shown, for example, that the conditional reliability coefficient for an ordinary, number-correct score, X, is equal to, ρ(X,X'|θ)=I(X,θ)/[I(X,θ)+1] Where: θ is a latent variable measured by an observed test score, X; p(X, X'|θ) is the conditional reliability of X at a fixed value of θ; and I(X, θ) is the score information function. This is a surprisingly simple relationship between the 2, basic indices of measurement precision from IRT and classical test theory (CTT). This relationship holds for item scores as well as test scores based on sums of item scores-and it holds for dichotomous as well as polytomous items, or a mix of both item types. Also, conditional reliabilities are derived for computerized adaptive test scores, and for θ-estimates used as alternatives to number correct scores. These conditional reliabilities are all related to information in a manner similar-or-identical to the 1 given above for the number-correct (NC) score. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)

    Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.


    This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.

  16. Maritime shipping as a high reliability industry: A qualitative analysis

    Mannarelli, T.; Roberts, K.; Bea, R.


    The maritime oil shipping industry has great public demands for safe and reliable organizational performance. Researchers have identified a set of organizations and industries that operate at extremely high levels of reliability, and have labelled them High Reliability Organizations (HRO). Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill disaster of 1989, public demands for HRO-level operations were placed on the oil industry. It will be demonstrated that, despite enormous improvements in safety and reliability, maritime shipping is not operating as an HRO industry. An analysis of the organizational, environmental, and cultural history of the oil industry will help to provide justification and explanation. The oil industry will be contrasted with other HRO industries and the differences will inform the shortfalls maritime shipping experiences with regard to maximizing reliability. Finally, possible solutions for the achievement of HRO status will be offered.

  17. System Reliability Analysis: Foundations.


    performance formulas for systems subject to pre- ventive maintenance are given. V * ~, , 9 D -2 SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS: FOUNDATIONS Richard E...reliability in this case is V P{s can communicate with the terminal t = h(p) Sp2(((((p p)p) p)p)gp) + p(l -p)(((pL p)p)(p 2 JLp)) + p(l -p)((p(p p...For undirected networks, the basic reference is A. Satyanarayana and Kevin Wood (1982). For directed networks, the basic reference is Avinash

  18. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Eggen, Per-Odd


    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  19. Simple cryogenic infrared window

    Hartemink, M.; Hartemink, M.; Godfried, H.P; Godfried, Herman


    A simple, cheap technique is reported that allows materials with both large and small thermal expansion coefficients to be mounted as windows in low temperature cryostats while at the same time avoiding thermal stresses. The construction may be thermally cycled many times with no change in its

  20. Entropy Is Simple, Qualitatively.

    Lambert, Frank L.


    Suggests that qualitatively, entropy is simple. Entropy increase from a macro viewpoint is a measure of the dispersal of energy from localized to spread out at a temperature T. Fundamentally based on statistical and quantum mechanics, this approach is superior to the non-fundamental "disorder" as a descriptor of entropy change. (MM)

  1. Beyond Simple Headquarters Configurations

    Dellestrand, Henrik; Kappen, Philip; Nell, Phillip Christopher

    -divisional importance and embeddedness effects are contingent on the overall complexity of the innovation project as signified by the size of the development network. The results lend support for the notion that parenting in complex structures entails complex headquarters structures and that we need to go beyond simple...

  2. A Simple Wave Driver

    Temiz, Burak Kagan; Yavuz, Ahmet


    This study was done to develop a simple and inexpensive wave driver that can be used in experiments on string waves. The wave driver was made using a battery-operated toy car, and the apparatus can be used to produce string waves at a fixed frequency. The working principle of the apparatus is as follows: shortly after the car is turned on, the…

  3. The simple SDD.

    Fernandes, A C; Morlat, T; Felizardo, M; Collar, J I; Puibasset, J; Waysand, G; Miley, H S; Ramos, A R; Girard, T A; Giuliani, F; Limagne, D; Marques, J G; Martins, R C; Oliveira, C


    We describe the fabrication and characterisation of the SIMPLE superheated droplet detector, a 10 g active mass device of C(2)ClF(5) in 1-3% weight concentrations currently employed in a direct search for spin-dependent astroparticle dark matter candidates.

  4. A Simple Hydrogen Electrode

    Eggen, Per-Odd


    This article describes the construction of an inexpensive, robust, and simple hydrogen electrode, as well as the use of this electrode to measure "standard" potentials. In the experiment described here the students can measure the reduction potentials of metal-metal ion pairs directly, without using a secondary reference electrode. Measurements…

  5. A Simple fMRI Compatible Robotic Stimulator to Study the Neural Mechanisms of Touch and Pain.

    Riillo, F; Bagnato, C; Allievi, A G; Takagi, A; Fabrizi, L; Saggio, G; Arichi, T; Burdet, E


    This paper presents a simple device for the investigation of the human somatosensory system with functional magnetic imaging (fMRI). PC-controlled pneumatic actuation is employed to produce innocuous or noxious mechanical stimulation of the skin. Stimulation patterns are synchronized with fMRI and other relevant physiological measurements like electroencephalographic activity and vital physiological parameters. The system allows adjustable regulation of stimulation parameters and provides consistent patterns of stimulation. A validation experiment demonstrates that the system safely and reliably identifies clusters of functional activity in brain regions involved in the processing of pain. This new device is inexpensive, portable, easy-to-assemble and customizable to suit different experimental requirements. It provides robust and consistent somatosensory stimulation, which is of crucial importance to investigating the mechanisms of pain and its strong connection with the sense of touch.

  6. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Full Text Available ... such as from a lit cigarette) or heat sources (such as a curling iron). Some can injure ... nail salon owner or employee, you can find information on maintaining safe salons on the webpage of ...

  7. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Full Text Available ... search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics ... nail polish as electronic products because they emit radiation. You can do your part to stay safe ( ...

  8. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Full Text Available ... Cosmetic nail care products also must include any instructions or warnings needed to use them safely. For ... the labels of cosmetic products and follow all instructions. And if you go to a salon for ...

  9. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Full Text Available ... stay safe (and look polished, too) by following all labeled directions and paying attention to any warning ... Read the labels of cosmetic products and follow all instructions. And if you go to a salon ...

  10. When Is an Opioid Safe to Take?

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166872.html When Is an Opioid Safe to Take? Doctors say it can treat ... Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA): Why was I prescribed opioids? Did the doctor assume opioids are the strongest ...

  11. AFSC/REFM: Groundfish SAFE Economic Report

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Groundfish SAFE Economic Report, published annually as a supplement to the Stock Assessment and Fishery Evaluation Reports for Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands...

  12. High-Protein Diets: Are They Safe?

    Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating Are high-protein diets safe for weight loss? Answers from Katherine ... L.D. For most healthy people, a high-protein diet generally isn't harmful, particularly when followed ...

  13. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Full Text Available ... need FDA approval before they go on the market. But these products are required to be safe ... by the label. For example, a 2013 published study indicated that—even for the worst case lamp ...

  14. Drones a Safe Way to Transport Blood

    ... page: Drones a Safe Way to Transport Blood: Study Finding ... t seem to suffer damage when transported by drones, researchers report. The findings lend support to advocates ...

  15. Aspirin during Pregnancy: Is It Safe?

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take aspirin during pregnancy? Answers from Yvonne Butler Tobah, M. ... 2015 Original article: ...

  16. Pregnancy and Fish: What's Safe to Eat?

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week If you're unsure about whether it's safe to eat seafood during your pregnancy, ... 2016 Original article: ...

  17. Pregnancy Constipation: Are Stool Softeners Safe?

    Healthy Lifestyle Pregnancy week by week Is it safe to take stool softeners to treat pregnancy constipation? Answers from Roger ... 2014 Original article: ...

  18. General Advice on Safe Medication Use

    ... About Us Contact Us General Advice on Safe Medication Use Visit our new website for consumers The ... answers--it's your life and your health! Unfortunately, medication errors happen. They happen in hospitals, in pharmacies, ...

  19. Novel Technique for Safe Primary Trocar Insertion in Laparoscopy: Chou's Method

    Pan-Hsin Chou


    Conclusion: The results with this novel method incorporating the unique concept of directly holding the fascia suggest it to be relatively safe, simple, and economic. The risk of major vascular injury was decreased to nil by this technique and the chance of visceral injury was also minimal.

  20. Influencing behaviour for safe working environments


    Safety at work The objective of the project Safety at Work is to increase safety at the workplace by applying and combining state of the art artefacts from personal protective equipment and ambient intelligence technology. In this state of the art document we focus on the developments with respect to how (persuasive) technology can help to influence behaviour in a natural, automatic way in order to make industrial environments safer. We focus on personal safety, safe environments and safe beh...

  1. Ergonomics: safe patient handling and mobility.

    Hallmark, Beth; Mechan, Patricia; Shores, Lynne


    This article reviews and investigates the issues surrounding ergonomics, with a specific focus on safe patient handling and mobility. The health care worker of today faces many challenges, one of which is related to the safety of patients. Safe patient handling and mobility is on the forefront of the movement to improve patient safety. This article reviews the risks associated with patient handling and mobility, and informs the reader of current evidence-based practice relevant to this area of care.

  2. The trouble with asymptotically safe inflation

    Fang, Chao


    In this paper we investigate the perturbation theory of the asymptotically safe inflation and we find that all modes of gravitational waves perturbation become ghosts in order to achieve a large enough number of e-folds. Formally we can calculate the power spectrum of gravitational waves perturbation, but we find that it is negative. It indicates that there is serious trouble with the asymptotically safe inflation.

  3. Reliability based structural design

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.


    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A ke

  4. Reliability based structural design

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.


    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A ke

  5. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Holt, James P.


    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  6. Avionics Design for Reliability


    Consultant P.O. Box 181, Hazelwood. Missouri 63042, U.S.A. soup ""•.• • CONTENTS Page LIST OF SPEAKERS iii INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW-RELIABILITY UNDER... primordial , d’autant plus quo dans co cam ia procg- dure do st~lection en fiabilitg eat assez peu efficaco. La ripartition des pannes suit

  7. Wind Energy - How Reliable.


    The reliability of a wind energy system depends on the size of the propeller and the size of the back-up energy storage. Design of the optimum system...speed incidents which generate a significant part of the wind energy . A nomogram is presented, based on some continuous wind speed measurements

  8. The reliability horizon

    Visser, M


    The ``reliability horizon'' for semi-classical quantum gravity quantifies the extent to which we should trust semi-classical quantum gravity, and gives a handle on just where the ``Planck regime'' resides. The key obstruction to pushing semi-classical quantum gravity into the Planck regime is often the existence of large metric fluctuations, rather than a large back-reaction.

  9. Reliability of semiology description.

    Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo


    Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.

  10. High reliability organizations

    Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.


    High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety

  11. Managing Cassini Safe Mode Attitude at Saturn

    Burk, Thomas A.


    The Cassini spacecraft was launched on October 15, 1997 and arrived at Saturn on June 30, 2004. It has performed detailed observations and remote sensing of Saturn, its rings, and its satellites since that time. In the event safe mode interrupts normal orbital operations, Cassini has flight software fault protection algorithms to detect, isolate, and recover to a thermally safe and commandable attitude and then wait for further instructions from the ground. But the Saturn environment is complex, and safety hazards change depending on where Cassini is in its orbital trajectory around Saturn. Selecting an appropriate safe mode attitude that insures safe operation in the Saturn environment, including keeping the star tracker field of view clear of bright bodies, while maintaining a quiescent, commandable attitude, is a significant challenge. This paper discusses the Cassini safe table management strategy and the key criteria that must be considered, especially during low altitude flybys of Titan, in deciding what spacecraft attitude should be used in the event of safe mode.

  12. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

    Emre Yanikkerem


    Full Text Available The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article is aimed to identify the important critical women and child rights the aspect of safe motherhood. This article included human rights the aspect of safe motherhood, women’s human right and convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, International Conference on Population and Development the aspect of safe motherhood, reproduction and sexual rights declaration, child rights the aspect of safe motherhood, mother and child rights declaration. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 179-186

  13. Mother Rights Aspects of Safe Motherhood

    Emre Yanikkerem


    Full Text Available The safe motherhood is aimed to reduce deaths and illnesses among women and infants, maternal deaths in developing countries are often the ultimate tragic outcome of the cumulative denial of women’s human rights. Women and infants are dying because of preventable disease. Safe motherhood is now on the world agenda as one of eight millennium Development Goals. The global community of health professionals has a major responsibility to help make motherhood safer for all women. This article is aimed to identify the important critical women and child rights the aspect of safe motherhood. This article included human rights the aspect of safe motherhood, women’s human right and convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, International Conference on Population and Development the aspect of safe motherhood, reproduction and sexual rights declaration, child rights the aspect of safe motherhood, mother and child rights declaration. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 179-186

  14. Curiosity's Autonomous Surface Safing Behavior Design

    Neilson, Tracy A.; Manning, Robert M.


    The safing routines on all robotic deep-space vehicles are designed to put the vehicle in a power and thermally safe configuration, enabling communication with the mission operators on Earth. Achieving this goal is made a little more difficult on Curiosity because the power requirements for the core avionics and the telecommunication equipment exceed the capability of the single power source, the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator. This drove the system design to create an operational mode, called "sleep mode", where the vehicle turns off most of the loads in order to charge the two Li-ion batteries. The system must keep the vehicle safe from over-heat and under-heat conditions, battery cell failures, under-voltage conditions, and clock failures, both while the computer is running and while the system is sleeping. The other goal of a safing routine is to communicate. On most spacecraft, this simply involves turning on the receiver and transmitter continuously. For Curiosity, Earth is above the horizon only a part of the day for direct communication to the Earth, and the orbiter overpass opportunities only occur a few times a day. The design must robustly place the Rover in a communicable condition at the correct time. This paper discusses Curiosity's autonomous safing behavior and describes how the vehicle remains power and thermally safe while sleeping, as well as a description of how the Rover communicates with the orbiters and Earth at specific times.

  15. Pedicle streaking: A novel and simple aid in pedicle positioning in free tissue transfer

    Aditya Aggarwal


    Full Text Available Introduction: The pedicle positioning in free tissue transfer is critical to its success. Long thin pedicles are especially prone to this complication where even a slight twist in the perforator can result in flap loss. Pedicles passing through the long tunnels are similarly at risk. Streaking the pedicle with methylene blue is a simple and safe method which increases the safety of free tissue transfer. Materials and Methods: Once the flap is islanded on the pedicle and the vascularity of the flap is confirmed, the pedicle is streaked with methylene blue dye at a distance of 6-7 mm. The streaking starts from the origin of the vessels and continued distally on to the under surface of flap to mark the complete course of the pedicle in alignment. The presence of streaking in some parts and not in rest indicates twist in the pedicle. Observation and Results: Four hundred and sixty five free flaps have been done at our centre in the last 5 years. The overall success rate of free flaps is 95.3% (22 free flap failures. There has not been a single case of pedicle twist leading to flap congestion and failure. Conclusion: This simple and novel method is very reliable for pedicle positioning avoiding any twist necessary for successful free tissue transfer.

  16. Simple Waveforms, Simply Described

    Baker, John G.


    Since the first Lazarus Project calculations, it has been frequently noted that binary black hole merger waveforms are 'simple.' In this talk we examine some of the simple features of coalescence and merger waveforms from a variety of binary configurations. We suggest an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This allows a coherent description, of both the inspiral waveforms, derivable from post-Newtonian(PN) calculations, and the numerically determined merger-ringdown. We focus particularly on similarities in the features of various Multipolar waveform components Generated by various systems. The late-time phase evolution of most L these waveform components are accurately described with a sinple analytic fit. We also discuss apparent relationships among phase and amplitude evolution. Taken together with PN information, the features we describe can provide an approximate analytic description full coalescence wavefoRms. complementary to other analytic waveforns approaches.

  17. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    Kueck, JD


    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and

  18. Central simple Poisson algebras

    SU Yucai; XU Xiaoping


    Poisson algebras are fundamental algebraic structures in physics and symplectic geometry. However, the structure theory of Poisson algebras has not been well developed. In this paper, we determine the structure of the central simple Poisson algebras related to locally finite derivations, over an algebraically closed field of characteristic zero.The Lie algebra structures of these Poisson algebras are in general not finitely-graded.

  19. Information technology made simple

    Carter, Roger


    Information Technology: Made Simple covers the full range of information technology topics, including more traditional subjects such as programming languages, data processing, and systems analysis. The book discusses information revolution, including topics about microchips, information processing operations, analog and digital systems, information processing system, and systems analysis. The text also describes computers, computer hardware, microprocessors, and microcomputers. The peripheral devices connected to the central processing unit; the main types of system software; application soft

  20. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Pavel Kolesnikov


    Full Text Available We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h and H = U(h # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  1. Simple Finite Jordan Pseudoalgebras

    Kolesnikov, Pavel


    We consider the structure of Jordan H-pseudoalgebras which are linearly finitely generated over a Hopf algebra H. There are two cases under consideration: H = U(h) and H = U(h) # C[Γ], where h is a finite-dimensional Lie algebra over C, Γ is an arbitrary group acting on U(h) by automorphisms. We construct an analogue of the Tits-Kantor-Koecher construction for finite Jordan pseudoalgebras and describe all simple ones.

  2. Modern mathematics made simple

    Murphy, Patrick


    Modern Mathematics: Made Simple presents topics in modern mathematics, from elementary mathematical logic and switching circuits to multibase arithmetic and finite systems. Sets and relations, vectors and matrices, tesselations, and linear programming are also discussed.Comprised of 12 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to sets and basic operations on sets, as well as solving problems with Venn diagrams. The discussion then turns to elementary mathematical logic, with emphasis on inductive and deductive reasoning; conjunctions and disjunctions; compound statements and conditional

  3. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.


    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  4. Optimized System Design to Ensure Safe and Smooth Operation

    Li Huilin; Zhao Lei; Ren Hua


    After the replacement with automatic system for the down direction hump of Zhengzhou North Station, some problems occurred in the sub-system of the speed control of the TW-2 hump automatic system and the sub-system of the sorting interlocking, such as poor control accuracy, complicated operation, too long time for mode switch of different performances etc. had made it impossible to meet the physical requirements of the sorting performance of the station, having an adverse effect on the safety and efficiency of the hump. Through intensive analysis on both external and internal causes, some counter measures had been put forward to solve the problems and some validations were carried out on the site. Therefore the aims to ensure safe and reliable operation of the station were reached.

  5. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen


    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  6. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D


    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  7. Reliability and construction control

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam


    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  8. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon


    The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  9. Power electronics reliability.

    Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley


    The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.

  10. ATLAS reliability analysis

    Bartsch, R.R.


    Key elements of the 36 MJ ATLAS capacitor bank have been evaluated for individual probabilities of failure. These have been combined to estimate system reliability which is to be greater than 95% on each experimental shot. This analysis utilizes Weibull or Weibull-like distributions with increasing probability of failure with the number of shots. For transmission line insulation, a minimum thickness is obtained and for the railgaps, a method for obtaining a maintenance interval from forthcoming life tests is suggested.

  11. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Micha Strack


    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  12. Teaching safe sex practices to psychiatric patients.

    Sladyk, K


    An occupational therapist presented her 45-minute program called AIDS Education and Safe Sex 5 times to female mental patients in the locked ward of Cedarcrest Regional Hospital in Newington, Connecticut, to inform them about safe-sex practices and AIDS. She first administered a pretest then spoke briefly about AIDS and safe-sex practices. The lecture emphasized various important points such as no cure for AIDS exist, casual contact (e.g., kiss on the cheek, handshake) cannot transmit HIV, and effectiveness of using latex condoms. The occupational therapist spent much of her time addressing myths about AIDS and what safe-sex practices are. The patients discussed sexual abuse and dishonest partners. She administered a posttest which was the same as the pretest. Some sessions attracted more people than did other sessions. Test scores increased for every patient and for every session. They ranged from a 5% (68-73%) increase for the 3rd session to a 24% (67-91%) increase for the last session. She was not able to determine, however, whether the increased knowledge would translate into positive behavioral changes. Patients' psychiatric symptoms may have interfered with learning resulting in less than ideal improvements in knowledge. These symptoms were hypomanic behavior, restlessness, and distractibility. Perhaps other sessions with experiential techniques (e.g., putting condoms on dummies) would increase their understanding. This program helps fill the information gap not provided by the mass media which avoid mentioning safe-sex practices.

  13. Simple Driving Techniques

    Rosendahl, Mads


    -like language. Our aim is to extract a simple notion of driving and show that even in this tamed form it has much of the power of more general notions of driving. Our driving technique may be used to simplify functional programs which use function composition and will often be able to remove intermediate data......Driving was introduced as a program transformation technique by Valentin Turchin in some papers around 1980. It was intended for the programming language REFAL and used in metasystem transitions based on super compilation. In this paper we present one version of driving for a more conventional lisp...

  14. Applied mathematics made simple

    Murphy, Patrick


    Applied Mathematics: Made Simple provides an elementary study of the three main branches of classical applied mathematics: statics, hydrostatics, and dynamics. The book begins with discussion of the concepts of mechanics, parallel forces and rigid bodies, kinematics, motion with uniform acceleration in a straight line, and Newton's law of motion. Separate chapters cover vector algebra and coplanar motion, relative motion, projectiles, friction, and rigid bodies in equilibrium under the action of coplanar forces. The final chapters deal with machines and hydrostatics. The standard and conte

  15. Data processing made simple

    Wooldridge, Susan


    Data Processing: Made Simple, Second Edition presents discussions of a number of trends and developments in the world of commercial data processing. The book covers the rapid growth of micro- and mini-computers for both home and office use; word processing and the 'automated office'; the advent of distributed data processing; and the continued growth of database-oriented systems. The text also discusses modern digital computers; fundamental computer concepts; information and data processing requirements of commercial organizations; and the historical perspective of the computer industry. The

  16. Simple Autonomous Chaotic Circuits

    Piper, Jessica; Sprott, J.


    Over the last several decades, numerous electronic circuits exhibiting chaos have been proposed. Non-autonomous circuits with as few as two components have been developed. However, the operation of such circuits relies on the non-ideal behavior of the devices used, and therefore the circuit equations can be quite complex. In this paper, we present two simple autonomous chaotic circuits using only opamps and linear passive components. The circuits each use one opamp as a comparator, to provide a signum nonlinearity. The chaotic behavior is robust, and independent of nonlinearities in the passive components. Moreover, the circuit equations are among the algebraically simplest chaotic systems yet constructed.

  17. ASP made simple

    Deane, Sharon


    ASP Made Simple provides a brief introduction to ASP for the person who favours self teaching and/or does not have expensive computing facilities to learn on. The book will demonstrate how the principles of ASP can be learned with an ordinary PC running Personal Web Server, MS Access and a general text editor like Notepad.After working through the material readers should be able to:* Write ASP scripts that can display changing information on a web browser* Request records from a remote database or add records to it* Check user names & passwords and take this knowledge forward, either for their

  18. Simple piezoelectric translation device

    Niedermann, Ph.; Emch, R.; Descouts, P.


    We describe a piezoelectric device which allows continuous movement and high-resolution micropositioning, without distance limitation. Both mechanical construction and the electronics for the device are very simple. The movement is obtained via a stick-slip mechanism, and steps as small as 10 nm are obtained. A displacement speed of 0.4 mm/s has been attained, and the device was capable of carrying several times its own weight, exerting a horizontal force, or climbing a plane inclined by 7°. Due to its compact construction, the device shows prospects for miniaturization.

  19. Theory of simple liquids

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre


    This book gives a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of the theory of ""simple"" liquids. The new second edition has been rearranged and considerably expanded to give a balanced account both of basic theory and of the advances of the past decade. It presents the main ideas of modern liquid state theory in a way that is both pedagogical and self-contained. The book should be accessible to graduate students and research workers, both experimentalists and theorists, who have a good background in elementary mechanics.Key Features* Compares theoretical deductions with experimental r

  20. Electronics made simple

    Olsen, George H


    Electronics: Made Simple covers the fundamental principles, basic devices, characteristics, and application of electronic equipment.This book is divided into 15 chapters and begins with reviews of the properties and behavior of resistors, capacitors, inductors, and semiconductor devices. Considerable chapters deal with how these devices can be assembled into useful fundamental circuits such as amplifiers, oscillators and power supplies. These topics are followed by discussions of the importance of integrated circuits and the use of digital equipment and photocells in control and computing appa

  1. Dimensional analysis made simple

    Lira, Ignacio


    An inductive strategy is proposed for teaching dimensional analysis to second- or third-year students of physics, chemistry, or engineering. In this strategy, Buckingham's theorem is seen as a consequence and not as the starting point. In order to concentrate on the basics, the mathematics is kept as elementary as possible. Simple examples are suggested for classroom demonstrations of the power of the technique and others are put forward for homework or experimentation, but instructors are encouraged to produce examples of their own.

  2. A Simple Quintessence Model

    Bento, M C; Santos, N M C


    A simple model of quintessential inflation with the modified exponential potential $e^{-\\alpha \\phi} [A+(\\phi-\\phi_0)^2]$ is analyzed in the braneworld context. Considering reheating via instant preheating, we conclude that the model exhibits transient acceleration at late times for $0.96 \\lesssim A \\alpha^2 \\lesssim 1.26$ and $271 \\lesssim \\phi_0 \\alpha \\lesssim 273$, while permanent acceleration is obtained for $2.3\\times10^{-8} \\lesssim A \\alpha^2 \\lesssim 0.98$ and $255 \\lesssim \\phi_0 \\alpha \\lesssim 273$. The steep parameter $\\alpha$ is constrained to be in the range $5.3 \\lesssim \\alpha \\lesssim 10.8$.

  3. Safe Exploration in Markov Decision Processes

    Moldovan, Teodor Mihai


    In environments with uncertain dynamics exploration is necessary to learn how to perform well. Existing reinforcement learning algorithms provide strong exploration guarantees, but they tend to rely on an ergodicity assumption. The essence of ergodicity is that any state is eventually reachable from any other state by following a suitable policy. This assumption allows for exploration algorithms that operate by simply favoring states that have rarely been visited before. For most physical systems this assumption is impractical as the systems would break before any reasonable exploration has taken place, i.e., most physical systems don't satisfy the ergodicity assumption. In this paper we address the need for safe exploration methods in Markov decision processes. We first propose a general formulation of safety through ergodicity. We show that imposing safety by restricting attention to the resulting set of guaranteed safe policies is NP-hard. We then present an efficient algorithm for guaranteed safe, but pot...


    Svetlana Mihić


    Full Text Available Globalization, a phenomenon on the rise, is characterized by the free cross-bor- der movement of individuals, technologies, and capital. It has far- reaching consequen- ces for tourism, too, as it implies travel for leisure and business, and correspondingly, financial transfers between various nation states. Startinf from the status quo in the field, the current paper sets out to analyze the consequences and implications of globalization upon safe tourism and conduct a marketing research into the perceptions of consumers upon Serbia as a safe vacation destination for the purpose of safe tourism. Finally the research results will be presented and several solutions will be provided for improving security in tourism zones

  5. Sun Safe Mode Controller Design for LADEE

    Fusco, Jesse C.; Swei, Sean S. M.; Nakamura, Robert H.


    This paper presents the development of sun safe controllers which are designed to keep the spacecraft power positive and thermally balanced in the event an anomaly is detected. Employed by NASA's Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE), the controllers utilize the measured sun vector and the spacecraft body rates for feedback control. To improve the accuracy of sun vector estimation, the least square minimization approach is applied to process the sensor data, which is proven to be effective and accurate. To validate the controllers, the LADEE spacecraft model engaging the sun safe mode was first simulated and then compared with the actual LADEE orbital fight data. The results demonstrated the applicability of the proposed sun safe controllers.

  6. Reliable predictions of waste performance in a geologic repository

    Pigford, T.H.; Chambre, P.L.


    Establishing reliable estimates of long-term performance of a waste repository requires emphasis upon valid theories to predict performance. Predicting rates that radionuclides are released from waste packages cannot rest upon empirical extrapolations of laboratory leach data. Reliable predictions can be based on simple bounding theoretical models, such as solubility-limited bulk-flow, if the assumed parameters are reliably known or defensibly conservative. Wherever possible, performance analysis should proceed beyond simple bounding calculations to obtain more realistic - and usually more favorable - estimates of expected performance. Desire for greater realism must be balanced against increasing uncertainties in prediction and loss of reliability. Theoretical predictions of release rate based on mass-transfer analysis are bounding and the theory can be verified. Postulated repository analogues to simulate laboratory leach experiments introduce arbitrary and fictitious repository parameters and are shown not to agree with well-established theory. 34 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Creep-rupture reliability analysis

    Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.


    A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.

  8. What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like?

    ... social media links What Does a Safe Sleep Environment Look Like? Page Content You can reduce your ... following ways. Printable versions of this safe sleep environment information are available below: What does a safe ...

  9. Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Taking Medicines Safely Now, It's Your Turn: How You Can Take Medicine Safely ... medicine. The pharmacist has filled the prescription. Now it's up to you to take the medicine safely. ...

  10. Safe chemotherapy in the home environment.

    Chavis-Parker, Paula


    The Oncology Nursing Society and the American Society of Clinical Oncology have established guidelines for the safe and effective use of chemotherapeutic medications in the acute and outpatient care settings. A review of literature was performed to determine the safe and effective administration of chemotherapy in the home environment. The administration of oral and intravenous chemotherapy in the home has become a common intervention for patients being treated for cancer based on patient preference, cost-effectiveness of healthcare delivery, and increasing demand for oncology services. Home healthcare nurses can greatly impact the management of adverse effects of chemotherapy in the home, increasing the quality of life and improving patient outcomes.

  11. Landscape planning for a safe city

    M. Ishikawa


    Full Text Available To create a safe city free from natural disasters has been one of the important criteria in city planning. Since large cities have suffered from large fires caused by earthquakes, the planning of open spaces to prevent the spread of fires is part of the basic structure of city planning in Japan. Even in the feudal city of Edo, the former name of Tokyo, there had been open spaces to prevent fire disasters along canals and rivers. This paper discusses the historical evolution of open space planning, that we call landscape planning, through the experiences in Tokyo, and clarifies the characteristics and problems for achieving a safe city.

  12. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    Gibson, R


    The Safe Transport of Radioactive Materials is a handbook that details the safety guidelines in transporting radioactive materials. The title covers the various regulations and policies, along with the safety measures and procedures of radioactive material transport. The text first details the 1963 version of the IAEA regulation for the safe transport of radioactive materials; the regulation covers the classification of radionuclides for transport purposes and the control of external radiation hazards during the transport of radioactive materials. The next chapter deals with concerns in the im

  13. Probabilistic simple sticker systems

    Selvarajoo, Mathuri; Heng, Fong Wan; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Turaev, Sherzod


    A model for DNA computing using the recombination behavior of DNA molecules, known as a sticker system, was introduced by by L. Kari, G. Paun, G. Rozenberg, A. Salomaa, and S. Yu in the paper entitled DNA computing, sticker systems and universality from the journal of Acta Informatica vol. 35, pp. 401-420 in the year 1998. A sticker system uses the Watson-Crick complementary feature of DNA molecules: starting from the incomplete double stranded sequences, and iteratively using sticking operations until a complete double stranded sequence is obtained. It is known that sticker systems with finite sets of axioms and sticker rules generate only regular languages. Hence, different types of restrictions have been considered to increase the computational power of sticker systems. Recently, a variant of restricted sticker systems, called probabilistic sticker systems, has been introduced [4]. In this variant, the probabilities are initially associated with the axioms, and the probability of a generated string is computed by multiplying the probabilities of all occurrences of the initial strings in the computation of the string. Strings for the language are selected according to some probabilistic requirements. In this paper, we study fundamental properties of probabilistic simple sticker systems. We prove that the probabilistic enhancement increases the computational power of simple sticker systems.

  14. Simple stochastic simulation.

    Schilstra, Maria J; Martin, Stephen R


    Stochastic simulations may be used to describe changes with time of a reaction system in a way that explicitly accounts for the fact that molecules show a significant degree of randomness in their dynamic behavior. The stochastic approach is almost invariably used when small numbers of molecules or molecular assemblies are involved because this randomness leads to significant deviations from the predictions of the conventional deterministic (or continuous) approach to the simulation of biochemical kinetics. Advances in computational methods over the three decades that have elapsed since the publication of Daniel Gillespie's seminal paper in 1977 (J. Phys. Chem. 81, 2340-2361) have allowed researchers to produce highly sophisticated models of complex biological systems. However, these models are frequently highly specific for the particular application and their description often involves mathematical treatments inaccessible to the nonspecialist. For anyone completely new to the field to apply such techniques in their own work might seem at first sight to be a rather intimidating prospect. However, the fundamental principles underlying the approach are in essence rather simple, and the aim of this article is to provide an entry point to the field for a newcomer. It focuses mainly on these general principles, both kinetic and computational, which tend to be not particularly well covered in specialist literature, and shows that interesting information may even be obtained using very simple operations in a conventional spreadsheet.

  15. Evidence supporting broader access to safe legal abortion.

    Faúndes, Anibal; Shah, Iqbal H


    Unsafe abortion continues to be a major cause of maternal death; it accounts for 14.5% of all maternal deaths globally and almost all of these deaths occur in countries with restrictive abortion laws. A strong body of accumulated evidence shows that the simple means to drastically reduce unsafe abortion-related maternal deaths and morbidity is to make abortion legal and institutional termination of pregnancy broadly accessible. Despite this evidence, abortion is denied even when the legal condition for abortion is met. The present article aims to contribute to a better understanding that one can be in favor of greater access to safe abortion services, while at the same time not be "in favor of abortion," by reviewing the evidence that indicates that criminalization of abortion only increases mortality and morbidity without decreasing the incidence of induced abortion, and that decriminalization rapidly reduces abortion-related mortality and does not increase abortion rates. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  16. Reliability analysis of wind turbines exposed to dynamic loads

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    . Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades...... the reliability of the structural components. Illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment for structural wind turbine components exposed to extreme loads and fatigue, respectively.......Wind turbines are exposed to highly dynamic loads that cause fatigue and extreme load effects which are subject to significant uncertainties. Further, reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources...

  17. Engineering systems reliability, safety, and maintenance an integrated approach

    Dhillon, B S


    Today, engineering systems are an important element of the world economy and each year billions of dollars are spent to develop, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of engineering systems around the globe. Many of these systems are highly sophisticated and contain millions of parts. For example, a Boeing jumbo 747 is made up of approximately 4.5 million parts including fasteners. Needless to say, reliability, safety, and maintenance of systems such as this have become more important than ever before.  Global competition and other factors are forcing manufacturers to produce highly reliable, safe, and maintainable engineering products. Therefore, there is a definite need for the reliability, safety, and maintenance professionals to work closely during design and other phases. Engineering Systems Reliability, Safety, and Maintenance: An Integrated Approach eliminates the need to consult many different and diverse sources in the hunt for the information required to design better engineering syste...

  18. CR reliability testing

    Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.


    The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.

  19. Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems

    Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd


    This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing

  20. Ferrite logic reliability study

    Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.


    Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)

  1. Blade reliability collaborative :

    Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.


    The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.

  2. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    Inlay, Linda


    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  3. How to Safely Use Nail Care Products

    Full Text Available ... En Español Search FDA Submit search Popular Content Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, ... Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How to Safely Use ...

  4. Have a Safe and Healthy Fall


    Fall is a great time to try new and healthy activities with your parents! Have a food tasting or a leaf raking contest! Whatever your plans, make sure to have fun and be safe!  Created: 10/14/2010 by CDC Office of Women’s Health.   Date Released: 10/14/2010.

  5. Keeping Food Safe during an Emergency

    ... topping Discard Canned hams labeled "Keep Refrigerated" Discard Canned meats and fish, opened Discard CHEESE Soft Cheeses: blue/bleu, Roquefort, ... Fresh fruits, cut Discard Fruit juices, opened Safe Canned fruits, ... Fish sauces (oyster sauce) Discard Opened vinegar-based dressings ...

  6. Safe Space Oddity: Revisiting Critical Pedagogy

    Redmond, Melissa


    Inspired by an incident in a social work graduate classroom in which she was a teaching assistant, the author reflects on her commitment to constructivist teaching methods, critical theory, and critical pedagogy. Exploring the educational utility of notions such as public space and safe space, the author employs this personal experience to examine…

  7. Safe Schools for the Roller Coaster Years

    Inlay, Linda


    The dramatic ups and downs so often witnessed in adolescents are the result of changes in their brain activity. It is vital that the emotional and psychological needs that arise from such intense brain development are acknowledged and addressed so that middle school becomes a safe environment for the budding adults.

  8. What is Type-Safe Code Reuse

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens


    Subclassing is reuse of class definitions. It is usually tied to the use of class names, thus relying on the order in which the particular classes in a program are created. This is a burden, however, both when programming and in theoretical studies. This paper presents a structural notion of subc...... type-safe code reuse....

  9. 'Safe handling of nanotechnology' ten years on

    Maynard, Andrew D.; Aitken, Robert J.


    In 2006, a group of scientists proposed five grand challenges to support the safe handling of nanotechnology. Ten years on, Andrew Maynard and Robert Aitken -- two of the original authors -- look at where we have come, and where we still need to go.


    The objective of this study was to assess the status of safe delivery service utilization and ..... headache, 73(7%) severe abdominal pain, 32(3.1%) drowsiness and 28(2.7%) ..... In line with reports from Pakistan (12), mothers' knowledge about ...

  11. 16 CFR 312.10 - Safe harbors.


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safe harbors. 312.10 Section 312.10 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE... provide the same or greater protections for children as those contained in §§ 312.2 through 312.9; (2)...

  12. Safe and Healthy Travel to China


    In this podcast, Dr. Phyllis Kozarsky, CDC Travel Medicine expert, discusses what travelers should do to ensure a safe and healthy trip to China.  Created: 10/9/2008 by National Center for Preparedness, Detection, and Control of Infectious Diseases (NCPDCID), Division of Global Migration and Quarantine (DGMQ).   Date Released: 10/9/2008.

  13. Safe Sex in Theory and Practice.

    Shea, Christopher


    Despite the fact that gay and bisexual male college students know about safe sex practices, they are often not using them, according to a recent survey. The study of about 20,500 blood samples on 35 college and university campuses shows a high rate of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, with men 22 times as likely as women to test…

  14. Molecular genetics made simple

    Heba Sh. Kassem


    Full Text Available Genetics have undoubtedly become an integral part of biomedical science and clinical practice, with important implications in deciphering disease pathogenesis and progression, identifying diagnostic and prognostic markers, as well as designing better targeted treatments. The exponential growth of our understanding of different genetic concepts is paralleled by a growing list of genetic terminology that can easily intimidate the unfamiliar reader. Rendering genetics incomprehensible to the clinician however, defeats the very essence of genetic research: its utilization for combating disease and improving quality of life. Herein we attempt to correct this notion by presenting the basic genetic concepts along with their usefulness in the cardiology clinic. Bringing genetics closer to the clinician will enable its harmonious incorporation into clinical care, thus not only restoring our perception of its simple and elegant nature, but importantly ensuring the maximal benefit for our patients.

  15. A Simple Harmonic Universe

    Graham, Peter W.; /Stanford U., ITP; Horn, Bart; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC; Rajendran, Surjeet; /Johns Hopkins U. /Stanford U., ITP; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., ITP /SLAC


    We explore simple but novel bouncing solutions of general relativity that avoid singularities. These solutions require curvature k = +1, and are supported by a negative cosmological term and matter with -1 < w < -1 = 3. In the case of moderate bounces (where the ratio of the maximal scale factor a{sub +} to the minimal scale factor a{sub -} is {Omicron}(1)), the solutions are shown to be classically stable and cycle through an infinite set of bounces. For more extreme cases with large a{sub +} = a{sub -}, the solutions can still oscillate many times before classical instabilities take them out of the regime of validity of our approximations. In this regime, quantum particle production also leads eventually to a departure from the realm of validity of semiclassical general relativity, likely yielding a singular crunch. We briefly discuss possible applications of these models to realistic cosmology.

  16. On Simple Noetherian Rings

    Somyot Plubtieng


    A module M is called a CS-module (or extending module [5]) if every submodule of M is essential in a direct summand of M. It is shown that (i) a simple ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic singular right R-module is either a CS-module or a noetherian module; (ii) for a prime ring R, if every proper cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a finitely cogenerated module, then R is either semisimple artinian or a right Ore domain; and (iii) a prime ring R is right noetherian if and only if every cyclic right R-module is a direct sum of a quasi-injective module and a noetherian module.


    Ahmet YILDIRIM


    Full Text Available Individuals in terms of the economy in which we live is one of the most important phenomenon of the century. This phenomenon present itself as the only determinant of people's lives by entering almost makes itself felt. The mo st obvious objective needs of the economy by triggering motive is to induce people to consume . Consumer culture pervades all aspects of the situation are people . Therefore, these people have the blessing of culture , beauty and value all in the name of w hatever is consumed. This is way out of the siege of moral and religious values we have is to go back again . Referred by local cultural and religious values, based on today increasingly come to the fore and the Muslim way of life appears to be close to th e plain / lean preferred by many people life has been a way of life. Even the simple life , a way of life in the Western world , a conception of life , a philosophy, a movement as it has become widely accepted. Here in determining the Muslim way of life Pr ophet. Prophet (sa lived the kind of life a very important model, sample, and determining which direction is known. Religious values, which is the carrier of the prophets, sent to the society they have always been examples and models. Because every aspect of human life, his life style and the surrounding area has a feature. We also value his life that he has unknowingly and without learning and skills and to understand it is not possible to live our religion . We also our presentation, we mainly of Islam o utlook on life and predicted life - style, including the Prophet of Islam 's (sa simple life to scrutinize and lifestyle issues related to reveal , in short Islam's how life has embraced and the Prophet. Prophet's will try to find answers to questions reg arding how to live.

  18. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Algirdas Astrauskas


    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation anddevelopment of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports,the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system.A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed.Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in thestrategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  19. Elaboration of Safe Community Assessment System

    Birutė Mikulskienė


    Full Text Available The paper aims to design an assessment system to monitor and evaluate safety parameters and administrative efforts with the purpose to increase safety in municipalities. The safety monitoring system considered is to be the most important tool for creation and development of safe communities in Lithuania. Several methods were applied to achieve this purpose. In order to determine the role of local government in ensuring the safety of people, property and environment at the local level of a meta-analysis of research reports, the Lithuanian national legislation, strategic planning documents of the state and local government were carried out. Analysis of statistical data, structural analysis, comparative analysis and synthesis methods were used while investigating the areas of safety uncertainty, risk groups, identifying safety risk factors, determining their relationship, and creating a safe community assessment system. A safe community assessment system, which consists of two types of criteria, has been elaborated. The assessment system is based on the multi-level criteria for safety monitoring and the multi-level criteria for the evaluation of municipal activities in the field of building safety. Links between the criteria, peculiarities of their application and advantages in the process of safe community creation and development are analyzed. Design and implementation of the safe community assessment system is one of the most important stages to implement the idea of safe communities. The proposed system integrates a variety of risk areas, the safety achievement criteria are linked to the criteria used in the strategic planning. Periodic assessment of the safety situation using the proposed system ensures possibility to monitor current local safety conditions and assess the changes and the trends. A safe community assessment system is proposed to be used as a tool to unified municipalities safety comprehensiveness and compare safety level in

  20. Load Control System Reliability

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)


    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  1. Rapid and efficient filtration-based procedure for separation and safe analysis of CBRN mixed samples.

    Mostafa Bentahir

    Full Text Available Separating CBRN mixed samples that contain both chemical and biological warfare agents (CB mixed sample in liquid and solid matrices remains a very challenging issue. Parameters were set up to assess the performance of a simple filtration-based method first optimized on separate C- and B-agents, and then assessed on a model of CB mixed sample. In this model, MS2 bacteriophage, Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis baculovirus (AcNPV, Bacillus atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores were used as biological agent simulants whereas ethyl methylphosphonic acid (EMPA and pinacolyl methylphophonic acid (PMPA were used as VX and soman (GD nerve agent surrogates, respectively. Nanoseparation centrifugal devices with various pore size cut-off (30 kD up to 0.45 µm and three RNA extraction methods (Invisorb, EZ1 and Nuclisens were compared. RNA (MS2 and DNA (AcNPV quantification was carried out by means of specific and sensitive quantitative real-time PCRs (qPCR. Liquid chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOFMS methods was used for quantifying EMPA and PMPA. Culture methods and qPCR demonstrated that membranes with a 30 kD cut-off retain more than 99.99% of biological agents (MS2, AcNPV, Bacillus Atrophaeus and Bacillus subtilis spores tested separately. A rapid and reliable separation of CB mixed sample models (MS2/PEG-400 and MS2/EMPA/PMPA contained in simple liquid or complex matrices such as sand and soil was also successfully achieved on a 30 kD filter with more than 99.99% retention of MS2 on the filter membrane, and up to 99% of PEG-400, EMPA and PMPA recovery in the filtrate. The whole separation process turnaround-time (TAT was less than 10 minutes. The filtration method appears to be rapid, versatile and extremely efficient. The separation method developed in this work constitutes therefore a useful model for further evaluating and comparing additional separation alternative procedures for a safe handling and

  2. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    Yamada, Shigeru


    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  3. Reliability and validity in research.

    Roberts, Paula; Priest, Helena

    This article examines reliability and validity as ways to demonstrate the rigour and trustworthiness of quantitative and qualitative research. The authors discuss the basic principles of reliability and validity for readers who are new to research.

  4. Using the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental (S.A.F.E.) Acculturation Stress Scale to Assess the Adjustment Needs of Hispanic College Students.

    Fuertes, Jairo N.; Westbrook, Franklin D.


    Reexamined the validity and reliability of the 24-item S.A.F.E. scale and found it to be a reliable measure of Hispanics' acculturation stress. Also studied the effect of generational status, gender, and socioeconomic status on the levels of acculturation stress experienced by this sample. (RJM)

  5. Apex Locator: A Reliable and Easy Guide

    Meza DDS, Marco


    Now days is more the trust we can have to the Apex-locator in endodontics. Now we can expect more accuracy results working length measure, not only of the apical constriction but the total length of the roots. Endodontics can’t left behind the use of the Apex-locator, because of its useful work, not only on the determination of the works length, also in the diagnostic of perforations or fractures. Even do, this article displays a reliable and simple guide in the use of apex locator during eno...

  6. Finding the safe place between the hammer and the anvil: sounding the depth of therapeutic immunosuppression.

    Thaunat, Olivier


    Transplanted organs express allogeneic epitopes against which a recipient's immune system mounts a destructive response. In the absence of a reliable strategy for induction of donor-specific tolerance, therapeutic immunosuppression remains the best prospect to prevent rejection, but exposes recipients to increased risks of infection and cancer. Defining the individual upper and lower limits between which the transplanted patient is safe requires the validation of biomarkers able to depth-sound the recipient's immune system.

  7. Reliability and Its Quantitative Measures

    Alexandru ISAIC-MANIU


    Full Text Available In this article is made an opening for the software reliability issues, through wide-ranging statistical indicators, which are designed based on information collected from operating or testing (samples. It is developed the reliability issues also for the case of the main reliability laws (exponential, normal, Weibull, which validated for a particular system, allows the calculation of some reliability indicators with a higher degree of accuracy and trustworthiness

  8. A new generation of reliable clinical practice guidelines through MAGIC

    Olav Vandvik, Per; Department of Medicine, Innnandet Hospital Trust, Gjøvik, Noruega. Norwegian Knowledge Centre for Health Services, Oslo, Noruega. Institute for Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo. Noruega. Médico. Ph.D.; Fog Heen, Anja; Department of Medicine, Innnandet Hospital Trust, Gjøvik, Noruega. Médico. Ph.D.; Brandt, Linn; Department of Medicine, Innnandet Hospital Trust, Gjøvik, Noruega. Institute for Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo. Noruega. Médico.


    Safe and effective disease diagnosis and treatment requires that health personnel can access the best evidence, preferably through reliable clinical practice guidelines. Most guidelines have methodological weaknesses, suboptimal reporting formats, and frequently fail to update content. New standards developed by the US Institute of Medicine and the Guidelines International Network and Systems for Trustworthy Guidelines offer better opportunities for success in the development of guidelines, b...

  9. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)


    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  10. Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)

    Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.


    The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.

  11. Countable imaginary simple unidimensional theories

    Shami, Ziv


    We prove that a countable simple unidimensional theory that eliminates hyperimaginaries is supersimple. This solves a problem of Shelah in the more general context of simple theories under weak assumptions.

  12. Reliable Quantum Computers

    Preskill, J


    The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per quantum gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. A quantum computer storing about 10^6 qubits, with a probability of error per quantum gate of order 10^{-6}, would be a formidable factoring engine. Even a smaller, less accurate quantum computer would be able to perform many useful tasks. (This paper is based on a talk presented at the ITP Conference on Quantum Coherence and Decoherence, 15-18 December 1996.)

  13. Reliable assessment of general surgeons' non-technical skills based on video-recordings of patient simulated scenarios

    Spanager, Lene; Beier-Holgersen, Randi; Dieckmann, Peter;


    Nontechnical skills are essential for safe and efficient surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an assessment tool for surgeons' nontechnical skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk), and the effect of rater training.......Nontechnical skills are essential for safe and efficient surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of an assessment tool for surgeons' nontechnical skills, Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons dk (NOTSSdk), and the effect of rater training....

  14. IVOA Simple Image Access

    Dowler, Patrick; Bonnarel, François


    The Simple Image Access protocol (SIA) provides capabilities for the discovery, description, access, and retrieval of multi-dimensional image datasets, including 2-D images as well as datacubes of three or more dimensions. SIA data discovery is based on the ObsCore Data Model (ObsCoreDM), which primarily describes data products by the physical axes (spatial, spectral, time, and polarization). Image datasets with dimension greater than 2 are often referred to as datacubes, cube or image cube datasets and may be considered examples of hypercube or n-cube data. In this document the term "image" refers to general multi-dimensional datasets and is synonymous with these other terms unless the image dimensionality is otherwise specified. SIA provides capabilities for image discovery and access. Data discovery and metadata access (using ObsCoreDM) are defined here. The capabilities for drilling down to data files (and related resources) and services for remote access are defined elsewhere, but SIA also allows for dir...

  15. The simple harmonic urn

    Crane, Edward; Volkov, Stanislav; Wade, Andrew; Waters, Robert


    We study a generalized Polya urn model with two types of ball. If the drawn ball is red it is replaced together with a black ball, but if the drawn ball is black it is replaced and a red ball is thrown out of the urn. When only black balls remain, the roles of the colours are swapped and the process restarts. We prove that the resulting Markov chain is transient but that if we throw out a ball every time the colours swap, the process is positive-recurrent. We show that the embedded process obtained by observing the number of balls in the urn at the swapping times has a scaling limit that is essentially the square of a Bessel diffusion. We consider an oriented percolation model naturally associated with the urn process, and obtain detailed information about its structure, showing that the open subgraph is an infinite tree with a single end. We also study a natural continuous-time embedding of the urn process that demonstrates the relation to the simple harmonic oscillator; in this setting our transience result...

  16. Oscillations of simple networks

    Caputo, Jean-Guy; Simo, Elie


    To describe the flow of a miscible quantity on a network, we introduce the graph wave equation where the standard continuous Laplacian is replaced by the graph Laplacian. This is a natural description of an array of inductances and capacities, of fluid flow in a network of ducts and of a system of masses and springs. The structure of the graph influences strongly the dynamics which is naturally described using the basis of the eigenvectors. In particular, we show that if two outer nodes are connected to a common third node with the same coupling, then this coupling is an eigenvalue of the Laplacian. Assuming the graph is forced and damped at specific nodes, we derive the amplitude equations. These are analyzed for two simple non trivial networks: a tree and a graph with a cycle. Forcing the network at a resonant frequency reveals that damping can be ineffective if applied to the wrong node, leading to a disastrous resonance and destruction of the network. These results could be useful for complex physical net...

  17. Quasispecies made simple.

    J J Bull


    Full Text Available Quasispecies are clouds of genotypes that appear in a population at mutation-selection balance. This concept has recently attracted the attention of virologists, because many RNA viruses appear to generate high levels of genetic variation that may enhance the evolution of drug resistance and immune escape. The literature on these important evolutionary processes is, however, quite challenging. Here we use simple models to link mutation-selection balance theory to the most novel property of quasispecies: the error threshold-a mutation rate below which populations equilibrate in a traditional mutation-selection balance and above which the population experiences an error catastrophe, that is, the loss of the favored genotype through frequent deleterious mutations. These models show that a single fitness landscape may contain multiple, hierarchically organized error thresholds and that an error threshold is affected by the extent of back mutation and redundancy in the genotype-to-phenotype map. Importantly, an error threshold is distinct from an extinction threshold, which is the complete loss of the population through lethal mutations. Based on this framework, we argue that the lethal mutagenesis of a viral infection by mutation-inducing drugs is not a true error catastophe, but is an extinction catastrophe.

  18. A Simple Accelerometer Calibrator

    Salam, R. A.; Islamy, M. R. F.; Munir, M. M.; Latief, H.; Irsyam, M.; Khairurrijal


    High possibility of earthquake could lead to the high number of victims caused by it. It also can cause other hazards such as tsunami, landslide, etc. In that case it requires a system that can examine the earthquake occurrence. Some possible system to detect earthquake is by creating a vibration sensor system using accelerometer. However, the output of the system is usually put in the form of acceleration data. Therefore, a calibrator system for accelerometer to sense the vibration is needed. In this study, a simple accelerometer calibrator has been developed using 12 V DC motor, optocoupler, Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and AVR 328 microcontroller as controller system. The system uses the Pulse Wave Modulation (PWM) form microcontroller to control the motor rotational speed as response to vibration frequency. The frequency of vibration was read by optocoupler and then those data was used as feedback to the system. The results show that the systems could control the rotational speed and the vibration frequencies in accordance with the defined PWM.

  19. Simple Epithelial Keratins.

    Strnad, Pavel; Guldiken, Nurdan; Helenius, Terhi O; Misiorek, Julia O; Nyström, Joel H; Lähdeniemi, Iris A K; Silvander, Jonas S G; Kuscuoglu, Deniz; Toivola, Diana M


    Simple epithelial keratins (SEKs) are the cytoplasmic intermediate filament proteins of single-layered and glandular epithelial cells as found in the liver, pancreas, intestine, and lung. SEKs have broad cytoprotective functions, which are facilitated by dynamic posttranslational modifications and interaction with associated proteins. SEK filaments are composed of obligate heteropolymers of type II (K7, K8) and type I (K18-K20, K23) keratins. The multifaceted roles of SEKs are increasingly appreciated due to findings obtained from transgenic mouse models and human studies that identified SEK variants in several digestive diseases. Reorganization of the SEK network into aggregates called Mallory-Denk bodies (MDBs) is characteristic for specific liver disorders such as alcoholic and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. To spur further research on SEKs, we here review the methods and potential caveats of their isolation as well as possibilities to study them in cell culture. The existing transgenic SEK mouse models, their advantages and potential drawbacks are discussed. The tools to induce MDBs, ways of their visualization and quantification, as well as the possibilities to detect SEK variants in humans are summarized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Drainless mastectomy: Is it safe and effective?

    Baker, Elizabeth; Piper, Jennifer


    Practice regarding the use of post operative drains after simple mastectomy varies widely. This project aimed to establish if not using a drain lead to an increase in post-operative seroma formation or other complications.

  1. 30 CFR 77.312 - Fail safe monitoring systems.


    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fail safe monitoring systems. 77.312 Section 77... Thermal Dryers § 77.312 Fail safe monitoring systems. Thermal dryer systems and controls shall be protected by a fail safe monitoring system which will safely shut down the system and any related...

  2. Laparoscopic Pyloromyotomy: A Modified Simple Technique

    Mohammed Omer Anwar


    Full Text Available Background: A modified laparoscopic pyloromyotomy (LP technique may provide an alternative to treating infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS by improving operative timing with reduction of postoperative complication rates, compared with a three-port trocar system.Methods: Thirty-three infants were treated with IHPS at a single-centre between January 2002 and December 2011. The local surgical incision to the pylorus was performed according to Ramstedt’s pyloromyotomy; but with a two-port trocar system (umbilical and right lower abdominal crease ports, following a controlled stab wound into the epigastric region and a 3mm incision to allow introduction of ophthalmic knife. With the aid of atraumatic forceps and camera guidance, the ophthalmic knife was used to carefully incise the seromuscular layer, which allows improved manual tactile sensation compared to ergonomic laparoscopic spreaders. A Benson pyloric spreader was then used to further separate the pyloric muscle layer to complete the procedure.Results: In all 33 infants treated, LP was safely performed with no evidence of duodenal or mucosal perforation with complete pyloromyotomy achieved in each case. The postoperative course was rather uneventful apart from an umbilical wound infection.Conclusion: This modified approach is simple, safe and allows improved operative timing, whilst increasing surgeon’s confidence by tactile sensation.

  3. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N


    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  4. Mass and Reliability System (MaRS)

    Barnes, Sarah


    The Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) Directorate is responsible for mitigating risk, providing system safety, and lowering risk for space programs from ground to space. The S&MA is divided into 4 divisions: The Space Exploration Division (NC), the International Space Station Division (NE), the Safety & Test Operations Division (NS), and the Quality and Flight Equipment Division (NT). The interns, myself and Arun Aruljothi, will be working with the Risk & Reliability Analysis Branch under the NC Division's. The mission of this division is to identify, characterize, diminish, and communicate risk by implementing an efficient and effective assurance model. The team utilizes Reliability and Maintainability (R&M) and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to ensure decisions concerning risks are informed, vehicles are safe and reliable, and program/project requirements are realistic and realized. This project pertains to the Orion mission, so it is geared toward a long duration Human Space Flight Program(s). For space missions, payload is a critical concept; balancing what hardware can be replaced by components verse by Orbital Replacement Units (ORU) or subassemblies is key. For this effort a database was created that combines mass and reliability data, called Mass and Reliability System or MaRS. The U.S. International Space Station (ISS) components are used as reference parts in the MaRS database. Using ISS components as a platform is beneficial because of the historical context and the environment similarities to a space flight mission. MaRS uses a combination of systems: International Space Station PART for failure data, Vehicle Master Database (VMDB) for ORU & components, Maintenance & Analysis Data Set (MADS) for operation hours and other pertinent data, & Hardware History Retrieval System (HHRS) for unit weights. MaRS is populated using a Visual Basic Application. Once populated, the excel spreadsheet is comprised of information on ISS components including

  5. Black holes and asymptotically safe gravity

    Falls, Kevin; Raghuraman, Aarti


    Quantum gravitational corrections to black holes are studied in four and higher dimensions using a renormalisation group improvement of the metric. The quantum effects are worked out in detail for asymptotically safe gravity, where the short distance physics is characterized by a non-trivial fixed point of the gravitational coupling. We find that a weakening of gravity implies a decrease of the event horizon, and the existence of a Planck-size black hole remnant with vanishing temperature and vanishing heat capacity. The absence of curvature singularities is generic and discussed together with the conformal structure and the Penrose diagram of asymptotically safe black holes. The production cross section of mini-black holes in energetic particle collisions, such as those at the Large Hadron Collider, is analysed within low-scale quantum gravity models. Quantum gravity corrections imply that cross sections display a threshold, are suppressed in the Planckian, and reproduce the semi-classical result in the deep...

  6. Perioperative Care of Prisoners: Providing Safe Care.

    Smith, Francis Duval


    Correctional nurses are trained to care for prisoners in a controlled security environment; however, when a convict is transferred to a noncorrectional health care facility, the nurses there are often unfamiliar with custody requirements or how to safely care for these patients. The care of prisoners outside of prison has not been adequately investigated, and a gap exists between research and nursing education and practice. Nurses rarely have to consider how providing care for a prisoner in custody affects their practice, the potential dissonance between routine nursing care and the requirements to maintain security, or that care of prisoners in unsecured clinical areas places the nurse and other personnel at risk for physical assault or prisoner escape. Educating perioperative nurses in the care of prisoners in a public hospital environment is important for the provision of safe care and prevention of physical and emotional repercussions to personnel.

  7. Safe Public Debt: Towards an Operational Definition

    Xavier Debrun


    Full Text Available The paper proposes an operational definition of safe public debt levels and discusses various concrete approaches to calculate them. A public debt level is considered safe if it is associated with a low probability of reaching levels likely to generate significant economic costs within a given time frame. Like debt sustainability assessments, implementing such a broad definition requires medium-term projections of the debt-to-GDP ratio. This implies that different sets of plausible assumptions can yield fairly different “safe” debt levels for the same country. However, the proposed framework has the merit to force policymakers and analysts to be explicit about the assumptions underlying their calculations.

  8. Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication

    Pop, Paul; Scholle, Detlef; Sljivo, Irfan


    This paper presents an overview of the ECSEL project entitled ―Safe Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems using Wireless Communication‖ (SafeCOP), which runs during the period 2016–2019. SafeCOP targets safety-related Cooperating Cyber-Physical Systems (CO-CPS) characterised by use of wireless...... detection of abnormal behaviour, triggering if needed a safe degraded mode. SafeCOP will also develop methods and tools, which will be used to produce safety assurance evidence needed to certify cooperative functions. SafeCOP will extend current wireless technologies to ensure safe and secure cooperation...

  9. Safe cooperative robot dynamics on graphs

    Ghrist, Robert; Koditschek, Daniel


    This paper initiates the use of vector fields to design, optimize, and implement reactive schedules for safe cooperative robot patterns on planar graphs. We consider Automated Guided Vehicles (AGV's) operating upon a predefined network of pathways. In contrast to the case of locally Euclidean configuration spaces, regularization of collisions is no longer a local procedure, and issues concerning the global topology of configuration spaces must be addressed. The focus of the present inquiry is...

  10. Hybrid reliability model for fatigue reliability analysis of steel bridges

    曹珊珊; 雷俊卿


    A kind of hybrid reliability model is presented to solve the fatigue reliability problems of steel bridges. The cumulative damage model is one kind of the models used in fatigue reliability analysis. The parameter characteristics of the model can be described as probabilistic and interval. The two-stage hybrid reliability model is given with a theoretical foundation and a solving algorithm to solve the hybrid reliability problems. The theoretical foundation is established by the consistency relationships of interval reliability model and probability reliability model with normally distributed variables in theory. The solving process is combined with the definition of interval reliability index and the probabilistic algorithm. With the consideration of the parameter characteristics of theS−N curve, the cumulative damage model with hybrid variables is given based on the standards from different countries. Lastly, a case of steel structure in the Neville Island Bridge is analyzed to verify the applicability of the hybrid reliability model in fatigue reliability analysis based on the AASHTO.

  11. Synthesis of Reliable Telecommunication Networks

    Dusan Trstensky


    Full Text Available In many application, the network designer may to know to senthesise a reliable telecommunication network. Assume that a network, denoted Gm,e has the number of nodes n and the number of edges e, and the operational probability of each edge is known. The system reliability of the network is defined to be the reliability that every pair of nodes can communicate with each other. A network synthesis problem considered in this paper is to find a network G*n,e, that maximises system reliability over the class of all networks for the classes of networks Gn,n-1, Gn,m and Gn,n+1 respectively. In addition an upper bound of maximum reliability for the networks with n-node and e-edge (e>n+2 is derived in terms of node. Computational experiments for the reliability upper are also presented. the results show, that the proposed reliability upper bound is effective.

  12. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer


    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  13. Amazon SimpleDB LITE

    Chaganti, Prabhakar


    This focused book is an extracted LITE version of Packt's full: Amazon SimpleDB Developer Guide. It concentrates on getting a grounding in the value of SimpleDB, and shows how to set up an AWS account, enable a SimpleDB service for the account, and install and set up libraries for Java, PHP, and Python. If you are a developer wanting to get to grips with a primer into SimpleDB, then this book is for you. You do not need to know anything about SimpleDB to read and learn from this book, and no basic knowledge is strictly necessary.

  14. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew


    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  15. Development and design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as; the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections In safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  16. Design of an integrated information management system for safe management of radioactive waste

    Son, Dong Chan; Hong, Suk Young; An, Kyoung Il [Daesang Information Technology Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)


    An integrated data management system for the safe management of radioactive waste and spent fuel in Korea is developed to collect basic information, provide the framework for national regulation, and improve national competition and efficiency in the management of radioactive waste and spent fuel. This system can also provide public access to information such as a statistical graphs and integrated data from various waste generators to meet increased public needs and interests. Objectives can be summarized as: the five principles (independence, openness, clearance, efficiency and reliance) of safety regulation can be realized. Public understanding and reliance on the safety of spent fuel and radioactive waste management can be promoted by providing reliable information. Ensure an openness within the international nuclear community and efficiently support international agreements among contracting parties by operating safe and efficient management of spent fuel and radioactive waste (IAEA joint convention on the safety of spent fuel management and on the safety of radioactive waste management). The system can compensate for the imperfections in safe regulation of radioactive waste and spent fuel management related to waste generation, storage and disposal, and make it possible to holistic control. Re-organize the basic framework of KINS's intermediate and long term research organization and trends, regarding waste management policy is to integrate safe management and unit safe disposal.

  17. Is quantitative electromyography reliable?

    Cecere, F; Ruf, S; Pancherz, H


    The reliability of quantitative electromyography (EMG) of the masticatory muscles was investigated in 14 subjects without any signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Integrated EMG activity from the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles was recorded bilaterally by means of bipolar surface electrodes during chewing and biting activities. In the first experiment, the influence of electrode relocation was investigated. No influence of electrode relocation on the recorded EMG signal could be detected. In a second experiment, three sessions of EMG recordings during five different chewing and biting activities were performed in the morning (I); 1 hour later without intermediate removal of the electrodes (II); and in the afternoon, using new electrodes (III). The method errors for different time intervals (I-II and I-III errors) for each muscle and each function were calculated. Depending on the time interval between the EMG recordings, the muscles considered, and the function performed, the individual errors ranged from 5% to 63%. The method error increased significantly (P masseter (mean 27.2%) was higher than for the temporalis (mean 20.0%). The largest function error was found during maximal biting in intercuspal position (mean 23.1%). Based on the findings, quantitative electromyography of the masticatory muscles seems to have a limited value in diagnostics and in the evaluation of individual treatment results.

  18. Lidar Data Analysis for Time to Headway Determination in the DriveSafe Project Field Tests

    İlker Altay


    Full Text Available The DriveSafe project was carried out by a consortium of university research centers and automotive OEMs in Turkey to reduce accidents caused by driver behavior. A huge amount of driving data was collected from 108 drivers who drove the instrumented DriveSafe vehicle in the same route of 25 km of urban and highway traffic in Istanbul. One of the sensors used in the DriveSafe vehicle was a forward-looking LIDAR. The data from the LIDAR is used here to determine and record the headway time characteristics of different drivers. This paper concentrates on the analysis of LIDAR data from the DriveSafe vehicle. A simple algorithm that only looks at the forward direction along a straight line is used first. Headway times based on this simple approach are presented for an example driver. A more accurate detection and tracking algorithm taken from the literature are presented later in the paper. Grid-based and point distance-based methods are presented first. Then, a detection and tracking algorithm based on the Kalman filter is presented. The results are demonstrated using experimental data.

  19. Una historia muy simple

    Miha Mazzini


    Full Text Available Voy a contarles una historia muy simple. Probablemente no les parecerá nada espe- cial y no quiero robarles tiempo, así que voy a tratar de hacerlo lo más rápido posible. Me inscribí en psicología porque eso hizo mi mejor amiga. Éramos compañeras desde jardín de infantes y siempre la seguí en todo. En tercer año de facultad conoció a su novio y continuó sus estudios en otro país; por primera vez no podía seguirla. Cuando rendí todos los exámenes, el profesor me preguntó si estaba interesada en hacer mi tesis sobre el perfil psicológico de los participantes de reality shows. Accedí para no tener que pensar en otro tema, aunque no veía mucho la televisión porque me pasaba las noches entre los libros de estudio. Enseguida me di cuenta de que, evidentemente, el profesor había firmado un contrato con la emisora: a él lo empleaban y y yo era la que iba a tener que trabajar, pero no me importaba. La tesis de licenciatura no es más que eso y hay que hacerla. Yo evaluaba los candidatos y elegía a los participantes que vivirían juntos duran- te algunos meses. Como hacían el programa con una licencia extranjera y ya sabían qué le interesaba a la audiencia, yo tenía preparados los rasgos de los perfiles psicológicos que en ese aislamiento colectivo no resultan bien. Tuve que elegir gente variada, pero dentro de la media; nunca nada verdaderamente especial. Cuando me gradué, tuve las noches libres: de pronto tenía mucho más tiempo y podía haber visto el programa, pero ya había terminado. Pero oí que había sido todo un éxito y que sobre todo a los chicos les había encantado el reality y los participantes elegidos.

  20. Reliable design space and complete single-loop reliability-based design optimization

    Shan Songqing [University of Manitoba (Canada); Wang, G. Gary [University of Manitoba (Canada)], E-mail:


    Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) has been intensively studied due to its significance and its conceptual and mathematical complexity. This paper proposes a new method for RBDO on the basis of the concept of reliable design space (RDS), within which any design satisfies the reliability requirements. Therefore, a RBDO problem becomes a simple, deterministic optimization problem constrained by RDS rather than its deterministic feasible space. The RDS is found in this work by using the partial derivatives at the current design point as an approximation of the derivatives at its corresponding most probable point (MPP) on the limit state function. This work completely resolves the double loop in RBDO and turns RBDO into a simple optimization problem. Well-known problems from the literature are selected to illustrate the steps of the approach and for result comparison. Discussions will also be given on the limitation of the proposed method, which is shown to be a common limitation overlooked by the research community on RBDO.

  1. Lifeline system network reliability calculation based on GIS and FTA

    TANG Ai-ping; OU Jin-ping; LU Qin-nian; ZHANG Ke-xu


    Lifelines, such as pipeline, transportation, communication, electric transmission and medical rescue systems, are complicated networks that always distribute spatially over large geological and geographic units.The quantification of their reliability under an earthquake occurrence should be highly regarded, because the performance of these systems during a destructive earthquake is vital in order to estimate direct and indirect economic losses from lifeline failures, and is also related to laying out a rescue plan. The research in this paper aims to develop a new earthquake reliability calculation methodology for lifeline systems. The methodology of the network reliability for lifeline systems is based on fault tree analysis (FTA) and geological information system(GIS). The interactions existing in a lifeline system are considered herein. The lifeline systems are idealized as equivalent networks, consisting of nodes and links, and are described by network analysis in GIS. Firstly, the node is divided into two types: simple node and complicated node, where the reliability of the complicated node is calculated by FTA and interaction is regarded as one factor to affect performance of the nodes. The reliability of simple node and link is evaluated by code. Then, the reliability of the entire network is assessed based on GIS and FTA. Lastly, an illustration is given to show the methodology.

  2. Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology

    Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.

  3. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    Birolini, Alessandro


    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  4. Reliably Detectable Flaw Size for NDE Methods that Use Calibration

    Koshti, Ajay M.


    Probability of detection (POD) analysis is used in assessing reliably detectable flaw size in nondestructive evaluation (NDE). MIL-HDBK-1823 and associated mh1823 POD software gives most common methods of POD analysis. In this paper, POD analysis is applied to an NDE method, such as eddy current testing, where calibration is used. NDE calibration standards have known size artificial flaws such as electro-discharge machined (EDM) notches and flat bottom hole (FBH) reflectors which are used to set instrument sensitivity for detection of real flaws. Real flaws such as cracks and crack-like flaws are desired to be detected using these NDE methods. A reliably detectable crack size is required for safe life analysis of fracture critical parts. Therefore, it is important to correlate signal responses from real flaws with signal responses form artificial flaws used in calibration process to determine reliably detectable flaw size.

  5. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail:; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail:


    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  6. CMOS reliability issues for emerging cryogenic Lunar electronics applications

    Chen, Tianbing; Zhu, Chendong; Najafizadeh, Laleh; Jun, Bongim; Ahmed, Adnan; Diestelhorst, Ryan; Espinel, Gustavo; Cressler, John D.


    We investigate the reliability issues associated with the application of CMOS devices contained within an advanced SiGe HBT BiCMOS technology to emerging cryogenic space electronics (e.g., down to 43 K, for Lunar missions). Reduced temperature operation improves CMOS device performance (e.g., transconductance, carrier mobility, subthreshold swing, and output current drive), as expected. However, operation at cryogenic temperatures also causes serious device reliability concerns, since it aggravates hot-carrier effects, effectively decreasing the inferred device lifetime significantly, especially at short gate lengths. In the paper, hot-carrier effects are demonstrated to be a stronger function of the device gate length than the temperature, suggesting that significant trade-offs between the gate length and the operational temperature must be made in order to ensure safe and reliable operation over typical projected mission lifetimes in these hostile environments.

  7. Lithium battery safety and reliability

    Levy, Samuel C.

    Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.

  8. Promoting safe motherhood in rural India.

    Maclean, G


    This article identifies some activities performed to promote safe motherhood in rural India. Nurses from a voluntary organization in Hyderabad, India, trained women's groups from 32 villages in rural Andhra Pradesh state over 3 days in 1996 in maternal and child care, health and family welfare, gender issues, sanitation, leadership, literacy, negotiating skills, and health monitoring. The women were encouraged to perform health activities in their villages. In October 1996, a Conference of Women celebrated the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, with women's groups reporting on health activities in specific villages. Each women's group had its own banner. Every woman wore a conference delegate badge. One woman's group was rewarded for making the most significant progress. Participants included women from 29 villages and auxiliary nurse-midwives. For some women, this was the first time away from home. Conference delegates toured the primary health center facilities at Shamirpet and met with staff. The aim was to reduce fear and reluctance to use the services and to promote awareness of available health care. Most villages in India rely on auxiliary nurse-midwives for maternal and child health care. Promotion of safe motherhood requires close cooperation between the auxiliary nurse-midwifes and women's groups. The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare of India is introducing in-service training to improve the clinical skills of auxiliary nurse-midwives in eight states. The nurse-midwives use adapted and new educational material from WHO's safe motherhood midwifery training modules. A workshop was used to introduce the new modules and to propose teaching methods for senior project staff. The five modules include a trainers' manual of educational methods.

  9. SAFE gas turbine cycle primary heat exchangers

    Reid, Robert S.; Kapernick, Richard J.


    Los Alamos National Laboratory and Marshall Space Flight Center are jointly developing two modular heat pipe heat exchangers, collectively named FIGMENT (Fission Inert Gas Metal Exchanger for Non-nuclear Testing). The FIGMENT heat exchangers are designed to transfer power from the SAFE nuclear reactor cores to gas turbine energy converters. A stainless steel prototype heat exchanger will be built during 2002 in preparation for the construction of a larger refractory metal version. Two promising FIGMENT stainless steel heat exchanger concepts are reviewed here. .

  10. Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S


    Colombian Safe Guide S.A.S. es una compañía de servicios de asesoramiento y acompañamiento a los visitantes extranjeros que vienen a la ciudad de Bogotá. Funciona a través de una página web, que facilitan a sus clientes la obtención de todos los servicios necesarios durante su estadía, en un solo lugar. El principal objetivo es proporcionar nuevas alternativas de servicios de asesoramiento, capitalizando la compañía bajo el cumplimiento del objetivo y cuota del mercado propuesta por la compañ...

  11. Is infliximab safe to use while breastfeeding?

    Joel Z Stengel; Hays L Arnold


    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often affects women around the age of conception and pregnancy. Most drugs used to treat IBD are safe in pregnancy, but physicians must consider the clinical implications of certain treatment regimens in young, fertile females. We report an informative case of a pregnant patient with IBD who underwent treatment with infliximab during her pregnancy and while nursing her infant. Serum and breast milk infliximab levels were monitored throughout this time period. This case report suggests that targeted monoclonal antibodies and other biologic agents can be used with caution in pregnant and breastfeeding patients.

  12. Inherently safe passive gas monitoring system

    Cordaro, Joseph V.; Bellamy, John Stephen; Shuler, James M.; Shull, Davis J.; Leduc, Daniel R.


    Generally, the present disclosure is directed to gas monitoring systems that use inductive power transfer to safely power an electrically passive device included within a nuclear material storage container. In particular, the electrically passive device can include an inductive power receiver for receiving inductive power transfer through a wall of the nuclear material storage container. The power received by the inductive power receiver can be used to power one or more sensors included in the device. Thus, the device is not required to include active power generation components such as, for example, a battery, that increase the risk of a spark igniting flammable gases within the container.

  13. Safe laparoscopic colorectal surgery performed by trainees

    Langhoff, Peter Koch; Schultz, Martin; Harvald, Thomas


    for the technique to spread. We routinely plan all operations as laparoscopic procedures and most cases are done by supervised trainees. The present study therefore presents the results of operations performed by trainees compared with results obtained by experienced laparoscopic surgeons.......Laparoscopic surgery for colorectal cancer is safe, but there have been hesitations to implement the technique in all departments. One of the reasons for this may be suboptimal learning possibilities since supervised trainees have not been allowed to do the operations to an adequate extent...

  14. A Safe Protocol for Amalgam Removal

    Dana G. Colson


    Full Text Available Today's environment has different impacts on our body than previous generations. Heavy metals are a growing concern in medicine. Doctors and individuals request the removal of their amalgam (silver mercury restorations due to the high mercury content. A safe protocol to replace the silver mercury filling will ensure that there is minimal if any absorption of materials while being removed. Strong alternative white composite and lab-processed materials are available today to create a healthy and functioning mouth. Preparation of the patient prior to the procedure and after treatment is vital to establish the excretion of the mercury from the body.

  15. Robust and reliable fuel cells; Robusta och tillfoerlitliga braensleceller

    Nordlund, Joakim [Cellkraft AB, Stockholm (Sweden)


    For fuel cells to be a viable alternative for backup power in applications, where reliability is a critical factor, the reliability of fuel cells has to be high and documented. Based on intrinsic properties of fuel cells, it is safe to argue that it is possible to make them highly reliable, but to unleash the full reliability potential of fuel cells, some great engineering work has to be performed. Cellkraft has since many years been addressing this issue and this project is an important piece of this puzzle. The project included both a large number of laboratory testing of fuel cells and long experiments in field environment to verify the results from the laboratory work. The development work performed within this project is a solid base for the continuous work to fulfil Cellkraft's own, tough, technical reliability targets. The project targets below were achieved within this project: 1. The fuel cell start with 100 % reliability. 2. The fuel cell provides nominal power within 30 seconds in 100 % of the cases. 3. The fuel cell keeps providing nominal power as long as there is a demand in 100 % of the cases. 4. No cell in the fuel cell deviates from the mean cell potential with more than 0,1 V at full power.

  16. Simple improvements of a simple solution for inverting resolution

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); P.R.J. van der Laag


    textabstractIn this paper we address some simple improvements of the algorithm of Rouveirol and Puget [1989] for inverting resolution. Their approach is based on automatic change of representation called flattening and unflattening of clauses in a logic program. This enables a simple implementation

  17. Simple and three-valued simple coloring games

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke


    In this paper minimum coloring games are considered. We characterize the class of conflict graphs inducing simple or three-valued simple minimum coloring games. We provide an upper bound on the number of maximum cliques of conflict graphs inducing such games. Moreover, a characterization of the core

  18. Simple and Three-Valued Simple Minimum Coloring Games

    Musegaas, Marieke; Borm, Peter; Quant, Marieke


    In this paper minimum coloring games are considered. We characterize the type of conflict graphs inducing simple or three-valued simple minimum coloring games. We provide an upper bound on the number of maximum cliques of conflict graphs inducing such games. Moreover, a characterization of the core

  19. On Simple-Injective Rings

    W.K. Nicholson; Jae Keol Park; M.F. Yousif


    A ring R is called right simple-injective if every R-linear map from a right ideal of R to R with simple image can be extended to R. It is shown that a right simple-injective ring R is quasi-Frobenius if R is right Goldie with essential right socle, or R is left perfect and the right annihilator of k ∈ R is finitely generated whenever kR or Rk is simple. This extends a result of Bjork.

  20. Simple Algebras of Invariant Operators

    Xiaorong Shen; J.D.H. Smith


    Comtrans algebras were introduced in as algebras with two trilinear operators, a commutator [x, y, z] and a translator , which satisfy certain identities. Previously known simple comtrans algebras arise from rectangular matrices, simple Lie algebras, spaces equipped with a bilinear form having trivial radical, spaces of hermitian operators over a field with a minimum polynomial x2+1. This paper is about generalizing the hermitian case to the so-called invariant case. The main result of this paper shows that the vector space of n-dimensional invariant operators furnishes some comtrans algebra structures, which are simple provided that certain Jordan and Lie algebras are simple.

  1. Prepare to protect: Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room.

    Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya


    Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.

  2. Results of a Demonstration Assessment of Passive System Reliability Utilizing the Reliability Method for Passive Systems (RMPS)

    Bucknor, Matthew; Grabaskas, David; Brunett, Acacia; Grelle, Austin


    Advanced small modular reactor designs include many advantageous design features such as passively driven safety systems that are arguably more reliable and cost effective relative to conventional active systems. Despite their attractiveness, a reliability assessment of passive systems can be difficult using conventional reliability methods due to the nature of passive systems. Simple deviations in boundary conditions can induce functional failures in a passive system, and intermediate or unexpected operating modes can also occur. As part of an ongoing project, Argonne National Laboratory is investigating various methodologies to address passive system reliability. The Reliability Method for Passive Systems (RMPS), a systematic approach for examining reliability, is one technique chosen for this analysis. This methodology is combined with the Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) approach to assess the reliability of a passive system and the impact of its associated uncertainties. For this demonstration problem, an integrated plant model of an advanced small modular pool-type sodium fast reactor with a passive reactor cavity cooling system is subjected to a station blackout using RELAP5-3D. This paper discusses important aspects of the reliability assessment, including deployment of the methodology, the uncertainty identification and quantification process, and identification of key risk metrics.

  3. Organizing Safe Transitions from Intensive Care

    Marie Häggström


    Full Text Available Background. Organizing and performing patient transfers in the continuum of care is part of the work of nurses and other staff of a multiprofessional healthcare team. An understanding of discharge practices is needed in order to ultimate patients’ transfers from high technological intensive care units (ICU to general wards. Aim. To describe, as experienced by intensive care and general ward staff, what strategies could be used when organizing patient’s care before, during, and after transfer from intensive care. Method. Interviews of 15 participants were conducted, audio-taped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The results showed that the categories secure, encourage, and collaborate are strategies used in the three phases of the ICU transitional care process. The main category; a safe, interactive rehabilitation process, illustrated how all strategies were characterized by an intention to create and maintain safety during the process. A three-way interaction was described: between staff and patient/families, between team members and involved units, and between patient/family and environment. Discussion/Conclusions. The findings highlight that ICU transitional care implies critical care rehabilitation. Discharge procedures need to be safe and structured and involve collaboration, encouraging support, optimal timing, early mobilization, and a multidiscipline approach.

  4. Building a safe care-providing robot.

    Fotoohi, Leila; Gräser, Axel


    A service robot especially a care-providing robot, works in the vicinity of a human body and is sometimes even in direct contact with it. Conventional safety methods and precautions in industrial robotics are not applicable to such robots. This paper presents a safety approach for designing the safe care-providing robot FRIEND. The approach is applied in each step of design iteratively to identify and assess the potential hazards during design. The steps are explained briefly in this work. The main contribution of this paper is verification of safety requirements using the Ramadge-Wonham (RW) framework. The greater complexity of the tasks the robot will perform, the more complex is the identification of safety requirements. Use of this framework led us to analyze the requirements and verify them formally, systematically and on a modular basis. In our approach human-robot interaction (HRI) is also modeled by a set of uncontrolled events that may happen any time during operation. Subsequently the safety requirements are modified to consider these interactions. As a result the safety module behaves like a controller, running in parallel with the system, which maintains the system safe and works according to the safety requirements by enabling the admissible sequences of events.

  5. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa


    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  6. Reliability of novel postural sway task test

    Milan Sedliak


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of parameters obtained from a novel postural sway task test based on body movements controlled by visual feedback. Fifty-nine volunteers were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of young (n = 32, 16 females and 16 males, age: 25.2 ± 3.4 years and the second group of elderly individuals (n = 27, 17 females and 10 males, age: 75.7 ± 6.9 years. Participants stood in parallel on a computer based stabilographic platform with the feet approximately a shoulder width apart, the toes slightly pointing outwards, the hands placed on the hips. The computer screen was placed approximately 1.5 meter from the platform at a height of subjects’ eyes. An instantaneous visual feedback of participant’s centre of pressure (COP was given in a form of a blue cross visible on the screen. Participants were instructed to keep the blue cross driven by movements of their hips as close as possible to a predefined curve flowing on the screen. Out of the 6 parameters studied, only the average distance of COP from the curve line and the sum of the COP crossings through the curve line showed high reliability. Correlation between these two highly reliable parameters was -0.89. There was also a statistical difference (p<0.001 between young and elderly in both the average distance of COP from the curve line and the sum of the COP crossings through the curve. To conclude, the novel postural sway task provides a simple tool with relatively low time burden needed for testing. The suggested output parameters measured are highly reliable and easy to interpret.

  7. Calibrating ensemble reliability whilst preserving spatial structure

    Jonathan Flowerdew


    Full Text Available Ensemble forecasts aim to improve decision-making by predicting a set of possible outcomes. Ideally, these would provide probabilities which are both sharp and reliable. In practice, the models, data assimilation and ensemble perturbation systems are all imperfect, leading to deficiencies in the predicted probabilities. This paper presents an ensemble post-processing scheme which directly targets local reliability, calibrating both climatology and ensemble dispersion in one coherent operation. It makes minimal assumptions about the underlying statistical distributions, aiming to extract as much information as possible from the original dynamic forecasts and support statistically awkward variables such as precipitation. The output is a set of ensemble members preserving the spatial, temporal and inter-variable structure from the raw forecasts, which should be beneficial to downstream applications such as hydrological models. The calibration is tested on three leading 15-d ensemble systems, and their aggregation into a simple multimodel ensemble. Results are presented for 12 h, 1° scale over Europe for a range of surface variables, including precipitation. The scheme is very effective at removing unreliability from the raw forecasts, whilst generally preserving or improving statistical resolution. In most cases, these benefits extend to the rarest events at each location within the 2-yr verification period. The reliability and resolution are generally equivalent or superior to those achieved using a Local Quantile-Quantile Transform, an established calibration method which generalises bias correction. The value of preserving spatial structure is demonstrated by the fact that 3×3 averages derived from grid-scale precipitation calibration perform almost as well as direct calibration at 3×3 scale, and much better than a similar test neglecting the spatial relationships. Some remaining issues are discussed regarding the finite size of the output

  8. A bayesian belief network for reliability assessment

    Gran, Bjoern Axel; Helminen, Atte


    The research programme at the Halden Project on software assessment is argumented through a joint project with VVT Automation. The objective of this co-operative project is to combine previous presented Bayesian Belief Networks for a software safety standard, with BBNs on the reliability estimation of software based digital systems. The results on applying BBN methodology with a software safety standard is based upon previous research by the Halden Project, while the results on the reliability estimation is based on a Master's Thesis by Helminen. The report should be considered as a progress report in the more long-term activity on the use of BBNs as support for safety assessment of programmable systems. In this report it is discussed how the two approaches can be merged together into one Bayesian Network, and the problems with merging are pinpointed. The report also presents and discusses the approaches applied by the Halden Project and VTT, including the differences in the expert judgement of the parameters used in the Bayesian Network. Finally, the report gives some experimental results based on observations from applying the method for an evaluation of a real, safety related programmable system that has been developed according to the avionic standard DO-178B. This demonstrates how hard and soft evidences can be combined for a reliability assessment. The use of Bayesian Networks provides a framework, combining consistent application of probability calculus with the ability to model complex structures, as e.g. standards, as a simple understandable network, where all possible evidence can be introduced to the reliability estimation in a compatible way. (Author)

  9. Reliability of photographic posture analysis of adolescents.

    Hazar, Zeynep; Karabicak, Gul Oznur; Tiftikci, Ugur


    [Purpose] Postural problems of adolescents needs to be evaluated accurately because they may lead to greater problems in the musculoskeletal system as they develop. Although photographic posture analysis has been frequently used, more simple and accessible methods are still needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of photographic posture analysis using MB-ruler software. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were 30 adolescents (15 girls and 15 boys, mean age: 16.4±0.4 years, mean height 166.3±6.7 cm, mean weight 63.8±15.1 kg) and photographs of their habitual standing posture photographs were taken in the sagittal plane. For the evaluation of postural angles, reflective markers were placed on anatomical landmarks. For angular measurements, MB-ruler (Markus Bader- MB Software Solutions, triangular screen ruler) was used. Photographic evaluations were performed by two observers with a repetition after a week. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability evaluations were calculated using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). [Results] Inter-rater (ICC>0.972) and test-retest (ICC>0.774) reliability were found to be in the range of acceptable to excellent. [Conclusion] Reference angles for postural evaluation were found to be reliable and repeatable. The present method was found to be an easy and non-invasive method and it may be utilized by researchers who are in search of an alternative method for photographic postural assessments.

  10. Safe Operation of HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem on Herschel Mission

    Michalska, Malgorzata; Juchnikowski, Grzegorz; Klein, Thomas; Leinz, Christian; Nowosielski, Witold; Orleanski, Piotr; Ward, John

    The HIFI Local Oscillator Subsystem is part of the Heterodyne Instrument for Far Infrared (HIFI) dedicated for astronomical observations,to be mounted on the ESA satellite HER- SCHEL. The Subsystem provides the local oscillator signal (480-1910 GHz) to each of the fourteen HIFI input mixers. Part of LO, the Local Oscillator Control Unit (LCU) provides the main interface between Local Oscillator Subsystem and HIFI/Herschel power and telemetry buses. The unit supplies Local Oscillator, decodes the HIFI macro-commands, programs and monitors the parameters of Ka-Band Synthesizer and THz multiplier chains and controls the operation of the whole Local Oscillator Subsystem. The unique microwave components used in HF multipliers are extremely sensitive to the proper biasing (polarity, voltage, current, presence of HF power).The ESA strategy of this mission requires full safe operation of the instrument. This requirements is covered by complex protection system implemented inside LCU. In this paper, we present the general overview of the protection system of microwave components. The different levels of protection (hardware realization and software procedures) are described as well as various reliability aspects. The functionality of LO subsystem controlled by LCU was tested in 2007. Now the flight model of HIFI instrument is integrated with the satellite and will be launched with Herschel mission in July 2008.

  11. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    Birolini, Alessandro


    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  12. The Validity of Reliability Measures.

    Seddon, G. M.


    Demonstrates that some commonly used indices can be misleading in their quantification of reliability. The effects are most pronounced on gain or difference scores. Proposals are made to avoid sources of invalidity by using a procedure to assess reliability in terms of upper and lower limits for the true scores of each examinee. (Author/JDH)

  13. Software Reliability through Theorem Proving

    S.G.K. Murthy


    Full Text Available Improving software reliability of mission-critical systems is widely recognised as one of the major challenges. Early detection of errors in software requirements, designs and implementation, need rigorous verification and validation techniques. Several techniques comprising static and dynamic testing approaches are used to improve reliability of mission critical software; however it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. Particularly using dynamic testing techniques, it is hard to ensure software reliability, as exhaustive testing is not possible. On the other hand, formal verification techniques utilise mathematical logic to prove correctness of the software based on given specifications, which in turn improves the reliability of the software. Theorem proving is a powerful formal verification technique that enhances the software reliability for missioncritical aerospace applications. This paper discusses the issues related to software reliability and theorem proving used to enhance software reliability through formal verification technique, based on the experiences with STeP tool, using the conventional and internationally accepted methodologies, models, theorem proving techniques available in the tool without proposing a new model.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(3, pp.314-317, DOI:

  14. Reliability engineering in RF CMOS


    In this thesis new developments are presented for reliability engineering in RF CMOS. Given the increase in use of CMOS technology in applications for mobile communication, also the reliability of CMOS for such applications becomes increasingly important. When applied in these applications, CMOS is typically referred to as RF CMOS, where RF stands for radio frequencies.

  15. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;


    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  16. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  17. Simple Distillation and Fractional Distillation



    A pure solvent can be separated from a solution by simple distillation. Distillation is the process of boiling a liquid and condensing the vapor. For example, pure water can be obtained from salt solution by distillation. The figure below shows the apparatus used for simple distillation in the laboratory.

  18. Beyond Metal Detectors: Creating Safe School Environments. The Editor Reflects.

    Erb, Tom


    Discusses a model for the interactions between the elements of a safe school environment. Elements are curriculum, climate, and instruction leading to a safe setting, resulting in positive student outcomes. (JPB)


    B.Anni Princy


    Full Text Available A software reliability exemplary projects snags the random process as disillusionments which were the culmination yield of two progressions: emerging faults and initial state values. The predominant classification uses the logistic analysis effort function mounting efficient software on the real time dataset. The detriments of the logistic testing were efficaciously overcome by Pareto distribution. The estimated outline ventures the resolved technique for analyzing the suitable communities and the preeminent of fit for a software reliability progress model. Its constraints are predictable to evaluate the reliability of a software system. The future process will permit for software reliability estimations that can be used both as prominence Indicator, but also for planning and controlling resources, the development times based on the onslaught assignments of the efficient computing and reliable measurement of a software system was competent.

  20. Reliability estimation using kriging metamodel

    Cho, Tae Min; Ju, Byeong Hyeon; Lee, Byung Chai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Hyun [Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)


    In this study, the new method for reliability estimation is proposed using kriging metamodel. Kriging metamodel can be determined by appropriate sampling range and sampling numbers because there are no random errors in the Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments(DACE) model. The first kriging metamodel is made based on widely ranged sampling points. The Advanced First Order Reliability Method(AFORM) is applied to the first kriging metamodel to estimate the reliability approximately. Then, the second kriging metamodel is constructed using additional sampling points with updated sampling range. The Monte-Carlo Simulation(MCS) is applied to the second kriging metamodel to evaluate the reliability. The proposed method is applied to numerical examples and the results are almost equal to the reference reliability.