WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable quantitative proliferation

  1. A quantitative calculation for software reliability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet these regulatory requirements, the software used in the nuclear safety field has been ensured through the development, validation, safety analysis, and quality assurance activities throughout the entire process life cycle from the planning phase to the installation phase. A variety of activities, such as the quality assurance activities are also required to improve the quality of a software. However, there are limitations to ensure that the quality is improved enough. Therefore, the effort to calculate the reliability of the software continues for a quantitative evaluation instead of a qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we propose a quantitative calculation method for the software to be used for a specific operation of the digital controller in an NPP. After injecting random faults in the internal space of a developed controller and calculating the ability to detect the injected faults using diagnostic software, we can evaluate the software reliability of a digital controller in an NPP. We tried to calculate the software reliability of the controller in an NPP using a new method that differs from a traditional method. It calculates the fault detection coverage after injecting the faults into the software memory space rather than the activity through the life cycle process. We attempt differentiation by creating a new definition of the fault, imitating the software fault using the hardware, and giving a consideration and weights for injection faults.

  2. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  3. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.

    2010-09-17

    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of

  4. Quantitative metal magnetic memory reliability modeling for welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haiyan; Dang, Yongbin; Wang, Ben; Leng, Jiancheng

    2016-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory(MMM) testing has been widely used to detect welded joints. However, load levels, environmental magnetic field, and measurement noises make the MMM data dispersive and bring difficulty to quantitative evaluation. In order to promote the development of quantitative MMM reliability assessment, a new MMM model is presented for welded joints. Steel Q235 welded specimens are tested along the longitudinal and horizontal lines by TSC-2M-8 instrument in the tensile fatigue experiments. The X-ray testing is carried out synchronously to verify the MMM results. It is found that MMM testing can detect the hidden crack earlier than X-ray testing. Moreover, the MMM gradient vector sum K vs is sensitive to the damage degree, especially at early and hidden damage stages. Considering the dispersion of MMM data, the K vs statistical law is investigated, which shows that K vs obeys Gaussian distribution. So K vs is the suitable MMM parameter to establish reliability model of welded joints. At last, the original quantitative MMM reliability model is first presented based on the improved stress strength interference theory. It is shown that the reliability degree R gradually decreases with the decreasing of the residual life ratio T, and the maximal error between prediction reliability degree R 1 and verification reliability degree R 2 is 9.15%. This presented method provides a novel tool of reliability testing and evaluating in practical engineering for welded joints.

  5. Predicting Proliferation: High Reliability Forecasting Models of Nuclear Proliferation as a Policy & Analytical Aid

    OpenAIRE

    Center on Contemporary Conflict; Gartzke, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Performer: University of California at San Diego Project Lead: Erik Gartzke Project Cost: $121,000 FY15-16 Objective: Scholars have spent decades studying and explaining nuclear proliferation. This project will develop a model to predict the behavior of states regarding their pursuit and acquisition of nuclear weapons. An accurate prediction model will allow for action against potential suppliers, interdiction of nuclear trade, intelligence collection on covert nuclea...

  6. Quantitative reliability assessment for safety critical system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Won; Kwon, Soon Man

    2005-01-01

    An essential issue in the replacement of the old analogue I and C to computer-based digital systems in nuclear power plants is the quantitative software reliability assessment. Software reliability models have been successfully applied to many industrial applications, but have the unfortunate drawback of requiring data from which one can formulate a model. Software which is developed for safety critical applications is frequently unable to produce such data for at least two reasons. First, the software is frequently one-of-a-kind, and second, it rarely fails. Safety critical software is normally expected to pass every unit test producing precious little failure data. The basic premise of the rare events approach is that well-tested software does not fail under normal routine and input signals, which means that failures must be triggered by unusual input data and computer states. The failure data found under the reasonable testing cases and testing time for these conditions should be considered for the quantitative reliability assessment. We will present the quantitative reliability assessment methodology of safety critical software for rare failure cases in this paper

  7. Reproducibility and Reliability of Repeated Quantitative Fluorescence Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Knudsen, Kristine Bach Korsholm; Ambrus, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When using fluorescence angiography (FA) in perioperative perfusion assessment, repeated measures with re-injections of fluorescent dye (ICG) may be required. However, repeated injections may cause saturation of dye in the tissue, exceeding the limit of fluorescence intensity...... that the camera can detect. As the emission of fluorescence is dependent of the excitatory light intensity, reduction of this may solve the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and reliability of repeated quantitative FA during a reduction of excitatory light....

  8. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity.

  9. Model development for quantitative evaluation of proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2000-07-01

    This study addresses the quantitative evaluation of the proliferation resistance which is important factor of the alternative nuclear fuel cycle system. In this study, model was developed to quantitatively evaluate the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycles. The proposed models were then applied to Korean environment as a sample study to provide better references for the determination of future nuclear fuel cycle system in Korea. In order to quantify the proliferation resistance of the nuclear fuel cycle, the proliferation resistance index was defined in imitation of an electrical circuit with an electromotive force and various electrical resistance components. The analysis on the proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycles has shown that the resistance index as defined herein can be used as an international measure of the relative risk of the nuclear proliferation if the motivation index is appropriately defined. It has also shown that the proposed model can include political issues as well as technical ones relevant to the proliferation resistance, and consider all facilities and activities in a specific nuclear fuel cycle (from mining to disposal). In addition, sensitivity analyses on the sample study indicate that the direct disposal option in a country with high nuclear propensity may give rise to a high risk of the nuclear proliferation than the reprocessing option in a country with low nuclear propensity

  10. MCM - 2 and Ki - 67 as proliferation markers in renal cell carcinoma: A quantitative and semi - quantitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Muhammad Zain; Nagi, Abdul Hanan; Naseem, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Fuhrman nuclear grade is the most important histological parameter to predict prognosis in a patient of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). However, it suffers from inter-observer and intra-observer variation giving rise to need of a parameter that not only correlates with nuclear grade but is also objective and reproducible. Proliferation is the measure of aggressiveness of a tumour and it is strongly correlated with Fuhrman nuclear grade, clinical survival and recurrence in RCC. Ki-67 is conventionally used to assess proliferation. Mini-chromosome maintenance 2 (MCM-2) is a lesser known marker of proliferation and identifies a greater proliferation faction. This study was designed to assess the prognostic significance of MCM-2 by comparing it with Fuhrman nuclear grade and Ki-67. n=50 cases of various ages, stages, histological subtypes and grades of RCC were selected for this study. Immunohistochemical staining using Ki-67(MIB-1, Mouse monoclonal antibody, Dako) and MCM-2 (Mouse monoclonal antibody, Thermo) was performed on the paraffin embedded blocks in the department of Morbid anatomy and Histopathology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore. Labeling indices (LI) were determined by two pathologists independently using quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 20.0. Kruskall-Wallis test was used to determine a correlation of proliferation markers with grade, and Pearson's correlate was used to determine correlation between the two proliferation markers. Labeling index of MCM-2 (median=24.29%) was found to be much higher than Ki-67(median=13.05%). Both markers were significantly related with grade (p=0.00; Kruskall-Wallis test). LI of MCM-2 was found to correlate significantly with LI of Ki-67(r=0.0934;p=0.01 with Pearson's correlate). Results of semi-quantitative analysis correlated well with quantitative analysis. Both Ki-67 and MCM-2 are markers of proliferation which are closely linked to grade. Therefore, they

  11. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  12. An approach to quantitative assessment of relative proliferation risks from nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvennoinen, P.; Vira, J.

    1981-01-01

    Feasibility of quantitative assessments of the risk of nuclear weapons proliferation is discussed in this paper. The proliferation risk is defined as a combined utility of the different fuel cycle processes or materials for the proscribed acquisition of a nuclear weapon. Based on a set of selected weighted criteria, the process utilities are calculated employing utility functions or fuzzy expectation values. The methods are compared to each other. The scheme appears feasible in relative comparisons while certain leeway must still be retained for political judgement. (author)

  13. Quantitative analysis of topoisomerase IIα to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Masashi; Arakawa, Yoshiki; Kano, Hideyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro; Katsuki, Takahisa; Shirahata, Mitsuaki; Ono, Makoto; Yamana, Norikazu; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Takahashi, Jun A.

    2005-01-01

    Immunohistochemical cell proliferation analyses have come into wide use for evaluation of tumor malignancy. Topoisomerase IIα (topo IIα), an essential nuclear enzyme, has been known to have cell cycle coupled expression. We here show the usefulness of quantitative analysis of topo IIα mRNA to rapidly evaluate cell proliferation in brain tumors. A protocol to quantify topo IIα mRNA was developed with a real-time RT-PCR. It took only 3 h to quantify from a specimen. A total of 28 brain tumors were analyzed, and the level of topo IIα mRNA was significantly correlated with its immuno-staining index (p < 0.0001, r = 0.9077). Furthermore, it sharply detected that topo IIα mRNA decreased in growth-inhibited glioma cell. These results support that topo IIα mRNA may be a good and rapid indicator to evaluate cell proliferate potential in brain tumors

  14. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  15. Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallowell Gayle D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.

  16. Effect of small mapping population sizes on reliability of quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is that accuracy of determining QTL position and effects are largely determined by population size. Despite the importance of this concept, known as the "Beavis effect there has generally been a lack of understanding by molecular geneticists and breeders. One possible ...

  17. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  18. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  19. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  20. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  1. Qualitative and quantitative reliability analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, R.; Rasmussen, N.; Wolf, L.

    1980-05-01

    A code has been developed for the comprehensive analysis of a fault tree. The code designated UNRAC (UNReliability Analysis Code) calculates the following characteristics of an input fault tree: (1) minimal cut sets; (2) top event unavailability as point estimate and/or in time dependent form; (3) quantitative importance of each component involved; and, (4) error bound on the top event unavailability. UNRAC can analyze fault trees, with any kind of gates (EOR, NAND, NOR, AND, OR), up to a maximum of 250 components and/or gates. The code is benchmarked against WAMCUT, MODCUT, KITT, BIT-FRANTIC, and PL-MODT. The results showed that UNRAC produces results more consistent with the KITT results than either BIT-FRANTIC or PL-MODT. Overall it is demonstrated that UNRAC is an efficient easy-to-use code and has the advantage of being able to do a complete fault tree analysis with this single code. Applications of fault tree analysis to safety studies of nuclear reactors are considered

  2. Verification of practicability of quantitative reliability evaluation method (De-BDA) in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kinshiro; Yukimachi, Takeo.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of methods have been applied to study of reliability analysis in which human factors are included in order to enhance the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. De-BDA (Detailed Block Diagram Analysis) is one of such mehtods developed with the objective of creating a more comprehensive and understandable tool for quantitative analysis of reliability associated with plant operations. The practicability of this method has been verified by applying it to reliability analysis of various phases of plant operation as well as evaluation of enhanced man-machine interface in the central control room. (author)

  3. Quantitative characterization of the reliability of simplex buses and stars to compare their benefits in fieldbuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, Manuel; Proenza, Julián; Almeida, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Fieldbuses targeted to highly dependable distributed embedded systems are shifting from bus to star topologies. Surprisingly, despite the efforts into this direction, engineers lack of analyses that quantitatively characterize the system reliability achievable by buses and stars. Thus, to guide engineers in developing adequate bus and star fieldbuses, this work models, quantifies and compares the system reliability provided by simplex buses and stars for the case of the Controller Area Network (CAN). It clarifies how relevant dependability-related aspects affect reliability, refuting some intuitive ideas, and revealing some previously unknown bus and star benefits. - Highlights: • SANs models that quantify the reliability of simplex buses/stars in fieldbuses. • Models cover system relevant dependability-related features abstracted in the literature. • Results refute intuitive ideas about buses and stars and show some unexpected effects. • Models and results can guide the design of reliable simplex bus/stars fieldbuses

  4. A Bayesian belief nets based quantitative software reliability assessment for PSA: COTS case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2002-03-01

    Current reliability assessments of safety critical software embedded in the digital systems in nuclear power plants are based on the rule-based qualitative assessment methods. Then recently practical needs require the quantitative features of software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) that is one of important methods being used in assessing the whole safety of nuclear power plant. But conventional quantitative software reliability assessment methods are not enough to get the necessary results in assessing the safety critical software used in nuclear power plants. Thus, current reliability assessment methods for these digital systems exclude the software part or use arbitrary values for the software reliability in the assessment. This reports discusses a Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) based quantification method that models current qualitative software assessment in formal way and produces quantitative results required for PSA. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software dedication process that KAERI developed was applied to the discussed BBN based method for evaluating the plausibility of the proposed method in PSA

  5. AN ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK FOR ASSESSING RELIABLE NUCLEAR FUEL SERVICE APPROACHES: ECONOMIC AND NON-PROLIFERATION MERITS OF NUCLEAR FUEL LEASING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; Brothers, Alan J.; Short, Steven M.; Phillips, Jon R.; Weimar, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of international nuclear policy since the dawn of nuclear power has been the peaceful expansion of nuclear energy while controlling the spread of enrichment and reprocessing technology. Numerous initiatives undertaken in the intervening decades to develop international agreements on providing nuclear fuel supply assurances, or reliable nuclear fuel services (RNFS) attempted to control the spread of sensitive nuclear materials and technology. In order to inform the international debate and the development of government policy, PNNL has been developing an analytical framework to holistically evaluate the economics and non-proliferation merits of alternative approaches to managing the nuclear fuel cycle (i.e., cradle-to-grave). This paper provides an overview of the analytical framework and discusses preliminary results of an economic assessment of one RNFS approach: full-service nuclear fuel leasing. The specific focus of this paper is the metrics under development to systematically evaluate the non-proliferation merits of fuel-cycle management alternatives. Also discussed is the utility of an integrated assessment of the economics and non-proliferation merits of nuclear fuel leasing.

  6. Interrater reliability of quantitative ultrasound using force feedback among examiners with varied levels of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Harris-Love

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quantitative ultrasound measures are influenced by multiple external factors including examiner scanning force. Force feedback may foster the acquisition of reliable morphometry measures under a variety of scanning conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of force-feedback image acquisition and morphometry over a range of examiner-generated forces using a muscle tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom. Methods. Sixty material thickness measures were acquired from a muscle tissue mimicking phantom using B-mode ultrasound scanning by six examiners with varied experience levels (i.e., experienced, intermediate, and novice. Estimates of interrater reliability and measurement error with force feedback scanning were determined for the examiners. In addition, criterion-based reliability was determined using material deformation values across a range of examiner scanning forces (1–10 Newtons via automated and manually acquired image capture methods using force feedback. Results. All examiners demonstrated acceptable interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .98, p .90, p < .001, independent of their level of experience. The measurement error among all examiners was 1.5%–2.9% across all applied stress conditions. Conclusion. Manual image capture with force feedback may aid the reliability of morphometry measures across a range of examiner scanning forces, and allow for consistent performance among examiners with differing levels of experience.

  7. Regional reliability of quantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency (STAR) labeling of arterial regions (QUASAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatewaki, Yasuko; Higano, Shuichi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Murata, Takaki; Mugikura, Shunji; Ito, Daisuke; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency labeling of arterial regions (QUASAR) is a recent spin labeling technique that could improve the reliability of brain perfusion measurements. Although it is considered reliable for measuring gray matter as a whole, it has never been evaluated regionally. Here we assessed this regional reliability. Using a 3-Tesla Philips Achieva whole-body system, we scanned four times 10 healthy volunteers, in two sessions 2 weeks apart, to obtain QUASAR images. We computed perfusion images and ran a voxel-based analysis within all brain structures. We also calculated mean regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within regions of interest configured for each arterial territory distribution. The mean CBF over whole gray matter was 37.74 with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of .70. In white matter, it was 13.94 with an ICC of .30. Voxel-wise ICC and coefficient-of-variation maps showed relatively lower reliability in watershed areas and white matter especially in deeper white matter. The absolute mean rCBF values were consistent with the ones reported from PET, as was the relatively low variability in different feeding arteries. Thus, QUASAR reliability for regional perfusion is high within gray matter, but uncertain within white matter. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  8. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    .5 SD) than within-patient variation (0.23 to 3.55 SD). There were no significant differences between pain and pain-free patients. The individual test-retest variability was higher on the operated side compared with the nonoperated side. DISCUSSION: The QST protocol reliability allows for group......OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... persistent pain after breast cancer treatment, suggesting neuropathic pain being a prominent pain mechanism. However, the agreement and reliability of QST has not been described in the postsurgical breast cancer population, hindering exact interpretation of QST studies in this population. The aim...

  9. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  10. Quantitative outcome measures for systemic sclerosis-related Microangiopathy - Reliability of image acquisition in Nailfold Capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, Graham; Moore, Tonia; O'Leary, Neil; Berks, Michael; Roberts, Christopher; Manning, Joanne; Allen, John; Anderson, Marina; Cutolo, Maurizio; Hesselstrand, Roger; Howell, Kevin; Pizzorni, Carmen; Smith, Vanessa; Sulli, Alberto; Wildt, Marie; Taylor, Christopher; Murray, Andrea; Herrick, Ariane L

    2017-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopic parameters hold increasing promise as outcome measures for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their inclusion as outcomes would often naturally require capillaroscopy images to be captured at several time points during any one study. Our objective was to assess repeatability of image acquisition (which has been little studied), as well as of measurement. 41 patients (26 with SSc, 15 with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) and 10 healthy controls returned for repeat high-magnification (300×) videocapillaroscopy mosaic imaging of 10 digits one week after initial imaging (as part of a larger study of reliability). Images were assessed in a random order by an expert blinded observer and 4 outcome measures extracted: (1) overall image grade and then (where possible) distal vessel locations were marked, allowing (2) vessel density (across the whole nailfold) to be calculated (3) apex width measurement and (4) giant vessel count. Intra-rater, intra-visit and intra-rater inter-visit (baseline vs. 1week) reliability were examined in 475 and 392 images respectively. A linear, mixed-effects model was used to estimate variance components, from which intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined. Intra-visit and inter-visit reliability estimates (ICCs) were (respectively): overall image grade, 0.97 and 0.90; vessel density, 0.92 and 0.65; mean vessel width, 0.91 and 0.79; presence of giant capillary, 0.68 and 0.56. These estimates were conditional on each parameter being measurable. Within-operator image analysis and acquisition are reproducible. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy, at least with a single observer, provides reliable outcome measures for clinical studies including randomised controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability of multiparametric prostatic MRI quantitative data in the evaluation of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisam Atta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the quantitative data of multiparametric prostatic MRI with Gleason scores of histopathological analysis. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-two patients performed Multiparametric MRI of the prostate. Functional MRI quantitative data (including diffusion with mean ADC value and spectroscopic metabolic ratio where the DWI is employing b 50, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000 sec/mm2 and multivoxel MR spectroscopy compared with of Gleason scores of histopathological results. Malignant cases are classified into three groups according to their Gleason score as group I with Gleason score ≤6, group II Gleason score 7, while Gleason score 8–10 stratified as Group III. Results: The histopathological analysis reveals 78 malignant cases and 44 benign Cases. The significant statistical difference between group I and the other two groups (p < 0.001 regarding the quantitative mean ADC value and metabolic spectroscopic ratio. No significant statistical difference between group II and III with p = 0.2 for mean ADC difference and p = 0.8 for the metabolic spectroscopic ratio with a weak negative correlation between ADCand Gleason score [rs = −0.26] and significant positive correlation (p = 0.02 for MRSI metabolic ratio [rs = 0.2]. Conclusion: The quantitative data of functional imaging of the prostate is reliable in evaluating prostatic cancer aggressiveness and proper construction of therapeutic plan. Keywords: mpMRI prostate cancer aggressiveness

  12. Reference gene identification for reliable normalisation of quantitative RT-PCR data in Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Quan; Eamens, Andrew L; Grof, Christopher P L

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the key platform for the quantitative analysis of gene expression in a wide range of experimental systems and conditions. However, the accuracy and reproducibility of gene expression quantification via RT-qPCR is entirely dependent on the identification of reliable reference genes for data normalisation. Green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) has recently been proposed as a potential experimental model for the study of C 4 photosynthesis and is closely related to many economically important crop species of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses, including Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Sacchurum officinarum (sugarcane). Setaria viridis (Accession 10) possesses a number of key traits as an experimental model, namely; (i) a small sized, sequenced and well annotated genome; (ii) short stature and generation time; (iii) prolific seed production, and; (iv) is amendable to Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. There is currently however, a lack of reference gene expression information for Setaria viridis ( S. viridis ). We therefore aimed to identify a cohort of suitable S. viridis reference genes for accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. Eleven putative candidate reference genes were identified and examined across thirteen different S. viridis tissues. Of these, the geNorm and NormFinder analysis software identified SERINE / THERONINE - PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A ( PP2A ), 5 '- ADENYLYLSULFATE REDUCTASE 6 ( ASPR6 ) and DUAL SPECIFICITY PHOSPHATASE ( DUSP ) as the most suitable combination of reference genes for the accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. To demonstrate the suitability of the three selected reference genes, PP2A , ASPR6 and DUSP , were used to normalise the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE ( CAD ) genes across the same tissues. This approach readily demonstrated the suitably of the three

  13. Survey of bayesian belif nets for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H.S.; Sung, T.Y.; Jeong, H.S.; Park, J.H.; Kang, H.G.; Lee, K

    2001-03-01

    As part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of safety grade digital systems used in Nuclear Power plants research, measures and methodologies applicable to quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software were surveyed. Among the techniques proposed in the literature we selected those which are in use widely and investigated their limitations in quantitative software reliability assessment. One promising methodology from the survey is Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) which has a formalism and can combine various disparate evidences relevant to reliability into final decision under uncertainty. Thus we analyzed BBN and its application cases in digital systems assessment area and finally studied the possibility of its application to the quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software.

  14. Survey of bayesian belif nets for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K.

    2001-03-01

    As part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of safety grade digital systems used in Nuclear Power plants research, measures and methodologies applicable to quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software were surveyed. Among the techniques proposed in the literature we selected those which are in use widely and investigated their limitations in quantitative software reliability assessment. One promising methodology from the survey is Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) which has a formalism and can combine various disparate evidences relevant to reliability into final decision under uncertainty. Thus we analyzed BBN and its application cases in digital systems assessment area and finally studied the possibility of its application to the quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software

  15. Quantitative trait loci markers derived from whole genome sequence data increases the reliability of genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on the reliability of genomic prediction when a small number of significant variants from single marker analysis based on whole genome sequence data were added to the regular 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data. The extra markers were selected...... with the aim of augmenting the custom low-density Illumina BovineLD SNP chip (San Diego, CA) used in the Nordic countries. The single-marker analysis was done breed-wise on all 16 index traits included in the breeding goals for Nordic Holstein, Danish Jersey, and Nordic Red cattle plus the total merit index...... itself. Depending on the trait’s economic weight, 15, 10, or 5 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were selected per trait per breed and 3 to 5 markers were selected to tag each QTL. After removing duplicate markers (same marker selected for more than one trait or breed) and filtering for high pairwise linkage...

  16. Quantitative software-reliability analysis of computer codes relevant to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of an ongoing research program to determine the probability of failure characteristics of computer codes relevant to nuclear safety. An introduction to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of nuclear software is given. A mathematical framework is presented which will enable the a priori prediction of the probability of failure characteristics of a code given the proper specification of its properties. The framework consists of four parts: (1) a classification system for software errors and code failures; (2) probabilistic modeling for selected reliability characteristics; (3) multivariate regression analyses to establish predictive relationships among reliability characteristics and generic code property and development parameters; and (4) the associated information base. Preliminary data of the type needed to support the modeling and the predictions of this program are described. Illustrations of the use of the modeling are given but the results so obtained, as well as all results of code failure probabilities presented herein, are based on data which at this point are preliminary, incomplete, and possibly non-representative of codes relevant to nuclear safety

  17. Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC), and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP). Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ≤ 0.012) and muscle strength (P ≤ 0.038) in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029), and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ≤ 0.049). Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change. PMID:23114092

  18. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography can detect reliably ischemic coronary lesions based on fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo-Young; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Lennon, Ryan J; Gulati, Rajiv; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2015-06-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CAG) has limitations in evaluating lesions producing ischemia. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) shows reconstructed images of CAG using computer based algorithm, the Cardio-op B system (Paieon Medical, Rosh Ha'ayin, Israel). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3D-QCA can reliably predict ischemia assessed by myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) < 0.80. 3D-QCA images were reconstructed from CAG which also were evaluated with FFR to assess ischemia. Minimal luminal diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), minimal luminal area (MLA), and percent area stenosis (%AS) were obtained. The results of 3D-QCA and FFR were compared. A total of 266 patients was enrolled for the present study. FFR for all lesions ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 (0.85 ± 0.09). Measurement of MLD, %DS, MLA, and %AS all were significantly correlated with FFR (r = 0.569, 0609, 0.569, 0.670, respectively, all P < 0.001). In lesions with MLA < 4.0 mm(2), %AS of more than 65.5% had a 80% sensitivity and a 83% specificity to predict FFR < 0.80 (area under curve, AUC was 0.878). 3D-QCA can reliably predict coronary lesions producing ischemia and may be used to guide therapeutic approach for coronary artery disease.

  19. Quantitative Label-Free Cell Proliferation Tracking with a Versatile Electrochemical Impedance Detection Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caviglia, Claudia; Carminati, M; Heiskanen, Arto

    2012-01-01

    optimal detection strategies. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) has been used to monitor and compare adhesion of different cell lines. HeLa cells and 3T3 fibroblasts have been cultured for 12 hours on interdigitated electrode arrays integrated into a tailor-made cell culture platform. Both......Since the use of impedance measurements for label-free monitoring of cells has become widespread but still the choice of sensing configuration is not unique though crucial for a quantitative interpretation of data, we demonstrate the application of a novel custom multipotentiostat platform to study...... vertical and coplanar interdigitated sensing configuration approaches have been used and compared on the same cell populations....

  20. Quantitative dynamic reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems by using FMEA and GO-FLOW methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Muhammad; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Yang Ming

    2014-01-01

    The passive safety systems utilized in advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design such as AP1000 should be more reliable than that of active safety systems of conventional PWR by less possible opportunities of hardware failures and human errors (less human intervention). The objectives of present study are to evaluate the dynamic reliability of AP1000 plant in order to check the effectiveness of passive safety systems by comparing the reliability-related issues with that of active safety systems in the event of the big accidents. How should the dynamic reliability of passive safety systems properly evaluated? And then what will be the comparison of reliability results of AP1000 passive safety systems with the active safety systems of conventional PWR. For this purpose, a single loop model of AP1000 passive core cooling system (PXS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) are assumed separately for quantitative reliability evaluation. The transient behaviors of these passive safety systems are taken under the large break loss-of-coolant accident in the cold leg. The analysis is made by utilizing the qualitative method failure mode and effect analysis in order to identify the potential failure mode and success-oriented reliability analysis tool called GO-FLOW for quantitative reliability evaluation. The GO-FLOW analysis has been conducted separately for PXS and PCCS systems under the same accident. The analysis results show that reliability of AP1000 passive safety systems (PXS and PCCS) is increased due to redundancies and diversity of passive safety subsystems and components, and four stages automatic depressurization system is the key subsystem for successful actuation of PXS and PCCS system. The reliability results of PCCS system of AP1000 are more reliable than that of the containment spray system of conventional PWR. And also GO-FLOW method can be utilized for reliability evaluation of passive safety systems. (author)

  1. Quantitative evaluation of the impact of human reliability in risk assessment for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    The role of human beings in the safe operation of a nuclear power plant has been a matter of concern. This study describes methods for the quantitative description of that role and its impact on the risk from nuclear power plants. The impact of human errors was calculated by observing the changes in risk parameters, such as core melt probability, release category probabilities, accident sequence probabilities and system unavailabilities due to changes in the contribution to unavailablity of human errors, within the framework of risk assessment methodology. It was found that for operational pressurized water reactors the opportunity for reduction in core melt probability by reducing the human error rates without simultaneous reduction of hardware failures is limited, but that core melt probability would significantly increase as human error rates increased. More importantly, most of the dominant accident sequences showed a significant increase in their probabilities with an increase in human error rates. Release categories resulting in high consequences showed a much larger sensitivity to human errors than categories resulting in low consequences. A combination of structural importance and reliability importance measure was used to describe the importance of individual errors

  2. FURAX: assistance tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of systems reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moureau, R.

    1995-01-01

    FURAX is a set of tools for the qualitative and quantitative safety analysis of systems functioning. It is particularly well adapted to the study of networks (fluids, electrical..), i.e. systems in which importance is functionally given to a flux. The analysis is based on modeling which privileges these fluxes (skeleton representation of the system for a network, functional diagram for a non single-flux system) and on the representation of components support systems. Qualitative analyses are based on the research for possible flux ways and on the technical domain knowledge. The results obtained correspond to a simplified failure mode analysis, to fault-trees relative to the events expected by the user and to minimum sections. The possible calculations on these models are: tree calculations, Markov diagram calculations of the system reliability, and probabilistic calculation of a section viewed as a tree, as a well-ordered sequence of failures, or as the absorbing state of a Markov diagram. (J.S.). 6 refs

  3. Quantitative morphological analysis of proliferating and nonproliferating subpopulations of IMR-90 fibroblasts during aging in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, T.B.; Heitman, T.O.; Buck, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    Early-, mid- and late-passage cultures (population doubling levels 12, 35, and 51, respectively) of IMR-90 fibroblasts were exposed to 3 H-thymidine for 48 h prior to fixation in situ for morphometric analysis in order to determine quantitatively what ultrastructural changes accompany the loss of proliferative capacity during aging in vitro. Analysis of autoradiographs, both at the light and electron microscopic levels, with an image analyzer followed by ANOVA statistical scrutiny demonstrated that a significant increase in relative cell area, an indicator of cell size, was characteristic of cells unable to incorporate 3 H-TdR at both mid- and late-passage, but not at early-passage levels. Nuclear size also increased significantly with progressive passage level but was not related to proliferative capacity. No significant difference in the area fraction of nucleoli per unit area of nucleus or of mitochondria, Golgi, or lysosomes was seen in either subpopulation at any passage level. Dilated cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum in early-passage cells were seen if cells were harvested with trypsin and fixed either before or after centrifugation, but were not seen in labeled or unlabeled cells from any passage level when cultures were fixed in situ. We conclude that a significant increase in cell size is the only significant morphological change associated with the loss of proliferative capacity of IRM-90 fibroblasts. Furthermore, our data indicate that there is no accumulation of secondary lysosomes in human diploid fibroblasts during aging in vitro; we therefore cannot support any hypothesis of aging or proliferative decline that is based mechanistically upon this phenomenon

  4. Reliability of Reagent Strips for Semi-quantitative Measurement of Glucosuria in a Neonatal Intensive Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Bekhof

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The reliability of the semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in newborn infants using reagent strips is good, even under the conditions of a NICU. Changes in the rating of reagent strips of more than one category are most likely to be beyond measurement error.

  5. A study on the quantitative evaluation of the reliability for safety critical software using Bayesian belief nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Jang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the efforts to avoid undesirable risks, or at least to bring them under control in the world, new risks that are highly difficult to manage continue to emerge from the use of new technologies, such as the use of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) components in nuclear power plant. Whenever new risk issues came out by now, we have endeavored to find the most effective ways to reduce risks, or to allocate limited resources to do this. One of the major challenges is the reliability analysis of safety-critical software associated with digital safety systems. Though many activities such as testing, verification and validation (V and V) techniques have been carried out in the design stage of software, however, the process of quantitatively evaluating the reliability of safety-critical software has not yet been developed because of the irrelevance of the conventional software reliability techniques to apply for the digital safety systems. This paper focuses on the applicability of Bayesian Belief Net (BBN) techniques to quantitatively estimate the reliability of safety-critical software adopted in digital safety system. In this paper, a typical BBN model was constructed using the dedication process of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) installed by KAERI. In conclusion, the adoption of BBN technique can facilitate the process of evaluating the safety-critical software reliability in nuclear power plant, as well as provide very useful information (e.g., 'what if' analysis) associated with software reliability in the viewpoint of practicality

  6. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. A technical survey on issues of the quantitative evaluation of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. K; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-04-01

    To develop the methodology for evaluating the software reliability included in digital instrumentation and control system (I and C), many kinds of methodologies/techniques that have been proposed from the software reliability engineering fuel are analyzed to identify the strong and week points of them. According to analysis results, methodologies/techniques that can be directly applied for the evaluation of the software reliability are not exist. Thus additional researches to combine the most appropriate methodologies/techniques from existing ones would be needed to evaluate the software reliability. (author)

  8. Intra- and interobserver reliability of quantitative ultrasound measurement of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Moelgaard, Carsten; Lykkegaard Olesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and measurement precision of sonographic assessment of plantar fascia thickness when using one, the mean of two, or the mean of three measurements. Two experienced observers scanned 20 healthy subjects twice with 60 minutes between test and retest. A GE LOGIQe ultrasound scanner was used in the study. The built-in software in the scanner was used to measure the thickness of the plantar fascia (PF). Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA). Intraobserver reliability (ICC) using one measurement was 0.50 for one observer and 0.52 for the other, and using the mean of three measurements intraobserver reliability increased up to 0.77 and 0.67, respectively. Interobserver reliability (ICC) when using one measurement was 0.62 and increased to 0.82 when using the average of three measurements. LOA showed that when using the average of three measurements, LOA decreased to 0.6 mm, corresponding to 17.5% of the mean thickness of the PF. The results showed that reliability increases when using the mean of three measurements compared with one. Limits of agreement based on intratester reliability shows that changes in thickness that are larger than 0.6 mm can be considered actual changes in thickness and not a result of measurement error. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Reliable LC-MS quantitative glycomics using iGlycoMab stable isotope labeled glycans as internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyue; Tello, Nadia; Harvey, Alex; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have numerous functions in various biological processes and participate in the progress of diseases. Reliable quantitative glycomic profiling techniques could contribute to the understanding of the biological functions of glycans, and lead to the discovery of potential glycan biomarkers for diseases. Although LC-MS is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative glycomics, the variation of ionization efficiency and MS intensity bias are influencing quantitation reliability. Internal standards can be utilized for glycomic quantitation by MS-based methods to reduce variability. In this study, we used stable isotope labeled IgG2b monoclonal antibody, iGlycoMab, as an internal standard to reduce potential for errors and to reduce variabililty due to sample digestion, derivatization, and fluctuation of nanoESI efficiency in the LC-MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans released from model glycoproteins, human blood serum, and breast cancer cell line. We observed an unanticipated degradation of isotope labeled glycans, tracked a source of such degradation, and optimized a sample preparation protocol to minimize degradation of the internal standard glycans. All results indicated the effectiveness of using iGlycoMab to minimize errors originating from sample handling and instruments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Enhancement of the reliability of automated ultrasonic inspections using tools of quantitative NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, W.; Baehr, W.; Kroening, M.; Schmitz, V.

    1994-01-01

    To achieve reliable test results from automated ultrasonic inspection of safety related components, optimization and integral consideration of the various inspection stages - inspection planning, inspection performance and evaluation of results - are indispensable. For this purpose, a large potential of methods is available: advanced measurement techniques, mathematical-numerical modelling processes, artificial intelligence tools, data bases and CAD systems. The potential inherent in these methods to enhance inspection reliability is outlined by way of different applications. (orig.) [de

  11. Reliable reference miRNAs for quantitative gene expression analysis of stress responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Podolska, Agnieszka; Pocock, Roger David John

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the "gold standard" for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data.......Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the "gold standard" for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data....

  12. Quantitative gait analysis under dual-task in older people with mild cognitive impairment: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmanis Iris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability of quantitative gait assessment while dual-tasking (walking while doing a secondary task such as talking in people with cognitive impairment is unknown. Dual-tasking gait assessment is becoming highly important for mobility research with older adults since better reflects their performance in the basic activities of daily living. Our purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of assessing quantitative gait variables using an electronic walkway in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI under single and dual-task conditions. Methods The gait performance of 11 elderly individuals with MCI was evaluated using an electronic walkway (GAITRite® System in two sessions, one week apart. Six gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, and double support time were assessed under two conditions: single-task (sG: usual walking and dual-task (dG: counting backwards from 100 while walking. Test-retest reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Gait variability was measured using coefficient of variation (CoV. Results Eleven participants (average age = 76.6 years, SD = 7.3 were assessed. They were high functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating Score = 0.5 with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of 28 (SD = 1.56, and a mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score of 22.8 (SD = 1.23. Under dual-task conditions, mean gait velocity (GV decreased significantly (sGV = 119.11 ± 20.20 cm/s; dGV = 110.88 ± 19.76 cm/s; p = 0.005. Additionally, under dual-task conditions, higher gait variability was found on stride time, step time, and double support time. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC>0.85 for the six parameters evaluated under both conditions. Conclusion In older people with MCI, variability of time-related gait parameters increased with dual-tasking suggesting cognitive control of gait performance. Assessment of quantitative gait

  13. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Framework for Evaluating and Monitoring Operational Reliability of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the advantage of on-demand, reliable and cost efficient computing solutions without the capital investment and management resources to build and maintain in-house data centers and network infrastructures. Scalability of cloud solutions enable consumers to upgrade or downsize their services as needed. In a cloud environment,…

  14. The Hidden Value of Narrative Comments for Assessment: A Quantitative Reliability Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Eva, Kevin W

    2017-11-01

    In-training evaluation reports (ITERs) are ubiquitous in internal medicine (IM) residency. Written comments can provide a rich data source, yet are often overlooked. This study determined the reliability of using variable amounts of commentary to discriminate between residents. ITER comments from two cohorts of PGY-1s in IM at the University of Toronto (graduating 2010 and 2011; n = 46-48) were put into sets containing 15 to 16 residents. Parallel sets were created: one with comments from the full year and one with comments from only the first three assessments. Each set was rank-ordered by four internists external to the program between April 2014 and May 2015 (n = 24). Generalizability analyses and a decision study were performed. For the full year of comments, reliability coefficients averaged across four rankers were G = 0.85 and G = 0.91 for the two cohorts. For a single ranker, G = 0.60 and G = 0.73. Using only the first three assessments, reliabilities remained high at G = 0.66 and G = 0.60 for a single ranker. In a decision study, if two internists ranked the first three assessments, reliability would be G = 0.80 and G = 0.75 for the two cohorts. Using written comments to discriminate between residents can be extremely reliable even after only several reports are collected. This suggests a way to identify residents early on who may require attention. These findings contribute evidence to support the validity argument for using qualitative data for assessment.

  15. Are commercial 99m Tc-DTPA preparations reliable for quantitation of renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeghers, O.; Kinthaert, J.; Georges, B.; Van Gansbeke, B.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Bad labeling and stability of 99m-Tc-DTPA preparations were found on several occasions, resulting in important artefacts in quantitative renal studies. Further studies are needed in order to understand the origin of these inconstant findings. Repeated quality control on Tc-99m-DTPA preparations are mandatory

  16. 76 FR 28819 - NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software Reliability Models for Digital Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0109] NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software...: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued for public comment a document entitled: NUREG/CR-XXXX...-XXXX is available electronically under ADAMS Accession Number ML111020087. Federal Rulemaking Web Site...

  17. Magnetic particle separation technique: a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rongsen; Shen Decun

    1998-01-01

    Five types of magnetic particles without or with aldehyde, amino and carboxyl functional groups, respectively were used to immobilize first or second antibody by three models, i. e. physical adsorption, chemical coupling and immuno-affinity, forming four types of magnetic particle antibodies. The second antibody immobilized on polyacrolein magnetic particles through aldehyde functional groups and the first antibodies immobilized on carboxylic polystyrene magnetic particles through carboxyl functional groups were recommended to apply to RIAs and/or IRMAs. Streptavidin immobilized on commercial magnetic particles through amino functional groups was successfully applied to separating specific PCR product for quantification of human cytomegalovirus. In the paper typical data on reliability of these magnetic particle ligands were reported and simplicity of the magnetic particle separation technique was discussed. The results showed that the technique was a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay. (author)

  18. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  19. Reliable gene expression analysis by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR: reporting and minimizing the uncertainty in data accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remans, Tony; Keunen, Els; Bex, Geert Jan; Smeets, Karen; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2014-10-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely adopted to measure differences in mRNA levels; however, biological and technical variation strongly affects the accuracy of the reported differences. RT-qPCR specialists have warned that, unless researchers minimize this variability, they may report inaccurate differences and draw incorrect biological conclusions. The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines describe procedures for conducting and reporting RT-qPCR experiments. The MIQE guidelines enable others to judge the reliability of reported results; however, a recent literature survey found low adherence to these guidelines. Additionally, even experiments that use appropriate procedures remain subject to individual variation that statistical methods cannot correct. For example, since ideal reference genes do not exist, the widely used method of normalizing RT-qPCR data to reference genes generates background noise that affects the accuracy of measured changes in mRNA levels. However, current RT-qPCR data reporting styles ignore this source of variation. In this commentary, we direct researchers to appropriate procedures, outline a method to present the remaining uncertainty in data accuracy, and propose an intuitive way to select reference genes to minimize uncertainty. Reporting the uncertainty in data accuracy also serves for quality assessment, enabling researchers and peer reviewers to confidently evaluate the reliability of gene expression data. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. A quantitative assessment of alkaptonuria: testing the reliability of two disease severity scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

    2011-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is due to excessive homogentisic acid accumulation in body fluids due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to varied clinical manifestations mainly by a process of conversion of HGA to a polymeric melanin-like pigment known as ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, successful demonstration of its efficacy in modifying the natural history of AKU requires an effective quantitative assessment tool. We have described two potential tools that could be used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires used in 44 people with AKU. Statistical analyses were carried out on the two patient datasets to assess the AKU tools; these included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, multidimensional scaling and simple linear regression analysis. The conclusion was that there was good evidence that the tools could be adopted as AKU assessment tools, but perhaps with further refinement before being used in the practical setting of a clinical trial.

  1. Relative validity and reliability of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for adults in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael T. Leon Guerrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guam is a US territory in the western Pacific with a diverse population that includes understudied ethnic groups such as Chamorros and Filipinos. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to estimate dietary intake was needed to facilitate studies of diet and health among adults living in Guam. Objective: To develop and validate an FFQ to assess dietary intake over a 1-year period among adult Guam residents. Design: A three-part study was conducted: 1 an initial cross-sectional study using 24-h recalls to identify a food and beverage list for the FFQ and resulting in a final FFQ containing 142 food and drink items; 2 to test reliability, 56 different individuals completed the FFQ twice; and 3 to test relative validity, self-administered FFQs and up to 2 days of food record data from an additional 109 individuals were collected, and daily nutrient intake from the two methods was compared. Results: The reliability of the FFQ was very good (ρ range=0.65–0.75, and the relative validity of the FFQ was good for women (median Spearman's correlation [ρ] between instruments of 0.45 across 20 nutrients and an interquartile range [IQR] of 0.42–0.58 and generally adequate for men (median ρ=0.31, IQR=0.23–0.55. Validity was also good for Chamorros (median ρ=0.47, IQR=0.38–0.53 and generally adequate for Filipinos (median ρ=0.42, IQR=0.20–0.62. Correlations after energy adjustment were lower (overall median ρ=0.20, IQR=0.14–0.26. Conclusions: The FFQ can be used to rank nutrient intake for adults in Guam and may be helpful in the analysis of relationships between diet and chronic disease in Guam.

  2. Quantitative assessment of probability of failing safely for the safety instrumented system using reliability block diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Zhao, Shoutang; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of PFS for SIS were established by using the reliability block diagram. • The more accurate calculation of PFS for SIS can be acquired by using SL. • Degraded operation of complex SIS does not affect the availability of SIS. • The safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS of SIS. - Abstract: The spurious trip of safety instrumented system (SIS) brings great economic losses to production. How to ensure the safety instrumented system is reliable and available has been put on the schedule. But the existing models on spurious trip rate (STR) or probability of failing safely (PFS) are too simplified and not accurate, in-depth studies of availability to obtain more accurate PFS for SIS are required. Based on the analysis of factors that influence the PFS for the SIS, using reliability block diagram method (RBD), the quantitative study of PFS for the SIS is carried out, and gives some application examples. The results show that, the common cause failure will increase the PFS; degraded operation does not affect the availability of the SIS; if the equipment was tested and repaired one by one, the unavailability of the SIS can be ignored; the corresponding occurrence time of independent safe undetected failure should be the system lifecycle (SL) rather than the proof test interval and the independent safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS for the SIS

  3. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  4. Intra-rater reliability of motor unit number estimation and quantitative motor unit analysis in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Colleen T; Doherty, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intra-rater reliability of decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative motor unit potential analysis in the upper trapezius (UT) and biceps brachii (BB) of subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to compare the results from the UT to control data. Patients diagnosed with clinically probable or definite ALS completed the experimental protocol twice with the same evaluator for the UT (n=10) and BB (n=9). Intra-rater reliability for the UT was good for the maximum compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (ICC=0.88), mean surface-detected motor unit potential (S-MUP) (ICC=0.87) and MUNE (ICC=0.88), and for the BB was moderate for maximum CMAP (ICC=0.61), and excellent for mean S-MUP (ICC=0.94) and MUNE (ICC=0.93). A significant difference between tests was found for UT MUNE. Comparing subjects with ALS to control subjects, UT maximum CMAP (p<0.01) and MUNE (p<0.001) values were significantly lower, and mean S-MUP values significantly greater (p<0.05) in subjects with ALS. This study has demonstrated the ability of the DE-STA MUNE technique to collect highly reliable data from two separate muscle groups and to detect the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. This was the first study to examine the reliability of this technique in subjects with ALS, and demonstrates its potential for future use as an outcome measure in ALS clinical trials and studies of ALS disease severity and natural history. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves

    2009-01-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  6. Comparison of macro and micro Raman measurement for reliable quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Eduardo M; da Silva, Vitor H; Poppi, Ronei J; Pereira, Claudete F; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2018-05-12

    This work reports on the use of micro- and macro-Raman measurements for quantification of mebendazole (MBZ) polymorphs A, B, and C in mixtures. Three Raman spectrophotometers were studied with a laser spot size of 3, 80 and 100 μm and spectral resolutions of 3.9, 9 and 4 cm -1 , respectively. The samples studied were ternary mixtures varying the MBZ polymorphs A and C from 0 to 100% and polymorph B from 0 to 30%. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were developed using the pre-processing spectra (2nd derivative) of the ternary mixtures. The best performance was obtained when the macro-Raman configuration was applied, obtaining RMSEP values of 1.68%, 1.24% and 2.03% w/w for polymorphs A, B, and C, respectively. In general, micro-Raman presented worst results for MBZ polymorphs prediction because the spectra obtained with this configuration does not represent the bulk proportion of mixtures, which have different particle morphologies and sizes. In addition, the influence of these particle features on micro-Raman measurements was also studied. Finally, the results demonstrated that reliable analytical quantifying of MBZ polymorphs can be reached using a laser with wider area illuminated, thus enabling acquisition of more reproductive and representative spectra of the mixtures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  8. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  9. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative sod gene expression analysis in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandesompele Jo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the conserved Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates many biological processes including life span, stress response, dauer diapause and metabolism. Detection of differentially expressed genes may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates these processes. Appropriate normalization is an essential prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantification of gene expression levels. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression analysis in C. elegans. Results Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes (act-1, ama-1, cdc-42, csq-1, eif-3.C, mdh-1, gpd-2, pmp-3, tba-1, Y45F10D.4, rgs-6 and unc-16 in wild-type, three Ins/IGF-1 pathway mutants, dauers and L3 stage larvae. After geNorm analysis, cdc-42, pmp-3 and Y45F10D.4 showed the most stable expression pattern and were used to normalize 5 sod expression levels. Significant differences in mRNA levels were observed for sod-1 and sod-3 in daf-2 relative to wild-type animals, whereas in dauers sod-1, sod-3, sod-4 and sod-5 are differentially expressed relative to third stage larvae. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of accurate normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The methodology used in this study is generally applicable to reliably quantify gene expression levels in the nematode C. elegans using quantitative PCR.

  10. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Sik, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  11. Reliability and short-term intra-individual variability of telomere length measurement using monochrome multiplexing quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    Full Text Available Studies examining the association between telomere length and cancer risk have often relied on measurement of telomere length from a single blood draw using a real-time PCR technique. We examined the reliability of telomere length measurement using sequential samples collected over a 9-month period.Relative telomere length in peripheral blood was estimated using a single tube monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay in blood DNA samples from 27 non-pregnant adult women (aged 35 to 74 years collected in 7 visits over a 9-month period. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the components of variance for telomere length measurements attributed to variation among women and variation between time points within women. Mean telomere length measurement at any single visit was not significantly different from the average of 7 visits. Plates had a significant systematic influence on telomere length measurements, although measurements between different plates were highly correlated. After controlling for plate effects, 64% of the remaining variance was estimated to be accounted for by variance due to subject. Variance explained by time of visit within a subject was minor, contributing 5% of the remaining variance.Our data demonstrate good short-term reliability of telomere length measurement using blood from a single draw. However, the existence of technical variability, particularly plate effects, reinforces the need for technical replicates and balancing of case and control samples across plates.

  12. Quantitative Validation of the Presto Blue Metabolic Assay for Online Monitoring of Cell Proliferation in a 3D Perfusion Bioreactor System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Luyten, Frank P; Schrooten, Jan Ir

    2015-06-01

    As the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine mature toward clinical applications, the need for online monitoring both for quantitative and qualitative use becomes essential. Resazurin-based metabolic assays are frequently applied for determining cytotoxicity and have shown great potential for monitoring 3D bioreactor-facilitated cell culture. However, no quantitative correlation between the metabolic conversion rate of resazurin and cell number has been defined yet. In this work, we determined conversion rates of Presto Blue, a resazurin-based metabolic assay, for human periosteal cells during 2D and 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures. Our results showed that for the evaluated culture systems there is a quantitative correlation between the Presto Blue conversion rate and the cell number during the expansion phase with no influence of the perfusion-related parameters, that is, flow rate and shear stress. The correlation between the cell number and Presto Blue conversion subsequently enabled the definition of operating windows for optimal signal readouts. In conclusion, our data showed that the conversion of the resazurin-based Presto Blue metabolic assay can be used as a quantitative readout for online monitoring of cell proliferation in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system, although a system-specific validation is required.

  13. Quantitative Validation of the Presto Blue™ Metabolic Assay for Online Monitoring of Cell Proliferation in a 3D Perfusion Bioreactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnaert, Maarten; Papantoniou, Ioannis; Luyten, Frank P.

    2015-01-01

    As the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine mature toward clinical applications, the need for online monitoring both for quantitative and qualitative use becomes essential. Resazurin-based metabolic assays are frequently applied for determining cytotoxicity and have shown great potential for monitoring 3D bioreactor-facilitated cell culture. However, no quantitative correlation between the metabolic conversion rate of resazurin and cell number has been defined yet. In this work, we determined conversion rates of Presto Blue™, a resazurin-based metabolic assay, for human periosteal cells during 2D and 3D static and 3D perfusion cultures. Our results showed that for the evaluated culture systems there is a quantitative correlation between the Presto Blue conversion rate and the cell number during the expansion phase with no influence of the perfusion-related parameters, that is, flow rate and shear stress. The correlation between the cell number and Presto Blue conversion subsequently enabled the definition of operating windows for optimal signal readouts. In conclusion, our data showed that the conversion of the resazurin-based Presto Blue metabolic assay can be used as a quantitative readout for online monitoring of cell proliferation in a 3D perfusion bioreactor system, although a system-specific validation is required. PMID:25336207

  14. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  15. Quantitative expression patterns of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) protein in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girroir, Elizabeth E.; Hollingshead, Holly E.; He Pengfei; Zhu Bokai; Perdew, Gary H.; Peters, Jeffrey M.

    2008-01-01

    The expression patterns of PPARβ/δ have been described, but the majority of these data are based on mRNA data. To date, there are no reports that have quantitatively examined the expression of PPARβ/δ protein in mouse tissues. In the present study, a highly specific PPARβ/δ antibody was developed, characterized, and used to examine tissue expression patterns of PPARβ/δ. As compared to commercially available anti-PPARβ/δ antibodies, one of six polyclonal anti-PPARβ/δ antibodies developed was significantly more effective for immunoprecipitation of in vitro-translated PPARβ/δ. This antibody was used for quantitative Western blot analysis using radioactive detection methods. Expression of PPARβ/δ was highest in colon, small intestine, liver, and keratinocytes as compared to other tissues including heart, spleen, skeletal muscle, lung, brain, and thymus. Interestingly, PPARβ/δ expression was localized in the nucleus and RXRα can be co-immunoprecipitated with nuclear PPARβ/δ. Results from these studies demonstrate that PPARβ/δ expression is highest in intestinal epithelium, liver, and keratinocytes, consistent with significant biological roles in these tissues

  16. A guide on the elicitation of expert knowledge in constructing BBN for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the methodology which could elicit probabilistic representation from the experts' knowledge or qualitative data. It is necessary to elicit expert's knowledge while we quantitatively assess the reliability of safety critical software using Bayesian Belief Nets(BBNs). Especially in composing the node probability table and in making out the input data for BBN model, experts' qualitative judgment or qualitative data should be converted into probabilistic representation. This conversion process is vulnerable to bias or error. The purpose of the report is to provide the guideline to avoid the occurrence of this kinds of bias/error or to eliminate them which is included in the existing data prepared by experts. The contents of the report are: o The types and the explanation of bias and error The types of bias and error which might be occur in the process of eliciting the expert's knowledge. o The procedure of expert's judgment elicitation. The process and techniques to avoid bias and error in eliciting the expert's judgments. o The examples of expert's knowledge appeared in the BBNs The examples of expert's knowledge (probability values) appeared in the BBNs for assessing the safety of digital system

  17. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in human T cells and neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledderose Carola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of reliable reference genes is a prerequisite for valid results when analyzing gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. This method is frequently applied to study gene expression patterns in immune cells, yet a thorough validation of potential reference genes is still lacking for most leukocyte subtypes and most models of their in vitro stimulation. In the current study, we evaluated the expression stability of common reference genes in two widely used cell culture models-anti-CD3/CD28 activated T cells and lipopolysaccharide stimulated neutrophils-as well as in unselected untreated leukocytes. Results The mRNA expression of 17 (T cells, 7 (neutrophils or 8 (unselected leukocytes potential reference genes was quantified by reverse transcription qPCR, and a ranking of the preselected candidate genes according to their expression stability was calculated using the programs NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper. IPO8, RPL13A, TBP and SDHA were identified as suitable reference genes in T cells. TBP, ACTB and SDHA were stably expressed in neutrophils. TBP and SDHA were also the most stable genes in untreated total blood leukocytes. The critical impact of reference gene selection on the estimated target gene expression is demonstrated for IL-2 and FIH expression in T cells. Conclusions The study provides a shortlist of suitable reference genes for normalization of gene expression data in unstimulated and stimulated T cells, unstimulated and stimulated neutrophils and in unselected leukocytes.

  18. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  19. Quantitation of multiple myeloma oncogene 1/interferon-regulatory factor 4 gene expression in malignant B-cell proliferations and normal leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M; Asanuma, K; Kobayashi, D; Moriai, R; Yajima, T; Yagihashi, A; Yamamori, S; Watanabe, N

    2001-01-01

    We studied multiple myeloma oncogene 1/interferon-regulatory factor 4 (MUM1/IRF4) mRNA expression in various malignant human hematopoietic cell lines and normal leukocyte fractions. A quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to assess expression and chromosomes were examined for anomalies by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Among 12 cell lines examined, mRNA transcripts were expressed only in B-lymphoblastic and myeloma cell lines. Myeloma cells and malignant cell lines derived from mature B cells expressed more transcript than cell lines derived from immature B cells. Transcript levels, however, showed no association with chromosomal translocations. Expression in B-cell fractions from healthy donors was much less than in the malignant cells. In addition, MUM1/IRF4 mRNA expressed in samples from patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia derived from B cells but not T cells. Our results suggested that MUM1/IRF4 gene expression is related to stage of differentiation of malignant B cells and they indicated the possibility that the quantitative analysis of MUM1/IRF4 gene is a useful tool for detection of malignant B-cell proliferations in clinical laboratory tests.

  20. The use and reliability of SymNose for quantitative measurement of the nose and lip in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David; Tan, Robin; Mulder, Frans; Bachour, Yara; de Vet, Henrica; Don Griot, Peter

    2016-10-01

    It is essential to have a reliable assessment method in order to compare the results of cleft lip and palate surgery. In this study the computer-based program SymNose, a method for quantitative assessment of the nose and lip, will be assessed on usability and reliability. The symmetry of the nose and lip was measured twice in 50 six-year-old complete and incomplete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by four observers. For the frontal view the asymmetry level of the nose and upper lip were evaluated and for the basal view the asymmetry level of the nose and nostrils were evaluated. A mean inter-observer reliability when tracing each image once or twice was 0.70 and 0.75, respectively. Tracing the photographs with 2 observers and 4 observers gave a mean inter-observer score of 0.86 and 0.92, respectively. The mean intra-observer reliability varied between 0.80 and 0.84. SymNose is a practical and reliable tool for the retrospective assessment of large caseloads of 2D photographs of cleft patients for research purposes. Moderate to high single inter-observer reliability was found. For future research with SymNose reliable outcomes can be achieved by using the average outcomes of single tracings of two observers. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [¹⁸F]fluorothymidine-positron emission tomography in patients with locally advanced breast cancer under bevacizumab treatment: usefulness of different quantitative methods of tumor proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti-Climent, J M; Dominguez-Prado, I; Garcia-Velloso, M J; Boni, V; Peñuelas, I; Toledo, I; Richter, J A

    2014-01-01

    To investigate quantitative methods of tumor proliferation using 3'-[(18)F]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine ([(18)F]FLT) PET in patients with breast cancer (BC), studied before and after one bevacizumab administration, and to correlate the [(18)F]FLT-PET uptake with the Ki67 index. Thirty patients with newly diagnosed, untreated BC underwent a [(18)F]FLT-PET before and 14 days after bevacizumab treatment. A dynamic scan centered over the tumor began simultaneously with the injection of [(18)F]FLT (385 ± 56 MBq). Image derived input functions were obtained using regions of interest drawn on the left ventricle (LV) and descending aorta (DA). Metabolite corrected blood curves were used as input functions to obtain the kinetic Ki constant using the Patlak graphical analysis (time interval 10-60 min after injection). Maximum SUV values were derived for the intervals 40-60 min (SUV40) and 50-60 min (SUV50). PET parameters were correlated with the Ki67 index obtained staining tumor biopsies. [(18)F]FLT uptake parameters decreased significantly (p<0.001) after treatment: SUV50=3.09 ± 1.21 vs 2.22 ± 0.96; SUV40=3.00 ± 1.18 vs 2.14 ± 0.95, Ki_LV(10-3)=52[22-116] vs 38[13-80] and Ki_DA(10-3)=49[15-129] vs 33[11-98]. Consistency interclass correlation coefficients within SUV and within Ki were high. Changes of SUV50 and Ki_DA between baseline PET and after one bevacizumab dose PET correlated with changes in Ki67 index (r-Pearson=0.35 and 0.26, p=0.06 and 0.16, respectively). [(18)F]FLT-PET is useful to demonstrate proliferative changes after a dose of bevacizumab in patients with BC. Quantification of tumor proliferation by means of SUV and Ki has shown similar results, but SUV50 obtained better results. A correlation between [(18)F]FLT changes and Ki67 index was observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability of a novel, semi-quantitative scale for classification of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Cioni, Giovanni; Klingels, Katrjin; Ortibus, Els; Van Gestel, Leen; Rose, Stephen; Boyd, Roslyn N; Feys, Hilde; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    To describe the development of a novel rating scale for classification of brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to assess its interrater and intrarater reliability. The scale consists of three sections. Section 1 contains descriptive information about the patient and MRI. Section 2 contains the graphical template of brain hemispheres onto which the lesion is transposed. Section 3 contains the scoring system for the quantitative analysis of the lesion characteristics, grouped into different global scores and subscores that assess separately side, regions, and depth. A larger interrater and intrarater reliability study was performed in 34 children with CP (22 males, 12 females; mean age at scan of 9 y 5 mo [SD 3 y 3 mo], range 4 y-16 y 11 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, [n=22], II [n=10], and level III [n=2]). Very high interrater and intrarater reliability of the total score was found with indices above 0.87. Reliability coefficients of the lobar and hemispheric subscores ranged between 0.53 and 0.95. Global scores for hemispheres, basal ganglia, brain stem, and corpus callosum showed reliability coefficients above 0.65. This study presents the first visual, semi-quantitative scale for classification of brain structural MRI in children with CP. The high degree of reliability of the scale supports its potential application for investigating the relationship between brain structure and function and examining treatment response according to brain lesion severity in children with CP. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  3. Quantitative developments in the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for the assessment of human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Librizzi, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The current 'second generation' approaches in human reliability analysis focus their attention on the contextual conditions under which a given action is performed rather than on the notion of inherent human error probabilities, as was done in the earlier 'first generation' techniques. Among the 'second generation' methods, this paper considers the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) and proposes some developments with respect to a systematic procedure for computing probabilities of action failure. The starting point for the quantification is a previously introduced fuzzy version of the CREAM paradigm which is here further extended to include uncertainty on the qualification of the conditions under which the action is performed and to account for the fact that the effects of the common performance conditions (CPCs) on performance reliability may not all be equal. By the proposed approach, the probability of action failure is estimated by rating the performance conditions in terms of their effect on the action

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  5. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  6. Getting serious about proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1984-01-01

    The US needs to give a higher priority to nuclear non-proliferation, but Reagan's policies assume that proliferation is inevitable and that it is more important to be a reliable supplier than to cause trade frictions by trading only with those nations which sign the non-proliferation treaty (NPT). This undercuts US leadership and the intent of the agreement. Several bills now before Congress could help to restore US leadership by tightening export restrictions and the use of plutonium from the US

  7. rpb2 is a reliable reference gene for quantitative gene expression analysis in the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tiago R; Peres, Nalu T A; Persinoti, Gabriela F; Silva, Larissa G; Mazucato, Mendelson; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2012-05-01

    The selection of reference genes used for data normalization to quantify gene expression by real-time PCR amplifications (qRT-PCR) is crucial for the accuracy of this technique. In spite of this, little information regarding such genes for qRT-PCR is available for gene expression analyses in pathogenic fungi. Thus, we investigated the suitability of eight candidate reference genes in isolates of the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum subjected to several environmental challenges, such as drug exposure, interaction with human nail and skin, and heat stress. The stability of these genes was determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Best-Keeper programs. The gene with the most stable expression in the majority of the conditions tested was rpb2 (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II), which was validated in three T. rubrum strains. Moreover, the combination of rpb2 and chs1 (chitin synthase) genes provided for the most reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in T. rubrum under a broad range of biological conditions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR data normalization in dermatophytes and the results of these studies should permit further analysis of gene expression under several experimental conditions, with improved accuracy and reliability.

  8. PI-RADS version 2: quantitative analysis aids reliable interpretation of diffusion-weighted imaging for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Urology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio aids reliable interpretation of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-six consecutive patients with PCa who underwent DWI and surgery were included. Based on pathologic tumour location, two readers independently performed DWI scoring according to the revised Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADSv2). ADC ratios of benign to cancerous prostatic tissue were then measured independently and compared between cases showing concordant and discordant DWI scores ≥4. Area under the curve (AUC) and threshold of ADC ratio were analyzed for DWI scores ≥4. The rate of inter-reader disagreement for DWI score ≥4 was 11.8% (9/76). ADC ratios were higher in concordant vs. discordant DWI scores ≥4 (median, 1.7 vs. 1.1-1.2; p < 0.001). For DWI scores ≥4, the AUCs of ADC ratios were 0.970 for reader 1 and 0.959 for reader 2. In patients with an ADC ratio >1.3, the rate of inter-reader disagreement for DWI score ≥4 decreased to 5.9-6.0%. An ADC ratio >1.3 yielded 100% (reader 1, 54/54; reader 2, 51/51) positive predictive value for clinically significant cancer. ADC ratios may be useful for reliable interpretation of DWI score ≥4 in PI-RADSv2. (orig.)

  9. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, K.

    2005-10-01

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  10. Uncertainties in Nuclear Proliferation Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man-Sung; Park, Hyeon Seok

    2015-01-01

    There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. Such systematic approaches have shown the possibility to provide warning for the international community to prevent nuclear proliferation activities. However, there are still large debates for the robustness of the actual effect of determinants and projection results. Some studies have shown that several factors can cause uncertainties in previous quantitative nuclear proliferation modeling works. This paper analyzes the uncertainties in the past approaches and suggests future works in the view of proliferation history, analysis methods, and variable selection. The research community still lacks the knowledge for the source of uncertainty in current models. Fundamental problems in modeling will remain even other advanced modeling method is developed. Before starting to develop fancy model based on the time dependent proliferation determinants' hypothesis, using graph theory, etc., it is important to analyze the uncertainty of current model to solve the fundamental problems of nuclear proliferation modeling. The uncertainty from different proliferation history coding is small. Serious problems are from limited analysis methods and correlation among the variables. Problems in regression analysis and survival analysis cause huge uncertainties when using the same dataset, which decreases the robustness of the result. Inaccurate variables for nuclear proliferation also increase the uncertainty. To overcome these problems, further quantitative research should focus on analyzing the knowledge suggested on the qualitative nuclear proliferation studies

  11. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignee, Andre; Jedrejczyk, Maciej; Schuessler, Gudrun; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2010-01-01

    Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignee, Andre [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: andre.ignee@gmx.de; Jedrejczyk, Maciej [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 2nd Division of Medical Faculty, Medical University, Ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: mjedrzejczyk@interia.pl; Schuessler, Gudrun [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: gudrunschuessler@gmx.de; Jakubowski, Wieslaw [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 2nd Division of Medical Faculty, Medical University, Ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ewajbmd@go2.pl; Dietrich, Christoph F. [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Patients and methods: Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60 s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. Results: The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10 cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6 cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. Discussion: (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4 cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6 cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves.

  13. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignee, Andre; Jedrejczyk, Maciej; Schuessler, Gudrun; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Patients and methods: Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60 s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. Results: The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10 cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6 cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. Discussion: (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4 cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6 cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves.

  14. Test-retest and interobserver reliability of quantitative sensory testing according to the protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain (DFNS): a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Christian; Klein, Thomas; Azad, Shahnaz; Birklein, Frank; Gierthmühlen, Janne; Huge, Volker; Lauchart, Meike; Nitzsche, Dorothee; Stengel, Maike; Valet, Michael; Baron, Ralf; Maier, Christoph; Tölle, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2011-03-01

    Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is an instrument to assess positive and negative sensory signs, helping to identify mechanisms underlying pathologic pain conditions. In this study, we evaluated the test-retest reliability (TR-R) and the interobserver reliability (IO-R) of QST in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies. In 4 centres, 60 patients (37 male and 23 female, 56.4±1.9years) with lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system were included. QST comprised 13 parameters including detection and pain thresholds for thermal and mechanical stimuli. QST was performed in the clinically most affected test area and a less or unaffected control area in a morning and an afternoon session on 2 consecutive days by examiner pairs (4 QSTs/patient). For both, TR-R and IO-R, there were high correlations (r=0.80-0.93) at the affected test area, except for wind-up ratio (TR-R: r=0.67; IO-R: r=0.56) and paradoxical heat sensations (TR-R: r=0.35; IO-R: r=0.44). Mean IO-R (r=0.83, 31% unexplained variance) was slightly lower than TR-R (r=0.86, 26% unexplained variance, Ptest area (TR-R: r=0.86; IO-R: r=0.83) than in the control area (TR-R: r=0.79; IO-R: r=0.71, each Preliability of QST. We conclude that standardized QST performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good test-retest and interobserver reliability within 2days. With standardized training, observer bias is much lower than random variance. Quantitative sensory testing performed by trained examiners is a valuable diagnostic instrument with good interobserver and test-retest reliability for use in patients with sensory disturbances of different etiologies to help identify mechanisms of neuropathic and non-neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjian Niu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE, actin (ACT and phospholipase A22 (PLA were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, cyclophilin (CYC and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  16. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  17. Secondary dentine as a sole parameter for age estimation: Comparison and reliability of qualitative and quantitative methods among North Western adult Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Arora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The indestructible nature of teeth against most of the environmental abuses makes its use in disaster victim identification (DVI. The present study has been undertaken to examine the reliability of Gustafson’s qualitative method and Kedici’s quantitative method of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation among North Western adult Indians. 196 (M = 85; F = 111 single rooted teeth were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Ground sections were prepared and the amount of secondary dentine formed was scored qualitatively according to Gustafson’s (0–3 scoring system (method 1 and quantitatively following Kedici’s micrometric measurement method (method 2. Out of 196 teeth 180 samples (M = 80; F = 100 were found to be suitable for measuring secondary dentine following Kedici’s method. Absolute mean error of age was calculated by both methodologies. Results clearly showed that in pooled data, method 1 gave an error of ±10.4 years whereas method 2 exhibited an error of approximately ±13 years. A statistically significant difference was noted in absolute mean error of age between two methods of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation. Further, it was also revealed that teeth extracted for periodontal reasons severely decreased the accuracy of Kedici’s method however, the disease had no effect while estimating age by Gustafson’s method. No significant gender differences were noted in the absolute mean error of age by both methods which suggest that there is no need to separate data on the basis of gender.

  18. Proliferation resistance modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.; Peterson, P.; Roglans, J.; Mladineo, S.; Nuclear Engineering Division; BNL; Univ. of California at Berkely; PNNL

    2004-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration is developing methods for nonproliferation assessments. A working group on Nonproliferation Assessment Methodology (NPAM) assembled a toolbox of methods for various applications in the nonproliferation arena. One application of this methodology is to the evaluation of the proliferation resistance of Generation IV nuclear energy systems. This paper first summarizes the key results of the NPAM program and then provides results obtained thus far in the ongoing application, which is co-sponsored by the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy Science and Technology. In NPAM, a top-level measure of proliferation resistance for a fuel cycle system is developed from a hierarchy of metrics. The problem is decomposed into: metrics to be computed, barriers to proliferation, and a finite set of threats. The analyst models the process undertaken by the proliferant to overcome barriers to proliferation and evaluates the outcomes. In addition to proliferation resistance (PR) evaluation, the application also addresses physical protection (PP) evaluation against sabotage and theft. The Generation IV goal for future nuclear energy systems is to assure that they are very unattractive and the least desirable route for diversion or theft of weapons-usable materials, and provide increased physical protection against terrorism. An Expert Group, addressing this application, has identified six high-level measures for the PR goals (six measures have also been identified for the PP goals). Combined together, the complete set of measures provides information for program policy makers and system designers to compare specific system design features and integral system characteristics and to make choices among alternative options. The Group has developed a framework for a phased evaluation approach to analyzing PR and PP of system characteristics and to quantifying metrics and measures. This approach allows evaluations to become more detailed and representative

  19. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Nothnagel,1,2,* Christian Puta,1,3,* Thomas Lehmann,4 Philipp Baumbach,5 Martha B Menard,6,7 Brunhild Gabriel,1 Holger H W Gabriel,1 Thomas Weiss,8 Frauke Musial2 1Department of Sports Medicine and Health Promotion, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany; 2Department of Community Medicine, National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Center for Interdisciplinary Prevention of Diseases Related to Professional Activities, 4Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Jena, Germany; 6Crocker Institute, Kiawah Island, SC, 7School of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences, Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA; 8Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Quantitative sensory testing (QST is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. Methods: QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years, with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, Bland–Altman plots (limits of agreement, and standard error of measurement were used. Results: Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in

  20. Quantitative Analyses of Synergistic Responses between Cannabidiol and DNA-Damaging Agents on the Proliferation and Viability of Glioblastoma and Neural Progenitor Cells in Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liting; Ng, Lindsay; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Stella, Nephi

    2017-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the nonpsychotropic cannabis-derived compound, cannabidiol (CBD), has antineoplastic activity in multiple types of cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). DNA-damaging agents remain the main standard of care treatment available for patients diagnosed with GBM. Here we studied the antiproliferative and cell-killing activity of CBD alone and in combination with DNA-damaging agents (temozolomide, carmustine, or cisplatin) in several human GBM cell lines and in mouse primary GBM cells in cultures. This activity was also studied in mouse neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture to assess for potential central nervous system toxicity. We found that CBD induced a dose-dependent reduction of both proliferation and viability of all cells with similar potencies, suggesting no preferential activity for cancer cells. Hill plot analysis indicates an allosteric mechanism of action triggered by CBD in all cells. Cotreatment regimens combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents produced synergistic antiproliferating and cell-killing responses over a limited range of concentrations in all human GBM cell lines and mouse GBM cells as well as in mouse NPCs. Remarkably, antagonistic responses occurred at low concentrations in select human GBM cell lines and in mouse GBM cells. Our study suggests limited synergistic activity when combining CBD and DNA-damaging agents in treating GBM cells, along with little to no therapeutic window when considering NPCs. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  1. Proliferation risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed

  2. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  3. Development of core technology for KNGR system design; development of quantitative reliability evaluation methodologies of KNGR digital I and C components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seong, Poong Hyun; Choi, Jong Gyun; Kim, Ung Soo; Kim, Jong Hyun; Kim, Man Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Young Je; Ha, Jun Soo [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    For the digital systems to be applied to the nuclear industry, which has its unique conservertive to safety, reliability assessment of digital systems is a prerequisite. But, because digital systems show different failure modes from compared to existing analog systems, the existing reliability assessment method cannot be applied to digital systems. It means that a new reliability assessment method for digital systems should be developed. The goal of this study is development of reliability assessment method for digital systems on board level and related software tool. To achieve the goal, we have conducted researches on development of a database for hardware components for digital I and C systems, development of a reliability assessment model for the reliability prediction of digital systems on board level, and the applicability to KNGR digital I and C systems. We developed a database for reliability assessment of digital hardware components, a reliability assessment method for digital systems with consideration of software and hardware together, and a software tool for the reliability assessment of digital systems, which is named as RelPredic. We plan to apply the results of this study to the reliability assessment of digital systems in KNGR digital I and C systems. 13 refs., 71 figs., 31 tabs. (Author)

  4. Nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stencel, S.

    1978-01-01

    The terms and reactions to President Carter's nuclear policy, culminating in the 1978 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act, are reviewed and analyzed. The new law increases restrictions on nuclear exports, encourages continued use of light water reactors in preference to plutonium-fueled reactors, and emphasizes technical solutions to proliferation problems. Critics of the law point out that it will hurt U.S. trade unfairly, that other countries do not have as many fuel options as the U.S. has, and that nuclear sales have as many political and economic as technical solutions. Compromise areas include new international safety guidelines, the possibility of an international nuclear fuel bank, and a willingness to consider each case on its merits. 21 references

  5. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in the brain of the Cephalopod Mollusc Octopus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biffali Elio

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR is valuable for studying the molecular events underlying physiological and behavioral phenomena. Normalization of real-time PCR data is critical for a reliable mRNA quantification. Here we identify reference genes to be utilized in RT-qPCR experiments to normalize and monitor the expression of target genes in the brain of the cephalopod mollusc Octopus vulgaris, an invertebrate. Such an approach is novel for this taxon and of advantage in future experiments given the complexity of the behavioral repertoire of this species when compared with its relatively simple neural organization. Results We chose 16S, and 18S rRNA, actB, EEF1A, tubA and ubi as candidate reference genes (housekeeping genes, HKG. The expression of 16S and 18S was highly variable and did not meet the requirements of candidate HKG. The expression of the other genes was almost stable and uniform among samples. We analyzed the expression of HKG into two different set of animals using tissues taken from the central nervous system (brain parts and mantle (here considered as control tissue by BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. We found that HKG expressions differed considerably with respect to brain area and octopus samples in an HKG-specific manner. However, when the mantle is treated as control tissue and the entire central nervous system is considered, NormFinder revealed tubA and ubi as the most suitable HKG pair. These two genes were utilized to evaluate the relative expression of the genes FoxP, creb, dat and TH in O. vulgaris. Conclusion We analyzed the expression profiles of some genes here identified for O. vulgaris by applying RT-qPCR analysis for the first time in cephalopods. We validated candidate reference genes and found the expression of ubi and tubA to be the most appropriate to evaluate the expression of target genes in the brain of different octopuses. Our results also underline the

  6. Quantitative proteomic analysis of HIV-1 infected CD4+ T cells reveals an early host response in important biological pathways: Protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navare, Arti T.; Sova, Pavel; Purdy, David E.; Weiss, Jeffrey M. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wolf-Yadlin, Alejandro [Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Korth, Marcus J.; Chang, Stewart T.; Proll, Sean C. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Jahan, Tahmina A. [Proteomics Resource, UW Medicine at South Lake Union, Seattle, WA (United States); Krasnoselsky, Alexei L.; Palermo, Robert E. [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Katze, Michael G., E-mail: honey@uw.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Washington National Primate Research Center, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) depends upon host-encoded proteins to facilitate its replication while at the same time inhibiting critical components of innate and/or intrinsic immune response pathways. To characterize the host cell response on protein levels in CD4+ lymphoblastoid SUP-T1 cells after infection with HIV-1 strain LAI, we used mass spectrometry (MS)-based global quantitation with iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification). We found 266, 60 and 22 proteins differentially expressed (DE) (P-value{<=}0.05) at 4, 8, and 20 hours post-infection (hpi), respectively, compared to time-matched mock-infected samples. The majority of changes in protein abundance occurred at an early stage of infection well before the de novo production of viral proteins. Functional analyses of these DE proteins showed enrichment in several biological pathways including protein synthesis, cell proliferation, and T-cell activation. Importantly, these early changes before the time of robust viral production have not been described before.

  7. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung

    2016-01-01

    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables

  8. Domestic Politics and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chul Min; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The external security threat is known as the most important factor of nuclear weapons program, the domestic politics situation can also affect the nuclear proliferation decision of a country. For example, when a leader wants nuclear weapons as an ultimate weapon, the domestic politics situation can determine the effectiveness of the weapons program of a country. This study analyzes the current knowledge of the relationship between domestic politics and nuclear proliferation and suggests the main challenges of the quantitative models trying to calculate nuclear proliferation risk of countries. The domestic politics status is one of the most important indicators of nuclear program. However, some variables have never been used in quantitative analyses; for example, number of veto players and the public opinion on nuclear weapons; despite they are considered to be important in various qualitative studies. Future studies should focus on how should they be coded and how can they be linked with existing domestic politics variables.

  9. Preventing proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathjens, G.

    1983-01-01

    Challenging the argument that nuclear proliferation may be stabilizing, the author cites the Israeli attack on Iraq as evidence that emergent nuclear states may be moved to attack their adversaries.The larger the number of decision makers who can unleash nuclear weapons, the greater the liklihood of their use. Several reasons are cited for nations to seek nuclear capability: the accelerated spread of technology, the deterioration in US-Soviet relations and strength relative to their nations, the high cost of conventional weapons, and a loss of confidence in the international safeguards system. The imposition of constraints, such as a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, on nuclear trade and technology transfer are likely to have a high cost. The US position on this issue is likely to be determined by the balance of power with the Soviet Union. 5 references

  10. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  12. Comparison of the reliability of subjective evaluation and quantitative measurements of MR signal intensity in inflammations of the intratemporal facial nerve; Vergleich der Reliabilitaet von subjektiver Beurteilung und quantitativer Messung der MR-Signalintensitaet bei Entzuendungen des intratemporalen N. facialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Neuroradiologie (Germany); Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Griesbeck, F. [Abt. Neurologie/Psychiatrie, Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Stippich, C.; Sartor, K. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Baehren, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Neuroradiologie (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To compare in a single-blind study the reliability of quantitative measurements and subjective evaluations of contrast enhancement of the facial nerve in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance images with a 0.7 mm slice thickness (surface coil) were obtained in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis before and after administration of Gd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol/kg. The five intratemporal segments of the facial nerve were quantitatively measured and subjectively assessed by five radiologists as to the degree of enhancement. The results were compared as to the reliability of both methods. Results: Using the quantitative measuring method, 175 measurements were calculated from a total of 350 regions of interest. At all 35 measured sites, the five quantitative measurements produced identical results. In contrast, the subjective assessment of the five radiologists arrived at a majority consensus in only 16 sites. A complete agreement was not reached for any measured site. Conclusion: The measured quantitative increase in signal intensity after administration of contrast medium is more reliable than subjective assessment. The quantitative method enables reproducible signal intensity measurements even for different window settings and can be easily and swiftly performed at the workstation. (orig.) [German] Untersuchungsziel: In einer einfach geblindeten Untersuchung sollte geprueft werden, wie hoch die Reliabilitaet der quantitativen Messung des Kontrastmittelanstieges im N. facialis bei idiopathischer Fazialisparese im Vergleich zur subjektiven Einschaetzung ist. Methodik: Bei 7 Patienten mit idiopathischer Fazialisparese wurde eine MRT in Duennschichttechnik (0,7 mm, nativ und nach Gabe von 0,1 mmol GdDTPA/kg) unter Verwendung einer Oberflaechenspule durchgefuehrt. 5 intratemporale Abschnitte des N. facialis wurden sowohl quantitativ als auch subjektiv durch 5 Radiologen beurteilt, und die Methoden wurden im Hinblick auf

  13. Is quantitative coronary angiography reliable in assessing the late lumen loss of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable polylactide scaffold in comparison with the cobalt-chromium metallic stent?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sotomi, Yohei; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Miyazaki, Yosuke; Asano, Taku; Katagiri, Yuki; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Jonker, Hans; Dijkstra, Jouke; de Winter, Robbert J.; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J.; Stone, Gregg W.; Popma, Jeffrey J.; Kozuma, Ken; Tanabe, Kengo; Serruys, Patrick W.; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Immediately after stent/scaffold implantation, quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) in comparison to optical coherence tomography (OCT) more severely underestimates the lumen diameter (LD) in Absorb than in XIENCE. This OCT-QCA discrepancy has not been evaluated at long-term follow-up. The

  14. Automated approach to quantitative error analysis. [BEAPAC-1T and -3T, for testing reliability of computer codes, in FORTRAN for IBM 370/195 and CDC 6400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bareiss, E.H.

    1977-04-01

    A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given neutron transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost is described. This code also generates user-oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces. 5 figures, 1 table.

  15. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  16. Validity and reliability of the semi-quantitative self-report Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist (HFAI-C) in White and South Asian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Maria; LeCroy, Madison; Sahota, Pinki; Cai, Jianwen; Stevens, June

    2016-05-04

    Despite interest in the importance of the home food environment and its potential influence on children's diets and social norms, there remain few self-report checklist methods that have been validated against the gold standard of researcher-conducted inventories. This study aimed to assess the criterion validity and reliability of the 'Home Food Availability Inventory Checklist' (HFAI-C), a 39-item checklist including categories of fruit, vegetables, snacks and drinks. The HFAI-C was completed by 97 participants of White and Pakistani origin in the UK. Validity was determined by comparing participant-reported HFAI-C responses to data from researcher observations of home food availability using PABAK and weighted kappa statistics. The validity of measuring the amount of items (in addition to presence/absence) available was also determined. Test-retest reliability compared repeated administrations of the HFAI-C using intra-class correlation coefficients. Validity and reliability was fair to moderate overall. For validity, the average category-level PABAK ranged from 0.31 (95% CI: 0.25, 0.37) for vegetables to 0.44 (95% CI: 0.40, 0.49) for fruits. Assessment of the presence/absence of items demonstrated higher validity compared to quantity measurements. Reliability was increased when the HFAI-C was repeated close to the time of the first administration. For example, ICCs for reliability of the measurement of fruits were 0.52 (95%CI: 0.47, 0.56) if re-administered within 5 months, 0.58 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.64) within 30 days and 0.97 (95%CI: 0.94, 1.00) if re-administered on the same day. Overall, the HFAI-C demonstrated fair to moderate validity and reliability in a population of White and South Asian participants. This evaluation is consistent with previous work on other checklists in less diverse, more affluent populations. Our research supports the use of the HFAI-C as a useful, albeit imperfect, representation of researcher-conducted inventories. The feasibility of

  17. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  18. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  19. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  20. Identification and Evaluation of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xinyuan; Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a crucial step in qRT-PCR normalization. To date, only a few housekeeping genes have been identified and used as reference genes in tea plant. The validity of those reference genes are not clear since their expression stabilities have not been rigorously examined. To identify more appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies on tea plant, we examined the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes from three different sources: the orthologs of Arabidopsis traditional reference genes and stably expressed genes identified from whole-genome GeneChip studies, together with three housekeeping gene commonly used in tea plant research. We evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in 94 experimental samples. The expression stabilities of these 11 genes were ranked using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ∆CT method. Results showed that the three commonly used housekeeping genes of CsTUBULIN1, CsACINT1 and Cs18S rRNA1 together with CsUBQ1 were the most unstable genes in all sample ranking order. However, CsPTB1, CsEF1, CsSAND1, CsCLATHRIN1 and CsUBC1 were the top five appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in complex experimental conditions. PMID:25474086

  1. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  2. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising renewable feedstock for biodiesel and bio-jet fuel production. To study gene expression in Jatropha in different tissues throughout development and under stress conditions, we examined a total of 11 typical candidate reference genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analysis, which is widely used for validating transcript levels in gene expression studies. The expression stability of these candidate reference genes was assessed across a total of 20 samples, including various tissues at vegetative and reproductive stages and under desiccation and cold stress treatments. The results obtained using software qBasePLUS showed that the top-ranked reference genes differed across the sample subsets. The combination of actin, GAPDH, and EF1α would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples at different developmental stages; the combination of actin, GAPDH, and TUB5 should be used as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples under various abiotic stress treatments. With regard to different developmental stages, we recommend the use of actin and TUB8 for normalization at the vegetative stage and GAPDH and EF1α for normalization at the reproductive stage. For abiotic stress treatments, we recommend the use of TUB5 and TUB8 for normalization under desiccation stress and GAPDH and actin for normalization under cold stress. These results are valuable for future research on gene expression during development or under abiotic stress in Jatropha. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of reference genes in Jatropha.

  3. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  4. Nuclear Proliferation Technology Trends Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Talbert, Robert J.

    2005-10-04

    A process is underway to develop mature, integrated methodologies to address nonproliferation issues. A variety of methodologies (both qualitative and quantitative) are being considered. All have one thing in common, a need for a consistent set of proliferation related data that can be used as a basis for application. One approach to providing a basis for predicting and evaluating future proliferation events is to understand past proliferation events, that is, the different paths that have actually been taken to acquire or attempt to acquire special nuclear material. In order to provide this information, this report describing previous material acquisition activities (obtained from open source material) has been prepared. This report describes how, based on an evaluation of historical trends in nuclear technology development, conclusions can be reached concerning: (1) The length of time it takes to acquire a technology; (2) The length of time it takes for production of special nuclear material to begin; and (3) The type of approaches taken for acquiring the technology. In addition to examining time constants, the report is intended to provide information that could be used to support the use of the different non-proliferation analysis methodologies. Accordingly, each section includes: (1) Technology description; (2) Technology origin; (3) Basic theory; (4) Important components/materials; (5) Technology development; (6) Technological difficulties involved in use; (7) Changes/improvements in technology; (8) Countries that have used/attempted to use the technology; (9) Technology Information; (10) Acquisition approaches; (11) Time constants for technology development; and (12) Required Concurrent Technologies.

  5. The threat of proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palme, Olof.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on the threat of proliferation, is a keynote speech delivered to the Colloquium on Nuclear War, Nuclear Proliferation and their Consequences, Geneva, 1985. Topics discussed in the address include: nuclear weapons, nuclear war, terrorists, Non-Proliferation Treaty, nuclear disarmament, and leadership in world affairs. (UK)

  6. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  7. Fissile material proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility depends on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. To effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of nuclear related sites and facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for fissile material (plutonium and highly enriched uranium)

  8. Enhanced reliability and accuracy for field deployable bioforensic detection and discrimination of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca, causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis using razor ex technology and TaqMan quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Ping; Arif, Mohammad; Fletcher, Jacqueline; Melcher, Ulrich; Ochoa Corona, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    A reliable, accurate and rapid multigene-based assay combining real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and a Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex) was validated for detection of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. pauca (Xfp, a xylem-limited bacterium that causes citrus variegated chlorosis [CVC]). CVC, which is exotic to the United States, has spread through South and Central America and could significantly impact U.S. citrus if it arrives. A method for early, accurate and sensitive detection of Xfp in plant tissues is needed by plant health officials for inspection of products from quarantined locations, and by extension specialists for detection, identification and management of disease outbreaks and reservoir hosts. Two sets of specific PCR primers and probes, targeting Xfp genes for fimbrillin and the periplasmic iron-binding protein were designed. A third pair of primers targeting the conserved cobalamin synthesis protein gene was designed to detect all possible X. fastidiosa (Xf) strains. All three primer sets detected as little as 1 fg of plasmid DNA carrying X. fastidiosa target sequences and genomic DNA of Xfp at as little as 1 - 10 fg. The use of Razor Ex facilitates a rapid (about 30 min) in-field assay capability for detection of all Xf strains, and for specific detection of Xfp. Combined use of three primer sets targeting different genes increased the assay accuracy and broadened the range of detection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a field-deployable rapid and reliable bioforensic detection and discrimination method for a bacterial phytopathogen based on multigene targets.

  9. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  10. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  11. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  12. Proliferation: myth or reality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  13. Quantitative lymphography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostbeck, A.; Lofferer, O.; Kahn, P.; Partsch, H.; Koehn, H.; Bialonczyk, Ch.; Koenig, B.

    1984-01-01

    Labelled colloids and macromolecules are removed lymphatically. The uptake of tracer in the regional lymphnodes is a parameter of lymphatic flow. Due to great variations in patient shape - obesity, cachexia - and accompanying variations in counting efficiencies quantitative measurements with reasonable accuracy have not been reported to date. A new approach to regional absorption correction is based on the combination of transmission and emission scans for each patient. The transmission scan is used for calculation of an absorption correction matrix. Accurate superposition of the correction matrix and the emission scan is achieved by computing the centers of gravity of point sources and - in the case of aligning opposite views - by cross correlation of binary images. In phantom studies the recovery was high (98.3%) and the coefficient of variation of repeated measurement below 1%. In patient studies a standardized stress is a prerequisite for reliable and comparable results. Discrimination between normals (14.3 +- 4.2D%) and patients with lymphedema (2.05 +- 2.5D%) was highly significant using praefascial lymphography and sc injection. Clearence curve analysis of the activities at the injection site, however, gave no reliable data for this purpose. In normals, the uptake in lymphnodes after im injection is by one order of magnitude lower then the uptake after sc injection. The discrimination between normals and patients with postthromboic syndrome was significant. Lymphography after ic injection was in the normal range in 2/3 of the patients with lymphedema and is therefore of no diagnostic value. The difference in uptake after ic and sc injection demonstrated for the first time by our quantitative method provides new insights into the pathophysiology of lymphedema and needs further investigation. (Author)

  14. Expression of MiR-9 promotes proliferation, migration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of miR-9 on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of human neural stem cells (NSCs). Methods: The expression of miR-9 was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cell proliferation was assessed by cell counting kit-8 (CCK8) assay, while cell ...

  15. The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

  16. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  17. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  18. Director's series on proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author's. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia's Nuclear Legacy

  19. Proliferation Networks and Financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruselle, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study is to propose practical solutions aimed at completing and strengthening the existing arrangement for the control of nuclear proliferation through a control of financial as well as material or immaterial flows. In a first part, the author proposes a systemic analysis of networks of suppliers and demanders. He notably evokes the Khan's network and the Iraqi acquisition network during the 1993-2001 period. He also proposes a modelling of proliferation networks (supplier networks and acquisition networks) and of their interactions. In a second part, the author examines possible means and policies aimed at neutralising proliferation networks: organisation, adaptation and improvement of intelligence tools in front of proliferation networks, and means, limitations and perspectives of network neutralisation. He also briefly addresses the possibility of military action to contain proliferation flows

  20. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  1. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  2. Non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, I.T.

    1981-01-01

    Proliferation is a problem that can only be solved when the political problems which lead countries to contemplate, the possession of nuclear weapons are solved; in the meantime it can only be managed. Non-proliferation policy has to deal both with the political and the technical aspects of proliferation. It must seek to buy time by addressing the reasons why nations feel the political need to construct nuclear weapons, as well as delaying the moment when such nations feel capable of doing so. The subject is examined and proposals made. (author)

  3. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  4. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  5. Nuclear proliferation and terrorism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This section of the book, Part III, has two chapters (9 and 10). Chapter 9, Nuclear Power and Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, is disucssed under these subjects: nuclear nonproliferation: origins and status; requirements for nuclear weapons manufacture; current nuclear programs and proliferation capabilities; encouraging decisions to forego weapons; arms control; safeguards; attitudes and expectations. Chapter 10, Nuclear Terrorism, discusses these areas: theft of nuclear materials; attacks on nuclear reactors; responding to nuclear terrorism; security and civil liberties

  6. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  7. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    DOE's nuclear non-proliferation responsibilities are defined by the provisions of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, and of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978 (NNPA). The Department's major responsibilities in this area are to: (1) provide technical assistance to the Department of State in negotiating agreements for civil cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy with other countries and international organizations; (2) join with other agencies to reach executive branch judgments with respect to the issuance of export licenses by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; (3) be responsible for processing subsequent arrangements with other agencies as required by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act; (4) control the distribution of special nuclear materials, components, equipment, and nuclear technology exports; (5) participate in bilateral and multilateral cooperation with foreign governments and organizations to promote the peaceful uses of nuclear energy; and (6) act as a primary technical resource with respect to US participation in the International Atomic Energy Agency

  8. Dynamics of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, S.M.

    1984-01-01

    This book looks beyond policy disputes to make a systematic examination of the assumptions and contending hypotheses that constitute contemporary thinking on nuclear proliferation. Rather than determine who is right or wrong, the intent is to develop a better picture by using the various schools of thought as analytic windows. A better understanding of how the process operates should offer better guidance for predicting future nuclear proliferation and, ultimately, for controlling it. Separate chapters deal with the contending views, the technological and motivational bases of nuclear proliferation, the presence of a technological imperative, testing the motivational hypothesis, the dynamics of the process, and forecasting. Four appendices present historical decisions, the technical model, cost-estimating procedures, and procedures for estimating nuclear propensities. 288 references, 17 figures, 26 tables

  9. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  10. Cell Proliferation in Neuroblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafman, Laura L.; Beierle, Elizabeth A.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroblastoma, the most common extracranial solid tumor of childhood, continues to carry a dismal prognosis for children diagnosed with advanced stage or relapsed disease. This review focuses upon factors responsible for cell proliferation in neuroblastoma including transcription factors, kinases, and regulators of the cell cycle. Novel therapeutic strategies directed toward these targets in neuroblastoma are discussed. PMID:26771642

  11. Controlling nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, W.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear non-proliferation policy depends on the 1968 Non-Proliferation Treaty, in which countries promise not to acquire nuclear weapons in exchange for open access to peaceful nuclear technology, and a system of international safeguards that are imposed on exported nuclear equipment and facilities operated by parties to the treaty. Critics have feared all along that non-nuclear countries might circumvent or exploit the system to obtain nuclear weapons and that the Atoms for Peace plan would spread the very technology it sought to control. The nuclear weapons states would like everyone else to believe that atomic bombs are undesirable, but they continue to rely on the bombs for their own defense. Israel's raid on Iraq's nuclear reactor focused world attention on the proliferation problem and helped to broaden and sterengthen its prospects. It also highlighted the weakness that there are no effective sanctions against violators. Until the international community can ageee on enforcement measures powerful enough to prevent nuclear proliferation, individual countries may be tempted to follow Israel's example, 19 references

  12. Human reliability in complex systems: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1976-07-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the main conceptual background underlying the areas of human reliability and human error. The concept of error is examined and generalized to that of human reliability, and some of the practical and methodological difficulties of reconciling the different standpoints of the human factors specialist and the engineer discussed. Following a survey of general reviews available on human reliability, quantitative techniques for prediction of human reliability are considered. An in-depth critical analysis of the various quantitative methods is then presented, together with the data bank requirements for human reliability prediction. Reliability considerations in process control and nuclear plant, and also areas of design, maintenance, testing and emergency situations are discussed. The effects of stress on human reliability are analysed and methods of minimizing these effects discussed. Finally, a summary is presented and proposals for further research are set out. (author)

  13. Uranium dependence and the proliferation problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacoby, H.D.

    1977-01-01

    A 20-year ''breathing space'' of adequate uranium supplies is felt to warrant delaying breeder technology until the threat of proliferation can be met with adequate internationally controlled stockpiles and marketing. Although a shift to breeder reactors developed as concern grew over the possibility of depleted uranium reserves, U.S. policy has now reversed this trend in favor of nuclear systems with a lower risk of proliferation. A review of uranium dependence analyzes the fuel cycle, current and projected reserves, reliable enrichment services, and international effects of proliferation and market disruptions. Uranium supply forecasts are more positive now because overstated reactor buildup projections led utilities to order more fuel than they will need until the late 1980s. These surpluses of light-water reactor fuel could be stockpiled at a cost of $20 billion, felt to be a relatively modest figure in terms of the total cost of nuclear power. A stockpile able to meet demand levels could offer the security of domestic supplies with trade opportunities and would retain levels of exploration and extraction. Several strategies for managing stockpiles are possible, but international control is seen as the best way to maintain reliable prices and uniform supply policies for all nations

  14. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  15. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, W.

    1993-01-01

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  16. Model for nuclear proliferation resistance analysis using decision making tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2003-06-01

    The nuclear proliferation risks of nuclear fuel cycles is being considered as one of the most important factors in assessing advanced and innovative nuclear systems in GEN IV and INPRO program. They have been trying to find out an appropriate and reasonable method to evaluate quantitatively several nuclear energy system alternatives. Any reasonable methodology for integrated analysis of the proliferation resistance, however, has not yet been come out at this time. In this study, several decision making methods, which have been used in the situation of multiple objectives, are described in order to see if those can be appropriately used for proliferation resistance evaluation. Especially, the AHP model for quantitatively evaluating proliferation resistance is dealt with in more detail. The theoretical principle of the method and some examples for the proliferation resistance problem are described. For more efficient applications, a simple computer program for the AHP model is developed, and the usage of the program is introduced here in detail. We hope that the program developed in this study could be useful for quantitative analysis of the proliferation resistance involving multiple conflict criteria

  17. Model for nuclear proliferation resistance analysis using decision making tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Won Il; Kim, Ho Dong; Yang, Myung Seung

    2003-06-01

    The nuclear proliferation risks of nuclear fuel cycles is being considered as one of the most important factors in assessing advanced and innovative nuclear systems in GEN IV and INPRO program. They have been trying to find out an appropriate and reasonable method to evaluate quantitatively several nuclear energy system alternatives. Any reasonable methodology for integrated analysis of the proliferation resistance, however, has not yet been come out at this time. In this study, several decision making methods, which have been used in the situation of multiple objectives, are described in order to see if those can be appropriately used for proliferation resistance evaluation. Especially, the AHP model for quantitatively evaluating proliferation resistance is dealt with in more detail. The theoretical principle of the method and some examples for the proliferation resistance problem are described. For more efficient applications, a simple computer program for the AHP model is developed, and the usage of the program is introduced here in detail. We hope that the program developed in this study could be useful for quantitative analysis of the proliferation resistance involving multiple conflict criteria.

  18. Nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons which is the corner-stone of an international non-proliferation regime which has grown to embrace the overwhelming majority of countries in the world in the period since the Treaty. The other elements of the regime include, first of all, the safeguards system of IAEA-which operates to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials to military or other prohibited activities and must be accepted by all non-nuclear-weapon parties to the Treaty and, secondly, the Antarctic Treaty, the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America (Treaty of Tlatelolco) and the south Pacific Nuclear Free zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga)-which serve to extend the regime geographically. The last two Treaties require safeguards agreements with IAEA. In addition, the Treaty of Tlatelolco contains provisions establishing the agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean to ensure compliance

  19. Proliferation in cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piao Yunsong [College of Physical Sciences, Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: yspiao@gucas.ac.cn

    2009-06-15

    In the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w{approx_equal}0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  20. Proliferation in cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong

    2009-01-01

    In the contracting phase with w≅0, the scale invariant spectrum of curvature perturbation is given by the increasing mode of metric perturbation. In this Letter, it is found that if the contracting phase with w≅0 is included in each cycle of a cycle universe, since the metric perturbation is amplified on super horizon scale cycle by cycle, after each cycle the universe will be inevitably separated into many parts independent of one another, each of which corresponds to a new universe and evolves up to next cycle, and then is separated again. In this sense, a cyclic multiverse scenario is actually presented, in which the universe proliferates cycle by cycle. We estimate the number of new universes proliferated in each cycle, and discuss the implications of this result.

  1. Global proliferation concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkins, R.

    1978-01-01

    The Non-Proliferation Treaty and the IAGA Safeguards System are discussed. President Carter's program to defer commercial reprocessing and recycle, to restructure the breeder program, to develop alternative fuel cycles, to increase US uranium enrichment capability, to provide fuel assurance for consumer nations, to continue the embargo of sensitive technology and equipment and to develop the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation Program is outlined

  2. Proliferation after the Iraq war

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daguzan, J.F.

    2004-09-01

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  3. Ki67 and proliferation in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathmanathan, Nirmala; Balleine, Rosemary L

    2013-06-01

    New approaches to the prognostic assessment of breast cancer have come from molecular profiling studies. A major feature of this work has been to emphasise the importance of cancer cell proliferation as a key discriminative indicator of recurrence risk for oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer in particular. Mitotic count scoring, as a component of histopathological grade, has long formed part of a routine evaluation of breast cancer biology. However, there is an increasingly compelling case to include a specific proliferation score in breast cancer pathology reports based on expression of the cell cycle regulated protein Ki67. Immunohistochemical staining for Ki67 is a widely available and economical test with good tolerance of pre-analytical variations and staining conditions. However, there is currently no evidence based protocol established to derive a reliable and informative Ki67 score for routine clinical use. In this circumstance, pathologists must establish a standardised framework for scoring Ki67 and communicating results to a multidisciplinary team.

  4. Reliability engineering: Old problems and new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.

    2009-01-01

    The first recorded usage of the word reliability dates back to the 1800s, albeit referred to a person and not a technical system. Since then, the concept of reliability has become a pervasive attribute worth of both qualitative and quantitative connotations. In particular, the revolutionary social, cultural and technological changes that have occurred from the 1800s to the 2000s have contributed to the need for a rational framework and quantitative treatment of the reliability of engineered systems and plants. This has led to the rise of reliability engineering as a scientific discipline. In this paper, some considerations are shared with respect to a number of problems and challenges which researchers and practitioners in reliability engineering are facing when analyzing today's complex systems. The focus will be on the contribution of reliability to system safety and on its role within system risk analysis

  5. Can we predict nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tertrais, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The author aims at improving nuclear proliferation prediction capacities, i.e. the capacities to identify countries susceptible to acquire nuclear weapons, to interpret sensitive activities, and to assess nuclear program modalities. He first proposes a retrospective assessment of counter-proliferation actions since 1945. Then, based on academic studies, he analyzes what causes and motivates proliferation, with notably the possibility of existence of a chain phenomenon (mechanisms driving from one program to another). He makes recommendations for a global approach to proliferation prediction, and proposes proliferation indices and indicators

  6. Non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deiseroth, D.; Gustafsson, S.

    1993-01-01

    The issue of Nuclear Non Proliferation has been moved to a leading place on the contemporary international security agenda. What about the situation of nuclear weapons and nuclear technology in Russia, Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belorussia? Why did the IAEA-inspectors totally failed to discover any sign of Iraq's clandestine nuclear-weapon programme before the Gulf War? Do the NATO and their nuclear power states violate Art. VI of the Non-Proliferation-Treaty (NPT), because they are - despite the end of the cold war - not willing to renounce of the ''option of the first use of nuclear weapons''? Does the NPT establish a form of nuclear apartheid? What will be the situation if the NPT-Extension-Conference in 1995 will be unable to obtain a majority of the parties for any one extension proposal? Do we need a new international nuclear control agency with severe powers, a sort of nuclear Interpol? The Colloquium ''Saving NPT and abolishing Nuclear Weapons'', held in Stockholm in September 1992, organized by the Swedish and the German Sections of IALANA, tried to analyse some of the raised issues. (orig.) [de

  7. Non Proliferation of Nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bambang S Irawan

    2004-01-01

    Non-Proliferation Treaty of Nuclear Weapons is the international community's efforts to maintain the security of the world, in order to prevent the spread of nuclear technology and the use of nuclear weapons, promoting cooperation for the use of nuclear peaceful purposes, build mutual trust (Confidence Building Measures) as well as to achieve the ultimate goal of disarmament overall (General and Complete Disarmament). Addressing the post-WTC tragedy, 11 September 2001, the Indonesian government should set up a National Measures (National Action Plan), among others formed the National Security Council and NBC Counter Proliferation Unit, or the National Authority for Nuclear Treaty, preparing national legislation, to prevent the abuse nuclear materials for terrorist acts, prevent Illicit Trafficking of Nuclear materials, developed a National Preparedness and Emergency Response Management in the event of a nuclear accident or attack by the use of nuclear terrorism. Importance of a National Action Plan meant the existence of a national commitment in the context of compliance with treaties and conventions which have been ratified relating to safety, security, safeguards towards a general and complete disarmament, to safeguard national security and maintain peace (safeguards) international

  8. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway

  9. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  10. Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Volume 3. System reliability and analysis techniques, Session A - reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.

    1985-08-01

    This course in System Reliability and Analysis Techniques focuses on the quantitative estimation of reliability at the systems level. Various methods are reviewed, but the structure provided by the fault tree method is used as the basis for system reliability estimates. The principles of fault tree analysis are briefly reviewed. Contributors to system unreliability and unavailability are reviewed, models are given for quantitative evaluation, and the requirements for both generic and plant-specific data are discussed. Also covered are issues of quantifying component faults that relate to the systems context in which the components are embedded. All reliability terms are carefully defined. 44 figs., 22 tabs

  11. Deterministic quantitative risk assessment development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Jane; Colquhoun, Iain [PII Pipeline Solutions Business of GE Oil and Gas, Cramlington Northumberland (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-01

    Current risk assessment practice in pipeline integrity management is to use a semi-quantitative index-based or model based methodology. This approach has been found to be very flexible and provide useful results for identifying high risk areas and for prioritizing physical integrity assessments. However, as pipeline operators progressively adopt an operating strategy of continual risk reduction with a view to minimizing total expenditures within safety, environmental, and reliability constraints, the need for quantitative assessments of risk levels is becoming evident. Whereas reliability based quantitative risk assessments can be and are routinely carried out on a site-specific basis, they require significant amounts of quantitative data for the results to be meaningful. This need for detailed and reliable data tends to make these methods unwieldy for system-wide risk k assessment applications. This paper describes methods for estimating risk quantitatively through the calibration of semi-quantitative estimates to failure rates for peer pipeline systems. The methods involve the analysis of the failure rate distribution, and techniques for mapping the rate to the distribution of likelihoods available from currently available semi-quantitative programs. By applying point value probabilities to the failure rates, deterministic quantitative risk assessment (QRA) provides greater rigor and objectivity than can usually be achieved through the implementation of semi-quantitative risk assessment results. The method permits a fully quantitative approach or a mixture of QRA and semi-QRA to suit the operator's data availability and quality, and analysis needs. For example, consequence analysis can be quantitative or can address qualitative ranges for consequence categories. Likewise, failure likelihoods can be output as classical probabilities or as expected failure frequencies as required. (author)

  12. Proliferation: myth or reality?; La proliferation: mythe ou realite?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This article analyzes the proliferation approach, its technical condition and political motivation, and the share between the myth (political deception, assumptions and extrapolations) and the reality of proliferation. Its appreciation is complicated by the irrational behaviour of some political actors and by the significant loss of the non-use taboo. The control of technologies is an important element for proliferation slowing down but an efficient and autonomous intelligence system remains indispensable. (J.S.)

  13. The new US nuclear non-proliferation and export policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welck, S. von.

    1981-01-01

    The future American nuclear non-proliferation and export policy will be determined chiefly by three elements: (1) Adherence to the former objective of nuclear non-proliferation. (2) A large and varied assortment of old and new tools for implementing this goal. (3) Much more differentiation in applying these tools in the light of the reliability, with respect to non-proliferation policy, of the respective partner. Consequently, it would make little sense for the new Administration to force upon allied industrialized countries, whose nuclear technologies are at the same level as that of the United States, restrictive rules on reprocessing and breeder technology. The new measures designed to curb proliferation are especially meant to destroy motivations that could cause states to own nuclear explosives. This also applies to the removal of economic motivations. (orig.) [de

  14. The nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    1995-04-01

    In this book is detailed the beginning of nuclear military power, with the first bomb of Hiroshima, the different ways of getting uranium 235 and plutonium 239, and how the first countries (Usa, Ussr, China, United kingdom, France) got nuclear weapons. Then the most important part is reviewed with the details of non-proliferation treaty and the creation of IAEA to promote civilian nuclear power in the world and to control the use of plutonium and uranium in nuclear power plants. The cases of countries who reached the atom mastery, such Israel, South Africa, Pakistan, Iraq, North Korea, Argentina, Brazil, Iran, Algeria, Taiwan and the reasons which they wanted nuclear weapon for or why they gave up, are exposed

  15. Quantitative Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-24

    design failure modes and effects analysis (DFMEA), (b) Fault Tree Analysis ( FTA ) for all essential functions listed in the Failure Definition and...subsystem reliability date from Accomplishment 3, completed (a) updated DFMEA, (b) updated FTA , (c) updated reliability and maintainability estimates, (d...www.gao.gov/assets/660/658615.pdf [4] Karen Richey. Update to GAO’s Cost Estimating Assessment Guide and Scheduling Guide (draft). GAO. Mar 2013

  16. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  17. Nuclear proliferation: linkages and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quester, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear proliferation must be periodically re-examined as a moral as well as a practical foreign policy dilemma. The question is asked whether proliferation precludes a safe and peaceful world, or if a halt to proliferation is adequate without other arms control. The moral dilemma in foreign policy arises over the need to make practical choices which often serve one goal while sacrificing another. The ramifications of nuclear proliferation are examined and the conclusions reached that it is not an acceptable option. It is also decided that, because general disarmament steps will be more difficult to achieve, the world may have to accept a small number of nuclear arsenals as the price of state sovereignties. A high priority for making the effort to prevent proliferation is advised. 8 references

  18. Quantitative habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shock, Everett L; Holland, Melanie E

    2007-12-01

    A framework is proposed for a quantitative approach to studying habitability. Considerations of environmental supply and organismal demand of energy lead to the conclusions that power units are most appropriate and that the units for habitability become watts per organism. Extreme and plush environments are revealed to be on a habitability continuum, and extreme environments can be quantified as those where power supply only barely exceeds demand. Strategies for laboratory and field experiments are outlined that would quantify power supplies, power demands, and habitability. An example involving a comparison of various metabolisms pursued by halophiles is shown to be well on the way to a quantitative habitability analysis.

  19. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  20. Quantitative research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    possible and desirable. It is not just a type of research done in a laboratory, or by PhD students. Some for of reliable measurement can be applied to many clinical situationsto evaluate the effects of therapy over time, or the difference between clients who receive therapy and those who don't. Evaluating...

  1. Thorium cycles and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes several prevalent misconceptions about nuclear fuel cycles that breed fissile uranium-233 from thorium. Its main conclusions are: U-233, despite the gamma radioactivity of associated isotopes, is a rather attractive material for making fission bombs, and is a credible material for subnational as well as national groups to use for this purpose; (2) pure thorium cycles, which in effect merely substitute U-233 for Pu, would take many decades and much U to establish, and offer no significant safeguards advantage over Pu, cycles; (3) denatured Th-U cycles, which dilute the U-233 with inert U-238 to a level not directly usable in bombs, are not an effective safeguard even against subnational bomb-making; (4) several other features of mixed Th-U cycles are rather unattractive from a safeguards point of view; (5) thus, Th cycles of any kind are not a technical fix for proliferation (national or subnational) and, though probably more safeguardable than Pu cycles, are less so than once-through U cycles that entail no reprocessing; (6) while thorium cycles have some potential technical advantages, including flexibility, they cannot provide major savings in nuclear fuel resources compared to simpler ways of saving neutrons and U; and (7) while advocates of nuclear power may find Th cycles worth exploring, such cycles do not differ fundamentally from U cycles in any of the respects--including safeguards and fuel resources--that are relevant to the broader nuclear debate, and should not be euphorically embraced as if they did

  2. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification by fast spin echo MRI and correlation with cartilage health by quantitative T1ρ MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C; Thuillier, Daniel U; Pedoia, Valentina; Chen, Ellison Y; Zhang, Zhihong; Feeley, Brian T; Souza, Richard B

    2016-01-01

    Patellar maltracking is a leading cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of a semi-automated program for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based patellofemoral kinematics. Sixteen subjects (10 with PFPS [mean age 32.3; SD 5.2; eight females] and six controls without PFPS 19 [mean age 28.6; SD 2.8; three females]) participated in the study. One set of T2-weighted, fat-saturated fast spin-echo (FSE) MRIs were acquired from each subject in full extension and 30° of knee flexion. MRI including axial T1ρ relaxation time mapping sequences was also performed on each knee. Following image acquisitions, regions of interest for kinematic MRI, and patellar and trochlear cartilage were segmented and quantified with in-house designed spline- based MATLAB semi-automated software. Intraclass Correlations Coefficients (ICC) of calculated kinematic parameters were good to excellent, ICC > 0.8 in patellar flexion, rotation, tilt, and translation (anterior -posterior, medial -lateral, and superior -inferior), and contact area translation. Only patellar tilt in the flexed position and motion from extended to flexed state was significantly different between PFPS and control patients (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). No significant correlations were identified between patellofemoral kinematics and contact area with T1ρ relaxation times. A semi-automated, spline-based kinematic MRI technique for patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification is highly reproducible with the potential to help better understand the role of patellofemoral maltracking in PFPS and other knee disorders. Level IV. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Inter- and intra-rater reliability of patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification by fast spin echo MRI and correlation with cartilage health by quantitative T1ρ MRI☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian C.; Thuillier, Daniel U.; Pedoia, Valentina; Chen, Ellison Y.; Zhang, Zhihong; Feeley, Brian T.; Souza, Richard B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patellar maltracking is a leading cause of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater reliability of a semi-automated program for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based patellofemoral kinematics. Methods Sixteen subjects (10 with PFPS [mean age 32.3; SD 5.2; eight females] and six controls without PFPS 19 [mean age 28.6; SD 2.8; three females]) participated in the study. One set of T2-weighted, fat-saturated fast spin-echo (FSE) MRIs were acquired from each subject in full extension and 30° of knee flexion. MRI including axial T1ρ relaxation time mapping sequences was also performed on each knee. Following image acquisitions, regions of interest for kinematic MRI, and patellar and trochlear cartilage were segmented and quantified with in-house designed spline- based MATLAB semi-automated software. Results Intraclass Correlations Coefficients (ICC) of calculated kinematic parameters were good to excellent, ICC > 0.8 in patellar flexion, rotation, tilt, and translation (anterior -posterior, medial -lateral, and superior -inferior), and contact area translation. Only patellar tilt in the flexed position and motion from extended to flexed state was significantly different between PFPS and control patients (p = 0.002 and p = 0.006, respectively). No significant correlations were identified between patellofemoral kinematics and contact area with T1ρ relaxation times. Conclusions A semi-automated, spline-based kinematic MRI technique for patellofemoral kinematic and contact area quantification is highly reproducible with the potential to help better understand the role of patellofemoral maltracking in PFPS and other knee disorders. PMID:26746045

  4. The diagnostic reliability of the quantitative pivot-shift evaluation using an electromagnetic measurement system for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency was superior to those of the accelerometer and iPad image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Hoshino, Yuichi; Miyaji, Nobuaki; Ibaragi, Kazuyuki; Nishida, Kyohei; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Araki, Daisuke; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2017-10-14

    Several non-invasive devices have been developed to obtain quantitative assessment of the pivot-shift test in clinical setting using similar but diverse measurement parameters. However, the clinical usability of those measurements has yet to be closely investigated and compared. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of three non-invasive measurement devices for the pivot-shift test. Thirty patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were enrolled. The pivot-shift test was performed under general anaesthesia. Three devices, an accelerometer system (KiRA), an image analysis iPad application (iPad), and electromagnetic measurement system (EMS), were used simultaneously to provide two parameters, namely tibial acceleration monitored using KiRA and EMS, and tibial translation recorded using iPad and EMS. Side-to-side differences in each parameter and correlation between the measurements were tested, and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to compare their measurement accuracy. Significant side-to-side differences were successfully detected using any of the measurements (all p iPad and the EMS for the translation (r = 0.28; p iPad for tibial acceleration and translation, respectively. Although all three measurements were similarly capable of detecting ACL deficiency, the EMS has the advantage of comprehensive evaluation of the pivot-shift test by evaluating both tibial acceleration and translation with higher accuracy than those of KiRA and iPad. It could be suggested that any of those measurement tools might improve the clinical diagnosis of ACL insufficiency. Diagnostic study of consecutive patients with a universally applied gold standard, Level Ib.

  5. Theoretical Approaches to Nuclear Proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Tarasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses discussions between representatives of three schools in the theory of international relations - realism, liberalism and constructivism - on the driving factors of nuclear proliferation. The paper examines major theoretical approaches, outlined in the studies of Russian and foreign scientists, to the causes of nuclear weapons development, while unveiling their advantages and limitations. Much of the article has been devoted to alternative approaches, particularly, the role of mathematical modeling in assessing proliferation risks. The analysis also reveals a variety of different approaches to nuclear weapons acquisition, as well as the absence of a comprehensive proliferation theory. Based on the research results the study uncovers major factors both favoring and impeding nuclear proliferation. The author shows that the lack of consensus between realists, liberals and constructivists on the nature of proliferation led a number of scientists to an attempt to explain nuclear rationale by drawing from the insights of more than one school in the theory of IR. Detailed study of the proliferation puzzle contributes to a greater understating of contemporary international realities, helps to identify mechanisms that are most likely to deter states from obtaining nuclear weapons and is of the outmost importance in predicting short- and long-term security environment. Furthermore, analysis of the existing scientific literature on nuclear proliferation helps to determine future research agenda of the subject at hand.

  6. Building and integrating reliability models in a Reliability-Centered-Maintenance approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verite, B.; Villain, B.; Venturini, V.; Hugonnard, S.; Bryla, P.

    1998-03-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) has recently developed its OMF-Structures method, designed to optimize preventive maintenance of passive structures such as pipes and support, based on risk. In particular, reliability performances of components need to be determined; it is a two-step process, consisting of a qualitative sort followed by a quantitative evaluation, involving two types of models. Initially, degradation models are widely used to exclude some components from the field of preventive maintenance. The reliability of the remaining components is then evaluated by means of quantitative reliability models. The results are then included in a risk indicator that is used to directly optimize preventive maintenance tasks. (author)

  7. Autoradiographical investigations of the proliferation of gynaecological carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehweck, H.

    1981-01-01

    23 biopsies and operation preparations of gynaecological tumours were examined autoradiographically: 8 with an external short-time preirradiation of up to 750 R, one with a curative radiotherapy 1 1/2 years ago. Besides the determination of quantitative parameters of growth kinetics another main concern was to find out the interdependence between the proliferation behaviour of the tumour cells and the histological differentiation of the tumour parenchyma and the topographical location of the malignant cells in the tissue. Possible effects of a previous radiotherapy on the cell proliferation are discussed. (orig./MG) [de

  8. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  9. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  10. International proliferation on nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, J.

    1977-01-01

    The subject is dealt with under the following headings: introduction; routes to proliferation (preparation of U 235 , Pu 239 , U 233 ); nuclear power fuel cycles and proliferation; the fast reactor fuel cycle; security aspects of the existing fuel cycle; the IAEA and the nuclear non-proliferation treaty. It is concluded that 'the basis for sound international control exists, and taken together with the further technical steps which will be taken to make the existing fuel cycles more robust against the diversion of materials by terrorists and the abuse of civil nuclear power programmes by governments, we have good reason to proceed now with the orderly exploitation of ...nuclear energy...'. (U.K.)

  11. Developing Reliable Life Support for Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    A human mission to Mars will require highly reliable life support systems. Mars life support systems may recycle water and oxygen using systems similar to those on the International Space Station (ISS). However, achieving sufficient reliability is less difficult for ISS than it will be for Mars. If an ISS system has a serious failure, it is possible to provide spare parts, or directly supply water or oxygen, or if necessary bring the crew back to Earth. Life support for Mars must be designed, tested, and improved as needed to achieve high demonstrated reliability. A quantitative reliability goal should be established and used to guide development t. The designers should select reliable components and minimize interface and integration problems. In theory a system can achieve the component-limited reliability, but testing often reveal unexpected failures due to design mistakes or flawed components. Testing should extend long enough to detect any unexpected failure modes and to verify the expected reliability. Iterated redesign and retest may be required to achieve the reliability goal. If the reliability is less than required, it may be improved by providing spare components or redundant systems. The number of spares required to achieve a given reliability goal depends on the component failure rate. If the failure rate is under estimated, the number of spares will be insufficient and the system may fail. If the design is likely to have undiscovered design or component problems, it is advisable to use dissimilar redundancy, even though this multiplies the design and development cost. In the ideal case, a human tended closed system operational test should be conducted to gain confidence in operations, maintenance, and repair. The difficulty in achieving high reliability in unproven complex systems may require the use of simpler, more mature, intrinsically higher reliability systems. The limitations of budget, schedule, and technology may suggest accepting lower and

  12. Status of Methodology Development for the Evaluation of Proliferation Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Deok; Ko, Won Il; Lee, Jung Won

    2010-01-01

    Concerning the increasing energy demand and green house effect, nuclear energy is now the most feasible option. Therefore, recently, oil countries even have a plan to build the nuclear power plant for energy production. If nuclear systems are to make a major and sustainable contribution to the worlds energy supply, future nuclear energy systems must meet specific requirements. One of the requirements is to satisfy the proliferation resistance condition in an entire nuclear system. Therefore, from the beginning of future nuclear energy system development, it is important to consider a proliferation resistance to prevent the diversion of nuclear materials. The misuse of a nuclear system must be considered as well. Moreover, in the import and export of nuclear system, the evaluation of the proliferation resistance on the nuclear system becomes a key factor The INPRO (International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles) program initiated by the IAEA proposed proliferation resistance (PR) as a key component of a future innovative nuclear system (INS) with a sustainability, economics, safety of nuclear installation and waste management. The technical goal for Generation IV (Gen IV) nuclear energy systems (NESs) highlights a Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP), sustainability, safety, reliability and economics as well. Based on INPRO and Gen IV study, the methodology development for the evaluation of proliferation resistance has been carried out in KAERI. Finally, the systematic procedure for methodology was setup and the indicators for the procedure were decided. The methodology involves the evaluation from total nuclear system to individual process. Therefore, in this study, the detailed procedure for the evaluation of proliferation resistance and the newly proposed additional indicators are described and several conditions are proposed to increase the proliferation resistance in the future nuclear system. The assessment of PR

  13. Non-proliferation and nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, M.G.

    1978-01-01

    A review is made of the problem of the proliferation of nuclear weapons with particular emphasis on proliferation and nuclear power. Some indications of the nuclear data requirements associated with methods of reducing proliferation risks are presented

  14. Quantitative Finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jessica

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative finance is a field that has risen to prominence over the last few decades. It encompasses the complex models and calculations that value financial contracts, particularly those which reference events in the future, and apply probabilities to these events. While adding greatly to the flexibility of the market available to corporations and investors, it has also been blamed for worsening the impact of financial crises. But what exactly does quantitative finance encompass, and where did these ideas and models originate? We show that the mathematics behind finance and behind games of chance have tracked each other closely over the centuries and that many well-known physicists and mathematicians have contributed to the field.

  15. Reliability analysis of Angra I safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.F.S. de; Soto, J.B.; Maciel, C.C.; Gibelli, S.M.O.; Fleming, P.V.; Arrieta, L.A.

    1980-07-01

    An extensive reliability analysis of some safety systems of Angra I, are presented. The fault tree technique, which has been successfully used in most reliability studies of nuclear safety systems performed to date is employed. Results of a quantitative determination of the unvailability of the accumulator and the containment spray injection systems are presented. These results are also compared to those reported in WASH-1400. (E.G.) [pt

  16. Modeling and evaluating proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems for strategy switching proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, M.; Cheng, L.-Y.; Bari, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the model and physical input parameters. ► Interphase drag has minor effect on the dryout heat flux (DHF) in 1D configuration. ► Model calibration on pressure drop experiments fails to improve prediction of DHF. ► Calibrated classical model provides the best agreement with DHF data from 1D tests. ► Further validation of drag models requires data from 2D and 3D experiments on DHF. - Abstract: This paper reports a Markov model based approach to systematically evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear energy systems (NESs). The focus of the study is on the development of the Markov models for a class of complex PR scenarios, i.e., mixed covert/overt strategy switching proliferation, for NESs with two modes of material flow, batch and continuous. In particular, a set of diversion and/or breakout scenarios and covert/overt misuse scenarios are studied in detail for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. Both probabilistic and deterministic PR measures are calculated using a software tool that implements the proposed approach and can be used to quantitatively compare proliferation resistant characteristics of different scenarios for a given NES, according to the computed PR measures

  17. Proliferation resistance of the lithium reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, W. I.; Ha, J. H.; Lee, S. Y.; Song, D. Y.; Kim, H. D.; Park, S. W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the characteristics of proliferation resistance of the lithium reduction process and international domestic safeguarding methods. In addition to dealing with qualitative features of the proliferation resistance, this study is emphasizing on the quantitative analysis of radiation barrier, which could be a significant accessibility barrier if the field is high enough to force a theft to shield the object during a theft. From the radiation barrier analysis, it is indicated that whole-body radiation dose is about 20 rem/hr at one meter of smelt and ingot metal of 40 kgHM, which could be considered to be a significant reduction in risk of theft. For safeguarding of this process, we propose a NDA concept for nuclear material accounting which is to measure the amount of curium in the reduction metal and associated process samples using a neutron coincidence counter and then to convert the curium mass into special nuclear material with predetermined curium ratios. For this, a well-type neutron coincidence counter with substantial shielding to protect the system from high gamma radiation is conceptually designed

  18. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  19. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  20. Reliability technology and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.; Kaplan, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the history and status of nuclear reliability and the evolution of this subject from art towards science. It shows that that probability theory is the appropriate and essential mathematical language of this subject. The authors emphasize that it is more useful to view probability not as a $prime$frequency$prime$, i.e., not as the result of a statistical experiment, but rather as a measure of state of confidence or a state of knowledge. They also show that the probabilistic, quantitative approach has a considerable history of application in the electric power industry in the area of power system planning. Finally, the authors show that the decision theory notion of utility provides a point of view from which risks, benefits, safety, and reliability can be viewed in a unified way thus facilitating understanding, comparison, and communication. 29 refs

  1. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material

  2. Proliferation and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle. Towards a Simplified Recipe to Measure Proliferation Risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogli, R.; Krakowski, R.A.

    2001-08-01

    The primary goal of this study is to frame the problem of nuclear proliferation in the context of protection and risks associated with nuclear materials flowing in the civilian nuclear fuel cycle. The perspective adopted for this study is that of a nuclear utility and the flow of fresh and spent nuclear fuel with which that utility must deal in the course of providing economic, safe, and ecologically acceptable electrical power to the public. Within this framework quantitative approaches to a material-dependent, simplified proliferation-risk metric are identified and explored. The driving force behind this search for such a proliferation metric derives from the need to quantify the proliferation risk in the context of evaluating various commercial nuclear fuel cycle options (e.g., plutonium recycle versus once-through). While the formulation of the algebra needed to describe the desired, simplified metric(s) should be straight forward once a modus operandi is defined, considerable interaction with the user of any final product that results is essential. Additionally, a broad contextual review of the proliferation problem and past efforts in the quantification of associated risks was developed as part of this study. This extensive review was essential to setting perspectives and establishing (feasibility) limits to the search for a proliferation metric(s) that meets the goals of this study. Past analyses of proliferation risks associated with the commercial nuclear fuel cycle have generally been based on a range of decision-analysis, operations-research tools. Within the time and budget constraints, as well as the self-enforced (utility) customer focus, the more subjective and data-intensive decision-analysis methodologies where not pursued. Three simplified, less-subjective approaches were investigated instead: a) a simplified 'four-factor' formula expressing as a normalized product political, material-quantity, material-quality, and material-protection metrics; b

  3. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  4. Future non-proliferation challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelchenko, Volodymyr

    2008-01-01

    Having chaired the Second Session of the Preparatory Committee Mr. Volodymyr Yelchenko noted that the NPT States parties reaffirmed the important role of the Treaty as the cornerstone of the global non-proliferation regime. They stressed that non-compliance with the Treaty provisions by States parties undermined non-proliferation and placed emphasis on the mutually reinforcing nature of disarmament and non-proliferation, and due respect for the right of States parties to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in conformity with the treaty. They reaffirmed the importance of promoting the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and international nuclear cooperation for peaceful purposes in ways consistent with the non-proliferation goal of the Treaty. The universality aspect was brought to the front with the lack of progress in this area. States parties called upon India, Israel and Pakistan to accede to the Treaty as non-nuclear-weapons states, promptly and without conditions and to bring into force comprehensive safeguards agreements, together with Additional Protocols, for ensuring non-proliferation. There is concern that non-States actors could gain access to weapons of mass destruction. One of the underlying themes at the Second Prepcom was the total elimination of nuclear weapons as the only absolute guarantee against their proliferation. Negative consequences to nuclear non-proliferation were also mentioned in the context of the abrogation of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the development of missile defense systems, with the risk of a new arms race on Earth and in outer space. The importance of the immediate commencement of negotiations in the Conference of Disarmament on a treaty concerning fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices and the urgent conclusion of such a treaty as a beneficial step towards non-proliferation was stressed. The NPT states parties reaffirmed the role of the IAEA as the sole competent authority responsible for

  5. Dangerous deterrent: nuclear weapons proliferation and conflict in South Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Kapur, S.

    2008-01-01

    This book discusses the acquisition of nuclear weapons by India and Pakistan and its effect on security of the South Asian region. The author uses quantitative analysis to establish the relationship between nuclearization and conventional stability in the region between 1971 and 2002. He shows a positive correlation between nuclear proliferation and conventional instability during these three decades. Thus, this study affirms that nuclear weapons have failed to prevent conflict in South Asia. In fact, they have escalated tensions

  6. Non-proliferation and international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blix, H.

    1992-01-01

    Full text: In my view, drastic nuclear disarmament by nuclear weapon States could be coupled with universal commitment to non-proliferation by non-nuclear weapon States by 1995 when the extension of the NPT Will be discussed. The incentives and disincentives for making and stockpiling nuclear weapons are first of all in the political and security fields, (Global and regional detente reduce the incentive, With the cold war gone, the US and Russia are now agreeing on far-reaching cuts in their nuclear arsenals and at some point the other declared nuclear weapon States Will follow.In the regional fields, we have seen how Argentina and Brazil are about to commit themselves to exclusively peaceful uses of the atom through the Latin American Tlatelolco Treaty. And we have seen how South Africa has joined the NPT. A new wave of States adhering to the NPT may be expected from countries in the former Soviet Union. Some have already come, others are on the way. Detente in the Middle East and on the Indian subcontinent would improve the outlook for non-proliferation in these areas. A second barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in export restrictions on sensitive nuclear material and equipment, Following the discoveries in Iraq, these restrictions are being strengthened in a large number of States. A third barrier to nuclear proliferation lies in the economic and political consequences that would follow for a State if IAEA safeguards inspection revealed activities aimed at the production of nuclear weapons. These must have a high degree of reliability. The case of Iraq showed that it was possible for a closed, highly militarized State to hide nuclear activities from the IAEA and the world We are now drawing the lessons from this case. It is not physically possible for inspectors to look into every building and basement in vast countries, They must have information about where to look, and the IAEA is significantly strengthening its information basis. The IAEA has also re

  7. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  8. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  9. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  10. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  11. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  12. Nuclear proliferation and safeguards. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-03-01

    This comprehensive analysis of the technological, economic, and political factors affecting the potential spread of nuclear weapons proved useful in the congressional debate which culminated in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978. The report was subsequently published commercially and has been a frequently cited reference in the literature on proliferation and nuclear power. Despite developments since 1977, the information in the OTA report is still useful to those wishing to obtain an indepth understanding of the issues. Included is an analysis of why a nation might want nuclear weapons development program and the various sources of nuclear material are discussed. The control of proliferation is considered as well as its relation to the nuclear industry

  13. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  14. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  15. Quantitative radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brase, J.M.; Martz, H.E.; Waltjen, K.E.; Hurd, R.L.; Wieting, M.G.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic techniques have been used in nondestructive evaluation primarily to develop qualitative information (i.e., defect detection). This project applies and extends the techniques developed in medical x-ray imaging, particularly computed tomography (CT), to develop quantitative information (both spatial dimensions and material quantities) on the three-dimensional (3D) structure of solids. Accomplishments in FY 86 include (1) improvements in experimental equipment - an improved microfocus system that will give 20-μm resolution and has potential for increased imaging speed, and (2) development of a simple new technique for displaying 3D images so as to clearly show the structure of the object. Image reconstruction and data analysis for a series of synchrotron CT experiments conducted by LLNL's Chemistry Department has begun

  16. Ultracentrifuge and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voortman, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    The author states that there is no meaningful difference, from the point of view of proliferation between peaceful, civil, scientific application of nuclear fission, and the use of it in nuclear weapons. The proliferation of the nuclear technology for weapons appeared and appears to be closely connected with the spread of peaceful applications of nuclear technology. In connection with this, he discusses the Ultracentrifuge plant at Almelo (Netherlands) and the supply of nuclear technology by West-Germany especially to Brazil. Further the changed American policy and the possibility of an American/Russian deal to prevent the spread of the nuclear enrichment technology is discussed

  17. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  18. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  19. Training benefits of research on operator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) Program is to collect data for use in reliability and safety studies of nuclear power plant operation which more realistically take credit for operator performance in preventing core damage. The three objectives in fulfilling this purpose are: to obtain quantitative/qualitative performance data on operating crew responses in the control room for potential accident sequences by using plant simulators; to test the human cognitive reliability (HCR) correlation; and to develop a data collection analysis procedure. This paper discusses the background to this program, data collection and analysis, and the results of quantitative/qualitative insights stemming from initial work. Special attention is paid to how this program impacts upon simulator use and assessment of simulator fidelity. Attention is also paid to the use of data collection procedures to assist training departments in assessing the quality of their training programs

  20. Proliferating macrophages prevail in atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2013-09-01

    Macrophages accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions during the inflammation that is part of atherosclerosis development and progression. A new study in mice indicates that the accumulation of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques depends on local macrophage proliferation rather than the recruitment of circulating monocytes.

  1. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee (SRPC) Review: Interpretation and Use of Cell Proliferation Data in Cancer Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased cell proliferation is a defining feature of carcinogenesis and a central key event in the mode of action for many non-genotoxic carcinogens. Quantitative cell proliferation data thus play an important role in the safety assessment of many pharmaceutical and environment...

  2. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. ... (solar power); wind (wind power) and the rest, thermal power and ... probability of a system performing its function adequately for ...

  3. Reliability analysis of software based safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-05-01

    The methods applicable in the reliability analysis of software based safety functions are described in the report. Although the safety functions also include other components, the main emphasis in the report is on the reliability analysis of software. The check list type qualitative reliability analysis methods, such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), are described, as well as the software fault tree analysis. The safety analysis based on the Petri nets is discussed. The most essential concepts and models of quantitative software reliability analysis are described. The most common software metrics and their combined use with software reliability models are discussed. The application of software reliability models in PSA is evaluated; it is observed that the recent software reliability models do not produce the estimates needed in PSA directly. As a result from the study some recommendations and conclusions are drawn. The need of formal methods in the analysis and development of software based systems, the applicability of qualitative reliability engineering methods in connection to PSA and the need to make more precise the requirements for software based systems and their analyses in the regulatory guides should be mentioned. (orig.). (46 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.)

  4. Quantitative Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean; van der Beek, Peter; Batt, Geoffrey

    2006-05-01

    Thermochronology, the study of the thermal history of rocks, enables us to quantify the nature and timing of tectonic processes. Quantitative Thermochronology is a robust review of isotopic ages, and presents a range of numerical modeling techniques to allow the physical implications of isotopic age data to be explored. The authors provide analytical, semi-analytical, and numerical solutions to the heat transfer equation in a range of tectonic settings and under varying boundary conditions. They then illustrate their modeling approach built around a large number of case studies. The benefits of different thermochronological techniques are also described. Computer programs on an accompanying website at www.cambridge.org/9780521830577 are introduced through the text and provide a means of solving the heat transport equation in the deforming Earth to predict the ages of rocks and compare them directly to geological and geochronological data. Several short tutorials, with hints and solutions, are also included. Numerous case studies help geologists to interpret age data and relate it to Earth processes Essential background material to aid understanding and using thermochronological data Provides a thorough treatise on numerical modeling of heat transport in the Earth's crust Supported by a website hosting relevant computer programs and colour slides of figures from the book for use in teaching

  5. The quantitative Morse theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Loi, Ta Le; Phien, Phan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we give a proof of the quantitative Morse theorem stated by {Y. Yomdin} in \\cite{Y1}. The proof is based on the quantitative Sard theorem, the quantitative inverse function theorem and the quantitative Morse lemma.

  6. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  7. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  8. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  9. An approach for assessing human decision reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyy, P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a method to study human reliability in decision situations related to nuclear power plant disturbances. Decisions often play a significant role in handling of emergency situations. The method may be applied to probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) in cases where decision making is an important dimension of an accident sequence. Such situations are frequent e.g. in accident management. In this paper, a modelling approach for decision reliability studies is first proposed. Then, a case study with two decision situations with relatively different characteristics is presented. Qualitative and quantitative findings of the study are discussed. In very simple decision cases with time pressure, time reliability correlation proved out to be a feasible reliability modelling method. In all other decision situations, more advanced probabilistic decision models have to be used. Finally, decision probability assessment by using simulator run results and expert judgement is presented

  10. ESCAF - Failure simulation and reliability calculation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laviron, A.; Berard, C.; Quenee, R.

    1979-01-01

    Reliability studies of nuclear power plant safety functions have, up to now, required the use of large computers. As they are of universal use, these big machines are not very well adapted to deal with reliability problems at low cost. ESCAF has been developed to be substituted for large computers in order to save time and money. ESCAF is a small electronic device which can be used in connection with a minicomputer. It allows to perform complex system reliability analysis (qualitative and quantitative) and to study critical element influences such as common cause failures. In this paper, the device is described and its features and abilities are outlined: easy to implement, swift running, low working cost. Its application range concerns all cases when a good reliability is needed

  11. Weibull distribution in reliability data analysis in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yingfei; Zhang Zhijian; Zhang Min; Zheng Gangyang

    2015-01-01

    Reliability is an important issue affecting each stage of the life cycle ranging from birth to death of a product or a system. The reliability engineering includes the equipment failure data processing, quantitative assessment of system reliability and maintenance, etc. Reliability data refers to the variety of data that describe the reliability of system or component during its operation. These data may be in the form of numbers, graphics, symbols, texts and curves. Quantitative reliability assessment is the task of the reliability data analysis. It provides the information related to preventing, detect, and correct the defects of the reliability design. Reliability data analysis under proceed with the various stages of product life cycle and reliability activities. Reliability data of Systems Structures and Components (SSCs) in Nuclear Power Plants is the key factor of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); reliability centered maintenance and life cycle management. The Weibull distribution is widely used in reliability engineering, failure analysis, industrial engineering to represent manufacturing and delivery times. It is commonly used to model time to fail, time to repair and material strength. In this paper, an improved Weibull distribution is introduced to analyze the reliability data of the SSCs in Nuclear Power Plants. An example is given in the paper to present the result of the new method. The Weibull distribution of mechanical equipment for reliability data fitting ability is very strong in nuclear power plant. It's a widely used mathematical model for reliability analysis. The current commonly used methods are two-parameter and three-parameter Weibull distribution. Through comparison and analysis, the three-parameter Weibull distribution fits the data better. It can reflect the reliability characteristics of the equipment and it is more realistic to the actual situation. (author)

  12. A reliability evaluation method for NPP safety DCS application software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunjian; Zhang Lei; Liu Yuan

    2014-01-01

    In the field of nuclear power plant (NPP) digital i and c application, reliability evaluation for safety DCS application software is a key obstacle to be removed. In order to quantitatively evaluate reliability of NPP safety DCS application software, this paper propose a reliability evaluating method based on software development life cycle every stage's v and v defects density characteristics, by which the operating reliability level of the software can be predicted before its delivery, and helps to improve the reliability of NPP safety important software. (authors)

  13. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  14. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  15. SOX15 regulates proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xiaohui; Xu, Yun; Jiang, Xiping; Guo, Caixia; Jiang, Jingting

    2017-10-31

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of Sry-like high mobility group box 15 ( SOX15 ) on proliferation and migration of endometrial cancer (EC) cells. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was applied to determine the expression of SOX15 in EC tissues and adjacent tissues. We used cell transfection method to construct the HEC-1-A and Ishikawa cell lines with stable overexpression and low expression SOX15 Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot were performed to examine expression of SOX15 mRNA and SOX15 protein, respectively. By conducting a series of cell proliferation assay and migration assay, we analyzed the influence of SOX15 overexpression or low expression on EC cell proliferation and migration. The expression of SOX15 mRNA and protein in EC tissues was significantly lower than that in adjacent tissues. After lentivirus-transfecting SOX15 , the expression level of SOX15 mRNA and protein was significantly increased in cells of SOX15 group, and decreased in sh- SOX15 group. Overexpression of SOX15 could suppress cell proliferation, while down-regulation of SOX15 increased cell proliferation. Flow cytometry results indicated that overexpression of SOX15 induced the ratio of cell-cycle arrest in G 1 stage. In addition, Transwell migration assay results showed that SOX15 overexpression significantly inhibited cell migration, and also down-regulation of SOX15 promoted the migration. As a whole, SOX15 could regulate the proliferation and migration of EC cells and up- regulation of SOX15 could be valuable for EC treatment. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Science Based Human Reliability Analysis: Using Digital Nuclear Power Plant Simulators for Human Reliability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) simulators are proliferating in academic research institutions and national laboratories in response to the availability of affordable, digital simulator platforms. Accompanying the new research facilities is a renewed interest in using data collected in NPP simulators for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) research. An experiment conducted in The Ohio State University (OSU) NPP Simulator Facility develops data collection methods and analytical tools to improve use of simulator data in HRA. In the pilot experiment, student operators respond to design basis accidents in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility. Thirty-three undergraduate and graduate engineering students participated in the research. Following each accident scenario, student operators completed a survey about perceived simulator biases and watched a video of the scenario. During the video, they periodically recorded their perceived strength of significant Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) such as Stress. This dissertation reviews three aspects of simulator-based research using the data collected in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility: First, a qualitative comparison of student operator performance to computer simulations of expected operator performance generated by the Information Decision Action Crew (IDAC) HRA method. Areas of comparison include procedure steps, timing of operator actions, and PSFs. Second, development of a quantitative model of the simulator bias introduced by the simulator environment. Two types of bias are defined: Environmental Bias and Motivational Bias. This research examines Motivational Bias--that is, the effect of the simulator environment on an operator's motivations, goals, and priorities. A bias causal map is introduced to model motivational bias interactions in the OSU experiment. Data collected in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility are analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Data include crew characteristics, operator surveys, and time to recognize

  17. Non proliferation of nuclear weapons?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-10-01

    After having evoked the behaviour of nuclear countries regarding the development of nuclear weapons and uranium procurement, or nuclear programmes after the Second World War until nowadays, the author presents the non proliferation Treaty (NPT) as a construction at the service of super-powers. He comments and discusses the role of the IAEA control system and its evolutions: a control limited to declared installations, an export control with the spectre of plutonium, a control system thwarted by some technological innovations, information systems coming in, and an additional protocol related to the application of guarantees. He comments the evolution of the context from a bipolar world to a world without pole which raises the issue of how to have commitments respected: description of the role and practice of non proliferation during the Cold War, after the Cold War, and in a world without governance

  18. Proliferation Vulnerability Red Team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinton, J.P.; Barnard, R.W.; Bennett, D.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    This report is the product of a four-month independent technical assessment of potential proliferation vulnerabilities associated with the plutonium disposition alternatives currently under review by DOE/MD. The scope of this MD-chartered/Sandia-led study was limited to technical considerations that could reduce proliferation resistance during various stages of the disposition processes below the Stored Weapon/Spent Fuel standards. Both overt and covert threats from host nation and unauthorized parties were considered. The results of this study will be integrated with complementary work by others into an overall Nonproliferation and Arms Control Assessment in support of a Secretarial Record of Decision later this year for disposition of surplus U.S. weapons plutonium.

  19. Automating proliferation rate estimation from Ki-67 histology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lahham, Heba Z.; Alomari, Raja S.; Hiary, Hazem; Chaudhary, Vipin

    2012-03-01

    Breast cancer is the second cause of women death and the most diagnosed female cancer in the US. Proliferation rate estimation (PRE) is one of the prognostic indicators that guide the treatment protocols and it is clinically performed from Ki-67 histopathology images. Automating PRE substantially increases the efficiency of the pathologists. Moreover, presenting a deterministic and reproducible proliferation rate value is crucial to reduce inter-observer variability. To that end, we propose a fully automated CAD system for PRE from the Ki-67 histopathology images. This CAD system is based on a model of three steps: image pre-processing, image clustering, and nuclei segmentation and counting that are finally followed by PRE. The first step is based on customized color modification and color-space transformation. Then, image pixels are clustered by K-Means depending on the features extracted from the images derived from the first step. Finally, nuclei are segmented and counted using global thresholding, mathematical morphology and connected component analysis. Our experimental results on fifty Ki-67-stained histopathology images show a significant agreement between our CAD's automated PRE and the gold standard's one, where the latter is an average between two observers' estimates. The Paired T-Test, for the automated and manual estimates, shows ρ = 0.86, 0.45, 0.8 for the brown nuclei count, blue nuclei count, and proliferation rate, respectively. Thus, our proposed CAD system is as reliable as the pathologist estimating the proliferation rate. Yet, its estimate is reproducible.

  20. Nuclear power and weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, T.; Rathjens, C.W.; Ruina, J.

    1977-01-01

    The relationship between nuclear weapons development and nuclear electric power is examined. A brief description of nuclear weapons design is first given. This is then followed by a discussion of various aspects of nuclear power technology and of how they affect a nuclear weapon programme. These include fuel cycles, chemical reprocessing of spent fuel, uranium enrichment, and the control of dissemination of nuclear technology. In conclusion there is a discussion of possible political and institutional controls for limiting nuclear proliferation. (U.K.)

  1. CBRN and proliferation in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brisset, Jean-Vincent

    2015-01-01

    The author proposes a brief overview of the history, evolution and status of military nuclear weapons and programmes as well as bacteriologic and chemical weapons (nuclear weapons, ballistic missile, and position with respect with the Conventions on chemical and bacteriologic weapons) in Asian countries (China, Japan, India, Pakistan, North Korea). In a second part, he discusses issues related to exports and possible proliferation from these countries

  2. Long Noncoding RNA PANDA Positively Regulates Proliferation of Osteosarcoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotake, Yojiro; Goto, Taiki; Naemura, Madoka; Inoue, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Haruna; Tahara, Keiichiro

    2017-01-01

    A long noncoding RNA, p21-associated ncRNA DNA damage-activated (PANDA), associates with nuclear transcription factor Y subunit alpha (NF-YA) and inhibits its binding to promoters of apoptosis-related genes, thereby repressing apoptosis in normal human fibroblasts. Here, we show that PANDA is involved in regulating proliferation in the U2OS human osteosarcoma cell line. U2OS cells were transfected with siRNAs against PANDA 72 h later and they were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), quantitative RT-PCR and cell-cycle analysis. PANDA was highly expressed in U2OS cells, and its expression was induced by DNA damage. Silencing PANDA caused arrest at the G 1 phase of the cell cycle, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation. Quantitative RT-PCR showed that silencing PANDA increased mRNA levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, which caused G 1 phase arrest. These results suggest that PANDA promotes G 1 -S transition by repressing p18 transcription, and thus promotes U2OS cell proliferation. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  3. Estimation of Cell Proliferation Dynamics Using CFSE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, H.T.; Sutton, Karyn L.; Thompson, W. Clayton; Bocharov, Gennady; Roose, Dirk; Schenkel, Tim; Meyerhans, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Advances in fluorescent labeling of cells as measured by flow cytometry have allowed for quantitative studies of proliferating populations of cells. The investigations (Luzyanina et al. in J. Math. Biol. 54:57–89, 2007; J. Math. Biol., 2009; Theor. Biol. Med. Model. 4:1–26, 2007) contain a mathematical model with fluorescence intensity as a structure variable to describe the evolution in time of proliferating cells labeled by carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester (CFSE). Here, this model and several extensions/modifications are discussed. Suggestions for improvements are presented and analyzed with respect to statistical significance for better agreement between model solutions and experimental data. These investigations suggest that the new decay/label loss and time dependent effective proliferation and death rates do indeed provide improved fits of the model to data. Statistical models for the observed variability/noise in the data are discussed with implications for uncertainty quantification. The resulting new cell dynamics model should prove useful in proliferation assay tracking and modeling, with numerous applications in the biomedical sciences. PMID:20195910

  4. Analysis of information security reliability: A tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondakci, Suleyman

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a concise reliability analysis of network security abstracted from stochastic modeling, reliability, and queuing theories. Network security analysis is composed of threats, their impacts, and recovery of the failed systems. A unique framework with a collection of the key reliability models is presented here to guide the determination of the system reliability based on the strength of malicious acts and performance of the recovery processes. A unique model, called Attack-obstacle model, is also proposed here for analyzing systems with immunity growth features. Most computer science curricula do not contain courses in reliability modeling applicable to different areas of computer engineering. Hence, the topic of reliability analysis is often too diffuse to most computer engineers and researchers dealing with network security. This work is thus aimed at shedding some light on this issue, which can be useful in identifying models, their assumptions and practical parameters for estimating the reliability of threatened systems and for assessing the performance of recovery facilities. It can also be useful for the classification of processes and states regarding the reliability of information systems. Systems with stochastic behaviors undergoing queue operations and random state transitions can also benefit from the approaches presented here. - Highlights: • A concise survey and tutorial in model-based reliability analysis applicable to information security. • A framework of key modeling approaches for assessing reliability of networked systems. • The framework facilitates quantitative risk assessment tasks guided by stochastic modeling and queuing theory. • Evaluation of approaches and models for modeling threats, failures, impacts, and recovery analysis of information systems

  5. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  6. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  7. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  8. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  9. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  10. Neural control of colonic cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-03-15

    The mitotic rate in rat colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinomas was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. In sympathectomized animals cell proliferation was retarded in the crypts but not in the tumors, whereas in animals treated with Metaraminol, a drug which releases norepinephrine from nerve terminals, crypt cell but not tumor cell proliferation was accelerated. Blockade of alpha-adrenoceptors also inhibited crypt cell proliferation. However, stimulation of beta-adrenoceptors inhibited and blockade of beta-adrenoceptors accelerated tumor cell proliferation without influencing crypt cell proliferation. Injection of either serotonin or histamine stimulated tumor but not crypt cell proliferation and blockade or serotonin receptors or histamine H2-receptors inhibited tumor cell proliferation. It is postulated that cell proliferation in the colonic crypts, like that in the jejunal crypts, is under both endocrine and autonomic neural control whereas colonic tumor cell division is subject to endocrine regulation alone.

  11. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  12. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  13. Reliability evaluation programmable logic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivani, L.; Murali, N.; Thirugnana Murthy, D.; Satya Murty, S.A.V.

    2014-01-01

    Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) are widely used as basic building modules in high integrity systems, considering their robust features such as gate density, performance, speed etc. PLDs are used to implement digital design such as bus interface logic, control logic, sequencing logic, glue logic etc. Due to semiconductor evolution, new PLDs with state-of-the-art features are arriving to the market. Since these devices are reliable as per the manufacturer's specification, they were used in the design of safety systems. But due to their reduced market life, the availability of performance data is limited. So evaluating the PLD before deploying in a safety system is very important. This paper presents a survey on the use of PLDs in the nuclear domain and the steps involved in the evaluation of PLD using Quantitative Accelerated Life Testing. (author)

  14. Review of progress in quantitative nondestructive evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, D.O.; Chimenti, D.E.

    1983-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the current state of quantitative nondestructive evaluation (NDE), this volume brings together papers by researchers working in government, private industry, and university laboratories. Their papers cover a wide range of interests and concerns for researchers involved in theoretical and applied aspects of quantitative NDE. Specific topics examined include reliability probability of detection--ultrasonics and eddy currents weldments closure effects in fatigue cracks technology transfer ultrasonic scattering theory acoustic emission ultrasonic scattering, reliability and penetrating radiation metal matrix composites ultrasonic scattering from near-surface flaws ultrasonic multiple scattering

  15. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  16. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  17. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  18. Flaws in the Non-Proliferation Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leventhal, P.

    1986-01-01

    The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nucler Weapons has the twin objectives of stopping the further spread of nuclear weapons and ending the nuclear arms race on the one hand, and promoting peaceful uses of atomic energy on the other. In quantitative and symbolic terms the NPT is a huge success. More than two-thirds of the world's nations have signed on, making this the most popular arms control agreement on earth. Not a single nation has declared itself to be a nuclear-weapons state beyond the original five members of the ''nuclear club'' who qualified for weapons status under the terms of the Treaty itself: the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, France, and China. No party to the Treaty has exercised the permitted option to drop out, and none has been found by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to have diverted nuclear material from civil to weapons purposes. Nor has any party been known to have violated NPT prohibitions on developing or assisting other nations to develop nuclear weapons

  19. Quantitative approaches in climate change ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Christopher J.; Schoeman, David S.; Sydeman, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary impacts of anthropogenic climate change on ecosystems are increasingly being recognized. Documenting the extent of these impacts requires quantitative tools for analyses of ecological observations to distinguish climate impacts in noisy data and to understand interactions between...... climate variability and other drivers of change. To assist the development of reliable statistical approaches, we review the marine climate change literature and provide suggestions for quantitative approaches in climate change ecology. We compiled 267 peer‐reviewed articles that examined relationships...

  20. Development of quantitative x-ray microtomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.; Dunsmuir, J.A.; D'Amico, K.L.; Ferguson, S.R.; Flannery, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have developed several x-ray microtomography systems which function as quantitative three dimensional x-ray microscopes. In this paper the authors describe the evolutionary path followed from making the first high resolution experimental microscopes to later generations which can be routinely used for investigating materials. Developing the instrumentation for reliable quantitative x-ray microscopy using synchrotron and laboratory based x-ray sources has led to other imaging modalities for obtaining temporal and spatial two dimensional information

  1. The European dimension in non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, J.

    1996-01-01

    Europe was for decades the focal point of efforts to prevent or constrain nuclear proliferation and the first region in which non-proliferation efforts failed. Paper deals with current proliferation problems in Europe, namely, diversion of weapons, diversion from dismantling, production over-capacity, security concerns. Legal instruments against proliferation in Europe described here include development of international norms; instruments of security assurance and cooperation; disarmament assistance; fissile material management; assistance in creating export control systems; improving and harmonizing export controls for dual-purpose items. Problems in implementing non-proliferation instruments are described separately

  2. The international nuclear non-proliferation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.; McGrew, T.

    1985-01-01

    This volume focuses upon the issues raised at this Conference, and attempts to address the international diplomatic, political and trading, rather than technical, questions which surround nuclear non-proliferation policies. It does so by bringing together chapters contributed by participants in non-proliferation diplomacy, those with experience in shaping International Atomic Energy Agency and national policies and academic observers of non-proliferation activities and the international nuclear industry. An analysis is provided of past non-proliferation policies and activities and current issues, and an attempt is made to offer ideas for new initiatives which may sustain the non-proliferation system in the future

  3. H2A/K pseudogene mutation may promote cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Jisheng; Jing, Ruirui; Lv, Xin; Wang, Xiaoyue; Li, Junqiang; Li, Lin; Li, Cuiling; Wang, Daoguang; Bi, Baibing; Chen, Xinjun [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Yang, Jing-Hua, E-mail: sdu_crc_group1@126.com [Cancer Research Center, Shandong University School of Medicine, Jinan 250012 (China); Department of Surgery, VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston 510660, MA (United States)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene is active. • The mutant H2A/K pseudogene can promote cell proliferation. - Abstract: Little attention has been paid to the histone H2A/K pseudogene. Results from our laboratory showed that 7 of 10 kidney cancer patients carried a mutant H2A/K pseudogene; therefore, we were interested in determining the relationship between mutant H2A/K and cell proliferation. We used shotgun and label-free proteomics methods to study whether mutant H2A/K lncRNAs affected cell proliferation. Quantitative proteomic analysis indicated that the expression of mutant H2A/K lncRNAs resulted in the upregulation of many oncogenes, which promoted cell proliferation. Further interaction analyses revealed that a proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-protein interaction network, with PCNA in the center, contributes to cell proliferation in cells expressing the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs. Western blotting confirmed the critical upregulation of PCNA by mutant H2A/K lncRNA expression. Finally, the promotion of cell proliferation by mutant H2A/K lncRNAs (C290T, C228A and A45G) was confirmed using cell proliferation assays. Although we did not determine the exact mechanism by which the oncogenes were upregulated by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs, we confirmed that the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs promoted cell proliferation by upregulating PCNA and other oncogenes. The hypothesis that cell proliferation is promoted by the mutant H2A/K lncRNAs was supported by the protein expression and cell proliferation assay results. Therefore, mutant H2A/K lncRNAs may be a new factor in renal carcinogenesis.

  4. Nanoparticles for cells proliferation enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, V.; Braniste, F.; Tiginyanu, I.M.; Lisii, C.; Nacu, V.

    2013-01-01

    The potential of semiconductor nanoparticles as stimulator for avian mesenchyme stem cells proliferation enhancement is demonstrated. The effect is related to nanoparticles polarization due to external ultrasound field resulting in local electrical stimulation. Our preliminary results demonstrates that the number of cells have been increased by 23 % ±2%) in cell cultures under the action of external ultrasound stimulation. Morphological analysis and viability shows no differences between the control group and the group studied. These results suggest the possibility for tissue regeneration enhancement by remote stimulation of implanted semiconductor nanoparticles. (authors)

  5. The USA and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    United States policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia poses a test of balance between general US global non-proliferation goals and specific US regional security goals for Northeast Asia. US policy on proliferation in Northeast Asia further poses a test of priorities for US bilateral relations with the key Northeast Asian states, as non-proliferation and regional security goals must be weighed against other (e.g., economic, human rights) declared US policy goals. The result is a US policy equation for Northeast Asia proliferation that is considerably more complex in execution than might be expected from the simple statement of the US goal to avoid nuclear proliferation in Northeast Asia. The question of security assurances - both negative and positive - may be closely related to US policies to avoid proliferation in Northeast Asia

  6. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). NIS Div.

    1996-05-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium.

  7. Fissile material disposition and proliferation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, J.S.; Rutherford, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    The proliferation risk of a facility is dependent on the material attractiveness, level of safeguards, and physical protection applied to the material in conjunction with an assessment of the impact of the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment. Proliferation risk is a complementary extension of proliferation resistance. The authors believe a better determination of nuclear material proliferation can be achieved by establishing the proliferation risk for facilities that contain nuclear material. Developing a method that incorporates the socioeconomic circumstances and threat environment inherent to each country enables a global proliferation assessment. In order to effectively reduce the nuclear danger, a broadly based set of criteria is needed that provides the capability to relatively assess a wide range of disposition options/facilities in different countries and still ensure a global decrease in proliferation risk for plutonium

  8. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  9. Reliability assessment using the concept of possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, R.; Zhao, G.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the possibility theory in the quantitative approach to the reliability of large scale systems, in particular man-machine systems, is discussed. According to the original idea due to professor L.A. Zadeh, an error rate may be associated with a possibility distribution and a probability distribution. They describe the potentiallity and the actuality for error. This is especially important for the analysis of big accidents

  10. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  11. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  13. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  14. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  15. A methodology to incorporate organizational factors into human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Pengcheng; Chen Guohua; Zhang Li; Xiao Dongsheng

    2010-01-01

    A new holistic methodology for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) is proposed to model the effects of the organizational factors on the human reliability. Firstly, a conceptual framework is built, which is used to analyze the causal relationships between the organizational factors and human reliability. Then, the inference model for Human Reliability Analysis is built by combining the conceptual framework with Bayesian networks, which is used to execute the causal inference and diagnostic inference of human reliability. Finally, a case example is presented to demonstrate the specific application of the proposed methodology. The results show that the proposed methodology of combining the conceptual model with Bayesian Networks can not only easily model the causal relationship between organizational factors and human reliability, but in a given context, people can quantitatively measure the human operational reliability, and identify the most likely root causes or the prioritization of root causes caused human error. (authors)

  16. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  17. Non-proliferation and disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter von Wagner, A.

    1993-01-01

    In 1995 the Conference on the prolongation of the Non-Proliferation Treaty will take place. Will it be extended for a long term, indefinitely or only for a fixed period? The Federal Government of Germany advocates an unlimited extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty. Others have different ideas alleging that the Treaty is imperfect and discriminating. It is a thorn in the side of many States, in particular of the Third World, which no longer want to put up with being treated as second-class states. One argument which is considered especially embarrassing by developing countries as a visible expression of such discrimination, are the nuclear tests which are still carried out by nuclear weapon states. Is the political situation still such that one needs those weapons? Strategists gradually find it difficult to argument; over and over again they claim that an abandonment of nuclear weapons would make the world unsafer. But development has gradually passed over them. Nevertheless, one finds it hard to throw overboard considerations which for years have determined one's thinking. (orig./HSCH) [de

  18. Gas Centrifuges and Nuclear Proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, David

    2004-09-15

    Gas centrifuges have been an ideal enrichment method for a wide variety of countries. Many countries have built gas centrifuges to make enriched uranium for peaceful nuclear purposes. Other countries have secretly sought centrifuges to make highly enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. In more recent times, several countries have secretly sought or built gas centrifuges in regions of tension. The main countries that have been of interest in the last two decades have been Pakistan, Iraq, Iran, and North Korea. Currently, most attention is focused on Iran, Pakistan, and North Korea. These states did not have the indigenous abilities to make gas centrifuges, focusing instead on illicit and questionable foreign procurement. The presentation covered the following main sections: Spread of centrifuges through illicit procurement; Role of export controls in stopping proliferation; Increasing the transparency of gas centrifuge programs in non-nuclear weapon states; and, Verified dismantlement of gas centrifuge programs. Gas centrifuges are important providers of low enriched uranium for civil nuclear power reactors. They also pose special nuclear proliferation risks. We all have special responsibilities to prevent the spread of gas centrifuges into regions of tension and to mitigate the consequences of their spread into the Middle East, South Asia, and North Asia.

  19. Hepatocellular proliferation in response to agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha: a role for kupffer cells?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunningham Michael

    2006-01-01

    levels of serum TNFα and IL-1β, which are reliable indicators of Kupffer cell activity, despite a remarkable difference in hepatocellular proliferation.

  20. Evaluation for nuclear safety-critical software reliability of DCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ying

    2015-01-01

    With the development of control and information technology at NPPs, software reliability is important because software failure is usually considered as one form of common cause failures in Digital I and C Systems (DCS). The reliability analysis of DCS, particularly qualitative and quantitative evaluation on the nuclear safety-critical software reliability belongs to a great challenge. To solve this problem, not only comprehensive evaluation model and stage evaluation models are built in this paper, but also prediction and sensibility analysis are given to the models. It can make besement for evaluating the reliability and safety of DCS. (author)

  1. Software reliability for safety-critical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Everett, B.; Musa, J.

    1994-01-01

    In this talk, the authors address the question open-quotes Can Software Reliability Engineering measurement and modeling techniques be applied to safety-critical applications?close quotes Quantitative techniques have long been applied in engineering hardware components of safety-critical applications. The authors have seen a growing acceptance and use of quantitative techniques in engineering software systems but a continuing reluctance in using such techniques in safety-critical applications. The general case posed against using quantitative techniques for software components runs along the following lines: safety-critical applications should be engineered such that catastrophic failures occur less frequently than one in a billion hours of operation; current software measurement/modeling techniques rely on using failure history data collected during testing; one would have to accumulate over a billion operational hours to verify failure rate objectives of about one per billion hours

  2. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  3. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  4. Mathematical Model of Growth Factor Driven Haptotaxis and Proliferation in a Tissue Engineering Scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Pohlmeyer, J. V.; Waters, S. L.; Cummings, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    nutrient-rich culture medium is perfused through a 2D porous scaffold impregnated with growth factor and seeded with cells. We model these processes on the timescale of cell proliferation, which typically is of the order of days. While a quantitative

  5. Proliferation resistance fuel cycle technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Ko, W. I

    1999-02-01

    The issues of dual use in nuclear technology are analysed for nuclear fuel cycle with special focus on uranium enrichment and spent fuel reprocessing which are considered as the most sensitive components in terms of vulnerability to diversion. Technical alternatives to mitigrate the vulnerability, as has been analysed in depth during the NASAP and INFCE era in the late seventies, are reviewed to characterize the DUPIC fuel cycle alternative. On the other hand, the new realities in nuclear energy including the disposition of weapon materials as a legacy of cold war are recast in an angle of nuclear proliferation resistance and safeguards with a discussion on the concept of spent fuel standard concept and its compliance with the DUPIC fuel cycle technology. (author)

  6. Missile proliferation and missile defense

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarif, M. Javad

    2002-01-01

    The global security environment is becoming increasingly volatile and dangerous. A new arms race is looming in the horizon ... [Missiles have] become the strong weapon of the poor and the discriminated against who find themselves vulnerable to outside threat. They believe missiles may prove instrumental in deterring the enemy from beginning a full scale war ... the engagement of all states at the United Nations in the issue of missiles, through the panel of governmental experts, and the new idea of exploring the subject in the Conference on Disarmament do provide a dim light at the end of the tunnel. ... Efforts at non-proliferation of missiles are more likely to succeed when viewed as an integral part of a global and comprehensive negotiation and progress in other areas of disarmament. (author)

  7. Maturity index on reliability: covering non-technical aspects of IEC61508 reliability certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombacher, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the more recent developments in the field of reliability and safety is the realisation that these aspects are not only a function of the product itself, but also of the organisation realising this product. A second development is a trend from an often predominantly qualitative analysis towards a quantitative analysis. In contrast to the (older) DIN 0801, the (more recent) IEC61508 requires, on product level, also a quantitative analysis and, on organisational level, an assessment of the lifecycle of a product by analysing the (maturity of the) relevant business processes (DIN V VDE 0801. Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, 1990; DIN V 0801. Grundlegende Sicherheitsbetrachtungen fuer MSR-Schutzeinrichtungen, 1994; DIN V VDE 0801 A1. Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Aenderung A1, 1994; IEC 61508 Functional Safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems, draft 4.0, 1997). The IEC standard 61508 covers: (i) technical aspects, both on a quantitative and a qualitative level; (ii) organisational aspects, both on aspects of maturity of business processes (quantitative) and on aspects of the definition and application of procedures (qualitative). This paper shows the necessity for an analysis on all aspects in a safety certification process, and presents an overview of the available tools and techniques for the various quadrants. As methods and tools for especially quadrant C are currently unavailable, this paper will propose a method to assess and improve the maturity of an organisation on reliability management: the maturity index on reliability (MIR)

  8. Quantitative image analysis of synovial tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hall, Pascal O.; Kraan, Maarten C.; Tak, Paul Peter

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative image analysis is a form of imaging that includes microscopic histological quantification, video microscopy, image analysis, and image processing. Hallmarks are the generation of reliable, reproducible, and efficient measurements via strict calibration and step-by-step control of the

  9. PIQMIe: A web server for semi-quantitative proteomics data management and analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Kuzniar (Arnold); R. Kanaar (Roland)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe present the Proteomics Identifications and Quantitations Data Management and Integration Service or PIQMIe that aids in reliable and scalable data management, analysis and visualization of semi-quantitative mass spectrometry based proteomics experiments. PIQMIe readily integrates

  10. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  11. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  12. Increased cellular proliferation in rat skeletal muscle and tendon in response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Bayer, Monika L; Mackey, Abigail

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to investigate exercise-induced cellular proliferation in rat skeletal muscle/tendon with the use of 3'-[F-18]fluoro-3'deoxythymidine (FLT) and to quantitatively study concomitant changes in the proliferation-associated factor, Ki67. PROCEDURES: Wistar rats (...... = 13) performed 3 days of treadmill running. Cellular proliferation was investigated 3 days before and 48 h after the running exercise with the use of FLT and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). Results were compared to a sedentary control group (n = 10). Image......-derived results were supported by a correlation in calf muscle to Ki67 (protein and mRNA level), while this coherence was not found in tendon. CONCLUSION: FLT-PET seems to be a promising tool for imaging of exercise-induced cellular proliferation in musculo-tendinous tissue....

  13. Romania non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, Lucian; Grama, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Non-proliferation concept in Romania is based on the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, which was ratified in 1970. According to the Article III of the Treaty, Romania ratified in 1972, the Agreement between Romania and IAEA for the application of Safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-proliferation of Nuclear Weapons. In 2000 Romania ratified the Additional Protocol to contribute through increased transparency, to confidence that no undeclared nuclear activities are concealed within the declared programme or make use of elements of that programme. Under the Additional Protocol Romania understands to increase the transparency of its nuclear activities lengthways fuel cycle. Romania has a strong legal framework to control nuclear material and nuclear activities. The Law 111/1996, republished is the Law on the safe deployment of nuclear activities. CNCAN issued National Regulations for Safeguards and Physical Protection. Prospecting for uranium in Romania was initiated in 1950. Between 1962 and 1978 all the uranium ore production was stockpiled at the mine sites. In 1978 the Feldioara Powder Plant was commissioned, since then both ore stockpiles and ore exploited have been processed to uranium chemical concentrates. The Powder Plant Feldioara was conceived and built following the necessity of milling and processing the uranium ore to UO 2 , in concordance with the national nuclear programme in order to produce electric energy from nuclear fuel. The Nuclear Fuel Plant has capability to manufacture CANDU-6 nuclear fuel. Nuclear Fuel Plant consists of two Production areas, the Quality Assurance and Engineering Departments. There are two Production Departments: Pelleting area including granulation, pressing, sintering, pellet grinding, uranium recycling and Assembling area including components fabrication, beryllium coating, brazing, graphite coating, fuel element and bundle assembly welding. Romania's Strategy for Energy Sector

  14. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  15. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  16. China's position on nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Jiadong.

    1986-01-01

    The paper discusses China's position on nuclear non-proliferation, in view of the fact that China does not subscribe to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT). China refuses to accede to the NPT because it considers the treaty to be discriminatory, and reasons are given for this point of view. However its stand for nuclear disarmament and disapproval of nuclear proliferation are declared. Nuclear arms race, prevention of nuclear war, and nuclear disarmament are also considered. (UK)

  17. Nuclear power and nuclear-weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moniz, E.J.; Neff, T.L.

    1978-01-01

    Concern over the risk of nuclear proliferation has led to extensive reexamination of the technical, economic, and political assumptions underlying both national and international nuclear policies. An attempt is made in the present article to clarify the basic technical and political issues. The connections between various fuel cycles and their possible proliferation risks are discussed. As the resolution of the existing differing views on proliferation risks will be largely a political process, solutions to the problem are not proposed

  18. Nuclear energy and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A summary of the report dispatched in the middle of 1978 by the Atlantic Council of United States, organized by North American citizens, is presented. The report considers the relation between the production of nucleoelectric energy and the capacity of proliferation of nuclear weapons. The factors which affect the grade of proliferation risk represented by the use of nuclear energy in the world comparing this risk with the proliferation risks independently of nuclear energy, are examined. (M.C.K.) [pt

  19. Recommendations for certification or measurement of reliability for reliable digital archival repositories with emphasis on access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Ventura Amorim Gonçalez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the guidelines of ISO 16363: 2012 (Space data and information transfer systems -- Audit and certification of trustworthy digital repositories and the text of CONARQ Resolution 39 for certification of Reliable Digital Archival Repository (RDC-Arq, verify the technical recommendations should be used as the basis for a digital archival repository to be considered reliable. Objective: Identify requirements for the creation of Reliable Digital Archival Repositories with emphasis on access to information from the ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. Methodology: For the development of the study, the methodology consisted of an exploratory, descriptive and documentary theoretical investigation, since it is based on ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. From the perspective of the problem approach, the study is qualitative and quantitative, since the data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed from the interpretation of their contents. Results: We presented a set of Checklist Recommendations for reliability measurement and/or certification for RDC-Arq with a clipping focused on the identification of requirements with emphasis on access to information is presented. Conclusions: The right to information as well as access to reliable information is a premise for Digital Archival Repositories, so the set of recommendations is directed to archivists who work in Digital Repositories and wish to verify the requirements necessary to evaluate the reliability of the Digital Repository or still guide the information professional in collecting requirements for repository reliability certification.

  20. The handbook of nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Lee, B. W.; Oh, K. B.; Lee, H. M.; Ko, H. S.; Ryu, J. S.; Lee, K. S.

    2003-07-01

    This report analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This report took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and current status. It is here divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this report dealt four multilateral treaties concluded for international non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. And international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are also analyzed focused on UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, regional safeguards system and international conferences. In addition, this report reviewed the nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is a important tool for bilateral regime

  1. Strengthening the non proliferation regime: French views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaune, P.

    2013-01-01

    3 main issues can be identified in the French policy concerning the backing of non proliferation: 1) responding resolutely to proliferation crises, 2) reinforcing substantive efforts to prevent and impede proliferation, and 3) strengthening the non-proliferation regime. The first issue is very important because combating proliferation is vital to the security of all. Concerning the second issue, France attaches particular importance to strengthening specific measures to prevent and check proliferation. Let me mention a few proposals that we put forward: exports need to be controlled more effectively, proliferation activities have to be criminalized, or the development of proliferation-resistant technologies should be supported. Concerning the third issue it means the strengthening of the non-proliferation regime, France proposes several means: -) aiming at the universalization of the additional protocol; -) ensuring that the Agency continues to have sufficient human, financial and technical resources to fulfill its verification mission effectively; -) encouraging the IAEA to make full use of the authority available to it; -) enhancing the use of information relevant to the delivery of the IAEA mandate; and -) sharing more accurate information concerning the breaches of commitments that happen. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (A.C.)

  2. Intelligence and Nuclear Proliferation: Lessons Learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Keith A.

    2011-09-01

    Intelligence agencies play a fundamental role in the prevention of nuclear proliferation, as they help to understand other countries' intentions and assess their technical capabilities and the nature of their nuclear activities. The challenges in this area remain, however, formidable. Past experiences and the discoveries of Iraq's WMD programs, of North Korean nuclear weapon program, and of Iranian activities, have put into question the ability of intelligence to monitor small, clandestine proliferation activities from either states or non-state entities. This Proliferation Paper analyzes the complex challenges intelligence faces and the various roles it plays in supporting national and international nuclear non-proliferation efforts, and reviews its track record. In an effort to shed light on the role and contribution of intelligence in national and international efforts to halt, if not prevent, further nuclear weapon proliferation, this paper first analyzes the challenges intelligence faces in monitoring small, clandestine proliferation activities and the role it plays in supporting non-proliferation efforts. It then reviews the intelligence track record in monitoring proliferation including the lessons learned from Iraq. Finally, it addresses whether it is possible for intelligence to accurately monitor future clandestine proliferation efforts. (author)

  3. Product reliability and thin-film photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Ryan; Feist, Rebekah; Yeung, Simon; Hus, Mike; Bernius, Mark; Langlois, Marc; Bury, Scott; Granata, Jennifer; Quintana, Michael; Carlson, Carl; Sarakakis, Georgios; Ogden, Douglas; Mettas, Adamantios

    2009-08-01

    Despite significant growth in photovoltaics (PV) over the last few years, only approximately 1.07 billion kWhr of electricity is estimated to have been generated from PV in the US during 2008, or 0.27% of total electrical generation. PV market penetration is set for a paradigm shift, as fluctuating hydrocarbon prices and an acknowledgement of the environmental impacts associated with their use, combined with breakthrough new PV technologies, such as thin-film and BIPV, are driving the cost of energy generated with PV to parity or cost advantage versus more traditional forms of energy generation. In addition to reaching cost parity with grid supplied power, a key to the long-term success of PV as a viable energy alternative is the reliability of systems in the field. New technologies may or may not have the same failure modes as previous technologies. Reliability testing and product lifetime issues continue to be one of the key bottlenecks in the rapid commercialization of PV technologies today. In this paper, we highlight the critical need for moving away from relying on traditional qualification and safety tests as a measure of reliability and focus instead on designing for reliability and its integration into the product development process. A drive towards quantitative predictive accelerated testing is emphasized and an industrial collaboration model addressing reliability challenges is proposed.

  4. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  5. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  6. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  7. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  8. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  9. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  10. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  11. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  12. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  13. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  14. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  15. Amniotic Fluid Cells Proliferation in Normal and Down Syndrome Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honcea Adina

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Down Syndrome/Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal anomaly, and it represents the most common congenital cause of infants’ intellectual disability. Subjects with this syndrome are affected by degenerative processes caused by accelerated aging or unknown ethyologies. In recent years, accumulating evidence revealed increased potential of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells to be used in regenerative therapy. Our aim was to assess differences in immunophenotype, cell morphology and proliferation of amniotic fluid cells from normal and Down Syndrome pregnancies using a quantitative cytometry approach. Results revealed the emergence of a population of small sized cells in Down Syndrome derived amniotic fluid cells that are readily visible upon microscopic inspection. Hence, the fluorescence–based quantitative image cytometry determinations showed a tendency of decrease in both cell and nuclei size in trisomy, with no significant modification in nuclei circularity, as measured following actin cytoskeleton and nuclei labeling. The propensity of Ki67 positive cells was found to be increased in Down Syndrome derived cells (48.92% as compared to normal specimens (28.68%. However, cells in S and G2/M cell cycle phases decreased from 32.91% to 4.49% in diseased cells. Further studies are devoted to understanding the molecular basis of the observed differences in the proliferation ability of Down Syndrome amniotic cells, in order to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of amniotic fluid stem cells for tissue regeneration in subjects with trisomy and to find correlations between amniotic cells phenotype and patient prognosis.

  16. NASA Applications and Lessons Learned in Reliability Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safie, Fayssal M.; Fuller, Raymond P.

    2011-01-01

    Since the Shuttle Challenger accident in 1986, communities across NASA have been developing and extensively using quantitative reliability and risk assessment methods in their decision making process. This paper discusses several reliability engineering applications that NASA has used over the year to support the design, development, and operation of critical space flight hardware. Specifically, the paper discusses several reliability engineering applications used by NASA in areas such as risk management, inspection policies, components upgrades, reliability growth, integrated failure analysis, and physics based probabilistic engineering analysis. In each of these areas, the paper provides a brief discussion of a case study to demonstrate the value added and the criticality of reliability engineering in supporting NASA project and program decisions to fly safely. Examples of these case studies discussed are reliability based life limit extension of Shuttle Space Main Engine (SSME) hardware, Reliability based inspection policies for Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) turbine disc, probabilistic structural engineering analysis for reliability prediction of the SSME alternate turbo-pump development, impact of ET foam reliability on the Space Shuttle System risk, and reliability based Space Shuttle upgrade for safety. Special attention is given in this paper to the physics based probabilistic engineering analysis applications and their critical role in evaluating the reliability of NASA development hardware including their potential use in a research and technology development environment.

  17. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  18. Preliminary investigation on reliability assessment of passive safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Changfan; Kuang Bo

    2012-01-01

    The reliability evaluation of passive safety system plays an important part in probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) of nuclear power plant applying passive safety design, which depends quantitatively on reliabilities of passive safety system. According to the object of reliability assessment of passive safety system, relevant parameters are identified. Then passive system behavior during accident scenarios are studied. A practical example of this method is given for the case of reliability assessment of AP1000 passive heat removal system in loss of normal feedwater accident. Key and design parameters of PRHRS are identified and functional failure criteria are established. Parameter combinations acquired by Latin hyper~ cube sampling (LHS) in possible parametric ranges are input and calculations of uncertainty propagation through RELAP5/MOD3 code are carried out. Based on the calculations, sensitivity assessment on PRHRS functional criteria and reliability evaluation of the system are presented, which might provide further PSA with PRHR system reliability. (authors)

  19. Reliability and Rankings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.Y. Lam (Kar Yin)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractQuestionnaires are an important way to gather information about large populations for both qualitative and quantitative research. Hence, the value of a good questionnaire design and the quality of questionnaire data cannot be emphasized enough. This thesis discusses some aspects of the

  20. Brexit, Euratom and nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soedersten, Anna

    2016-01-01

    One of the issues absent from the academic (and public) debate on the United Kingdom's (UK) referendum vote to withdraw from the European Union (EU) (commonly referred to as 'Brexit') is what will happen to the UK's membership in the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). The Euratom Treaty was signed in Rome in 1957, together with the European Economic Community (EEC) Treaty. It was concluded for an unlimited period and it establishes a Community that has a separate legal personality from the EU. Thus, the EU and Euratom form two separate, although closely linked entities. Euratom's principal mission is related to the economy, tasked with 'creating the conditions necessary for the speedy establishment and growth of nuclear industries'; in other words, to promote the nuclear industry. This reflects the high expectations for nuclear energy in the 1950's. Some even believed that the development of nuclear energy would trigger an industrial revolution; however, Euratom only came to play a minor role in the European integration process. Despite this, the Euratom Treaty has remained, almost unchanged, since its adoption and is still frequently applied, although it is unclear to what extent it has boosted the nuclear industry. This article has a two-fold purpose. The first purpose is to address the constitutional issue of 'partial membership'. All EU member states are also members of Euratom. It has always been assumed that with membership in the EU also comes a membership in Euratom. But, what about withdrawal? What are the arguments for 'partial membership'? The second purpose of this article is to shed light on some implications of Brexit as it relates to Euratom. The most serious consequences are perhaps found in the area of nuclear non-proliferation. The United Kingdom is one of two nuclear weapon states in the EU (France being the other one). Withdrawal from Euratom means withdrawal from its control system, the system of so-called nuclear safeguards. Under

  1. Proliferation after the Iraq war; La proliferation apres la guerre d'Irak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daguzan, J.F

    2004-09-15

    This article uses the Iraq war major event to analyze the approach used by the US to fight against proliferation. It questions the decision and analysis process which has led to the US-British intervention and analyzes the consequences of the war on the proliferation of other countries and on the expected perspectives. Finally, the future of proliferation itself is questioned: do we have to fear more threat or is the virtuous circle of non-proliferation well started? (J.S.)

  2. Modulation of P1798 lymphosarcoma proliferation by protein phosphorylation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michnoff, C.A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of protein kinases in modulating cell proliferation was examined. Studies characterized the regulation of cell proliferation by adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (cA-Pk). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was isolated and examined as a potential substrate regulated by cA-PK in the rapidly proliferating P1798 lymphosarcoma. Modulation of cell proliferation by cA-PK was characterized by quantitating cell division by [methyl- 3 H] thymidine ([ 3 H]-dT) incorporation into DNA, cAMP accumulations, and activation of cA-PK using P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. Epinephrine and prostaglandin E 1 (PGE 1 ) were demonstrated to suppress [ 3 H]-dT incorporation into DNA, to stimulate cAMP accumulation, and to activate cA-PK with dose-dependency. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent MLCK was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. P1798 MLCK phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chains (P-LC) from thymus, cardiac and skeletal muscles. One mol [ 32 Pi] was transferred into one mol cardiac or skeletal P-LC by P1798 MLCK. Apparent Km values of 65 μM and 51 μM were determined for ATP and cardiac P-LC, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of P1798 MLCK was 135,000. P1798 MLCK was phosphorylated by cA-PK. Phosphorylated MLCK showed a 41% decrease in calcium-dependent activity. Two additional protein kinases from P1798 lymphosarcoma phosphorylated cardiac and skeletal light chains

  3. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  4. Reliability: How much is it worth? Beyond its estimation or prediction, the (net) present value of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we link an engineering concept, reliability, to a financial and managerial concept, net present value, by exploring the impact of a system's reliability on its revenue generation capability. The framework here developed for non-repairable systems quantitatively captures the value of reliability from a financial standpoint. We show that traditional present value calculations of engineering systems do not account for system reliability, thus over-estimate a system's worth and can therefore lead to flawed investment decisions. It is therefore important to involve reliability engineers upfront before investment decisions are made in technical systems. In addition, the analyses here developed help designers identify the optimal level of reliability that maximizes a system's net present value-the financial value reliability provides to the system minus the cost to achieve this level of reliability. Although we recognize that there are numerous considerations driving the specification of an engineering system's reliability, we contend that the financial analysis of reliability here developed should be made available to decision-makers to support in part, or at least be factored into, the system reliability specification

  5. Methods for Quantitative Creatinine Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John F; Sharer, J Daniel

    2017-04-06

    Reliable measurement of creatinine is necessary to assess kidney function, and also to quantitate drug levels and diagnostic compounds in urine samples. The most commonly used methods are based on the Jaffe principal of alkaline creatinine-picric acid complex color formation. However, other compounds commonly found in serum and urine may interfere with Jaffe creatinine measurements. Therefore, many laboratories have made modifications to the basic method to remove or account for these interfering substances. This appendix will summarize the basic Jaffe method, as well as a modified, automated version. Also described is a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method that separates creatinine from contaminants prior to direct quantification by UV absorption. Lastly, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method is described that uses stable isotope dilution to reliably quantify creatinine in any sample. This last approach has been recommended by experts in the field as a means to standardize all quantitative creatinine methods against an accepted reference. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  7. The challenges of nuclear proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guelte, Georges

    2015-01-01

    The author of this article first outlines that the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a tool of domination used by nuclear powers: they can keep and even develop their own nuclear arsenal, while other countries who sign this treaty commit themselves not to try to acquire nuclear weapons. The USA and USSR kept on persuading various countries to sign this treaty, but eventually let some countries develop their military nuclear programme (Israel, Pakistan, or India). He evokes technical difficulties in the application of the Treaty, notably for the control of centrifugation activities. He outlines that the USA have now a dominant position with respect to this Treaty and its application, but that the Treaty remains a major safety element for the world. He evokes more recent and negative evolutions: the withdrawal of North Korea from the Treaty, the destruction of an Iraqi nuclear reactor by Israel (i.e. the destruction of a nuclear installation belonging to a country who signed the NPT by a country who did not sign it). He proposes an overview of the Iranian issue (history of the Iranian nuclear programme, of the nuclear crisis, of the still going on negotiations), and describes what could be the worst possible scenario

  8. North Korea: a mercenary proliferator?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Remy

    2015-01-01

    After having recalled that North Korea possesses a rather advanced ballistic programme which has been started in the 1970 with the Chinese support, that North Korea is the fourth world producer of ballistic missiles, the author outlines that this country has become a major proliferator as it exports this production to different States and non-State actors. He recalls the long history of relationships between North Korea and terrorist organisations (even during the Cold War), comments the current and major support of North Korea to Hamas and Hezbollah in Gaza and in Lebanon. These relationships are then related with those these both organisations have with Syria and Iran who are in fact the relays between them and North Korea. The author explains why Hamas and Hezbollah must buy their weapons to such a far country: Iran is submitted to international sanctions, Iran and Syria want to avoid being banned from the international community for selling weapon to a terrorist (or so-said) organisation, and prices are rather competitive. If North Korea is also submitted to international sanctions, weapon smuggling seems to be institutional in this country. The author finally briefly evokes the issue of chemical weapons: North Korea possesses few thousand tonnes of these weapons, and could export them to non-state organisations

  9. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1995-11-17

    This is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The views represented are those of the author`s. Essay topics include: Nuclear Proliferation: Myth and Reality; Problems of Enforcing Compliance with Arms Control Agreements; The Unreliability of the Russian Officer Corps: Reluctant Domestic Warriors; and Russia`s Nuclear Legacy.

  10. Proliferation resistance of small modular reactors fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polidoro, F.; Parozzi, F. [RSE - Ricerca sul Sistema Energetico,Via Rubattino 54, 20134, Milano (Italy); Fassnacht, F.; Kuett, M.; Englert, M. [IANUS, Darmstadt University of Technology, Alexanderstr. 35, D-64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    In this paper the proliferation resistance of different types of Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) has been examined and classified with criteria available in the literature. In the first part of the study, the level of proliferation attractiveness of traditional low-enriched UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels to be used in SMRs based on pressurized water technology has been analyzed. On the basis of numerical simulations both cores show significant proliferation risks. Although the MOX core is less proliferation prone in comparison to the UO{sub 2} core, it still can be highly attractive for diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material. In the second part of the paper, calculations to assess the proliferation attractiveness of fuel in typical small sodium cooled fast reactor show that proliferation risks from spent fuel cannot be neglected. The core contains a highly attractive plutonium composition during the whole life cycle. Despite some aspects of the design like the sealed core that enables easy detection of unauthorized withdrawal of fissile material and enhances proliferation resistance, in case of open Non-Proliferation Treaty break-out, weapon-grade plutonium in sufficient quantities could be extracted from the reactor core.

  11. The contribution of instrumentation and control software to system reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    Advanced instrumentation and control systems are usually implemented using computers that monitor the instrumentation and issue commands to control elements. The control commands are based on instrument readings and software control logic. The reliability of the total system will be affected by the software design. When comparing software designs, an evaluation of how each design can contribute to the reliability of the system is desirable. Unfortunately, the science of reliability assessment of combined hardware and software systems is in its infancy. Reliability assessment of combined hardware/software systems is often based on over-simplified assumptions about software behavior. A new method of reliability assessment of combined software/hardware systems is presented. The method is based on a procedure called fault tree analysis which determines how component failures can contribute to system failure. Fault tree analysis is a well developed method for reliability assessment of hardware systems and produces quantitative estimates of failure probability based on component failure rates. It is shown how software control logic can be mapped into a fault tree that depicts both software and hardware contributions to system failure. The new method is important because it provides a way for quantitatively evaluating the reliability contribution of software designs. In many applications, this can help guide designers in producing safer and more reliable systems. An application to the nuclear power research industry is discussed

  12. Optimization method for quantitative calculation of clay minerals in soil

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    However, no reliable method for quantitative analysis of clay minerals has been established so far. In this study, an attempt was made to propose an optimization method for the quantitative ... 2. Basic principles. The mineralogical constitution of soil is rather complex. ... K2O, MgO, and TFe as variables for the calculation.

  13. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  14. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  15. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  16. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  17. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  18. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  19. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  20. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  1. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  2. Considerations on the elements of quantifying human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straeter, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a contribution for the discussion of what the term 'data' means and how the qualitative perspective can be linked with the quantitative one. It will argue that the terms 'quantitative data' and 'qualitative data' are not distinct but a continuum that spans over the entire spectrum of the expertise that has to be involved in the HRA process. It elaborates the rational behind any human reliability quantification figure and suggests a scientific way forward to better data for human reliability assessment

  3. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  4. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  5. The value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Yang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the value of ultrasound contrast for assessing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as angiogenesis in lesions of in patients with gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 39 patients with gastric cancer and 48 patients with gastric ulcer who were treated in our hospital between August 2012 and May 2016 were included in gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group respectively, and 50 healthy subjects who accepted gastroscopy in our hospital during the same period were included in normal control group. The day after admission, color Doppler diasonograph was used to test the gastric ultrasound contrast parameters; fluorescence quantitative PCR method was used to detect the proliferation and invasion gene mRNA expression in stomach tissue; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect the serum angiogenesis index levels. Results: Ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group and gastric ulcer group were significantly lower than those of normal control group, and ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels of gastric cancer group were significantly lower than those of gastric ulcer group; Stat3, Survivin, Bcl-2, 毬-catenin, eIF4E, CD44, UHRF1 and c-met mRNA expression in tissue as well as VEGF, EGFR, HIF-毩 and Ang-2 levels in serum of gastric cancer group were higher than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group while E-cadherin mRNA expression in tissue was lower than those of gastric ulcer group and normal control group; Spearman correlation analysis showed that ultrasound contrast parameters ET and TTP levels were correlated with the cancer cell proliferation and invasion function as well as angiogenesis indexes in lesions. Conclusion: Ultrasound contrast parameters can accurately assess the malignant degree of gastric cancer, and is expected to become the reliable means for early diagnosis and treatment guidance of gastric cancer in the future.

  6. Environmental effects of additional uranium development required by a non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baca, T.E.; Scudella, G.

    1978-01-01

    New Mexico can expect to see an accelerated development of its uranium resources. The President's policy on non-proliferation will impact the degree and quantity of uranium ore mined. Environmental impacts are significant and are affected by the mining and milling phase more than any other aspect of the uranium fuel cycle. The state has begun evaluating the resource-associated impacts of uranium mining and milling, although very little reliable data are available. The information gathered, however, shows a need for state and Federal evaluation of both the impacts and the non-proliferation policy. 4 references

  7. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  8. The non-proliferation experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannon, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    On September 22, 1993, the Department of Energy detonated more than 1.2 million kg of blasting agent in a tunnel in Rainier Mesa at the Nevada Test Site. The resulting explosion generated seismic, electromagnetic, and air pressure signals that were recorded on instruments deployed at distances ranging from a few meters to hundreds and, in some cases, thousands of kilometers. More than 12 organizations made measurements before, during, and after the explosions. The explosion and its associated experiments are known as the Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE). Analyses of the measurements made during the NPE and comparisons with similar measurements made on previous nearly nuclear explosions and on a co-located smaller explosion detonated at the same site are providing basic phenomenological insights into what is potentially one of the comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)-distinguishing between nuclear explosions and some of the many conventional explosions that occur each year. The NPE is also providing information on the use of chemical explosions to develop empirical discriminants in regions where no nuclear explosions have been recorded. In another verification application, several NPE projects are examining the utility of on-site, pre-shot, shot-time, and post-shot measurements of gas seepage, seismic activity, and other observables as a means of identifying the source of signals that appear like nuclear explosions at regional distances. Two related activities are being considered. First, challenge on-site inspections, conducted after an event has occurred, may be able to use the characteristics of phenomena that persist after the explosion to detect and identify the source of the signals that appeared ambiguous or explosion-like to remote sensors. Second, cooperative, on-site measurements made at the time of a pre-nounced conventional explosion may provide assurance that a nuclear explosion did not occur as part of or in place of the pre-announced explosion.

  9. Rigour in quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  10. Quantitation: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Single photon emission tomography may be used quantitatively if its limitations are recognized and quantitation is made in relation to some reference area on the image. Relative quantitation is discussed in outline in relation to the liver, brain and pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, and heart. (U.K.)

  11. Reprodutibilidade de questionário semiquantitativo de freqüência alimentar elaborado para adolescentes da Região Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil Reliability of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire designed for adolescents from the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Campos Araújo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A reprodutibilidade de questionário semiquantitativo de freqüência alimentar (QSFA para adolescentes do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foi analisada entre 108 adolescentes. O intervalo médio entre as duas aplicações do QSFA foi de vinte dias. A lista de alimentos e as porções de referência do QSFA basearam-se em dados de registros alimentares de 430 adolescentes. Estimaram-se coeficientes de correlação intraclasse para itens alimentares e coeficientes de correlação de Pearson para nutrientes. A concordância da classificação em quartis para nutrientes foi estimada pelo kappa ponderado. O método de Bland-Altman avaliou a concordância para nutrientes. Apresentaram-se dados brutos e ajustados pela energia. Para os itens alimentares, a média dos coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foi 0,54. Para dados ajustados, a concordância para o mesmo quartil e quartis adjacentes variou de 72% a 86%. Segundo o método de Bland-Altman, a concordância média variou de 77% a 104% e foram independentes da magnitude do consumo, exceto para vitamina A. Os coeficientes de correlação de Pearson variaram de 0,40 a 0,61. O QSFA demonstrou confiabilidade aceitável para as estimativas de alimentos e nutrientes de adolescentes da área considerada.A test-retest study was carried out to assess the reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ designed for adolescents. The study group included 108 individuals. The mean interval between the two interviews was 20 days. Three days of food records from 430 adolescents were used to define the items and portions in the SFFQ. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC were estimated to assess the agreement in food item reports. The agreement for energy and nutrient intake was assessed by Pearson's correlation coefficients, weighted kappa (agreement in quartile classification, and the Bland-Altman method. Data for nutrients were adjusted according to energy intake. Mean ICC was 0.54. The

  12. Framework of Comprehensive Proliferation Resistance Evaluation Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Su; Jo, Seong Youn; Kim, Min Soo; Kim, Jae San; Lee, Hyun Kyung

    2007-01-01

    Civilian nuclear programs can be used as a pretext to acquire technologies, materials, equipment for military weapon programs. Consequently, international society has a strong incentive to develop a nuclear system more proliferation resistant to assure that the civilian nuclear energy system is an unattractive and least desirable route for diversion of weapon usable material. The First step developing a more proliferation resistant nuclear energy system is to develop a systematic and standardized evaluation methodology to ensure that any future nuclear energy system satisfies the proliferation resistance goals. Many attempts to develop systematic evaluation methodology have been proposed and many systems for assessing proliferation resistance have been previously studied. However, a comprehensive proliferation resistance evaluation can not be achieved by simply applying one method since complicated proliferation resistance characteristics, including inherent features and extrinsic features, should be completely evaluated. Therefore, it is necessary to develop one incorporated evaluation methodology to make up for weak points of each evaluation method. The objective of this study is to provide a framework of comprehensive proliferation resistance evaluation methodology by incorporating two generally used evaluation methods, attribute and scenario analysis

  13. Nuclear proliferation: prospects, problems, and proposals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    This issue of the ANNALS addresses itself to three aspects of nuclear proliferation: the prospect that new nuclear powers will come on the scene, the problems that their arrival may create, and ways of coping with those problems. In an introductory paper, ''Quo Vadimus,'' Joseph I. Coffey investigates the pros and cons of proliferation, concluding that it is not a question of whether there will be nuclear proliferation, but in what countries. Part I, Where We Are, contains five papers preceded by introductory comments by Joseph I. Coffey. The papers and their authors are: Why States Go--and Don't Go--Nuclear, William Epstein; How States Can ''Go Nuclear,'' Frank C. Barnaby; What Happens If. . .Terrorists, Revolutionaries, and Nuclear Weapons, David Kreiger; Safeguards Against Diversion of Nuclear Material: An Overview, Ryukichi Imai; and Reducing the Incentives to Proliferation, George H. Quester. Part II, And Where We May Go, again includes some introductory remarks by Joseph I. Coffey. The seven succeeding papers are: Nth Powers of the Future, Ashok Kapur; Nuclear Proliferation and World Politics, Lewis A. Dunn; Arms Control in a Nuclear Armed World, Colin Gray; The United Nations, the Superpowers, and Proliferation, Abraham Bargman; Proliferation and the Future: Destruction or Transformation, Frederick C. Thayer; Decision Making in a Nuclear Armed World, Michael Brenner; and The United States in a World of Nuclear Powers, Michael Nacht. This special report is concluded with a glossary

  14. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, M.

    2010-01-01

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  15. Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanja Dakic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Harmine is the β-carboline alkaloid with the highest concentration in the psychotropic plant decoction Ayahuasca. In rodents, classical antidepressants reverse the symptoms of depression by stimulating neuronal proliferation. It has been shown that Ayahuasca presents antidepressant effects in patients with depressive disorder. In the present study, we investigated the effects of harmine in cell cultures containing human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs, 97% nestin-positive derived from pluripotent stem cells. After 4 days of treatment, the pool of proliferating hNPCs increased by 71.5%. Harmine has been reported as a potent inhibitor of the dual specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation-regulated kinase (DYRK1A, which regulates cell proliferation and brain development. We tested the effect of analogs of harmine, an inhibitor of DYRK1A (INDY, and an irreversible selective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase (MAO but not DYRK1A (pargyline. INDY but not pargyline induced proliferation of hNPCs similarly to harmine, suggesting that inhibition of DYRK1A is a possible mechanism to explain harmine effects upon the proliferation of hNPCs. Our findings show that harmine enhances proliferation of hNPCs and suggest that inhibition of DYRK1A may explain its effects upon proliferation in vitro and antidepressant effects in vivo.

  16. System evaluations by means of reliability analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiling, G.

    1976-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show which analysis requirements are associated with the claim that a reliability analysis, as practised at present, can provide a quantitative risk assessment in absolute terms. The question arises of whether this claim can be substantiated without direct access to the specialist technical departments of a manufacturer and to the multifarious detail information available in these departments. The individual problems arising in the course of such an analysis are discussed on the example of a reliability analysis of a core flooding system. The questions discussed relate to analysis organisation, sequence analysis, fault-tree analysis, and the treatment of operational processes superimposed on the failure and repair processes. (orig.) [de

  17. Reliability assessment using Bayesian networks. Case study on quantative reliability estimation of a software-based motor protection relay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helminen, A.; Pulkkinen, U.

    2003-06-01

    In this report a quantitative reliability assessment of motor protection relay SPAM 150 C has been carried out. The assessment focuses to the methodological analysis of the quantitative reliability assessment using the software-based motor protection relay as a case study. The assessment method is based on Bayesian networks and tries to take the full advantage of the previous work done in a project called Programmable Automation System Safety Integrity assessment (PASSI). From the results and experiences achieved during the work it is justified to claim that the assessment method presented in the work enables a flexible use of qualitative and quantitative elements of reliability related evidence in a single reliability assessment. At the same time the assessment method is a concurrent way of reasoning one's beliefs and references about the reliability of the system. Full advantage of the assessment method is taken when using the method as a way to cultivate the information related to the reliability of software-based systems. The method can also be used as a communicational instrument in a licensing process of software-based systems. (orig.)

  18. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period

  19. 1,8-cineole inhibits both proliferation and elongation of BY-2 cultured tobacco cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Hiroko; Sawai, Yu; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Sakai, Atsushi

    2011-03-01

    Volatile monoterpenes such as 1,8-cineole inhibit the growth of Brassica campestris seedlings in a dose-dependent manner, and the growth-inhibitory effects are more severe for roots than hypocotyls. The preferential inhibition of root growth may be explained if the compounds inhibit cell proliferation more severely than cell elongation because root growth requires both elongation and proliferation of the constituent cells, whereas hypocotyl growth depends exclusively on elongation of existing cells. In order to examine this possibility, BY-2 suspension-cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were treated with 1,8-cineole, and the inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and on cell elongation were assessed quantitatively. Treatment with 1,8-cineole lowered both the mitotic index and elongation of the cells in a dose-dependent manner, and the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) for cell elongation was lower than that for cell proliferation. Moreover, 1,8-cineole also inhibited starch synthesis, with IC₅₀ lower than that for cell proliferation. Thus, the inhibitory effects of 1,8-cineole were not specific to cell proliferation; rather, 1,8-cineole seemed inhibitory to a variety of physiological activities when it was in direct contact with target cells. Based on these results, possible mechanisms for the mode of action of 1,8-cineole and for its preferential inhibition on root growth are discussed.

  20. Non-proliferation and multinational enterprises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The paper supplements CC/WG.2/9 in presenting the Japanese delegation's contribution in the areas of non-proliferation and multi-national enterprises. The paper questions whether multinational enrichment enterprises would constitute a significant non-proliferation factor, noting that the nature of the venture might create a potential for the dissemination of sensitive information. The paper also argues that a multi-national venture which was not economically competitive (with national facilities) would have questionable viability. The conclusion is that non-proliferation advantages, if any, would be a result, not an objective of such a venture

  1. Comparative analysis of proliferation resistance assessment methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takaki, Naoyuki; Kikuchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Naoko; Osabe, Takeshi

    2005-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the methodologies was performed based on the discussions in the international workshop on 'Assessment Methodology of Proliferation Resistance for Future Nuclear Energy Systems' held in Tokyo, on March 2005. Through the workshop and succeeding considerations, it is clarified that the proliferation resistance assessment methodologies are affected by the broader nuclear options being pursued and also by the political situations of the state. Even the definition of proliferation resistance, despite the commonality of fundamental issues, derives from perceived threat and implementation circumstances inherent to the larger programs. Deep recognitions of the 'difference' among communities would help us to make further essential and progressed discussion with harmonization. (author)

  2. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  3. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  4. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  5. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  6. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  7. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  8. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  9. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-05-01

    Canada's non-proliferation safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to ensure that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the Non-Proliferation Treaty, promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, treating nuclear weapon and non-weapon states alike, and working for new approaches covering reprocessing, Canada promotes attainment of the first objective. The second is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its partners. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums is to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers may subsume their national requirements

  10. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok.

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs

  11. Nuclear experts and nuclear weapons proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1979-01-01

    In Germany the issue of nuclear weapons proliferation has attracted scant attention. Most potential nuclear weapon states are important trade partners of the FRG and, since further proliferation of nuclear weapons could worsen conflicts involving these, it should be in the FRG's interest to limit proliferation. The security of the FRG is also dependent on the common interest of the great powers to avoid nuclear war. The contradictory positions of Usa and the USSR on nuclear weapons policy regarding themselves and non-nuclear weapon states encourages less developed countries to see nuclear weaponry as useful. The NPT and IAEA safeguards have only limited inhibiting effect. The nuclear export policy of the FRG has been dominated by short term economic advantage, neglecting the negative long term effects of decreased political stability. The FRG should formulate a policy based on self-restraint, positive stimuli and extension of controls, using its economic strength to deter proliferation. (JIW)

  12. Handbook for nuclear non-proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Wook; Oh, Keun Bae; Lee, Kwang Seok; Lee, Dong Jin; Ko, Han Seok

    1997-05-01

    This book analyzed international non-proliferation regime preventing from spread of nuclear weapon. This book took review from the historical background of non-proliferation regime to the recent changes and status. The regime, here, is divided into multilateral and bilateral regime. First of all, this book reports four multilateral treaties concluded for non-proliferation such as NPT, NWFZ, CTBT and others. Secondly, international organization and regimes concerned with non-proliferation are analyzed with emphasis of UN, IAEA, ZC and NSG, Regional Safeguards System and international conference. Finally, this book report the current circumstances of nuclear cooperation agreement related with Korea which is an important means for bilateral regime. (author). 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  14. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  15. The future of non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gere, F.

    2000-01-01

    This paper comprises two parts. The first part makes a status of the non-proliferation policy: problems of ratification of Start 2 and CTBT treaties, nuclear tests in India and Pakistan in May 1998 etc. The second part makes a prospective reflexion on the evolution of the position of nuclearized countries at the 2015-2030 vista: role of Asia, nuclear perception, evolution of the US perception of non-proliferation, military strategy and European unification. (J.S.)

  16. Nuclear power and the proliferation issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.

    1978-02-01

    The purpose of the lecture is to discuss nuclear proliferation, analyse which problems are real and which are a misapprehension, and to suggest a way forward which retains the benefits of nuclear power while providing a more certain protection against undesirable proliferation. After an introductory section the lecture continues under the following headings: plutonium production and accessibility; the use of plutonium; fast reactor fuel; the interim period; conclusions. (U.K.)

  17. Panel on nuclear export and proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimel, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of six panelists' remarks make the following points: one cannot suppress nuclear weapons by suppressing nuclear power; a proliferated world would be extremely dangerous; US supports IAEA safeguards; plutonium shouldn't be recycled in power reactors; and the problem of nonproliferation is a social and institutional problem, not a technological one. Viewographs showing the semantics of proliferation, ways to get nuclear weapons materials, etc. are included

  18. Energy efficiency and proliferation assessment factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    The objective of INFCE is to evaluate the nuclear fuel cycles from the point of view of their ability to satisfy the worldwide nuclear energy needs, while minimizing the proliferation risks. Accordingly, the different working groups have to take into consideration as well the energy-efficiency and the proliferation-resistance of these nuclear fuel cycles. The present working paper is aimed at suggesting the main assessment factors which should be taken into consideration

  19. Russia and proliferation in Northeast Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    For Russia, security, including non-proliferation, in Northeast Asia means in particular the maintenance of stability. Progress in arms control and non-proliferation may enhance regional stability. A common regional approach is proposed. Russia recognizes the US alliances with Japan and republic of Korea and is searching for a new cooperation framework in the region, namely further development of relations with China and reasonable rapprochement with Japan

  20. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-01-01

    particular, will continue to play a vital role in determining the extent to which Iran is able to pursue WMD options. Without a fundamental change in the regional security environment, however, there is little reason to expect changes in Iranian WMD and missile policies, and the United States, acting alone and short of war, cannot prevent Iran from ultimately developing WMD and delivery systems. Furthermore, U.S. policies that take a tougher line with Russia, China and North Korea are not likely to lead to more restraint among these potential sources of WMD and missile technology. In the absence of engagement with Iran, unilateral U.S. economic sanctions will remain the principal, if flawed, U.S. policy tool for seeking to prevent Iran from acquiring WMD. The rationale is that by discouraging trade and investment, particularly in Iran's energy sector, the government of Iran will have less revenue to pursue proliferation. Without broad international support for economic isolation, however, such an effort may hinder Iran's WMD programs, though it cannot block them. Finally, options are needed to deal with major failures in nonproliferation efforts. These options include measures to deter Iranian use of WMD, to defend against their use if deterrence fails, and to destroy Iranian WMD capabilities should the need arise

  1. Overview of DOE-NE Proliferation and Terrorism Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadasivan, Pratap

    2012-01-01

    Research objectives are: (1) Develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of current reactors; (2) Develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy; (3) Develop Sustainable Nuclear Fuel Cycles; and (4) Understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The goal is to enable the use of risk information to inform NE R and D program planning. The PTRA program supports DOE-NE's goal of using risk information to inform R and D program planning. The FY12 PTRA program is focused on terrorism risk. The program includes a mix of innovative methods that support the general practice of risk assessments, and selected applications.

  2. Strengthening the nuclear non-proliferation regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.

    2003-01-01

    Although the nuclear non-proliferation regime has enjoyed considerable success, today the regime has never been under greater threat. Three states have challenged the objectives of the NPT, and there is a technology challenge - the spread of centrifuge enrichment technology and know-how. A major issue confronting the international community is, how to deal with a determined proliferator? Despite this gloomy scenario, however, the non-proliferation regime has considerable strengths - many of which can be developed further. The regime comprises complex interacting and mutually reinforcing elements. At its centre is the NPT - with IAEA safeguards as the Treaty's verification mechanism. Important complementary elements include: restraint in the supply and the acquisition of sensitive technologies; multilateral regimes such as the CTBT and proposed FMCT; various regional and bilateral regimes; the range of security and arms control arrangements outside the nuclear area (including other WMD regimes); and the development of proliferation-resistant technologies. Especially important are political incentives and sanctions in support of non-proliferation objectives. This paper outlines some of the key issues facing the non-proliferation regime

  3. Supporting non proliferation and global security efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pochon, E.

    2013-01-01

    CEA contributes as a major actor of France's action against nuclear proliferation and to the strengthening of nuclear security at national level as European and International levels, in particular through the support of the IAEA activities in nuclear non proliferation with the French Support Programme for the IAEA safeguards system and security with the contribution to the IAEA Nuclear Security Plan and cooperation projects with the European Commission. The CEA is a French government funded technological research organization, organized around 5 branches: Nuclear Energy, Technological Researches, Defence (DAM), Material Sciences and Life Sciences. Within the scope of its activities, CEA covers most of the research areas and techniques in nuclear non-proliferation and security. The CEA is also the advisor of the French Government on nuclear policy. Treaty monitoring and the development and implementation of non proliferation and global security programs is an important mission of DAM which rely on nuclear weapons manufacture and past testing experience. The programmes on non proliferation and global security carried out to fulfil DAM's mission cover the following areas: development of monitoring and detection methods and equipments, country profiles and nuclear stockpiles assessment, arms control instruments, proliferation resistance of nuclear fuel cycle, monitoring of nuclear tests, operation and maintenance of national detection capabilities and contribution to CTBT verification systems. (A.C.)

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor suppressor in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Haiyang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Shuang; Wang, Xinyi; Wang, Xia; Wang, Cheng; Liu, Bin; Zen, Ke; Zhang, Chen-Yu; Zhang, Chunni; Ba, Yi

    2017-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha plays a crucial role in regulating the biosynthesis of mitochondria, which is closely linked to the energy metabolism in various tumors. This study investigated the regulatory role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the changes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha messenger RNA levels between normal human liver and hepatocellular carcinoma tissue were examined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by RNA interference in the human liver cell line L02, while overexpression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha was conducted by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha complementary DNA in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2. Cellular morphological changes were observed via optical and electron microscopy. Cellular apoptosis was determined by Hoechst 33258 staining. In addition, the expression levels of 21,400 genes in tissues and cells were detected by microarray. It was shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression was significantly downregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with normal liver tissues. After knockdown of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha expression in L02 cells, cells reverted to immature and dedifferentiated morphology exhibiting cancerous tendency. Apoptosis occurred in the HepG2 cells after transfection by adenovirus encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha. Microarray analysis showed consistent results. The results suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha acts as a tumor

  5. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  6. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  7. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  8. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA): a new marker to study human colonic cell proliferation.

    OpenAIRE

    Kubben, F J; Peeters-Haesevoets, A; Engels, L G; Baeten, C G; Schutte, B; Arends, J W; Stockbrügger, R W; Blijham, G H

    1994-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry of the S phase related proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was studied as an alternative to ex-vivo bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry for assessment of human colonic cell proliferation. From 16 subjects without colonic disease biopsy specimens were collected from five different sites along the colorectum and processed for BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The mean proliferation index of PCNA was significantly higher at 133% of the value obtained with B...

  9. Reliability and Validity of Qualitative and Operational Research Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Bashir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Both qualitative and quantitative paradigms try to find the same result; the truth. Qualitative studies are tools used in understanding and describing the world of human experience. Since we maintain our humanity throughout the research process, it is largely impossible to escape the subjective experience, even for the most experienced of researchers. Reliability and Validity are the issue that has been described in great deal by advocates of quantitative researchers. The validity and the norms of rigor that are applied to quantitative research are not entirely applicable to qualitative research. Validity in qualitative research means the extent to which the data is plausible, credible and trustworthy; and thus can be defended when challenged. Reliability and validity remain appropriate concepts for attaining rigor in qualitative research. Qualitative researchers have to salvage responsibility for reliability and validity by implementing verification strategies integral and self-correcting during the conduct of inquiry itself. This ensures the attainment of rigor using strategies inherent within each qualitative design, and moves the responsibility for incorporating and maintaining reliability and validity from external reviewers’ judgments to the investigators themselves. There have different opinions on validity with some suggesting that the concepts of validity is incompatible with qualitative research and should be abandoned while others argue efforts should be made to ensure validity so as to lend credibility to the results. This paper is an attempt to clarify the meaning and use of reliability and validity in the qualitative research paradigm.

  10. Radiation effect on the proliferating capillaries in rat transparent chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaura, H.; Yamada, K.; Matsuzawa, T.

    1976-01-01

    The revascularization of the devascularized area in rat transparent chambers by the proliferating blood vessels was studied quantitatively on the changes of vascularity. On the vascularizing border, a hypervascular zone about 0.5 mm wide was formed. The border advanced constantly at 0.020 cm a day. Vascular density was fixed in the repaired area. The vascular length and repaired area increased in parabolic curves. The chambers were irradiated with single doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 rad of 60 Co γ-rays, and the effects on the advance of the border were examined. With 200 rad and more, significant inhibition, greater with bigger doses, was seen in the advance of the borders. Regression of the borders also occurred. Irradiation with over 1000 rad destroyed the hypervascular zones. (author)

  11. Radiation effect on the proliferating capillaries in rat transparent chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, H; Yamada, K; Matsuzawa, T [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Research Inst. for Tuberculosis, Leprosy and Cancer

    1976-08-01

    The revascularization of the devascularized area in rat transparent chambers by the proliferating blood vessels was studied quantitatively on the changes of vascularity. On the vascularizing border, a hypervascular zone about 0.5 mm wide was formed. The border advanced constantly at 0.020 cm a day. Vascular density was fixed in the repaired area. The vascular length and repaired area increased in parabolic curves. The chambers were irradiated with single doses of 50, 100, 200, 400, 1000, 2000, and 4000 rad of /sup 60/Co ..gamma..-rays, and the effects on the advance of the border were examined. With 200 rad and more, significant inhibition, greater with bigger doses, was seen in the advance of the borders. Regression of the borders also occurred. Irradiation with over 1000 rad destroyed the hypervascular zones.

  12. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  13. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  14. Quantitative Algebraic Reasoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardare, Radu Iulian; Panangaden, Prakash; Plotkin, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    We develop a quantitative analogue of equational reasoning which we call quantitative algebra. We define an equality relation indexed by rationals: a =ε b which we think of as saying that “a is approximately equal to b up to an error of ε”. We have 4 interesting examples where we have a quantitative...... equational theory whose free algebras correspond to well known structures. In each case we have finitary and continuous versions. The four cases are: Hausdorff metrics from quantitive semilattices; pWasserstein metrics (hence also the Kantorovich metric) from barycentric algebras and also from pointed...

  15. Quantitative autoradiography of neurochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, T.C.; Biegon, A.; Bleisch, W.V.

    1982-01-01

    Several new methods have been developed that apply quantitative autoradiography to neurochemistry. These methods are derived from the 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) technique of Sokoloff (1), which uses quantitative autoradiography to measure the rate of glucose utilization in brain structures. The new methods allow the measurement of the rate of cerbral protein synthesis and the levels of particular neurotransmitter receptors by quantitative autoradiography. As with the 2DG method, the new techniques can measure molecular levels in micron-sized brain structures; and can be used in conjunction with computerized systems of image processing. It is possible that many neurochemical measurements could be made by computerized analysis of quantitative autoradiograms

  16. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  17. State of the art report on aging reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Eon; Han, Sang Hoon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2002-03-01

    The goal of this report is to describe the state of the art on aging analysis methods to calculate the effects of component aging quantitatively. In this report, we described some aging analysis methods which calculate the increase of Core Damage Frequency (CDF) due to aging by including the influence of aging into PSA. We also described several research topics required for aging analysis for components of domestic NPPs. We have described a statistical model and reliability physics model which calculate the effect of aging quantitatively by using PSA method. It is expected that the practical use of the reliability-physics model will be increased though the process with the reliability-physics model is more complicated than statistical model

  18. Second annual report on nuclear non-proliferation: supplement to Secretary's Annual Report to Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This document covers: goals of US nonproliferation policy, agreements for cooperation, technical exchange, US as a reliable supplier of nuclear fuels, IAEA Expert Group on International Plutonium Storage, implementation of US nonproliferation policy, classification, cooperation in strengthening international safeguards and physical security, the US-IAEA voluntary offer safeguards agreement, US spent fuel storage policy, development of proliferation-resistant fuel cycle technologies, and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation

  19. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2004-01-01

    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  20. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  1. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  2. Evaluation of the Administration's proposed nuclear non-proliferation strategy. Report to the Congress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Dwindling supplies of fossil fuels are causing countries to turn increasingly to nuclear power as a major source of energy. Although nuclear power holds out the promise of energy independence, it has a formidable drawback--it can also lead to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. In April, the President announced a new policy designed to curb nuclear proliferation and the executive branch proposed legislation entitled 'The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Policy Act of 1977.' The strategy outlined in these documents calls for stricter export controls and safeguards as well as actions affecting uranium enrichment services, reprocessing, storing of spent fuel, and disposing of radioactive nuclear wastes. GAO analyzed this non-proliferation strategy as it relates to: Improving nuclear export controls; Strengthening international nuclear safeguards; Maintaining U.S. reliability as a supplier of uranium enrichment services; Deferring U.S. reprocessing of spent fuel as an example for others; Reducing risk of proliferation by controlling spent reactor fuel. In general, GAO concluded that the administration's strategy is constructive but noted some weaknesses which should be addressed. Some of the problems noted in this report may already have been addressed by congressional committees in their markup of the legislation

  3. Estimation of structural reliability under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinozuka, M.; Kako, T.; Hwang, H.; Brown, P.; Reich, M.

    1983-01-01

    For the overall safety evaluation of seismic category I structures subjected to various load combinations, a quantitative measure of the structural reliability in terms of a limit state probability can be conveniently used. For this purpose, the reliability analysis method for dynamic loads, which has recently been developed by the authors, was combined with the existing standard reliability analysis procedure for static and quasi-static loads. The significant parameters that enter into the analysis are: the rate at which each load (dead load, accidental internal pressure, earthquake, etc.) will occur, its duration and intensity. All these parameters are basically random variables for most of the loads to be considered. For dynamic loads, the overall intensity is usually characterized not only by their dynamic components but also by their static components. The structure considered in the present paper is a reinforced concrete containment structure subjected to various static and dynamic loads such as dead loads, accidental pressure, earthquake acceleration, etc. Computations are performed to evaluate the limit state probabilities under each load combination separately and also under all possible combinations of such loads

  4. Stochastic models in reliability and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Our daily lives can be maintained by the high-technology systems. Computer systems are typical examples of such systems. We can enjoy our modern lives by using many computer systems. Much more importantly, we have to maintain such systems without failure, but cannot predict when such systems will fail and how to fix such systems without delay. A stochastic process is a set of outcomes of a random experiment indexed by time, and is one of the key tools needed to analyze the future behavior quantitatively. Reliability and maintainability technologies are of great interest and importance to the maintenance of such systems. Many mathematical models have been and will be proposed to describe reliability and maintainability systems by using the stochastic processes. The theme of this book is "Stochastic Models in Reliability and Main­ tainability. " This book consists of 12 chapters on the theme above from the different viewpoints of stochastic modeling. Chapter 1 is devoted to "Renewal Processes," under which cla...

  5. Data Used in Quantified Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, Diana; Kleinhammer, Roger K.; Kahn, C. J.

    2014-01-01

    Data is the crux to developing quantitative risk and reliability models, without the data there is no quantification. The means to find and identify reliability data or failure numbers to quantify fault tree models during conceptual and design phases is often the quagmire that precludes early decision makers consideration of potential risk drivers that will influence design. The analyst tasked with addressing a system or product reliability depends on the availability of data. But, where is does that data come from and what does it really apply to? Commercial industries, government agencies, and other international sources might have available data similar to what you are looking for. In general, internal and external technical reports and data based on similar and dissimilar equipment is often the first and only place checked. A common philosophy is "I have a number - that is good enough". But, is it? Have you ever considered the difference in reported data from various federal datasets and technical reports when compared to similar sources from national and/or international datasets? Just how well does your data compare? Understanding how the reported data was derived, and interpreting the information and details associated with the data is as important as the data itself.

  6. Quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, J.; Charon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Concern for obtaining high-quality products which will function properly when required to do so is nothing new - it is one manifestation of a conscientious attitude to work. However, the complexity and cost of equipment and the consequences of even temporary immobilization are such that it has become necessary to make special arrangements for obtaining high-quality products and examining what one has obtained. Each unit within an enterprise must examine its own work or arrange for it to be examined; a unit whose specific task is quality assurance is responsible for overall checking, but does not relieve other units of their responsibility. Quality assurance is a form of mutual assistance within an enterprise, designed to remove the causes of faults as far as possible. It begins very early in a project and continues through the ordering stage, construction, start-up trials and operation. Quality and hence reliability are the direct result of what is done at all stages of a project. They depend on constant attention to detail, for even a minor piece of poor workmanship can, in the case of an essential item of equipment, give rise to serious operational difficulties

  7. Model-Based Calculations of the Probability of a Country's Nuclear Proliferation Decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun; Yim, Man-Sung; McNelis, David N.

    2007-01-01

    The first nuclear weapon was detonated in August 1945 over Japan to end World War II. During the past six decades, the majority of the world's countries have abstained from acquiring nuclear weapons. However, a number of countries have explored the nuclear weapons option, 23 in all. Among them, 14 countries have dropped their interest in nuclear weapons after initiating some efforts. And nine of them today possess nuclear weapons. These countries include the five nuclear weapons states - U.S., Russia, U.K., France, and China - and the four non- NPT member states - Israel, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Many of these countries initially used civilian nuclear power technology development as a basis or cover for their military program. Recent proliferation incidents in Iraq, Iran, and North Korea brought the world together to pay much attention to nuclear nonproliferation. With the expected surge in the use of nuclear energy for power generation by developing countries, the world's nuclear nonproliferation regime needs to be better prepared for potential future challenges. For the world's nuclear nonproliferation regime to effectively cope with any future proliferation attempts, early detection of potentially proliferation-related activities is highly desirable. Early detection allows the international community to respond and take necessary actions - ideally using political and diplomatic influences without resorting to harsh measures such as sanctions or military actions. In this regard, a capability to quantitatively predict the chance of a country's nuclear proliferation intent or activities is of significant interest. There have been various efforts in the research community to understand the determinants of nuclear proliferation and develop quantitative tools to predict nuclear proliferation events. These efforts have shown that information about the political issues surrounding a country's security along with economic development data can be useful to

  8. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  9. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...... identification. Application of the proposed method can be found in many real world systems....

  10. Niclosamide suppresses hepatoma cell proliferation via the Wnt pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomizawa M

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Minoru Tomizawa,1 Fuminobu Shinozaki,2 Yasufumi Motoyoshi,3 Takao Sugiyama,4 Shigenori Yamamoto,5 Makoto Sueishi,4 Takanobu Yoshida6 1Department of Gastroenterology, 2Department of Radiology, 3Department of Neurology, 4Department of Rheumatology, 5Department of Pediatrics, 6Department of Internal Medicine, National Hospital Organization Shimoshizu Hospital, Yotsukaido City, Chiba, Japan Background: The Wnt pathway plays an important role in hepatocarcinogenesis. We analyzed the association of the Wnt pathway with the proliferation of hepatoma cells using Wnt3a and niclosamide, a drug used to treat tapeworm infection. Methods: We performed an MTS assay to determine whether Wnt3a stimulated proliferation of Huh-6 and Hep3B human hepatoma cell lines after 72 hours of incubation with Wnt3a in serum-free medium. The cells were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL after 48 hours of incubation. RNA was isolated 48 hours after addition of Wnt3a or niclosamide, and cyclin D1 expression levels were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The promoter activity of T-cell factor was analyzed by luciferase assay 48 hours after transfection of TOPflash. Western blot analysis was performed with antibodies against β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1. Results: Cell proliferation increased with Wnt3a. Niclosamide suppressed proliferation with or without Wnt3a. Hematoxylin and eosin and TUNEL staining suggested that apoptosis occurred in cells with niclosamide. Cyclin D1 was upregulated in the presence of Wnt3a and downregulated with addition of niclosamide. The promoter activity of T-cell factor increased with Wnt3a, whereas T-cell factor promoter activity decreased with niclosamide. Western blot analysis showed that Wnt3a upregulated β-catenin, dishevelled 2, and cyclin D1, while niclosamide downregulated them. Conclusion: Niclosamide is a potential

  11. Teleconference highlights-NE-NA proliferation resistance review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Herczeg gave a readout from the kickoff meeting with Paul Lisowski - namely develop a common definition of proliferation resistance (for use by S-1, other upper management, public affairs, etc.), and to evaluate possible framework where a metric could be assigned for fuel cycle comparisons (integral, easy to communicate). Sprinkle raised concern about 'trivializing' notion of proliferation resistance (PR), with idea of making sure we don't lose the concept that strong safeguards and security are required within a nonproliferation framework that support U.S. policy goals. Integrated Safeguards by Design notion was brought up in this context. Round table discussion of the term PR, its misuse (even unintentional), fact that Chu is using term and apparently in context of proliferation proof. It was noted that there has been much work already done in this area and we should not reinvent the wheel. One of the first tasks needs to be gathering up old reports (TOPS, Como, PRPP, etc) and distributing to group (action item for all). It was also noted that there are multiple definitions of PR, including the recent NPIA, supporting the need for this type of activity. Miller described the current work package under AFCI, with $50k of funding from the campaign management account. Herczeg asked about additional funds should it become clear that a larger effort is required (tension between current program and getting something out relatively soon). Goldner to look into potential additional funds. Miller notes that within current work package, easy to engage LANL participants and that Per Peterson can participate under UCB funding (a new center is being established with UC fee awards from LANL and LLNL - the Berkeley Nuclear Research Center). Consensus that Per would be a good external member of the group. Sprinkle notes that held like to coordinate the NE and NA work packages. Miller and Sprinkle to work offline. Wallace talked about the possibility of being more quantitative in

  12. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan [Department of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology and Tumor Biology, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhai, Suodi [Departmentof Pharmacy, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Hua, E-mail: huali88@sina.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Min, E-mail: yemin@bjmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China); Du, Quan, E-mail: quan.du@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Peking University Third Hospital, Peking University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  13. tRNA modification profiles of the fast-proliferating cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Chao; Niu, Leilei; Song, Wei; Xiong, Xin; Zhang, Xianhua; Zhang, Zhenxi; Yang, Yi; Yi, Fan; Zhan, Jun; Zhang, Hongquan; Yang, Zhenjun; Zhang, Li-He; Zhai, Suodi; Li, Hua; Ye, Min; Du, Quan

    2016-01-01

    Despite the recent progress in RNA modification study, a comprehensive modification profile is still lacking for mammalian cells. Using a quantitative HPLC/MS/MS assay, we present here a study where RNA modifications are examined in term of the major RNA species. With paired slow- and fast-proliferating cell lines, distinct RNA modification profiles are first revealed for diverse RNA species. Compared to mRNAs, increased ribose and nucleobase modifications are shown for the highly-structured tRNAs and rRNAs, lending support to their contribution to the formation of high-order structures. This study also reveals a dynamic tRNA modification profile in the fast-proliferating cells. In addition to cultured cells, this unique tRNA profile has been further confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. Taken together, the results indicate that tRNA is a actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells, and suggest that they may play a more active role in biological process than expected. -- Highlights: •RNA modifications were first examined in term of the major RNA species. •A dynamic tRNA modifications was characterized for the fast-proliferating cells. •The unique tRNA profile was confirmed with endometrial cancers and their adjacent normal tissues. •tRNA was predicted as an actively regulated RNA species in the fast-proliferating cancer cells.

  14. The US proliferation security initiative (PSI)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, B.

    2004-01-01

    The proliferation security initiative (PSI), launched by President Bush on May 31, 2003, aims at intercepting any transfer of mass destruction weapons, of their vectors and related equipments, towards or coming from countries or organizations suspected to have a proliferation activity. This initiative, which involves coercive means to fight against proliferation, raises international lawfulness and legal questions, the answers of which are today under construction. This article analyzes the place of the European Union in the PSI, the action means (optimization of existing means, cooperation between intelligence and interception services), and the PSI stakes (lawfulness with respect to the international law, bilateral agreements, draft boarding agreement, sustain of the United Nations, widening of the partnership and of the field of action). (J.S.)

  15. Proliferation resistance assessment of thermal recycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-02-01

    This paper examines the major proliferation aspects of thermal recycle systems and the extent to which technical or institutional measures could increase the difficulty or detectability of misuse of the system by would-be proliferators. It does this by examining the various activities necessary to acquire weapons-usable material using a series of assessment factors; resources required, time required, detectability. It is concluded that resistance to proliferation could be improved substantially by collecting reprocessing, conversion and fuel fabrication plants under multi national control and instituting new measures to protect fresh MOX fuel. Resistance to theft at sub-national level could be improved by co-location of sensitive facilities high levels of physical protection at plants and during transportation and possibly by adding a radiation barrier to MOX prior to shipment

  16. Israel's position on non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marom, R.

    1986-01-01

    Israel maintained that the complex international system and worldwide political tension created a situation in which comprehensive plans of disarmament could not produce any positive result. The deadlock in the field of general and complete disarmament has brought Israel to the realization that one possible way to alleviate the stalemate could be progress by stages through partial measures of disarmament. Israel's position on non-proliferation indicates that the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free-zone (NWFZ), as it relates to the Middle-East, could serve as a credible alternative to the unilateral adherence to the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapon (NPT) and an effective measure of non-proliferation in the region. (Author)

  17. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C. [ed.

    1993-09-07

    Two essays are included in this booklet. Their titles are ``The Dynamics of the NPT Extension Decision`` and ``North Korea`s Nuclear Gambit.`` The first paper discusses the conference to be held in 1995 to review the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which will decide whether the treaty shall continue in force indefinitely, or shall be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Topics relevant to this discussion are: Arms control issues, the nuclear test ban, the limited test ban treaty, the French nuclear testing moratorium, former Soviet nuclear weapons, Iraq, North Korea, nuclear-weapon-free zones, security, controls on nuclear weapon materials, peaceful uses of nuclear energy, safeguards, politics, and organizational and procedural issues. The second paper examines short, medium, and long term issues entailed in Korea`s nuclear proliferation. Topics considered include: Korean unification, North Korean politics, the nuclear issue as leverage, and the Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty.

  18. The economics of proliferation and counterproliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, B.L.; Hallenbeck, R.A.; Gill, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    On June 2, 1993, the fourth meeting of the seminar series on open-quotes Proliferation of Ballistic Missiles and Weapons of Mass Destruction and Implications for Regional Stabilityclose quotes was held at SAIC in McLean, Virginia. This series is sponsored by the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency and is cosponsored by the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization, the Defense Nuclear Agency, the Department of Energy, and the Office of the Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy. The June seminar, open-quotes The Economics of Proliferation and Counterproliferation,close quotes discussed how economic issues and interests affect proliferation judgments. Seminar participants also examined three economic tools for advancing counterproliferation objectives: Economic Development Assistance, Export Controls, and Economic open-quotes Burdensharingclose quotes and Conversion Assistance

  19. Nuclear dilemma: power, proliferation, and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.

    1979-01-01

    Debate over President Carter's nuclear energy policy centers on how to develop nuclear power for civilian use and prevent the proliferation of nuclear materials for weapons. Both supporters and opponents of nuclear energy have been critical of Carter's policies because each side fails to see the linkage between the two concerns as codified in the 1978 Non-Proliferation Act. The author uses a dialogue format to illustrate the arguments for resisting proliferation and recognizing nuclear energy as an appropriate technology. The consequences of a nuclear moratorium are explored along with implications for foreign policy. U.S. leadership in developing energy technologies that can meet a broad range of appropriate applications, combined with leadership in building appropriate political frameworks, is needed if nuclear energy is to make a positive contribution toward world peace and acceptable living standards. 8 references

  20. Nuclear exports and non-proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courteix, Simone.

    1978-01-01

    Increased preoccupation in present times with the risk of proliferation of nuclear weapons is reflected in the multiplication of international agreements such as the Non-proliferation Treaty and in the strengthening of consultations between industrialised countries (London Club). After analysing the IAEA safeguards system under the Non-proliferation Treaty and its shortcomings both technically and otherwise, the author considers how this situation can be remedied in the light of the London Agreements and in view of the position of the main countries concerned. The annex to the book contains the texts of many international agreements and relevant national regulations as well as nuclear policy statements. It also includes a detailed bibliograaphy. (NEA) [fr

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear weapon proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apold, A.

    1978-01-01

    The theme of Dr. Marshall's lecture was that it is, from the viewpoint of prevention of proliferation of nuclear weapons,preferable to use plutonium as a fuel in FBR reactors rather than store it in what, in effect, would be plutonium mines. The true threat of proliferation lies in uranium enrichment. The FBR reactor is misunderstood and the US policy is not against breeders as such. Safeguards against the misuse of plutonium by leaving a residue of radioactivity after reprocessing is quite feasible, despite certain practical problems and extra costs. Weapon proliferation is subject to political objectives and intentions. Definite proposals are, (a) a limited number of reprocessing centres, (b) an accelerated development of FBR reactors, (c) a new FBR fuel cycle, (d) stop storage of spent thermal reactor fuel, (e) reinforced safeguards. (JIW)

  2. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1986-05-01

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  3. Dedifferentiation and proliferation of mammalian cardiomyocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqiang Zhang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long been thought that mammalian cardiomyocytes are terminally-differentiated and unable to proliferate. However, myocytes in more primitive animals such as zebrafish are able to dedifferentiate and proliferate to regenerate amputated cardiac muscle.Here we test the hypothesis that mature mammalian cardiomyocytes retain substantial cellular plasticity, including the ability to dedifferentiate, proliferate, and acquire progenitor cell phenotypes. Two complementary methods were used: 1 cardiomyocyte purification from rat hearts, and 2 genetic fate mapping in cardiac explants from bi-transgenic mice. Cardiomyocytes isolated from rodent hearts were purified by multiple centrifugation and Percoll gradient separation steps, and the purity verified by immunostaining and RT-PCR. Within days in culture, purified cardiomyocytes lost their characteristic electrophysiological properties and striations, flattened and began to divide, as confirmed by proliferation markers and BrdU incorporation. Many dedifferentiated cardiomyocytes went on to express the stem cell antigen c-kit, and the early cardiac transcription factors GATA4 and Nkx2.5. Underlying these changes, inhibitory cell cycle molecules were suppressed in myocyte-derived cells (MDCs, while microRNAs known to orchestrate proliferation and pluripotency increased dramatically. Some, but not all, MDCs self-organized into spheres and re-differentiated into myocytes and endothelial cells in vitro. Cell fate tracking of cardiomyocytes from 4-OH-Tamoxifen-treated double-transgenic MerCreMer/ZEG mouse hearts revealed that green fluorescent protein (GFP continues to be expressed in dedifferentiated cardiomyocytes, two-thirds of which were also c-kit(+.Contradicting the prevailing view that they are terminally-differentiated, postnatal mammalian cardiomyocytes are instead capable of substantial plasticity. Dedifferentiation of myocytes facilitates proliferation and confers a degree of stemness

  4. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  5. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  6. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  7. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  8. Nuclear war nuclear proliferation and their consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aga Khan, Sadruddin

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns the proceedings of a conference hosted by the Groupe de Bellerive to explore and discuss the implications for humanity of nuclear war, nuclear proliferation and their consequences, Geneva 1985. The conference was divided into five sessions, headed by the subject titles: the nuclear non-proliferation treaty (NPT) and its future, the spread of nuclear weapons among nations, global effects of a nuclear war, the nuclear arms race and arms control, the NPT and its future. Twenty eight papers were presented in the five sessions. (UK)

  9. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  10. The G8 global partnership against proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devaux, O.

    2003-01-01

    Launched in 2002, the G8 global partnership against the proliferation of massive destruction weapons will contribute up to 20 billion dollars to the dismantling of the nuclear and chemical weapons of the former USSR (20000 nuclear warheads stored in 123 sites, 1350 tons of weapon grade plutonium and enriched uranium, 40000 tons of chemical agents, 190 decommissioned nuclear submarines etc..). This partnership, which has entered its realization phase, inaugurates a new cooperation with the Russian Federation. I could be used tomorrow in other regions of the world and become an instrument of the international community for the fight against proliferation. (J.S.)

  11. Proliferation risks; Proliferatierisico's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    1998-09-01

    The report gives an overview of different aspects related to safeguards of fissile materials. Existing treaties including the Non-Proliferation Treaty, and the Tlatelolco and the Rarotonga Treaties are discussed. An overview of safeguards systems for the control of fissile materials as well as the role of various authorities is given. An overall overview of proliferation risks, the physical protection of fissile materials and the trade in fissile materials is given. Finally, the status in problem countries and de facto nuclear weapon states is discussed.

  12. Proliferation resistance criteria for fissile material disposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Close, D.A.; Fearey, B.L.; Markin, J.T.; Rutherford, D.A.; Duggan, R.A.; Jaeger, C.D.; Mangan, D.L.; Moya, R.W.; Moore, L.R.; Strait, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    The 1994 National Academy of Sciences study open-quotes Management and Disposition of Excess Weapons Plutoniumclose quotes defined options for reducing the national and international proliferation risks of materials declared excess to the nuclear weapons program. This report proposes criteria for assessing the proliferation resistance of these options. The criteria are general, encompassing all stages of the disposition process from storage through intermediate processing to final disposition including the facilities, processing technologies and materials, the level of safeguards for these materials, and the national/subnational threat to the materials

  13. United States non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheinman, L.

    1978-01-01

    U.S. non-proliferation policy is aimed at slowing the spread of nuclear weapons capabilities, managing the destabilizing effects of nuclear technology for energy purposes, and fostering international standards and institutions to deal responsibly with global nuclear development. These goals assume that nuclear technology has not already precluded social control and recognize the social benefits offered by peaceful uses of atomic energy. Non-proliferation policies recognize that the motivation for possessing nuclear weapons is a more-difficult problem than technical ability and will concentrate on reducing those incentives through international agreements and safeguards and by maintaining the separation of commercial nuclear fuel cycles and military uses

  14. The value of service reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Benezech , Vincent; Coulombel , Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the e...

  15. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  16. Reliability analysis of digital based I and C system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, I. S.; Cho, B. S.; Choi, M. J. [KOPEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Rapidly, digital technology is being widely applied in replacing analog component installed in existing plant and designing new nuclear power plant for control and monitoring system in Korea as well as in foreign countries. Even though many merits of digital technology, it is being faced with a new problem of reliability assurance. The studies for solving this problem are being performed vigorously in foreign countries. The reliability of KNGR Engineered Safety Features Component Control System (ESF-CCS), digital based I and C system, was analyzed to verify fulfillment of the ALWR EPRI-URD requirement for reliability analysis and eliminate hazards in design applied new technology. The qualitative analysis using FMEA and quantitative analysis using reliability block diagram were performed. The results of analyses are shown in this paper.

  17. OREDA offshore and onshore reliability data volume 1 - topside equipment

    CERN Document Server

    OREDA

    2015-01-01

    This handbook presents high quality reliability data for offshore equipment collected during phase VI to IX (project period 2000 – 2009) of the OREDA project. The intention of the handbook is to provide both quantitative and qualitative information as a basis for Performance Forecasting or RAMS (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Safety) analyses. Volume 1 is about Topside Equipment. Compared to earlier editions, there are only minor changes in the reliability data presentation. To obtain a reasonable population for presenting reliability data for topside equipment in the 2015 edition, some data from phases VI and VII already issued in the previous 2009 handbook (5th edition) have also been included. The 2015 topside volume is divided into two parts. Part I describes the OREDA project, different data collection phases and the estimation procedures used to generate the data tables presented in Part II of the handbook. Topside data are in general not covering the whole lifetime of equipment, but ...

  18. RTE - 2015 Reliability Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This report includes a number of results from previous years so that year-to-year comparisons can be drawn and long-term trends analysed. The 2015 report underlines the major factors that have impacted on the reliability of the electrical power system, without focusing exclusively on Significant System Events (ESS). It describes various factors which contribute to present and future reliability and the numerous actions implemented by RTE to ensure reliability today and in the future, as well as the ways in which the various parties involved in the electrical power system interact across the whole European interconnected network

  19. Traditional Chinese Medicine Baicalin Suppresses mESCs Proliferation through Inhibition of miR-294 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Chinese herbal medicines (TCMs have been widely used against a broad spectrum of biological activities, including influencing the cardiac differentiation from mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs. However, their effects and mechanisms of action on ESCs proliferation remain to be determined. The present study aimed to determine the effect of three TCMs, baicalin, ginsenoside Rg1, and puerarin, on mESCs proliferation and to elucidate the possible mechanism of their action. Methods: Cell proliferation was examined with a cell proliferation assay Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8, propidium iodide (PI staining was used to visualize cell cycle. The mRNA expression level of c-myc, c-fos, c-jun, GAPDH and microRNAs were measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR. Results: We found that baicalin 50 μM suppressed the proliferation of mESCs as observations in more cells in G1 phase and less cells in either S phase or G2/M phase. Moreover, baicalin suppressed the expressions of c-jun and c-fos in mESCs and down-regulated the expression of miR-294. Overexpression of miR-294 in mESCs significantly reversed the effects of baicalin both on mESC proliferation and c-fos/c-jun expression. Conclusions: Baicalin down-regulation of miR-294 may be its key mechanism of action in decreasing mESCs proliferation.

  20. Feasibility and reliability of a newly developed antenatal risk score card in routine care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Birnie; E.A.P. Steegers; Drs. H.W. Torij; M.J. Veen; J. Poeran; G.J. Bonsel

    2015-01-01

    A population-based cross-sectional study (feasibility) and a cohort study (inter-rater reliability) to study in routine care the feasibility and inter-rater reliability of the Rotterdam Reproductive Risk Reduction risk score card (R4U), a new semi-quantitative score card for use during the antenatal

  1. Analysis Testing of Sociocultural Factors Influence on Human Reliability within Sociotechnical Systems: The Algerian Oil Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelbaki Laidoune

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The explored sociocultural factors influence the human reliability both in qualitative and quantitative manners. The proposed model shows how reliability can be enhanced by some measures such as experience feedback based on, for example, safety improvements, training, and information. With that is added the continuous systems improvements to improve sociocultural reality and to reduce negative behaviors.

  2. Reliability and precision of pellet-group counts for estimating landscape-level deer density

    Science.gov (United States)

    David S. deCalesta

    2013-01-01

    This study provides hitherto unavailable methodology for reliably and precisely estimating deer density within forested landscapes, enabling quantitative rather than qualitative deer management. Reliability and precision of the deer pellet-group technique were evaluated in 1 small and 2 large forested landscapes. Density estimates, adjusted to reflect deer harvest and...

  3. A Meta-Analysis of Reliability Coefficients in Second Language Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plonsky, Luke; Derrick, Deirdre J.

    2016-01-01

    Ensuring internal validity in quantitative research requires, among other conditions, reliable instrumentation. Unfortunately, however, second language (L2) researchers often fail to report and even more often fail to interpret reliability estimates beyond generic benchmarks for acceptability. As a means to guide interpretations of such estimates,…

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals the Regulatory Networks of Circular RNA CDR1as in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Xiong, Qian; Wu, Ying; Li, Siting; Ge, Feng

    2017-10-06

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a class of widespread endogenous RNAs, play crucial roles in diverse biological processes and are potential biomarkers in diverse human diseases and cancers. Cerebellar-degeneration-related protein 1 antisense RNA (CDR1as), an oncogenic circRNA, is involved in human tumorigenesis and is dysregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying CDR1as functions in HCC remain unclear. Here we explored the functions of CDR1as and searched for CDR1as-regulated proteins in HCC cells. A quantitative proteomics strategy was employed to globally identify CDR1as-regulated proteins in HCC cells. In total, we identified 330 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) upon enhanced CDR1as expression in HepG2 cells, indicating that they could be proteins regulated by CDR1as. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that many DEPs were involved in cell proliferation and the cell cycle. Further functional studies of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) found that CDR1as exerts its effects on cell proliferation at least in part through the regulation of EGFR expression. We further confirmed that CDR1as could inhibit the expression of microRNA-7 (miR-7). EGFR is a validated target of miR-7; therefore, CDR1as may exert its function by regulating EGFR expression via targeting miR-7 in HCC cells. Taken together, we revealed novel functions and underlying mechanisms of CDR1as in HCC cells. This study serves as the first proteome-wide analysis of a circRNA-regulated protein in cells and provides a reliable and highly efficient method for globally identifying circRNA-regulated proteins.

  5. Precision of different quantitative ultrasound densitometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, N.A.; Harris, N.D.; Griffiths, M.R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) of the calcaneus, which measures Speed of Sound (SOS) and Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA), is predictive of the risk of osteoporotic fracture. However, the utility of QUS for predicting fracture risk or for monitoring treatment efficacy depends on its precision and reliability. Published results and manufacturers data vary significantly due to differences in statistical methodology. We have assessed the precision of the current model of the Lunar Achilles and the McCue Cuba QUS densitometers; the most commonly used QUS machines in Australia. Twenty seven subjects had duplicate QUS measurements performed on the same day on both machines. These data were used to calculate the within pair standard deviation (SD) the co-efficient of variation, CV and the standardised co efficient of variation (sCV) which is corrected for the dynamic range. In addition, the co-efficient of reliability (R) was calculated as an index of reliability which is independent of the population mean value, or the dynamic range of the measurements. R ranges between 0 (for no reliability) to 1(for a perfect reliability). The results indicate that the precision of QUS is dependent on the dynamic range and the instrument. Furthermore, they suggest that while QUS is a useful predictor of fracture risk, at present it has limited clinical value in monitoring short term age-related bone loss of 1-2% per year

  6. Which future for nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M.

    2010-07-15

    Dealing with the case of nuclear weapons possessed by nuclear states (but not eventually by terrorists), the author first identifies the constants of counter-proliferation: it is linked to interest conflicts between those who try to preserve their monopoly and those who try to acquire a new weapon either because of a threat or for reasons of regional prestige, the evolution from use to deterrence, the appearance of new actors after the USA and Russia, the role of nuclear tactical weapons, and the future of Russian weapons and know-how. He presents the international counter-proliferation context: the Non Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the IAEA and its controls, the Nuclear Supplier Group (NSG), the nuclear-free zones, the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). He describes how and why proliferation occurs: uranium enrichment and plutonium technology, political reasons in different parts of the world. Then, he gives an overview of the proliferation status by commenting the cases of Israel, Iraq, India, Pakistan, North Korea, and Iran. He discusses the future of proliferation (involved countries, existence of a nuclear black market) and of counter-proliferation as far as Middle-East and North Korea are concerned. He tries finally to anticipate the consequences for nuclear deterrence strategy, and more particularly for Europe and France

  7. Quantitative film radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects

  8. 7-Piperazinethylchrysin inhibits melanoma cell proliferation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In B16F10 and A375 cells, treatment with PEC caused the inhibition ... Conclusion: PEC inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, apparently by blocking the cell cycle at G0/G1 .... all statistical analyses. .... Financial support from the Department of.

  9. Limiting Future Proliferation and Security Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.

    2011-01-01

    A major new technical tool for evaluation of proliferation and security risks has emerged over the past decade as part the activities of the Generation IV International Forum. The tool has been developed by a consensus group from participating countries and organizations and is termed the Proliferation Resistance and Physical Protection (PR and PP) Evaluation Methodology. The methodology defines a set of challenges, analyzes system response to these challenges, and assesses outcomes. The challenges are the threats posed by potential actors (proliferant states or sub-national adversaries). It is of paramount importance in an evaluation to establish the objectives, capabilities, resources, and strategies of the adversary as well as the design and protection contexts. Technical and institutional characteristics are both used to evaluate the response of the system and to determine its resistance against proliferation threats and robustness against sabotage and terrorism threats. The outcomes of the system response are expressed in terms of a set of measures, which thereby define the PR and PP characteristics of the system. This paper summarizes results of applications of the methodology to nuclear energy systems including reprocessing facilities and large and small modular reactors. The use of the methodology in the design phase a facility will be discussed as it applies to future safeguards concepts.

  10. Does programmed CTL proliferation optimize virus control?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodarz, Dominik; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2005-01-01

    CD8 T-cell or cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses develop through an antigen-independent proliferation and differentiation program. This is in contrast to the previous thinking, which was that continuous antigenic stimulation was required. This Opinion discusses why nature has chosen the proliferati...

  11. Canada's nuclear non-proliferation policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Canada's non-proliferation and safeguards policy has two objectives: 1) to promote the emergence of a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime; and 2) to assure the Canadian people and the international community that Canadian nuclear exports will not be used for any nuclear explosive purpose. By emphasizing the key role of the NPT, by promoting reliance upon and improvements in the IAEA safeguards system, by treating nuclear weapon and non-nuclear weapon states alike regarding Canadian nuclear exports, by working for new approaches covering the sensitive phases (e.g. reprocessing) of the nuclear fuel cycle, Canada's policy promotes attainment of the first objective. The latter objective is served through the network of bilateral nuclear agreements that Canada has put into place with its nuclear partners. Those agreements provide assurance that Canada's nuclear exports are used solely for legitimate, peaceful, nuclear energy production purposes. At the same time, Canada, having formulated its non-proliferation and safeguards policy during the period 1945 to 1980, has recognized that it has gone as far as it can on its own in this field and that from this point on any further changes should be made on the basis of international agreement. The Canadian objective in post-INFCE forums such as the Committee on Assurances of Supply is to exert Canada's best efforts to persuade the international community to devise a more effective and comprehensive international non-proliferation regime into which Canada and other suppliers might subsume their national requirements

  12. Luteoloside Inhibits Proliferation of Human Chronic Myeloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of luteoloside on the proliferation of human chronic ..... Zhang N, Wang D, Zhu Y, Wang J, Lin H. Inhibition ... Han X. Protection of Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside Against ... Hwang YJ, Lee EJ, Kim HR, Hwang KA.

  13. Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luster, Michael I.; Simeonova, Petia P.

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs 3+ ), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs 5+ ), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate

  14. Non-proliferation and nuclear disarmament

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, M.

    2000-01-01

    Fissionable materials are common to all nuclear weapons and controls on the production, storage, processing and use of fissionable materials provides one means to address non-proliferation and disarmament. In this article, the relevance of such controls is examined and the current situation and future prospects are assessed. (authors)

  15. Nuclear Society and non-proliferation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagarinskij, A.Ya.; Kushnarev, S.V.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Sukhoruchkin, V.K.; Khromov, V.V.; Shmelev, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    In the USSR Nuclear Society in 1991 the special working group on the problems of nuclear weapons non-proliferation and nuclear materials control, uniting the experts of different types (nuclear physicists, lawyers, teachers), was created. This group became the mechanism of the practical Nuclear Society activity realization in this sphere. Three milestones of the innovative activity can be specified. First Milestone. In January 1992 the Central Nuclear Society Board (of the International Public Nuclear Society Association) published a special appeal to the First Leaders of all countries - former USSR republics. This address paid a special attention to the unity of the USSR power-industrial complex, and numerous problems arisen while separating this complex, including nuclear weapons non-proliferation problems, were indicated as well. Second Milestone. In 1992 and 1993 the Nuclear Society experts issued two selection 'Nuclear Non-proliferation and Control Problems' including reviewing basic papers. In addition, materials on non-proliferation and control are published regularly in the organs. Third Milestone.In 1993 - 1997 some special scientific and technical events (conferences, workshops, meetings) allowing to analyze the joint international projects and contracts outcomes, and establish new contacts between the specialists of NIS, Baltic states and others, have been hold

  16. EMP at the Non-Proliferation Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, J. [AWE, Aldermaston (United Kingdom)

    1994-12-31

    This experiment presented an opportunity to field customized equipment designed to detect and record electromagnetic pulse (EMP) emanations from an explosion over a wide frequency range. Any data recorded could be used in conjunction with the seismic methods to further non-proliferation studies. No EMP emanations were detectable from the four sensors deployed outside the tunnel confines.

  17. Some remarks on rockbursts and nuclear proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGarr, A. [Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This report describes problems associated with non-proliferation verification. Issues are described which can arise in the course of monitoring test ban treaties, with an example of an occurrence in South Africa. A problem for most situations appears to be the seismic source.

  18. Luteoloside Inhibits Proliferation of Human Chronic Myeloid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of luteoloside on the proliferation of human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells and whether luteoloside induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in K562 cells. Methods: Luteoloside's cytotoxicity was assessed using a cell counting kit. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry ...

  19. Thalidomide increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasca, M R; O'Toole, E A; Palicharla, P; West, D P; Woodley, D T

    1999-11-01

    Thalidomide is reported to have therapeutic utility in the treatment of pyoderma gangrenosum, Behçet's disease, aphthous ulcers, and skin wounds. We investigated the effect of thalidomide on human keratinocyte proliferation and migration, two early and critical events in the re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Thalidomide at concentrations less than 1 microM did not affect keratinocyte viability. Using a thymidine incorporation assay, we found that thalidomide, at therapeutic concentrations, induced more than a 2. 5-fold increase in the proliferative potential of the cells. Keratinocyte migration was assessed by two independent motility assays: a colloidal gold assay and an in vitro scratch assay. At optimal concentrations, thalidomide increased keratinocyte migration on a collagen matrix more than 2-fold in the colloidal gold assay and more than 3-fold in the scratch assay over control. Although pro-migratory, thalidomide did not alter the level of metalloproteinase-9 secreted into culture medium. Thalidomide did, however, induce a 2-4-fold increase in keratinocyte-derived interleukin-8, a pro-migratory cellular autocrine factor. Human keratinocyte migration and proliferation are essential for re-epithelialization of skin wounds. Interleukin-8 increases human keratinocyte migration and proliferation and is chemotactic for keratinocytes. Therefore, thalidomide may modulate keratinocyte proliferation and motility by a chemokine-dependent pathway.

  20. BBN based Quantitative Assessment of Software Design Specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung-Seop; Park, Gee-Yong; Kang, Hyun-Gook; Kwon, Kee-Choon; Chang, Seung-Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA), which is one of the important methods in assessing the overall safety of a nuclear power plant (NPP), requires quantitative reliability information of safety-critical software, but the conventional reliability assessment methods can not provide enough information for PSA of a NPP. Therefore current PSA which includes safety-critical software does not usually consider the reliability of the software or uses arbitrary values for it. In order to solve this situation this paper proposes a method that can produce quantitative reliability information of safety-critical software for PSA by making use of Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). BBN has generally been used to model an uncertain system in many research fields including the safety assessment of software. The proposed method was constructed by utilizing BBN which can combine the qualitative and the quantitative evidence relevant to the reliability of safety critical software. The constructed BBN model can infer a conclusion in a formal and a quantitative way. A case study was carried out with the proposed method to assess the quality of software design specification (SDS) of safety-critical software that will be embedded in a reactor protection system. The intermediate V and V results of the software design specification were used as inputs to the BBN model

  1. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Schols, Jan; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation according to a standard categorization are more practical for regular diagnostics. Our objective in this study was to compare 2 semiquantitative methods with quantitative measurements for reliability and agreement. The faces of 122 male participants were individually registered by using digital videography. Spontaneous and posed smiles were captured. On the records, maxillary lip line heights and tooth display were digitally measured on each tooth and also visually estimated according to 3-grade and 4-grade scales. Two raters were involved. An error analysis was performed. Reliability was established with kappa statistics. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability values were high, with median kappa values from 0.79 to 0.88. Agreement of the 3-grade scale estimation with quantitative measurement showed higher median kappa values (0.76) than the 4-grade scale estimation (0.66). Differentiating high and gummy smile lines (4-grade scale) resulted in greater inaccuracies. The estimation of a high, average, or low smile line for each tooth showed high reliability close to quantitative measurements. Smile line analysis can be performed reliably with a 3-grade scale (visual) semiquantitative estimation. For a more comprehensive diagnosis, additional measuring is proposed, especially in patients with disproportional gingival display. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On estimation of reliability for pipe lines of heat power plants under cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verezemskij, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    One of the possible methods to obtain a quantitative estimate of the reliability for pipe lines of the welded heat power plants under cyclic loading due to heating-cooling and due to vibration is considered. Reliability estimate is carried out for a common case of loading by simultaneous cycles with different amplitudes and loading asymmetry. It is shown that scattering of the breaking number of cycles for the metal of welds may perceptibly decrease reliability of the welded pipe line

  3. About water chemistry influence on equipment reliability of NPP with RBMK-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezina, I.G.; Styazhkin, P.S.; Kritskij, V.G.

    2001-01-01

    In the paper the experience of a quantitative valuation of coolant quality influence on a reliability of some equipment elements of NPP with RBMK-1000 is offered. The choice is made of coolant quality integral parameter. The connection between indices values of coolant quality and reliability of major elements of circulation circuit equipment (including fuel claddings) is established. The reliability improvement of equipment elements operation is supported by high water chemistry quality. (orig.)

  4. Determination of reliability of express forecasting evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirpishchikov, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    Use of the data of nuclear physical methods of sampling and logging enables to improve reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of ores, as well as to evaluate quantitatively this reliability. This problem may be solved by using some concepts of geostatistics. The presented results enable to conclude, that the data of nuclear-physical methods of sampling and logging can provide high reliability of evaluation of radiometric enriching ability of non-ferrous ores and their geometrization by technological types

  5. Recent advances in computational structural reliability analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Ben H.; Wu, Y.-T.; Millwater, Harry R.; Torng, Tony Y.; Riha, David S.

    1993-10-01

    The goal of structural reliability analysis is to determine the probability that the structure will adequately perform its intended function when operating under the given environmental conditions. Thus, the notion of reliability admits the possibility of failure. Given the fact that many different modes of failure are usually possible, achievement of this goal is a formidable task, especially for large, complex structural systems. The traditional (deterministic) design methodology attempts to assure reliability by the application of safety factors and conservative assumptions. However, the safety factor approach lacks a quantitative basis in that the level of reliability is never known and usually results in overly conservative designs because of compounding conservatisms. Furthermore, problem parameters that control the reliability are not identified, nor their importance evaluated. A summary of recent advances in computational structural reliability assessment is presented. A significant level of activity in the research and development community was seen recently, much of which was directed towards the prediction of failure probabilities for single mode failures. The focus is to present some early results and demonstrations of advanced reliability methods applied to structural system problems. This includes structures that can fail as a result of multiple component failures (e.g., a redundant truss), or structural components that may fail due to multiple interacting failure modes (e.g., excessive deflection, resonate vibration, or creep rupture). From these results, some observations and recommendations are made with regard to future research needs.

  6. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  7. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  8. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  9. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  10. Nuclear non proliferation and disarmament; Non-proliferation nucleaire et desarmement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    In the framework of the publication of a document on the ''weapons mastership, disarmament and non proliferation: the french action'', by the ministry of Foreign Affairs and the ministry of Defense, the French Documentation organization presents a whole document. This document describes and details the following topics: the conference on the treaty of non proliferation of nuclear weapons, the France, Usa and Non Governmental Organizations position, the threats of the proliferation, the french actions towards the disarmament, the disarmament in the world, a chronology and some bibliographic resources. (A.L.B.)

  11. Proliferation: does the peaceful use of nuclear energy have to lead to proliferation of nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muench, E.; Stein, G.

    The question of whether the proliferation of nuclear weapons is promoted by an increasing use of peaceful nuclear energy can be answered with a well-founded no. Even a regional renouncing of the peaceful use of nuclear energy would not reduce the worldwide problem of nuclear weapons' proliferation. Therefore, joint efforts must be aimed at promoting trust between peoples in the nuclear sphere and the political reasons for the proliferation of nuclear weapons must be reduced in order also to promote international harmony

  12. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  13. Does interdependence alleviate proliferation risks in Asia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Osamu

    1997-01-01

    As the extension Conference of the Non-Proliferation Treaty ended with its unlimited extension without any modification of the treaty obligation of the nuclear-weapon states to nuclear disarmament, the prospect of the regime to incorporate those suspected nuclear powers in Asia, namely India, Pakistan and Israel, has become dark. In this paper the problem of proliferation risk centred in India is analysed. It is well known that India was the first to criticize the Non-Proliferation Treaty regime as highly discriminating between the five nuclear haves and the rest. As was always the case, India's point is logically persuasive and consistent. However, it is also true that the logical or legal point of view does not always solve the problem. Therefore, we look at the regional and international political constellation in which any assertion has to be constructed. At present there is very little possibility that this region will become nuclear-free. This is because the horizontal proliferation, that has seemingly taken place here, is the result of a 'nuclear chain reaction', starting with a minor nuclear-weapon state, China. However, the economic upsurge in the region now throws the nuclear chain-reactions into the background. It has come to a standstill and the future of nuclear proliferation here will have to be decided by global nuclear disarmament, as there is no motivation on the side of the two Asian giants to agree on the reduction in their nuclear arsenals, though under American pressure, another suspected nuclear power, Pakistan, may have to give up its nuclear development plan

  14. Nuclear proliferation: present, past and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Zaleski, P.

    1993-01-01

    Since the end of WW II one of the more, if not the most, serious concerns of all people in the world has been to preserve this planet avoiding a nuclear war. On the positive side, in spite of the huge arsenal of strategic and tactical nuclear weapons (NW) accumulated over the years by the US and the former SU and the innumerable military conflicts we have witnessed since WW II, no NW have been used again. But this should not be a great consolation: the fact that countries have refrained from using NW does not necessarily mean that it will always be that way. As long as countries try to solve their differences by the use of force the danger of a nuclear confrontation remains, and nuclear disarmament and proliferation should cotinue to be a serious concern. This concern has profound political, social and ethical components that have been analyzed extensively and profusely. The purpose of this paper is more limited: to provide an overview of the national and international efforts to minimize the risk of a nuclear war by regulating, restricting and containing the development and possession of NW. This is what has become know as the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Any nuclear non-proliferation regime must have two essential goals: achieving nuclear disarmament by the NWS (and thereby eliminating vertical proliferation). To make a regime effective it must rely on international agreements, a system of safeguards coupled with inspection and verification procedures, and above all on the good faith of all nations involved. It should be stated from the very beginning that nuclear non-proliferation efforts, like all disarmament efforts, are essentially of political nature, albeit having an important scientific and technological component. They are effective only to the extent that countries really renounce NW and are prepared to severely sanction those who do not. (Author) 31 refs

  15. Proliferation resistance assessment of pyro processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, E. H.; Ko, W. I.; Kim, H. D. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    In 2002, world experts gathered and defined the term proliferation resistance as 'the characteristic of a nuclear energy system that impedes the diversion or undeclared production of nuclear material, or misuse of technology, by State in order to acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices.' The same report also defines the following terms: Intrinsic barriers (technical features) of proliferation resistance are features that result from the technical design of nuclear energy systems, including those that facilitate the implementation of extrinsic measures. Extrinsic barriers (institutional measures) of proliferation resistance are features that result from the decisions and undertakings of states related to nuclear energy system. Intrinsic barriers are further divided into material barriers.the 'intrinsic, or inherent, qualities of materials that reduce the inherent desirability or attractiveness of the material as an explosive' and technical barriers. The 'intrinsic technical lements of the fuel cycle, its facilities, processes, and equipment that serve to make it difficult to gain access to materials and/or to use or misuse facilities to obtain weapons usable materials.' Material barriers include isotopic, chemical, radiological, mass and bulk, and detectability, whereas technical barriers include facility unattractiveness, accessibility, available fissile mass, detectability of and time required for diversion, and skills, expertise, and knowledge. Assessing the proliferation resistance of pyro processing is meaningful only when compared with other processes. This paper attempts to discuss the features of pyro processing by comparing it with direct disposal and aqueous separation processes from a proliferation resistance viewpoint.

  16. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  17. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  18. Systems reliability Benchmark exercise part 1-Description and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1986-01-01

    The report describes aims, rules and results of the Systems Reliability Benchmark Exercise, which has been performed in order to assess methods and procedures for reliability analysis of complex systems and involved a large number of European organizations active in NPP safety evaluation. The exercise included both qualitative and quantitative methods and was structured in such a way that separation of the effects of uncertainties in modelling and in data on the overall spread was made possible. Part I describes the way in which RBE has been performed, its main results and conclusions

  19. Advancing Usability Evaluation through Human Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel augmentation to the current heuristic usability evaluation methodology. The SPAR-H human reliability analysis method was developed for categorizing human performance in nuclear power plants. Despite the specialized use of SPAR-H for safety critical scenarios, the method also holds promise for use in commercial off-the-shelf software usability evaluations. The SPAR-H method shares task analysis underpinnings with human-computer interaction, and it can be easily adapted to incorporate usability heuristics as performance shaping factors. By assigning probabilistic modifiers to heuristics, it is possible to arrive at the usability error probability (UEP). This UEP is not a literal probability of error but nonetheless provides a quantitative basis to heuristic evaluation. When combined with a consequence matrix for usability errors, this method affords ready prioritization of usability issues

  20. Reliability analysis of containment isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelto, P.J.; Ames, K.R.; Gallucci, R.H.

    1985-06-01

    This report summarizes the results of the Reliability Analysis of Containment Isolation System Project. Work was performed in five basic areas: design review, operating experience review, related research review, generic analysis and plant specific analysis. Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and Integrated Leak Rate Test (ILRT) reports provided the major sources of containment performance information used in this study. Data extracted from LERs were assembled into a computer data base. Qualitative and quantitative information developed for containment performance under normal operating conditions and design basis accidents indicate that there is room for improvement. A rough estimate of overall containment unavailability for relatively small leaks which violate plant technical specifications is 0.3. An estimate of containment unavailability due to large leakage events is in the range of 0.001 to 0.01. These estimates are dependent on several assumptions (particularly on event duration times) which are documented in the report

  1. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective under...

  2. Quantitative analysis method for ship construction quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FU Senzong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The excellent performance of a ship is assured by the accurate evaluation of its construction quality. For a long time, research into the construction quality of ships has mainly focused on qualitative analysis due to a shortage of process data, which results from limited samples, varied process types and non-standardized processes. Aiming at predicting and controlling the influence of the construction process on the construction quality of ships, this article proposes a reliability quantitative analysis flow path for the ship construction process and fuzzy calculation method. Based on the process-quality factor model proposed by the Function-Oriented Quality Control (FOQC method, we combine fuzzy mathematics with the expert grading method to deduce formulations calculating the fuzzy process reliability of the ordinal connection model, series connection model and mixed connection model. The quantitative analysis method is applied in analyzing the process reliability of a ship's shaft gear box installation, which proves the applicability and effectiveness of the method. The analysis results can be a useful reference for setting key quality inspection points and optimizing key processes.

  3. Guide to the collection and presentation of electrical, electronic, and sensing component reliability data for nuclear-power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This Guide is intended to establish a method of collecting and presenting reliability data for quantitative systematic reliability analysis in nuclear power generating stations, as outlined in IEEE Std 351-1975. Appendix D, which is not a part of IEEE Std 500-1977 but which comprises the bulk of this publication, presents tables of reliability data for nuclear power generating stations, intended for use of nuclear systems reliability analysts or design engineers

  4. Nuclear Fuel Leasing, Recycling and proliferation: Modeling a Global View

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crozat, M P; Choi, J; Reis, V H; Hill, R

    2004-01-01

    On February 11, 2004, U.S. President George W. Bush, in a speech to the National Defense University stated: ''The world must create a safe, orderly system to field civilian nuclear plants without adding to the danger of weapons proliferation. The world's leading nuclear exporters should ensure that states have reliable access at reasonable cost to fuel for civilian reactors, so long as those states renounce enrichment and reprocessing. Enrichment and reprocessing are not necessary for nations seeking to harness nuclear energy for peaceful purposes.'' This concept would require nations to choose one of two paths for civilian nuclear development: those that only have reactors and those that contain one or more elements of the nuclear fuel cycle, including recycling. ''Fuel cycle'' states would enrich uranium, manufacture and lease fuel to ''reactor'' states and receive the reactor states' spent fuel. All parties would accede to stringent security and safeguard standards, embedded within a newly invigorated international regime. Reactor states would be relieved of the financial, environmental (and political) burden of enriching and manufacturing fuel and dealing with spent fuel. Fuel cycle states would potentially earn money on leasing the fuel and perhaps on sales of reactors to the reactor states. Such a leasing concept is especially interesting in scenarios which envision growth in nuclear power, and an important consideration for such a nuclear growth regime is the role of recycling of civilian spent fuel. Recycling holds promise for improved management of spent fuel and efficient utilization of resources, but continues to raise the specter of a world with uncontrolled nuclear weapons proliferation. If done effectively, a fuel-leasing concept could help create a political and economic foundation for significant growth of clean, carbon-free nuclear power while providing a mechanism for significant international cooperation to reduce proliferation concern. This

  5. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  6. Identifications of Putative PKA Substrates with Quantitative Phosphoproteomics and Primary-Sequence-Based Scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Haruna; Wagih, Omar; Niinae, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Naoyuki; Beltrao, Pedro; Ishihama, Yasushi

    2017-04-07

    Protein kinase A (PKA or cAMP-dependent protein kinase) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays essential roles in the regulation of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. To better understand the functions of PKA, it is necessary to elucidate the direct interplay between PKA and their substrates in living human cells. To identify kinase target substrates in a high-throughput manner, we first quantified the change of phosphoproteome in the cells of which PKA activity was perturbed by drug stimulations. LC-MS/MS analyses identified 2755 and 3191 phosphopeptides from experiments with activator or inhibitor of PKA. To exclude potential indirect targets of PKA, we built a computational model to characterize the kinase sequence specificity toward the substrate target site based on known kinase-substrate relationships. Finally, by combining the sequence recognition model with the quantitative changes in phosphorylation measured in the two drug perturbation experiments, we identified 29 reliable candidates of PKA targeting residues in living cells including 8 previously known substrates. Moreover, 18 of these sites were confirmed to be site-specifically phosphorylated in vitro. Altogether this study proposed a confident list of PKA substrate candidates, expanding our knowledge of PKA signaling network.

  7. Which future for the nuclear counter-proliferation?; Quel avenir pour la contre-proliferation nucleaire?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, M

    2004-10-01

    After a recall of the permanent data about proliferation and of the safeguards implemented by the international community, the author demonstrates that proliferation has moved towards Asia where a real 'black market' has been created. Then he analyzes the consequences of this change on the future of nuclear deterrent. Finally, he expresses his nostalgia in front of this drift and worries about the future uselessness of the means devoted to this 'pacifying' strategy. (J.S.)

  8. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  9. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  10. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  11. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  12. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  13. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  14. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  15. Conditional IL-2 gene deletion: consequences for T cell proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall A Smith

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To explore the role of interleukin-2 (IL-2 in T cell proliferation, and to circumvent the IL-2 deficiency autoimmune syndrome of conventional il2 gene deletion, mice were created to allow conditional il2 gene deletion when treated with the estrogen analogue, tamoxifen (TAM as adults. Splenocytes from four different mouse strains, C57Bl/6 wild type (WT, conventional IL-2 (-/-, TAM-treated Cre recombinase negative (Cre-/IL2fl/fl, and Cre+/IL-2fl/fl (Cre+, were activated with anti-CD3 and anti-CD28, and monitored for CD4+ and CD8+ T cell lymphocyte blastogenesis, aerobic glycolysis, BrdU incorporation into newly synthesized DNA, and CFSE dye dilution to monitor cell division. IL-2 production was monitored by quantitative ELISA and multiple additional cytokines were monitored by protein-bead arrays. Splenocytes from conventional IL-2 (-/- and TAM-treated Cre+ mice resulted in undetectable IL-2 production, so that both strains were IL-2 deficient. As monitored by flow cytometry, activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice all underwent blastogenesis, whereas far fewer cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice did so. By comparison, only cells from IL-2 sufficient WT and Cre- switched to aerobic glycolysis as evidenced by a drop in media pH. Blastogenesis was mirrored by BrdU incorporation and CFSE dye dilution by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from WT, Cre+ and Cre- mice, which were all equivalent, while proliferation of cells from conventional IL-2 (-/- mice was compromised. Splenocytes from IL-2 deficient conventional IL-2 (-/- mice produced low or undetectable other γc-chain cytokines (IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-13, IL-15, and IL-21, whereas production of these γc-chain cytokines from IL-2-deficient conditional IL-2 (-/- Cre+ mice were comparable with WT and Cre- mice. These results indicate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell blastogenesis cannot be attributable to IL-2 alone, but a switch to aerobic glycolysis is attributable to IL-2, and proliferation

  16. Patterns of proliferation related to vasculature in human head-and-neck carcinomas before and after transplantation in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijffels, Karien I.E.M.; Kaanders, Johannes H.A.M.; Marres, Henri A.M.; Bussink, Johan; Peters, Hans P.W.; Rijken, Paulus F.J.W.; Hoogen, Frank J.A. van den; Wilde, Peter C.M. de; Kogel, Albert J. van der

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The predictive potential of tumor cell kinetic parameters may be improved when they are studied in relation to other microenvironmental parameters. The purpose of this investigation was to quantitatively categorize human tumor samples according to proliferation patterns. Second, it was examined whether these characteristics are retained after xenotransplantation. Methods and Materials: Fifty tumor samples from head-and-neck cancer patients were immunohistochemically stained for Ki-67 and vessels. Also, parts of the samples were transplanted into nude mice. Tumors were categorized according to previously described patterns of proliferation. Vascular and proliferation patterns were analyzed using an image processing system. Results: The 50 tumors were categorized into four patterns of proliferation by visual assessment: marginal (6), intermediate (10), random (21), and mixed (12). One tumor could not be classified. These patterns were quantified by calculating the Ki-67 labeling index in distinct zones at increasing distance from vessels yielding good discrimination and significant differences between patterns. The probability of growth after xenotransplantation was significantly higher for tumors with a labeling index and vascular density above the median value compared to tumors with both parameters below the median (82% vs. 35%). Fifty percent of the tumors retained their proliferation patterns after xenotransplantation. Conclusion: The categorization by proliferation pattern previously described by others was reproduced quantitatively and spatially related to the vascular network using a computerized image processing system. The combination of quantitative and architectural information of multiple microenvironmental parameters adds a new dimension to the study of treatment resistance mechanisms. Tumor models representative of the various patterns can be used to further investigate the relevance of these architectural patterns

  17. Reliability evaluation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondiris, I.L.

    1978-10-01

    The research described in this thesis is concerned with the reliability/safety analysis of complex systems, such as nuclear power stations, basically using the event tree methodology. The thesis introduces and assesses a computational technique which applies the methodology to complex systems by simulating their topology and operational logic. The technique develops the system event tree and relates each branch of this tree to its qualitative and quantitative impact on specified system outcomes following an abnormal operating condition. Then, the thesis aims at deducing the critical failure modes of complex systems. This is achieved by a new technique for deducing the minimal cut or tie sets of various system outcomes. The technique is, furthermore, expanded to identify potential common mode failures and cut or tie sets containing dependent failures of some components. After dealing with the qualitative part of a reliability study, the thesis introduces two methods for calculating the probability of a component being either in the failure or in the partial failure state. The first method deals with revealed faults and makes use of the concept of Markov processes. The second one deals with unrevealed faults and can be used to calculate the relevant probability of component taking into account its inspection and replacement process. (author)

  18. Translation, reliability, and clinical utility of the Melbourne Assessment 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Corinna N; Plebani, Anael; Labruyère, Rob

    2017-10-12

    The aims were to (i) provide a German translation of the Melbourne Assessment 2 (MA2), a quantitative test to measure unilateral upper limb function in children with neurological disabilities and (ii) to evaluate its reliability and aspects of clinical utility. After its translation into German and approval of the back translation by the original authors, the MA2 was performed and videotaped twice with 30 children with neuromotor disorders. For each participant, two raters scored the video of the first test for inter-rater reliability. To determine test-retest reliability, one rater additionally scored the video of the second test while the other rater repeated the scoring of the first video to evaluate intra-rater reliability. Time needed for rater training, test administration, and scoring was recorded. The four subscale scores showed excellent intra-, inter-rater, and test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90-1.00 (95%-confidence intervals 0.78-1.00). Score items revealed substantial to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (weighted kappa k w  = 0.66-1.00) for the more affected side. Score item inter-rater and test-retest reliability of the same extremity were, with one exception, moderate to almost perfect (k w  = 0.42-0.97; k w  = 0.40-0.89). Furthermore, the MA2 was feasible and acceptable for patients and clinicians. The MA2 showed excellent subscale and moderate to almost perfect score item reliability. Implications for Rehabilitation There is a lack of high-quality studies about psychometric properties of upper limb measurement tools in the neuropediatric population. The Melbourne Assessment 2 is a promising tool for reliable measurement of unilateral upper limb movement quality in the neuropediatric population. The Melbourne Assessment 2 is acceptable and practicable to therapists and patients for routine use in clinical care.

  19. Cell proliferation and ageing in mouse colon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, E.; Franks, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    Cell kinetic parameters in the descending colon of unirradiated mice, 3-30-months-old were compared with those in mice irradiated repeatedly from the age of 6 or 24 months. The latter animals were given 1250 rad local X-irradiation to the colon every 6 weeks. Dose-survival curves showed the colon crypts of 6 and 24-months-old mice were similarly radiosensitive. In unirradiated mice the number of crypts per colon section decreased significantly at 30 months, but no significant age-related changes were seen in crypt size or labelling index (LI). Cell proliferation returned to control levels within 6 weeks of each X-ray dose and remained at this level for 20 weeks after the final dose. Later, cell proliferation in the irradiated colon fell significantly below control. A total of 6 or 7 doses each of 1250 rad produced only 1 colon carcinoma amongst 50 mice kept until they died. (author)

  20. Wp specific methylation of highly proliferated LCLs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Shim, Sung-Mi; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Joon-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee; Lee, Suman

    2007-01-01

    The epigenetic regulation of viral genes may be important for the life cycle of EBV. We determined the methylation status of three viral promoters (Wp, Cp, Qp) from EBV B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) by pyrosequencing. Our pyrosequencing data showed that the CpG region of Wp was methylated, but the others were not. Interestingly, Wp methylation was increased with proliferation of LCLs. Wp methylation was as high as 74.9% in late-passage LCLs, but 25.6% in early-passage LCLs. From two Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, Wp specific hypermethylation was also found (>80%). Interestingly, the expression of EBNA2 gene which located directly next to Wp was associated with its methylation. Our data suggested that Wp specific methylation may be important for the indicator of the proliferation status of LCLs, and the epigenetic viral gene regulation of EBNA2 gene by Wp should be further defined possibly with other biological processes