WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable sdi service

  1. SDI: Is it a reliable fouling index?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hadidi, A.M.M.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Schippers, J.C.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The ASTM considers the silt density index (SDI) test as a standard test for fouling potential of RO and NF feed waters. Up to date, the SDI is used at many full- and pilot-scale installations. The design and choice of the applied RO pretreatment is to a large extent based on the SDI test on the raw

  2. Transformation of Library Services in Nuclear Malaysia: e-SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Nasaruddin Ahmad; Habibah Adnan

    2015-01-01

    In order to deliver its services to the public, library must have initiatives to attract the public on using their services. One of the services offered by the library is information packaging or Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI). SDI is services that enable the librarian to serve the user on upcoming information according to the users interest. Before this, librarian will package new publication or information regarding certain topics of the user need and deliver it to the target user frequently. Theorically, this service is connection between library and user and back to library again. Nuclear Malaysia Library has used Integrated Library Management Utilities (ILMU) since 2005. Through this system, there is one module known as Article Browsing where its function same with SDI. This paper will elaborate on transformation of SDI services from conventional to the electronic form. (author)

  3. Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) services in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of providing current information but personalized to the faculty, and keeps them abreast of the latest development. One of the major challenges of the operations in RUN is that certain search engines being used in the provision of SDI services e.g yahoo and AltaVista are not good enough for effective information retrieval.

  4. An in-house alternative to traditional SDI services at Argonne National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, R.E.; Dominiak, R.R.

    1997-02-20

    Selective Dissemination of Information (SDIs) are based on automated, well-defined programs that regularly produce precise, relevant bibliographic information. Librarians have typically turned to information vendors such as Dialog or STN international to design and implement these searches for their users in business, academia, and the science community. Because Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) purchases the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Current Contents tapes (all subject areas excluding Humanities). ANL scientists enjoy the benefit of in-house developments with BASISplus software programming and no longer need to turn to outside companies for reliable SDI service. The database and its customized services are known as ACCESS (Argonne Current Contents Electronic Search Service). Through collaboration with librarians on Boolean logic and selection of terms, users can now design their own personal profiles to comb the new data, thereby avoiding service fees from outside providers. Based on the feedback from scientists, it seems that this new service can help transform the ANL distributed libraries into more efficient central functioning entities that better serve the users. One goal is to eliminate the routing of paper copies of many new journal issues to different library locations for users to browse; instead users may be expected to rely more on electronic dissemination of both table of contents and customized SDIs for new scientific and technical information.

  5. OneGeology Web Services and Portal as a global geological SDI - latest standards and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Tim; Tellez-Arenas, Agnes

    2014-05-01

    The global coverage of OneGeology Web Services (www.onegeology.org and portal.onegeology.org) achieved since 2007 from the 120 participating geological surveys will be reviewed and issues arising discussed. Recent enhancements to the OneGeology Web Services capabilities will be covered including new up to 5 star service accreditation scheme utilising the ISO/OGC Web Mapping Service standard version 1.3, core ISO 19115 metadata additions and Version 2.0 Web Feature Services (WFS) serving the new IUGS-CGI GeoSciML V3.2 geological web data exchange language standard (http://www.geosciml.org/) with its associated 30+ IUGS-CGI available vocabularies (http://resource.geosciml.org/ and http://srvgeosciml.brgm.fr/eXist2010/brgm/client.html). Use of the CGI simpelithology and timescale dictionaries now allow those who wish to do so to offer data harmonisation to query their GeoSciML 3.2 based Web Feature Services and their GeoSciML_Portrayal V2.0.1 (http://www.geosciml.org/) Web Map Services in the OneGeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org). Contributing to OneGeology involves offering to serve ideally 1:1000,000 scale geological data (in practice any scale now is warmly welcomed) as an OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standard based WMS (Web Mapping Service) service from an available WWW server. This may either be hosted within the Geological Survey or a neighbouring, regional or elsewhere institution that offers to serve that data for them i.e. offers to help technically by providing the web serving IT infrastructure as a 'buddy'. OneGeology is a standards focussed Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) and works to ensure that these standards work together and it is now possible for European Geological Surveys to register their INSPIRE web services within the OneGeology SDI (e.g. see http://www.geosciml.org/geosciml/3.2/documentation/cookbook/INSPIRE_GeoSciML_Cookbook%20_1.0.pdf). The Onegeology portal (http://portal.onegeology.org) is the first port of call for anyone

  6. The magnetic tape-based INIS-SDI information retrieval service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, J.

    1980-01-01

    The activities are described of the SDI department of the Czechoslovak Nuclear Information Centre. It performs retrospective and current searches to order. Statistical data are given on the amount and quality of output. (M.S.)

  7. CAN-SDI: experience with multi-source computer based current awareness services in the National Science Library, Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, I M

    1973-07-01

    CAN/SDI is Canada's national Selective Dissemination of Information Service offering a choice of nine data bases to its scientific and technical community. The system is based on central processing at the National Science Library combined with the utilization of decentralized expertise and resources for profile formulation and user education. Its greatest strength lies in its wide interdisciplinary quality. The major advantage of centralized processing of many data bases is that Canadians need learn only one method of profile formulation to access many files. A breakdown of services used confirms that a single tape service does not cover all the information requirements of most users. On the average each profile accesses approximately 1.5 data bases. Constant subscriber growth and a low cancellation rate indicate that CAN/SDI is and will continue to be an important element in Canada's information system.

  8. Evaluation of up-posting influence on the performance of an SDI service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barros, A.C.T.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Up-posting as a tool in information retrieval is analysed for the CIN/CNEN - SDI system based on INIS tapes. Two SDI versions were processed at a time for a random sample of 200 interest profiles: one using up-posting, another one disregarding it. Results were compared and statistical analyses were done to estimate the effects of up-posting and to set criteria for proper use. The influence of up-posting in the average SONAR performance may be neglected while for individual profiles significant variations in precision and/or recall were found. (Author) [pt

  9. The value of service reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Benezech , Vincent; Coulombel , Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the e...

  10. Assessment of Silt Density Index (SDI) as Fouling Propensity Parameter in Reverse Osmosis Desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2011-07-01

    Reverse osmosis operations are facing persistent fouling phenomenon that has challenged the integrity of these processes. Prediction of fouling potential by measuring a fouling index toward feed water is essential to ensure robust operation. Moreover, employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. Silt density index (SDI) is considered insufficient in terms of reliability and empirical theory, among other limitations. Nevertheless due its simplicity, SDI measurement is utilized extensively in RO desalination systems. The aim of this research is to assess the reliability of SDI. Methods include the investigation of different SDI membranes and study of the nature of the SDI filtration. Results demonstrate the existence of the membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role on SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity assisted SDI measurements along with determination of UF pretreated and clean water fouling potential, establishes the indication of non-fouling related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as a natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic condition that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI value. Keywords: Reverse Osmosis, Fouling index, Particulate Fouling, Silt Density Index (SDI), and Assessment of SDI.

  11. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  12. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Wali, F.; Amy, Gary L.

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  13. Assessment of silt density index (SDI) as fouling propensity parameter in reverse osmosis (RO) desalination systems

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2013-01-01

    Due to its simplicity, silt density index (SDI) is extensively used in reverse osmosis systems despite its limitations in predicting membrane fouling. Employing a reliable fouling index with good reproducibility and precision is necessary. The aim of this investigation is to assess the reliability of SDI in order to understand the reasons for the low level of precision and accuracy. Different commercial SDI membranes and feed water quality were used in this study. Results showed the existence of membrane properties\\' variation within manufacturers, which then causes a lack of accuracy in fouling risk estimation. The nature of particles during SDI filtration provides information that particle concentration and size play a significant role in SDI quantification with substantial representation given by particles with size close to membrane nominal pore size. Moreover, turbidity-assisted SDI measurements along with determination of ultrafiltration permeate and clean water fouling potential, establish the indication of nonfouling-related phenomena involved on SDI measurement such as natural organic matter adsorption and hydrodynamic conditions that alters during filtration. Additionally, it was found that the latter affects the sensitivity of SDI by being represented by some portions of SDI values. © 2013 Desalination Publications.

  14. The STIG : A new SDI assessment method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nushi, B.; Van Loenen, B.; Crompvoets, J.

    2015-01-01

    To stimulate the Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI) development effectively and efficiently, it is key to assess the progress and benefits of the SDI. Currently, several SDI assessment methods exist. However, these are still in an infant stage and none of these appear to meet the requirements of

  15. A contextual ICA stakeholder model approach for the Namibian spatial data infrastructure (NamSDI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinvula, KM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, the Namibian parliament presented and promulgated the Namibian Spatial Data Infrastructure (NamSDI) with the aim of promoting the sharing and improved access and use of geospatial data and services across Namibia. Notable SDI models...

  16. Sonar: a multibase and parametric interface software for SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Passos, M.C.J. da

    1986-01-01

    Sonar - an automated service for selective dissemination of information (SDI) - developed by the Centro de Informacoes Nucleares (CIN) of the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN) is described. Emphasis is given to the multibase feature of the system based on the parametric interface between the system and an external data base reading subroutine. (Author) [pt

  17. Application of SDI technology in space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Numerous technologies developed by the DOD within the SDI program are now available for adaptation to the requirements of commercial spacecraft; SDI has accordingly organized the Technology Applications Information System data base, which contains nearly 2000 nonproprietary abstracts on SDI technology. Attention is here given to such illustrative systems as hydrogen arcjets, ammonia arcjets, ion engines, SSTO launch vehicles, gel propellants, lateral thrusters, pulsed electrothermal thrusters, laser-powered rockets, and nuclear propulsion

  18. Reliability Engineering for Service Oriented Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Common Object Request Broker Architecture Ecosystem In software , an ecosystem is a set of applications and/or services that grad- ually build up over time...Enterprise Service Bus Foreign In an SOA context: Any SOA, service or software which the owners of the calling software do not have control of, either...SOA Service Oriented Architecture SRE Software Reliability Engineering System Mode Many systems exhibit different modes of operation. E.g. the cockpit

  19. Data reliability in home healthcare services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vavilis, S.; Zannone, N.; Petkovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Home healthcare services are emerging as a new frontier in healthcare practices. Data reliability, however, is crucial for the acceptance of these new services. This work presents a semi-automated system to evaluate the quality of medical measurements taken by patients. The system relies on data

  20. Transformation of Selective Dissemination of Information: e-SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Ruzilah Ehsan; Habibah Adnan; Iberahim Ali

    2013-01-01

    ILMU or Integrated Library Management Utilities are first used by Malaysian Nuclear Agency's Library since 2005. The purpose of implementation of this system is to catalogue publications in the library. It uses languages of MARC 21 (Machine Readable Cataloging). One of services offered by this system are IRS Module where it used for indexing publication such as journal articles, patent, thesis, and newspaper articles. Selective Dissemination of Information (SDI) was a famous services offered by libraries around the world to their user. User just updated their forms called user profile in order to apply the literature based on interested keywords or type of publications. The librarian will effort to get those publication wanted by the user. Nowadays, as technology developed, this services also transformed into the digital version. This paper work prepared to discuss e-SDI service in Malaysian Nuclear Agency's Library using ILMU system. (author)

  1. Pulsed power, ICF, and SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Devender, J.P.

    1986-01-01

    Pulsed power technology has been developed over many years for nuclear weapon effects simulation, inertial fusion, and directed energy. Every four years there is a factor of ten increase in power available, and we are now near the 100 TW, couple of million joule (MJ) mark, according to the author. 100 TW is sufficient for studying physics relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) or the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Pulsed power can be viewed as a basic technology for making electron beams, X-rays, and ion beams. Applications include ICF, plasmoid-directed energy weapons, and microwave weapons. The author presents a set of tentative requirements for an effective defense, a concept for deploying the defense, and a strategy for making the transition to a defense-dominated world

  2. Cyber security for greater service reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vickery, P. [N-Dimension Solutions Inc., Richmond Hill, ON (Canada)

    2008-05-15

    Service reliability in the electricity transmission and distribution (T and D) industry is being challenged by increased equipment failures, harsher climatic conditions, and computer hackers who aim to disrupt services by gaining access to transmission and distribution resources. This article discussed methods of ensuring the cyber-security of T and D operators. Weak points in the T and D industry include remote terminal units; intelligent electronic devices; distributed control systems; programmable logic controllers; and various intelligent field devices. An increasing number of interconnection points exist between an operator's service control system and external systems. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) standards specify that cyber security strategies should ensure that all cyber assets are protected, and that access points must be monitored to detect intrusion attempts. The introduction of new advanced metering initiatives must also be considered. Comprehensive monitoring systems should be available to support compliance with cyber security standards. It was concluded that senior management should commit to a periodic cyber security re-assessment program in order to keep up-to-date.

  3. Service validity and service reliability of search, experience and credence services. A scenario study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Verhoeven, J.W.M.; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to add to our understanding of the antecedents of customer satisfaction by examining the effects of service reliability (Is the service “correctly” produced?) and service validity (Is the “correct” service produced?) of search, experience and credence services.

  4. Why SDI failed: A different perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Codevilla, A.

    1990-01-01

    Conventional wisdom is wrong. SDI did not fail simply because science could not supply the means to build an anti-missile shield. Rather, it floundered on a combination of unsatisfiable technical requirements and technical boondoggles, charges the author. Rather than building on current technology and doing what could be done with what was at hand, those who shaped SDI policy - both military and civilian - insisted on virtually starting over. He also charges they were either passionately against building anti-missile weapons or lacking in intellectual self-confidence and interest with regard to the subject. Work on using modern optics and computers for anti-missile purposes began in the late 1970s, and the technology already was in use in intelligence satellites - a fact either unknown or ignored by most SDI officials. As a result of the conflicting interests among officials and the organizational structure they put into place, the author says the SDI program could not possibly develop any weapon, even if the people involved wanted to, which they did not

  5. Towards Reliable Integrated Services for Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    Reliability issues for various technical systems are discussed and focus is directed towards distributed systems, where communication facilities are vital to maintain system functionality. Reliability in communication subsystems is considered as a resource to be shared among a number of logical c...... applications residing on alternative routes. Details are provided for the operation of RRRSVP based on reliability slack calculus. Conclusions summarize the considerations and give directions for future research....... connections and a reliability management framework is suggested. We suggest a network layer level reliability management protocol RRSVP (Reliability Resource Reservation Protocol) as a counterpart of the RSVP for bandwidth and time resource management. Active and passive standby redundancy by background...

  6. Towards Reliable Integrated Services for Dependable Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiøler, Henrik; Ravn, Anders Peter; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2003-01-01

    Reliability issues for various technical systems are discussed and focus is directed towards distributed systems, where communication facilities are vital to maintain system functionality. Reliability in communication subsystems is considered as a resource to be shared among a number of logical c...... applications residing on alternative routes. Details are provided for the operation of RRRSVP based on reliability slack calculus. Conclusions summarize the considerations and give directions for future research....... connections and a reliability management framework is suggested. We suggest a network layer level reliability management protocol RRSVP (Reliability Resource Reservation Protocol) as a counterpart of the RSVP for bandwidth and time resource management. Active and passive standby redundancy by background...

  7. Novel approach for evaluation of service reliability for electricity customers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG; John; N

    2009-01-01

    Understanding reliability value for electricity customer is important to market-based reliability management. This paper proposes a novel approach to evaluate the reliability for electricity customers by using indifference curve between economic compensation for power interruption and service reliability of electricity. Indifference curve is formed by calculating different planning schemes of network expansion for different reliability requirements of customers, which reveals the information about economic values for different reliability levels for electricity customers, so that the reliability based on market supply demand mechanism can be established and economic signals can be provided for reliability management and enhancement.

  8. Science, politics, and origins of SDI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) proposal, made in a speech in 1983, surprised most of the administration, including the secretaries of Defense and state, most of the president's senior aides and advisers, and the scientific and technological community, says the author. Unlike most new weapons systems, this one did not bubble up from the bureaucracy but, rather, was sprung on the bureaucracy. Reagan spoke of SDI as part of a broader effort to restore American pride and self-confidence and as a symbol of national determination to regain technological preeminence in the world. After 5 years and some $20 billion, the project has made little progress the author states. The program continues more as a result of bureaucratic inertia and the investment already made than from a conviction that the initial vision still can be realized

  9. Product quality, service reliability and management of operations at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High product quality, service reliability, and management of operations are key factors in business growth and sustainability. Analyzing “The Starbucks Experience” is a pedagogical approach to reinforcing the concepts of control and management of quality, service reliability, and efficient operations in action. The objective ...

  10. Assessing the Impact of Imperfect Diagnosis on Service Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lars Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Kjærgaard, Jens Kristian

    2010-01-01

    , representative diagnosis performance metrics have been defined and their closed-form solutions obtained for the Markov model. These equations enable model parameterization from traces of implemented diagnosis components. The diagnosis model has been integrated in a reliability model assessing the impact...... of the diagnosis functions for the studied reliability problem. In a simulation study we finally analyze trade-off properties of diagnosis heuristics from literature, map them to the analytic Markov model, and investigate its suitability for service reliability optimization....

  11. Evaluating a public sector organisation for SDI Readiness – The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper establishes the availability of geographic information within the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) by describing DEA's contribution to the South African SDI objectives and by assessing DEA's SDI readiness. The qualitative method was used to collect data. The techniques used in this research were ...

  12. SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.

    2012-09-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.

  13. Architecture-Based Reliability Analysis of Web Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Cobra Mariam

    2012-01-01

    In a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA), the hierarchical complexity of Web Services (WS) and their interactions with the underlying Application Server (AS) create new challenges in providing a realistic estimate of WS performance and reliability. The current approaches often treat the entire WS environment as a black-box. Thus, the sensitivity…

  14. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai

    2012-07-01

    In order to clarify the fouling mechanism during silt density index (SDI) measurements of seawater in the seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, 11 runs were conducted under constant-pressure (207kPa) dead-end filtration mode according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF) and coagulation followed by microfiltration (CMF) technologies were tested. Fouling mechanisms based on the constant-pressure filtration equation were fully analyzed. For all runs, only t/(V/A)∼t showed very good linearity (correlation coefficient R 2>0.99) since the first moment of the filtration, indicating that standard blocking rather than cake filtration was the dominant fouling mechanism during the entire filtration process. The very low concentration of suspended solids rejected by MF of 0.45μm in seawater was the main reason why a cake layer was not formed. High turbidity removal during filtration indicated that organic colloids retained on and/or adsorbed in membrane pores governed the filtration process (i.e., standard blocking) due to the important contribution of organic substances to seawater turbidity in this study. Therefore the standard blocking coefficient k s, i.e., the slope of t/(V/A)∼t, could be used as a good fouling index for seawater because it showed good linearity with feed seawater turbidity. The correlation of SDI with k s and feed seawater quality indicated that SDI could be reliably used for seawater with low fouling potential (SDI 15min<5) like pre-treated seawater in this study. From both k s and SDI, the order of fouling potential was raw seawater>seawater pre-treated by CSF>seawater pre-treated by CMF, indicating the better performance of CMF than CSF. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  15. Health Service Quality Scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Luiz Roberto Martins; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; e Oliveira, Paulo Rocha; Song, Elaine Horibe; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2013-01-17

    The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson's correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson's correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality.

  16. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality. PMID:23327598

  17. Artificial intelligence applications in space and SDI: A survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to survey existing and planned Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications to show that they are sufficiently advanced for 32 percent of all space applications and SDI (Space Defense Initiative) software to be AI-based software. To best define the needs that AI can fill in space and SDI programs, this paper enumerates primary areas of research and lists generic application areas. Current and planned NASA and military space projects in AI will be reviewed. This review will be largely in the selected area of expert systems. Finally, direct applications of AI to SDI will be treated. The conclusion covers the importance of AI to space and SDI applications, and conversely, their importance to AI.

  18. Reliability analysis of structures under periodic proof tests in service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.-N.

    1976-01-01

    A reliability analysis of structures subjected to random service loads and periodic proof tests treats gust loads and maneuver loads as random processes. Crack initiation, crack propagation, and strength degradation are treated as the fatigue process. The time to fatigue crack initiation and ultimate strength are random variables. Residual strength decreases during crack propagation, so that failure rate increases with time. When a structure fails under periodic proof testing, a new structure is built and proof-tested. The probability of structural failure in service is derived from treatment of all the random variables, strength degradations, service loads, proof tests, and the renewal of failed structures. Some numerical examples are worked out.

  19. Reliability analysis of service water system under earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yu; Qian Xiaoming; Lu Xuefeng; Wang Shengfei; Niu Fenglei

    2013-01-01

    Service water system is one of the important safety systems in nuclear power plant, whose failure probability is always gained by system reliability analysis. The probability of equipment failure under the earthquake is the function of the peak acceleration of earthquake motion, while the occurrence of earthquake is of randomicity, thus the traditional fault tree method in current probability safety assessment is not powerful enough to deal with such case of conditional probability problem. An analysis frame was put forward for system reliability evaluation in seismic condition in this paper, in which Monte Carlo simulation was used to deal with conditional probability problem. Annual failure probability of service water system was calculated, and failure probability of 1.46X10 -4 per year was obtained. The analysis result is in accordance with the data which indicate equipment seismic resistance capability, and the rationality of the model is validated. (authors)

  20. Reliability and service life of wood structures and buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Service life of constructions and buildings of wood is dependent on temperature and moisture conditions in layers of the building cladding where the wood framework is built in. Temperature/moisture conditions or the corresponding equilibrium moisture content (EMC of the construction show considerable effects on the functional reliability of the whole building from the viewpoint of mechanical resistance and stability (ER1, energy savings and thermal protection (ER6 and hygiene, health and environment protection (ER3. To ensure the reliability of constructions and buildings for the period of their supposed service life a more profound analysis of constructions is necessary from the aspect of a global thermal/technical evaluation.

  1. Reliability and service life of wood structures and buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2005-01-01

    Service life of constructions and buildings of wood is dependent on temperature and moisture conditions in layers of the building cladding where the wood framework is built in. Temperature/moisture conditions or the corresponding equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of the construction show considerable effects on the functional reliability of the whole building from the viewpoint of mechanical resistance and stability (ER1), energy savings and thermal protection (ER6) and hygiene, health and e...

  2. SDI HDTV video transmission unit; SDI high vision eizo denso sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The number is increasing of broadcasting stations who use HDTV (high-definition television) signals for program formulation for the improvement of video quality for general broadcasting programs. The above-named unit, which transmits HDTV signals which are broadcasting materials over a long distance with their high quality well preserved, is capable of the optical transmission of SDI (serial digital interface) signals meeting the standards of BTA (Broadcasting Technologies Association) on 1 video channel and 2 digital audio channels. It can also work on the light wavelength multiplex system. It was developed under the guidance of TTNet (Tokyo Telecommunication Network Co., Inc.), and gained public favor when it successfully transmitted programs over a distance of approximately 400km from Nagano to Tokyo during the Nagano Olympic Games. It now transmits various high-quality video signals for instance in the relay of baseball games, thereby contributing to the improvement of video quality for broadcasting. (translated by NEDO)

  3. SDI: Fallacy of last move in arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakoff, S.

    1990-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), sold to the American people by a persuasive president as the weapons system to end all weapons systems, turned out to be only another step in the continuing arms race, contends the author. It might already have been terminated if President Bush did not fear the conservatives who see SDI as the strategic centerpiece of the Reagan legacy. He says the project was ill-conceived from the start because it was grounded in the simple-minded faith that technology can provide the answer to the arms race. The reason it got as far as it did was because this simple-minded faith had an adherent in an exceptionally popular president who sensed correctly that the voters shared the same naive confidence. He lists several factors that contributed to the unraveling of SDI: technical opposition based upon growing evidence that the system would not work; loss of the 1986 congressional elections and a subsequent drop in appropriations; and the dramatic improvement of relations between the superpowers. He concludes that SDI is but the latest in a series of fundamentally misguided efforts by both superpowers to achieve advantage; if it proves to be the final instance of the fallacy of the last move in the annals of the Cold War, at least it will not have been altogether in vain

  4. An open-source wireless sensor stack: from Arduino to SDI-12 to Water One Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S.; Damiano, S. G.; Smith, K. M.; Olexy, J.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Mayorga, E.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    Implementing a large-scale streaming environmental sensor network has previously been limited by the high cost of the datalogging and data communication infrastructure. The Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory (CRB-CZO) is overcoming the obstacles to large near-real-time data collection networks by using Arduino, an open source electronics platform, in combination with XBee ZigBee wireless radio modules. These extremely low-cost and easy-to-use open source electronics are at the heart of the new DIY movement and have provided solutions to countless projects by over half a million users worldwide. However, their use in environmental sensing is in its infancy. At present a primary limitation to widespread deployment of open-source electronics for environmental sensing is the lack of a simple, open-source software stack to manage streaming data from heterogeneous sensor networks. Here we present a functioning prototype software stack that receives sensor data over a self-meshing ZigBee wireless network from over a hundred sensors, stores the data locally and serves it on demand as a CUAHSI Water One Flow (WOF) web service. We highlight a few new, innovative components, including: (1) a versatile open data logger design based the Arduino electronics platform and ZigBee radios; (2) a software library implementing SDI-12 communication protocol between any Arduino platform and SDI12-enabled sensors without the need for additional hardware (https://github.com/StroudCenter/Arduino-SDI-12); and (3) 'midStream', a light-weight set of Python code that receives streaming sensor data, appends it with metadata on the fly by querying a relational database structured on an early version of the Observations Data Model version 2.0 (ODM2), and uses the WOFpy library to serve the data as WaterML via SOAP and REST web services.

  5. 76 FR 73608 - Reliability Technical Conference, North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Public Service...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... or municipal authority play in forming your bulk power system reliability plans? b. Do you support..., North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) Nick Akins, CEO of American Electric Power (AEP..., EL11-62-000] Reliability Technical Conference, North American Electric Reliability Corporation, Public...

  6. Customer control and evaluation of service validity and reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Raaij, W. Fred; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.

    1998-01-01

    A control and attribution model of service production and evaluation is proposed. Service production consists of the stages specification (input), realization (throughput), and outcome (output). Customers may exercise control over all three stages of the service. Critical factors of service

  7. Reliability analysis of the service water system of Angra 1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayt-Sohn, L.C.; Oliveira, L.F.S. de.

    1984-01-01

    A reliability analysis of the service water system is done aiming to use in the evaluation of the non reliability of the Component Cooling System (SRC) for great loss of cooling accidents in nuclear power plants. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Reliability analysis of the service water system of Angra 1 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Fleming, P.V.; Frutuoso e Melo, P.F.F.; Tayt-Sohn, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    A reliability analysis of the service water system is done aiming to use in the evaluation of the non reliability of the component cooling system (SRC) for great loss of cooling accidents in nuclear power plants. (E.G.) [pt

  9. A Novel Analytic Technique for the Service Station Reliability in a Discrete-Time Repairable Queue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a decomposition technique for the service station reliability in a discrete-time repairable GeomX/G/1 queueing system, in which the server takes exhaustive service and multiple adaptive delayed vacation discipline. Using such a novel analytic technique, some important reliability indices and reliability relation equations of the service station are derived. Furthermore, the structures of the service station indices are also found. Finally, special cases and numerical examples validate the derived results and show that our analytic technique is applicable to reliability analysis of some complex discrete-time repairable bulk arrival queueing systems.

  10. The impact of scheduling on service reliability : Trip-time determination and holding points in long-headway services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.; Boterman, J.W.; Van Nes, R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents research on optimizing service reliability of longheadway services in urban public transport. Setting the driving time, and thus the departure time at stops, is an important decision when optimizing reliability in urban public transport. The choice of the percentile out of

  11. Using SDI-12 with ST microelectronics MCU's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saari, Alexandra [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hinzey, Shawn Adrian [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Frigo, Janette Rose [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Proicou, Michael Chris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Borges, Louis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-03

    ST Microelectronics microcontrollers and processors are readily available, capable and economical processors. Unfortunately they lack a broad user base like similar offerings from Texas Instrument, Atmel, or Microchip. All of these devices could be useful in economical devices for remote sensing applications used with environmental sensing. With the increased need for environmental studies, and limited budgets, flexibility in hardware is very important. To that end, and in an effort to increase open support of ST devices, I am sharing my teams' experience in interfacing a common environmental sensor communication protocol (SDI-12) with ST devices.

  12. Enhancing Experiment Central Service Reliability: from delivery to security and virtualization

    CERN Document Server

    Donno, Flavia; Buzykaev, Alexey; Saiz Santos, Maria Dolores

    2011-01-01

    The four LHC experiments rely on experiment specific services running on machines mainly located at CERN. Some of these services have been rated by the experiments as very critical: any loss or degradation of performance has a major impact on the experiment's production and analysis activities. It is therefore important to provide a reliable and robust operational environment. In this work we describe the strategy based on service deployment, security and virtualization adopted to enhance the reliability of ATLAS and CMS central services.

  13. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  14. Estimating the Reliability of the Elements of Cloud Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia V. Ignatova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud technologies are a very considerable area that influence IT infrastructure, network services and applications. Research has highlighted difficulties in the functioning of cloud infrastructure. For instance, if a server is subjected to malicious attacks or a force majeure causes a failure in the cloud's service, it is required to determine the time that it takes the system to return to being fully functional after the crash. This will determine the technological and financial risks faced by the owner and end users of cloud services. Therefore, to solve the problem of determining the expected time before service is resumed after a failure, we propose to apply Markovian queuing systems, specifically a model of a multi-channel queuing system with Poisson input flow and denial-of-service (breakdown. (original abstract

  15. Service reliability assessment using failure mode and effect analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Statistical Process Control Teng and Ho (1996) .... are still remaining left on modelling the interaction between impact of internal service failure and ..... Design error proofing: development of automated error-proofing information systems, Proceedings of.

  16. Applying franchising principles to improving water and sanitation services reliability

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available CSIR research has found that franchising partnerships could alleviate and address many challenges in the operation and maintenance of water services infrastructure. Franchising brings appropriate training to those on-site, and also offers backup off...

  17. Human reliability impact on in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanner, J.C. Sr.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes a study conducted to identify, characterize, and evaluate the human reliability aspects of ultrasonic testing/inservice inspection (UT/ISI). Recent measurements of UT/ISI system effectiveness have revealed wide variations in performance; suggesting that insufficient emphasis is being placed on the human reliability aspects of nondestructive examination. It appears that NDE performance can be improved through application of the human factors principles relating to the task, training, procedure, environmental, and individual difference variables. These variables are collectively referred to as performance-shaping factors. A man-machine systems model was developed to describe the UT/ISI process using functional task descriptors. The relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis method, which is derived from signal detection theory, offers unique attributes for analyzing NDT performance. The results of a limited human factors evaluation conducted in conjunction with a mini-round robin test are also described

  18. Reliability theory for repair service organization simulation and increase of innovative attraction of industrial enterprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolzhenkova, E. V.; Iurieva, L. V.

    2018-05-01

    The study presents the author's algorithm for the industrial enterprise repair service organization simulation based on the reliability theory, as well as the results of its application. The monitoring of the industrial enterprise repair service organization is proposed to perform on the basis of the enterprise's state indexes for the main resources (equipment, labour, finances, repair areas), which allows quantitative evaluation of the reliability level as a resulting summary rating of the said parameters and the ensuring of an appropriate level of the operation reliability of the serviced technical objects. Under the conditions of the tough competition, the following approach is advisable: the higher efficiency of production and a repair service itself, the higher the innovative attractiveness of an industrial enterprise. The results of the calculations show that in order to prevent inefficient losses of production and to reduce the repair costs, it is advisable to apply the reliability theory. The overall reliability rating calculated on the basis of the author's algorithm has low values. The processing of the statistical data forms the reliability characteristics for the different workshops and services of an industrial enterprise, which allows one to define the failure rates of the various units of equipment and to establish the reliability indexes necessary for the subsequent mathematical simulation. The proposed simulating algorithm contributes to an increase of the efficiency of the repair service organization and improvement of the innovative attraction of an industrial enterprise.

  19. RSAM: An enhanced architecture for achieving web services reliability in mobile cloud computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr S. Abdelfattah

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the mobile landscape is coupled with the ubiquitous nature of the internet with its intermittent wireless connectivity and the web services. Achieving the web service reliability results in low communication overhead and retrieving the appropriate response. The middleware approach (MA is highly tended to achieve the web service reliability. This paper proposes a Reliable Service Architecture using Middleware (RSAM that achieves the reliable web services consumption. The enhanced architecture focuses on ensuring and tracking the request execution under the communication limitations and service temporal unavailability. It considers the most measurement factors including: request size, response size, and consuming time. We conducted experiments to compare the enhanced architecture with the traditional one. In these experiments, we covered several cases to prove the achievement of reliability. Results also show that the request size was found to be constant, the response size is identical to the traditional architecture, and the increase in the consuming time was less than 5% of the transaction time with the different response sizes. Keywords: Reliable web service, Middleware architecture, Mobile cloud computing

  20. Verification criteria on the reliability of personal dosimetric services from x and gamma radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borasi, G.; Benco, A.; Kaftal, S.

    1990-07-01

    The paper presents the methods used by Working Group ENEA-EDP (Experts in Personal Dosimetry) to control the reliability of the Dosimetric Services operating in Italy and asking for the above controls on voluntary basis. Testing and irradiation test methods are explained as well as the evaluation criteria. The paper includes suggestions and guide-lines to gain the status of 'Reliable Service'. Technical equipment and operating procedures needed to pass the test are also illustrated. (author)

  1. NDT reliability in the organizational context of service inspection companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holstein, Ralf; Bertovic, Marija; Kanzler, Daniel; Mueller, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The focus of NDT reliability research in the past was in the field of two high risk industries: (atomic) power plants and aircrafts. The responsible organizations have been well aware of the risks and founded projects to understand and optimize critical steps during production, operation and maintenance. But the use of NDT is not limited to these two fields. The risks during operation of chemical plants, trains or windmills are different from the area above but evident. The coverage by legal regulations is relatively low. Instead of this owner responsibility, product liability and financial issues are the driving forces to do inspections and to use non-destructive testing. The different targets and financial issues influence the practice of NDT-inspections. A survey of this practice and its results are shown. (orig.)

  2. Reliable execution based on CPN and skyline optimization for Web service composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liping; Ha, Weitao; Zhang, Guojun

    2013-01-01

    With development of SOA, the complex problem can be solved by combining available individual services and ordering them to best suit user's requirements. Web services composition is widely used in business environment. With the features of inherent autonomy and heterogeneity for component web services, it is difficult to predict the behavior of the overall composite service. Therefore, transactional properties and nonfunctional quality of service (QoS) properties are crucial for selecting the web services to take part in the composition. Transactional properties ensure reliability of composite Web service, and QoS properties can identify the best candidate web services from a set of functionally equivalent services. In this paper we define a Colored Petri Net (CPN) model which involves transactional properties of web services in the composition process. To ensure reliable and correct execution, unfolding processes of the CPN are followed. The execution of transactional composition Web service (TCWS) is formalized by CPN properties. To identify the best services of QoS properties from candidate service sets formed in the TCSW-CPN, we use skyline computation to retrieve dominant Web service. It can overcome that the reduction of individual scores to an overall similarity leads to significant information loss. We evaluate our approach experimentally using both real and synthetically generated datasets.

  3. 2 SDI, alliance coherence, and East-West nuclear stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodzie, E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear modernization programme, offensive and defensive, now being implemented or seriously proposed by the Western nuclear states and the Soviet Union pose critical problems for the stability of the European and global nuclear balance. The Reagan administration's Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) and the dramatic growth of British and French nuclear capabilities add new strains on the arms race now underway between the superpowers. Current and emerging instabilities must be addressed promptly along a broad political front, within and outside the framework of the Atlantic Alliance, before they further split the alliance and damage efforts---principally those being pursued at Geneva in the superpower arms control talks---to manage the nuclear balance and the conflicts that divide the two blocs in Europe and elsewhere. The first part of this paper diagnoses the disturbing elements of the evolving nuclear environment which promotes instability. The second suggests an approach -- complex bilateralism -- that might be employed to bring these destabilizing trends under control to promote the development of more coherent, cohesive, and mutually confident alliance strategic policies than exist today and to enhance East-West stability

  4. A Fast Optimization Method for Reliability and Performance of Cloud Services Composition Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available At present the cloud computing is one of the newest trends of distributed computation, which is propelling another important revolution of software industry. The cloud services composition is one of the key techniques in software development. The optimization for reliability and performance of cloud services composition application, which is a typical stochastic optimization problem, is confronted with severe challenges due to its randomness and long transaction, as well as the characteristics of the cloud computing resources such as openness and dynamic. The traditional reliability and performance optimization techniques, for example, Markov model and state space analysis and so forth, have some defects such as being too time consuming and easy to cause state space explosion and unsatisfied the assumptions of component execution independence. To overcome these defects, we propose a fast optimization method for reliability and performance of cloud services composition application based on universal generating function and genetic algorithm in this paper. At first, a reliability and performance model for cloud service composition application based on the multiple state system theory is presented. Then the reliability and performance definition based on universal generating function is proposed. Based on this, a fast reliability and performance optimization algorithm is presented. In the end, the illustrative examples are given.

  5. SDI and Markov Chains for Regional Drought Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Feng Yeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, global climate change has altered precipitation patterns, causing uneven spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation that gradually induces precipitation polarization phenomena. Taiwan is located in the subtropical climate zone, with distinct wet and dry seasons, which makes the polarization phenomenon more obvious; this has also led to a large difference between river flows during the wet and dry seasons, which is significantly influenced by precipitation, resulting in hydrological drought. Therefore, to effectively address the growing issue of water shortages, it is necessary to explore and assess the drought characteristics of river systems. In this study, the drought characteristics of northern Taiwan were studied using the streamflow drought index (SDI and Markov chains. Analysis results showed that the year 2002 was a turning point for drought severity in both the Lanyang River and Yilan River basins; the severity of rain events in the Lanyang River basin increased after 2002, and the severity of drought events in the Yilan River basin exhibited a gradual upward trend. In the study of drought severity, analysis results from periods of three months (November to January and six months (November to April have shown significant drought characteristics. In addition, analysis of drought occurrence probabilities using the method of Markov chains has shown that the occurrence probabilities of drought events are higher in the Lanyang River basin than in the Yilan River basin; particularly for extreme events, the occurrence probability of an extreme drought event is 20.6% during the dry season (November to April in the Lanyang River basin, and 3.4% in the Yilan River basin. This study shows that for analysis of drought/wet occurrence probabilities, the results obtained for the drought frequency and occurrence probability using short-term data with the method of Markov chains can be used to predict the long-term occurrence

  6. Improving Reliability of Service Operation Using FMEA Review and New Opportunity for Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutrisno, Agung; Gunawan, Indra

    2016-01-01

    Despite its growing contribution to the global economy, investigation on the application status of service FMEA study to support realization of reliable service operation is very limited in literature. Motivated by such situation, the paper presented an initial survey on the status and research gaps in developing and applying FMEA in service sectors. Systematic preliminary survey using specific criteria are undertaken. Our study indicated that development and application of service FMEA are partially addressing the characteristics of service operations and it is still applied into the good deed and profit oriented operations. Opportunities for further investigation pertaining to advancement of its decision supporting tool for service risk appraisal, its modification to cope with sustainability related requirements and application of service FMEA in not for profit oriented operations are presented as new avenues for further investigation

  7. Reliability of piping system components. Framework for estimating failure parameters from service data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, R.; Hegedus, D.; Tomic, B.; Lydell, B.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from the final phase of a R and D project on piping reliability sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The technical scope includes the development of an analysis framework for estimating piping reliability parameters from service data. The R and D has produced a large database on the operating experience with piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide. It covers the period 1970 to the present. The scope of the work emphasized pipe failures (i.e., flaws/cracks, leaks and ruptures) in light water reactors (LWRs). Pipe failures are rare events. A data reduction format was developed to ensure that homogenous data sets are prepared from scarce service data. This data reduction format distinguishes between reliability attributes and reliability influence factors. The quantitative results of the analysis of service data are in the form of conditional probabilities of pipe rupture given failures (flaws/cracks, leaks or ruptures) and frequencies of pipe failures. Finally, the R and D by SKI produced an analysis framework in support of practical applications of service data in PSA. This, multi-purpose framework, termed 'PFCA'-Pipe Failure Cause and Attribute- defines minimum requirements on piping reliability analysis. The application of service data should reflect the requirements of an application. Together with raw data summaries, this analysis framework enables the development of a prior and a posterior pipe rupture probability distribution. The framework supports LOCA frequency estimation, steam line break frequency estimation, as well as the development of strategies for optimized in-service inspection strategies

  8. Reliability of piping system components. Framework for estimating failure parameters from service data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyman, R [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hegedus, D; Tomic, B [ENCONET Consulting GesmbH, Vienna (Austria); Lydell, B [RSA Technologies, Vista, CA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes results and insights from the final phase of a R and D project on piping reliability sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI). The technical scope includes the development of an analysis framework for estimating piping reliability parameters from service data. The R and D has produced a large database on the operating experience with piping systems in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide. It covers the period 1970 to the present. The scope of the work emphasized pipe failures (i.e., flaws/cracks, leaks and ruptures) in light water reactors (LWRs). Pipe failures are rare events. A data reduction format was developed to ensure that homogenous data sets are prepared from scarce service data. This data reduction format distinguishes between reliability attributes and reliability influence factors. The quantitative results of the analysis of service data are in the form of conditional probabilities of pipe rupture given failures (flaws/cracks, leaks or ruptures) and frequencies of pipe failures. Finally, the R and D by SKI produced an analysis framework in support of practical applications of service data in PSA. This, multi-purpose framework, termed `PFCA`-Pipe Failure Cause and Attribute- defines minimum requirements on piping reliability analysis. The application of service data should reflect the requirements of an application. Together with raw data summaries, this analysis framework enables the development of a prior and a posterior pipe rupture probability distribution. The framework supports LOCA frequency estimation, steam line break frequency estimation, as well as the development of strategies for optimized in-service inspection strategies. 63 refs, 30 tabs, 22 figs.

  9. Estimated Value of Service Reliability for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Mercurio, Matthew; Schellenberg, Josh

    2009-06-01

    Information on the value of reliable electricity service can be used to assess the economic efficiency of investments in generation, transmission and distribution systems, to strategically target investments to customer segments that receive the most benefit from system improvements, and to numerically quantify the risk associated with different operating, planning and investment strategies. This paper summarizes research designed to provide estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the US. These estimates were obtained by analyzing the results from 28 customer value of service reliability studies conducted by 10 major US electric utilities over the 16 year period from 1989 to 2005. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-database describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the US for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. Estimated interruption costs for different types of customers and of different duration are provided. Finally, additional research and development designed to expand the usefulness of this powerful database and analysis are suggested.

  10. Reliability assessment of serviceability performance of braced retaining walls using a neural network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, A. T. C.; Kulhawy, F. H.

    2005-05-01

    In urban environments, one major concern with deep excavations in soft clay is the potentially large ground deformations in and around the excavation. Excessive movements can damage adjacent buildings and utilities. There are many uncertainties associated with the calculation of the ultimate or serviceability performance of a braced excavation system. These include the variabilities of the loadings, geotechnical soil properties, and engineering and geometrical properties of the wall. A risk-based approach to serviceability performance failure is necessary to incorporate systematically the uncertainties associated with the various design parameters. This paper demonstrates the use of an integrated neural network-reliability method to assess the risk of serviceability failure through the calculation of the reliability index. By first performing a series of parametric studies using the finite element method and then approximating the non-linear limit state surface (the boundary separating the safe and failure domains) through a neural network model, the reliability index can be determined with the aid of a spreadsheet. Two illustrative examples are presented to show how the serviceability performance for braced excavation problems can be assessed using the reliability index.

  11. Toward Real-time Multi-criteria Decision Making for Bus Service Reliability Optimisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Vu The; Eklund, Peter; Cook, Chris

    2015-01-01

    factors (such as traffic congestion and bad weather) in high frequency transit operations often cause irregular headway that can result in decreased service reliability. The approach proposed in this paper, which has the capability of handling the uncertainty of transit operations based on Multi...

  12. Reliability and Validity of SERVQUAL Scores Used To Evaluate Perceptions of Library Service Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Colleen

    Research libraries are increasingly supplementing collection counts with perceptions of service quality as indices of status and productivity. The present study was undertaken to explore the reliability and validity of scores from the SERVQUAL measurement protocol (A. Parasuraman and others, 1991), which has previously been used in this type of…

  13. Beliefs concerning the reliability of nuclear power plant in-service inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kettunen, J.

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate belief systems held by the officials responsible for the planning and supervision of NDT operations within the Finnish nuclear industry. They were asked to express their opinions on (1) the reliability of NDT methods in general, (2) the factors influencing the reliability of in-service inspections, and (3) the degree of reliability of the current inspections operations conducted by means of NDT methods in the Finnish nuclear power plants. Another goal of the study was to assess the adequacy of officials' beliefs (or belief systems). The research data was collected by interviewing representatives from Finnish power companies (Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy), independent inspection organisations, and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). The adequacy of the beliefs expressed was assessed by means of the results obtained from international NDT reliability studies and on the basis of interviewees' own justification. (refs.)

  14. Reliability Evaluation of Service-Oriented Architecture Systems Considering Fault-Tolerance Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Li Peng

    2014-01-01

    strategies. Sensitivity analysis of SOA at both coarse and fine grain levels is also studied, which can be used to efficiently identify the critical parts within the system. Two SOA system scenarios based on real industrial practices are studied. Experimental results show that the proposed SOA model can be used to accurately depict the behavior of SOA systems. Additionally, a sensitivity analysis that quantizes the effects of system structure as well as fault tolerance on the overall reliability is also studied. On the whole, the proposed reliability modeling and analysis framework may help the SOA system service provider to evaluate the overall system reliability effectively and also make smarter improvement plans by focusing resources on enhancing reliability-sensitive parts within the system.

  15. Determination of Slake Durability Index (Sdi) Values on Different Shape of Laminated Marl Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankara, Hüseyin; Çiçek, Fatma; Talha Deniz, İsmail; Uçak, Emre; Yerel Kandemir, Süheyla

    2016-10-01

    The slake durability index (SDI) test is widely used to determine the disintegration characteristic of the weak and clay-bearing rocks in geo-engineering problems. However, due to the different shapes of sample pieces, such as, irregular shapes displayed mechanical breakages in the slaking process, the SDI test has some limitations that affect the index values. In addition, shape and surface roughness of laminated marl samples have a severe influence on the SDI. In this study, a new sample preparation method called Pasha Method was used to prepare spherical specimens from the laminated marl collected from Seyitomer collar (SLI). Moreover the SDI tests were performed on equal size and weight specimens: three sets with different shapes were used. The three different sets were prepared as the test samples which had sphere shape, parallel to the layers in irregular shape, and vertical to the layers in irregular shape. Index values were determined for the three different sets subjected to the SDI test for 4 cycles. The index values at the end of fourth cycle were found to be 98.43, 98.39 and 97.20 %, respectively. As seen, the index values of the sphere sample set were found to be higher than irregular sample sets.

  16. Beyond redundancy how geographic redundancy can improve service availability and reliability of computer-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric; Eustace, Dan

    2012-01-01

    "While geographic redundancy can obviously be a huge benefit for disaster recovery, it is far less obvious what benefit is feasible and likely for more typical non-catastrophic hardware, software, and human failures. Georedundancy and Service Availability provides both a theoretical and practical treatment of the feasible and likely benefits of geographic redundancy for both service availability and service reliability. The text provides network/system planners, IS/IT operations folks, system architects, system engineers, developers, testers, and other industry practitioners with a general discussion about the capital expense/operating expense tradeoff that frames system redundancy and georedundancy"--

  17. Modeling Message Queueing Services with Reliability Guarantee in Cloud Computing Environment Using Colored Petri Nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the need for loosely coupled and asynchronous dissemination of information, message queues are widely used in large-scale application areas. With the advent of virtualization technology, cloud-based message queueing services (CMQSs with distributed computing and storage are widely adopted to improve availability, scalability, and reliability; however, a critical issue is its performance and the quality of service (QoS. While numerous approaches evaluating system performance are available, there is no modeling approach for estimating and analyzing the performance of CMQSs. In this paper, we employ both the analytical and simulation modeling to address the performance of CMQSs with reliability guarantee. We present a visibility-based modeling approach (VMA for simulation model using colored Petri nets (CPN. Our model incorporates the important features of message queueing services in the cloud such as replication, message consistency, resource virtualization, and especially the mechanism named visibility timeout which is adopted in the services to guarantee system reliability. Finally, we evaluate our model through different experiments under varied scenarios to obtain important performance metrics such as total message delivery time, waiting number, and components utilization. Our results reveal considerable insights into resource scheduling and system configuration for service providers to estimate and gain performance optimization.

  18. The computer vision in the service of safety and reliability in steam generators inspection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro Fernandez, P.; Garcia Bueno, A.; Cabrera Jordan, E.

    2012-01-01

    The actual computational vision has matured very quickly in the last ten years by facilitating new developments in various areas of nuclear application allowing to automate and simplify processes and tasks, instead or in collaboration with the people and equipment efficiently. The current computer vision (more appropriate than the artificial vision concept) provides great possibilities of also improving in terms of the reliability and safety of NPPS inspection systems.

  19. Assessing rural small community water supply in Limpopo, South Africa: water service benchmarks and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majuru, Batsirai; Jagals, Paul; Hunter, Paul R

    2012-10-01

    Although a number of studies have reported on water supply improvements, few have simultaneously taken into account the reliability of the water services. The study aimed to assess whether upgrading water supply systems in small rural communities improved access, availability and potability of water by assessing the water services against selected benchmarks from the World Health Organisation and South African Department of Water Affairs, and to determine the impact of unreliability on the services. These benchmarks were applied in three rural communities in Limpopo, South Africa where rudimentary water supply services were being upgraded to basic services. Data were collected through structured interviews, observations and measurement, and multi-level linear regression models were used to assess the impact of water service upgrades on key outcome measures of distance to source, daily per capita water quantity and Escherichia coli count. When the basic system was operational, 72% of households met the minimum benchmarks for distance and water quantity, but only 8% met both enhanced benchmarks. During non-operational periods of the basic service, daily per capita water consumption decreased by 5.19l (pwater sources were 639 m further (p ≤ 0.001, 95% CI 560-718). Although both rudimentary and basic systems delivered water that met potability criteria at the sources, the quality of stored water sampled in the home was still unacceptable throughout the various service levels. These results show that basic water services can make substantial improvements to water access, availability, potability, but only if such services are reliable. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Design of a Corporate SDI in Power Sector Using a Formal Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Italo L. Oliveira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Geospatial data are essential for the decision-making process. However, obtaining and keeping such data up to date usually require much time and many financial resources. In order to minimize the production costs and incentivize sharing these data, countries are promoting the implementation of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDI at the different public administration levels. The International Cartographic Association (ICA proposes a formal model that describes the main concepts of an SDI based on three of the five viewpoints of the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP. Afterwards, researchers extended ICA’s model to describe, more properly, the actors, hierarchical relationship and interactions related to the policies that drive an SDI. However, the proposed extensions are semantically inconsistent with the original proposal. Moreover, the use of ICA’s formal model and its extensions has not been assessed yet to specify a corporate-level SDI. This study describes the merger of actors and policies proposed by the ICA and its extensions in order to eliminate differences in the semantics or terminology among them. This unified model was applied to specify a corporate SDI for a large Brazilian corporation, the Minas Gerais Power Company (Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (Cemig, which is comprised of about 200 companies in the power sector. The case study presents part of the specification of the five RM-ODP viewpoints, i.e., the three viewpoints featured in ICA’s formal model (Enterprise, Information, and Computation and the other two viewpoints that make up the RM-ODP (Engineering and Technology. The adapted ICA’s model proved adequate to describe SDI-Cemig. In addition, the case study may serve as an example of the specification and implementation of new SDIs, not only corporate ones, but also of public agencies at any hierarchical level.

  1. A Scalable and Reliable Message Transport Service for the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition System

    CERN Document Server

    Kazarov, A; The ATLAS collaboration; Kolos, S; Lehmann Miotto, G; Soloviev, I

    2014-01-01

    The ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) is a large distributed computing system composed of several thousands of interconnected computers and tens of thousands applications. During a run, TDAQ applications produce a lot of control and information messages with variable rates, addressed to TDAQ operators or to other applications. Reliable, fast and accurate delivery of the messages is important for the functioning of the whole TDAQ system. The Message Transport Service (MTS) provides facilities for the reliable transport, the filtering and the routing of the messages, basing on publish-subscribe-notify communication pattern with content-based message filtering. During the ongoing LHC shutdown, the MTS was re-implemented, taking into account important requirements like reliability, scalability and performance, handling of slow subscribers case and also simplicity of the design and the implementation. MTS uses CORBA middleware, a common layer for TDAQ infrastructure, and provides sending/subscribing APIs i...

  2. Evaluating a public sector organisation for SDI readiness – the case of a South African government department

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hlela, S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available within the Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) by describing DEA’s contribution to the South African SDI objectives and by assessing DEA’s SDI readiness.The qualitative method was used to collect data. The techniques used in this research were...

  3. Analysis and Optimization of Sparse Random Linear Network Coding for Reliable Multicast Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tassi, Andrea; Chatzigeorgiou, Ioannis; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2016-01-01

    Point-to-multipoint communications are expected to play a pivotal role in next-generation networks. This paper refers to a cellular system transmitting layered multicast services to a multicast group of users. Reliability of communications is ensured via different random linear network coding (RLNC......) techniques. We deal with a fundamental problem: the computational complexity of the RLNC decoder. The higher the number of decoding operations is, the more the user's computational overhead grows and, consequently, the faster the battery of mobile devices drains. By referring to several sparse RLNC...... techniques, and without any assumption on the implementation of the RLNC decoder in use, we provide an efficient way to characterize the performance of users targeted by ultra-reliable layered multicast services. The proposed modeling allows to efficiently derive the average number of coded packet...

  4. Sigma: computer vision in the service of safety and reliability in the inspection services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pineiro, P. J.; Mendez, M.; Garcia, A.; Cabrera, E.; Regidor, J. J.

    2012-01-01

    Vision Computing is growing very fast in the last decade with very efficient tools and algorithms. This allows new development of applications in the nuclear field providing more efficient equipment and tasks: redundant systems, vision-guided mobile robots, automated visual defects recognition, measurement, etc., In this paper Tecnatom describes a detailed example of visual computing application developed to provide secure redundant identification of the thousands of tubes existing in a power plant steam generator. some other on-going or planned visual computing projects by Tecnatom are also introduced. New possibilities of application in the inspection systems for nuclear components appear where the main objective is to maximize their reliability. (Author) 6 refs.

  5. Social Development in Hong Kong: Development Issues Identified by Social Development Index (SDI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Hoi-wai; Wong, Anthony K. W.; Shek, Daniel T. L.

    2010-01-01

    Surviving the aftermaths of the Asian Financial Crisis and SARS in 2003, Hong Kong's economy has re-gained its momentum and its economic growth has been quite remarkable too in recent few years. Nevertheless, as reflected by the Social Development Index (SDI), economic growth in Hong Kong does not seem to have benefited the people of the city at…

  6. Full utilization of silt density index (SDI) measurements for seawater pre-treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Laborie, Sté phanie; Ben Aï m, Roger M.; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    according to the standard protocol for SDI measurement, in which two kinds of 0.45μm membranes of different material and seawater samples from the Mediterranean including raw seawater and seawater pre-treated by coagulation followed by sand filtration (CSF

  7. Reliability-based service life assessment of concrete structures in nuclear power plants: optimum inspection and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Research is being conducted to address aging management of safety-related reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Documentation is being prepared to identify potential structural safety issues and to recommend criteria for use in evaluating reinforced concrete structures for continued service. Time-dependent reliability analysis provides the framework and quantitative tools for the condition assessment. The role of in-service inspection and repair in ensuring continued reliability in-service is examined. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs

  8. Flexible, Secure, and Reliable Data Sharing Service Based on Collaboration in Multicloud Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the abundant storage resources and high reliability data service of cloud computing, more individuals and enterprises are motivated to outsource their data to public cloud platform and enable legal data users to search and download what they need in the outsourced dataset. However, in “Paid Data Sharing” model, some valuable data should be encrypted before outsourcing for protecting owner’s economic benefits, which is an obstacle for flexible application. Specifically, if the owner does not know who (user will download which data files in advance and even does not know the attributes of user, he/she has to either remain online all the time or import a trusted third party (TTP to distribute the file decryption key to data user. Obviously, making the owner always remain online is too inflexible, and wholly depending on the security of TTP is a potential risk. In this paper, we propose a flexible, secure, and reliable data sharing scheme based on collaboration in multicloud environment. For securely and instantly providing data sharing service even if the owner is offline and without TTP, we distribute all encrypted split data/key blocks together to multiple cloud service providers (CSPs, respectively. An elaborate cryptographic protocol we designed helps the owner verify the correctness of data exchange bills, which is directly related to the owner’s economic benefits. Besides, in order to support reliable data service, the erasure-correcting code technic is exploited for tolerating multiple failures among CSPs, and we offer a secure keyword search mechanism that makes the system more close to reality. Extensive security analyses and experiments on real-world data show that our scheme is secure and efficient.

  9. Treatment with the Self-Discovery Camp (SDiC) improves Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Hiroshi; Mihara, Satoko; Nakayama, Hideki; Miura, Kumiko; Kitayuguchi, Takashi; Maezono, Masaki; Hashimoto, Takuma; Higuchi, Susumu

    2017-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a novel behavioral addiction that influences the physical, mental, and social aspects of health due to excessive Internet gaming. One type of intensive treatment for IGD is the therapeutic residential camp (TRC), which comprises many types of therapies, including psychotherapy, psychoeducational therapy, and cognitive behavioral therapy. The TRC was developed in South Korea and has been administered to many patients with IGD; however, its efficacy in other countries remains unknown. We investigated the efficacy of the Self-Discovery Camp (SDiC), a Japanese version of a TRC, and the correlations between individual characteristics and outcome measures. We recruited 10 patients with IGD (all male, mean age=16.2years, diagnosed using the DSM-5) to spend 8 nights and 9days at the SDiC. We measured gaming time as well as self-efficacy (using the Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale, a measure of therapeutic motivation and problem recognition). Total gaming time was significantly lower 3months after the SDiC. Problem recognition and self-efficacy towards positive change also improved. Furthermore, there was a correlation between age of onset and problem recognition score. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of the SDiC for IGD, especially regarding gaming time and self-efficacy. Additionally, age of onset may be a useful predictor of IGD prognosis. Further studies with larger sample sizes and control groups, and that target long-term outcomes, are needed to extend our understanding of SDiC efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability of buildings in service limit state for maximum horizontal displacements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. B. Corelhano

    Full Text Available Brazilian design code ABNT NBR6118:2003 - Design of Concrete Structures - Procedures - [1] proposes the use of simplified models for the consideration of non-linear material behavior in the evaluation of horizontal displacements in buildings. These models penalize stiffness of columns and beams, representing the effects of concrete cracking and avoiding costly physical non-linear analyses. The objectives of the present paper are to investigate the accuracy and uncertainty of these simplified models, as well as to evaluate the reliabilities of structures designed following ABNT NBR6118:2003[1&] in the service limit state for horizontal displacements. Model error statistics are obtained from 42 representative plane frames. The reliabilities of three typical (4, 8 and 12 floor buildings are evaluated, using the simplified models and a rigorous, physical and geometrical non-linear analysis. Results show that the 70/70 (column/beam stiffness reduction model is more accurate and less conservative than the 80/40 model. Results also show that ABNT NBR6118:2003 [1] design criteria for horizontal displacement limit states (masonry damage according to ACI 435.3R-68(1984 [10] are conservative, and result in reliability indexes which are larger than those recommended in EUROCODE [2] for irreversible service limit states.

  11. Reliability assessment of hydraulic cylinders considering service loads and flaw distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altamura, Alessandra; Beretta, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Manufacturing process, service conditions and material properties are all necessary requirements to a good design of tubular mechanical components subjected to fatigue. The most common approach to this design is usually deterministic, where a fixed NDT threshold, related to flaw acceptance limit, is set. However many uncertainties are left aside, i.e. the failure probability related to the fatigue strength under applied loads. This paper addresses the reliability evaluation of tubular mechanical components carrying some flaws and subjected to cyclic internal pressure variation. The aim is comparing the probability of failure obtained under several assumptions. A reliability assessment model, based on a random variable approach, has been implemented by using the Monte Carlo method. The analysis of the results, from a case study based on load spectra measurements of hydraulic cylinders of earth moving machines, has consented to evaluate the most important factors influencing the fatigue life prediction of these components. Highlights: ► Reliability evaluation of tubular components subjected to variable internal pressure. ► The dispersion of the threshold controls the stochasticity of crack growth. ► A random variable model has been developed using Monte Carlo. ► Initial crack size and spectrum shape are key factors in reliability evaluation.

  12. ExpI and PhzI are descendants of the long lost cognate signal synthase for SdiA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anice Sabag-Daigle

    Full Text Available SdiA of E. coli and Salmonella is a LuxR homolog that detects N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs. Most LuxR homologs function together with a cognate AHL synthase (a LuxI homolog, but SdiA does not. Instead, SdiA detects AHLs produced by other bacterial species. In this report, we performed a phylogenetic analysis of SdiA. The results suggest that one branch of the Enterobacteriaceae obtained a rhlR/rhlI pair by horizontal transfer. The Erwinia and Pantoea branches still contain the complete pair where it is known as expR/expI and phzR/phzI, respectively. A deletion event removed the luxI homolog from the remainder of the group, leaving just the luxR homolog known as sdiA. Thus ExpR and PhzR are SdiA orthologs and ExpI and PhzI are descendants of the long lost cognate signal synthase of SdiA.

  13. Implementing eco friendly highly reliable upload feature using multi 3G service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanutama, Lukas; Wijaya, Rico

    2017-12-01

    The current trend of eco friendly Internet access is preferred. In this research the understanding of eco friendly is minimum power consumption. The devices that are selected have operationally low power consumption and normally have no power consumption as they are hibernating during idle state. To have the reliability a router of a router that has internal load balancing feature will provide the improvement of previous research on multi 3G services for broadband lines. Previous studies emphasized on accessing and downloading information files from Public Cloud residing Web Servers. The demand is not only for speed but high reliability of access as well. High reliability will mean mitigating both direct and indirect high cost due to repeated attempts of uploading and downloading the large files. Nomadic and mobile computer users need viable solution. Following solution for downloading information has been proposed and tested. The solution is promising. The result is now extended to providing reliable access line by means of redundancy and automatic reconfiguration for uploading and downloading large information files to a Web Server in the Cloud. The technique is taking advantage of internal load balancing feature to provision a redundant line acting as a backup line. A router that has the ability to provide load balancing to several WAN lines is chosen. The WAN lines are constructed using multiple 3G lines. The router supports the accessing Internet with more than one 3G access line which increases the reliability and availability of the Internet access as the second line immediately takes over if the first line is disturbed.

  14. Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by a 300-MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutan, Clyde; Klauer, Peter; Chowdhury, Sirajul; Hall, Stephen; Morjaria, Mahesh; Chadliev, Vladimir; Milam, Nick; Milan, Christopher; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-03-24

    The California Independent System Operator (CAISO), First Solar, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a demonstration project on a large utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant in California to test its ability to provide essential ancillary services to the electric grid. With increasing shares of solar- and wind-generated energy on the electric grid, traditional generation resources equipped with automatic governor control (AGC) and automatic voltage regulation controls -- specifically, fossil thermal -- are being displaced. The deployment of utility-scale, grid-friendly PV power plants that incorporate advanced capabilities to support grid stability and reliability is essential for the large-scale integration of PV generation into the electric power grid, among other technical requirements. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, PV power plants can be used to mitigate the impact of variability on the grid, a role typically reserved for conventional generators. In August 2016, testing was completed on First Solar's 300-MW PV power plant, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to use grid-friendly controls to provide essential reliability services. These data showed how the development of advanced power controls can enable PV to become a provider of a wide range of grid services, including spinning reserves, load following, voltage support, ramping, frequency response, variability smoothing, and frequency regulation to power quality. Specifically, the tests conducted included various forms of active power control such as AGC and frequency regulation; droop response; and reactive power, voltage, and power factor controls. This project demonstrated that advanced power electronics and solar generation can be

  15. Reliability constrained decision model for energy service provider incorporating demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboubi-Moghaddam, Esmaeil; Nayeripour, Majid; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation of Energy Service Providers (ESPs) in electricity markets is modeled. • Demand response as the cost-effective solution is used for energy service provider. • The market price uncertainty is modeled using the robust optimization technique. • The reliability of the distribution network is embedded into the framework. • The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of robust framework for ESPs. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) programs are becoming a critical concept for the efficiency of current electric power industries. Therefore, its various capabilities and barriers have to be investigated. In this paper, an effective decision model is presented for the strategic behavior of energy service providers (ESPs) to demonstrate how to participate in the day-ahead electricity market and how to allocate demand in the smart distribution network. Since market price affects DR and vice versa, a new two-step sequential framework is proposed, in which unit commitment problem (UC) is solved to forecast the expected locational marginal prices (LMPs), and successively DR program is applied to optimize the total cost of providing energy for the distribution network customers. This total cost includes the cost of purchased power from the market and distributed generation (DG) units, incentive cost paid to the customers, and compensation cost of power interruptions. To obtain compensation cost, the reliability evaluation of the distribution network is embedded into the framework using some innovative constraints. Furthermore, to consider the unexpected behaviors of the other market participants, the LMP prices are modeled as the uncertainty parameters using the robust optimization technique, which is more practical compared to the conventional stochastic approach. The simulation results demonstrate the significant benefits of the presented framework for the strategic performance of ESPs.

  16. In-service inspection as an aid to steel pressure vessel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    In-service inspection has played an important role in non-nuclear pressure vessel technology, being a legal requirement in many countries. Evidence from surveys of reliability of non-nuclear plant has suggested that such inspections can be effective in reducing the risk of subsequent failures. Recent requirements of the ASME XI code which will be summarised have important implications on the techniques to be used for in-service inspection, and so on design and fabrication aspects. Moreover, in-service inspection can only be an effective procedure if its possible weaknesses are recognised. The first problem is to ensure that an ultrasonic technique is used which is capable of detecting defects of an order of magnitude smaller than the critical size for each particular situation, in whatever defect orientation is important. The potential of different ultrasonic techniques will be compared. Next it is necessary to ensure coverage of all the relevant material. In this respect machine operation is superior to manual scanning, so that manipulation and scanning devices have to be developed. Problems of local geometry and of deviations in geometry have to be discussed with designer and fabricator; plate and clad quality have to be controlled (with respect to surface contour, metallurgical condition and freedom from interfering defects) to ensure inspectability in depth. The reliability of the mechanical and electronic equipment has to be assessed and designed to meet high requirements. Some presentational aids to detection and interpretation will be discussed. Having located a potential defect, the application of fracture mechanics treatments requires knowledge of size, shape and orientation. Some of the problems will be discussed together with possible solutions. (author)

  17. Contribution to the study of aerosol aerodynamic behaviour - development of a diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diouri, M.

    1987-09-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of cascade impactor and particle diffusion on granular beds was carried out. It resulted in the development of a diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2000) covering a large particle size range (0.0075 - 15 μm). The second part of the study is devoted to an overview on data reduction and to a comparative study of linear, non-linear and simulation inversion methods adapted to cascade impactors. The inversion problem for SDI 2000 was solved. Finally, the particle size distributions of Diesel exhausts was determined. The possibility to characterize a radioactive aerosol with SDI 20000 was demonstrated, and the results of dust sampling with SDI 2000 inside the JET vessel (Joint European Torus) are presented [fr

  18. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  19. PROVIDING GEOGRAPHIC DATASETS AS LINKED DATA IN SDI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hietanen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a prototype service to provide data from Web Feature Service (WFS as linked data is implemented. At first, persistent and unique Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI are created to all spatial objects in the dataset. The objects are available from those URIs in Resource Description Framework (RDF data format. Next, a Web Ontology Language (OWL ontology is created to describe the dataset information content using the Open Geospatial Consortium’s (OGC GeoSPARQL vocabulary. The existing data model is modified in order to take into account the linked data principles. The implemented service produces an HTTP response dynamically. The data for the response is first fetched from existing WFS. Then the Geographic Markup Language (GML format output of the WFS is transformed on-the-fly to the RDF format. Content Negotiation is used to serve the data in different RDF serialization formats. This solution facilitates the use of a dataset in different applications without replicating the whole dataset. In addition, individual spatial objects in the dataset can be referred with URIs. Furthermore, the needed information content of the objects can be easily extracted from the RDF serializations available from those URIs. A solution for linking data objects to the dataset URI is also introduced by using the Vocabulary of Interlinked Datasets (VoID. The dataset is divided to the subsets and each subset is given its persistent and unique URI. This enables the whole dataset to be explored with a web browser and all individual objects to be indexed by search engines.

  20. The Role of Congress in the Strategic Posture of the United States, 1980-1990: Force Modernization and SDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    for the program was a fiction. The senator “salute[d] the Commission for shooting down essentially the ‘window of vulnerability’ bugaboo that has...this is a formidable technical task. …But isn’t it worth every investment necessary to free the world from the threat of nuclear war? We know...the first five years of the SDI, Congress regularly halved administration funding requests for SDI, reducing investment in the program from $28

  1. Reliability and validity of the workplace harassment questionnaire for Korean finance and service workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeongjun; Kim, Hyunjung; Shin, Donghee; Lee, Sangyun

    2016-01-01

    Harassment means systemic and repeated unethical acts. Research on workplace harassment have been conducted widely and the NAQ-R has been widely used for the researches. But this tool, however the limitations in revealing differended in sub-factors depending on the culture and in reflecting that unique characteristics of the Koren society. So, The workplace harassment questionnaire for Korean finace and service workers has been developed to assess the level of personal harassment at work. This study aims to develop a tool to assess the level of personal harassment at work and to test its validity and reliability while examining specific characteristics of workplace harassment against finance and service workers in Korea. The framework of survey was established based on literature review, focused-group interview for the Korean finance and service workers. To verify its reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated; and to verify its validity, items and factors of the tool were analyzed. The correlation matrix analysis was examined to verify the tool's convergent validity and discriminant validity. Structural validity was verified by checking statistical significance in relation to the BDI-K. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of this survey was 0.93, which indicates a quite high level of reliability. To verify the appropriateness of this survey tool, its construct validity was examined through factor analysis. As a result of the factor analysis, 3 factors were extracted, explaining 56.5 % of the total variance. The loading values and communalities of the 20 items were 0.85 to 0.48 and 0.71 to 0.46. The convergent validity and discriminant validity were analyzed and rate of item discriminant validity was 100 %. Finally, for the concurrent validity, We examined the relationship between the WHI-KFSW and pschosocial stress by examining the correlation with the BDI-K. The results of chi-square test and multiple logistic analysis indicated that the correlation with

  2. Evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination (NDE) reliability for in-service inspection of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffenbaugh, J.D.; Good, M.S.; Green, E.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation and improvement of NDE Reliability for In-service Inspection (ISI) of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was established to determine the reliability of current ISI techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this NRC program are to: determine the reliability of ultrasonic ISI performed on commercial light-water reactor (LWR) primary systems; determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety and determine the level of inspection reliability required to ensure a suitably low failure probability using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis; evaluate the degree of reliability improvement that could be achieved using improved and advanced NDE technique; and recommend revisions to ASME Code, Section XI, and Regulatory Requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties, that will ensure suitably low failure probabilities. The program consists of three basic tasks: a Piping task, a Pressure Vessel task, and an Evaluation and Improvement in NDE Reliability task. The major efforts were concentrated in the Piping task and the Evaluation and Improvement in NDE Reliability task

  3. Serviceability design load factors and reliability assessments for reinforced concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bong Koo

    1998-01-01

    A reinforced concrete nuclear power plant containment structure is subjected to various random static and stochastic loads during its lifetime. Since these loads involve inherent randomness and other uncertainties, an appropriate probabilistic model for each load must be established in order to perform reliability analysis. The current ASME code for reinforced concrete containment structures are not based on probability concepts. The stochastic nature of natural hazard or accidental loads and the variations of material properties require a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. The paper develops probability-based load factors for the limit state design of reinforced concrete containment structures. The purpose of constructing reinforced concrete containment structure is to protect against radioactive release, and so the use of a serviceability limit state against crack failure that can cause the emission of radioactive materials is suggested as a critical limit state for reinforced concrete containment structures. Load factors for the design of reinforced concrete containment structures are proposed and carried out the reliability assessments. (orig.)

  4. Updated Value of Service Reliability Estimates for Electric Utility Customers in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schellenberg, Josh [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Blundell, Marshall [Nexant Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This report updates the 2009 meta-analysis that provides estimates of the value of service reliability for electricity customers in the United States (U.S.). The meta-dataset now includes 34 different datasets from surveys fielded by 10 different utility companies between 1989 and 2012. Because these studies used nearly identical interruption cost estimation or willingness-to-pay/accept methods, it was possible to integrate their results into a single meta-dataset describing the value of electric service reliability observed in all of them. Once the datasets from the various studies were combined, a two-part regression model was used to estimate customer damage functions that can be generally applied to calculate customer interruption costs per event by season, time of day, day of week, and geographical regions within the U.S. for industrial, commercial, and residential customers. This report focuses on the backwards stepwise selection process that was used to develop the final revised model for all customer classes. Across customer classes, the revised customer interruption cost model has improved significantly because it incorporates more data and does not include the many extraneous variables that were in the original specification from the 2009 meta-analysis. The backwards stepwise selection process led to a more parsimonious model that only included key variables, while still achieving comparable out-of-sample predictive performance. In turn, users of interruption cost estimation tools such as the Interruption Cost Estimate (ICE) Calculator will have less customer characteristics information to provide and the associated inputs page will be far less cumbersome. The upcoming new version of the ICE Calculator is anticipated to be released in 2015.

  5. Economic and Nonproliferation Analysis Framework for Assessing Reliable Nuclear Fuel Service Arrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Jon R.; Kreyling, Sean J.; Short, Steven M.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power is now broadly recognized as an essential technology in national strategies to provide energy security while meeting carbon management goals. Yet a long standing conundrum remains: how to enable rapid growth in the global nuclear power infrastructure while controlling the spread of sensitive enrichment and reprocessing technologies that lie at the heart of nuclear fuel supply and nuclear weapons programs. Reducing the latent proliferation risk posed by a broader horizontal spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology has been a primary goal of national nuclear supplier policies since the beginning of the nuclear power age. Attempts to control the spread of sensitive nuclear technology have been the subject of numerous initiatives in the intervening decades sometimes taking the form of calls to develop fuel supply and service assurances to reduce market pull to increase the number of states with fuel cycle capabilities. A clear understanding of what characteristics of specific reliable nuclear fuel service (RNFS) and supply arrangements qualify them as 'attractive offers' is critical to the success of current and future efforts. At a minimum, RNFS arrangements should provide economic value to all participants and help reduce latent proliferation risks posed by the global expansion of nuclear power. In order to inform the technical debate and the development of policy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has been developing an analytical framework to evaluate the economics and nonproliferation merits of alternative approaches to RNFS arrangements. This paper provides a brief overview of the economic analysis framework developed and applied to a model problem of current interest: full-service nuclear fuel leasing arrangements. Furthermore, this paper presents an extended outline of a proposed analysis approach to evaluate the non-proliferation merits of various RNFS alternatives.

  6. Developing a Web-based system by integrating VGI and SDI for real estate management and marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salajegheh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Property importance of various aspects, especially the impact on various sectors of the economy and the country's macroeconomic is clear. Because of the real, multi-dimensional and heterogeneous nature of housing as a commodity, the lack of an integrated system includes comprehensive information of property, the lack of awareness of some actors in this field about comprehensive information about property and the lack of clear and comprehensive rules and regulations for the trading and pricing, several problems arise for the people involved in this field. In this research implementation of a crowd-sourced Web-based real estate support system is desired. Creating a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI in this system for collecting, updating and integrating all official data about property is also desired in this study. In this system a Web2.0 broker and technologies such as Web services and service composition has been used. This work aims to provide comprehensive and diverse information about property from different sources. For this purpose five-level real estate support system architecture is used. PostgreSql DBMS is used to implement the desired system. Geoserver software is also used as map server and reference implementation of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium standards. And Apache server is used to run web pages and user interfaces. Integration introduced methods and technologies provide a proper environment for various users to use the system and share their information. This goal is only achieved by cooperation between all involved organizations in real estate with implementation their required infrastructures in interoperability Web services format.

  7. Developing a Web-based system by integrating VGI and SDI for real estate management and marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajegheh, J.; Hakimpour, F.; Esmaeily, A.

    2014-10-01

    Property importance of various aspects, especially the impact on various sectors of the economy and the country's macroeconomic is clear. Because of the real, multi-dimensional and heterogeneous nature of housing as a commodity, the lack of an integrated system includes comprehensive information of property, the lack of awareness of some actors in this field about comprehensive information about property and the lack of clear and comprehensive rules and regulations for the trading and pricing, several problems arise for the people involved in this field. In this research implementation of a crowd-sourced Web-based real estate support system is desired. Creating a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) in this system for collecting, updating and integrating all official data about property is also desired in this study. In this system a Web2.0 broker and technologies such as Web services and service composition has been used. This work aims to provide comprehensive and diverse information about property from different sources. For this purpose five-level real estate support system architecture is used. PostgreSql DBMS is used to implement the desired system. Geoserver software is also used as map server and reference implementation of OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) standards. And Apache server is used to run web pages and user interfaces. Integration introduced methods and technologies provide a proper environment for various users to use the system and share their information. This goal is only achieved by cooperation between all involved organizations in real estate with implementation their required infrastructures in interoperability Web services format.

  8. [Validity and reliability of the Culture of Quality Health Services questionnaire in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Kiengelher, L; Zepeda-Zaragoza, J; Austria-Corrales, F; Vázquez-Zarate, V M

    2013-01-01

    Patient Safety is a major public health problem worldwide and is responsibility of all those involved in health care. Establishing a Safety Culture has proved to be a factor that favors the integration of work teams, communication and construction of clear procedures in various organizations. Promote a culture of safety depends on several factors, such as organization, work unit and staff. Objective assessment of these factors will help to identify areas for improvement and establish strategic lines of action. [corrected] To adapt, validate and calibrate the questionnaire Culture of Quality in Health Services (CQHS) in Mexican population. A cross with a stratified representative sample of 522 health workers. The questionnaire was translated and adapted from Singer's. Content was validated by experts, internal consistency, confirmatory factorial validity and item calibration with Samejima's Graded Response Model. Convergent and divergent construct validity was confirmed from the CQHS, item calibration showed that the questionnaire is able to discriminate between patients and represent different levels of the hypothesized dimensions with greater accuracy and lower standard error. The CQHS is a valid and reliable instrument to assess patient safety culture in hospitals in Mexico. Copyright © 2013 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Test-retest Reliability and Agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) Instrument in Two Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sund, Terje; Anttila, Heidi; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate test–retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs (...

  10. Why We Need Reliable, Valid, and Appropriate Learning Disability Assessments: The Perspective of a Postsecondary Disability Service Provider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolforth, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues regarding the validity and reliability of psychoeducational assessments provided to Disability Services Offices at Canadian Universities. Several vignettes illustrate some current issues and the potential consequences when university students are given less than thorough disability evaluations and ascribed diagnoses.…

  11. 76 FR 66328 - Callaway Golf Ball Operations, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Reliable Temp Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-80,110] Callaway Golf Ball... Golf Ball Operations, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Reliable Temp Services, Inc., and... production of golf balls. The notice was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2011 (76 FR 40401). At...

  12. Beliefs concerning the reliability of nuclear power plant in-service inspections; Uskomuksia ydinvoimalaitoksissa suoritettavien tarkastusten luotettavuudesta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, J. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate belief systems held by the officials responsible for the planning and supervision of NDT operations within the Finnish nuclear industry. They were asked to express their opinions on (1) the reliability of NDT methods in general, (2) the factors influencing the reliability of in-service inspections, and (3) the degree of reliability of the current inspections operations conducted by means of NDT methods in the Finnish nuclear power plants. Another goal of the study was to assess the adequacy of officials` beliefs (or belief systems). The research data was collected by interviewing representatives from Finnish power companies (Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy), independent inspection organisations, and the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK). The adequacy of the beliefs expressed was assessed by means of the results obtained from international NDT reliability studies and on the basis of interviewees` own justification. (refs.).

  13. SERVIR's Contributions and Benefits to Belize thru Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    Dan Irwin, the SERVIR Project Manager is being honored with the privilege of delivering the opening remarks at Belize s second celebration of GIS Day, a weeklong event to be held at the University of Belize's campus in the nation s capital, Belmopan. The request has been extended by the GIS Day Planning Committee which operates under the auspices of Belize s Ministry of Natural Resources & the Environment, which is the focal ministry for SERVIR. In the 20-30 min. allotted for the opening remarks, the SERVIR Project Manager will expound on how SERVIR, operating under the auspices of NASA s Ecological Forecasting Program, contributes to spatial data infrastructure (SDI) development in Belize. NASA s contributions to the region - particularly work under the Mesoamerican Biological Corridor - will be highlighted. Continuing, the remarks will discuss SERVIR s role in Belize s steadily expanding SDI, particularly in the context of delivering integrated decision support products via web-based infrastructure. The remarks will close with a call to the parties assembled to work together in the application of Earth Observation Systems technologies for the benefit of Belizean society as a whole. NASA s strong presence in Belize s GIS Day celebrations will be highlighted as sustained goodwill of the American people - in partial fulfillment of goals set forth under the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS).

  14. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive...

  15. Robo advisor, your reliable partner? Building a trustworthy digital investment management service

    OpenAIRE

    Salo, Anni

    2017-01-01

    Investment management services have strongly relied on traditional face-to-face business models, causing the services being highly expensive and therefore available only for the wealthiest population. Recently a new digital business model, robo advisors, entered the market and are predicted to democratise the entire industry by bringing investment management services available to a wider public than ever before. Although the business models in financial services are changing, customer tr...

  16. Tests of the Validity and Reliability of the Community Service Attitudes Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Brian; Osbaldiston, Richard; Henning, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Community service is deeply rooted in American culture. There have been repeated calls for the necessity of evaluating these programs, especially for service-learning. The purpose of this research was to validate an easy-to-use scale that measures 10 components of students' attitudes toward community service. The sample was drawn from two…

  17. Excavations at Vunavaung (SDI), Rakival Village, Watom Island, Papua New Guinea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anson, D.

    1998-01-01

    At Vunavaung (SDI) in the coastal settlement of Ravikal, two of a series of four test pits just in front of the raised coral cliff at the rear of the present-day village revealed an undisturbed 1.4-m-deep cultural deposit, sealed by about 1.8 to 2.2 m of redeposited and primary volcanic ash. The excavations, although of limited extent, provided four securely dated pottery assemblages spaced over 1000 years from 800 BC to after AD 200. These document the stratigraphic relationship between highly decorated Lapita pottery at the beginning of the sequence and ceramics minimally decorated with applied-relief and nail incision at the end. (author)

  18. Some reliability targets affecting the necessary provisions for in-service inspection and monitoring of LMFBR engineering components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, P.R.

    1980-01-01

    The possible consequences of failure of primary and secondary sodium circuit components are discussed with particular reference to post incident fault diagnosis, remedial procedures and outage durations. The core support structures and steam generator units are identified as particularly important components in terms of economic consequence of their failure. Important safety considerations may also apply. Levels of reliability for core support and steam generator integrity, necessary to meet economic and certain safety criteria, are discussed and quantitative data is given. Possible failure and deterioration mechanisms which could result in unacceptable reductions in reliability are then identified for the core support and steam generator units. Following a consideration of the reliability targets and possible causes of loss of reliability, an appraisal is made of the necessary extent of in-service data to be obtained on component behaviour and condition. In-service inspection and monitoring methods that could be used to obtain this data are described. Consideration is given to UK and overseas inspection experience on LMFBR and other nuclear plant. (author)

  19. Some reliability targets affecting the necessary provisions for in-service inspection and monitoring of LMFBR engineering components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolt, P R [Fast Reactor Engineering, Plant Engineering Department, CEGB, Barnwood, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

    1980-11-01

    The possible consequences of failure of primary and secondary sodium circuit components are discussed with particular reference to post incident fault diagnosis, remedial procedures and outage durations. The core support structures and steam generator units are identified as particularly important components in terms of economic consequence of their failure. Important safety considerations may also apply. Levels of reliability for core support and steam generator integrity, necessary to meet economic and certain safety criteria, are discussed and quantitative data is given. Possible failure and deterioration mechanisms which could result in unacceptable reductions in reliability are then identified for the core support and steam generator units. Following a consideration of the reliability targets and possible causes of loss of reliability, an appraisal is made of the necessary extent of in-service data to be obtained on component behaviour and condition. In-service inspection and monitoring methods that could be used to obtain this data are described. Consideration is given to UK and overseas inspection experience on LMFBR and other nuclear plant. (author)

  20. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  1. SdiA, an N-acylhomoserine lactone receptor, becomes active during the transit of Salmonella enterica through the gastrointestinal tract of turtles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenee N Smith

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available LuxR-type transcription factors are typically used by bacteria to determine the population density of their own species by detecting N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs. However, while Escherichia and Salmonella encode a LuxR-type AHL receptor, SdiA, they cannot synthesize AHLs. In vitro, it is known that SdiA can detect AHLs produced by other bacterial species.In this report, we tested the hypothesis that SdiA detects the AHL-production of other bacterial species within the animal host. SdiA did not detect AHLs during the transit of Salmonella through the gastrointestinal tract of a guinea pig, a rabbit, a cow, 5 mice, 6 pigs, or 12 chickens. However, SdiA was activated during the transit of Salmonella through turtles. All turtles examined were colonized by the AHL-producing species Aeromonas hydrophila.We conclude that the normal gastrointestinal microbiota of most animal species do not produce AHLs of the correct type, in an appropriate location, or in sufficient quantities to activate SdiA. However, the results obtained with turtles represent the first demonstration of SdiA activity in animals.

  2. Increasing reliability and availability in smart spaces : a novel architecture for resource and service management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhardwaj, S.; Ozcelebi, T.; Ozunlu, O.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart spaces are physical spaces where services provided by Consumer Electronics (CE) devices with varying resource availabilities work together to realize user-specific automated scenarios. These scenarios may be interrupted in case one of the services making up the scenario stops, e.g. due to lack

  3. Increasing reliability and availability in smart spaces : a novel architecture for resource and service management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhardwaj, S.; Ozcelebi, T.; Syed, Aly; Ozunlu, O.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Smart spaces are physical spaces where services provided by Consumer Electronics (CE) devices with varying resource availabilities work together to realize user-specific automated scenarios. These scenarios may be interrupted in case one of the services making up the scenario stops working, e.g. due

  4. History and operation of INIS magnetic tape retrieval service in CSSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, J.

    The Nuclear Information Centre is responsible for the utilization of the INIS magnetic tape in Czechoslovakia as the country's national INIS centre. The tape has been used since 1974 for selective dissemination of information using an EC 1040 computer. Currently, users are provided with SDI searches, their copies (the so-called parasite searches) and retrospective searches. The organization of INIS-SDI services is described and the results are reported of the poll among the users of the services. (Ha)

  5. Linear SVM-Based Android Malware Detection for Reliable IoT Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo-Sik Ham

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Current many Internet of Things (IoT services are monitored and controlled through smartphone applications. By combining IoT with smartphones, many convenient IoT services have been provided to users. However, there are adverse underlying effects in such services including invasion of privacy and information leakage. In most cases, mobile devices have become cluttered with important personal user information as various services and contents are provided through them. Accordingly, attackers are expanding the scope of their attacks beyond the existing PC and Internet environment into mobile devices. In this paper, we apply a linear support vector machine (SVM to detect Android malware and compare the malware detection performance of SVM with that of other machine learning classifiers. Through experimental validation, we show that the SVM outperforms other machine learning classifiers.

  6. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Wall

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR, finds that the concept of franchising, so successfully used by the private sector to deliver many goods and services, if applied to water services operation and maintenance, could alleviate and address many challenges in the management of water services. At the same time, franchising could provide an ideal stimulus to support the development of local enterprises, all within the municipal service delivery environment. Franchisee water service providers, dependent for their livelihood on the success of their business, would have a strong incentive to perform, and would also enjoy the benefit of the franchisor’s expert guidance and quality assurance. Some areas for potential franchising include meter management, billing, plumbing, pressure management, sewer maintenance, and wastewater treatment processes. The help from the franchisor would be of particular value to water services authorities at a distance from the major urban centres. Few of these authorities can afford to employ competent qualified staff, and often non-compliance with the laid down performance standards is a direct consequence of this lack. Significant improvements would soon be seen if the generally under-qualified and under-resourced water services staff could have this ongoing support, mentoring and quality control — or if the authority could enter into partnerships with small local enterprises or NGOs which would, through franchising, enjoy the necessary ongoing support, mentoring and quality control, and would have

  7. The Validity and Reliability Studies of the Internet Use of Pre-Service English Teachers Survey: A Turkish Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Külekçi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As the availability of computers and the Internet in schools and classrooms has grown, so has interest in the extent to which these technologies are being used and for what purposes. Recently there has been many studies on teachers’ use of education technology in their classrooms and schools, the availability of this technology in their classrooms and schools, their training and preparation for their use and the barriers to technology use they encounter. Using the Internet effectively and the success of the Internet utilization is very much related to the users’ attitudes toward the Internet. This study aims at investigating the reliability and the validity of the Internet Use of Pre-service English Teachers Survey modified from the Master Thesis of Sudsuang Yutdhana. The survey contains two subscales as Internet Attitude Scale and Self-perception of Computing Skills. The survey was administered to randomly selected third and fourth year 96 pre – service English Teachers at Dokuz Eylül University Buca, Faculty of Education, Department of English Language Teaching. The results indicated that Internet Use of Pre-service English Teachers Survey (IUPETS is reliable and valid.

  8. A Fast and Reliable Broadcast Service for LTE-Advanced Exploiting Multihop Device-to-Device Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Nardini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Several applications, from the Internet of Things for smart cities to those for vehicular networks, need fast and reliable proximity-based broadcast communications, i.e., the ability to reach all peers in a geographical neighborhood around the originator of a message, as well as ubiquitous connectivity. In this paper, we point out the inherent limitations of the LTE (Long-Term Evolution cellular network, which make it difficult, if possible at all, to engineer such a service using traditional infrastructure-based communications. We argue, instead, that network-controlled device-to-device (D2D communications, relayed in a multihop fashion, can efficiently support this service. To substantiate the above claim, we design a proximity-based broadcast service which exploits multihop D2D. We discuss the relevant issues both at the UE (User Equipment, which has to run applications, and within the network (i.e., at the eNodeBs, where suitable resource allocation schemes have to be enforced. We evaluate the performance of a multihop D2D broadcasting using system-level simulations, and demonstrate that it is fast, reliable and economical from a resource consumption standpoint.

  9. Reliability of length measurements collected by community nurses and health volunteers in rural growth monitoring and promotion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Matilda E; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2018-02-17

    Length measurements are important in growth, monitoring and promotion (GMP) for the surveillance of a child's weight-for-length and length-for-age. These two indices provide an indication of a child's risk of becoming wasted or stunted, and are more informative about a child's growth than the widely used weight-for-age index (underweight). Although the introduction of length measurements in GMP is recommended by the World Health Organization, concerns about the reliability of length measurements collected in rural outreach settings have been expressed by stakeholders. Our aim was to describe the reliability and challenges associated with community health personnel measuring length for rural outreach GMP activities. Two reliability studies (A and B), using 10 children less than 24 months each, were conducted in the GMP services of a rural district in Ghana. Fifteen nurses and 15 health volunteers (HV) with no prior experience in length measurements were trained. Intra- and inter-observer technical error of measurement (TEM), average bias from expert anthropometrist, and coefficient of reliability (R) of length measurements were assessed and compared across sessions. Observations and interviews were used to understand the ability and experiences of health personnel with measuring length at outreach GMP. Inter-observer TEM was larger than intra-observer TEM for both nurses and HV at both sessions and was unacceptably (compared to error standards) high in both groups at both time points. Average biases from expert's measurements were within acceptable limits, however, both groups tended to underestimate length measurements. The R for lengths collected by nurses (92.3%) was higher at session B compared to that of HV (87.5%). Length measurements taken by nurses and HV, and those taken by an experienced anthropometrist at GMP sessions were of moderate agreement (kappa = 0.53, p reliability of length measurements improved after two refresher trainings for nurses but

  10. IAM strategy to keep our water services clean and fresh and reliable

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Manus, N

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the steady progress that the South African department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) has been making with formulating a national water services infrastructure asset management (IAM) strategy. A "scan" of the state of water...

  11. Incorporating enhanced service reliability of public transport in cost-benefit analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate how to calculate the passenger impacts of service unreliability. We show that passengers are affected by longer waiting times and the distribution of travel times. We present a framework to calculate these effects and to express them in monetary values. In the

  12. Franchising principles for improved sustainability and reliability of water and sanitation services

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available backup off-site skills together with the incentive to both call for those skills and to make them available. Findings indicate that many opportunities lie in the franchising of suitable elements in the water services value chain, and a selection...

  13. The influence of frequency and reliability of in-service inspection on reactor pressure vessel disruptive failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.M.

    1978-01-01

    A simple probabilistic methodology is used to investigate the benefit, in terms of reduction of disruptive failure probability, which comes from the application of periodic in-service inspection to nuclear pressure vessels. The analysis indicates the strong interaction between inspection benefit and the intrinsic quality of the structure. In order to quantify the inspection benefit, assumptions are made which allow the quality to be characterised in terms of the parameters governing a log normal distribution of time - to - failure. Using these assumptions, it is shown that the overall benefit of in-service inspection unlikely to exceed an order of magnitude in terms of reduction of disruptive failure probability. The method is extended to evaluate the effect of the periodicity and reliability of the inspection process itself. (author)

  14. Reliability and Validity of Survey Instruments to Measure Work-Related Fatigue in the Emergency Medical Services Setting: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Background: This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting. Methods: A systematic review study design wa...

  15. Impaired long-term memory retention and working memory in sdy mutant mice with a deletion in Dtnbp1, a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Keizo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Schizophrenia is a complex genetic disorder caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. The dystrobrevin-binding protein 1 (DTNBP1: dysbindin-1 gene is a major susceptibility gene for schizophrenia. Genetic variations in DTNBP1 are associated with cognitive functions, general cognitive ability and memory function, and clinical features of patients with schizophrenia including negative symptoms and cognitive decline. Since reduced expression of dysbindin-1 has been observed in postmortem brains of patients with schizophrenia, the sandy (sdy mouse, which has a deletion in the Dtnbp1 gene and expresses no dysbindin-1 protein, could be an animal model of schizophrenia. To address this issue, we have carried out a comprehensive behavioral analysis of the sdy mouse in this study. Results In a rotarod test, sdy mice did not exhibit motor learning whilst the wild type mice did. In a Barnes circular maze test both sdy mice and wild type mice learned to selectively locate the escape hole during the course of the training period and in the probe trial conducted 24 hours after last training. However, sdy mice did not locate the correct hole in the retention probe tests 7 days after the last training trial, whereas wild type mice did, indicating impaired long-term memory retention. A T-maze forced alternation task, a task of working memory, revealed no effect of training in sdy mice despite the obvious effect of training in wild type mice, suggesting a working memory deficit. Conclusion Sdy mouse showed impaired long-term memory retention and working memory. Since genetic variation in DTNBP1 is associated with both schizophrenia and memory function, and memory function is compromised in patients with schizophrenia, the sdy mouse may represent a useful animal model to investigate the mechanisms of memory dysfunction in the disorder.

  16. Maintenance of a reliable laboratory service for tuberculosis intervention in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makaen, Johnson; Omena, Mathew

    2015-01-01

    The reemergence of tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant strains, in Papua New Guinea highlights the never ending nature of the antituberculosis (anti-TB) campaign in that country and warrants the need for constant vigilance against the condition. Through surveillance, early detection, and management, the spread and incidence of TB can be kept in check. To maintain successful TB control programs, the government and partners committed to this campaign need to overhaul essential aspects of laboratory services. Clinical laboratories play a critical role in diagnostics; their functions cannot be substituted nor relegated. It is time to end neglect of these services in Papua New Guinea and to arm the laboratories in that country with full financial and logistical support so that they can lead the campaign against TB. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP).

  17. Improving the reliability of service-water systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neitzel, D.A.; Johnson, K.I.; Daling, P.M.; Chang, T.Y.

    1989-01-01

    Fouling and clogging caused by sedimentation, corrosion, and the buildup of biological organisms is a persistent problem whenever raw water from a river, lake, or ocean is used as a heat exchange medium. The fouling caused by raw water cooling of service-water systems at nuclear power plants is a particular concern because of the potential for affecting safety-related heat exchangers and components, including online and redundant backup units. Open-cycle service-water, as discussed here, provide cooling to reactor support systems required during shutdown and emergency conditions and relate to those heat exchangers and components cooled directly by raw water. To resolve this issue, the NRC initiated a research program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), to study the conditions that allow fouling and to compare alternative surveillance and control programs to minimize service water system fouling. There is no single solution to biological, sediment, and corrosion fouling. An effective surveillance and control program must satisfy certain criteria to address major areas of the service-water system and the major fouling types. Three fouling program alternatives were developed. Value/impact (or cost/benefit) studies were performed on these three alternatives. The alternative chosen to be most cost effective is a baseline fouling program. It consists of two principal elements of a control program, continuous chlorination (for example during bivalve spawning seasons) and periodic flushing and flow testing of redundant and infrequently used cooling loops, to minimize flow blockage that would result from biofouling and sediment/corrosion product buildup. In addition, a surveillance program is recommended to regularly inspect the intake structure for macroscopic biological fouling organisms, sediment, and corrosion

  18. “Crossing over”: appropriate private sector principles, to operate more reliable public sector water services

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Wall

    2008-01-01

    Private sector institutions utilise many different business methods, some of which can selectively be adapted for use by organisations outside the private sector, to the benefit of their service delivery responsibilities. But the best of the appropriate practices from the private sector have often “not crossed over”. The Water Research Commission (WRC) of South Africa, working in collaboration with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), finds that the concept of franch...

  19. Test-retest reliability and agreement of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument in two Nordic countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sund, Terje; Iwarsson, Susanne; Anttila, Heidi; Helle, Tina; Brandt, Ase

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate test-retest reliability, agreement, internal consistency, and floor- and ceiling effects of the Danish and Finnish versions of the Satisfaction with the Assistive Technology Services (SATS) instrument among adult users of powered wheelchairs (PWCs) or powered scooters (scooters). Test-retest design, two telephone interviews 7-18 days apart of 40 informants, with mean age of 67.5 (SD 13.09) years in the Danish; and 54 informants with mean age of 55.6 (SD 12.09) years in the Finnish sample. The intra-class correlation coefficient varied between 0.57 and 0.93 for items in the Danish and between 0.41 and 0.93 in the Finnish sample. The percentage agreement varied between 54.2 and 79.5 for items in the Danish and between 69.2 and 81.1 in the Finnish sample, while the Cronbach's alpha values varied between 0.87 and 0.96 in the two samples. A ceiling effect was found in all items of both samples. This study indicates that the SATS may be reliably administered for telephone interviews among adult PWC and scooter users, and give information about aspects of the service delivery process for quality development improvement purposes. Further psychometric testing of the SATS is required.

  20. Towards a Framework for Self-Adaptive Reliable Network Services in Highly-Uncertain Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Lars Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Ceccarelli, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    In future inhomogeneous, pervasive and highly dynamic networks, end-nodes may often only rely on unreliable and uncertain observations to diagnose hidden network states and decide upon possible remediation actions. Inherent challenges exists to identify good and timely decision strategies to impr...... execution (and monitoring) of remediation actions. We detail the motivations to the ODDR design, then we present its architecture, and finally we describe our current activities towards the realization and assessment of the framework services and the main results currently achieved....

  1. An Optimized, Data Distribution Service-Based Solution for Reliable Data Exchange Among Autonomous Underwater Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Molina, Jesús; Bilbao, Sonia; Martínez, Belén; Frasheri, Mirgita; Cürüklü, Baran

    2017-08-05

    Major challenges are presented when managing a large number of heterogeneous vehicles that have to communicate underwater in order to complete a global mission in a cooperative manner. In this kind of application domain, sending data through the environment presents issues that surpass the ones found in other overwater, distributed, cyber-physical systems (i.e., low bandwidth, unreliable transport medium, data representation and hardware high heterogeneity). This manuscript presents a Publish/Subscribe-based semantic middleware solution for unreliable scenarios and vehicle interoperability across cooperative and heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The middleware relies on different iterations of the Data Distribution Service (DDS) software standard and their combined work between autonomous maritime vehicles and a control entity. It also uses several components with different functionalities deemed as mandatory for a semantic middleware architecture oriented to maritime operations (device and service registration, context awareness, access to the application layer) where other technologies are also interweaved with middleware (wireless communications, acoustic networks). Implementation details and test results, both in a laboratory and a deployment scenario, have been provided as a way to assess the quality of the system and its satisfactory performance.

  2. An Optimized, Data Distribution Service-Based Solution for Reliable Data Exchange Among Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Major challenges are presented when managing a large number of heterogeneous vehicles that have to communicate underwater in order to complete a global mission in a cooperative manner. In this kind of application domain, sending data through the environment presents issues that surpass the ones found in other overwater, distributed, cyber-physical systems (i.e., low bandwidth, unreliable transport medium, data representation and hardware high heterogeneity. This manuscript presents a Publish/Subscribe-based semantic middleware solution for unreliable scenarios and vehicle interoperability across cooperative and heterogeneous autonomous vehicles. The middleware relies on different iterations of the Data Distribution Service (DDS software standard and their combined work between autonomous maritime vehicles and a control entity. It also uses several components with different functionalities deemed as mandatory for a semantic middleware architecture oriented to maritime operations (device and service registration, context awareness, access to the application layer where other technologies are also interweaved with middleware (wireless communications, acoustic networks. Implementation details and test results, both in a laboratory and a deployment scenario, have been provided as a way to assess the quality of the system and its satisfactory performance.

  3. A Test of Reliability of the Personnel Dosimetry Services Authorized by CSN using Photon Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosed, A.; Delgado, A.; Granados, C. E.; Lopez Ortiz, G.

    1987-01-01

    In 1987 the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) had eight Personnel Dosimetry Services (PDS) authorized to asses the equivalent doses to the spanish occupationally exposed workers, by means of the readings from the dosemeters wear by them. An audit was carried on the PDS on behalf of CSN under the control of CIEMAT. Batches of dosemeters from each one of the PDS were irradiated to dose equivalent values which were well established by CIEMAT but kept hidden from the PDS. By comparing the true values with those obtained by the PDS, it was possible to evaluate the Services according to the analysis of the quantity Q= I B I -I- S where B is the average of the individual deviations between the dosemeters belonging to the same group and the true value as established by CIEMAT, whereas S is the standard deviation of the values inside of this same group. The results of the evaluation, which was made using the new ICRU quantities for personnel monitoring, are presented. (Author) 8 refs

  4. p21WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1 knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho; Williams, Stuart; Chen, Qin M.

    2011-01-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21 WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1 (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFNγ and TNFα in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: ► Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. ► Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. ► p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. ► Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  5. Experimental support of WWER-440 fuel reliability and serviceability at high burnup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, A; Ivanov, V; Pnyushkin, A [Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Atomnykh Reaktorov, Dimitrovgrad (Russian Federation); Tzibulya, V [AO Mashinostroitelnij Zavod Electrostal (Russian Federation); Kolosovsky, V; Bibilashvili, Yu [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation); Dubrovin, K [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    Results from post-reactor examination of two WWER-440 fuel assemblies spent at the Kola NPP Unit 3 during 4 and 5 fuel cycles are presented. The fuel assembly states and their serviceability allowance are estimated experimentally at the RIAR hot laboratory and studied by non-destructive and destructive methods. The following parameters are examined: fuel assembly overall dimensions change; fuel element diameter change; fuel element cladding corrosion and hydriding; fuel element cladding mechanical properties; fission gas release from fuel and gas pressure; fuel macro- and microstructure. it has been found that the maximum fuel burnup of fuel assemblies No. 1 and No.2 achieved is 58.3 and 64.0 MWd/kg, respectively. The mechanical fuel pellets-cladding interaction has been observed at the average fuel burnup above 45 MWd/kg that occurred with increasing the local cladding diameter at the areas of pellets end arrangement (bamboo stick). The gas release linearly increases at the range 2.7% per 10 MWd/kg within burnup of 43-60 MWd/kg. 9 figs., 3 refs.

  6. A pilot study to explore the feasibility of using theClinical Care Classification System for developing a reliable costing method for nursing services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykes, Patricia C; Wantland, Dean; Whittenburg, Luann; Lipsitz, Stuart; Saba, Virginia K

    2013-01-01

    While nursing activities represent a significant proportion of inpatient care, there are no reliable methods for determining nursing costs based on the actual services provided by the nursing staff. Capture of data to support accurate measurement and reporting on the cost of nursing services is fundamental to effective resource utilization. Adopting standard terminologies that support tracking both the quality and the cost of care could reduce the data entry burden on direct care providers. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of using a standardized nursing terminology, the Clinical Care Classification System (CCC), for developing a reliable costing method for nursing services. Two different approaches are explored; the Relative Value Unit RVU and the simple cost-to-time methods. We found that the simple cost-to-time method was more accurate and more transparent in its derivation than the RVU method and may support a more consistent and reliable approach for costing nursing services.

  7. On the application of nonhomogeneous Poisson process to the reliability analysis of service water pumps of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz Saldanha, Pedro Luiz da.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the nonhomogeneous Poisson process as a model to rate of occurrence of failures when it is not constant, and the times between failures are not independent nor identically distributed. To this evaluation, an analyse of reliability of service water pumps of a typical nuclear power plant is made considering the model discussed in the last paragraph, as long as the pumps are effectively repairable components. Standard statistical techniques, such as maximum likelihood and linear regression, are applied to estimate parameters of nonhomogeneous Poisson process model. As a conclusion of the study, the nonhomogeneous Poisson process is adequate to model rate of occurrence of failures that are function of time, and can be used where the aging mechanisms are present in operation of repairable systems. (author). 72 refs., 45 figs., 21 tabs

  8. The influence of frequency and reliability of in-service inspection on reactor pressure vessel disruptive failure probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    A simple probabilistic methodology is used to investigate the benefit, in terms of reduction of disruptive failure probability, which comes from the application of periodic In Service Inspection (ISI) to nuclear pressure vessels. The analysis indicates the strong interaction between inspection benefit and the intrinsic quality of the structure. In order to quantify the inspection benefit, assumptions are made which allow the quality to be characterized in terms of the parameters governing a Log Normal distribution of time-to-failure. Using these assumptions, it is shown that the overall benefit of ISI is unlikely to exceed an order of magnitude in terms of reduction of disruptive failure probability. The method is extended to evaluate the effect of the periodicity and reliability of the inspection process itself. (author)

  9. Providing Reliability Services through Demand Response: A Prelimnary Evaluation of the Demand Response Capabilities of Alcoa Inc.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL; Todd, Duane [Alcoa; Caulfield, Michael [Alcoa; Helms, Brian [Alcoa

    2009-02-01

    Demand response is the largest underutilized reliability resource in North America. Historic demand response programs have focused on reducing overall electricity consumption (increasing efficiency) and shaving peaks but have not typically been used for immediate reliability response. Many of these programs have been successful but demand response remains a limited resource. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) report, 'Assessment of Demand Response and Advanced Metering' (FERC 2006) found that only five percent of customers are on some form of demand response program. Collectively they represent an estimated 37,000 MW of response potential. These programs reduce overall energy consumption, lower green house gas emissions by allowing fossil fuel generators to operate at increased efficiency and reduce stress on the power system during periods of peak loading. As the country continues to restructure energy markets with sophisticated marginal cost models that attempt to minimize total energy costs, the ability of demand response to create meaningful shifts in the supply and demand equations is critical to creating a sustainable and balanced economic response to energy issues. Restructured energy market prices are set by the cost of the next incremental unit of energy, so that as additional generation is brought into the market, the cost for the entire market increases. The benefit of demand response is that it reduces overall demand and shifts the entire market to a lower pricing level. This can be very effective in mitigating price volatility or scarcity pricing as the power system responds to changing demand schedules, loss of large generators, or loss of transmission. As a global producer of alumina, primary aluminum, and fabricated aluminum products, Alcoa Inc., has the capability to provide demand response services through its manufacturing facilities and uniquely through its aluminum smelting facilities. For a typical aluminum smelter

  10. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  11. THE DATA AND SERVICES ANALYSIS OF CHINESE NSDI BASED ON BACKX MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data and services analysis are indispensable for the refined development of SDI. This paper, taking Chinese NSDI as a study case, analyzed the data and services advantages and shortcomings of Chinese NSDI and developed a recommendable data and services framework which could improve the Chinese NSDI better services for public and private sectors from known, attainable and usable aspects by using Backx model. And the recommendation framework can also be referenced by other national and local SDI for its better services and applications.

  12. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  13. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  14. IT enabled service delivery innovation from quality perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Chin Lin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective is to understand how information and service quality to influence of IT enabled service (ITeS, then to enhance service delivery innovation (SDI. This study bases ITeS to elaborate two research questions by adopting Rodosek’s business reference model. Consequently, we conduct a case study approach, by deriving proposals concerning the relationships among two quality perspectives, ITeS, and SDI in a Taiwanese publishing company. In the end, we concluded three related findings. Firstly, the company based on service orientated to provide basic service functions to encourage more users to enjoy their services, as well as facilitating collaborative work via the online discussion area. Secondly, the company adopted advanced service functions to extend their service scopes to end-users, such as download the news into handheld devices. Finally, the company utilized the supporting service functions to assist customers integrating the ideas and plans.

  15. Reliability and Validity of Modified Service Quality Instrument (SERVQUAL) in Patients' Motivation to Adhere to Insulin Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupovic, Vedran; Solakovic, Suajb; Celebic, Nedim; Kulovic, Dzenan

    2018-03-01

    Diabetes is progressive condition which requires various ways of treatment. Adequate therapy prescribed in the right time helps patient to postpone development of complications. Adherence to complicated therapy is challenge for both patients and HCPs and is subject of research in many disciplines. Improvement in communication between HCP and patients is very important in patient's adherence to therapy. Aim of this research was to explore validity and reliability of modified SERVQUAL instrument in attempt to explore ways of motivating diabetic patient to accept prescribed insulin therapy. We used modified SERVQUAL questionnaire as instrument in the research. It was necessary to check validity and reliability of the new modified instrument. Results show that modified Servqual instrument has excellent reliability (α=0.908), so we could say that it measures precisely Expectations, Perceptions and Motivation at patients. Factor analysis (EFA method) with Varimax rotation extracted 4 factors which together explain 52.902% variance of the results on this subscale. Bifactorial solution could be seen on Scree-plot diagram (break at second factor). Results in this research show that modified Servqual instrument which is created in order to measure expectations and perceptions of the patients is valid and reliable. Reliability and validity are proven indeed in additional dimension which was created originally for this research - motivation to accept insulin therapy.

  16. Reliability and Validity of Modified Service Quality Instrument (SERVQUAL) in Patients’ Motivation to Adhere to Insulin Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupovic, Vedran; Solakovic, Suajb; Celebic, Nedim; Kulovic, Dzenan

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetes is progressive condition which requires various ways of treatment. Adequate therapy prescribed in the right time helps patient to postpone development of complications. Adherence to complicated therapy is challenge for both patients and HCPs and is subject of research in many disciplines. Improvement in communication between HCP and patients is very important in patient’s adherence to therapy. Aim: Aim of this research was to explore validity and reliability of modified SERVQUAL instrument in attempt to explore ways of motivating diabetic patient to accept prescribed insulin therapy. Material and Methods: We used modified SERVQUAL questionnaire as instrument in the research. It was necessary to check validity and reliability of the new modified instrument. Results: Results show that modified Servqual instrument has excellent reliability (α=0.908), so we could say that it measures precisely Expectations, Perceptions and Motivation at patients. Factor analysis (EFA method) with Varimax rotation extracted 4 factors which together explain 52.902% variance of the results on this subscale. Bifactorial solution could be seen on Scree-plot diagram (break at second factor). Conclusion: Results in this research show that modified Servqual instrument which is created in order to measure expectations and perceptions of the patients is valid and reliable. Reliability and validity are proven indeed in additional dimension which was created originally for this research - motivation to accept insulin therapy. PMID:29670478

  17. The Turkish adaptation of scale to measure patient perceptions of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services: A validity and reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Besey; Zengin, Neriman; Yildiz, Nebahat

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to test the validity and reliability of a version of the tool developed in Sri Lanka in 2011 to assess patient perceptions of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services created for use with Turkish patients. This methodological study was conducted between November 2013 and November 2014 after obtaining ethical approval and organizational permission. Data was collected during discharge from 180 adult patients who were hospitalized for at least 3 days at a medical school hospital located in Istanbul. After language validation, validity and reliability analyses of the scale were conducted. Content validity, content validity index (CVI), construct validity, and exploratory factor analysis were assessed and examined, and reliability was tested using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total correlations. Mean CVI was found to be 0.95, which is above expected value. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 4 factors with eigenvalues above 1, which explained 82.4% of total variance in the Turkish version of the tool to measure patient perceptions of nursing care and other hospital services. Factor loading for each item was ≥.40. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of sub-dimensions and total scale were found to be 0.84-0.98 and 0.98, respectively. Item-total correlations ranged from 0.56 to 0.83 for the entire group, which was above expected values. The Turkish version of the scale to assess patient perceptions of the quality of nursing care and related hospital services, which comprised 4 sub-dimensions and 36 items, was found to be valid and reliable for use with the Turkish population.

  18. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  19. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  20. Reliability and Validity of Survey Instruments to Measure Work-Related Fatigue in the Emergency Medical Services Setting: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, P Daniel; Weaver, Matthew D; Fabio, Anthony; Teasley, Ellen M; Renn, Megan L; Curtis, Brett R; Matthews, Margaret E; Kroemer, Andrew J; Xun, Xiaoshuang; Bizhanova, Zhadyra; Weiss, Patricia M; Sequeira, Denisse J; Coppler, Patrick J; Lang, Eddy S; Higgins, J Stephen

    2018-02-15

    This study sought to systematically search the literature to identify reliable and valid survey instruments for fatigue measurement in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) occupational setting. A systematic review study design was used and searched six databases, including one website. The research question guiding the search was developed a priori and registered with the PROSPERO database of systematic reviews: "Are there reliable and valid instruments for measuring fatigue among EMS personnel?" (2016:CRD42016040097). The primary outcome of interest was criterion-related validity. Important outcomes of interest included reliability (e.g., internal consistency), and indicators of sensitivity and specificity. Members of the research team independently screened records from the databases. Full-text articles were evaluated by adapting the Bolster and Rourke system for categorizing findings of systematic reviews, and the rated data abstracted from the body of literature as favorable, unfavorable, mixed/inconclusive, or no impact. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology was used to evaluate the quality of evidence. The search strategy yielded 1,257 unique records. Thirty-four unique experimental and non-experimental studies were determined relevant following full-text review. Nineteen studies reported on the reliability and/or validity of ten different fatigue survey instruments. Eighteen different studies evaluated the reliability and/or validity of four different sleepiness survey instruments. None of the retained studies reported sensitivity or specificity. Evidence quality was rated as very low across all outcomes. In this systematic review, limited evidence of the reliability and validity of 14 different survey instruments to assess the fatigue and/or sleepiness status of EMS personnel and related shift worker groups was identified.

  1. Detailed services in a spatial data infrastructure from the computation viewpoint

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cooper, Antony K

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available the detailed services that are performed within each of these components, and the roles played by these components in the different phases of establishing and using an SDI. The matrix of these detailed services is too large for inclusion in this conference...

  2. Franchising of water services: a viable business format that can be used to improve the cost and reliability of water services at schools and in poor communities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ive, O

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available with previously unserved and poor communities, the operation and maintenance of the water services infrastructure offers a sustainable work opportunity for local people. Having observed the difficulties experienced by small operating enterprises...

  3. Evaluating the Validity and Reliability of Customer Quality Questionnaire from the Experts’ and Customers’ Perspective in Services Related to Patients With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Hasanzadeh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ​ Background and Objectives : Customer Quality refers to   customers’ capabilities to be effectively participating in service delivery and correct care processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of customer quality questionnaire in services related to  patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Material and Methods : This is a qualitative study with the aim of assessment of customer quality questionnaire with 16 questions. This questionnaire was distributed among 11 experts to determine the validity of the questionnaire. Finally, 10 of them expressed their own opinions based on the criteria of validity and in the face validity section , they expressed their opinions qualitatively. Also, reliability of questionnaire was reviewed with 30 samples, according to the internal consistency. Results : In determining the content validity, all the questionnaire items were confirmed by CVR (1 and CVI (0.89 indicators. Also, reliability of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach’s alpha (α=0.78.The final questionnaire was changed according to the experts’ recommendations and their qualitative comments on the 19 questions in four stages of customer quality, including: a the patient’s belief that his/her role in care process is important, b having knowledge, skill and confidence to take action in the care process, c  taking action to protect and improve the health or active involvement, d continuity of care, even in critical situations and under stress. Conclusion : Confirmation of the questionnaire with statistical scientific methods showed that this questionnaire is a very strong tool that using it in research can be an effective step in order to improve the quality of health services.

  4. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  5. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    OpenAIRE

    Zdeňka Havířová; Pavel Kubů

    2010-01-01

    One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty). The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on bui...

  6. Role of in-service inspection and maintenance in reliability assurance of concrete structures in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.

    1993-01-01

    The degradation in strength of a component with random damage is evaluated using a growth model for individual damages which can be obtained from experimental data. The distribution function of damage intensity after inspection and repair is updated using a Bayesian analysis that takes the quality of inspection into account. With this posterior distribution, the time-dependent strength after the inspection and repair can be evaluated. Time-dependent reliability analysis can be used to determine inspection/repair strategies that are necessary to keep the failure probability of the component lower than an established target. (author)

  7. Intraclass reliability for assessing how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services using statistical process control chart techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Tsair-Wei; Chou, Ming-Ting; Wang, Wen-Chung; Tsai, Li-Shu; Lin, Weir-Sen

    2012-05-15

    Few studies discuss the indicators used to assess the effect on cost containment in healthcare across hospitals in a single-payer national healthcare system with constrained medical resources. We present the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to assess how well Taiwan constrained hospital-provided medical services in such a system. A custom Excel-VBA routine to record the distances of standard deviations (SDs) from the central line (the mean over the previous 12 months) of a control chart was used to construct and scale annual medical expenditures sequentially from 2000 to 2009 for 421 hospitals in Taiwan to generate the ICC. The ICC was then used to evaluate Taiwan's year-based convergent power to remain unchanged in hospital-provided constrained medical services. A bubble chart of SDs for a specific month was generated to present the effects of using control charts in a national healthcare system. ICCs were generated for Taiwan's year-based convergent power to constrain its medical services from 2000 to 2009. All hospital groups showed a gradually well-controlled supply of services that decreased from 0.772 to 0.415. The bubble chart identified outlier hospitals that required investigation of possible excessive reimbursements in a specific time period. We recommend using the ICC to annually assess a nation's year-based convergent power to constrain medical services across hospitals. Using sequential control charts to regularly monitor hospital reimbursements is required to achieve financial control in a single-payer nationwide healthcare system.

  8. Equilibrium moisture content of wood at different temperature/moisture conditions in the cladding of wooden constructions and in the relation to their reliability and service life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeňka Havířová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the natural properties of wood and wood-based materials is their soaking capacity (hy­gro­sco­pi­ci­ty. The moisture content of wood and building constructions of wood and wood based materials significantly influences the service life and reliability of these constructions and buildings. The equilibrium weight moisture content of built-in wood corresponding to temperature/moisture conditions inside the cladding has therefore a decisive influence on the basic requirements placed on building constructions. The wood in wooden frame cladding changes its moisture content depending on temperature and moisture conditions of the environment it is built into. The water vapor condensation doesn’t necessarily have to occur right in the wooden framework of the cladding for the equilibrium moisture content to rise over the level permissible for the reliable function of a given construction. In spite of the fact that the common heat-technical assessment cannot be considered fully capable of detecting the effects of these factors on the functional reliability of wood-based constructions and buildings, an extension has been proposed of the present method of design an assessment of building constructions according to the ČSN 73 0540 standard regarding the interpretation of equilibrium moisture content in relation to the temperature/moisture conditions and their time behavior inside a construction.

  9. Verification criteria on the reliability of personal dosimetric services from x and gamma radiations; Criteri per la verifica dell'affidabilita di un servizio di dosimetria personale per radiazioni x e gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borasi, G [Arcisp. S. Maria Nuova, USL 9, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Benco, A [CCE-CCR, Ispra, Varese (Italy); Kaftal, S [CESNEF - Politecnico, Milan (Italy)

    1990-07-15

    The paper presents the methods used by Working Group ENEA-EDP (Experts in Personal Dosimetry) to control the reliability of the Dosimetric Services operating in Italy and asking for the above controls on voluntary basis. Testing and irradiation test methods are explained as well as the evaluation criteria. The paper includes suggestions and guide-lines to gain the status of 'Reliable Service'. Technical equipment and operating procedures needed to pass the test are also illustrated. (author)

  10. New applications of orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) for characterizing nuclear component failure modes, reliability assessment, and fitness-for-service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehockey, E.M.; Brennenstuhl, A.M.; Pagan, S.; Clark, M.A.; Perovic, V.

    2007-01-01

    Orientation Imaging Microscopy (OIM) has proved a valuable asset for evaluating material performance as far as establishing the root cause and mechanism(s) of in-service degradation, and the likelihood of the onset of future degradation. Strains from deformation/cold work are imaged based on the spatial density of sub-structure distributed globally or surrounding defects/irregularities, which concentrate stresses responsible for driving degradation. This is complimented with measurements of material properties including texture, Taylor Factor, grain boundary structure, and grain size that contribute to resisting propagation of pre-existing defects and/or nucleating future attack. From evaluating the factors driving degradation within the context of microstructure properties that govern material susceptibility come estimates for the likelihood of attack as a necessary element of establishing fitness for service. By way of numerous examples the merits and limitations of OIM are summarized and compared with other characterization techniques. (author)

  11. Operational reliability of high pressure steam lines of pearlitic steels after 150-200 thousand h service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veksler, E.Ya.; Chajkovskij, V.M.; Osasyuk, V.V.

    1980-01-01

    Usage of both calculational and physical methods is recommended to estimate a service operating life of long-term working steam line materials. Application of these methods is demonstrated when studying steam line bends made of 12MKh and 12Kh1MF pearlitic steels. Good coincidence of results for the determination of residual durability of steam lines is obtained using these two methods [ru

  12. Assessment of Information and Communication Technology for Selective Dissemination of Information and Current Awareness Services: A Case Study of University Libraries in the South-West Zone of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturday U. Omeluzor

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective – To assess the use of information and communication technology (ICT for selective dissemination of information (SDI and current awareness services (CAS in university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria. Methods – A descriptive research design was adopted. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire administered to a population consisting of 379 librarians, with 353 usable questionnaires retrieved. Results – Findings revealed that most university libraries in the South-West zone of Nigeria do not use ICT in delivery of SDI and CAS. It is evident in this study that despite the known positive effects of ICT in library services, traditional methods were predominantly used for SDI and CAS to the library users. The study revealed that erratic Internet services, insufficient training, inadequate ICT skills, and low support for ICT were hindrances towards ICT use for SDI and CAS. Conclusions – The integration of ICT features in library services for the delivery of CAS and SDI has been a challenge in university libraries in South-West Nigeria. Only a few libraries and a low percentage of librarians had adopted the use of ICT in the delivery of CAS and SDI, while a larger number of libraries resorted to the use of traditional methods. The level of ICT literacy among the librarians in this study is low, as a higher percentage of librarians did not have adequate ICT skill to use available online resources on the Internet and other ICT tools to deliver SDI and CAS in South-West, Nigeria. This is not unconnected to the fact that the training and technical support received by the librarians is inadequate, and the level of support that academic libraries received from their university managements in South-West Nigeria in terms of funding for ICT development is inadequate, which led to low Internet services.

  13. Implementasi Wireless Quality of Service dengan Metode Load Switching Jaringan Seluler Menggunakan Software Defined Network untuk Meningkatkan Network Reliability pada Jaringan Dinamis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoga Bayu Aji Pranawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless Quality of Service (QOS adalah salah satu dimensi mobilitas, yaitu sebuah metode yang digunakan untuk menjaga kualitas suatu jaringan nirkabel. QOS diperlukan sebagai sebuah metode untuk memenuhi kriteria pelayanan sistem bagi pengguna, yaitu confidentiality, integrity, dan availability. Beberapa aspek yang menjadi topik utama dalam QOS adalah failure and recovery mechanism, variable bandwidth, computing distribution, discovery mechanism, variable lantency, dan performance feedback. Wireless yang dibahas pada penelitian ini dititik beratkan pada jaringan seluler yang cenderung tidak reliable pada daerah tertentu. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan sebuah mekanisme yang dapat mengatasi tidak stabilnya jaringan seluler tersebut. mplementasi mekanisme yang diterapkan pada penelitian ini adalah dengan menerapkan load switching pada jaringan seluler dengan menggunakan beberapa provider dan menerapkan teknologi Software Defined Network (SDN. Berdasarkan hasi uji coba dapat disimpulkan bahwa sistem yang dibuat pada penelitian ini dapat menerapkan wireless quality of service dan meningkatkan network reliability sebesar 65,29% dan 83,87% lebih baik untuk penggunaan tanpa waktu tunggu dan dengan waktu tunggu pada suatu jaringan  dinamis.

  14. Demonstrating the reliability of transdiagnostic mHealth Routine Outcome Monitoring in mental health services using experience sampling technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone J W Verhagen

    Full Text Available Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM should provide a dynamic, within-treatment forward feedback loop to guide individual treatment decisions across diagnostic categories. It has been suggested that the Experience Sampling Method (ESM, capturing the film of daily life adaptive processes, offers a flexible, personalised and transdiagnostic feedback system for monitoring and adapting treatment strategies. This is the first study that uses an ESM application (the PsyMate™ as a routine mobile-ROM (mROM tool in an ambulatory mental health setting.To demonstrate adequate psychometric properties of the PsyMate™ app assessing both symptom severity levels as well as daily life functioning.In a transdiagnostic sample of 64 outpatients, an mROM protocol (ESM for 6 days, at 10 semi-random moments a day and a standard ROM instrument (HADS were administered at baseline and at three-month follow-up. We measured positive affect (PA, negative affect (NA, quality of sleep, positive social interaction, activity-related stress, tiredness, and feeling unwell.Subjects completed 53% of the measurements at baseline (N = 64 and 48% at follow-up (N = 29. Factor analysis and subsequent reliability analysis of PA and NA confirmed the two constructs. Significant and meaningful correlations were found between PA, NA and HADS scores (ranging from r = .4 to r = .7. Multilevel analyses yielded significant change scores for all measures.The ESM-based, transdiagnostic mROM tool can be used reliably in clinical settings: it shows adequate psychometric properties, as well as concurrent validity and sensitivity to change over time with respect to relevant ROM constructs. Person-tailored items can be added. In addition, mROM offers added value over standard symptom-based ROM, as it provides information on adaptive functioning in the daily environment of patients.

  15. p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} knockout mice respond to doxorubicin with reduced cardiotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrand, Jerome; Xu, Beibei; Morrissy, Steve; Dinh, Thai Nho [Department of Pharmacology,College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Williams, Stuart [Biomedical Engineering Program, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States); Chen, Qin M., E-mail: qchen@email.arizona.edu [Department of Pharmacology,College of Medicine, University of Arizona, 1501 N. Campbell Ave, Tucson, AZ 85724 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an antineoplastic agent that can cause cardiomyopathy in humans and experimental animals. As an inducer of reactive oxygen species and a DNA damaging agent, Dox causes elevated expression of p21{sup WAF1/Cip1/Sdi1} (p21) gene. Elevated levels of p21 mRNA and p21 protein have been detected in the myocardium of mice following Dox treatment. With chronic treatment of Dox, wild type (WT) animals develop cardiomyopathy evidenced by elongated nuclei, mitochondrial swelling, myofilamental disarray, reduced cardiac output, reduced ejection fraction, reduced left ventricular contractility, and elevated expression of ANF gene. In contrast, p21 knockout (p21KO) mice did not show significant changes in the same parameters in response to Dox treatment. In an effort to understand the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy, we measured levels of antioxidant enzymes and found that p21KO mice did not contain elevated basal or inducible levels of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Measurements of 6 circulating cytokines indicated elevation of IL-6, IL-12, IFN{gamma} and TNF{alpha} in Dox treated WT mice but not p21KO mice. Dox induced elevation of IL-6 mRNA was detected in the myocardium of WT mice but not p21KO mice. While the mechanism of the resistance against Dox induced cardiomyopathy remains unclear, lack of inflammatory response may contribute to the observed cardiac protection in p21KO mice. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin induces p21 elevation in the myocardium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Doxorubicin causes dilated cardiomyopathy in wild type mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21 Knockout mice are resistant against doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lack of inflammatory response correlates with the resistance in p21 knockout mice.

  16. Application of reliability techniques to prioritize BWR [boiling water reactor] recirculation loop welds for in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, G.S.

    1989-12-01

    In January 1988 the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued Generic Letter 88-01 together with NUREG-0313, Revision 2, ''Technical Report on Material Selection and Processing Guidelines for BWR Coolant Pressure Boundary Piping,'' to implement NRC long-range plans for addressing the problem of stress corrosion cracking in boiling water reactor piping. NUREG-0313 presents guidelines for categorizing BWR pipe welds according to their SCC condition (e.g., presence of known cracks, implementation of measures for mitigating SCC) as well as recommended inspection schedules (e.g., percentage of welds inspected, inspection frequency) for each weld category. NUREG-0313 does not, however, specify individual welds to be inspected. To address this issue, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed two recommended inspection samples for welds in a typical BWR recirculation loop. Using a probabilistic fracture mechanics model, LLNL prioritized loop welds on the basis of estimated leak probabilities. The results of this evaluation indicate that riser welds and bypass welds should be given priority attention over other welds. Larger-diameter welds as a group can be considered of secondary importance compared to riser and bypass welds. A ''blind'' comparison between the probability-based inspection samples and data from actual field inspections indicated that the probabilistic analysis generally captured the welds which the field inspections identified as warranting repair or replacement. Discrepancies between the field data and the analytic results can likely be attributed to simplifying assumptions made in the analysis. The overall agreement between analysis and field experience suggests that reliability techniques -- when combined with historical experience -- represent a sound technical basis on which to define meaningful weld inspection programs. 13 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  17. A k-out-of-n reliability system with an unreliable server and phase type repairs and services: the (N,T policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas R. Chakravarthy

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study a k-out-of-n reliability system in which a single unreliable server maintains n identical components. The reliability system is studied under the (N,T policy. An idle server takes a vacation for a random amount of time T and then attends to any failed component waiting in line upon completion of the vacation. The vacationing server is recalled instantaneously upon the failure of the Nth component. The failure times of the components are assumed to follow an exponential distribution. The server is subject to failure with failure times exponentially distributed. Repair times of the component, fixing times of the server, and vacationing times of the server are assumed to be of phase type. Using matrix-analytic methods we perform steady state analysis of this model. Time spent by a failed component in service, total time in the repair facility, vacation time of the server, non-vacation time of the server, and time until failure of the system are all shown to be of phase type. Several performance measures are evaluated. Illustrative numerical examples are presented.

  18. SDI: Statistical dynamic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blann, M.; Mustafa, M.G.; Peilert, G.; Stoecker, H.; Greiner, W.

    1991-01-01

    We focus on the combined statistical and dynamical aspects of heavy ion induced reactions. The overall picture is illustrated by considering the reaction 36 Ar + 238 U at a projectile energy of 35 MeV/nucleon. We illustrate the time dependent bound excitation energy due to the fusion/relaxation dynamics as calculated with the Boltzmann master equation. An estimate of the mass, charge and excitation of an equilibrated nucleus surviving the fast (dynamic) fusion-relaxation process is used as input into an evaporation calculation which includes 20 heavy fragment exit channels. The distribution of excitations between residue and clusters is explicitly calculated, as is the further deexcitation of clusters to bound nuclei. These results are compared with the exclusive cluster multiplicity measurements of Kim et al., and are found to give excellent agreement. We consider also an equilibrated residue system at 25% lower initial excitation, which gives an unsatisfactory exclusive multiplicity distribution. This illustrates that exclusive fragment multiplicity may provide a thermometer for system excitation. This analysis of data involves successive binary decay with no compressional effects nor phase transitions. Several examples of primary versus final (stable) cluster decay probabilities for an A = 100 nucleus at excitations of 100 to 800 MeV are presented. From these results a large change in multifragmentation patterns may be understood as a simple phase space consequence, invoking neither phase transitions, nor equation of state information. These results are used to illustrate physical quantities which are ambiguous to deduce from experimental fragment measurements. 14 refs., 4 figs

  19. SDI CFD MODELING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-05-05

    The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Organization requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to mix and blend the miscible contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank; such as, Tank 50H, to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The transient CFD governing equations consisting of three momentum equations, one mass balance, two turbulence transport equations for kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and one species transport were solved by an iterative technique until the species concentrations of tank fluid were in equilibrium. The steady-state flow solutions for the entire tank fluid were used for flow pattern analysis, for velocity scaling analysis, and the initial conditions for transient blending calculations. A series of the modeling calculations were performed to estimate the blending times for various jet flow conditions, and to investigate the impact of the cooling coils on the blending time of the tank contents. The modeling results were benchmarked against the pilot scale test results. All of the flow and mixing models were performed with the nozzles installed at the mid-elevation, and parallel to the tank wall. From the CFD modeling calculations, the main results are summarized as follows: (1) The benchmark analyses for the CFD flow velocity and blending models demonstrate their consistency with Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) and literature test results in terms of local velocity measurements and experimental observations. Thus, an application of the established criterion to SRS full scale tank will provide a better, physically-based estimate of the required mixing time, and elevation of transfer pump for minimum sludge disturbance. (2) An empirical equation for a tank with no cooling coils agrees reasonably with the current modeling results for the dual jet. (3) From the sensitivity study of the cooling coils, it was found that the tank mixing time for the coiled tank was about two times longer than that of the tank fluid with no coils under the 1/10th scale, while the coiled tank required only 50% longer than the one without coils under the full scale Tank 50H. In addition, the time difference is reduced when the pumping U{sub o}d{sub o} value is increased for a given tank. (4) The blending time for T-shape dual jet pump is about 20% longer than that of 15{sup o} upward V-shape pump under the 1/10th pilot-scale tank, while the time difference between the two pumps is about 12% for the full-scale Tank 50H. These results are consistent with the literature information. (5) A transfer pump with a solid-plate suction screen operating at 130 gpm can be located 9.5 inches above settled sludge for 2 in screen height in a 85 ft waste tank without disturbing any sludge. Detailed results are summarized in Table 13. Final pump performance calculations were made by using the established CW pump design, and operating conditions to satisfy the two requirements of minimum sludge disturbance, and adequate blending of tank contents. The final calculation results show that the blending times for the coiled and uncoiled tanks coupled with the CW pump design are 159 and 83 minutes, respectively. All the results are provided in Table 16.

  20. SDI-100 radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Zheng; Zhao Yongfu; Dai Honggui

    1995-01-01

    An intelligent radiation dosimeter, with such functions as signal collection and data processing, store, print and display, has been developed. Its detector is made of a micro-semiconductor. This dosimeter can be used in laboratories for agricultural 60 Co irradiators, radiotherapeutic facilities and other small and medium-size 60 Co irradiators

  1. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  2. Health Services OutPatient Experience questionnaire: factorial validity and reliability of a patient-centered outcome measure for outpatient settings in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coluccia A

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Anna Coluccia, Fabio Ferretti, Andrea PozzaDepartment of Medical Sciences, Surgery and Neurosciences, Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyPurpose: The patient-centered approach to health care does not seem to be sufficiently developed in the Italian context, and is still characterized by the biomedical model. In addition, there is a lack of validated outcome measures to assess outpatient experience as an aspect common to a variety of settings. The current study aimed to evaluate the factorial validity, reliability, and invariance across sex of the Health Services OutPatient Experience (HSOPE questionnaire, a short ten-item measure of patient-centeredness for Italian adult outpatients. The rationale for unidimensionality of the measure was that it could cover global patient experience as a process common to patients with a variety of diseases and irrespective of the phase of treatment course.Patients and methods: The HSOPE was compiled by 1,532 adult outpatients (51% females, mean age 59.22 years, standard deviation 16.26 receiving care in ten facilities at the Santa Maria alle Scotte University Hospital of Siena, Italy. The sample represented all the age cohorts. Twelve percent were young adults, 57% were adults, and 32% were older adults. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to evaluate factor structure. Reliability was evaluated as internal consistency using Cronbach’s α. Factor invariance was assessed through multigroup analyses.Results: Both exploratory and confirmatory analyses suggested a clearly defined unidimensional structure of the measure, with all the ten items having salient loadings on a single factor. Internal consistency was excellent (α=0.95. Indices of model fit supported a single-factor structure for both male and female outpatient groups. Young adult outpatients had significantly lower scores on perceived patient-centeredness relative to older adults. No

  3. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  4. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  5. Construction of nuclear special information service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Whan; Yi, Ji Ho; Chun, Young Choon; Yoo, Jae Bok; Yoo, An Na; Choi, Heon Soo

    2012-01-01

    Domestic INIS project has carried out various activities on supporting a decision-making for INIS Secretariat, exchanges of the statistical information between INIS and the country, and technical assistance for domestic end-users using INIS database. Based on the construction of INIS database sent by member states, the data published in the country has been gathered, collected, and inputted to INIS database according to the INIS reference series. Using the INIS output data, it has provided domestic users with searching INIS CD-ROM DB, INIS online database, INIS SDI service, and non-conventional literature delivery services. INIS2 DB Host site in Korea has serviced users of domestic and INIS member countries. In order to maintain the same data as Vienna center, the data update process has been performed. Also, publicity information activities were performed by many ways. To construct digital information infrastructure, we changed web server of KORNIS21 and we reconstruct digital library system as separation of KAERI network system. We constructed patent trend analysis system and new SDI service system. Also we collected Web DB, digital journals and so on and made an effort on operation of knowledge management system and research documents management. We have inputted over 4,000 records per year since 2009 and the input amount this year has reached 4,284 records. In order to input the comprehensive domestic publication related to nuclear energy, and rise in position of the national center, it is necessary to continue efforts and support budgets. We expect the INIS2 DB Host site will make a contribution to the improvement of productivity in the nuclear energy research as well as the diffusion of information about nuclear energy. We provided users with stable services changing web server of KORNIS21. Also we contributed to the improvement of researcher's productivity by constructing patent trend analysis system, new SDI service system and provided users with services

  6. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  7. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  8. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  9. Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardeman, F.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of the services section is (1) to offer complete services in health-physics measurements according to international quality standards, (2) to improve continuously these measurement techniques and to follow up international recommendations and legislation concerning the surveillance of workers, (3) to support and advise nuclear and non-nuclear industry on problems of radioactive contamination. Achievements related to gamma spectrometry, whole-body counting, beta and alpha spectrometry, dosimetry, radon measurements, calibration, instrumentation, and neutron activation analysis are described

  10. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  11. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  12. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  13. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  14. Increasing in-service reliability and measurement accuracy in the indicator measurement technology; Erhoehung der Betriebssicherheit und der Messgenauigkeit in der Indizier-Messtechnik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonntag, R.; Kaenel, A. von; Gossweiler, C.; Wolfer, P. [Kistler Instrumente AG, Winterthur (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    The developers of pressure-sensors are faced with new challenges by actual trends in engine design, particularly by the increase in number and range of functions within a more compact packaging, and the steadily rising demands for greater measurement accuracy. The methodology of the systematic analysis of measurement uncertainties is demonstrated against the background of achieving increased in-service reliability and measurement accuracy in indicated pressure measurement technology. Examples of current practice are given to validate the methodology. The main focus is on demonstrating ways to optimize sensor properties. Detailed consideration is given to short-time drift as a result of thermal shock effects, also to methods and the potential of acceleration-compensation. One should also not neglect external influences on the measurement accuracy of a measurement chain. This is tackled by analysis of installation prerequisites and proposals for design optimization. It can be shown, by means of a simulation procedure, which measurement errors can be caused by a sensor-sensitivity being incorrectly set, i.e. one which does not best suit the pressure range of the engine. From this, one can deduct the benefits of a sensor-identification device that automatically selects and installs in the amplifier the sensitivity which best suits the pressure range of the engine. (orig.) [German] Aktuelle Trends im Motorenbau, insbesondere Funktionssteigerungen bei kompakterem Packaging, and stetig wachsende Genauigkeitsanforderungen stellen die Entwickler von Drucksensoren vor neue Herausforderungen. Vor dem Hintergrund, Betriebssicherheit und Messgenauigkeit in der Indizier-Messtechnik zu verbessern, wird die gewaehlte Methode der systematischen Analyse der Messunsicherheit dargelegt und durch Praxisbeispiele konkretisiert. Schwerpunktmaessig wird die Optimierung von Sensoreigenschaften dargestellt. Detailliert werden Kurzzeitdrift als Folge des Thermoschockeffektes, Methode und

  15. An evaluation of commissioning arrangements for intrauterine and subdermal contraception services from general practitioners in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Richard; Brown, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    General practitioners (GPs) in the UK may be commissioned to provide long-acting reversible contraception (LARC), which may have a role in reducing rates of abortion and unintended pregnancies. Primary care trusts (PCTs) in England had commissioning arrangements with GPs to provide LARC but little is known about such contractual arrangements. We studied the commissioning arrangements in some London PCTs to evaluate the cost and clinical governance of these contracts. We requested commissioning contract specifications and activities for intrauterine contraception (IUC) and subdermal implants (SDI) from responsible officers in each PCT in London relating to activities in three financial years, namely 2009/2010 to 2011/2012. We evaluated each contract using a structure, process and outcome approach. Half (15/31) the PCTs responded and submitted 20 contracts used to commission their GPs to provide IUC, SDI or a combination of these with testing for sexually transmitted infections. The information regarding service activity was inadequate and inconsistent so had to be abandoned. Information from 20 contracts suggested there was a variation in clinical governance and quality assurance mechanisms; there was also a range in the reimbursement for IUC insertion (£77.50 to £105.00), SDI insertion (£25.00 to £81.31) and SDI removal (£30.00 to £100.00) at 2011 prices. It was not clear from non-responders if these PCTs had a service in place. Of those that did commission IUC and SDI services, some specifications were lacking in detail regarding aspects of clinical governance. New commissioners should make explicit references to quality and safety criteria as poor-quality specifications can give rise to serious untoward incidents and litigation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  17. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  18. Understanding health-related quality of life in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury: Establishing the reliability and validity of PROMIS Fatigue and Sleep Disturbance item banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Ianni, Phillip A; Tulsky, David S; Brickell, Tracey A; Lange, Rael T; French, Louis M; Cella, David; Kallen, Michael A; Miner, Jennifer A; Kratz, Anna L

    2018-06-19

    To examine the reliability and validity of Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in TBI caregivers and to determine the severity of fatigue and sleep disturbance in these caregivers. Cross-sectional survey data collected through an online data capture platform. Four rehabilitation hospitals and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Caregivers (N=560) of civilians (n=344) and service member/veterans (n=216) with TBI. Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS sleep and fatigue measures administered as both computerized adaptive tests (CATs) and 4-item short forms (SFs). For both samples, floor and ceiling effects for the PROMIS measures were low (internal consistency was very good (all alphas ≥0.80), and test-retest reliability was acceptable (all r≥0.70 except for the fatigue CAT in the service member/veteran sample r=0.63). Convergent validity was supported by moderate correlations between the PROMIS and related measures. Discriminant validity was supported by low correlations between PROMIS measures and measures of dissimilar constructs. PROMIS scores indicated significantly worse sleep and fatigue for those caring for someone with high levels versus low levels of impairment. Findings support the reliability and validity of the PROMIS CAT and SF measures of sleep disturbance and fatigue in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with TBI. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Understanding Health-related Quality of Life in Caregivers of Civilians and Service Members/Veterans with Traumatic Brain Injury: Establishing the Reliability and Validity of PROMIS Mental Health Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlozzi, Noelle E; Hanks, Robin; Lange, Rael T; Brickell D Psych, Tracey A; Ianni, Phillip A; Miner, Jennifer A; French Psy D, Louis M; Kallen, Michael A; Sander, Angelle M

    2018-06-19

    To provide important reliability and validity data to support the use of the PROMIS Mental Health measures in caregivers of civilians or service members/veterans with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patient-reported outcomes surveys administered through an electronic data collection platform. Three TBI Model Systems rehabilitation hospitals, an academic medical center, and a military medical treatment facility. 560 caregivers of individuals with a documented TBI (344 civilians and 216 military) INTERVENTION: Not Applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: PROMIS Anxiety, Depression, and Anger Item Banks RESULTS: Internal consistency for all of the PROMIS Mental Health item banks was very good (all α > .86) and three-week test retest reliability was good to adequate (ranged from .65 to .85). Convergent validity and discriminant validity of the PROMIS measures was also supported. Caregivers of individuals that were low functioning had worse emotional HRQOL (as measured by the three PROMIS measures) than caregivers of high functioning individuals, supporting known groups validity. Finally, levels of distress, as measured by the PROMIS measures, were elevated for those caring for low-functioning individuals in both samples (rates ranged from 26.2% to 43.6% for caregivers of low-functioning individuals). Results support the reliability and validity of the PROMIS Anxiety, Depression, and Anger item banks in caregivers of civilians and service members/veterans with TBI. Ultimately, these measures can be used to provide a standardized assessment of HRQOL as it relates to mental health in these caregivers. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Teaming up to improve reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, E.A.; Ayres, D.J.; Lear, R.C. van

    1989-01-01

    Responding to increasingly stringent regulatory requirements, Babcock and Wilcox has teamed up with three specialist companies to provide services for nuclear utilities aiming to improve the performance of their valves and actuators. The services, which are outlined here, include inspection, repair, overhaul and valve and actuator reliability programmes. (author)

  1. User-driven generation of standard data services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Laura; Granell, Carlos; Gould, Michael; Huerta, Joaquín.

    2010-05-01

    Geospatial Information systems are experiencing the shift from monolithic to distributed environments (Bernard, 2003). Current research trends for discover and access of geospatial resources, in these distributed environments, are being addressed by deployment of interconnected Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) nodes at different scales to build a global spatial information infrastructure (Masser et al., 2008; Rajabifard et al., 2002). One of the challenges for implementing these global and multiscale SDIs is to agree with common standards in consideration with heterogeneity of various stakeholders [Masser 2005]. In Europe, the European Commission took the INSPIRE initiative to monitor the development of European SDIs. INSPIRE Directive addresses the need for web services to discover, view, transform, invoke, and download geospatial resources, which enable various stakeholders to share resources in an interoperable manner [INSPIRE 2007]. Such web services require technical specifications for the interoperability and harmonization of their SDIs [INSPIRE 2007]. Moreover, interoperability is ensured by a number of specification efforts, in the geo domain most prominently by ISO/TC 211 and the OpenGIS Consortium (OGC) (Bernard, 2003). Other research challenges regarding SDI are on one hand how to handle complexity by users in charge of maintaining SDIs as they grow, and on the other hand the fact the SDI maintenance and evolution should be guided (Bejar et al, 2009). So there is a motivation to improve the complex deployment mechanisms in SDI since there is a need of expertise and time to deploy resources and integrate them by means of standard services. In this context we present an architecture following the INSPIRE technical guidelines and therefore based on SDI principles. This architecture supports distributed applications and provides components to assist users in deploying and updating SDI resources. Therefore mechanisms and components for the automatic

  2. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  3. Laboratory evaluation of the Design Analysis Associates DAA H-3613i radar water-level sensor—Results of temperature, distance, and SDI-12 tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnley, Mark V.

    2016-09-30

    The Design Analysis Associates (DAA) DAA H-3613i radar water-level sensor (DAA H-3613i), manufactured by Xylem Incorporated, was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to manufacturer’s accuracy specifications for measuring a distance throughout the sensor’s operating temperature range, for measuring distances from 3 to 15 feet at ambient temperatures, and for compliance with the SDI-12 serial-to-digital interface at 1200-baud communication standard. The DAA H-3613i is a noncontact water-level sensor that uses pulsed radar to measure the distance between the radar and the water surface from 0.75 to 131 feet over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). Manufacturer accuracy specifications that were evaluated, the test procedures that followed, and the results obtained are described in this report. The sensor’s accuracy specification of ± 0.01 feet (± 3 millimeters) meets USGS requirements for a primary water-stage sensor used in the operation of a streamgage. The sensor met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for water-level measurements during temperature testing at a distance of 8 feet from the target over its temperature-compensated operating range of −40 to 60 °C, except at 60 °C. At 60 °C, about half the measurements exceeded the manufacturer’s accuracy specification by not more than 0.005 feet.The sensor met the manufacturer’s stated accuracy specifications for water-level measurements during distance-accuracy testing at the tested distances from 3 to 15 feet above the water surface at the HIF.

  4. Implementasi Wireless Quality of Service Dengan Metode Load Switching Jaringan Seluler Menggunakan Software Defined Network Untuk Meningkatkan Network Reliability Pada Jaringan Dinamis

    OpenAIRE

    Pranawa, Yoga Bayu Aji; Ijtihadie, Royyana Muslim; Wibisono, Waskitho

    2017-01-01

    Wireless Quality of Service (QOS) adalah salah satu dimensi mobilitas, yaitu sebuah metode yang digunakan untuk menjaga kualitas suatu jaringan nirkabel. QOS diperlukan sebagai sebuah metode untuk memenuhi kriteria pelayanan sistem bagi pengguna, yaitu confidentiality, integrity, dan availability. Beberapa aspek yang menjadi topik utama dalam QOS adalah failure and recovery mechanism, variable bandwidth, computing distribution, discovery mechanism, variable lantency, dan performance feedback....

  5. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  6. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  7. The computer vision in the service of safety and reliability in steam generators inspection services; La vision computacional al servicio de la seguridad y fiabilidad en los servicios de inspeccion en generadores de vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineiro Fernandez, P.; Garcia Bueno, A.; Cabrera Jordan, E.

    2012-07-01

    The actual computational vision has matured very quickly in the last ten years by facilitating new developments in various areas of nuclear application allowing to automate and simplify processes and tasks, instead or in collaboration with the people and equipment efficiently. The current computer vision (more appropriate than the artificial vision concept) provides great possibilities of also improving in terms of the reliability and safety of NPPS inspection systems.

  8. Problematics of Reliability of Road Rollers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stawowiak, Michał; Kuczaj, Mariusz

    2018-06-01

    This article refers to the reliability of road rollers used in a selected roadworks company. Information on the method of road rollers service and how the service affects the reliability of these rollers is presented. Attention was paid to the process of the implemented maintenance plan with regard to the machine's operational time. The reliability of road rollers was analyzed by determining and interpreting readiness coefficients.

  9. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  10. Application of reliability methods in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, R.; Ravishankar, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ontario Hydro have established a reliability program in support of its substantial nuclear program. Application of the reliability program to achieve both production and safety goals is described. The value of such a reliability program is evident in the record of Ontario Hydro's operating nuclear stations. The factors which have contributed to the success of the reliability program are identified as line management's commitment to reliability; selective and judicious application of reliability methods; establishing performance goals and monitoring the in-service performance; and collection, distribution, review and utilization of performance information to facilitate cost-effective achievement of goals and improvements. (orig.)

  11. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  12. Reliability of the SF-36 in Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and its associations with disease activity and damage: a two-consecutive year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, S; Katsumata, Y; Okamoto, Y; Kawaguchi, Y; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2018-03-01

    We aimed to validate the reliability of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36) among Japanese patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Japanese patients with SLE ( n = 233) completed the SF-36 and other related demographic questionnaires, and physicians simultaneously completed the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) and the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index (SDI). Patients were prospectively followed for a repeat assessment the following year. The SF-36 subscales demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α of 0.85-0.89), and an overall good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.70). The average baseline SF-36 subscale/summary scores except for "bodily pain" were significantly lower than those of the Japanese general population ( p 36 subscale/summary scores except for "vitality" and "mental component summary" at baseline, whereas the SLEDAI-2K did not. In the second year, "social functioning" and "mental component summary" of the SF-36 deteriorated among patients whose SDI or SLEDAI-2K score increased (effect sizes 36 demonstrated acceptable reliability among Japanese patients with SLE. Health-related quality of life measured by the SF-36 was reduced in Japanese patients with SLE and associated with disease damage, rather than disease activity.

  13. 78 FR 69018 - Improving the Resiliency of Mobile Wireless Communications Networks; Reliability and Continuity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... consumers value overall network reliability and quality in selecting mobile wireless service providers, they...-125] Improving the Resiliency of Mobile Wireless Communications Networks; Reliability and Continuity... (Reliability NOI) in 2011 to ``initiate a comprehensive examination of issues regarding the reliability...

  14. Geo-communication, web-services, and spatial data infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Lars; Nielsen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of web-services as index-portals based on geo-information has changed the conditions for both content and form of geo-communication. A high number of players and interactions as well as a very high number of all kinds of information and combinations of these caracterise web...... looks very complex, and it will get even more complex. Therefore, there is a strong need for theories and models that can describe this complex web in the SDI and geo-communication consisting of active components, passive components, users, and information in order to make it possible to handle...

  15. Inequity in access to dental care services explains current socioeconomic disparities in oral health: the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamala, Sarah; Merlo, Juan; Boström, Gunnel

    2006-12-01

    To analyse the effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on access to dental care services and on oral health. Design, setting and outcomes: Cross-sectional data from the Swedish National Surveys of Public Health 2004 and 2005. Outcomes were poor oral health (self-rated oral health and symptoms of periodontal disease) and lack of access to dental care services. A socioeconomic disadvantage index (SDI) was developed, consisting of social welfare beneficiary, being unemployed, financial crisis and lack of cash reserves. Swedish population-based sample of 17 362 men and 20 037 women. Every instance of increasing levels of socioeconomic disadvantage was associated with worsened oral health but, simultaneously, with decreased utilisation of dental care services. After adjusting for age, men with a mild SDI compared with those with no SDI had 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.5 to 3.0) times the odds for self-rated poor oral health, whereas odds related to severe SDI were 6.8 (95% CI 6.2 to 7.5). The corresponding values among women were 2.3 (95% CI 2.1 to 2.5) and 6.8 (95% CI 6.3 to 7.5). Nevertheless, people with severe socioeconomic disparities were 7-9 times as likely to refrain from seeking the required dental treatment. These associations persisted even after controlling for living alone, education, occupational status and lifestyle factors. Lifestyle factors explained only 29% of the socioeconomic differences in poor oral health among men and women, whereas lack of access to dental care services explained about 60%. The results of the multilevel regression analysis indicated no additional effect of the administrative boundaries of counties or of municipalities in Sweden. Results call for urgent public health interventions to increase equitable access to dental care services.

  16. Time-dependent non-probability reliability analysis of corroded pipeline in service%在役腐蚀管道动态非概率可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宗平

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion is one of the primary failure mode of pressurized pipelines .Research on relia-bility of the corroded pipelines has important theoretical significance and application value .Ade-quate data is necessary for probabilistic reliability model and fuzzy reliability model used to ana-lyze the reliability of corroded pipelines .In case of insufficient information was available ,the un-certain parameters of yield strength ,pipeline diameter ,defect depths ,operating pressure and so on were described as interval variables to make up the gap by using the uncertain information of the corroded pipelines well .Time-dependent non-probability reliability model of the corroded pipeline in service was established based on the interval model .A simple method for the remaining life prediction of the corroded pipelines was given .A numerical example had been used to illustrate the proposed method .T he result show s that the proposed method is feasible and reasonable and procticable .Finally a sensitivity analysis was carried out on interval variables involved in the problem .The effects of the coefficient of variation of pipeline wall thickness ,defect depths ,oper-ating pressures and corrosion velocity on non-probability reliability index of the corroded pipelines were evaluated .The results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the non-probability reliability in-dex is the most sensitive to the coefficient of variation of pipeline wall thickness interval variable .%腐蚀失效是压力管道失效的主要形式之一,研究腐蚀管道的可靠性具有重要理论意义和应用价值。在对腐蚀管道可靠性分析时,概率可靠性模型和模糊可靠性模型对于数据信息的要求较高。而在掌握不确定性信息很少情况下,为了充分利用管道的不确定性信息弥补原始数据的不足,可将腐蚀管道可靠性分析中的材料屈服强度、管道直径、缺陷深度和操作压力等不确定参数视为区间变量,

  17. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, W.

    1993-01-01

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  18. Sigma: computer vision in the service of safety and reliability in the inspection services; Sigma: la vision computacional al servicio de la seguridad y fiabilidad en los servicios de inspeccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineiro, P. J.; Mendez, M.; Garcia, A.; Cabrera, E.; Regidor, J. J.

    2012-11-01

    Vision Computing is growing very fast in the last decade with very efficient tools and algorithms. This allows new development of applications in the nuclear field providing more efficient equipment and tasks: redundant systems, vision-guided mobile robots, automated visual defects recognition, measurement, etc., In this paper Tecnatom describes a detailed example of visual computing application developed to provide secure redundant identification of the thousands of tubes existing in a power plant steam generator. some other on-going or planned visual computing projects by Tecnatom are also introduced. New possibilities of application in the inspection systems for nuclear components appear where the main objective is to maximize their reliability. (Author) 6 refs.

  19. Project for Establishing a Selected Dissemination of Information Service for the Faculty Members at Education and Psychology Faculty, University of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Fadaei

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The project aim was to establish an SDI (Selected Dissemination of Information service for the faculty members at University of Tehran, faculty of psychology and education. The project was carried out during the 2006-2007 period. First, a three stage survey was conducted to identify the information needs which were then served using a current awareness service over the period. Findings confirmed that the SDI project significantly impacted on the faculty information seeking behavior. Furthermore, there had been evidence supporting the fact that it has also influenced the quality of instruction by facilitating the overall efficacy of information sources collected. It was the intent of researchers to expand this project at later stages to include all humanities faculties in the university and if possible at a national level.

  20. Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Eric

    2012-01-01

    A holistic approach to service reliability and availability of cloud computing Reliability and Availability of Cloud Computing provides IS/IT system and solution architects, developers, and engineers with the knowledge needed to assess the impact of virtualization and cloud computing on service reliability and availability. It reveals how to select the most appropriate design for reliability diligence to assure that user expectations are met. Organized in three parts (basics, risk analysis, and recommendations), this resource is accessible to readers of diverse backgrounds and experience le

  1. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  2. The Validity and Reliability Characteristics of the M-BACK Questionnaire to Assess the Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge of Mental Health Staff Regarding Metabolic Health of Mental Health Service Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watkins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAddressing the burden of poor physical health and the subsequent gap in life expectancy experienced by people with mental illness is a major priority in mental health services. To equip mental health staff with the competence to deliver evidence-based interventions, targeted staff training regarding metabolic health is required. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of staff training regarding metabolic health, we aimed to develop a succinct measure to determine the barriers, attitudes, confidence, and knowledge of health practitioners through the development and test–retest reliability of the Metabolic-Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge Questionnaire (M-BACK.MethodsThe M-BACK questionnaire was developed to evaluate the impact of specialized training in metabolic health care for mental health nurses. Content of the M-BACK was developed from a literature review and refined by an expert review panel and validated via a piloting process. To determine the test–retest reliability of the M-BACK, 31 nursing students recruited from the University of Notre Dame, Sydney completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated for the total score, as well as each of the four domains.ResultsPilot testing was undertaken with a sample of 106 mental health nurses with a mean age 48.2, ranging from 24 to 63 years of age, who participated in six training courses. Questionnaire development resulted in a 16-item instrument, with each item is scored on a five-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Test–retest reliability of the M-BACK was completed by 30 of 31 nursing students recruited, ICCs ranged from 0.62 to 0.96.ConclusionThe M-BACK is a reliable measure of the key elements of practitioner perceptions of barriers, and their knowledge, attitudes, and confidence regarding metabolic monitoring in people with mental

  3. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  4. Service reliability and urban public transport design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oort, N.

    2011-01-01

    The last few decades have shown a substantial increase in personal mobility. Urban traffic and transport volumes have been increasing for years. However, the share of public transport in this mobility growth did not change much and still remains rather limited. To ensure the accessibility and

  5. A need for in service inspection reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, F.; Samman, J.

    1988-01-01

    Electricite de France, the French electrical utility, has developed both lab and field testing means for non destructive testing equipment as part of its overall quality assurance program. These testing means are presented by the authors, The quality assurance program is discussed

  6. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  7. Architecture of a spatial data service system for statistical analysis and visualization of regional climate changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, A. G.; Okladnikov, I. G.; Gordov, E. P.

    2017-11-01

    The use of large geospatial datasets in climate change studies requires the development of a set of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) elements, including geoprocessing and cartographical visualization web services. This paper presents the architecture of a geospatial OGC web service system as an integral part of a virtual research environment (VRE) general architecture for statistical processing and visualization of meteorological and climatic data. The architecture is a set of interconnected standalone SDI nodes with corresponding data storage systems. Each node runs a specialized software, such as a geoportal, cartographical web services (WMS/WFS), a metadata catalog, and a MySQL database of technical metadata describing geospatial datasets available for the node. It also contains geospatial data processing services (WPS) based on a modular computing backend realizing statistical processing functionality and, thus, providing analysis of large datasets with the results of visualization and export into files of standard formats (XML, binary, etc.). Some cartographical web services have been developed in a system’s prototype to provide capabilities to work with raster and vector geospatial data based on OGC web services. The distributed architecture presented allows easy addition of new nodes, computing and data storage systems, and provides a solid computational infrastructure for regional climate change studies based on modern Web and GIS technologies.

  8. Reliability and continuous regeneration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pavlisková

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure-free function of an object is very important for the service. This leads to the interest in the determination of the object reliability and failure intensity. The reliability of an element is defined by the theory of probability.The element durability T is a continuous random variate with the probability density f. The failure intensity (tλ is a very important reliability characteristics of the element. Often it is an increasing function, which corresponds to the element ageing. We disposed of the data about a belt conveyor failures recorded during the period of 90 months. The given ses behaves according to the normal distribution. By using a mathematical analysis and matematical statistics, we found the failure intensity function (tλ. The function (tλ increases almost linearly.

  9. power system reliability in supplying nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, M.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    this thesis presents a simple technique for deducing minimal cut set (MCS) from the defined minimal path set (MPS) of generic distribution system and this technique have been used to evaluate the basic reliability indices of Egypt's second research reactor (ETRR-2) electrical distribution network. the alternative system configurations are then studied to evaluate their impact on service reliability. the proposed MCS approach considers both sustained and temporary outage. the temporary outage constitutes an important parameter in characterizing the system reliability indices for critical load point in distribution system. it is also consider the power quality impact on the reliability indices

  10. Guarantee of reliability of devices complexes for plastic tube welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskresenskij, L.A.; Zajtsev, A.I.; Nelyubov, V.I.; Fedorov, M.A.

    1988-01-01

    Results of calculations and experimental studies on providing reliability of complex for plastic tube welding are presented. Choice of reliability indeces and standards is based. Reliability levels of components are determined. The most waded details are calculated. It is shown that they meet the reqrurements of strength and reliability. Service life tests supported the correct choice of springs. Recommendations on elevating reliability are given. Directions of further developments are shown. 8 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Enhancing discovery in spatial data infrastructures using a search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Corti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A spatial data infrastructure (SDI is a framework of geospatial data, metadata, users and tools intended to provide an efficient and flexible way to use spatial information. One of the key software components of an SDI is the catalogue service which is needed to discover, query and manage the metadata. Catalogue services in an SDI are typically based on the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW standard which defines common interfaces for accessing the metadata information. A search engine is a software system capable of supporting fast and reliable search, which may use ‘any means necessary’ to get users to the resources they need quickly and efficiently. These techniques may include full text search, natural language processing, weighted results, fuzzy tolerance results, faceting, hit highlighting, recommendations and many others. In this paper we present an example of a search engine being added to an SDI to improve search against large collections of geospatial datasets. The Centre for Geographic Analysis (CGA at Harvard University re-engineered the search component of its public domain SDI (Harvard WorldMap which is based on the GeoNode platform. A search engine was added to the SDI stack to enhance the CSW catalogue discovery abilities. It is now possible to discover spatial datasets from metadata by using the standard search operations of the catalogue and to take advantage of the new abilities of the search engine, to return relevant and reliable content to SDI users.

  12. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  13. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  14. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  15. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  16. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  17. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  18. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  19. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  20. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  1. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  2. Semi-Automatic Operational Service for Drought Monitoring and Forecasting in the Tuscany Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Magno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A drought-monitoring and forecasting system developed for the Tuscany region was improved in order to provide a semi-automatic, more detailed, timely and comprehensive operational service for decision making, water authorities, researchers and general stakeholders. Ground-based and satellite data from different sources (regional meteorological stations network, MODIS Terra satellite and CHIRPS/CRU precipitation datasets are integrated through an open-source, interoperable SDI (spatial data infrastructure based on PostgreSQL/PostGIS to produce vegetation and precipitation indices that allow following of the occurrence and evolution of a drought event. The SDI allows the dissemination of comprehensive, up-to-date and customizable information suitable for different end-users through different channels, from a web page and monthly bulletins, to interoperable web services, and a comprehensive climate service. The web services allow geospatial elaborations on the fly, and the geo-database can be increased with new input/output data to respond to specific requests or to increase the spatial resolution.

  3. Services of the Czechoslovak Nuclear Information Centre, based on IAEA information sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufkova, M.

    1987-01-01

    Information services provided by the Nuclear Information Centre (NIC) as the sector information centre for the Czechoslovak nuclear programme proceed primarily from its membership of INIS. From INIS Atomindex tapes are computer-processed SDI searches, their price for one query is 3,948 Czechoslovak crowns per year. The user can at any time put forward a request for tuning or for a change of the initially requested query formulation. A copy of SDI searches is provided for 1,200 Czechoslovak crowns per annum to other interested persons or institutions who cannot, however, influence the query formulation. Since 1979, the NIC has been processing retrospective searches by direct online access to the INIS data base. The price of these searches ranges between 1,000 and 1,500 Czechoslovak crowns. Under the same conditions the NIC also provides retrospective searches from AGRIS. Since 1986, the NIC has extended its services by providing data from the UVTEI-UTZ data base centre in Prague. Retrospective searches can since 1985 be processed directly at the workplace of those interested, this through mobile terminals. All said services are followed up by services provided by the NIC library which contains more than 215,000 microfiches with full texts of nonconventional documents incorporated in INIS. (Z.M.)

  4. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  5. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  6. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability Using Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  7. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability using Smartcard Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  8. Reliability and safety of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, S.

    1979-01-01

    The main problems are briefly discussed associated with the assessment of the safety and reliability of reactor pressure vessels. Two approaches are being applied to the assessment: one is based on the crack arrest temperature, the other on the determination of conditions corresponding to brittle fracture formation and on the determination of the critical defect size. The importance is stressed of continuous in-service inspection which may increase the factor of reliability by up to 10 4 times. (Z.M.)

  9. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  10. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  11. The Application of Box–Cox Transformation to Determine the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI, the Standardised Discharge Index (SDI and to Identify Drought Events: Case Study in Eastern Kujawy (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Arkadiusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of research into the transformation of series of hydro-meteorological data for determining dry periods with the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI and the Standardised Discharge Index (SDI. Time series from eight precipitation stations and five series of river discharge data in Eastern Kujawy (central Poland were analysed for 1951–2010. The frequency distribution of the series for their convergence with the normal distribution was tested with the Shapiro–Wilk test and homogeneity with the Bartlett's test. The transformation of the series was done with the Box–Cox technique, which made it possible to homogenise the series in terms of variance. In Poland, the technique has never been used to determine the SPI. After the transformation the distributions of virtually all series complied with the normal distribution and were homogeneous. Moreover, a statistically significant correlation between the δ transformation parameter and the skewness of the series of monthly precipitation was observed. It was similar for the series of mean monthly discharges in the winter half-year and the hydrological year. The analysis indicates an alternate occurrence of dry and wet periods both in case of precipitation and run-offs. Drought periods coincided with low flow periods. Thus, the fluctuations tend to affect the development of agriculture more than long-term ones.

  12. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  13. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  14. Assessment of physical server reliability in multi cloud computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalyani, B. J. D.; Rao, Kolasani Ramchand H.

    2018-04-01

    Business organizations nowadays functioning with more than one cloud provider. By spreading cloud deployment across multiple service providers, it creates space for competitive prices that minimize the burden on enterprises spending budget. To assess the software reliability of multi cloud application layered software reliability assessment paradigm is considered with three levels of abstractions application layer, virtualization layer, and server layer. The reliability of each layer is assessed separately and is combined to get the reliability of multi-cloud computing application. In this paper, we focused on how to assess the reliability of server layer with required algorithms and explore the steps in the assessment of server reliability.

  15. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  16. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  17. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  18. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  19. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  20. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  1. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  2. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  3. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  4. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  5. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  6. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  7. Assuring Software Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    technologies and processes to achieve a required level of confidence that software systems and services function in the intended manner. 1.3 Security Example...that took three high-voltage lines out of service and a software fail- ure (a race condition3) that disabled the computing service that notified the... service had failed. Instead of analyzing the details of the alarm server failure, the reviewers asked why the following software assurance claim had

  8. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  9. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period

  10. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  11. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  13. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  14. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  15. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  16. Data Publishing Services in a Scientific Project Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Matthias; Stender, Vivien; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Data-intensive science lives from data. More and more interdisciplinary projects are aligned to mutually gain access to their data, models and results. In order to achieving this, an umbrella project GLUES is established in the context of the "Sustainable Land Management" (LAMA) initiative funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). The GLUES (Global Assessment of Land Use Dynamics, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Ecosystem Services) project supports several different regional projects of the LAMA initiative: Within the framework of GLUES a Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is implemented to facilitate publishing, sharing and maintenance of distributed global and regional scientific data sets as well as model results. The GLUES SDI supports several OGC webservices like the Catalog Service Web (CSW) which enables it to harvest data from varying regional projects. One of these regional projects is SuMaRiO (Sustainable Management of River Oases along the Tarim River) which aims to support oasis management along the Tarim River (PR China) under conditions of climatic and societal changes. SuMaRiO itself is an interdisciplinary and spatially distributed project. Working groups from twelve German institutes and universities are collecting data and driving their research in disciplines like Hydrology, Remote Sensing, and Agricultural Sciences among others. Each working group is dependent on the results of another working group. Due to the spatial distribution of participating institutes the data distribution is solved by using the eSciDoc infrastructure at the German Research Centre for Geosciences (GFZ). Further, the metadata based data exchange platform PanMetaDocs will be used by participants collaborative. PanMetaDocs supports an OAI-PMH interface which enables an Open Source metadata portal like GeoNetwork to harvest the information. The data added in PanMetaDocs can be labeled with a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) to publish the data and to

  17. A method to assign failure rates for piping reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, R.M.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a simplified method that has been developed to assign failure rates that can be used in reliability and risk studies of piping. The method can be applied on a line-by-line basis by identifying line and location specific attributes that can lead to piping unreliability from in-service degradation mechanisms and random events. A survey of service experience for nuclear piping reliability also was performed. The data from this survey provides a basis for identifying in-service failure attributes and assigning failure rates for risk and reliability studies

  18. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  19. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  20. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  1. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  2. Risk-based Optimization and Reliability Levels of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, H. F.

    Identification of optimum reliability levels for coastal structures is considered. A class of breakwaters is considered where no human injuries can be expected in cases of failure. The optimum reliability level is identified by minimizing the total costs over the service life of the structure, in...... on the minimumcost reliability levels is investigated for different values of the real rate of interest, the service lifetime, the downtime costs due to malfunction and the decommission costs.......Identification of optimum reliability levels for coastal structures is considered. A class of breakwaters is considered where no human injuries can be expected in cases of failure. The optimum reliability level is identified by minimizing the total costs over the service life of the structure...

  3. Risk-based Optimization and Reliability Levels of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2005-01-01

     Identification of optimum reliability levels for coastal structures is considered. A class of breakwaters is considered where no human injuries can be expected in cases of failure. The optimum reliability level is identified by minimizing the total costs over the service life of the structure, i...... on the minimumcost reliability levels is investigated for different values of the real rate of interest, the service lifetime, the downtime costs due to malfunction and the decommission costs....... Identification of optimum reliability levels for coastal structures is considered. A class of breakwaters is considered where no human injuries can be expected in cases of failure. The optimum reliability level is identified by minimizing the total costs over the service life of the structure...

  4. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  5. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  6. Integration of NDE Reliability and Fracture Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, F. L.; Doctor, S. R.; Heas!er, P. G.; Morris, C. J.; Pitman, S. G.; Selby, G. P.; Simonen, F. A.

    1981-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory is conducting a four-phase program for measuring and evaluating the effectiveness and reliability of in-service inspection (lSI} performed on the primary system piping welds of commercial light water reactors (LWRs). Phase I of the program is complete. A survey was made of the state of practice for ultrasonic rsr of LWR primary system piping welds. Fracture mechanics calculations were made to establish required nondestrutive testing sensitivities. In general, it was found that fatigue flaws less than 25% of wall thickness would not grow to failure within an inspection interval of 10 years. However, in some cases failure could occur considerably faster. Statistical methods for predicting and measuring the effectiveness and reliability of lSI were developed and will be applied in the "Round Robin Inspections" of Phase II. Methods were also developed for the production of flaws typical of those found in service. Samples fabricated by these methods wilI be used in Phase II to test inspection effectiveness and reliability. Measurements were made of the influence of flaw characteristics {i.e., roughness, tightness, and orientation) on inspection reliability. These measurernents, as well as the predictions of a statistical model for inspection reliability, indicate that current reporting and recording sensitivities are inadequate.

  7. Highly reliable TOFD UT Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acharya, G.D.; Trivedi, S.A.R.; Pai, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    The high performance of the time of flight diffraction technique (TOFD) with regard to the detection capabilities of weld defects such as crack, slag, lack of fusion has led to a rapidly increasing acceptance of the technique as a pre?service inspection tool. Since the early 1990s TOFD has been applied to several projects, where it replaced the commonly used radiographic testing. The use of TOM lead to major time savings during new build and replacement projects. At the same time the TOFD technique was used as base line inspection, which enables monitoring in the future for critical welds, but also provides documented evidence for life?time. The TOFD technique as the ability to detect and simultaneously size flows of nearly any orientation within the weld and heat affected zone. TOM is recognized as a reliable, proven technique for detection and sizing of defects and proven to be a time saver, resulting in shorter shutdown periods and construction project times. Thus even in cases where inspection price of TOFD per welds is higher, in the end it will result in significantly lower overall costs and improve quality. This paper deals with reliability, economy, acceptance criteria and field experience. It also covers comparative study between radiography technique Vs. TOFD. (Author)

  8. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  9. reliability analysis of a two span floor designed according

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    deterministic approach, considering both ultimate and serviceability limit states. Reliability analysis of the floor ... loading, strength and stiffness parameters, dimensions .... to show that there is a direct relation between the failure probability (Pf) ...

  10. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  11. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  12. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  13. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  14. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  15. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  16. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  17. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  18. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  19. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  20. Reliability and Utility of the Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Tool (BSP-QEII) for Auditing and Quality Development in Services for Adults with Intellectual Disability and Challenging Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVilly, K.; Webber, L.; Paris, M.; Sharp, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Having an objective means of evaluating the quality of behaviour support plans (BSPs) could assist service providers and statutory authorities to monitor and improve the quality of support provided to people with intellectual disability (ID) who exhibit challenging behaviour. The Behaviour Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide II…

  1. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  2. System reliability developments in structural engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two major limitations occur in present structural design code developments utilizing reliability theory. The notional system reliabilities may differ significantly from calibrated component reliabilities. Secondly, actual failures are often due to gross errors not reflected in most present code formats. A review is presented of system reliability methods and further new concepts are developed. The incremental load approach for identifying and expressing collapse modes is expanded by employing a strategy to identify and enumerate the significant structural collapse modes. It further isolates the importance of critical components in the system performance. Ductile and brittle component behavior and strength correlation is reflected in the system model and illustrated in several examples. Modal combinations for the system reliability are also reviewed. From these developments a system factor can be addended to component safety checking equations. Values may be derived from system behavior by substituting in a damage model which accounts for the response range from component failure to collapse. Other strategies are discussed which emphasize quality assurance during design and in-service inspection for components whose behavior is critical to the system reliability. (Auth.)

  3. Research Review: Test-retest reliability of standardized diagnostic interviews to assess child and adolescent psychiatric disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Comeau, Jinette; Wang, Li; Vitoroulis, Irene; Boyle, Michael H; Bennett, Kathryn

    2018-02-19

    A better understanding of factors contributing to the observed variability in estimates of test-retest reliability in published studies on standardized diagnostic interviews (SDI) is needed. The objectives of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to estimate the pooled test-retest reliability for parent and youth assessments of seven common disorders, and to examine sources of between-study heterogeneity in reliability. Following a systematic review of the literature, multilevel random effects meta-analyses were used to analyse 202 reliability estimates (Cohen's kappa = ҡ) from 31 eligible studies and 5,369 assessments of 3,344 children and youth. Pooled reliability was moderate at ҡ = .58 (CI 95% 0.53-0.63) and between-study heterogeneity was substantial (Q = 2,063 (df = 201), p reliability varied across informants for specific types of psychiatric disorder (ҡ = .53-.69 for parent vs. ҡ = .39-.68 for youth) with estimates significantly higher for parents on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant disorder and the broad groupings of externalizing and any disorder. Reliability was also significantly higher in studies with indicators of poor or fair study methodology quality (sample size reliability of SDIs and the usefulness of these tools in both clinical and research contexts. Potential remedies include the introduction of standardized study and reporting requirements for reliability studies, and exploration of other approaches to assessing and classifying child and adolescent psychiatric disorder. © 2018 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. SDI satellite autonomy using AI and Ada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, Harvey E.

    1990-01-01

    The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the programming language Ada to help a satellite recover from selected failures that could lead to mission failure are described. An unmanned satellite will have a separate AI subsystem running in parallel with the normal satellite subsystems. A satellite monitoring subsystem (SMS), under the control of a blackboard system, will continuously monitor selected satellite subsystems to become alert to any actual or potential problems. In the case of loss of communications with the earth or the home base, the satellite will go into a survival mode to reestablish communications with the earth. The use of an AI subsystem in this manner would have avoided the tragic loss of the two recent Soviet probes that were sent to investigate the planet Mars and its moons. The blackboard system works in conjunction with an SMS and a reconfiguration control subsystem (RCS). It can be shown to be an effective way for one central control subsystem to monitor and coordinate the activities and loads of many interacting subsystems that may or may not contain redundant and/or fault-tolerant elements. The blackboard system will be coded in Ada using tools such as the ABLE development system and the Ada Production system.

  5. DARPA, SDI, and GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karp, S.; Rooslid, S.

    1986-01-01

    When silicon replaced germanium in the early 1960's as the semiconductor of choice for solid state devices, it converted the entire industry in just a few years because of two important characteristics. First, silicon has a higher energy bandgap, which permits silicon-based devices to operate over a wider temperature range (a feature especially important to the military). Second, and more important, silicon has a native oxide that provided for improved stability and planar, rather than mesa, type devices. Planar technology soon spawned integrated circuits. The integrated circuit in turn brought on the electronics revolution, allowing the complexity of circuits to increase by a factor of two every year (Moore's Law) and bringing us from single transistors to megabit memory chips

  6. Short guide to SDI profiling at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerance, H.S.

    1976-06-01

    ORNL has machine-searchable data bases that correspond to printed indexes and abstracts. This guide describes the peculiarities of those several data bases and the conventions of the ORNL search system so that users can write their own queries or search profiles and can interpret the part of the output that is encoded.

  7. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  8. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  9. Reliability and protection against failure in computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, B.K.

    1979-01-01

    Computers are being increasingly integrated into the control and safety systems of large and potentially hazardous industrial processes. This development introduces problems which are particular to computer systems and opens the way to new techniques of solving conventional reliability and availability problems. References to the developing fields of software reliability, human factors and software design are given, and these subjects are related, where possible, to the quantified assessment of reliability. Original material is presented in the areas of reliability growth and computer hardware failure data. The report draws on the experience of the National Centre of Systems Reliability in assessing the capability and reliability of computer systems both within the nuclear industry, and from the work carried out in other industries by the Systems Reliability Service. (author)

  10. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  11. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  12. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  13. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  14. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  15. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  16. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  17. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  18. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  19. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  20. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  1. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  2. The impact of reliability on the productivity of railroad companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera; Lijesen, Mark; Pels, Eric

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between reliability (proxied by punctuality) and productivity in passenger railroad services. Increasing reliability may lower productivity, as it requires inputs, that can’t be used to produce outputs. The relationship between reliability and productivity also...... runs through other factors, in which case a positive relationship may be expected. We apply data envelopment analysis and the Malmquist index approach to a panel of seven European railway systems to explore this relationship. Our empirical results suggest that increasing reliability does not harm...... the productivity of railway operations and aiming to improve both may be a feasible strategy. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. A Test of Reliability of the Personnel Dosimetry Services Authorized by CSN using Photon Beams; Control de los servicios de dosimetria personal autorizados por el CSN, usando haces de fotones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosed, A; Delgado, A; Granados, C E; Lopez Ortiz, G

    1987-07-01

    In 1987 the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) had eight Personnel Dosimetry Services (PDS) authorized to asses the equivalent doses to the spanish occupationally exposed workers, by means of the readings from the dosemeters wear by them. An audit was carried on the PDS on behalf of CSN under the control of CIEMAT. Batches of dosemeters from each one of the PDS were irradiated to dose equivalent values which were well established by CIEMAT but kept hidden from the PDS. By comparing the true values with those obtained by the PDS, it was possible to evaluate the Services according to the analysis of the quantity Q= I B I -I- S where B is the average of the individual deviations between the dosemeters belonging to the same group and the true value as established by CIEMAT, whereas S is the standard deviation of the values inside of this same group. The results of the evaluation, which was made using the new ICRU quantities for personnel monitoring, are presented. (Author) 8 refs.

  4. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  5. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  6. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  7. Construction of nuclear special information service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Tae Whan; Lee, Kyu Jeong; Yi, Ji Ho; Chun, Young Choon; Yoo, Jae Bok; Yoo, An Na

    2009-02-01

    Domestic INIS project has carried out various activities on supporting a decision-making for INIS Secretariat, exchanges of the statistical information between INIS and the country,and technical assistance for domestic end-users using INIS database. Based on the construction of INIS database sent by member states, the data published in the country has been gathered, collected, and inputted to INIS database according to the INIS reference series. Using the INIS output data, it has provided domestic users with searching INIS CD-ROM DB, INIS online database, INIS SDI service, and non-conventional literature delivery services. INIS2 DB Host site in Korea has serviced users of domestic and INIS member countries. In order to maintain the same data as Vienna center, the data update process has been performed. Also, publicity information activities were performed by many ways. To construct digital information infrastructure, we changed web server of NUCLIS21 and upgraded information management manager system and constructed full text DB on research and technical reports. Also we collected web DB, digital journals and so on and made an effort on operation of knowledge management system and research documents management. We have inputted over 3,000 records per year since 2002 and the input amount this year has reached 3,738 records. In order to input the comprehensive domestic publication related to nuclear energy, and rise in position of the national center, it is necessary to continue efforts and support budgets. We expect the INIS2 DB Host site will make a contribution to the improvement of productivity in the nuclear energy research as well as the diffusion of information about nuclear energy. We provided users with stable services changing web server of NUCLIS21. Also we contributed to the improvement of librarians' productivity by upgrading information management manager system and provided users with services of web DB, digital journals and so on

  8. Improve reliability, service life expectation and cost-reduction in automotive electronics through innovative PCB-technology; Verbesserung der Zuverlaessigkeit, Lebensdauer und Kostensenkung in der Automotive-Elektronik durch innovative Leiterplattentechnologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinhold, Michael [European Institute of Printed Circuits (EIPC), Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2012-11-01

    In modern automotive technology, the costs of electronics have a major impact on the total cost of a car. According to BOSCH in Germany, 40% of a modern car cost is related to electronics. The Printed Circuit Boards represent about 5 to 8% of the cost for electronic devices used in advanced automobiles. For the functionality of the cars, the electronics represent the highest risk factor for mobility today. The vendors of the electronic devices must guarantee a service life of 15 years or 150 thousand miles today. However, many of the electronic components and/or the manufacturing technology do not have a history over such a long period. The paper will outline ways how these height demands in automotive may be fulfilled. (orig.)

  9. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  10. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  11. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  12. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  13. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  14. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  15. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  16. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  17. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  18. Push technology at Argonne National Laboratory.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noel, R. E.; Woell, Y. N.

    1999-04-06

    Selective dissemination of information (SDI) services, also referred to as current awareness searches, are usually provided by periodically running computer programs (personal profiles) against a cumulative database or databases. This concept of pushing relevant content to users has long been integral to librarianship. Librarians traditionally turned to information companies to implement these searches for their users in business, academia, and the science community. This paper describes how a push technology was implemented on a large scale for scientists and engineers at Argonne National Laboratory, explains some of the challenges to designers/maintainers, and identifies the positive effects that SDI seems to be having on users. Argonne purchases the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Current Contents data (all subject areas except Humanities), and scientists no longer need to turn to outside companies for reliable SDI service. Argonne's database and its customized services are known as ACCESS (Argonne-University of Chicago Current Contents Electronic Search Service).

  19. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  20. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2004-01-01

    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  1. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  2. Usage of Wireless Sensor Networks in a service based spatial data infrastructure for Landslide Monitoring and Early Warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhardt, C.; Fernandez-Steeger, T. M.; Walter, K.; Kallash, A.; Niemeyer, F.; Azzam, R.; Bill, R.

    2007-12-01

    The joint project Sensor based Landslide Early Warning System (SLEWS) aims at a systematic development of a prototyping alarm- and early warning system for the detection of mass movements by application of an ad hoc wireless sensor network (WSN). Next to the development of suitable sensor setups, sensor fusion and network fusion are applied to enhance data quality and reduce false alarm rates. Of special interest is the data retrieval, processing and visualization in GI-Systems. Therefore a suitable serviced based Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) will be developed with respect to existing and upcoming Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards.The application of WSN provides a cheap and easy to set up solution for special monitoring and data gathering in large areas. Measurement data from different low-cost transducers for deformation observation (acceleration, displacement, tilting) is collected by distributed sensor nodes (motes), which interact separately and connect each other in a self-organizing manner. Data are collected and aggregated at the beacon (transmission station) and further operations like data pre-processing and compression can be performed. The WSN concept provides next to energy efficiency, miniaturization, real-time monitoring and remote operation, but also new monitoring strategies like sensor and network fusion. Since not only single sensors can be integrated at single motes either cross-validation or redundant sensor setups are possible to enhance data quality. The planned monitoring and information system will include a mobile infrastructure (information technologies and communication components) as well as methods and models to estimate surface deformation parameters (positioning systems). The measurements result in heterogeneous observation sets that have to be integrated in a common adjustment and filtering approach. Reliable real-time information will be obtained using a range of sensor input and algorithms, from which early warnings

  3. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  4. Software reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.; Bradley, P.A.; Brewer, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    The increased usage and sophistication of computers applied to real time safety-related systems in the United Kingdom has spurred on the desire to provide a standard framework within which to assess dependable computing systems. Recent accidents and ensuing legislation have acted as a catalyst in this area. One particular aspect of dependable computing systems is that of software, which is usually designed to reduce risk at the system level, but which can increase risk if it is unreliable. Various organizations have recognized the problem of assessing the risk imposed to the system by unreliable software, and have taken initial steps to develop and use such assessment frameworks. This paper relates the approach of Consultancy Services of AEA Technology in developing a framework to assess the risk imposed by unreliable software. In addition, the paper discusses the experiences gained by Consultancy Services in applying the assessment framework to commercial and research projects. The framework is applicable to software used in safety applications, including proprietary software. Although the paper is written with Nuclear Reactor Safety applications in mind, the principles discussed can be applied to safety applications in all industries

  5. On Quality of Service Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Chen

    1999-01-01

    A quality of service (QoS) management framework for systems is presented that satisfies application needs along multiple dimensions such as timeliness, reliability, cryptographic security and other application specific quality requirements...

  6. Quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, J.; Charon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Concern for obtaining high-quality products which will function properly when required to do so is nothing new - it is one manifestation of a conscientious attitude to work. However, the complexity and cost of equipment and the consequences of even temporary immobilization are such that it has become necessary to make special arrangements for obtaining high-quality products and examining what one has obtained. Each unit within an enterprise must examine its own work or arrange for it to be examined; a unit whose specific task is quality assurance is responsible for overall checking, but does not relieve other units of their responsibility. Quality assurance is a form of mutual assistance within an enterprise, designed to remove the causes of faults as far as possible. It begins very early in a project and continues through the ordering stage, construction, start-up trials and operation. Quality and hence reliability are the direct result of what is done at all stages of a project. They depend on constant attention to detail, for even a minor piece of poor workmanship can, in the case of an essential item of equipment, give rise to serious operational difficulties

  7. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  8. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...... identification. Application of the proposed method can be found in many real world systems....

  9. Fault recovery in the reliable multicast protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, John R.; Montgomery, Todd L.; Whetten, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The Reliable Multicast Protocol (RMP) provides a unique, group-based model for distributed programs that need to handle reconfiguration events at the application layer. This model, called membership views, provides an abstraction in which events such as site failures, network partitions, and normal join-leave events are viewed as group reformations. RMP provides access to this model through an application programming interface (API) that notifies an application when a group is reformed as the result of a some event. RMP provides applications with reliable delivery of messages using an underlying IP Multicast (12, 5) media to other group members in a distributed environment even in the case of reformations. A distributed application can use various Quality of Service (QoS) levels provided by RMP to tolerate group reformations. This paper explores the implementation details of the mechanisms in RMP that provide distributed applications with membership view information and fault recovery capabilities.

  10. DIRAC reliable data management for LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, A C

    2008-01-01

    DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites ...

  11. Risk and reliability assessment for telecommunications networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyss, G.D.; Schriner, H.K.; Gaylor, T.R.

    1996-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has assembled an interdisciplinary team to explore the applicability of probabilistic logic modeling (PLM) techniques to model network reliability for a wide variety of communications network architectures. The authors have found that the reliability and failure modes of current generation network technologies can be effectively modeled using fault tree PLM techniques. They have developed a ``plug-and-play`` fault tree analysis methodology that can be used to model connectivity and the provision of network services in a wide variety of current generation network architectures. They have also developed an efficient search algorithm that can be used to determine the minimal cut sets of an arbitrarily-interconnected (non-hierarchical) network without the construction of a fault tree model. This paper provides an overview of these modeling techniques and describes how they are applied to networks that exhibit hybrid network structures (i.e., a network in which some areas are hierarchical and some areas are not hierarchical).

  12. FRAMATOME nuclear services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.; Buttin, J.

    1985-05-01

    FRAMATOME is a French company whose main activities since 1958 have been the design and manufacture of standardized PWR Nuclear Steam Supply Systems. FRAMATOME builds the Reactor Coolant System components and installs and starts-up the extended Nuclear Steam Supply Systems. In addition to the supply of spare parts of tooling, the services offered by Framatome are implementation of backfits aimed at performance and safety improvement and equipment reliability, technical assistance and, maintenance and repair services

  13. A physical review on power system reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navid, Taghizadegan; Ahmad Reza, Zentabchi; Mohammad Ali, Tavakoli; Nader, Samsunchi; Mohammad Ali, Tavakoli

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Planning and design engineers and management must necessarily take into consideration the funds available, the requirements of regulatory agencies and other restrictions that may be imposed, as well as availability of equipment and supplies. A well-designed electrical power system strikes a reasonable between reliability and cost. A prime responsibility of power system operators is to operate their systems in such a way that will provide the maximum reliability of service possible with the facilities under their control

  14. Reliability of Broadcast Communications Under Sparse Random Linear Network Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Suzie; Johnson, Oliver; Tassi, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    Ultra-reliable Point-to-Multipoint (PtM) communications are expected to become pivotal in networks offering future dependable services for smart cities. In this regard, sparse Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) techniques have been widely employed to provide an efficient way to improve the reliability of broadcast and multicast data streams. This paper addresses the pressing concern of providing a tight approximation to the probability of a user recovering a data stream protected by this kin...

  15. Study of redundant Models in reliability prediction of HXMT's HES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinming; Liu Congzhan; Zhang Zhi; Ji Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Two redundant equipment structures of HXMT's HES are proposed firstly, the block backup and dual system cold-redundancy. Then prediction of the reliability is made by using parts count method. Research of comparison and analysis is also performed on the two proposals. A conclusion is drawn that a higher reliability and longer service life could be offered by taking a redundant equipment structure of block backup. (authors)

  16. Confiabilidade dos dados antropométricos obtidos em crianças atendidas na Rede Básica de Saúde de Alagoas Reliability of anthropometric data obtained in children seen at the Primary Public Healthcare Service Network in Alagoas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amália de Alencar Lima

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O monitoramento do crescimento infantil constitui-se em importante ferramenta para a construção de indicadores úteis ao planejamento de políticas e ações de atenção à saúde da criança. Para isso é necessário que os dados antropométricos obtidos apresentem satisfatória confiabilidade. OBJETIVO: Investigar a confiabilidade dos dados antropométricos produzidos nos Estabelecimentos de Assistência à Saúde (EAS do SUS em Alagoas. MÉTODOS: Para composição da amostra, sortearam-se 20 dentre os 102 municípios do Estado. Em seguida, dois EAS por município e, nestes, cerca de dez crianças menores de cinco anos. A amostra foi constituída de 40 EAS e 347 crianças. As medidas antropométricas (peso e estatura foram aferidas (1 na rotina do serviço (S; (2 pelo pesquisador utilizando equipamento padrão (P e; (3 pesquisador usando equipamentos do serviço (PS. RESULTADOS: A aplicação do teste Kappa indicou concordância "substancial" (K = 0,69 nas classificações de peso-para-idade (PI entre S e P e "quase perfeita" (K = 0,83 entre PS e P. Quanto à altura-para-idade (AI, a concordância entre S e P foi "discreta" (K = 0,27, passando a "moderada" (K = 0,56 entre PS e P. O Erro Técnico da Medição segundo faixas etárias ( 24 meses indicou problemas na técnica e nos equipamentos. As medidas de peso corporal obtidas em S foram sistematicamente superestimadas (p INTRODUCTION: Monitoring child growth is a very important tool not only to build useful indicators for the evaluation and planning of public policies, but also for appropriate care to child health. In order to accomplish that anthropometric data from services need to present satisfactory reliability. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the reliability of weight and height variables obtained from children at public healthcare services (PHS of Alagoas. METHODS: To build the sample, 20 municipalities were drawn among the 102 of the state. Then, two PHS were drawn per

  17. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1986-05-01

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  18. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  19. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  20. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  1. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  2. Ultra-Reliable Communication in 5G Wireless Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Popovski, Petar

    2014-01-01

    —Wireless 5G systems will not only be “4G, but faster”. One of the novel features discussed in relation to 5G is Ultra-Reliable Communication (URC), an operation mode not present in today’s wireless systems. URC refers to provision of certain level of communication service almost 100 % of the time....... Example URC applications include reliable cloud connectivity, critical connections for industrial automation and reliable wireless coordination among vehicles. This paper puts forward a systematic view on URC in 5G wireless systems. It starts by analyzing the fundamental mechanisms that constitute......-term URC (URC-S). The second dimension is represented by the type of reliability impairment that can affect the communication reliability in a given scenario. The main objective of this paper is to create the context for defining and solving the new engineering problems posed by URC in 5G....

  3. RTE - 2015 Reliability Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This report includes a number of results from previous years so that year-to-year comparisons can be drawn and long-term trends analysed. The 2015 report underlines the major factors that have impacted on the reliability of the electrical power system, without focusing exclusively on Significant System Events (ESS). It describes various factors which contribute to present and future reliability and the numerous actions implemented by RTE to ensure reliability today and in the future, as well as the ways in which the various parties involved in the electrical power system interact across the whole European interconnected network

  4. Techniques for increasing the reliability of accelerator control system electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utterback, J.

    1993-09-01

    As the physical size of modern accelerators becomes larger and larger, the number of required control system circuit boards increases, and the probability of one of those circuit boards failing while in service also increases. In order to do physics, the experimenters need the accelerator to provide beam reliably with as little down time as possible. With the advent of colliding beams physics, reliability becomes even more important due to the fact that a control system failure can cause the loss of painstakingly produced antiprotons. These facts prove the importance of keeping reliability in mind when designing and maintaining accelerator control system electronics

  5. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brumleve, T D [Plowshare Systems Research Division, Sandia Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)

    1970-05-15

    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  6. Chapter 3: Photovoltaic Module Stability and Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk; Kurtz, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Profits realized from investment in photovoltaic will benefit from decades of reliable operation. Service life prediction through accelerated tests is only possible if indoor tests duplicate power loss and failure modes observed in fielded systems. Therefore, detailing and quantifying power loss and failure modes is imperative. In the first section, we examine recent trends in degradation rates, the gradual power loss observed for different technologies, climates and other significant factors. In the second section, we provide a summary of the most commonly observed failure modes in fielded systems.

  7. Reliability implications for commercial Plowshare applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumleve, T.D.

    1970-01-01

    Based on the premise that there will always be a finite chance of a Plowshare project failure, the implications of such a failure are examined. It is suggested that the optimum reliability level will not necessarily be the highest attainable, but rather that which results in minimum average project cost. The type of performance guarantee that the U. S. should provide for nuclear explosive services, the determination of nuclear yield, courses of action to take in the event of failure, and methods to offset remedial costs are discussed. (author)

  8. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  9. Transmission embedded cost allocation methodology with consideration of system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, D.; Park, J.-K.; Yoo, C.-I.; Kim, B.H.

    2004-01-01

    In a vertically integrated utility industry, the cost of reliability, as a separate service, has not received much rigorous analysis. However, as a cornerstone of restructuring the industry, the transmission service pricing must change to be consistent with, and supportive of, competitive wholesale electricity markets. This paper focuses on the equitable allocation of transmission network embedded costs including the transmission reliability cost based on the contributions of each generator to branch flows under normal conditions as well as the line outage impact factor under a variety of load levels. A numerical example on a six-bus system is given to illustrate the applications of the proposed methodology. (author)

  10. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  11. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  12. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  13. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  14. Linking Service Quality Attributes To Customer Satisfaction in The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study was to determine the service quality dimensions of mobile phone services-network performance, service reliability and service accessibility, and to ex-amine the service quality/customer satisfaction link within the context of mobile phone services. An exploratory research design using a quantitative ...

  15. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  16. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  17. Reliable Location-Based Services from Radio Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Enge

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Loran is a radio-based navigation system originally designed for naval applications. We show that Loran-C’s high-power and high repeatable accuracy are fantastic for security applications. First, we show how to derive a precise location tag—with a sensitivity of about 20 meters—that is difficult to project to an exact location. A device can use our location tag to block or allow certain actions, without knowing its precise location. To ensure that our tag is reproducible we make use of fuzzy extractors, a mechanism originally designed for biometric authentication. We build a fuzzy extractor specifically designed for radio-type errors and give experimental evidence to show its effectiveness. Second, we show that our location tag is difficult to predict from a distance. For example, an observer cannot predict the location tag inside a guarded data center from a few hundreds of meters away. As an application, consider a location-aware disk drive that will only work inside the data center. An attacker who steals the device and is capable of spoofing Loran-C signals, still cannot make the device work since he does not know what location tag to spoof. We provide experimental data supporting our unpredictability claim.

  18. Reliability, Availability and Serviceability of Networks-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Cota, Érika; Soares Lubaszewski, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the issues related to the test, diagnosis and fault-tolerance of Network on Chip-based systems. It is the first book dedicated to the quality aspects of NoC-based systems and will serve as an invaluable reference to the problems, challenges, solutions, and trade-offs related to designing and implementing state-of-the-art, on-chip communication architectures.

  19. Reliability In A White Rabbit Network

    CERN Document Server

    Lipiński, M; Wlostowski, T; Prados, C

    2011-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a time-deterministic, low-latency Ethernet-based network which enables transparent, subns accuracy timing distribution. It is being developed to replace the General Machine Timing (GMT) system currently used at CERN and will become the foundation for the control system of the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI. High reliability is an important issue inWR’s design, since unavailability of the accelerator’s control system will directly translate into expensive downtime of the machine. A typical WR network is required to lose not more than a single message per year. Due toWR’s complexity, the translation of this real-world-requirement into a reliability-requirement constitutes an interesting issue on its own – a WR network is considered functional only if it provides all its services to all its clients at any time. This paper defines reliability in WR and describes how it was addressed by dividing it into sub-domains: deterministic packet delivery, data resilience...

  20. DIRAC: reliable data management for LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A C; Tsaregorodtsev, A

    2008-01-01

    DIRAC, LHCb's Grid Workload and Data Management System, utilizes WLCG resources and middleware components to perform distributed computing tasks satisfying LHCb's Computing Model. The Data Management System (DMS) handles data transfer and data access within LHCb. Its scope ranges from the output of the LHCb Online system to Grid-enabled storage for all data types. It supports metadata for these files in replica and bookkeeping catalogues, allowing dataset selection and localization. The DMS controls the movement of files in a redundant fashion whilst providing utilities for accessing all metadata. To do these tasks effectively the DMS requires complete self integrity between its components and external physical storage. The DMS provides highly redundant management of all LHCb data to leverage available storage resources and to manage transient errors in underlying services. It provides data driven and reliable distribution of files as well as reliable job output upload, utilizing VO Boxes at LHCb Tier1 sites to prevent data loss. This paper presents several examples of mechanisms implemented in the DMS to increase reliability, availability and integrity, highlighting successful design choices and limitations discovered

  1. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective under...

  2. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  3. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  4. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  5. Reliability Evaluation on Creep Life Prediction of Alloy 617 for a Very High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Hong, Sung-Deok; Kim, Yong-Wan; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Seon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the reliability of creep rupture life under service conditions of Alloy 617, which is considered as one of the candidate materials for use in a very high temperature reactor (VHTR) system. A Z-parameter, which represents the deviation of creep rupture data from the master curve, was used for the reliability analysis of the creep rupture data of Alloy 617. A Service-condition Creep Rupture Interference (SCRI) model, which can consider both the scattering of the creep rupture data and the fluctuations of temperature and stress under any service conditions, was also used for evaluating the reliability of creep rupture life. The statistical analysis showed that the scattering of creep rupture data based on Z-parameter was supported by normal distribution. The values of reliability decreased rapidly with increasing amplitudes of temperature and stress fluctuations. The results established that the reliability decreased with an increasing service time.

  6. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  7. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  8. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  9. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  10. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  11. Integration of nondestructive examination reliability and fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Bates, D.J.; Charlot, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The primary pressure boundaries (pressure vessels and piping) of nuclear power plants are in-service inspected (ISI) according to the rules of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section XI. Ultrasonic techniques are normally used for these inspections, which are periodically performed on a sampling of welds. The Integration of Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability and Fracture Mechanics (FM) Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established to determine the reliability of current ISI techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this NRC program are to: 1) determine the reliability of ultrasonic ISI performed on commercial light-water reactor primary systems; 2) using probabilistic FM analysis, determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety and determine the level of inspection reliability required to ensure a suitably low failure probability; 3) evaluate the degree of reliability improvement that could be achieved using improved and advanced NDE techniques; and 4) based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties, formulate recommended revisions to ASME Code, Section XI, and Regulatory Requirements needed to ensure suitably low failure probabilities

  12. Reliability analysis of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; John Arul, A.; Pal Singh, Om; Suryaprakasa Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of reliability analysis of Shutdown System (SDS) of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Reliability analysis carried out using Fault Tree Analysis predicts a value of 3.5 x 10 -8 /de for failure of shutdown function in case of global faults and 4.4 x 10 -8 /de for local faults. Based on 20 de/y, the frequency of shutdown function failure is 0.7 x 10 -6 /ry, which meets the reliability target, set by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The reliability is limited by Common Cause Failure (CCF) of actuation part of SDS and to a lesser extent CCF of electronic components. The failure frequency of individual systems is -3 /ry, which also meets the safety criteria. Uncertainty analysis indicates a maximum error factor of 5 for the top event unavailability

  13. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  14. Transportation reliability and trip satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Travel delays and associated costs have become a major problem in Michigan over the : past several decades as congestion has continued to increase, creating significant negative : impacts on travel reliability on many roadways throughout the State. T...

  15. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  16. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  17. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen Ringi, M

    1995-05-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person`s state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs.

  18. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen Ringi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person's state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs

  19. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  20. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  1. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  2. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  3. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  4. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  5. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  6. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  7. evaluation of willingness to pay for reliable and sustainable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Osondu

    evaluate the WTP for reliable and sustainable service delivery. The findings of the study .... In doing this, the revenue base and cost recovery will as well be enhanced in ..... delays at traffic warden controlled urban intersections: case study of ...

  8. effect of uncertainty on the fatigue reliability of reinforced concrete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a reliability time-variant fatigue analysis and uncertainty effect on the serviceability of reinforced concrete bridge deck was carried out. A simply supported 15m bridge deck was specifically used for the investigation. Mathematical models were developed and the uncertainties in structural resistance, applied ...

  9. Improvement of AC motor reliability from technique standardization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muniz, P.R.; Faria, M.D.R.; Mendes, M.P.; Silva, J.N.; Dos Santos, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the increase of reliability of motors serviced in the Electrical Maintenance Shop of Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao by standardization of the technique based on Brazilian and International Standards, manufacturer's recommendations and the experience of the maintenance staff. (author)

  10. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  11. Assessment of the Reliability Profiles for Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper calculation of reliability profiles is discussed. ULS as well as SLS limit states are formulated. Corrosion due to chloride penetration is the considered deterioration mechanism. Three models for corrosion are formulated. A definition of service lifetime for concrete bridges...

  12. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  13. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature

  14. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: rabia.khelif@ifma.fr; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: alaa.chateauneuf@polytech.univ-bpclermont.fr; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: chaoui@univ-annaba.org

    2007-12-15

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  15. Impact of inservice inspection on the reliability of nuclear piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, H.H.

    1983-12-01

    The reliability of nuclear piping is a function of piping quality as fabricated, service loadings and environments, plus programs of continuing inspection during operation. This report presents the results of a study of the impact of inservice inspection (ISI) programs on the reliability of specific nuclear piping systems that have actually failed in service. Two major factors are considered in the ISI programs: one is the capability of detecting flaws; the other is the frequency of performing ISI. A probabilistic fracture mechanics model issued to estimate the reliability of two nuclear piping lines over the plant life as functions of the ISI programs. Examples chosen for the study are the PWR feedwater steam generator nozzle cracking incident and the BWR recirculation reactor vessel nozzle safe-end cracking incident

  16. Cost analysis of reliability investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1981-01-01

    Taking Epsteins testing theory as a basis, premisses are formulated for the selection of cost-optimized reliability inspection plans. Using an example, the expected testing costs and inspection time periods of various inspection plan types, standardized on the basis of the exponential distribution, are compared. It can be shown that sequential reliability tests usually involve lower costs than failure or time-fixed tests. The most 'costly' test is to be expected with the inspection plan type NOt. (orig.) [de

  17. Nonparametric predictive inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.; Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Yan, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a recently developed statistical approach, called nonparametric predictive inference (NPI), to reliability. Bounds for the survival function for a future observation are presented. We illustrate how NPI can deal with right-censored data, and discuss aspects of competing risks. We present possible applications of NPI for Bernoulli data, and we briefly outline applications of NPI for replacement decisions. The emphasis is on introduction and illustration of NPI in reliability contexts, detailed mathematical justifications are presented elsewhere

  18. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  19. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  20. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  1. Cloud services, networking, and management

    CERN Document Server

    da Fonseca, Nelson L S

    2015-01-01

    Cloud Services, Networking and Management provides a comprehensive overview of the cloud infrastructure and services, as well as their underlying management mechanisms, including data center virtualization and networking, cloud security and reliability, big data analytics, scientific and commercial applications. Special features of the book include: State-of-the-art content. Self-contained chapters for readers with specific interests. Includes commercial applications on Cloud (video services and games).

  2. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  3. Fuel reliability experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Four nuclear reactors have operated in Finland now for 35-38 years. The two VVER-440 units at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant are operated by Fortum and two BWR’s in Olkiluoto are operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The fuel reliability experience of the four reactors operating currently in Finland has been very good and the fuel failure rates have been very low. Systematic inspection of spent fuel assemblies, and especially all failed assemblies, is a good practice that is employed in Finland in order to improve fuel reliability and operational safety. Investigation of the root cause of fuel failures is important in developing ways to prevent similar failures in the future. The operational and fuel reliability experience at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant has been reported also earlier in the international seminars on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. In this paper the information on fuel reliability experience at Loviisa NPP is updated and also a short summary of the fuel reliability experience at Olkiluoto NPP is given. Keywords: VVER-440, fuel reliability, operational experience, poolside inspections, fuel failure identification. (author)

  4. Reliability issues : a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konow, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Canadian perspective of power reliability issues was presented. Reliability depends on adequacy of supply and a framework for standards. The challenges facing the electric power industry include new demand, plant replacement and exports. It is expected that demand will by 670 TWh by 2020, with 205 TWh coming from new plants. Canada will require an investment of $150 billion to meet this demand and the need is comparable in the United States. As trade grows, the challenge becomes a continental issue and investment in the bi-national transmission grid will be essential. The 5 point plan of the Canadian Electricity Association is to: (1) establish an investment climate to ensure future electricity supply, (2) move government and industry towards smart and effective regulation, (3) work to ensure a sustainable future for the next generation, (4) foster innovation and accelerate skills development, and (5) build on the strengths of an integrated North American system to maximize opportunity for Canadians. The CEA's 7 measures that enhance North American reliability were listed with emphasis on its support for a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards. CEA also supports the creation of a binational Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to identify and solve reliability issues in the context of a bi-national grid. tabs., figs

  5. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs

  6. Reliability demonstration methodology for products with Gamma Process by optimal accelerated degradation testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Xiang; Tan, Yuanyuan; Wang, Yashun

    2015-01-01

    For products with high reliability and long lifetime, accelerated degradation testing (ADT) may be adopted during product development phase to verify whether its reliability satisfies the predetermined level within feasible test duration. The actual degradation from engineering is usually a strictly monotonic process, such as fatigue crack growth, wear, and erosion. However, the method for reliability demonstration by ADT with monotonic degradation process has not been investigated so far. This paper proposes a reliability demonstration methodology by ADT for this kind of product. We first apply Gamma process to describe the monotonic degradation. Next, we present a reliability demonstration method by converting the required reliability level into allowable cumulative degradation in ADT and comparing the actual accumulative degradation with the allowable level. Further, we suggest an analytical optimal ADT design method for more efficient reliability demonstration by minimizing the asymptotic variance of decision variable in reliability demonstration under the constraints of sample size, test duration, test cost, and predetermined decision risks. The method is validated and illustrated with example on reliability demonstration of alloy product, and is applied to demonstrate the wear reliability within long service duration of spherical plain bearing in the end. - Highlights: • We present a reliability demonstration method by ADT for products with monotonic degradation process, which may be applied to verify reliability with long service life for products with monotonic degradation process within feasible test duration. • We suggest an analytical optimal ADT design method for more efficient reliability demonstration, which differs from the existed optimal ADT design for more accurate reliability estimation by different objective function and different constraints. • The methods are applied to demonstrate the wear reliability within long service duration of

  7. How reliable are Functional Movement Screening scores? A systematic review of rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Robert W; Schneiders, Anthony G; Major, Katherine M; Sullivan, S John

    2016-05-01

    Several physical assessment protocols to identify intrinsic risk factors for injury aetiology related to movement quality have been described. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a standardised, field-expedient test battery intended to assess movement quality and has been used clinically in preparticipation screening and in sports injury research. To critically appraise and summarise research investigating the reliability of scores obtained using the FMS battery. Systematic literature review. Systematic search of Google Scholar, Scopus (including ScienceDirect and PubMed), EBSCO (including Academic Search Complete, AMED, CINAHL, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition), MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus. Studies meeting eligibility criteria were assessed by 2 reviewers for risk of bias using the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies checklist. Overall quality of evidence was determined using van Tulder's levels of evidence approach. 12 studies were appraised. Overall, there was a 'moderate' level of evidence in favour of 'acceptable' (intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.6) inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for composite scores derived from live scoring. For inter-rater reliability of composite scores derived from video recordings there was 'conflicting' evidence, and 'limited' evidence for intra-rater reliability. For inter-rater reliability based on live scoring of individual subtests there was 'moderate' evidence of 'acceptable' reliability (κ≥0.4) for 4 subtests (Deep Squat, Shoulder Mobility, Active Straight-leg Raise, Trunk Stability Push-up) and 'conflicting' evidence for the remaining 3 (Hurdle Step, In-line Lunge, Rotary Stability). This review found 'moderate' evidence that raters can achieve acceptable levels of inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of composite FMS scores when using live ratings. Overall, there were few high-quality studies, and the quality of several studies was impacted by poor study reporting particularly in relation to

  8. A Novel Reliability Enhanced Handoff Method in Future Wireless Heterogeneous Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang YuPeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As the demand increases, future networks will follow the trends of network variety and service flexibility, which requires heterogeneous type of network deployment and reliable communication method. In practice, most communication failure happens due to the bad radio link quality, i.e., high-speed users suffers a lot on the problem of radio link failure, which causes the problem of communication interrupt and radio link recovery. To make the communication more reliable, especially for the high mobility users, we propose a novel communication handoff mechanism to reduce the occurrence of service interrupt. Based on computer simulation, we find that the reliability on the service is greatly improved.

  9. Bring Your Own Device - Providing Reliable Model of Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stąpór Paweł

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a model of Bring Your Own Device (BYOD as a model network, which provides the user reliable access to network resources. BYOD is a model dynamically developing, which can be applied in many areas. Research network has been launched in order to carry out the test, in which as a service of BYOD model Work Folders service was used. This service allows the user to synchronize files between the device and the server. An access to the network is completed through the wireless communication by the 802.11n standard. Obtained results are shown and analyzed in this article.

  10. Development of the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Bott, T.F.; Knee, H.E.; Manning, J.J.; Hudson, S.D.; Greene, N.M.; Woodside, M.A.

    1979-01-01

    CREDO has been established to meet the needs of the US Breeder Reactor Program and the advanced reactor community for a centralized source of accurate reliability/maintainability data and data-related services. The center provides for a comprehensive program of collection, evaluation, and dissemination of data and for necessary user services. A steering committee of nationally recognized experts has been formed to guide CREDO development and operation. Historic data have been collected, analyzed, and published. Routine, continuous data collection and processing has been initiated at US sites. Interfaces with existing data bases have been established. Special user services are under development

  11. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  12. Reliability analysis under epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannapaneni, Saideep; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic framework to include both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty within model-based reliability estimation of engineering systems for individual limit states. Epistemic uncertainty is considered due to both data and model sources. Sparse point and/or interval data regarding the input random variables leads to uncertainty regarding their distribution types, distribution parameters, and correlations; this statistical uncertainty is included in the reliability analysis through a combination of likelihood-based representation, Bayesian hypothesis testing, and Bayesian model averaging techniques. Model errors, which include numerical solution errors and model form errors, are quantified through Gaussian process models and included in the reliability analysis. The probability integral transform is used to develop an auxiliary variable approach that facilitates a single-level representation of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. This strategy results in an efficient single-loop implementation of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and FORM/SORM techniques for reliability estimation under both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Two engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Epistemic uncertainty due to data and model included in reliability analysis. • A novel FORM-based approach proposed to include aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. • A single-loop Monte Carlo approach proposed to include both types of uncertainties. • Two engineering examples used for illustration.

  13. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  14. Service Degradation in Context Management Frameworks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shawky, Ahmed; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2011-01-01

    information. The paper considers a developed framework from the ICT project, OPEN, and investigates the impact of applying Differentiated Services (DiffServ) Quality of Services (QoS). The paper finally provides insight in how the insight gained can be utilized to ensure reliable remote accessed context......Context aware network services are a new and inter-esting way to enhance network users experience. A context aware application/service enhances network performance in relation to dynamic context information, e.g. mobility, location and device information as it senses and reacts to environment...... changes. The reliability of the information accessed is a key factor in achieving reliable context aware application. This paper will review the service degradation in Context Management Frameworks (CMF) and the effect of high network utilization, with particular focus on the reliability of the accessed...

  15. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  16. Structural Optimization with Reliability Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1986-01-01

    During the last 25 years considerable progress has been made in the fields of structural optimization and structural reliability theory. In classical deterministic structural optimization all variables are assumed to be deterministic. Due to the unpredictability of loads and strengths of actual......]. In this paper we consider only structures which can be modelled as systems of elasto-plastic elements, e.g. frame and truss structures. In section 2 a method to evaluate the reliability of such structural systems is presented. Based on a probabilistic point of view a modern structural optimization problem...... is formulated in section 3. The formulation is a natural extension of the commonly used formulations in determinstic structural optimization. The mathematical form of the optimization problem is briefly discussed. In section 4 two new optimization procedures especially designed for the reliability...

  17. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  18. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...

  19. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  20. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  1. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  2. Product reliability and the reliability of its emanating operational processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Geudens, W.H.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of proper reliability management in business operations today, facing increasing demands on essential business drivers such as time to market, quality and financial profit. In this paper a general method is described of how to achieve product quality in a highly

  3. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  4. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  5. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  6. The problem of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in safety and reliability assessment of the software of industrial computer systems is reviewed and likely progress over the next few years is identified and compared with the perceived needs of the user. Some of the current projects contributing to the development of new techniques for assessing software reliability are described. One is the software test and evaluation method which looked at the faults within and between two manufacturers specifications, faults in the codes and inconsistencies between the codes and specifications. The results are given. (author)

  7. Safety and reliability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the ESRA Pre-Launching Meeting. The meeting was attended by about eighty European reliability and safety experts from industry, research organizations and universities. This meeting was dealing with the following subjects: the historical perspective of safety and reliability in Europe and to the aims of ESRA. Status and Trends in Research and Development; Codes, Standards and Regulations; Academic and Technical Training. National and international Organizations. Twenty six papers have been analyzed and abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  8. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  9. Reliability in the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs

  10. FRELIB, Failure Reliability Index Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.B.; Oestergaard, C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Calculation of the reliability index given the failure boundary. A linearization point (design point) is found on the failure boundary for a stationary reliability index (min) and a stationary failure probability density function along the failure boundary, provided that the basic variables are normally distributed. 2 - Method of solution: Iteration along the failure boundary which must be specified - together with its partial derivatives with respect to the basic variables - by the user in a subroutine FSUR. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No distribution information included (first-order-second-moment-method). 20 basic variables (could be extended)

  11. Multiobjective Reliable Cloud Storage with Its Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiyang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Information abounds in all fields of the real life, which is often recorded as digital data in computer systems and treated as a kind of increasingly important resource. Its increasing volume growth causes great difficulties in both storage and analysis. The massive data storage in cloud environments has significant impacts on the quality of service (QoS of the systems, which is becoming an increasingly challenging problem. In this paper, we propose a multiobjective optimization model for the reliable data storage in clouds through considering both cost and reliability of the storage service simultaneously. In the proposed model, the total cost is analyzed to be composed of storage space occupation cost, data migration cost, and communication cost. According to the analysis of the storage process, the transmission reliability, equipment stability, and software reliability are taken into account in the storage reliability evaluation. To solve the proposed multiobjective model, a Constrained Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization (CMPSO algorithm is designed. At last, experiments are designed to validate the proposed model and its solution PSO algorithm. In the experiments, the proposed model is tested in cooperation with 3 storage strategies. Experimental results show that the proposed model is positive and effective. The experimental results also demonstrate that the proposed model can perform much better in alliance with proper file splitting methods.

  12. Reliable LED Lighting Technologies: Key Factors and Procurement Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Lynn; Arquit Niederberger, Anne

    2015-10-08

    Abstract— Lighting systems have the ability to transform the economic and educational infrastructure of disadvantaged communities, and eradicating “light poverty” has become one of the primary goals of the International Year of Light 2015. Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology, based on light-emitting diode (LED) light sources, has emerged as the next generation of lighting technology, with a current global market penetration of roughly 5%. This paper will report on recent research on understanding SSL lighting system reliability (failure modes, environmental stressors, electrical power quality); discuss the implications of SSL technology reliability for providing lighting services; and suggest practical approaches to ensure SSL reliability to benefit humanity. Among the key findings from this work is that LED sources can be extremely reliable, withstanding a broad range of environmental stresses without failure. Nonetheless, SSL lighting systems can have a negative impact on electrical power reliability, as well as on the affordability of lighting services, without attention to the quality of the accompanying power infrastructure. It is therefore critical to ensure that the performance of the power supply electronics used in lighting systems is matched to the quality of the power source, when evaluating energy efficient lighting choices.

  13. Fuel element services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-01-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning, fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  14. RELIABILITY OF MACHINE ELEMENTS IN WIND TURBINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willi GRUENDER

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide electrical energy production generated by wind turbines grows at a rate of 30 percent. This doubles the total production every three years. At the same time the power of individual stations goes up by 20 percent annually. Whereas today the towers, rotors and drive trains have to handle 5 MW, in about six to eight years they might produce up to fifteen MW. As a consequence, enormous pressure is put on the wind turbine manufacturers, the component suppliers and the operators. And because prototype and field testing is limited by its expense, the design of new turbines demands thorough analysis and simulation. Looking at the critical components of a wind turbine this paper describes advanced design tools which help to anticipate failures, but also assists in optimizing reliability and service life. Development of the software tools has been supported by research activities in many universities.

  15. Contribution of service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sole, L. M.; Cortes, A.

    2002-01-01

    The most influential aspect when choosing the model of contract between Client and Contractor relapses into the maturity reached by both parts. The service supplier will have to show his competence with his resume, not only technical, but also of actual actions concerning availability reliability, maintainability, security, environment and costs. That maturity may have been the reason why most of the service companies, of national scope, that carry out maintenance of nuclear power stations electricity and instrumentation nowadays, are present from the assembly and implementation phases of these nuclear power stations. (Author)

  16. RESTful Web Services Cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Allamaraju, Subbu

    2010-01-01

    While the REST design philosophy has captured the imagination of web and enterprise developers alike, using this approach to develop real web services is no picnic. This cookbook includes more than 100 recipes to help you take advantage of REST, HTTP, and the infrastructure of the Web. You'll learn ways to design RESTful web services for client and server applications that meet performance, scalability, reliability, and security goals, no matter what programming language and development framework you use. Each recipe includes one or two problem statements, with easy-to-follow, step-by-step i

  17. Elder abuse telephone screen reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, Hilary M; Daly, Jeanette M; Jogerst, Gerald J

    2009-01-01

    (a) To identify reliable and valid questions that identify elder abuse, (b) to assess the reliability and validity of extant self-reported elder abuse screens in a high-risk elderly population, and (c) to describe difficulties of completing and interpreting screens in a high-need elderly population. All elders referred to research-trained social workers in a community service agency were asked to participate. Of the 70 elders asked, 49 participated, 44 completed the first questionnaire, and 32 completed the duplicate second questionnaire. A research assistant administered the telephone questionnaires. Twenty-nine (42%) persons were judged abused, 12 (17%) had abuse reported, and 4 (6%) had abuse substantiated. The elder abuse screen instruments were not found to be predictive of assessed abuse or as predictors of reported abuse; the measures tended toward being inversely predictive. Two questions regarding harm and taking of belongings were significantly different for the assessed abused group. In this small group of high-need community-dwelling elders, the screens were not effective in discriminating between abused and nonabused groups. Better instruments are needed to assess for elder abuse.

  18. 76 FR 58101 - Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-20

    ....C. Cir. 2009). \\4\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System, Order No. 693, FERC... for maintaining real and reactive power balance. \\14\\ Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation...; Order No. 753] Electric Reliability Organization Interpretation of Transmission Operations Reliability...

  19. Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talreja, R.

    1979-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimating the probability of survival (non-failure) and the probability of safe operation (strength greater than a limiting value) of structures subjected to random loads. These probabilities are formulated in terms of the probability distributions of the loads...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....

  20. Forecasting reliability of transformer populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.; Wetzer, J.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.

    2007-01-01

    The expected replacement wave in the current power grid faces asset managers with challenging questions. Setting up a replacement strategy and planning calls for a forecast of the long term component reliability. For transformers the future failure probability can be predicted based on the ongoing

  1. Nonelectronic Parts Reliability Data 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-05-01

    Characterization & Failure Analysis Techniques 100.00 130.Ot_00, ______ MFAT_1 &2 Combined set ofMFAT-1_andMFAT-2 200 00 300,00 _ _ ____ FTA ...Device Reliability - 1988 10000 12000 ___ CRTA- FMD Failure Mode Distribution Critical Technology Review Assessment 10000 12000 ___ NONOP-1

  2. INCREASED RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC BLASTING

    OpenAIRE

    Kashuba, Oleh Ivanovych; Skliarov, L I; Skliarov, A L

    2017-01-01

    The problems of improving reliability of an electric blasting method using electric detonators with nichrome filament bridges. It was revealed that in the calculation of the total resistance of the explosive network it is necessary to increase to 24% of the nominal value

  3. Reliability Analysis of Money Habitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgadillo, Lucy M.; Bushman, Brittani S.

    2015-01-01

    Use of the Money Habitudes exercise has gained popularity among various financial professionals. This article reports on the reliability of this resource. A survey administered to young adults at a western state university was conducted, and each Habitude or "domain" was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha procedures. Results showed all six…

  4. Proposed Reliability/Cost Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1982-01-01

    New technique estimates cost of improvement in reliability for complex system. Model format/approach is dependent upon use of subsystem cost-estimating relationships (CER's) in devising cost-effective policy. Proposed methodology should have application in broad range of engineering management decisions.

  5. Reliability in the Rasch Model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2007), s. 315-326 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : Cronbach's alpha * Rasch model * reliability Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2007 http://dml.cz/handle/10338.dmlcz/135776

  6. On the NPP structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    Reviewed are the main statements peculiarities and possibilities of the first branch guiding technical material (GTM) ''The methods of calculation of structural reliability of NPP and its systems at the stage of projecting''. It is stated, that in GTM presented are recomendations on the calculation of reliability of such specific systems, as the system of the reactor control and protection the system of measuring instruments and automatics and safe systems. GTM are based on analytical methods of modern theory of realibility with the Use of metodology of minimal cross sections of complex systems. It is stressed, that the calculations on the proposed methods permit to calculate a wide complex of reliability parameters, reflecting separately or together prorerties of NPP dependability and maintainability. For NPP, operating by a variable schedule of leading, aditionally considered are parameters, characterizing reliability with account of the proposed regime of power change, i.e. taking into account failures, caused by decrease of the obtained power lower, than the reguired or increase of the required power higher, than the obtained

  7. System reliability of corroding pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Wenxing

    2010-01-01

    A methodology is presented in this paper to evaluate the time-dependent system reliability of a pipeline segment that contains multiple active corrosion defects and is subjected to stochastic internal pressure loading. The pipeline segment is modeled as a series system with three distinctive failure modes due to corrosion, namely small leak, large leak and rupture. The internal pressure is characterized as a simple discrete stochastic process that consists of a sequence of independent and identically distributed random variables each acting over a period of one year. The magnitude of a given sequence follows the annual maximum pressure distribution. The methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical example. Furthermore, the impact of the spatial variability of the pressure loading and pipe resistances associated with different defects on the system reliability is investigated. The analysis results suggest that the spatial variability of pipe properties has a negligible impact on the system reliability. On the other hand, the spatial variability of the internal pressure, initial defect sizes and defect growth rates can have a significant impact on the system reliability.

  8. FAX SERVICE

    CERN Multimedia

    Telephone Service

    2002-01-01

    As from 1st of July 2002, responsibility for running the Fax Service will be transfered to the Printer Service. Future requests for machines, toner and breakdown should be sent to Printer.Support@cern.ch - tel 78888. Telephone Service

  9. Improved reliability, maintainability and safety through elastomer upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, R.; Wittich, K.C.

    1995-01-01

    Equipment in nuclear plants has historically contained whatever elastomer each component supplier traditionally used for corresponding non-nuclear service. The resulting proliferation of elastomer compounds, many of which are far from optimal for the service conditions (e.g., pressure, temperature, radiation, etc.), has multiplied the costs to provide station reliability, maintainability and safety. Cost-effective improvements are being achieved in CANDU plants by upgrading and standardizing on a handful of high performing elastomer compounds. These upgraded materials offer significant gains in service life over the materials they replace (often by factors of 2 or more). This rationalization of elastomer compounds also facilitates the EQ process for safety-related equipment. Detailed test data on aging is currently being generated for these specific elastomers, encompassing the conditions and media (air, water, oil) common in CANDU service. Two key elements characterize this testing. First, each result is specific to the compound used in the test, and second, it is specific to the tested failure mode (e.g., compression set, extrusion, fracture, etc.). Having fewer, but more thoroughly tested compounds, avoids the penalty (associated with poorly characterized materials) of having to replace parts prematurely because of conservatism, while maintaining safe, reliable service. This paper provides an overview of this approach covering: the benefits of compound rationalization; and the how and why of establishing relevant failure criteria; appropriate quality assurance to maintain EQ; procurement, storage and handling guidelines; and monitoring and predicting in-service degradation. (author)

  10. Ecosystem services for energy security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Athanas, Andrea; McCormick, Nadine

    2010-09-15

    The world is at an energy crossroads. The changes underway will have implications for ecosystems and livelihoods. Energy security is the reliable supply of affordable energy, of which there are two dimensions; reliability and resilience. Changes in ecosystem services linked to degradation and climate change have the potential to impact both on the reliabiity of energy systems and on their resiliance. Investing in ecosystems can help safeguard energy systems, and mitigate unforeseen risks to energy security. The energy and conservation community should come together to build reliable and resilliant energy systems in ways which recognise and value supporting ecosystems.

  11. A study in the reliability analysis method for nuclear power plant structures (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung Hwan; Choi, Seong Cheol; Shin, Ho Sang; Yang, In Hwan; Kim, Yi Sung; Yu, Young; Kim, Se Hun [Seoul, Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Nuclear power plant structures may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease over their service life. Although the physics of these damage mechanisms are reasonably well understood and quantitative evaluation of their effects on time-dependent structural behavior is possible in some instances, such evaluations are generally very difficult and remain novel. The assessment of existing steel containment in nuclear power plants for continued service must provide quantitative evidence that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during a service period with an acceptable level of reliability. Rational methodologies to perform the reliability assessment can be developed from mechanistic models of structural deterioration, using time-dependent structural reliability analysis to take loading and strength uncertainties into account. The final goal of this study is to develop the analysis method for the reliability of containment structures. The cause and mechanism of corrosion is first clarified and the reliability assessment method has been established. By introducing the equivalent normal distribution, the procedure of reliability analysis which can determine the failure probabilities has been established. The influence of design variables to reliability and the relation between the reliability and service life will be continued second year research.

  12. 75 FR 50853 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing. Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR 21.35(b)(2), the following...; Function and Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final special... to CAR part 3 became effective January 15, 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section...

  13. 75 FR 29962 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation Model SF50 Airplane; Function and Reliability Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... SF50 airplanes. 1. Function and Reliability Testing Flight tests: In place of 14 CFR part 21.35(b)(2... Reliability Testing AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed special..., 1951, and deleted the service test requirements in Section 3.19 for airplanes of 6,000 pounds maximum...

  14. Design and Analysis of Transport Protocols for Reliable High-Speed Communications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oláh, A.

    1997-01-01

    The design and analysis of transport protocols for reliable communications constitutes the topic of this dissertation. These transport protocols guarantee the sequenced and complete delivery of user data over networks which may lose, duplicate and reorder packets. Reliable transport services are

  15. Problems in diagnosing and forecasting power equipment reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, V I; Demirchyan, K S

    1979-11-01

    This general survey deals with approaches to the resolution of such problems as the gathering, analysis and systematization of data on component defects in power equipment and setting up feedback with the manufacturing plants and planning organizations to improve equipment reliability. Such efforts on the part of designers, manufacturers and operating and repair organizations in analyzing faults in 300 MW turbogenerators during 1974-1977 reduced the specific fault rate by 20 to 25% and the downtime per failure by 35 to 40%. Since power equipment should operate for several hundreds of thousands of hours (20 to 30 years) and the majority of power components have guaranteed service lives of no more than 10/sup 5/ hours, an extremely difficult problem is the determination of the reliability of equipment past the 10/sup 5/ point. The present trend in the USSR Unified Power System towards increasing the number of shutdowns and startups, which in the case of turbogenerators of up 1200 MW power can reach 7500 to 10,000 cycles is noted. Other areas briefly treated are: MHD generator reliability and economy; nuclear power plant reliability and safety; the reliability of high-power high-voltage thyristor converters; the difficulties involved in scale modeling of power system reliability and the high cost of the requisite full-scale studies; the poor understanding of long term corrosion and erosion processes. The review concludes with arguments in favor of greater computerization of all aspects of power system management.

  16. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  17. Exact reliability quantification of highly reliable systems with maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bris, Radim, E-mail: radim.bris@vsb.c [VSB-Technical University Ostrava, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Applied Mathematics, 17. listopadu 15, 70833 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2010-12-15

    When a system is composed of highly reliable elements, exact reliability quantification may be problematic, because computer accuracy is limited. Inaccuracy can be due to different aspects. For example, an error may be made when subtracting two numbers that are very close to each other, or at the process of summation of many very different numbers, etc. The basic objective of this paper is to find a procedure, which eliminates errors made by PC when calculations close to an error limit are executed. Highly reliable system is represented by the use of directed acyclic graph which is composed from terminal nodes, i.e. highly reliable input elements, internal nodes representing subsystems and edges that bind all of these nodes. Three admissible unavailability models of terminal nodes are introduced, including both corrective and preventive maintenance. The algorithm for exact unavailability calculation of terminal nodes is based on merits of a high-performance language for technical computing MATLAB. System unavailability quantification procedure applied to a graph structure, which considers both independent and dependent (i.e. repeatedly occurring) terminal nodes is based on combinatorial principle. This principle requires summation of a lot of very different non-negative numbers, which may be a source of an inaccuracy. That is why another algorithm for exact summation of such numbers is designed in the paper. The summation procedure uses benefits from a special number system with the base represented by the value 2{sup 32}. Computational efficiency of the new computing methodology is compared with advanced simulation software. Various calculations on systems from references are performed to emphasize merits of the methodology.

  18. Reliability on the move: safety and reliability in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guy, G.B.

    1989-01-01

    The development of transportation has been a significant factor in the development of civilisation as a whole. Our technical ability to move people and goods now seems virtually limitless when one considers for example the achievements of the various space programmes. Yet our current achievements rely heavily on high standards of safety and reliability from equipment and the human component of transportation systems. Recent failures have highlighted our dependence on equipment and human reliability. This book represents the proceedings of the 1989 Safety and Reliability Society symposium held at Bath on 11-12 October 1989. The structure of the book follows the structure of the symposium itself and the papers selected represent current thinking the the wide field of transportation, and the areas of rail (6 papers, three on railway signalling), air including space (two papers), road (one paper), road and rail (two papers) and sea (three papers) are covered. There are four papers concerned with general transport issues. Three papers concerned with the transport of radioactive materials are indexed separately. (author)

  19. Robust Reliability or reliable robustness? - Integrated consideration of robustness and reliability aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemmler, S.; Eifler, Tobias; Bertsche, B.

    2015-01-01

    products are and vice versa. For a comprehensive understanding and to use existing synergies between both domains, this paper discusses the basic principles of Reliability- and Robust Design theory. The development of a comprehensive model will enable an integrated consideration of both domains...

  20. Evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination (NDE) reliability for inservice inspection of light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Andersen, E.S.; Bowey, R.E.; Diaz, A.A.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V.

    1991-01-01

    This program is intended to establish the effectiveness, reliability and adequacy of inservice inspection of reactor pressure vessels and primary piping systems and the impact of ISI reliability on system integrity. The objectives of the program include: (a) determine the effectiveness and reliability of ultrasonic inservice inspection (ISI) performed on commercial, light water reactor pressure vessels and piping; (b) recommend Code changes to the inspection procedures to improve the reliability of ISI; (c) using fracture mechanics analysis, determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety and determine the level of inspection reliability required to assure a suitably low failure probability; (d) evaluate the degree of reliability improvement which could be achieved using improved NDE techniques; and (e) based on importance of component to safety, material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties, formulate improved inservice inspection criteria (including sampling plan, frequency, and reliability of inspection) for revisions to ASME Section XI and regulatory requirements needed to assure suitably low failure probabilities

  1. High-reliability computing for the smarter planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, Heather M.; Graham, Paul; Manuzzato, Andrea; Dehon, Andre

    2010-01-01

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance, known as Moore's Law, has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. In this paper, we will present the concept of the smarter planet, how reliability failures affect current systems, and methods that can be used to increase the reliable adoption of new automation in the future. We will illustrate these issues using a number of different electronic devices in a couple of different scenarios. Recently IBM has been presenting the idea of a 'smarter planet.' In smarter planet documents, IBM discusses increased computer automation of roadways, banking, healthcare, and infrastructure, as automation could create more efficient systems. A necessary component of the smarter planet concept is to ensure that these new systems have very high reliability. Even extremely rare reliability problems can easily escalate to problematic scenarios when implemented at very large scales. For life-critical systems, such as automobiles, infrastructure, medical implantables, and avionic systems, unmitigated failures could be dangerous. As more automation moves into these types of critical systems, reliability failures will need to be managed. As computer automation continues to increase in our society, the need for greater radiation reliability is necessary

  2. High-reliability computing for the smarter planet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Heather M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graham, Paul [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Manuzzato, Andrea [UNIV OF PADOVA; Dehon, Andre [UNIV OF PENN; Carter, Nicholas [INTEL CORPORATION

    2010-01-01

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance, known as Moore's Law, has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. In this paper, we will present the concept of the smarter planet, how reliability failures affect current systems, and methods that can be used to increase the reliable adoption of new automation in the future. We will illustrate these issues using a number of different electronic devices in a couple of different scenarios. Recently IBM has been presenting the idea of a 'smarter planet.' In smarter planet documents, IBM discusses increased computer automation of roadways, banking, healthcare, and infrastructure, as automation could create more efficient systems. A necessary component of the smarter planet concept is to ensure that these new systems have very high reliability. Even extremely rare reliability problems can easily escalate to problematic scenarios when implemented at very large scales. For life-critical systems, such as automobiles, infrastructure, medical implantables, and avionic systems, unmitigated failures could be dangerous. As more automation moves into these types of critical systems, reliability failures will need to be managed. As computer automation continues to increase in our society, the need for greater radiation reliability is

  3. 78 FR 38311 - Reliability Technical Conference Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ... issues related to the reliability of the Bulk-Power System. The agenda for this conference is attached... Reliability Technical Docket No. AD13-6-000 Conference. North American Electric Docket No. RC11-6-004 Reliability Corporation. North American Electric Docket No. RR13-2-000 Reliability Corporation. Not...

  4. 78 FR 63036 - Transmission Planning Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System, 130 FERC ] 61,200 (2010). \\8\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards... electric system operations across normal and contingency conditions. We also find that Reliability Standard... Reliability Standards for the Bulk Power System, 131 FERC ] 61,231 at P 21. Comments 24. NERC supports the...

  5. Medical device reliability and associated areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhillon, Balbir S

    2000-01-01

    .... Although the history of reliability engineering can be traced back to World War II, the application of reliability engineering concepts to medical devices is a fairly recent idea that goes back to the latter part of the 1960s when many publications on medical device reliability emerged. Today, a large number of books on general reliability have been...

  6. Human factors reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organized a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organized around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (T and M) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report contains the final summary reports produced by the participants in the exercise

  7. Reliability technology and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.; Kaplan, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the history and status of nuclear reliability and the evolution of this subject from art towards science. It shows that that probability theory is the appropriate and essential mathematical language of this subject. The authors emphasize that it is more useful to view probability not as a $prime$frequency$prime$, i.e., not as the result of a statistical experiment, but rather as a measure of state of confidence or a state of knowledge. They also show that the probabilistic, quantitative approach has a considerable history of application in the electric power industry in the area of power system planning. Finally, the authors show that the decision theory notion of utility provides a point of view from which risks, benefits, safety, and reliability can be viewed in a unified way thus facilitating understanding, comparison, and communication. 29 refs

  8. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Bearing Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.

    2011-10-01

    NREL has initiated the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) to investigate the root cause of the low wind turbine gearbox reliability. The GRC follows a multi-pronged approach based on a collaborative of manufacturers, owners, researchers and consultants. The project combines analysis, field testing, dynamometer testing, condition monitoring, and the development and population of a gearbox failure database. At the core of the project are two 750kW gearboxes that have been redesigned and rebuilt so that they are representative of the multi-megawatt gearbox topology currently used in the industry. These gearboxes are heavily instrumented and are tested in the field and on the dynamometer. This report discusses the bearing calibrations of the gearboxes.

  9. RELIABILITY OF LENTICULAR EXPANSION COMPENSATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel BURLACU,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Axial lenticular compensators are made to take over the longitudinal heat expansion, shock , vibration and noise, made elastic connections for piping systems. In order to have a long life for installations it is necessary that all elements, including lenticular compensators, have a good reliability. This desire can be did by technology of manufactoring and assembly of compensators, the material for lenses and by maintenance.of compensator

  10. PWR system reliability improvement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    1985-01-01

    In Japan lacking in energy resources, it is our basic energy policy to accelerate the development program of nuclear power, thereby reducing our dependence. As referred to in the foregoing, every effort has been exerted on our part to improve the PWR system reliability by dint of the so-called 'HOMEMADE' TQC activities, which is our brain-child as a result of applying to the energy industry the quality control philosophy developed in the field of manufacturing industry

  11. Reliability of Composite Dichotomous Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2010), s. 103-109 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : reliability * binary data * logistic regression * Cronbach alpha * Rasch model * myocardial perfusion diagnosis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ejbi.cz/articles/201012/65/1.html

  12. A heuristic-based approach for reliability importance assessment of energy producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavein, A.; Fotuhi Firuzabad, M.

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of energy supply is one of the most important issues of service quality. On one hand, customers usually have different expectations for service reliability and price. On the other hand, providing different level of reliability at load points is a challenge for system operators. In order to take reasonable decisions and obviate reliability implementation difficulties, market players need to know impacts of their assets on system and load-point reliabilities. One tool to specify reliability impacts of assets is the criticality or reliability importance measure by which system components can be ranked based on their effect on reliability. Conventional methods for determination of reliability importance are essentially on the basis of risk sensitivity analysis and hence, impose prohibitive calculation burden in large power systems. An approach is proposed in this paper to determine reliability importance of energy producers from perspective of consumers or distribution companies in a composite generation and transmission system. In the presented method, while avoiding immense computational burden, the energy producers are ranked based on their rating, unavailability and impact on power flows in the lines connecting to the considered load points. Study results on the IEEE reliability test system show successful application of the proposed method. - Research highlights: → Required reliability level at load points is a concern in modern power systems. → It is important to assess reliability importance of energy producers or generators. → Generators can be ranked based on their impacts on power flow to a selected area. → Ranking of generators is an efficient tool to assess their reliability importance.

  13. Service Oriented Architecture for High Level Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, P.

    2012-01-01

    Standalone high level applications often suffer from poor performance and reliability due to lengthy initialization, heavy computation and rapid graphical update. Service-oriented architecture (SOA) is trying to separate the initialization and computation from applications and to distribute such work to various service providers. Heavy computation such as beam tracking will be done periodically on a dedicated server and data will be available to client applications at all time. Industrial standard service architecture can help to improve the performance, reliability and maintainability of the service. Robustness will also be improved by reducing the complexity of individual client applications.

  14. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  15. Maintenance management of railway infrastructures based on reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macchi, Marco; Garetti, Marco; Centrone, Domenico; Fumagalli, Luca; Piero Pavirani, Gian

    2012-01-01

    Railway infrastructure maintenance plays a crucial role for rail transport. It aims at guaranteeing safety of operations and availability of railway tracks and related equipment for traffic regulation. Moreover, it is one major cost for rail transport operations. Thus, the increased competition in traffic market is asking for maintenance improvement, aiming at the reduction of maintenance expenditures while keeping the safety of operations. This issue is addressed by the methodology presented in the paper. The first step of the methodology consists of a family-based approach for the equipment reliability analysis; its purpose is the identification of families of railway items which can be given the same reliability targets. The second step builds the reliability model of the railway system for identifying the most critical items, given a required service level for the transportation system. The two methods have been implemented and tested in practical case studies, in the context of Rete Ferroviaria Italiana, the Italian public limited company for railway transportation.

  16. Database reliability engineering designing and operating resilient database systems

    CERN Document Server

    Campbell, Laine

    2018-01-01

    The infrastructure-as-code revolution in IT is also affecting database administration. With this practical book, developers, system administrators, and junior to mid-level DBAs will learn how the modern practice of site reliability engineering applies to the craft of database architecture and operations. Authors Laine Campbell and Charity Majors provide a framework for professionals looking to join the ranks of today’s database reliability engineers (DBRE). You’ll begin by exploring core operational concepts that DBREs need to master. Then you’ll examine a wide range of database persistence options, including how to implement key technologies to provide resilient, scalable, and performant data storage and retrieval. With a firm foundation in database reliability engineering, you’ll be ready to dive into the architecture and operations of any modern database. This book covers: Service-level requirements and risk management Building and evolving an architecture for operational visibility ...

  17. TFTR CAMAC power supplies reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.A.; Bergin, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since the expected life of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been extended into the early 1990's, the issues of equipment wear-out, when to refurbish/replace, and the costs associated with these decisions, must be faced. The management of the maintenance of the TFTR Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA) power supplies within the CAMAC network is a case study of a set of systems to monitor repairable systems reliability, costs, and results of action. The CAMAC network is composed of approximately 500 racks, each with its own power supply. By using a simple reliability estimator on a coarse time interval, in conjunction with determining the root cause of individual failures, a cost effective repair and maintenance program has been realized. This paper describes the estimator, some of the specific causes for recurring failures and their correction, and the subsequent effects on the reliability estimator. By extension of this program the authors can assess the continued viability of CAMAC power supplies into the future, predicting wear-out and developing cost effective refurbishment/replacement policies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  18. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how to build in and assess reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) of components, equipment, and systems. It presents the state of the art of reliability (RAMS) engineering, in theory & practice, and is based on over 30 years author's experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The book structure allows rapid access to practical results. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different RAMS requirement levels. Thanks to Appendices A6 - A8 the book is mathematically self-contained, and can be used as a textbook or as a desktop reference with a large number of tables (60), figures (210), and examples / exercises^ 10,000 per year since 2013) were the motivation for this final edition, the 13th since 1985, including German editions. Extended and carefully reviewed to improve accuracy, it represents the continuous improvement effort to satisfy reader's needs and confidenc...

  19. Operator reliability assessment system (OPERAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Spurgin, A.J.; Martin, T.; Welsch, J.; Hallam, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    OPERAS is a personal-computer (PC) based software to collect and process simulator data on control-room operators responses during requalification training scenarios. The data collection scheme is based upon approach developed earlier during the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments project. The software allows automated data collection from simulator, thus minimizing simulator staff time and resources to collect, maintain and process data which can be useful in monitoring, assessing and enhancing the progress of crew reliability and effectiveness. The system is designed to provide the data and output information in the form of user-friendly charts, tables and figures for use by plant staff. OPERAS prototype software has been implemented at the Diablo Canyon (PWR) and Millstone (BWR) plants and is currently being used to collect operator response data. Data collected from similator include plant-state variables such as reactor pressure and temperature, malfunction, times at which annunciators are activated, operator actions and observations of crew behavior by training staff. The data and systematic analytical results provided by the OPERAS system can contribute to increase objectivity by the utility probabilistic risk analysis (PRA) and training staff in monitoring and assessing reliability of their crews

  20. Human factors reliability benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organised a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organised around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (TPM) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report summarises the contributions received from the participants and analyses these contributions on a comparative basis. The aim of this analysis was to compare the procedures, modelling techniques and quantification methods used, to obtain insight in the causes and magnitude of the variability observed in the results, to try to identify preferred human reliability assessment approaches and to get an understanding of the current state of the art in the field identifying the limitations that are still inherent to the different approaches