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Sample records for reliable quantitative measure

  1. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  2. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  3. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  4. Quantitative outcome measures for systemic sclerosis-related Microangiopathy - Reliability of image acquisition in Nailfold Capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, Graham; Moore, Tonia; O'Leary, Neil; Berks, Michael; Roberts, Christopher; Manning, Joanne; Allen, John; Anderson, Marina; Cutolo, Maurizio; Hesselstrand, Roger; Howell, Kevin; Pizzorni, Carmen; Smith, Vanessa; Sulli, Alberto; Wildt, Marie; Taylor, Christopher; Murray, Andrea; Herrick, Ariane L

    2017-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopic parameters hold increasing promise as outcome measures for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their inclusion as outcomes would often naturally require capillaroscopy images to be captured at several time points during any one study. Our objective was to assess repeatability of image acquisition (which has been little studied), as well as of measurement. 41 patients (26 with SSc, 15 with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) and 10 healthy controls returned for repeat high-magnification (300×) videocapillaroscopy mosaic imaging of 10 digits one week after initial imaging (as part of a larger study of reliability). Images were assessed in a random order by an expert blinded observer and 4 outcome measures extracted: (1) overall image grade and then (where possible) distal vessel locations were marked, allowing (2) vessel density (across the whole nailfold) to be calculated (3) apex width measurement and (4) giant vessel count. Intra-rater, intra-visit and intra-rater inter-visit (baseline vs. 1week) reliability were examined in 475 and 392 images respectively. A linear, mixed-effects model was used to estimate variance components, from which intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined. Intra-visit and inter-visit reliability estimates (ICCs) were (respectively): overall image grade, 0.97 and 0.90; vessel density, 0.92 and 0.65; mean vessel width, 0.91 and 0.79; presence of giant capillary, 0.68 and 0.56. These estimates were conditional on each parameter being measurable. Within-operator image analysis and acquisition are reproducible. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy, at least with a single observer, provides reliable outcome measures for clinical studies including randomised controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC), and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP). Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ≤ 0.012) and muscle strength (P ≤ 0.038) in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029), and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ≤ 0.049). Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change. PMID:23114092

  6. Intra- and interobserver reliability of quantitative ultrasound measurement of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Moelgaard, Carsten; Lykkegaard Olesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and measurement precision of sonographic assessment of plantar fascia thickness when using one, the mean of two, or the mean of three measurements. Two experienced observers scanned 20 healthy subjects twice with 60 minutes between test and retest. A GE LOGIQe ultrasound scanner was used in the study. The built-in software in the scanner was used to measure the thickness of the plantar fascia (PF). Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA). Intraobserver reliability (ICC) using one measurement was 0.50 for one observer and 0.52 for the other, and using the mean of three measurements intraobserver reliability increased up to 0.77 and 0.67, respectively. Interobserver reliability (ICC) when using one measurement was 0.62 and increased to 0.82 when using the average of three measurements. LOA showed that when using the average of three measurements, LOA decreased to 0.6 mm, corresponding to 17.5% of the mean thickness of the PF. The results showed that reliability increases when using the mean of three measurements compared with one. Limits of agreement based on intratester reliability shows that changes in thickness that are larger than 0.6 mm can be considered actual changes in thickness and not a result of measurement error. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Reliability of Reagent Strips for Semi-quantitative Measurement of Glucosuria in a Neonatal Intensive Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Bekhof

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The reliability of the semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in newborn infants using reagent strips is good, even under the conditions of a NICU. Changes in the rating of reagent strips of more than one category are most likely to be beyond measurement error.

  8. Comparison of macro and micro Raman measurement for reliable quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Eduardo M; da Silva, Vitor H; Poppi, Ronei J; Pereira, Claudete F; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2018-05-12

    This work reports on the use of micro- and macro-Raman measurements for quantification of mebendazole (MBZ) polymorphs A, B, and C in mixtures. Three Raman spectrophotometers were studied with a laser spot size of 3, 80 and 100 μm and spectral resolutions of 3.9, 9 and 4 cm -1 , respectively. The samples studied were ternary mixtures varying the MBZ polymorphs A and C from 0 to 100% and polymorph B from 0 to 30%. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were developed using the pre-processing spectra (2nd derivative) of the ternary mixtures. The best performance was obtained when the macro-Raman configuration was applied, obtaining RMSEP values of 1.68%, 1.24% and 2.03% w/w for polymorphs A, B, and C, respectively. In general, micro-Raman presented worst results for MBZ polymorphs prediction because the spectra obtained with this configuration does not represent the bulk proportion of mixtures, which have different particle morphologies and sizes. In addition, the influence of these particle features on micro-Raman measurements was also studied. Finally, the results demonstrated that reliable analytical quantifying of MBZ polymorphs can be reached using a laser with wider area illuminated, thus enabling acquisition of more reproductive and representative spectra of the mixtures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability and short-term intra-individual variability of telomere length measurement using monochrome multiplexing quantitative PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangmi Kim

    Full Text Available Studies examining the association between telomere length and cancer risk have often relied on measurement of telomere length from a single blood draw using a real-time PCR technique. We examined the reliability of telomere length measurement using sequential samples collected over a 9-month period.Relative telomere length in peripheral blood was estimated using a single tube monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR assay in blood DNA samples from 27 non-pregnant adult women (aged 35 to 74 years collected in 7 visits over a 9-month period. A linear mixed model was used to estimate the components of variance for telomere length measurements attributed to variation among women and variation between time points within women. Mean telomere length measurement at any single visit was not significantly different from the average of 7 visits. Plates had a significant systematic influence on telomere length measurements, although measurements between different plates were highly correlated. After controlling for plate effects, 64% of the remaining variance was estimated to be accounted for by variance due to subject. Variance explained by time of visit within a subject was minor, contributing 5% of the remaining variance.Our data demonstrate good short-term reliability of telomere length measurement using blood from a single draw. However, the existence of technical variability, particularly plate effects, reinforces the need for technical replicates and balancing of case and control samples across plates.

  10. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  11. The use and reliability of SymNose for quantitative measurement of the nose and lip in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosmuller, David; Tan, Robin; Mulder, Frans; Bachour, Yara; de Vet, Henrica; Don Griot, Peter

    2016-10-01

    It is essential to have a reliable assessment method in order to compare the results of cleft lip and palate surgery. In this study the computer-based program SymNose, a method for quantitative assessment of the nose and lip, will be assessed on usability and reliability. The symmetry of the nose and lip was measured twice in 50 six-year-old complete and incomplete unilateral cleft lip and palate patients by four observers. For the frontal view the asymmetry level of the nose and upper lip were evaluated and for the basal view the asymmetry level of the nose and nostrils were evaluated. A mean inter-observer reliability when tracing each image once or twice was 0.70 and 0.75, respectively. Tracing the photographs with 2 observers and 4 observers gave a mean inter-observer score of 0.86 and 0.92, respectively. The mean intra-observer reliability varied between 0.80 and 0.84. SymNose is a practical and reliable tool for the retrospective assessment of large caseloads of 2D photographs of cleft patients for research purposes. Moderate to high single inter-observer reliability was found. For future research with SymNose reliable outcomes can be achieved by using the average outcomes of single tracings of two observers. Copyright © 2016 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reliability of reagent strips for semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in a neonatal intensive care setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhof, Jolita; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van de Leur, Sjef; Kok, Joke H.; van Straaten, Irma H. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Glucosuria in preterm infants is often measured using a visually readable reagent strip, e.g., when monitoring total parenteral nutrition or during sepsis or when treating with corticosteroids. However, the specific circumstances in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as the use of diapers

  13. Reliability of Reagent Strips for Semi-quantitative Measurement of Glucosuria in a Neonatal Intensive Care Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekhof, Jolita; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; van de Leur, Sjef; Kok, Joke H.; van Straaten, Irma H. L. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucosuria in preterm infants is often measured using a visually readable reagent strip, e.g., when monitoring total parenteral nutrition or during sepsis or when treating with corticosteroids. However, the specific circumstances in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), such as the use

  14. A quantitative calculation for software reliability evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young-Jun; Lee, Jang-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet these regulatory requirements, the software used in the nuclear safety field has been ensured through the development, validation, safety analysis, and quality assurance activities throughout the entire process life cycle from the planning phase to the installation phase. A variety of activities, such as the quality assurance activities are also required to improve the quality of a software. However, there are limitations to ensure that the quality is improved enough. Therefore, the effort to calculate the reliability of the software continues for a quantitative evaluation instead of a qualitative evaluation. In this paper, we propose a quantitative calculation method for the software to be used for a specific operation of the digital controller in an NPP. After injecting random faults in the internal space of a developed controller and calculating the ability to detect the injected faults using diagnostic software, we can evaluate the software reliability of a digital controller in an NPP. We tried to calculate the software reliability of the controller in an NPP using a new method that differs from a traditional method. It calculates the fault detection coverage after injecting the faults into the software memory space rather than the activity through the life cycle process. We attempt differentiation by creating a new definition of the fault, imitating the software fault using the hardware, and giving a consideration and weights for injection faults.

  15. Quantitative metal magnetic memory reliability modeling for welded joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haiyan; Dang, Yongbin; Wang, Ben; Leng, Jiancheng

    2016-03-01

    Metal magnetic memory(MMM) testing has been widely used to detect welded joints. However, load levels, environmental magnetic field, and measurement noises make the MMM data dispersive and bring difficulty to quantitative evaluation. In order to promote the development of quantitative MMM reliability assessment, a new MMM model is presented for welded joints. Steel Q235 welded specimens are tested along the longitudinal and horizontal lines by TSC-2M-8 instrument in the tensile fatigue experiments. The X-ray testing is carried out synchronously to verify the MMM results. It is found that MMM testing can detect the hidden crack earlier than X-ray testing. Moreover, the MMM gradient vector sum K vs is sensitive to the damage degree, especially at early and hidden damage stages. Considering the dispersion of MMM data, the K vs statistical law is investigated, which shows that K vs obeys Gaussian distribution. So K vs is the suitable MMM parameter to establish reliability model of welded joints. At last, the original quantitative MMM reliability model is first presented based on the improved stress strength interference theory. It is shown that the reliability degree R gradually decreases with the decreasing of the residual life ratio T, and the maximal error between prediction reliability degree R 1 and verification reliability degree R 2 is 9.15%. This presented method provides a novel tool of reliability testing and evaluating in practical engineering for welded joints.

  16. How stable are quantitative sensory testing measurements over time? Report on 10-week reliability and agreement of results in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nothnagel H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen Nothnagel,1,2,* Christian Puta,1,3,* Thomas Lehmann,4 Philipp Baumbach,5 Martha B Menard,6,7 Brunhild Gabriel,1 Holger H W Gabriel,1 Thomas Weiss,8 Frauke Musial2 1Department of Sports Medicine and Health Promotion, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany; 2Department of Community Medicine, National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, UiT, The Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway; 3Center for Interdisciplinary Prevention of Diseases Related to Professional Activities, 4Department of Medical Statistics, Computer Sciences and Documentation, Friedrich Schiller University, 5Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Jena, Germany; 6Crocker Institute, Kiawah Island, SC, 7School of Integrative Medicine and Health Sciences, Saybrook University, Oakland, CA, USA; 8Department of Biological and Clinical Psychology, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Quantitative sensory testing (QST is a diagnostic tool for the assessment of the somatosensory system. To establish QST as an outcome measure for clinical trials, the question of how similar the measurements are over time is crucial. Therefore, long-term reliability and limits of agreement of the standardized QST protocol of the German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain were tested. Methods: QST on the lower back and hand dorsum (dominant hand were assessed twice in 22 healthy volunteers (10 males and 12 females; mean age: 46.6±13.0 years, with sessions separated by 10.0±2.9 weeks. All measurements were performed by one investigator. To investigate long-term reliability and agreement of QST, differences between the two measurements, correlation coefficients, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs, Bland–Altman plots (limits of agreement, and standard error of measurement were used. Results: Most parameters of the QST were reliable over 10 weeks in

  17. The reliability of the quantitative timed up and go test (QTUG) measured over five consecutive days under single and dual-task conditions in community dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Erin; Walsh, Lorcan; Doyle, Julie; Greene, Barry; Blake, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    The timed up and go (TUG) test is a commonly used assessment in older people with variations including the addition of a motor or cognitive dual-task, however in high functioning older adults it is more difficult to assess change. The quantified TUG (QTUG) uses inertial sensors to detect test and gait parameters during the test. If it is to be used in the longitudinal assessment of older adults, it is important that we know which parameters are reliable and under which conditions. This study aims to examine the relative reliability of the QTUG over five consecutive days under single, motor and cognitive dual-task conditions. Twelve community dwelling older adults (10 females, mean age 74.17 (3.88)) performed the QTUG under three conditions for five consecutive days. The relative reliability of each of the gait parameters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC 3,1) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Five of the measures demonstrated excellent reliability (ICC>0.70) under all three conditions (time to complete test, walk time, number of gait cycles, number of steps and return from turn time). Measures of variability and turn derived parameters demonstrated weak reliability under all three conditions (ICC=0.05-0.49). For the most reliable parameters under single-task conditions, the addition of a cognitive task resulted in a reduction in reliability suggesting caution when interpreting results under these conditions. Certain sensor derived parameters during the QTUG test may provide an additional resource in the longitudinal assessment of older people and earlier identification of falls risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  19. Reproducibility and Reliability of Repeated Quantitative Fluorescence Angiography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nerup, Nikolaj; Knudsen, Kristine Bach Korsholm; Ambrus, Rikard

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: When using fluorescence angiography (FA) in perioperative perfusion assessment, repeated measures with re-injections of fluorescent dye (ICG) may be required. However, repeated injections may cause saturation of dye in the tissue, exceeding the limit of fluorescence intensity...... that the camera can detect. As the emission of fluorescence is dependent of the excitatory light intensity, reduction of this may solve the problem. The aim of the present study was to investigate the reproducibility and reliability of repeated quantitative FA during a reduction of excitatory light....

  20. Comparison of the reliability of subjective evaluation and quantitative measurements of MR signal intensity in inflammations of the intratemporal facial nerve; Vergleich der Reliabilitaet von subjektiver Beurteilung und quantitativer Messung der MR-Signalintensitaet bei Entzuendungen des intratemporalen N. facialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, B. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Neuroradiologie (Germany); Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Griesbeck, F. [Abt. Neurologie/Psychiatrie, Bundeswehrkrankenhaus Ulm (Germany); Stippich, C.; Sartor, K. [Abt. Neuroradiologie, Neurologische Klinik, Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany); Baehren, W. [Universitaetsklinikum Heidelberg, Abt. Neuroradiologie (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To compare in a single-blind study the reliability of quantitative measurements and subjective evaluations of contrast enhancement of the facial nerve in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis. Materials and Methods: Magnetic resonance images with a 0.7 mm slice thickness (surface coil) were obtained in patients with idiopathic facial paralysis before and after administration of Gd-DTPA, 0.1 mmol/kg. The five intratemporal segments of the facial nerve were quantitatively measured and subjectively assessed by five radiologists as to the degree of enhancement. The results were compared as to the reliability of both methods. Results: Using the quantitative measuring method, 175 measurements were calculated from a total of 350 regions of interest. At all 35 measured sites, the five quantitative measurements produced identical results. In contrast, the subjective assessment of the five radiologists arrived at a majority consensus in only 16 sites. A complete agreement was not reached for any measured site. Conclusion: The measured quantitative increase in signal intensity after administration of contrast medium is more reliable than subjective assessment. The quantitative method enables reproducible signal intensity measurements even for different window settings and can be easily and swiftly performed at the workstation. (orig.) [German] Untersuchungsziel: In einer einfach geblindeten Untersuchung sollte geprueft werden, wie hoch die Reliabilitaet der quantitativen Messung des Kontrastmittelanstieges im N. facialis bei idiopathischer Fazialisparese im Vergleich zur subjektiven Einschaetzung ist. Methodik: Bei 7 Patienten mit idiopathischer Fazialisparese wurde eine MRT in Duennschichttechnik (0,7 mm, nativ und nach Gabe von 0,1 mmol GdDTPA/kg) unter Verwendung einer Oberflaechenspule durchgefuehrt. 5 intratemporale Abschnitte des N. facialis wurden sowohl quantitativ als auch subjektiv durch 5 Radiologen beurteilt, und die Methoden wurden im Hinblick auf

  1. The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, C.T.

    1995-07-01

    This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.

  2. Review of Quantitative Software Reliability Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, T.L.; Yue, M.; Martinez-Guridi, M.; Lehner, J.

    2010-09-17

    The current U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process for digital systems rests on deterministic engineering criteria. In its 1995 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) policy statement, the Commission encouraged the use of PRA technology in all regulatory matters to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although many activities have been completed in the area of risk-informed regulation, the risk-informed analysis process for digital systems has not yet been satisfactorily developed. Since digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems are expected to play an increasingly important role in nuclear power plant (NPP) safety, the NRC established a digital system research plan that defines a coherent set of research programs to support its regulatory needs. One of the research programs included in the NRC's digital system research plan addresses risk assessment methods and data for digital systems. Digital I&C systems have some unique characteristics, such as using software, and may have different failure causes and/or modes than analog I&C systems; hence, their incorporation into NPP PRAs entails special challenges. The objective of the NRC's digital system risk research is to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems into NPP PRAs, and (2) using information on the risks of digital systems to support the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. For several years, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has worked on NRC projects to investigate methods and tools for the probabilistic modeling of digital systems, as documented mainly in NUREG/CR-6962 and NUREG/CR-6997. However, the scope of this research principally focused on hardware failures, with limited reviews of software failure experience and software reliability methods. NRC also sponsored research at the Ohio State University investigating the modeling of

  3. Quantitative reliability assessment for safety critical system software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Won; Kwon, Soon Man

    2005-01-01

    An essential issue in the replacement of the old analogue I and C to computer-based digital systems in nuclear power plants is the quantitative software reliability assessment. Software reliability models have been successfully applied to many industrial applications, but have the unfortunate drawback of requiring data from which one can formulate a model. Software which is developed for safety critical applications is frequently unable to produce such data for at least two reasons. First, the software is frequently one-of-a-kind, and second, it rarely fails. Safety critical software is normally expected to pass every unit test producing precious little failure data. The basic premise of the rare events approach is that well-tested software does not fail under normal routine and input signals, which means that failures must be triggered by unusual input data and computer states. The failure data found under the reasonable testing cases and testing time for these conditions should be considered for the quantitative reliability assessment. We will present the quantitative reliability assessment methodology of safety critical software for rare failure cases in this paper

  4. In-vivo quantitative measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    So far by positron CT, the quantitative analyses of oxygen consumption rate, blood flow distribution, glucose metabolic rate and so on have been carried out. The largest merit of using the positron CT is the observation and verification of mankind have become easy. Recently, accompanying the rapid development of the mapping tracers for central nervous receptors, the observation of many central nervous receptors by the positron CT has become feasible, and must expectation has been placed on the elucidation of brain functions. The conditions required for in vitro processes cannot be realized in strict sense in vivo. The quantitative measurement of in vivo tracer method is carried out by measuring the accumulation and movement of a tracer after its administration. The movement model of the mapping tracer for central nervous receptors is discussed. The quantitative analysis using a steady movement model, the measurement of dopamine receptors by reference method, the measurement of D 2 receptors using 11C-Racloprode by direct method, and the possibility of measuring dynamics bio-reaction are reported. (K.I.)

  5. Reliability of Composite Dichotomous Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2010), s. 103-109 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : reliability * binary data * logistic regression * Cronbach alpha * Rasch model * myocardial perfusion diagnosis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ejbi.cz/articles/201012/65/1.html

  6. The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Lohse, K R; Mayer, I M S; Strigaro, G; Desikan, M; Casula, E P; Meunier, S; Popa, T; Lamy, J-C; Odish, O; Leavitt, B R; Durr, A; Roos, R A C; Tabrizi, S J; Rothwell, J C; Boyd, L A; Orth, M

    Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that measures of threshold and latency would be the most reliable and least susceptible to methodological differences between study sites. Somatosensory evoked potentials from 112 control participants; long-latency reflexes, transcranial magnetic stimulation with resting and active motor thresholds, motor evoked potential latencies, input/output curves, and short-latency sensory afferent inhibition and facilitation from 84 controls were collected at 3 visits over 24 months at 4 Track-On HD study sites. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, and the effects of reliability on statistical power are demonstrated for different sample sizes and study designs. Measures quantifying latencies, thresholds, and evoked responses at high stimulator intensities had the highest reliability, and required the smallest sample sizes to adequately power a study. Very few between-site differences were detected. Reliability and susceptibility to between-site differences should be evaluated for electrophysiological measures before including them in study designs. Levels of reliability vary substantially across electrophysiological measures, though there are few between-site differences. To address this, reliability should be used in conjunction with theoretical calculations to inform sample size and ensure studies are adequately powered to detect true change in measures of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability of quantitative echocardiography in adult sheep and goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallowell Gayle D

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echocardiography is a non-invasive method for assessment of the ovine and caprine heart. Complete reference ranges for cardiac dimensions and time indices for both species are not currently available and reliability of these measurements has not been evaluated. The objectives for this study are to report reliability, normal cardiac dimensions and time indices in a large group of adult sheep and goats. Fifty-one adult sheep and forty adult goats were recruited. Full echocardiographic examinations were performed in the standing unsedated animal. All animals underwent echocardiography four times in a 72-hour period. Echocardiography was performed three times by one author and once by another. Images were stored and measured offline. Technique and measurement repeatability and reproducibility and any differences due to animal or day were evaluated. Reference ranges (mean ± 2 standard deviations were calculated for both species. Results Majority of the images obtained were of good to excellent quality. Image acquisition was straightforward with 5.4% of animals demonstrating a small scanning window. Reliability was excellent for majority of dimensions and time indices. There was less variation in repeatability when compared with reproducibility and differences were greater for technique than for measurements. Dimensions that were less reliable included those for right ventricular diameter and left ventricular free wall. There were many differences in cardiac dimensions between sheep and goats. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that specific reference ranges are required for these two species. Repeatability and reproducibility were excellent for the majority of cardiac dimensions and time indices suggesting that this technique is reliable and valuable for examination of clinical cases over time and for longitudinal research studies.

  8. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Geld, Pieter; Oosterveld, Paul; Schols, Jan; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie

    2011-02-01

    Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation according to a standard categorization are more practical for regular diagnostics. Our objective in this study was to compare 2 semiquantitative methods with quantitative measurements for reliability and agreement. The faces of 122 male participants were individually registered by using digital videography. Spontaneous and posed smiles were captured. On the records, maxillary lip line heights and tooth display were digitally measured on each tooth and also visually estimated according to 3-grade and 4-grade scales. Two raters were involved. An error analysis was performed. Reliability was established with kappa statistics. Interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability values were high, with median kappa values from 0.79 to 0.88. Agreement of the 3-grade scale estimation with quantitative measurement showed higher median kappa values (0.76) than the 4-grade scale estimation (0.66). Differentiating high and gummy smile lines (4-grade scale) resulted in greater inaccuracies. The estimation of a high, average, or low smile line for each tooth showed high reliability close to quantitative measurements. Smile line analysis can be performed reliably with a 3-grade scale (visual) semiquantitative estimation. For a more comprehensive diagnosis, additional measuring is proposed, especially in patients with disproportional gingival display. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Interrater reliability of quantitative ultrasound using force feedback among examiners with varied levels of experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael O. Harris-Love

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Quantitative ultrasound measures are influenced by multiple external factors including examiner scanning force. Force feedback may foster the acquisition of reliable morphometry measures under a variety of scanning conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of force-feedback image acquisition and morphometry over a range of examiner-generated forces using a muscle tissue-mimicking ultrasound phantom. Methods. Sixty material thickness measures were acquired from a muscle tissue mimicking phantom using B-mode ultrasound scanning by six examiners with varied experience levels (i.e., experienced, intermediate, and novice. Estimates of interrater reliability and measurement error with force feedback scanning were determined for the examiners. In addition, criterion-based reliability was determined using material deformation values across a range of examiner scanning forces (1–10 Newtons via automated and manually acquired image capture methods using force feedback. Results. All examiners demonstrated acceptable interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = .98, p .90, p < .001, independent of their level of experience. The measurement error among all examiners was 1.5%–2.9% across all applied stress conditions. Conclusion. Manual image capture with force feedback may aid the reliability of morphometry measures across a range of examiner scanning forces, and allow for consistent performance among examiners with differing levels of experience.

  10. Practical quantitative measures of ALARA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.; Larson, H.V.

    1982-06-01

    Twenty specific quantitative measures to assist in evaluating the effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) programs are described along with their applicability, practicality, advantages, disadvantages, and potential for misinterpretation or dortion. Although no single index or combination of indices is suitable for all facilities, generally, these five: (1) mean individual dose equivalent (MIDE) to the total body from penetrating radiations; (2) statistical distribution of MIDE to the whole body from penetrating radiations; (3) cumulative penetrating whole body dose equivalent; (4) MIDE evaluated by job classification; and (5) MIDE evaluated by work location-apply to most programs. Evaluation of other programs may require other specific dose equivalent based indices, including extremity exposure data, cumulative dose equivalent to organs or to the general population, and nonpenetrating radiation dose equivalents. Certain nondose equivalent indices, such as the size of the radiation or contamination area, may also be used; an airborne activity index based on air concentration, room volume, and radiotoxicity is developed for application in some ALARA programs

  11. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  12. Recommendations for certification or measurement of reliability for reliable digital archival repositories with emphasis on access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Ventura Amorim Gonçalez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the guidelines of ISO 16363: 2012 (Space data and information transfer systems -- Audit and certification of trustworthy digital repositories and the text of CONARQ Resolution 39 for certification of Reliable Digital Archival Repository (RDC-Arq, verify the technical recommendations should be used as the basis for a digital archival repository to be considered reliable. Objective: Identify requirements for the creation of Reliable Digital Archival Repositories with emphasis on access to information from the ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. Methodology: For the development of the study, the methodology consisted of an exploratory, descriptive and documentary theoretical investigation, since it is based on ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. From the perspective of the problem approach, the study is qualitative and quantitative, since the data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed from the interpretation of their contents. Results: We presented a set of Checklist Recommendations for reliability measurement and/or certification for RDC-Arq with a clipping focused on the identification of requirements with emphasis on access to information is presented. Conclusions: The right to information as well as access to reliable information is a premise for Digital Archival Repositories, so the set of recommendations is directed to archivists who work in Digital Repositories and wish to verify the requirements necessary to evaluate the reliability of the Digital Repository or still guide the information professional in collecting requirements for repository reliability certification.

  13. Reliability importance measures and their calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andsten, R.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of a component to the system reliability or availability and to the system failure rate can be measured by a number of importance measures. Such measures can be used to guide the system design improvement actions as well as the diagnostic and repair actions. This report develops relationships between several importance measures, illustrates their meaning with interpretations and applications, and describes the computer program called IMPO that calculates importance measures when the system minimum cat sets and component parameters are given. A user's manual is included with illustrative examples

  14. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability of a semi-quantitative method for dermal exposure assessment (DREAM)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, B. van; Hemmen, J.J. van; Meijster, T.; Major, V.; London, L.; Kromhout, H.

    2005-01-01

    Valid and reliable semi-quantitative dermal exposure assessment methods for epidemiological research and for occupational hygiene practice, applicable for different chemical agents, are practically nonexistent. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of a recently developed

  16. Quantitative Ultrasound Measurements at the Heel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugschies, M.; Brixen, K.; Hermann, P.

    2015-01-01

    Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound can be used to predict osteoporotic fracture risk, but its ability to monitor therapy is unclear possibly because of its limited precision. We developed a quantitative ultrasound device (foot ultrasound scanner) that measures the speed of sound at the heel...... with the foot ultrasound scanner reduced precision errors by half (p quantitative ultrasound measurements is feasible. (E-mail: m.daugschies@rad.uni-kiel.de) (C) 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology....

  17. Quantitative autoradiography - a method of radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treutler, H.C.; Freyer, K.

    1988-01-01

    In the last years the autoradiography has been developed to a quantitative method of radioactivity measurement. Operating techniques of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated using special standard objects. Influences of irradiation quality, of backscattering in sample and detector materials, and of sensitivity and fading of the detectors are considered. Furthermore, questions of quantitative evaluation of autoradiograms are dealt with, and measuring errors are discussed. Finally, some practical uses of quantitative autoradiography are demonstrated by means of the estimation of activity distribution in radioactive foil samples. (author)

  18. Automated reliability assessment for spectroscopic redshift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Vibert, D.; Schmitt, A.; Surace, C.; Copin, Y.; Garilli, B.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Future large-scale surveys, such as the ESA Euclid mission, will produce a large set of galaxy redshifts (≥106) that will require fully automated data-processing pipelines to analyze the data, extract crucial information and ensure that all requirements are met. A fundamental element in these pipelines is to associate to each galaxy redshift measurement a quality, or reliability, estimate. Aim. In this work, we introduce a new approach to automate the spectroscopic redshift reliability assessment based on machine learning (ML) and characteristics of the redshift probability density function. Methods: We propose to rephrase the spectroscopic redshift estimation into a Bayesian framework, in order to incorporate all sources of information and uncertainties related to the redshift estimation process and produce a redshift posterior probability density function (PDF). To automate the assessment of a reliability flag, we exploit key features in the redshift posterior PDF and machine learning algorithms. Results: As a working example, public data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey is exploited to present and test this new methodology. We first tried to reproduce the existing reliability flags using supervised classification in order to describe different types of redshift PDFs, but due to the subjective definition of these flags (classification accuracy 58%), we soon opted for a new homogeneous partitioning of the data into distinct clusters via unsupervised classification. After assessing the accuracy of the new clusters via resubstitution and test predictions (classification accuracy 98%), we projected unlabeled data from preliminary mock simulations for the Euclid space mission into this mapping to predict their redshift reliability labels. Conclusions: Through the development of a methodology in which a system can build its own experience to assess the quality of a parameter, we are able to set a preliminary basis of an automated reliability assessment for

  19. Reliability of reflectance measures in passive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva de André, Carmen Diva; Afonso de André, Paulo; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Carvalho de Oliveira, Regiani; Singer, Julio M.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of optical reflectance in passive filters impregnated with a reactive chemical solution may be transformed to ozone concentrations via a calibration curve and constitute a low cost alternative for environmental monitoring, mainly to estimate human exposure. Given the possibility of errors caused by exposure bias, it is common to consider sets of m filters exposed during a certain period to estimate the latent reflectance on n different sample occasions at a certain location. Mixed models with sample occasions as random effects are useful to analyze data obtained under such setups. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the mean of the m measurements is an indicator of the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates. Our objective is to determine m in order to obtain a pre-specified reliability of the estimates, taking possible outliers into account. To illustrate the procedure, we consider an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, University of São Paulo, Brazil (LPAE/FMUSP), where sets of m = 3 filters were exposed during 7 days on n = 9 different occasions at a certain location. The results show that the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates for each occasion obtained under homoskedasticity is km = 0.74. A residual analysis suggests that the within-occasion variance for two of the occasions should be different from the others. A refined model with two within-occasion variance components was considered, yielding km = 0.56 for these occasions and km = 0.87 for the remaining ones. To guarantee that all estimates have a reliability of at least 80% we require measurements on m = 10 filters on each occasion.

  20. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Regional reliability of quantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency (STAR) labeling of arterial regions (QUASAR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatewaki, Yasuko; Higano, Shuichi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Murata, Takaki; Mugikura, Shunji; Ito, Daisuke; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative signal targeting with alternating radiofrequency labeling of arterial regions (QUASAR) is a recent spin labeling technique that could improve the reliability of brain perfusion measurements. Although it is considered reliable for measuring gray matter as a whole, it has never been evaluated regionally. Here we assessed this regional reliability. Using a 3-Tesla Philips Achieva whole-body system, we scanned four times 10 healthy volunteers, in two sessions 2 weeks apart, to obtain QUASAR images. We computed perfusion images and ran a voxel-based analysis within all brain structures. We also calculated mean regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) within regions of interest configured for each arterial territory distribution. The mean CBF over whole gray matter was 37.74 with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of .70. In white matter, it was 13.94 with an ICC of .30. Voxel-wise ICC and coefficient-of-variation maps showed relatively lower reliability in watershed areas and white matter especially in deeper white matter. The absolute mean rCBF values were consistent with the ones reported from PET, as was the relatively low variability in different feeding arteries. Thus, QUASAR reliability for regional perfusion is high within gray matter, but uncertain within white matter. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Neuroimaging published by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  2. Survey of bayesian belif nets for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software used in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eom, H.S.; Sung, T.Y.; Jeong, H.S.; Park, J.H.; Kang, H.G.; Lee, K

    2001-03-01

    As part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of safety grade digital systems used in Nuclear Power plants research, measures and methodologies applicable to quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software were surveyed. Among the techniques proposed in the literature we selected those which are in use widely and investigated their limitations in quantitative software reliability assessment. One promising methodology from the survey is Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) which has a formalism and can combine various disparate evidences relevant to reliability into final decision under uncertainty. Thus we analyzed BBN and its application cases in digital systems assessment area and finally studied the possibility of its application to the quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software.

  3. Survey of bayesian belif nets for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K.

    2001-03-01

    As part of the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of safety grade digital systems used in Nuclear Power plants research, measures and methodologies applicable to quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software were surveyed. Among the techniques proposed in the literature we selected those which are in use widely and investigated their limitations in quantitative software reliability assessment. One promising methodology from the survey is Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) which has a formalism and can combine various disparate evidences relevant to reliability into final decision under uncertainty. Thus we analyzed BBN and its application cases in digital systems assessment area and finally studied the possibility of its application to the quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software

  4. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  5. Quantitative measures with WREX usage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shank, Tracy M; Wee, Jinyong; Ty, Jennifer; Rahman, Tariq

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of two surveys conducted with users of a functional upper extremity orthosis called the Wilmington Robotic EXoskeleton (WREX). The WREX is a passive anti-gravity arm orthosis that allows people with neuromuscular disabilities to move their arms in three dimensions. An online user survey with 55 patients was conducted to determine the benefits of the WREX. The survey asked 10 questions related to upper extremity function with and without the WREX as well as subjective impressions of the device. A second survey used a phone interview based on the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). Parents rated their child's performance and satisfaction while partaking in important activities both with and without the exoskeleton device. Scores were assessed for change between the two conditions. Twenty-five families responded to this survey. Twenty-four out of 25 subjects reported greater levels of performance and satisfaction when they were wearing the WREX. The mean change in performance score was 3.61 points, and the mean change in satisfaction score was 4.44 points. Results show a statistically significant improvement in arm function for everyday tasks with the WREX.

  6. Effect of small mapping population sizes on reliability of quantitative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is that accuracy of determining QTL position and effects are largely determined by population size. Despite the importance of this concept, known as the "Beavis effect there has generally been a lack of understanding by molecular geneticists and breeders. One possible ...

  7. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured

  8. The diagnostic reliability of the quantitative pivot-shift evaluation using an electromagnetic measurement system for anterior cruciate ligament deficiency was superior to those of the accelerometer and iPad image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshikazu; Hoshino, Yuichi; Miyaji, Nobuaki; Ibaragi, Kazuyuki; Nishida, Kyohei; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Araki, Daisuke; Kanzaki, Noriyuki; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2017-10-14

    Several non-invasive devices have been developed to obtain quantitative assessment of the pivot-shift test in clinical setting using similar but diverse measurement parameters. However, the clinical usability of those measurements has yet to be closely investigated and compared. The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of three non-invasive measurement devices for the pivot-shift test. Thirty patients with unilateral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury were enrolled. The pivot-shift test was performed under general anaesthesia. Three devices, an accelerometer system (KiRA), an image analysis iPad application (iPad), and electromagnetic measurement system (EMS), were used simultaneously to provide two parameters, namely tibial acceleration monitored using KiRA and EMS, and tibial translation recorded using iPad and EMS. Side-to-side differences in each parameter and correlation between the measurements were tested, and a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was conducted to compare their measurement accuracy. Significant side-to-side differences were successfully detected using any of the measurements (all p iPad and the EMS for the translation (r = 0.28; p iPad for tibial acceleration and translation, respectively. Although all three measurements were similarly capable of detecting ACL deficiency, the EMS has the advantage of comprehensive evaluation of the pivot-shift test by evaluating both tibial acceleration and translation with higher accuracy than those of KiRA and iPad. It could be suggested that any of those measurement tools might improve the clinical diagnosis of ACL insufficiency. Diagnostic study of consecutive patients with a universally applied gold standard, Level Ib.

  9. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  10. A quantitative approach to wind farm diversification and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degeilh, Yannick; Singh, Chanan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a general planning method to minimize the variance of aggregated wind farm power output by optimally distributing a predetermined number of wind turbines over a preselected number of potential wind farming sites. The objective is to facilitate high wind power penetration through the search for steadier overall power output. Another optimization formulation that takes into account the correlations between wind power outputs and load is also presented. Three years of wind data from the recent NREL/3TIER study in the western US provides the statistics for evaluating each site upon their mean power output, variance and correlation with each other so that the best allocations can be determined. The reliability study reported in this paper investigates the impact of wind power output variance reduction on a power system composed of a virtual wind power plant and a load modeled from the 1996 IEEE RTS. Some traditional reliability indices such as the LOLP are calculated and it is eventually shown that configurations featuring minimal global power output variances generally prove the most reliable provided the sites are not significantly correlated with the modeled load. Consequently, the choice of uncorrelated/negatively correlated sites is favored. (author)

  11. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  12. Electric Field Quantitative Measurement System and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method and system are provided for making a quantitative measurement of an electric field. A plurality of antennas separated from one another by known distances are arrayed in a region that extends in at least one dimension. A voltage difference between at least one selected pair of antennas is measured. Each voltage difference is divided by the known distance associated with the selected pair of antennas corresponding thereto to generate a resulting quantity. The plurality of resulting quantities defined over the region quantitatively describe an electric field therein.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative reliability analysis of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, R.; Rasmussen, N.; Wolf, L.

    1980-05-01

    A code has been developed for the comprehensive analysis of a fault tree. The code designated UNRAC (UNReliability Analysis Code) calculates the following characteristics of an input fault tree: (1) minimal cut sets; (2) top event unavailability as point estimate and/or in time dependent form; (3) quantitative importance of each component involved; and, (4) error bound on the top event unavailability. UNRAC can analyze fault trees, with any kind of gates (EOR, NAND, NOR, AND, OR), up to a maximum of 250 components and/or gates. The code is benchmarked against WAMCUT, MODCUT, KITT, BIT-FRANTIC, and PL-MODT. The results showed that UNRAC produces results more consistent with the KITT results than either BIT-FRANTIC or PL-MODT. Overall it is demonstrated that UNRAC is an efficient easy-to-use code and has the advantage of being able to do a complete fault tree analysis with this single code. Applications of fault tree analysis to safety studies of nuclear reactors are considered

  14. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Reliability measures in managing GI bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2012-06-01

    Multiple procedures and devices are used in a complex interplay to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. To model how a large variety of diagnostic and therapeutic components interact in the successful management of GI bleeding. The analysis uses the concept of reliability block diagrams from probability theory to model management outcome. Separate components of the management process are arranged in a serial or parallel fashion. If the outcome depends on the function of each component individually, such components are modeled to be arranged in series. If components complement each other and can mutually compensate for each of their failures, such components are arranged in a parallel fashion. General endoscopy practice. Patients with GI bleeding of unknown etiology. All available endoscopic and radiographic means to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. Process reliability in achieving hemostasis. Serial arrangements tend to reduce process reliability, whereas parallel arrangements increase it. Whenever possible, serial components should be bridged and complemented by additional alternative (parallel) routes of operation. Parallel components with low individual reliability can still contribute to overall process reliability as long as they function independently of other pre-existing alternatives. Probability of success associated with individual components is partly unknown. Modeling management of GI bleeding by a reliability block diagram provides a useful tool in assessing the impact of individual endoscopic techniques and administrative structures on the overall outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Limits of reliability for the measurement of integral count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbeszkorn, L.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for exact and approximate calculation of reliability limits of measured nuclear integral count. The formulae are applicable in measuring conditions which assure the Poisson distribution of the counts. The coefficients of the approximate formulae for 90, 95, 98 and 99 per cent reliability levels are given. The exact reliability limits for 90 per cent reliability level are calculated up to 80 integral counts. (R.J.)

  17. Radioimmunoassay to quantitatively measure cell surface immunoglobulins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishman, E.C.; Jewell, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay techniques developed to quantitatively measure the presence of immunoglobulins on the surface of cells, is described. The amount of immunoglobulins found on different tumor cells varied from 200 to 1140 ng/10 6 cells. Determination of immunoglobulins on the peripheral lymphocytes obtained from different cancer patients varied between 340 to 1040 ng/10 6 cells. Cultured tumor cells, on the other hand, were found to contain negligible quantities of human IgG [pt

  18. Quantitative tomographic measurements of opaque multiphase flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GEORGE,DARIN L.; TORCZYNSKI,JOHN R.; SHOLLENBERGER,KIM ANN; O' HERN,TIMOTHY J.; CECCIO,STEVEN L.

    2000-03-01

    An electrical-impedance tomography (EIT) system has been developed for quantitative measurements of radial phase distribution profiles in two-phase and three-phase vertical column flows. The EIT system is described along with the computer algorithm used for reconstructing phase volume fraction profiles. EIT measurements were validated by comparison with a gamma-densitometry tomography (GDT) system. The EIT system was used to accurately measure average solid volume fractions up to 0.05 in solid-liquid flows, and radial gas volume fraction profiles in gas-liquid flows with gas volume fractions up to 0.15. In both flows, average phase volume fractions and radial volume fraction profiles from GDT and EIT were in good agreement. A minor modification to the formula used to relate conductivity data to phase volume fractions was found to improve agreement between the methods. GDT and EIT were then applied together to simultaneously measure the solid, liquid, and gas radial distributions within several vertical three-phase flows. For average solid volume fractions up to 0.30, the gas distribution for each gas flow rate was approximately independent of the amount of solids in the column. Measurements made with this EIT system demonstrate that EIT may be used successfully for noninvasive, quantitative measurements of dispersed multiphase flows.

  19. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography can detect reliably ischemic coronary lesions based on fractional flow reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo-Young; Choi, Byoung-Joo; Lim, Seong-Hoon; Matsuo, Yoshiki; Lennon, Ryan J; Gulati, Rajiv; Sandhu, Gurpreet S; Holmes, David R; Rihal, Charanjit S; Lerman, Amir

    2015-06-01

    Conventional coronary angiography (CAG) has limitations in evaluating lesions producing ischemia. Three dimensional quantitative coronary angiography (3D-QCA) shows reconstructed images of CAG using computer based algorithm, the Cardio-op B system (Paieon Medical, Rosh Ha'ayin, Israel). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether 3D-QCA can reliably predict ischemia assessed by myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) < 0.80. 3D-QCA images were reconstructed from CAG which also were evaluated with FFR to assess ischemia. Minimal luminal diameter (MLD), percent diameter stenosis (%DS), minimal luminal area (MLA), and percent area stenosis (%AS) were obtained. The results of 3D-QCA and FFR were compared. A total of 266 patients was enrolled for the present study. FFR for all lesions ranged from 0.57 to 1.00 (0.85 ± 0.09). Measurement of MLD, %DS, MLA, and %AS all were significantly correlated with FFR (r = 0.569, 0609, 0.569, 0.670, respectively, all P < 0.001). In lesions with MLA < 4.0 mm(2), %AS of more than 65.5% had a 80% sensitivity and a 83% specificity to predict FFR < 0.80 (area under curve, AUC was 0.878). 3D-QCA can reliably predict coronary lesions producing ischemia and may be used to guide therapeutic approach for coronary artery disease.

  20. Reliability of Various Measurement Stations for Determining Plantar Fascia Thickness and Echogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Bisi-Balogun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of ultrasound (US measurements of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia (PF at different measurement stations along its length using a standardized protocol. Twelve healthy subjects (24 feet were enrolled. The PF was imaged in the longitudinal plane. Subjects were assessed twice to evaluate the intra-rater reliability. A quantitative evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia was performed using Image J, a digital image analysis and viewer software. A sonography evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the PF showed a high relative reliability with an Intra class correlation coefficient of ≥0.88 at all measurement stations. However, the measurement stations for both the PF thickness and echogenicity which showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs did not have the highest absolute reliability. Compared to other measurement stations, measuring the PF thickness at 3 cm distal and the echogenicity at a region of interest 1 cm to 2 cm distal from its insertion at the medial calcaneal tubercle showed the highest absolute reliability with the least systematic bias and random error. Also, the reliability was higher using a mean of three measurements compared to one measurement. To reduce discrepancies in the interpretation of the thickness and echogenicity measurements of the PF, the absolute reliability of the different measurement stations should be considered in clinical practice and research rather than the relative reliability with the ICC.

  1. Reliability of Various Measurement Stations for Determining Plantar Fascia Thickness and Echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Balogun, Adebisi; Cassel, Michael; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-13

    This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of ultrasound (US) measurements of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia (PF) at different measurement stations along its length using a standardized protocol. Twelve healthy subjects (24 feet) were enrolled. The PF was imaged in the longitudinal plane. Subjects were assessed twice to evaluate the intra-rater reliability. A quantitative evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia was performed using Image J, a digital image analysis and viewer software. A sonography evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the PF showed a high relative reliability with an Intra class correlation coefficient of ≥0.88 at all measurement stations. However, the measurement stations for both the PF thickness and echogenicity which showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) did not have the highest absolute reliability. Compared to other measurement stations, measuring the PF thickness at 3 cm distal and the echogenicity at a region of interest 1 cm to 2 cm distal from its insertion at the medial calcaneal tubercle showed the highest absolute reliability with the least systematic bias and random error. Also, the reliability was higher using a mean of three measurements compared to one measurement. To reduce discrepancies in the interpretation of the thickness and echogenicity measurements of the PF, the absolute reliability of the different measurement stations should be considered in clinical practice and research rather than the relative reliability with the ICC.

  2. TWO CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and validity are two most important and fundamental features in the evaluation of any measurement instrument or toll for a good research. The purpose of this research is to discuss the validity and reliability of measurement instruments that are used in research. Validity concerns what an instrument measures, and how well it does so. Reliability concerns the faith that one can have in the data obtained from use of an instrument, that is, the degree to which any measuring tool controls for random error. An attempt has been taken here to review the reliability and validity, and threat to them in some details.

  3. Verification of practicability of quantitative reliability evaluation method (De-BDA) in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kinshiro; Yukimachi, Takeo.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of methods have been applied to study of reliability analysis in which human factors are included in order to enhance the safety and availability of nuclear power plants. De-BDA (Detailed Block Diagram Analysis) is one of such mehtods developed with the objective of creating a more comprehensive and understandable tool for quantitative analysis of reliability associated with plant operations. The practicability of this method has been verified by applying it to reliability analysis of various phases of plant operation as well as evaluation of enhanced man-machine interface in the central control room. (author)

  4. Quantitative characterization of the reliability of simplex buses and stars to compare their benefits in fieldbuses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barranco, Manuel; Proenza, Julián; Almeida, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Fieldbuses targeted to highly dependable distributed embedded systems are shifting from bus to star topologies. Surprisingly, despite the efforts into this direction, engineers lack of analyses that quantitatively characterize the system reliability achievable by buses and stars. Thus, to guide engineers in developing adequate bus and star fieldbuses, this work models, quantifies and compares the system reliability provided by simplex buses and stars for the case of the Controller Area Network (CAN). It clarifies how relevant dependability-related aspects affect reliability, refuting some intuitive ideas, and revealing some previously unknown bus and star benefits. - Highlights: • SANs models that quantify the reliability of simplex buses/stars in fieldbuses. • Models cover system relevant dependability-related features abstracted in the literature. • Results refute intuitive ideas about buses and stars and show some unexpected effects. • Models and results can guide the design of reliable simplex bus/stars fieldbuses

  5. A Bayesian belief nets based quantitative software reliability assessment for PSA: COTS case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Sung, T. Y.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K

    2002-03-01

    Current reliability assessments of safety critical software embedded in the digital systems in nuclear power plants are based on the rule-based qualitative assessment methods. Then recently practical needs require the quantitative features of software reliability for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) that is one of important methods being used in assessing the whole safety of nuclear power plant. But conventional quantitative software reliability assessment methods are not enough to get the necessary results in assessing the safety critical software used in nuclear power plants. Thus, current reliability assessment methods for these digital systems exclude the software part or use arbitrary values for the software reliability in the assessment. This reports discusses a Bayesian Belief Nets (BBN) based quantification method that models current qualitative software assessment in formal way and produces quantitative results required for PSA. Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software dedication process that KAERI developed was applied to the discussed BBN based method for evaluating the plausibility of the proposed method in PSA

  6. Quantitative measurement of the cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houdart, R.; Mamo, H.; Meric, P.; Seylaz, J.

    1976-01-01

    The value of the cerebral blood flow measurement (CBF) is outlined, its limits are defined and some future prospects discussed. The xenon 133 brain clearance study is at present the most accurate quantitative method to evaluate the CBF in different regions of the brain simultaneously. The method and the progress it has led to in the physiological, physiopathological and therapeutic fields are described. The major disadvantage of the method is shown to be the need to puncture the internal carotid for each measurement. Prospects are discussed concerning methods derived from the same general principle but using a simpler, non-traumatic way to introduce the radio-tracer, either by breathing into the lungs or intraveinously [fr

  7. How to Measure the Onset of Babbling Reliably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molemans, Inge; van den Berg, Renate; van Severen, Lieve; Gillis, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Various measures for identifying the onset of babbling have been proposed in the literature, but a formal definition of the exact procedure and a thorough validation of the sample size required for reliably establishing babbling onset is lacking. In this paper the reliability of five commonly used measures is assessed using a large longitudinal…

  8. Peer Evaluation Can Reliably Measure Local Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Pyhälä, Aili

    2016-01-01

    We assess the consistency of measures of individual local ecological knowledge obtained through peer evaluation against three standard measures: identification tasks, structured questionnaires, and self-reported skills questionnaires. We collected ethnographic information among the Baka (Congo), the Punan (Borneo), and the Tsimane' (Amazon) to…

  9. A quantitative method for measuring the quality of history matches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, T.S. [Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States); Knapp, R.M. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    1997-08-01

    History matching can be an efficient tool for reservoir characterization. A {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} history matching job can generate reliable reservoir parameters. However, reservoir engineers are often frustrated when they try to select a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} match from a series of history matching runs. Without a quantitative measurement, it is always difficult to tell the difference between a {open_quotes}good{close_quotes} and a {open_quotes}better{close_quotes} matches. For this reason, we need a quantitative method for testing the quality of matches. This paper presents a method for such a purpose. The method uses three statistical indices to (1) test shape conformity, (2) examine bias errors, and (3) measure magnitude of deviation. The shape conformity test insures that the shape of a simulated curve matches that of a historical curve. Examining bias errors assures that model reservoir parameters have been calibrated to that of a real reservoir. Measuring the magnitude of deviation assures that the difference between the model and the real reservoir parameters is minimized. The method was first tested on a hypothetical model and then applied to published field studies. The results showed that the method can efficiently measure the quality of matches. It also showed that the method can serve as a diagnostic tool for calibrating reservoir parameters during history matching.

  10. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability Using Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  11. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability using Smartcard Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  12. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  13. Quantitative evaluation of the impact of human reliability in risk assessment for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    The role of human beings in the safe operation of a nuclear power plant has been a matter of concern. This study describes methods for the quantitative description of that role and its impact on the risk from nuclear power plants. The impact of human errors was calculated by observing the changes in risk parameters, such as core melt probability, release category probabilities, accident sequence probabilities and system unavailabilities due to changes in the contribution to unavailablity of human errors, within the framework of risk assessment methodology. It was found that for operational pressurized water reactors the opportunity for reduction in core melt probability by reducing the human error rates without simultaneous reduction of hardware failures is limited, but that core melt probability would significantly increase as human error rates increased. More importantly, most of the dominant accident sequences showed a significant increase in their probabilities with an increase in human error rates. Release categories resulting in high consequences showed a much larger sensitivity to human errors than categories resulting in low consequences. A combination of structural importance and reliability importance measure was used to describe the importance of individual errors

  14. Quantitative Measurements using Ultrasound Vector Flow Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2016-01-01

    scanner for pulsating flow mimicking the femoral artery from a CompuFlow 1000 pump (Shelley Medical). Data were used in four estimators based on directional transverse oscillation for velocity, flow angle, volume flow, and turbulence estimation and their respective precisions. An adaptive lag scheme gave...... the ability to estimate a large velocity range, or alternatively measure at two sites to find e.g. stenosis degree in a vessel. The mean angle at the vessel center was estimated to 90.9◦±8.2◦ indicating a laminar flow from a turbulence index being close to zero (0.1 ±0.1). Volume flow was 1.29 ±0.26 mL/stroke...... (true: 1.15 mL/stroke, bias: 12.2%). Measurements down to 160 mm were obtained with a relative standard deviation and bias of less than 10% for the lateral component for stationary, parabolic flow. The method can, thus, find quantitative velocities, angles, and volume flows at sites currently...

  15. Quantitative biological measurement in Transmission Electron Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantell, Judith M; Verkade, Paul; Arkill, Kenton P

    2012-01-01

    It has been known for some time that biological sections shrink in the transmission electron microscope from exposure to the electron beam. This phenomenon is especially important in Electron Tomography (ET). The effect on shrinkage of parameters such as embedding medium or sample type is less well understood. In addition anisotropic area shrinkage has largely been ignored. The intention of this study is to explore the shrinkage on a number of samples ranging in thickness from 200 nm to 500 nm. A protocol was developed to determine the shrinkage in area and thickness using the gold fiducials used in electron tomography. In brief: Using low dose philosophy on the section, a focus area was used prior to a separate virgin study area for a series of known exposures on a tilted sample. The shrinkage was determined by measurements on the gold beads from both sides of the section as determined by a confirmatory tomogram. It was found that the shrinkage in area (approximately to 90-95% of the original) and the thickness (approximately 65% of the original at most) agreed with pervious authors, but that a lmost all the shrinkage was in the first minute and that although the direction of the in-plane shrinkage (in x and y) was sometimes uneven the end result was consistent. It was observed, in general, that thinner samples showed more percentage shrinkage than thicker ones. In conclusion, if direct quantitative measurements are required then the protocol described should be used for all areas studied.

  16. Quantitative biological measurement in Transmission Electron Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, Judith M.; Verkade, Paul; Arkill, Kenton P.

    2012-07-01

    It has been known for some time that biological sections shrink in the transmission electron microscope from exposure to the electron beam. This phenomenon is especially important in Electron Tomography (ET). The effect on shrinkage of parameters such as embedding medium or sample type is less well understood. In addition anisotropic area shrinkage has largely been ignored. The intention of this study is to explore the shrinkage on a number of samples ranging in thickness from 200 nm to 500 nm. A protocol was developed to determine the shrinkage in area and thickness using the gold fiducials used in electron tomography. In brief: Using low dose philosophy on the section, a focus area was used prior to a separate virgin study area for a series of known exposures on a tilted sample. The shrinkage was determined by measurements on the gold beads from both sides of the section as determined by a confirmatory tomogram. It was found that the shrinkage in area (approximately to 90-95% of the original) and the thickness (approximately 65% of the original at most) agreed with pervious authors, but that a lmost all the shrinkage was in the first minute and that although the direction of the in-plane shrinkage (in x and y) was sometimes uneven the end result was consistent. It was observed, in general, that thinner samples showed more percentage shrinkage than thicker ones. In conclusion, if direct quantitative measurements are required then the protocol described should be used for all areas studied.

  17. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). This article aimed at discussing both reliability and inequality measures from the Weimal distribution. The work has derived and discussed theoretically, expressions for the survival and hazard function of the Weimal distribution. The ordinary ...

  18. A test chip for automatic reliability measurements of interconnect vias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, K.; Hasper, A.; Elfrink, G.W.; Niehof, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A test circuit for electromigration reliability measurements was designed and tested. The device under test (DUT) is a via-hole chain. The test circuit permits simultaneous measurements of a number of DUTs, and a fatal error of one DUT does not influence the measurement results of the other DUTs.

  19. Connecting qualitative observation and quantitative measurement for enhancing quantitative literacy in plant anatomy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahmat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Forming of cognitive schemes of plant anatomy concepts is performed by processing of qualitative and quantitative data obtained from microscopic observations. To enhancing student’s quantitative literacy, strategy of plant anatomy course was modified by adding the task to analyze quantitative data produced by quantitative measurement of plant anatomy guided by material course. Participant in this study was 24 biology students and 35 biology education students. Quantitative Literacy test, complex thinking in plant anatomy test and questioner used to evaluate the course. Quantitative literacy capability data was collected by quantitative literacy test with the rubric from the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Complex thinking in plant anatomy by test according to Marzano and questioner. Quantitative literacy data are categorized according to modified Rhodes and Finley categories. The results showed that quantitative literacy of biology education students is better than biology students.

  20. Enhancement of the reliability of automated ultrasonic inspections using tools of quantitative NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kappes, W.; Baehr, W.; Kroening, M.; Schmitz, V.

    1994-01-01

    To achieve reliable test results from automated ultrasonic inspection of safety related components, optimization and integral consideration of the various inspection stages - inspection planning, inspection performance and evaluation of results - are indispensable. For this purpose, a large potential of methods is available: advanced measurement techniques, mathematical-numerical modelling processes, artificial intelligence tools, data bases and CAD systems. The potential inherent in these methods to enhance inspection reliability is outlined by way of different applications. (orig.) [de

  1. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijens, Laura; Barikroo, Ali; Pilz, Walmari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables

  2. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  3. Using LISREL to Evaluate Measurement Models and Scale Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, John; Benson, Jeri

    1987-01-01

    LISREL program was used to examine measurement model assumptions and to assess reliability of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Form B. Data on 722 third-sixth graders from over 70 schools in large urban school district were used. LISREL program assessed (1) nature of basic measurement model for scale, (2) scale invariance across…

  4. Test-retest Agreement and Reliability of Quantitative Sensory Testing 1 Year After Breast Cancer Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kenneth Geving; Kehlet, Henrik; Aasvang, Eske Kvanner

    2015-01-01

    .5 SD) than within-patient variation (0.23 to 3.55 SD). There were no significant differences between pain and pain-free patients. The individual test-retest variability was higher on the operated side compared with the nonoperated side. DISCUSSION: The QST protocol reliability allows for group......OBJECTIVES: Quantitative sensory testing (QST) is used to assess sensory dysfunction and nerve damage by examining psychophysical responses to controlled, graded stimuli such as mechanical and thermal detection and pain thresholds. In the breast cancer population, 4 studies have used QST to examine...... persistent pain after breast cancer treatment, suggesting neuropathic pain being a prominent pain mechanism. However, the agreement and reliability of QST has not been described in the postsurgical breast cancer population, hindering exact interpretation of QST studies in this population. The aim...

  5. Quantitative gait analysis under dual-task in older people with mild cognitive impairment: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gutmanis Iris

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reliability of quantitative gait assessment while dual-tasking (walking while doing a secondary task such as talking in people with cognitive impairment is unknown. Dual-tasking gait assessment is becoming highly important for mobility research with older adults since better reflects their performance in the basic activities of daily living. Our purpose was to establish the test-retest reliability of assessing quantitative gait variables using an electronic walkway in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI under single and dual-task conditions. Methods The gait performance of 11 elderly individuals with MCI was evaluated using an electronic walkway (GAITRite® System in two sessions, one week apart. Six gait parameters (gait velocity, step length, stride length, step time, stride time, and double support time were assessed under two conditions: single-task (sG: usual walking and dual-task (dG: counting backwards from 100 while walking. Test-retest reliability was determined using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC. Gait variability was measured using coefficient of variation (CoV. Results Eleven participants (average age = 76.6 years, SD = 7.3 were assessed. They were high functioning (Clinical Dementia Rating Score = 0.5 with a mean Mini-Mental Status Exam (MMSE score of 28 (SD = 1.56, and a mean Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA score of 22.8 (SD = 1.23. Under dual-task conditions, mean gait velocity (GV decreased significantly (sGV = 119.11 ± 20.20 cm/s; dGV = 110.88 ± 19.76 cm/s; p = 0.005. Additionally, under dual-task conditions, higher gait variability was found on stride time, step time, and double support time. Test-retest reliability was high (ICC>0.85 for the six parameters evaluated under both conditions. Conclusion In older people with MCI, variability of time-related gait parameters increased with dual-tasking suggesting cognitive control of gait performance. Assessment of quantitative gait

  6. Reliability-guided digital image correlation for image deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bing

    2009-01-01

    A universally applicable reliability-guided digital image correlation (DIC) method is proposed for reliable image deformation measurement. The zero-mean normalized cross correlation (ZNCC) coefficient is used to identify the reliability of the point computed. The correlation calculation begins with a seed point and is then guided by the ZNCC coefficient. That means the neighbors of the point with the highest ZNCC coefficient in a queue for computed points will be processed first. Thus the calculation path is always along the most reliable direction, and possible error propagation of the conventional DIC method can be avoided. The proposed novel DIC method is universally applicable to the images with shadows, discontinuous areas, and deformation discontinuity. Two image pairs were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, and the successful results clearly demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness

  7. The Relationship between Quantitative and Qualitative Measures of Writing Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howerton, Mary Lou P.; And Others

    The relationships of quantitative measures of writing skills to overall writing quality as measured by the E.T.S. Composition Evaluation Scale (CES) were examined. Quantitative measures included indices of language productivity, vocabulary diversity, spelling, and syntactic maturity. Power of specific indices to account for variation in overall…

  8. Reliable gene expression analysis by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR: reporting and minimizing the uncertainty in data accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remans, Tony; Keunen, Els; Bex, Geert Jan; Smeets, Karen; Vangronsveld, Jaco; Cuypers, Ann

    2014-10-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely adopted to measure differences in mRNA levels; however, biological and technical variation strongly affects the accuracy of the reported differences. RT-qPCR specialists have warned that, unless researchers minimize this variability, they may report inaccurate differences and draw incorrect biological conclusions. The Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines describe procedures for conducting and reporting RT-qPCR experiments. The MIQE guidelines enable others to judge the reliability of reported results; however, a recent literature survey found low adherence to these guidelines. Additionally, even experiments that use appropriate procedures remain subject to individual variation that statistical methods cannot correct. For example, since ideal reference genes do not exist, the widely used method of normalizing RT-qPCR data to reference genes generates background noise that affects the accuracy of measured changes in mRNA levels. However, current RT-qPCR data reporting styles ignore this source of variation. In this commentary, we direct researchers to appropriate procedures, outline a method to present the remaining uncertainty in data accuracy, and propose an intuitive way to select reference genes to minimize uncertainty. Reporting the uncertainty in data accuracy also serves for quality assessment, enabling researchers and peer reviewers to confidently evaluate the reliability of gene expression data. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative Method of Measuring Metastatic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated uroldnase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  10. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  11. Reliable reference miRNAs for quantitative gene expression analysis of stress responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kagias, Konstantinos; Podolska, Agnieszka; Pocock, Roger David John

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the "gold standard" for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data.......Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the "gold standard" for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data....

  12. Comprehensive Comparison of Self-Administered Questionnaires for Measuring Quantitative Autistic Traits in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Takeshi; Suzuki, Masako; Adachi, Katsunori; Sumi, Satoshi; Okada, Kensuke; Kishino, Hirohisa; Sakai, Saeko; Kamio, Yoko; Kojima, Masayo; Suzuki, Sadao; Kanne, Stephen M.

    2014-01-01

    We comprehensively compared all available questionnaires for measuring quantitative autistic traits (QATs) in terms of reliability and construct validity in 3,147 non-clinical and 60 clinical subjects with normal intelligence. We examined four full-length forms, the Subthreshold Autism Trait Questionnaire (SATQ), the Broader Autism Phenotype…

  13. Test-retest reliability for aerodynamic measures of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and

  14. Measures for a reliable and environmental power supply. Massnahmen fuer eine sichere und umweltvertraegliche Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J

    1978-01-01

    This brochure, supplement and final part of a 1976 DIW study (Reliability, Pricing, and Environmental Aspects of Power Supply), presents the necessary technical and energy policy measures required for achieving certain goals in energy policy. Present and future measures taken in West Germany are presented. Effects and consequences of these steps are investigated, although a quantitative analysis was only possible in a few cases. Measures for ensuring the energy supply are listed according to energy sources; measures to reduce environmental pollution deal with pollutant emissions, thermal pollution, optical and acoustic load factors, and energy conservation.

  15. Nanoscale deformation measurements for reliability assessment of material interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gollhardt, Astrid; Vogel, Dietmar; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    With the development and application of micro/nano electronic mechanical systems (MEMS, NEMS) for a variety of market segments new reliability issues will arise. The understanding of material interfaces is the key for a successful design for reliability of MEMS/NEMS and sensor systems. Furthermore in the field of BIOMEMS newly developed advanced materials and well known engineering materials are combined despite of fully developed reliability concepts for such devices and components. In addition the increasing interface-to volume ratio in highly integrated systems and nanoparticle filled materials are challenges for experimental reliability evaluation. New strategies for reliability assessment on the submicron scale are essential to fulfil the needs of future devices. In this paper a nanoscale resolution experimental method for the measurement of thermo-mechanical deformation at material interfaces is introduced. The determination of displacement fields is based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. In-situ SPM scans of the analyzed object (i.e. material interface) are carried out at different thermo-mechanical load states. The obtained images are compared by grayscale cross correlation algorithms. This allows the tracking of local image patterns of the analyzed surface structure. The measurement results are full-field displacement fields with nanometer resolution. With the obtained data the mixed mode type of loading at material interfaces can be analyzed with highest resolution for future needs in micro system and nanotechnology.

  16. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamagchii, Kechiro; Lassen, Anders; Ring, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Yamaguchi, K., Lassen, A. And Ring, P. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging. Abstract at ESMRMB98 European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, Geneva, Sept 17-20, 1998 Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital...

  17. Efficiency criteria for high reliability measured system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of structural redundancy are usually used to develop high reliability measured systems. To estimate efficiency of such structures the criteria to compare different systems has been developed. So it is possible to develop more exact system by inspection of redundant system data unit stochastic characteristics in accordance with the developed criteria [ru

  18. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  19. Evaluation of airway protection: Quantitative timing measures versus penetration/aspiration score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A

    2017-10-01

    Quantitative measures of swallowing function may improve the reliability and accuracy of modified barium swallow (MBS) study interpretation. Quantitative study analysis has not been widely instituted, however, secondary to concerns about the time required to make measures and a lack of research demonstrating impact on MBS interpretation. This study compares the accuracy of the penetration/aspiration (PEN/ASP) scale (an observational visual-perceptual assessment tool) to quantitative measures of airway closure timing relative to the arrival of the bolus at the upper esophageal sphincter in identifying a failure of airway protection during deglutition. Retrospective review of clinical swallowing data from a university-based outpatient clinic. Swallowing data from 426 patients were reviewed. Patients with normal PEN/ASP scores were identified, and the results of quantitative airway closure timing measures for three liquid bolus sizes were evaluated. The incidence of significant airway closure delay with and without a normal PEN/ASP score was determined. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measures was calculated. In patients with a normal PEN/ASP score, 33% demonstrated a delay in airway closure on at least one swallow during the MBS study. There was no correlation between PEN/ASP score and airway closure delay. Inter-rater reliability for the quantitative measure of airway closure timing was nearly perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.973). The use of quantitative measures of swallowing function, in conjunction with traditional visual perceptual methods of MBS study interpretation, improves the identification of airway closure delay, and hence, potential aspiration risk, even when no penetration or aspiration is apparent on the MBS study. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:2314-2318, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Precision of lumbar intervertebral measurements: does a computer-assisted technique improve reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam M; Spratt, Kevin F; Genuario, James; McGough, William; Kosman, Katherine; Lurie, Jon; Sengupta, Dilip K

    2011-04-01

    Comparison of intra- and interobserver reliability of digitized manual and computer-assisted intervertebral motion measurements and classification of "instability." To determine if computer-assisted measurement of lumbar intervertebral motion on flexion-extension radiographs improves reliability compared with digitized manual measurements. Many studies have questioned the reliability of manual intervertebral measurements, although few have compared the reliability of computer-assisted and manual measurements on lumbar flexion-extension radiographs. Intervertebral rotation, anterior-posterior (AP) translation, and change in anterior and posterior disc height were measured with a digitized manual technique by three physicians and by three other observers using computer-assisted quantitative motion analysis (QMA) software. Each observer measured 30 sets of digital flexion-extension radiographs (L1-S1) twice. Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients for intra- and interobserver reliabilities were computed. The stability of each level was also classified (instability defined as >4 mm AP translation or 10° rotation), and the intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the two methods were compared using adjusted percent agreement (APA). Intraobserver reliability intraclass correlation coefficients were substantially higher for the QMA technique THAN the digitized manual technique across all measurements: rotation 0.997 versus 0.870, AP translation 0.959 versus 0.557, change in anterior disc height 0.962 versus 0.770, and change in posterior disc height 0.951 versus 0.283. The same pattern was observed for interobserver reliability (rotation 0.962 vs. 0.693, AP translation 0.862 vs. 0.151, change in anterior disc height 0.862 vs. 0.373, and change in posterior disc height 0.730 vs. 0.300). The QMA technique was also more reliable for the classification of "instability." Intraobserver APAs ranged from 87 to 97% for QMA versus 60% to 73% for digitized manual

  1. A quantitative measure of myelination development in infants, using MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmody, Dennis P. [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Dunn, Stanley M.; Boddie-Willis, Akiza S. [The State University of New Jersey, Rutgers, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); DeMarco, J. Kevin [Laurie Imaging Center, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Lewis, Michael [Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Institute for the Study of Child Development, New Brunswick (United States)

    2004-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure myelination of frontal lobe changes in infants and young children. Twenty-four cases of infants and children (age range 12-121 months) were evaluated by a quantitative assessment of T2-weighted MR image features. Reliable quantitative changes between white and gray matter correlated with developmental age in a group of children with no neurological findings. Myelination appears to be an increasing exponential function with the greatest rate of change occurring over the first 3 years of life. The quantitative changes observed were in accordance with previous qualitative judgments of myelination development. Children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) showed delays in achieving levels of myelination when compared to normal children and adjusted for chronological age. The quantitative measure of myelination development may prove to be useful in assessing the stages of development and helpful in the quantitative descriptions of white matter disorders such as PVL. (orig.)

  2. A quantitative measure of myelination development in infants, using MR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmody, Dennis P.; Dunn, Stanley M.; Boddie-Willis, Akiza S.; DeMarco, J. Kevin; Lewis, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure myelination of frontal lobe changes in infants and young children. Twenty-four cases of infants and children (age range 12-121 months) were evaluated by a quantitative assessment of T2-weighted MR image features. Reliable quantitative changes between white and gray matter correlated with developmental age in a group of children with no neurological findings. Myelination appears to be an increasing exponential function with the greatest rate of change occurring over the first 3 years of life. The quantitative changes observed were in accordance with previous qualitative judgments of myelination development. Children with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) showed delays in achieving levels of myelination when compared to normal children and adjusted for chronological age. The quantitative measure of myelination development may prove to be useful in assessing the stages of development and helpful in the quantitative descriptions of white matter disorders such as PVL. (orig.)

  3. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  4. Techniques, processes, and measures for software safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed survey of current recommended practices and measurement techniques for the development of reliable and safe software-based systems. This report is intended to assist the United States Nuclear Reaction Regulation (NRR) in determining the importance and maturity of the available techniques and in assessing the relevance of individual standards for application to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power generating stations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides technical support for the Instrumentation and Control System Branch (ICSB) of NRRin advanced instrumentation and control systems, distributed digital systems, software reliability, and the application of verificafion and validafion for the development of software

  5. Smile line assessment comparing quantitative measurement and visual estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geld, P. Van der; Oosterveld, P.; Schols, J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Esthetic analysis of dynamic functions such as spontaneous smiling is feasible by using digital videography and computer measurement for lip line height and tooth display. Because quantitative measurements are time-consuming, digital videography and semiquantitative (visual) estimation

  6. A new measurement of workload in Web application reliability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Xia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Web application has been popular in various fields of social life.It becomes more and more important to study the reliability of Web application.In this paper the definition of Web application failure is firstly brought out,and then the definition of Web application reliability.By analyzing data in the IIS server logs and selecting corresponding usage and information delivery failure data,the paper study the feasibility of Web application reliability assessment from the perspective of Web software system based on IIS server logs.Because the usage for a Web site often has certain regularity,a new measurement of workload in Web application reliability assessment is raised.In this method,the unit is removed by weighted average technique;and the weights are assessed by setting objective function and optimization.Finally an experiment was raised for validation.The experiment result shows the assessment of Web application reliability base on the new workload is better.

  7. Reliability of the craniocervical posture assessment: visual and angular measurements using photographs and radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Inae C; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Silveira, Anelise; Magee, David

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the craniocervical posture in a sagittal view using quantitative measurements on photographs and radiographs and to determine the agreement of the visual assessment of posture between raters. One photograph and 1 radiograph of the sagittal craniocervical posture were simultaneously taken from 39 healthy female subjects. Three angles were measured on the photographs and 10 angles on the radiographs of 22 subjects using Alcimage software (Alcimage; Uberlândia, MG, Brazil). Two repeated measurements were performed by 2 raters. The measurements were compared within and between raters to test the intrarater and interrater reliability, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient and SEM were used. κ Agreement was calculated for the visual assessment of 39 subjects using photographs and radiographs between 2 raters. Good to excellent intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficient values were found on both photographs and radiographs. Interrater SEM was large and clinically significant for cervical lordosis photogrammetry and for 1 angle measuring cervical lordosis on radiographs. Interrater κ agreement for the visual assessment using photographs was poor (κ = 0.37). The raters were reliable to measure angles in photographs and radiographs to quantify craniocervical posture with exception of 2 angles measuring lordosis of the cervical spine when compared between raters. The visual assessment of posture between raters was not reliable. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability of impedance cardiography in measuring central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Bonde, J; Stadeager, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to investigate the reliability of impedance cardiography (IC) in measuring cardiac output (CO) and central blood volume. Absolute values and changes in these variables obtained by impedance cardiography and by isotope- or thermodilution techniques were...... suitable for repeated measurements in studies on the haemodynamic effects of physiological or pharmacological intervention. Impedance cardiography is sufficiently reliable for comparison of absolute values of CO between different groups of patients. We cannot recommend impedance cardiography...... healthy subjects and in 25 unmedicated patients with ischaemic heart disease. We obtained significant correlations between absolute values (y = 0.68x + 1.48) and changes (y = 1.00x + 0.0003) in CO measured by IC and isotope- or thermodilution. IC significantly overestimated absolute values of CO (P less...

  9. Reliability of multiparametric prostatic MRI quantitative data in the evaluation of prostate cancer aggressiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haisam Atta

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the quantitative data of multiparametric prostatic MRI with Gleason scores of histopathological analysis. Materials and methods: One hundred twenty-two patients performed Multiparametric MRI of the prostate. Functional MRI quantitative data (including diffusion with mean ADC value and spectroscopic metabolic ratio where the DWI is employing b 50, 400, 800, 1000 and 2000 sec/mm2 and multivoxel MR spectroscopy compared with of Gleason scores of histopathological results. Malignant cases are classified into three groups according to their Gleason score as group I with Gleason score ≤6, group II Gleason score 7, while Gleason score 8–10 stratified as Group III. Results: The histopathological analysis reveals 78 malignant cases and 44 benign Cases. The significant statistical difference between group I and the other two groups (p < 0.001 regarding the quantitative mean ADC value and metabolic spectroscopic ratio. No significant statistical difference between group II and III with p = 0.2 for mean ADC difference and p = 0.8 for the metabolic spectroscopic ratio with a weak negative correlation between ADCand Gleason score [rs = −0.26] and significant positive correlation (p = 0.02 for MRSI metabolic ratio [rs = 0.2]. Conclusion: The quantitative data of functional imaging of the prostate is reliable in evaluating prostatic cancer aggressiveness and proper construction of therapeutic plan. Keywords: mpMRI prostate cancer aggressiveness

  10. A fast and reliable readout method for quantitative analysis of surface-enhanced Raman scattering nanoprobes on chip surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hyejin; Jeong, Sinyoung; Ko, Eunbyeol; Jeong, Dae Hong, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Homan [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yoon-Sik, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Interdisciplinary Program in Nano-Science and Technology, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ho-Young, E-mail: yslee@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: debobkr@gmail.com, E-mail: jeongdh@snu.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering techniques have been widely used for bioanalysis due to its high sensitivity and multiplex capacity. However, the point-scanning method using a micro-Raman system, which is the most common method in the literature, has a disadvantage of extremely long measurement time for on-chip immunoassay adopting a large chip area of approximately 1-mm scale and confocal beam point of ca. 1-μm size. Alternative methods such as sampled spot scan with high confocality and large-area scan method with enlarged field of view and low confocality have been utilized in order to minimize the measurement time practically. In this study, we analyzed the two methods in respect of signal-to-noise ratio and sampling-led signal fluctuations to obtain insights into a fast and reliable readout strategy. On this basis, we proposed a methodology for fast and reliable quantitative measurement of the whole chip area. The proposed method adopted a raster scan covering a full area of 100 μm × 100 μm region as a proof-of-concept experiment while accumulating signals in the CCD detector for single spectrum per frame. One single scan with 10 s over 100 μm × 100 μm area yielded much higher sensitivity compared to sampled spot scanning measurements and no signal fluctuations attributed to sampled spot scan. This readout method is able to serve as one of key technologies that will bring quantitative multiplexed detection and analysis into practice.

  11. Reference gene identification for reliable normalisation of quantitative RT-PCR data in Setaria viridis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duc Quan; Eamens, Andrew L; Grof, Christopher P L

    2018-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the key platform for the quantitative analysis of gene expression in a wide range of experimental systems and conditions. However, the accuracy and reproducibility of gene expression quantification via RT-qPCR is entirely dependent on the identification of reliable reference genes for data normalisation. Green foxtail ( Setaria viridis ) has recently been proposed as a potential experimental model for the study of C 4 photosynthesis and is closely related to many economically important crop species of the Panicoideae subfamily of grasses, including Zea mays (maize), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum) and Sacchurum officinarum (sugarcane). Setaria viridis (Accession 10) possesses a number of key traits as an experimental model, namely; (i) a small sized, sequenced and well annotated genome; (ii) short stature and generation time; (iii) prolific seed production, and; (iv) is amendable to Agrobacterium tumefaciens -mediated transformation. There is currently however, a lack of reference gene expression information for Setaria viridis ( S. viridis ). We therefore aimed to identify a cohort of suitable S. viridis reference genes for accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. Eleven putative candidate reference genes were identified and examined across thirteen different S. viridis tissues. Of these, the geNorm and NormFinder analysis software identified SERINE / THERONINE - PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A ( PP2A ), 5 '- ADENYLYLSULFATE REDUCTASE 6 ( ASPR6 ) and DUAL SPECIFICITY PHOSPHATASE ( DUSP ) as the most suitable combination of reference genes for the accurate and reliable normalisation of S. viridis RT-qPCR expression data. To demonstrate the suitability of the three selected reference genes, PP2A , ASPR6 and DUSP , were used to normalise the expression of CINNAMYL ALCOHOL DEHYDROGENASE ( CAD ) genes across the same tissues. This approach readily demonstrated the suitably of the three

  12. Reliability and relationship of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Soyeon; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-09-01

    Although various radiographic measurements have been developed and used for evaluating hallux valgus, not all are universally believed to be necessary and their relationships have not been clearly established. Determining which are related could provide some insight into which might be useful and which would not. We investigated the reliability of eight radiographic measurements used to evaluate hallux valgus, and determined which were correlated and which predicted the hallux valgus angle. We determined eight radiographic indices for 732 patients (mean age, 51 years; SD, 17 years; 107 males and 625 females) with hallux valgus: hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, proximal phalangeal articular angle, simplified metatarsus adductus angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, and sesamoid rotation angle. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each radiographic measurement were analyzed on 36 feet from 36 randomly selected patients. Correlations among the radiographic measurements were analyzed. Radiographic measurements predicting hallux valgus angle were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Hallux valgus angle had the highest reliability, whereas the distal metatarsal articular angle and simplified metatarsus adductus angle had the lowest. Distal metatarsal articular angle, intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid rotation angle had the highest correlations with hallux valgus angle. Distal metatarsal articular angle correlated with sesamoid rotation angle. The intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, sesamoid rotation angle, and metatarsus adductus angle predicted the hallux valgus angle. We suggest using hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, sesamoid rotation angle, and first metatarsal protrusion distance considering their reliability and prediction of the deformity.

  13. Inter-Rater Reliability of Cyclotorsion Measurements Using Fundus Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Kanku, Madeleine; Traber, Ghislaine L

    2018-04-01

    The foveo-papillary angle (FPA) on fundus photographs is the accepted standard for the measurement of ocular cyclotorsion. We assessed the inter-rater reliability of this method in healthy subjects and in patients with trochlear nerve palsies. In this methodological study, fundus photographs of healthy subjects and of patients with trochlear nerve palsies were made with a fundus camera (Zeiss Fundus Camera FF 450 plus, Jena, Germany). Three independent observers measured the FPA on the fundus photographs of all subjects in synedra View (synedra View 16, Version 16.0.0.11, Innsbruck, Austria). One hundred and four eyes of 52 subjects (26 healthy controls and 26 patients) were assessed. The mean FPA of the healthy controls was 5.80 degrees (°) [± 0.44 standard error of the mean (SEM)] compared to 11.55° (± 0.80 SEM) for patients with trochlear nerve palsies. The inter-rater reliability of all measured FPAs showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97 - 0.98). The inter-rater reliability of objective cyclotorsion measurements using fundus photographs was very high. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Quantitative trait loci markers derived from whole genome sequence data increases the reliability of genomic prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, Rasmus Froberg; Su, Guosheng; Janss, Luc

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on the reliability of genomic prediction when a small number of significant variants from single marker analysis based on whole genome sequence data were added to the regular 54k single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array data. The extra markers were selected...... with the aim of augmenting the custom low-density Illumina BovineLD SNP chip (San Diego, CA) used in the Nordic countries. The single-marker analysis was done breed-wise on all 16 index traits included in the breeding goals for Nordic Holstein, Danish Jersey, and Nordic Red cattle plus the total merit index...... itself. Depending on the trait’s economic weight, 15, 10, or 5 quantitative trait loci (QTL) were selected per trait per breed and 3 to 5 markers were selected to tag each QTL. After removing duplicate markers (same marker selected for more than one trait or breed) and filtering for high pairwise linkage...

  15. Quantitative Measures of Mineral Supply Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost all metals and many non-metallic minerals are traded internationally. An advantage of global mineral markets is that minerals can be obtained from the globally lowest-cost source. For example, one rare-earth element (REE) mine in China, Bayan Obo, is able to supply most of world demand for rare earth elements at a cost significantly less than its main competitors. Concentration of global supplies at a single mine raises significant political risks, illustrated by China’s recent decision to prohibit the export of some REEs and severely limit the export of others. The expected loss of REE supplies will have a significant impact on the cost and production of important national defense technologies and on alternative energy programs. Hybrid vehicles and wind-turbine generators, for example, require REEs for magnets and batteries. Compact fluorescent light bulbs use REE-based phosphors. These recent events raise the general issue of how to measure the degree of supply risk for internationally sourced minerals. Two factors, concentration of supply and political risk, must first be addressed. Concentration of supply can be measured with standard economic tools for measuring industry concentration, using countries rather than firms as the unit of analysis. There are many measures of political risk available. That of the OECD is a measure of a country’s commitment to rule-of-law and enforcement of contracts, as well as political stability. Combining these measures provides a comparative view of mineral supply risk across commodities and identifies several minerals other than REEs that could suddenly become less available. Combined with an assessment of the impact of a reduction in supply, decision makers can use these measures to prioritize risk reduction efforts.

  16. Radiographic measurement reliability of lumbar lordosis in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sub; Goh, Tae Sik; Park, Shi Hwan; Lee, Hong Seok; Suh, Kuen Tak

    2013-04-01

    Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of the several different methods to measure lumbar lordosis have been reported. However, it has not been studied sofar in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We evaluated the inter and intraobserver reliabilities of six specific measures of global lumbar lordosis in patients with AS. Ninety-one consecutive patients with AS who met the most recently modified New York criteria were enrolled and underwent anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of whole spine. The radiographs were divided into non-ankylosis (no bony bridge in the lumbar spine), incomplete ankylosis (lumbar spines were partially connected by bony bridge) and complete ankylosis groups to evaluate the reliability of the Cobb L1-S1, Cobb L1-L5, centroid, posterior tangent L1-S1, posterior tangent L1-L5, and TRALL methods. The radiographs were composed of 39 non-ankylosis, 27 incomplete ankylosis and 25 complete ankylosis. Intra- and inter-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of all six methods were generally high. The ICCs were all ≥0.77 (excellent) for the six radiographic methods in the combined group. However, a comparison of the ICCs, 95 % confidence intervals and mean absolute difference (MAD) between groups with varying degrees of ankylosis showed that the reliability of the lordosis measurements decreased in proportion to the severity of ankylosis. The Cobb L1-S1, Cobb L1-L5 and posterior tangent L1-S1 method demonstrated higher ICCs for both inter and intraobserver comparisons and the other methods showed lower ICCs in all groups. The intraobserver MAD was similar in the Cobb L1-S1 and Cobb L1-L5 (2.7°-4.3°), but the other methods showed higher intraobserver MAD. Interobserver MAD of Cobb L1-L5 only showed low in all group. These results are the first to provide a reliability analysis of different global lumbar lordosis measurement methods in AS. The findings in this study demonstrated that the Cobb L1-L5 method is reliable for measuring

  17. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zimmermann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  18. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...

  19. Quantitative software-reliability analysis of computer codes relevant to nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.

    1981-12-01

    This report presents the results of the first year of an ongoing research program to determine the probability of failure characteristics of computer codes relevant to nuclear safety. An introduction to both qualitative and quantitative aspects of nuclear software is given. A mathematical framework is presented which will enable the a priori prediction of the probability of failure characteristics of a code given the proper specification of its properties. The framework consists of four parts: (1) a classification system for software errors and code failures; (2) probabilistic modeling for selected reliability characteristics; (3) multivariate regression analyses to establish predictive relationships among reliability characteristics and generic code property and development parameters; and (4) the associated information base. Preliminary data of the type needed to support the modeling and the predictions of this program are described. Illustrations of the use of the modeling are given but the results so obtained, as well as all results of code failure probabilities presented herein, are based on data which at this point are preliminary, incomplete, and possibly non-representative of codes relevant to nuclear safety

  20. Quantitative clinical uptake measurements using conjugate counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lathrop, K.A.; Bartlett, R.D.; Chen, C.T.; Chou, J.S.; Faulhaber, P.F.; Harper, P.V.; Stark, V.J.

    1986-01-01

    While the use of conjugate counting for determination of organ uptake in human subjects has been extensively described, in the present study the determination of the organ uptake of ortho-iodohippurate presented several opportunities for validation of the in vivo counting data. Ortho-iodohippurate is distributed in the extracellular space, is largely extracted on each pass through the kidneys, and is not significantly deiodinated in vivo. Thus, the kidney uptake rate should be proportional to the blood level, the appearance rate of activity in the bladder is equal to the disappearance rate from the kidneys, and direct measurement of activity in the urine after voiding provides an internal standard for imaging measurements of bladder activity. Since the activity levels in the kidneys, bladder, and remainder of the body changed fairly rapidly, especially in the first 20 to 30 minutes following injection, posterior images of the trunk including kidneys and bladder were obtained continuously using a gamma camera fitted with a diverging collimator for 30 minutes and then at intervals for several hours. Simultaneous conjugate counting determinations were made using a whole body scanning system previously described at these meetings. Imaging data corrected for decay and adjacent background were fitted by least squares methods to curves representing a sum of exponentials, and the curves were normalized to the conjugate uptake measurements. The uptake curves of the kidneys and bladder matched well with the direct measurements of the urinary excretion. Data were collected in 16 normal subjects, and the estimated absorbed dose was calculated for the kidneys, the bladder and the remainder of the body for seven radioisotopes of iodine. 4 references, 6 figures, 2 tables

  1. Semi-automated quantitative Drosophila wings measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Sheng Yang Michael; Ogawa, Yoshitaka; Kawana, Sara; Tamura, Koichiro; Lee, Hwee Kuan

    2017-06-28

    Drosophila melanogaster is an important organism used in many fields of biological research such as genetics and developmental biology. Drosophila wings have been widely used to study the genetics of development, morphometrics and evolution. Therefore there is much interest in quantifying wing structures of Drosophila. Advancement in technology has increased the ease in which images of Drosophila can be acquired. However such studies have been limited by the slow and tedious process of acquiring phenotypic data. We have developed a system that automatically detects and measures key points and vein segments on a Drosophila wing. Key points are detected by performing image transformations and template matching on Drosophila wing images while vein segments are detected using an Active Contour algorithm. The accuracy of our key point detection was compared against key point annotations of users. We also performed key point detection using different training data sets of Drosophila wing images. We compared our software with an existing automated image analysis system for Drosophila wings and showed that our system performs better than the state of the art. Vein segments were manually measured and compared against the measurements obtained from our system. Our system was able to detect specific key points and vein segments from Drosophila wing images with high accuracy.

  2. Is linear distance measured by panoramic radiography reliable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Keiichi; Wakoh, Mamoru; Sano, Tsukasa; Suehiro, Atsushi; Sekine, Hideshi; Kousuge, Yuuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to re-examine the reliability of distance measurements on clinical panoramic radiographs by comparing them with computed tomography (CT) images, from which the most accurate distance measurement is possible. Twenty pairs of images from patients examined both with panoramic radiography and CT for dental implant treatment planning in the premolar and molar regions of the mandible were used. The vertical linear distance between the alveolar crest and the closest mandibular canal was measured by three experienced oral radiologists on both images. The distances measured on panoramic radiographs were corrected for the magnification factor at the focal plane. Double-oblique cross-sectional images were used for CT. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between distances obtained from both images. The paired t test was performed for statistical comparison. Error levels with the panoramic radiograph versus the CT image were also calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant strong linear correlation (R=0.90; p<0.01). However, the corrected value of distance measured on panoramic radiographs tended to be too small, and a significant difference was observed (p<0.05). The error level was approximately 10% (9.6±7.3%). Distance measurement on clinical panoramic radiographs is less reliable than CT images and cannot be recommended. (author)

  3. Intra-rater reliability of motor unit number estimation and quantitative motor unit analysis in subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Colleen T; Doherty, Timothy J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intra-rater reliability of decomposition-enhanced spike-triggered averaging (DE-STA) motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative motor unit potential analysis in the upper trapezius (UT) and biceps brachii (BB) of subjects with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to compare the results from the UT to control data. Patients diagnosed with clinically probable or definite ALS completed the experimental protocol twice with the same evaluator for the UT (n=10) and BB (n=9). Intra-rater reliability for the UT was good for the maximum compound muscle action potential (CMAP) (ICC=0.88), mean surface-detected motor unit potential (S-MUP) (ICC=0.87) and MUNE (ICC=0.88), and for the BB was moderate for maximum CMAP (ICC=0.61), and excellent for mean S-MUP (ICC=0.94) and MUNE (ICC=0.93). A significant difference between tests was found for UT MUNE. Comparing subjects with ALS to control subjects, UT maximum CMAP (p<0.01) and MUNE (p<0.001) values were significantly lower, and mean S-MUP values significantly greater (p<0.05) in subjects with ALS. This study has demonstrated the ability of the DE-STA MUNE technique to collect highly reliable data from two separate muscle groups and to detect the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. This was the first study to examine the reliability of this technique in subjects with ALS, and demonstrates its potential for future use as an outcome measure in ALS clinical trials and studies of ALS disease severity and natural history. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Reliability of radiographic measurements for acute distal radius fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Narelle J.; Asadollahi, Saeed; Parrish, Frank; Ridgway, Jacqueline; Tran, Phong; Keating, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The management of distal radial fractures is guided by the interpretation of radiographic findings. The aim of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-observer reliability of eight traditionally reported anatomic radiographic parameters in adults with an acute distal radius fracture. Five observers participated. All were routinely involved in making treatment decisions based on distal radius fracture radiographs. Observers performed independent repeated measurements on 30 radiographs for eight anatomical parameters: dorsal shift (mm), intra-articular gap (mm), intra-articular step (mm), palmar tilt (degrees), radial angle (degrees), radial height (mm), radial shift (mm), ulnar variance (mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the magnitude of retest errors were calculated. Measurement reliability was summarised as high (ICC > 0.80), moderate (0.60–0.80) or low (<0.60). Intra-observer reliability was high for dorsal shift and palmar tilt; moderate for radial angle, radial height, ulnar variance and radial shift; and low for intra-articular gap and step. Inter-observer reliability was high for palmar tilt; moderate for dorsal shift, ulnar variance, radial angle and radial height; and low for radial shift, intra-articular gap and step. Error magnitude (95 % confidence interval) was within 1–2 mm for intra-articular gap and step, 2–4 mm for ulnar variance, 4–6 mm for radial shift, dorsal shift and radial height, and 6–8° for radial angle and palmar tilt. Based on previous reports of critical values for palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle, error margins appear small enough for measurements to be useful in guiding treatment decisions. Our findings indicate that clinicians cannot reliably measure values ≤1 mm for intra-articular gap and step when interpreting radiographic parameters using the standardised methods investigated in this study. As a guide for treatment selection, palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle

  5. Insightful practice: a reliable measure for medical revalidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Bruce; Sullivan, Frank M; Mercer, Stewart W; Russell, Andrew; Bruce, David A

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical revalidation decisions need to be reliable if they are to reassure on the quality and safety of professional practice. This study tested an innovative method in which general practitioners (GPs) were assessed on their reflection and response to a set of externally specified feedback. Setting and participants 60 GPs and 12 GP appraisers in the Tayside region of Scotland, UK. Methods A feedback dataset was specified as (1) GP-specific data collected by GPs themselves (patient and colleague opinion; open book self-evaluated knowledge test; complaints) and (2) Externally collected practice-level data provided to GPs (clinical quality and prescribing safety). GPs' perceptions of whether the feedback covered UK General Medical Council specified attributes of a ‘good doctor’ were examined using a mapping exercise. GPs' professionalism was examined in terms of appraiser assessment of GPs' level of insightful practice, defined as: engagement with, insight into and appropriate action on feedback data. The reliability of assessment of insightful practice and subsequent recommendations on GPs' revalidation by face-to-face and anonymous assessors were investigated using Generalisability G-theory. Main outcome measures Coverage of General Medical Council attributes by specified feedback and reliability of assessor recommendations on doctors' suitability for revalidation. Results Face-to-face assessment proved unreliable. Anonymous global assessment by three appraisers of insightful practice was highly reliable (G=0.85), as were revalidation decisions using four anonymous assessors (G=0.83). Conclusions Unlike face-to-face appraisal, anonymous assessment of insightful practice offers a valid and reliable method to decide GP revalidation. Further validity studies are needed. PMID:22653078

  6. Quantitative measurements of autobiographical memory content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert S Gardner

    Full Text Available Autobiographical memory (AM, subjective recollection of past experiences, is fundamental in everyday life. Nevertheless, characterization of the spontaneous occurrence of AM, as well as of the number and types of recollected details, remains limited. The CRAM (Cue-Recalled Autobiographical Memory test (http://cramtest.info adapts and combines the cue-word method with an assessment that collects counts of details recalled from different life periods. The SPAM (Spontaneous Probability of Autobiographical Memories protocol samples introspection during everyday activity, recording memory duration and frequency. These measures provide detailed, naturalistic accounts of AM content and frequency, quantifying essential dimensions of recollection. AM content (∼20 details/recollection decreased with the age of the episode, but less drastically than the probability of reporting remote compared to recent memories. AM retrieval was frequent (∼20/hour, each memory lasting ∼30 seconds. Testable hypotheses of the specific content retrieved in a fixed time from given life periods are presented.

  7. Tactile acuity charts: a reliable measure of spatial acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bruns

    Full Text Available For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds.

  8. Tactile acuity charts: a reliable measure of spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Patrick; Camargo, Carlos J; Campanella, Humberto; Esteve, Jaume; Dinse, Hubert R; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds.

  9. Quantitative NMR measurements on core samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, Dan

    1997-01-01

    Within the frame of an EFP-95 project NMR methods for porosity determination in 2D, and for fluid saturation determination in 1D and 2D have been developed. The three methods have been developed and tested on cleaned core samples of chalk from the Danish North Sea. The main restriction for the use of the methods is the inherently short T2 relaxation constants of rock samples. Referring to measurements conducted at 200 MHz, the 2D porosity determination method is applicable to sample material with T2 relaxation constants down to 5 ms. The 1D fluid saturation determination method is applicable to sample material with T2 relaxation constants down to 3 ms, while the 2D fluid saturation determination method is applicable to material with T2 relaxation constants down to 8 ms. In the case of the 2D methods these constraints as a minimum enables work on the majority of chalk samples of Maastrichtian age. The 1D fluid saturation determination method in addition is applicable to at least some chalk samples of Danian and pre-Maastrichtian age. The spatial resolution of the 2D porosity determination method, the 1D fluid saturation methods, and the 2D fluid saturation method is respectively 0.8 mm, 0.8 mm and 2 mm. Reproducibility of pixel values is for all three methods 2%- points. (au)

  10. Measuring reliability under epistemic uncertainty: Review on non-probabilistic reliability metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Rui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic review of non-probabilistic reliability metrics is conducted to assist the selection of appropriate reliability metrics to model the influence of epistemic uncertainty. Five frequently used non-probabilistic reliability metrics are critically reviewed, i.e., evidence-theory-based reliability metrics, interval-analysis-based reliability metrics, fuzzy-interval-analysis-based reliability metrics, possibility-theory-based reliability metrics (posbist reliability and uncertainty-theory-based reliability metrics (belief reliability. It is pointed out that a qualified reliability metric that is able to consider the effect of epistemic uncertainty needs to (1 compensate the conservatism in the estimations of the component-level reliability metrics caused by epistemic uncertainty, and (2 satisfy the duality axiom, otherwise it might lead to paradoxical and confusing results in engineering applications. The five commonly used non-probabilistic reliability metrics are compared in terms of these two properties, and the comparison can serve as a basis for the selection of the appropriate reliability metrics.

  11. Quantitative dynamic reliability evaluation of AP1000 passive safety systems by using FMEA and GO-FLOW methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim Muhammad; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Yang Ming

    2014-01-01

    The passive safety systems utilized in advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) design such as AP1000 should be more reliable than that of active safety systems of conventional PWR by less possible opportunities of hardware failures and human errors (less human intervention). The objectives of present study are to evaluate the dynamic reliability of AP1000 plant in order to check the effectiveness of passive safety systems by comparing the reliability-related issues with that of active safety systems in the event of the big accidents. How should the dynamic reliability of passive safety systems properly evaluated? And then what will be the comparison of reliability results of AP1000 passive safety systems with the active safety systems of conventional PWR. For this purpose, a single loop model of AP1000 passive core cooling system (PXS) and passive containment cooling system (PCCS) are assumed separately for quantitative reliability evaluation. The transient behaviors of these passive safety systems are taken under the large break loss-of-coolant accident in the cold leg. The analysis is made by utilizing the qualitative method failure mode and effect analysis in order to identify the potential failure mode and success-oriented reliability analysis tool called GO-FLOW for quantitative reliability evaluation. The GO-FLOW analysis has been conducted separately for PXS and PCCS systems under the same accident. The analysis results show that reliability of AP1000 passive safety systems (PXS and PCCS) is increased due to redundancies and diversity of passive safety subsystems and components, and four stages automatic depressurization system is the key subsystem for successful actuation of PXS and PCCS system. The reliability results of PCCS system of AP1000 are more reliable than that of the containment spray system of conventional PWR. And also GO-FLOW method can be utilized for reliability evaluation of passive safety systems. (author)

  12. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  13. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P point excursion measures all demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.90, 0.85, and 0.77, respectively), whereas moderate to good reliability was found for SOT vestibular ratio score (ICC = 0.71). There was large variability in performance in this healthy elderly cohort, resulting in relatively large MDC95 for these measures, especially for the LOS test. Fair correlations were found between LOS end point excursion and clinical balance and gait measures (r = 0.31-0.49), and between MCT average latency and gait measures only (r = -0.32). No correlations were found between SOT measures and clinical balance and gait measures. Age was only marginally

  14. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  15. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  16. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Cade, Fabiano; Melki, Samir; Pasquale, Louis R; Dohlman, Claes H; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT) and a motion sensor. Methods The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS) comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline) IOP. Results On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg) and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg) (P=0.45), suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001), and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001). Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001). Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute), during which the IOP is not expected to change. Conclusion IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results. PMID:24531415

  17. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Cade, Fabiano; Melki, Samir; Pasquale, Louis R; Dohlman, Claes H; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT) and a motion sensor. The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS) comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline) IOP. On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg) and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg) (P=0.45), suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001), and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001). Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001). Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute), during which the IOP is not expected to change. IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.

  18. FURAX: assistance tools for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of systems reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moureau, R.

    1995-01-01

    FURAX is a set of tools for the qualitative and quantitative safety analysis of systems functioning. It is particularly well adapted to the study of networks (fluids, electrical..), i.e. systems in which importance is functionally given to a flux. The analysis is based on modeling which privileges these fluxes (skeleton representation of the system for a network, functional diagram for a non single-flux system) and on the representation of components support systems. Qualitative analyses are based on the research for possible flux ways and on the technical domain knowledge. The results obtained correspond to a simplified failure mode analysis, to fault-trees relative to the events expected by the user and to minimum sections. The possible calculations on these models are: tree calculations, Markov diagram calculations of the system reliability, and probabilistic calculation of a section viewed as a tree, as a well-ordered sequence of failures, or as the absorbing state of a Markov diagram. (J.S.). 6 refs

  19. Reliability of ultrasound for measurement of selected foot structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, G; Angin, S; Mickle, K J; Hill, S; Nester, C J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between the lower leg muscles, foot structures and function is essential to explain how disease or injury may relate to changes in foot function and clinical pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-operator reliability of an ultrasound protocol to quantify features of: rear, mid and forefoot sections of the plantar fascia (PF); flexor hallucis brevis (FHB); flexor digitorum brevis (FDB); abductor hallucis (AbH); flexor digitorum longus (FDL); flexor hallucis longus (FHL); tibialis anterior (TA); and peroneus longus and brevis (PER). A sample of 6 females and 4 males (mean age 29.1 ± 7.2 years, mean BMI 25.5 ± 4.8) was recruited from a university student and staff population. Scans were obtained using a portable Venue 40 musculoskeletal ultrasound system (GE Healthcare UK) with a 5-13 MHz wideband linear array probe with a 12.7 mm × 47.1mm footprint by two operators in the same scanning session. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) values for muscle thickness (ICC range 0.90-0.97), plantar fascia thickness (ICC range 0.94-0.98) and cross sectional muscle measurements (ICC range 0.91-0.98) revealed excellent inter-operator reliability. The limits of agreement, relative to structure size, ranged from 9.0% to 17.5% for muscle thickness, 11.0-18.0% for plantar fascia, and 11.0-26.0% for cross sectional area measurements. The ultrasound protocol implemented in this work has been shown to be reliable. It therefore offers the opportunity to quantify the structures concerned and better understand their contributions to foot function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Quantitative Reasoning in Environmental Science: Rasch Measurement to Support QR Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mayes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of middle and high school students to reason quantitatively within the context of environmental science was investigated. A quantitative reasoning (QR learning progression, with associated QR assessments in the content areas of biodiversity, water, and carbon, was developed based on three QR progress variables: quantification act, quantitative interpretation, and quantitative modeling. Diagnostic instruments were developed specifically for the progress variable quantitative interpretation (QI, each consisting of 96 Likert-scale items. Each content version of the instrument focused on three scale levels (macro scale, micro scale, and landscape scale and four elements of QI identified in prior research (trend, translation, prediction, and revision. The QI assessments were completed by 362, 6th to 12th grade students in three U.S. states. Rasch (1960/1980 measurement was used to determine item and person measures for the QI instruments, both to examine validity and reliability characteristics of the instrument administration and inform the evolution of the learning progression. Rasch methods allowed identification of several QI instrument revisions, including modification of specific items, reducing number of items to avoid cognitive fatigue, reconsidering proposed item difficulty levels, and reducing Likert scale to 4 levels. Rasch diagnostics also indicated favorable levels of instrument reliability and appropriate targeting of item abilities to student abilities for the majority of participants. A revised QI instrument is available for STEM researchers and educators.

  1. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  2. Measurement Invariance: A Foundational Principle for Quantitative Theory Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes why measurement invariance is a critical issue to quantitative theory building within the field of human resource development. Readers will learn what measurement invariance is and how to test for its presence using techniques that are accessible to applied researchers. Using data from a LibQUAL+[TM] study of user…

  3. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  4. Reliability of a single objective measure in assessing sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Jackson, Nicholas; Maislin, Greg; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; George, Charles F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate reliability of single objective tests in assessing sleepiness. Subjects who completed polysomnography underwent a 4-nap multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) the following day. Prior to each nap opportunity on MSLT, subjects performed the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and divided attention driving task (DADT). Results of single versus multiple test administrations were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and adjusted for test administration order effects to explore time of day effects. Measures were explored as continuous and binary (i.e., impaired or not impaired). Community-based sample evaluated at a tertiary, university-based sleep center. 372 adult commercial vehicle operators oversampled for increased obstructive sleep apnea risk. N/A. AS CONTINUOUS MEASURES, ICC WERE AS FOLLOWS: MSLT 0.45, PVT median response time 0.69, PVT number of lapses 0.51, 10-min DADT tracking error 0.87, 20-min DADT tracking error 0.90. Based on binary outcomes, ICC were: MSLT 0.63, PVT number of lapses 0.85, 10-min DADT 0.95, 20-min DADT 0.96. Statistically significant time of day effects were seen in both the MSLT and PVT but not the DADT. Correlation between ESS and different objective tests was strongest for MSLT, range [-0.270 to -0.195] and persisted across all time points. Single DADT and PVT administrations are reliable measures of sleepiness. A single MSLT administration can reasonably discriminate individuals with MSL < 8 minutes. These results support the use of a single administration of some objective tests of sleepiness when performed under controlled conditions in routine clinical care.

  5. Measure of Truck Delay and Reliability at the Corridor Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Freight transportation provides a significant contribution to our nations economy. A reliable and accessible freight network enables business in the Twin Cities to be more competitive in the Upper Midwest region. Accurate and reliable freight data...

  6. Quantitative measurements of shear displacement using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Sun, Ying; Zhao, Yonggang

    2016-01-01

    We report a method to quantitatively measure local shear deformation with high sensitivity using atomic force microscopy. The key point is to simultaneously detect both torsional and buckling motions of atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers induced by the lateral piezoelectric response of the sample. This requires the quantitative calibration of torsional and buckling response of AFM. This method is validated by measuring the angular dependence of the in-plane piezoelectric response of a piece of piezoelectric α-quartz. The accurate determination of the amplitude and orientation of the in-plane piezoelectric response, without rotation, would greatly enhance the efficiency of lateral piezoelectric force microscopy.

  7. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  8. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis EI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios I Paschalis,* Fabiano Cade,* Samir Melki, Louis R Pasquale, Claes H Dohlman, Joseph B CiolinoMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT and a motion sensor.Methods: The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline IOP.Results: On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg (P=0.45, suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001, and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001. Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001. Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute, during which the IOP is not expected to change.Conclusion: IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.Keywords: IOP, pressure transducer, wireless, MEMS, implant, intraocular

  9. A new lowry's technique for quantitative measurement of protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Ge; Zou Wenquan; Sun Jianzhong; Zhang Yanggang; Shu Bohua; Liu Shenpei; Gong Xiaoliang

    1990-01-01

    According to the queneching principle in beta ray measurement, liquid scintillation counters are used for quantitative measurement of protein. The results show linear relationship between the colored protein samples with different concentrations and the counting rate of LSC. It is proved that LSC method is less erroneous and has larger measurement range than the traditional photoelectric colorimetry, and the analysis is easy to be automatized

  10. A study on the quantitative evaluation of the reliability for safety critical software using Bayesian belief nets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Jang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the efforts to avoid undesirable risks, or at least to bring them under control in the world, new risks that are highly difficult to manage continue to emerge from the use of new technologies, such as the use of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) components in nuclear power plant. Whenever new risk issues came out by now, we have endeavored to find the most effective ways to reduce risks, or to allocate limited resources to do this. One of the major challenges is the reliability analysis of safety-critical software associated with digital safety systems. Though many activities such as testing, verification and validation (V and V) techniques have been carried out in the design stage of software, however, the process of quantitatively evaluating the reliability of safety-critical software has not yet been developed because of the irrelevance of the conventional software reliability techniques to apply for the digital safety systems. This paper focuses on the applicability of Bayesian Belief Net (BBN) techniques to quantitatively estimate the reliability of safety-critical software adopted in digital safety system. In this paper, a typical BBN model was constructed using the dedication process of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) installed by KAERI. In conclusion, the adoption of BBN technique can facilitate the process of evaluating the safety-critical software reliability in nuclear power plant, as well as provide very useful information (e.g., 'what if' analysis) associated with software reliability in the viewpoint of practicality

  11. The reliability of head film measurements. 3. Tracing superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D; Molthen, R

    1976-12-01

    The superimposition of tracings from lateral skull x-ray films taken at different timepoints is an important method for assessing developmental and treatment changes through time. The usefulness of the data derived is, however, limited by the fact that the physical act of superimposing tracings is performed with some error. The magnitudes of error for superimpositions on different "planes" have not been amenable to quantitation by previously available methods. Using newly developed computer-aided techniques, we have been able to quantitate both the primary errors of tracing superimposition and the associated secondary landmark displacements for four conventionally employed anatomic reference "planes". For each reference "plane," twenty-five independent film pairs were examined independently by each of four judges. Therefore, 100 acts of tracing superimposition were available for each reference "plane." Output data are presented which appear to support the conclusion that measurement errors in tracing superimposition are a consequential factor affecting the confidence which should be placed in head film comparisons, particularly with regard to individual cases. Some consequences of this conclusion with respect to growth prediction and to the evaluation of treatment effects are considered.

  12. On the Reliability of Implicit and Explicit Memory Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Axel; Wippich, Werner

    2000-01-01

    Studied the reliability of implicit and explicit memory tests in experiments involving these tests. Results with 168, 84, 120, and 128 undergraduates show that methodological artifacts may cause implicit memory tests to have lower reliability than explicit memory tests, but that implicit tests need not necessarily be less reliable. (SLD)

  13. Navigational Traffic Conflict Technique: A Proactive Approach to Quantitative Measurement of Collision Risks in Port Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Ashim Kumar; Chin, Hoong Chor

    Navigational safety analysis relying on collision statistics is often hampered because of the low number of observations. A promising alternative approach that overcomes this problem is proposed in this paper. By analyzing critical vessel interactions this approach proactively measures collision risk in port waters. The proposed method is illustrated for quantitative measurement of collision risks in Singapore port fairways, and validated by examining correlations between the measured risks with those perceived by pilots. This method is an ethically appealing alternative to the collision-based analysis for fast, reliable and effective safety assessment, thus possessing great potential for managing collision risks in port waters.

  14. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  15. Improving Metrological Reliability of Information-Measuring Systems Using Mathematical Modeling of Their Metrological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, R. Yu; Chernyshova, T. I.; Chernyshov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The algorithms for improving the metrological reliability of analogue blocks of measuring channels and information-measuring systems are developed. The proposed algorithms ensure the optimum values of their metrological reliability indices for a given analogue circuit block solution.

  16. A technical survey on issues of the quantitative evaluation of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. K; Sung, T. Y.; Eom, H. S.; Jeong, H. S.; Park, J. H.; Kang, H. G.; Lee, K. Y.; Park, J. K.

    2000-04-01

    To develop the methodology for evaluating the software reliability included in digital instrumentation and control system (I and C), many kinds of methodologies/techniques that have been proposed from the software reliability engineering fuel are analyzed to identify the strong and week points of them. According to analysis results, methodologies/techniques that can be directly applied for the evaluation of the software reliability are not exist. Thus additional researches to combine the most appropriate methodologies/techniques from existing ones would be needed to evaluate the software reliability. (author)

  17. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  18. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  19. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  20. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  1. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  2. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  3. A specialized plug-in software module for computer-aided quantitative measurement of medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zeng, Y J; Huo, P; Hu, J L; Zhang, J H

    2003-12-01

    This paper presents a specialized system for quantitative measurement of medical images. Using Visual C++, we developed a computer-aided software based on Image-Pro Plus (IPP), a software development platform. When transferred to the hard disk of a computer by an MVPCI-V3A frame grabber, medical images can be automatically processed by our own IPP plug-in for immunohistochemical analysis, cytomorphological measurement and blood vessel segmentation. In 34 clinical studies, the system has shown its high stability, reliability and ease of utility.

  4. Resiliency as a component importance measure in network reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, John C.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to define the concept of resiliency as a component importance measure related to network reliability. Resiliency can be defined as a composite of: (1) the ability of a network to provide service despite external failures and (2) the time to restore service when in the presence of such failures. Although, Resiliency has been extensively studied in different research areas, this paper will study the specific aspects of quantifiable network resiliency when the network is experiencing potential catastrophic failures from external events and/or influences, and when it is not known a priori which specific components within the network will fail. A formal definition for Category I resiliency is proposed and a step-by-step approach based on Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate it is defined. To illustrate the approach, two-terminal networks with varying degrees of redundancy, have been considered. The results obtained for test networks show that this new quantifiable concept of resiliency provides insight into the performance and topology of the network. Future use for this work could include methods for safeguarding critical network components and optimizing the use of redundancy as a technique to improve network resiliency.

  5. Forgotten marriages? Measuring the reliability of marriage histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090

  6. Measurement of HDO Products Using GC-TCD: Towards Obtaining Reliable Analytical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuas Oman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported the method development and validation of a gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD method for the measurement of the gaseous products of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO. The method validation parameters include selectivity, precision (repeatability and reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LoD, limit of quantitation (LoQ, and robustness. The results showed that the developed method was able to separate the target components (H2, CO2, CH4 and CO from their mixtures without any special sample treatment. The validated method was selective, precise, accurate, and robust. Application of the developed and validated GC-TCD method to the measurement of by-product components of HDO of bio-oil revealed a good performance with relative standard deviation (RSD less than 1.0% for all target components, implying that the process of method development and validation provides a trustworthy way of obtaining reliable analytical data.

  7. Quantitative 99mTc diphosphonate uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    There are several different techniques currently in use for quantifying diphosphonate uptake by the skeleton. These can be considered in two main categories: local bone or whole-body uptake measurements. The choice of technique depends on the clinical problem being investigated and also on available equipment an expertise. The wide variety of approaches to diphosphonate quantitation ensures that these measurements can be obtained in almost any nuclear medicine department. This chapter discusses the general factors which may influence diphosphonate uptake measurements and outlines the techniques most relevant to current clinical practice

  8. Calibration of quantitative neutron radiography method for moisture measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, T.; Jeraj, R.

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative measurements of moisture and hydrogenous matter in building materials by neutron radiography (NR) are regularly performed at TRIGA Mark II research of 'Jozef Stefan' Institute in Ljubljana. Calibration of quantitative method is performed using standard brick samples with known moisture content and also with a secondary standard, plexiglas step wedge. In general, the contribution of scattered neutrons to the neutron image is not determined explicitly what introduces an error to the measured signal. Influence of scattered neutrons is significant in regions with high gradients of moisture concentrations, where the build up of scattered neutrons causes distortion of the moisture concentration profile. In this paper detailed analysis of validity of our calibration method for different geometrical parameters is presented. The error in the measured hydrogen concentration is evaluated by an experiment and compared with results obtained by Monte Carlo calculation with computer code MCNP 4B. Optimal conditions are determined for quantitative moisture measurements in order to minimize the error due to scattered neutrons. The method is tested on concrete samples with high moisture content.(author)

  9. Reliable LC-MS quantitative glycomics using iGlycoMab stable isotope labeled glycans as internal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiyue; Tello, Nadia; Harvey, Alex; Boyes, Barry; Orlando, Ron; Mechref, Yehia

    2016-06-01

    Glycans have numerous functions in various biological processes and participate in the progress of diseases. Reliable quantitative glycomic profiling techniques could contribute to the understanding of the biological functions of glycans, and lead to the discovery of potential glycan biomarkers for diseases. Although LC-MS is a powerful analytical tool for quantitative glycomics, the variation of ionization efficiency and MS intensity bias are influencing quantitation reliability. Internal standards can be utilized for glycomic quantitation by MS-based methods to reduce variability. In this study, we used stable isotope labeled IgG2b monoclonal antibody, iGlycoMab, as an internal standard to reduce potential for errors and to reduce variabililty due to sample digestion, derivatization, and fluctuation of nanoESI efficiency in the LC-MS analysis of permethylated N-glycans released from model glycoproteins, human blood serum, and breast cancer cell line. We observed an unanticipated degradation of isotope labeled glycans, tracked a source of such degradation, and optimized a sample preparation protocol to minimize degradation of the internal standard glycans. All results indicated the effectiveness of using iGlycoMab to minimize errors originating from sample handling and instruments. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    understanding the reliability of systems and their .... Using the identity given by Gradshteyn and Ryzhik (2007) for power series raised to a positive integer i, we have: (∑. ) ..... probability distributions for lifetimes of systems of components. Thesis,.

  11. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy

  12. Quantitative computed tomography for measuring bone mineral content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felsenberg, D.; Kalender, W.A.; Banzer, D.; Schmilinsky, G.; Heyse, M.; Fischer, E.; Schneider, U.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen; Krankenhaus Zehlendorf, Berlin

    1988-01-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) for measuring bone mineral content of lumbar vertebrae is increasingly used internationally. The effect of using conventional CT (single energy CT, SE-CT) and dual energy CT (DE-CT) on reproducibility has been examined. We defined a standard measurement protocol, which automatically evaluates a calibration phantom. This should ensure an in vivo reproducibility of 1 to 2%. Reference data, which has been obtained with this protocol from 113 normal subjects, using SE-CT ad DE-CT, are presented. (orig.) [de

  13. Quantitative nanoscale surface voltage measurement on organic semiconductor blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuenat, Alexandre; Muñiz-Piniella, Andrés; Muñoz-Rojo, Miguel; Murphy, Craig E; Tsoi, Wing C

    2012-01-01

    We report on the validation of a method based on Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) able to measure the different phases and the relative work function of polymer blend heterojunctions at the nanoscale. The method does not necessitate complex ultra-high vacuum setup. The quantitative information that can be extracted from the topography and the Kelvin probe measurements is critically analysed. Surface voltage difference can be observed at the nanoscale on poly(3-hexyl-thiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) blends and dependence on the annealing condition and the regio-regularity of P3HT is observed. (paper)

  14. Computer controlled scanning systems for quantitative track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1982-01-01

    The status of three computer cntrolled systems for quantitative track measurements is described. Two systems, an automated optical track scanner (AOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third system, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Recent advances achieved with these systems are presented, with emphasis placed upon the current limitation of these systems for reactor neutron dosimetry

  15. Reliability of infrared thermometric measurements of skin temperature in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, Tara L; Fok, Diana; Frederiksen, Karen; Thabane, Lehana; Buckley, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Clinical measurement study. Skin temperature asymmetries (STAs) are used in the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), but little evidence exists for reliability of the equipment and methods. This study examined the reliability of an inexpensive infrared (IR) thermometer and measurement points in the hand for the study of STA. ST was measured three times at five points on both hands with an IR thermometer by two raters in 20 volunteers (12 normals and 8 CRPS). ST measurement results using IR thermometers support inter-rater reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate for single measures 0.80; all ST measurement points were also highly reliable (ICC single measures, 0.83-0.91). The equipment demonstrated excellent reliability, with little difference in the reliability of the five measurement sites. These preliminary findings support their use in future CRPS research. Not applicable. Copyright © 2012 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weighing evidence: quantitative measures of the importance of bitemark evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittelson, J M; Kieser, J A; Buckingham, D M; Herbison, G P

    2002-12-01

    Quantitative measures of the importance of evidence such as the "likelihood ratio" have become increasingly popular in the courtroom. These measures have been used by expert witnesses formally to describe their certainty about a piece of evidence. These measures are commonly interpreted as the amount by which the evidence should revise the opinion of guilt, and thereby summarize the importance of a particular piece of evidence. Unlike DNA evidence, quantitative measures have not been widely used by forensic dentists to describe their certainty when testifying about bitemark evidence. There is, however, no inherent reason why they should not be used to evaluate bitemarks. The purpose of this paper is to describe the likelihood ratio as it might be applied to bitemark evidence. We use a simple bitemark example to define the likelihood ratio, its application, and interpretation. In particular we describe how the jury interprets the likelihood ratio from a Bayesian perspective when evaluating the impact of the evidence on the odds that the accused is guilty. We describe how the dentist would calculate the likelihood ratio based on frequentist interpretations. We also illustrate some of the limitations of the likelihood ratio, and show how those limitations apply to bitemark evidence. We conclude that the quality of bitemark evidence cannot be adequately summarized by the likelihood ratio, and argue that its application in this setting may be more misleading than helpful.

  17. A Quantitative Risk Analysis Framework for Evaluating and Monitoring Operational Reliability of Cloud Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Muhammad Faysal

    2013-01-01

    Cloud computing offers the advantage of on-demand, reliable and cost efficient computing solutions without the capital investment and management resources to build and maintain in-house data centers and network infrastructures. Scalability of cloud solutions enable consumers to upgrade or downsize their services as needed. In a cloud environment,…

  18. The Hidden Value of Narrative Comments for Assessment: A Quantitative Reliability Analysis of Qualitative Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsburg, Shiphra; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Eva, Kevin W

    2017-11-01

    In-training evaluation reports (ITERs) are ubiquitous in internal medicine (IM) residency. Written comments can provide a rich data source, yet are often overlooked. This study determined the reliability of using variable amounts of commentary to discriminate between residents. ITER comments from two cohorts of PGY-1s in IM at the University of Toronto (graduating 2010 and 2011; n = 46-48) were put into sets containing 15 to 16 residents. Parallel sets were created: one with comments from the full year and one with comments from only the first three assessments. Each set was rank-ordered by four internists external to the program between April 2014 and May 2015 (n = 24). Generalizability analyses and a decision study were performed. For the full year of comments, reliability coefficients averaged across four rankers were G = 0.85 and G = 0.91 for the two cohorts. For a single ranker, G = 0.60 and G = 0.73. Using only the first three assessments, reliabilities remained high at G = 0.66 and G = 0.60 for a single ranker. In a decision study, if two internists ranked the first three assessments, reliability would be G = 0.80 and G = 0.75 for the two cohorts. Using written comments to discriminate between residents can be extremely reliable even after only several reports are collected. This suggests a way to identify residents early on who may require attention. These findings contribute evidence to support the validity argument for using qualitative data for assessment.

  19. Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this ...

  20. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ix I. Introduction ...RELIABILITY OF REPAIRABLE USAF SYSTEMS I. Introduction General Issue The United States relies on complex systems to protect and project the national...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Implementing a Lifecycle Mangement Framework, Washington DC, DC: DoD, 2008

  1. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  2. A quantitative measure of handwriting dysfluency for assessing tardive dyskinesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Michael P; Teulings, Hans-Leo; Dean, Charles E; Lohr, James B

    2015-04-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a movement disorder commonly associated with chronic exposure to antidopaminergic medications, which may be in some cases disfiguring and socially disabling. The consensus from a growing body of research on the incidence and prevalence of TD in the modern era of antipsychotics indicates that this disorder has not disappeared continues to challenge the effective management of psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. A fundamental component in an effective strategy for managing TD is its reliable and accurate assessment. In the present study, we examined the clinical utility of a brief handwriting dysfluency measure for quantifying TD. Digitized samples of handwritten circles and loops were obtained from 62 psychosis patients with or without TD and from 50 healthy subjects. Two measures of dysfluent pen movements were extracted from each vertical pen stroke, including normalized jerk and the number of acceleration peaks. Tardive dyskinesia patients exhibited significantly higher dysfluency scores than non-TD patients and controls. Severity of handwriting movement dysfluency was correlated with Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale severity ratings for some tasks. The procedure yielded high degrees of test-retest reliability. These results suggest that measures of handwriting movement dysfluency may be particularly useful for objectively evaluating the efficacy of pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treating TD.

  3. Are commercial 99m Tc-DTPA preparations reliable for quantitation of renal function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeghers, O.; Kinthaert, J.; Georges, B.; Van Gansbeke, B.; Piepsz, A.; Ham, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    Bad labeling and stability of 99m-Tc-DTPA preparations were found on several occasions, resulting in important artefacts in quantitative renal studies. Further studies are needed in order to understand the origin of these inconstant findings. Repeated quality control on Tc-99m-DTPA preparations are mandatory

  4. 76 FR 28819 - NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software Reliability Models for Digital Protection...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION [NRC-2011-0109] NUREG/CR-XXXX, Development of Quantitative Software...: The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has issued for public comment a document entitled: NUREG/CR-XXXX...-XXXX is available electronically under ADAMS Accession Number ML111020087. Federal Rulemaking Web Site...

  5. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    To assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with 2 inertial measurement units (OptimEye S5; Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n = 10) consisting of 7 team handball-specific tasks or field assessment (n = 12) conducted in 12 training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufacturers' software. IMA counts were divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5 m·s -1 ), medium (2.5-3.5 m·s -1 ), high (>3.5 m·s -1 ), medium/high (>2.5 m·s -1 ), and total (>1.5 m·s -1 ). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment: IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV = 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more-complex tasks. Field assessment: Total IMA counts (CV = 1.8% and SWD = 2.5%), PlayerLoad (CV = 0.9% and SWD = 2.1%), and their associated variables (CV = 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA counts was good when data were displayed as total, high, or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad and associated variables was evident. The CV of the previously mentioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye's inertial measurement unit and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  6. Radioisotope studies for quantitative measurement of manganese absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helbig, U.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose of the present study was to quantitatively determine the manganese absorption in growing rats by means of radioisotopes. First of all the following factors had to be investigated, which are significant for this determination: Measurability of stable and radioactive Mn in rat tissues; labelling of stable Mn and distribution of stable and radioactive Mn in the organism; verification of the isotope dilution method and of the comparative balance method with regard to its applicability for the determination of the true Mn absorption. We useed male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The most important results are summarized in the following: in some separate tissues measurement of stable Mn was accompanied by difficulties. The measurement of radioactive Mn however, could be performed without any problems. 10 d after i.m. injection of 54 Mn only 17% of the administered Mn was still detectable in the organism. However, there was no uniform tissue labelling found. Therefore it is possible to an only restricted extent to draw quantitative conclusions on the content of stable Mn. A high percentage of stable and radioactive Mn was found above all in the liver. The isotope dilution method permits by feces analysis to differentiate between unabsorbed Mn coming from the food and endogenic Mn coming from the organism itself. The effective Mn absorption was also determined by means of the comparative balance method. By means of the isotope dilution method we determined the quantitative Mn-absorption with staged Mn administration and the contribution of absorption and excretion to the homeostatic regulation mechanisms of Mn. We found that absorption and excretion help the organism to keep an almost constant Mn concentration even with a differing Mn supply. (orig./MG) [de

  7. Visual characterization and quantitative measurement of artemisinin-induced DNA breakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Huaihong [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Yang Peihui [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: typh@jnu.edu.cn; Chen Jianan [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Liang Zhihong [Experiment and Technology Center, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Chen Qiongyu [Institute of Genetic Engineering, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Cai Jiye [Bionanotechnology Lab, and Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)], E-mail: tjycai@jnu.edu.cn

    2009-05-01

    DNA conformational change and breakage induced by artemisinin, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, have been visually characterized and quantitatively measured by the multiple tools of electrochemistry, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and DNA electrophoresis. Electrochemical and spectroscopic results confirm that artemisinin can intercalate into DNA double helix, which causes DNA conformational changes. AFM imaging vividly demonstrates uneven DNA strand breaking induced by QHS interaction. To assess these DNA breakages, quantitative analysis of the extent of DNA breakage has been performed by analyzing AFM images. Basing on the statistical analysis, the occurrence of DNA breaks is found to depend on the concentration of artemisinin. DNA electrophoresis further validates that the intact DNA molecules are unwound due to the breakages occur at the single strands. A reliable scheme is proposed to explain the process of artemisinin-induced DNA cleavage. These results can provide further information for better understanding the anticancer activity of artemisinin.

  8. Quantitative measurement of intervertebral disc signal using MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemelaeinen, R.; Videman, T.; Dhillon, S.S.; Battie, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the spinal cord as an alternative intra-body reference to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in evaluating thoracic disc signal intensity. Materials and methods: T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of T6-T12 were obtained using 1.5 T machines for a population-based sample of 523 men aged 35-70 years. Quantitative data on the signal intensities were acquired using an image analysis program (SpEx (copy right) ). A random sample of 30 subjects and intraclass correlation coeffcients (ICC) were used to examine the repeatability of the spinal cord measurements. The validity of using the spinal cord as a reference was examined by correlating cord and CSF samples. Finally, thoracic disc signal was validated by correlating it with age without adjustment and adjusting for either cord or CSF. Pearson's r was used for correlational analyses. Results: The repeatability of the spinal cord signal measurements was extremely high (≥0.99). The correlations between the signals of spinal cord and CSF by level were all above 0.9. The spinal cord-adjusted disc signal and age correlated similarly with CSF-adjusted disc signal and age (r = -0.30 to -0.40 versus r = -0.26 to -0.36). Conclusion: Adjacent spinal cord is a good alternative reference to the current reference standard, CSF, for quantitative measurements of disc signal intensity. Clearly fewer levels were excluded when using spinal cord as compared to CSF due to missing reference samples

  9. Quantitative measurement of maritime sediment movement using radioactive tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makovski, E.; Grissener, G.

    1967-01-01

    The quantitative method described in the paper involves burying appropriate detectors over a given area of the sea bottom, the detectors being connected to recording equipment which is itself buried in the sediment or situated on the shore. Detectors arranged in this way are covered by a certain layer of radioactive sediment whose activity is proportional to its mass. Before the labelled sediments are removed, their initial activity is measured, and then, as the covering is removed, measurements are made of the gradual decrease in activity corresponding to loss of the surface layer of the bottom deposit area under investigation, expressed in g/cm 2 . The tracers used in the investigations discussed were natural ones such as sea with 31 Si and artificial ones such as activated fragments of sodium glass (with a 6.5% admixture of Fe 2 O 3 ) with 24 Na . The proportional dependence of activity on mass has been confirmed for both tracers; this is an essential point for a tracer intended for quantitative measurements. This proportionality is very well maintained if a sample of highly active sediment is introduced into a large mass of inactive sediments (10 -2 - 10 -3 ). The concluding section describes the advantages of this method as a possible way of using radioisotopes with a short half-life and a low total activity of the order of a few millicuries. (author)

  10. Advanced quantitative measurement methodology in physics education research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing

    parts. The first part involves the comparison between item response theory (IRT) and classical test theory (CTT). The two theories both provide test item statistics for educational inferences and decisions. The two theories are both applied to Force Concept Inventory data obtained from students enrolled in The Ohio State University. Effort was made to examine the similarity and difference between the two theories, and the possible explanation to the difference. The study suggests that item response theory is more sensitive to the context and conceptual features of the test items than classical test theory. The IRT parameters provide a better measure than CTT parameters for the educational audience to investigate item features. The second part of the dissertation is on the measure of association for binary data. In quantitative assessment, binary data is often encountered because of its simplicity. The current popular measures of association fail under some extremely unbalanced conditions. However, the occurrence of these conditions is not rare in educational data. Two popular association measures, the Pearson's correlation and the tetrachoric correlation are examined. A new method, model based association is introduced, and an educational testing constraint is discussed. The existing popular methods are compared with the model based association measure with and without the constraint. Connections between the value of association and the context and conceptual features of questions are discussed in detail. Results show that all the methods have their advantages and disadvantages. Special attention to the test and data conditions is necessary. The last part of the dissertation is focused on exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The theoretical advantages of EFA are discussed. Typical misunderstanding and misusage of EFA are explored. The EFA is performed on Lawson's Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning (LCTSR), a widely used assessment on scientific reasoning skills. The

  11. Magnetic particle separation technique: a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rongsen; Shen Decun

    1998-01-01

    Five types of magnetic particles without or with aldehyde, amino and carboxyl functional groups, respectively were used to immobilize first or second antibody by three models, i. e. physical adsorption, chemical coupling and immuno-affinity, forming four types of magnetic particle antibodies. The second antibody immobilized on polyacrolein magnetic particles through aldehyde functional groups and the first antibodies immobilized on carboxylic polystyrene magnetic particles through carboxyl functional groups were recommended to apply to RIAs and/or IRMAs. Streptavidin immobilized on commercial magnetic particles through amino functional groups was successfully applied to separating specific PCR product for quantification of human cytomegalovirus. In the paper typical data on reliability of these magnetic particle ligands were reported and simplicity of the magnetic particle separation technique was discussed. The results showed that the technique was a reliable and simple tool for RIA/IRMA and quantitative PCR assay. (author)

  12. Can Reliability of Multiple Component Measuring Instruments Depend on Response Option Presentation Mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menold, Natalja; Raykov, Tenko

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the possible dependency of composite reliability on presentation format of the elements of a multi-item measuring instrument. Using empirical data and a recent method for interval estimation of group differences in reliability, we demonstrate that the reliability of an instrument need not be the same when polarity of the…

  13. Quantitative measurement of ventricular dilatation on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoshi; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takase, Sadao

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy might be judged from the ventricular dilatation with some indices, calculated from various ventricular width. But, there is no general agreement on what index is the most reliable. In this paper, we attempted to establish the index, easy to measure and most reliable. Our method is as follow. 1) We carried out the CT scan (EMI 1010) on 89 neurologically intact patients. Scans were parallel to orbito-meatal line (OML), and were 10 mm in thickness. On CT scan films, various width, area of anterior horns and area of bodies of lateral ventricles were measured. Measurement about the anterior horns of lateral ventricles were carried out on image the most clearly showed the foramen of Monro. And measurements about the bodies of lateral ventricles were on image, 20 mm above the image of anterior horn. Correlations of various width and areas were calculated. Then we proposed new indices with high correlations (over 0.9) with ventricular area; Anterior horn CVI (Cerebro-Ventricular Index) and Body CVI. 2) Patients with myotonic dystrophy show cerebral atrophy. We carried out the CT scan (GECT/T 8800) on 17 myotonic dystrophy patients and 30 controls. Between the two groups, age and sex were almost matched. In the two groups, we calculated our new indices as well as various indices which have been reported; Huckman number, Bifrontal CVI, Bicaudal CVI, Anterior horn index, Hirajima's index, and Cella-media index. The data were analyzed statistically. The ventricular dilatation of myotonic dystrophy patients is more definite with Anterior horn CVI, Bicaudal CVI and Body CVI (p<0.01). These indices have higher correlations with the ventricular area (about 0.9). (J.P.N.)

  14. An improved fast neutron radiography quantitative measurement method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubayashi, Masahito; Hibiki, Takashi; Mishima, Kaichiro; Yoshii, Koji; Okamoto, Koji

    2004-01-01

    The validity of a fast neutron radiography quantification method, the Σ-scaling method, which was originally proposed for thermal neutron radiography was examined with Monte Carlo calculations and experiments conducted at the YAYOI fast neutron source reactor. Water and copper were selected as comparative samples for a thermal neutron radiography case and a dense object, respectively. Although different characteristics on effective macroscopic cross-sections were implied by the simulation, the Σ-scaled experimental results with the fission neutron spectrum cross-sections were well fitted to the measurements for both the water and copper samples. This indicates that the Σ-scaling method could be successfully adopted for quantitative measurements in fast neutron radiography

  15. Quantitative Thermochemical Measurements in High-Pressure Gaseous Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Jun J.; Fischer, David G.

    2012-01-01

    We present our strategic experiment and thermochemical analyses on combustion flow using a subframe burst gating (SBG) Raman spectroscopy. This unconventional laser diagnostic technique has promising ability to enhance accuracy of the quantitative scalar measurements in a point-wise single-shot fashion. In the presentation, we briefly describe an experimental methodology that generates transferable calibration standard for the routine implementation of the diagnostics in hydrocarbon flames. The diagnostic technology was applied to simultaneous measurements of temperature and chemical species in a swirl-stabilized turbulent flame with gaseous methane fuel at elevated pressure (17 atm). Statistical analyses of the space-/time-resolved thermochemical data provide insights into the nature of the mixing process and it impact on the subsequent combustion process in the model combustor.

  16. Measuring awareness of financial skills: reliability and validity of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K; Tuokko, H A; Mateer, C A; Hultsch, D F

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of a three-part (participant, informant, and performance) Measure for assessing Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS). The MAFS was administered to 10 seniors with dementia and 25 well-functioning seniors, and their informants. Measures of cognitive functioning, social desirability, neuroticism, and perceived control were administered to each participant to allow for an assessment of validity. Internal consistency estimates for the participant and informant questionnaires were found to be 0.92 and 0.97, respectively. Convergent validity analysis indicated that performance on this measure was related to level of cognitive functioning, with higher level of unawareness associated with decreased cognitive ability. Discriminant validity analysis showed that performance on this measure was not related to social desirability or neuroticism. This study provides evidence that the MAFS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing awareness of financial skills in older adults.

  17. Single-case synthesis tools II: Comparing quantitative outcome measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Kathleen N; Pustejovsky, James E; Ledford, Jennifer R; Barton, Erin E; Severini, Katherine E; Lloyd, Blair P

    2018-03-07

    Varying methods for evaluating the outcomes of single case research designs (SCD) are currently used in reviews and meta-analyses of interventions. Quantitative effect size measures are often presented alongside visual analysis conclusions. Six measures across two classes-overlap measures (percentage non-overlapping data, improvement rate difference, and Tau) and parametric within-case effect sizes (standardized mean difference and log response ratio [increasing and decreasing])-were compared to determine if choice of synthesis method within and across classes impacts conclusions regarding effectiveness. The effectiveness of sensory-based interventions (SBI), a commonly used class of treatments for young children, was evaluated. Separately from evaluations of rigor and quality, authors evaluated behavior change between baseline and SBI conditions. SBI were unlikely to result in positive behavior change across all measures except IRD. However, subgroup analyses resulted in variable conclusions, indicating that the choice of measures for SCD meta-analyses can impact conclusions. Suggestions for using the log response ratio in SCD meta-analyses and considerations for understanding variability in SCD meta-analysis conclusions are discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A quantitative assessment of alkaptonuria: testing the reliability of two disease severity scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Trevor F; Ranganath, Lakshminarayan

    2011-12-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is due to excessive homogentisic acid accumulation in body fluids due to lack of enzyme homogentisate dioxygenase leading in turn to varied clinical manifestations mainly by a process of conversion of HGA to a polymeric melanin-like pigment known as ochronosis. A potential treatment, a drug called nitisinone, to decrease formation of HGA is available. However, successful demonstration of its efficacy in modifying the natural history of AKU requires an effective quantitative assessment tool. We have described two potential tools that could be used to quantitate disease burden in AKU. One tool describes scoring the clinical features that includes clinical assessments, investigations and questionnaires in 15 patients with AKU. The second tool describes a scoring system that only includes items obtained from questionnaires used in 44 people with AKU. Statistical analyses were carried out on the two patient datasets to assess the AKU tools; these included the calculation of Chronbach's alpha, multidimensional scaling and simple linear regression analysis. The conclusion was that there was good evidence that the tools could be adopted as AKU assessment tools, but perhaps with further refinement before being used in the practical setting of a clinical trial.

  19. Quantitative measurement of intervertebral disc signal using MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemelaeinen, R. [Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)], E-mail: riikka.niemelainen@ualberta.ca; Videman, T. [Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Dhillon, S.S. [Department of Radiology and Diagnostic Imaging, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Battie, M.C. [Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada)

    2008-03-15

    Aim: To investigate the spinal cord as an alternative intra-body reference to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in evaluating thoracic disc signal intensity. Materials and methods: T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images of T6-T12 were obtained using 1.5 T machines for a population-based sample of 523 men aged 35-70 years. Quantitative data on the signal intensities were acquired using an image analysis program (SpEx (copy right) ). A random sample of 30 subjects and intraclass correlation coeffcients (ICC) were used to examine the repeatability of the spinal cord measurements. The validity of using the spinal cord as a reference was examined by correlating cord and CSF samples. Finally, thoracic disc signal was validated by correlating it with age without adjustment and adjusting for either cord or CSF. Pearson's r was used for correlational analyses. Results: The repeatability of the spinal cord signal measurements was extremely high ({>=}0.99). The correlations between the signals of spinal cord and CSF by level were all above 0.9. The spinal cord-adjusted disc signal and age correlated similarly with CSF-adjusted disc signal and age (r = -0.30 to -0.40 versus r = -0.26 to -0.36). Conclusion: Adjacent spinal cord is a good alternative reference to the current reference standard, CSF, for quantitative measurements of disc signal intensity. Clearly fewer levels were excluded when using spinal cord as compared to CSF due to missing reference samples.

  20. Quantitative Measures of Swallowing Deficits in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerston, Julia K; Heller, Amanda C; Houtz, Daniel R; Kendall, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Dysphagia and associated aspiration pneumonia are commonly reported sequelae of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies of swallowing in patients with PD have described prolonged pharyngeal transit time, delayed onset of pharyngeal transit, cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia, reduced pharyngeal constriction, and slowed hyolaryngeal elevation. These studies were completed using inconsistent evaluation methodology, reliance on qualitative analysis, and a lack of a large control group, resulting in concerns regarding diagnostic precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate swallowing function in patients with PD using a norm-referenced, quantitative approach. This retrospective study includes 34 patients with a diagnosis of PD referred to a multidisciplinary voice and swallowing clinic. Modified barium swallow studies were performed using quantitative measures of pharyngeal transit time, hyoid displacement, CP sphincter opening, area of the pharynx at maximal constriction, and timing of laryngeal vestibule closure relative to bolus arrival at the CP sphincter. Reduced pharyngeal constriction was found in 30.4%, and a delay in airway closure relative to arrival of the bolus at the CP sphincter was the most common abnormality, present in 62% of patients. Previously reported findings of prolonged pharyngeal transit, poor hyoid elevation, and CP achalasia were not identified as prominent features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Quantitative measures of healthy aging and biological age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2015-01-01

    Numerous genetic and non-genetic factors contribute to aging. To facilitate the study of these factors, various descriptors of biological aging, including ‘successful aging’ and ‘frailty’, have been put forth as integrative functional measures of aging. A separate but related quantitative approach is the ‘frailty index’, which has been operationalized and frequently used. Various frailty indices have been constructed. Although based on different numbers and types of health variables, frailty indices possess several common properties that make them useful across different studies. We have been using a frailty index termed FI34 based on 34 health variables. Like other frailty indices, FI34 increases non-linearly with advancing age and is a better indicator of biological aging than chronological age. FI34 has a substantial genetic basis. Using FI34, we found elevated levels of resting metabolic rate linked to declining health in nonagenarians. Using FI34 as a quantitative phenotype, we have also found a genomic region on chromosome 12 that is associated with healthy aging and longevity. PMID:26005669

  2. Relative validity and reliability of a quantitative food frequency questionnaire for adults in Guam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael T. Leon Guerrero

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Guam is a US territory in the western Pacific with a diverse population that includes understudied ethnic groups such as Chamorros and Filipinos. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to estimate dietary intake was needed to facilitate studies of diet and health among adults living in Guam. Objective: To develop and validate an FFQ to assess dietary intake over a 1-year period among adult Guam residents. Design: A three-part study was conducted: 1 an initial cross-sectional study using 24-h recalls to identify a food and beverage list for the FFQ and resulting in a final FFQ containing 142 food and drink items; 2 to test reliability, 56 different individuals completed the FFQ twice; and 3 to test relative validity, self-administered FFQs and up to 2 days of food record data from an additional 109 individuals were collected, and daily nutrient intake from the two methods was compared. Results: The reliability of the FFQ was very good (ρ range=0.65–0.75, and the relative validity of the FFQ was good for women (median Spearman's correlation [ρ] between instruments of 0.45 across 20 nutrients and an interquartile range [IQR] of 0.42–0.58 and generally adequate for men (median ρ=0.31, IQR=0.23–0.55. Validity was also good for Chamorros (median ρ=0.47, IQR=0.38–0.53 and generally adequate for Filipinos (median ρ=0.42, IQR=0.20–0.62. Correlations after energy adjustment were lower (overall median ρ=0.20, IQR=0.14–0.26. Conclusions: The FFQ can be used to rank nutrient intake for adults in Guam and may be helpful in the analysis of relationships between diet and chronic disease in Guam.

  3. A passive quantitative measurement of airway resistance using depth data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadabbas, Sarah; Bulach, Christoph; Ku, David N; Anderson, Larry J; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2014-01-01

    The Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children. RSV often causes increased airway resistance, clinically detected as wheezing by chest auscultation. In this disease, expiratory flows are significantly reduced due to the high resistance in patient's airway passages. A quantitative method for measuring resistance can have a great benefit to diagnosis and management of children with RSV infections as well as with other lung diseases. Airway resistance is defined as the lung pressure divided by the airflow. In this paper, we propose a method to quantify resistance through a simple, non-contact measurement of chest volume that can act as a surrogate measure of the lung pressure and volumetric airflow. We used depth data collected by a Microsoft Kinect camera for the measurement of the lung volume over time. In our experimentation, breathing through a number of plastic straws induced different airway resistances. For a standard spirometry test, our volume/flow estimation using Kinect showed strong correlation with the flow data collected by a commercially-available spirometer (five subjects, each performing 20 breathing trials, correlation coefficient = 0.88, with 95% confidence interval). As the number of straws decreased, emulating a higher airway obstruction, our algorithm was sufficient to distinguish between several levels of airway resistance.

  4. Quantitative assessment of probability of failing safely for the safety instrumented system using reliability block diagram method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Jianghong; Pang, Lei; Zhao, Shoutang; Hu, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Models of PFS for SIS were established by using the reliability block diagram. • The more accurate calculation of PFS for SIS can be acquired by using SL. • Degraded operation of complex SIS does not affect the availability of SIS. • The safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS of SIS. - Abstract: The spurious trip of safety instrumented system (SIS) brings great economic losses to production. How to ensure the safety instrumented system is reliable and available has been put on the schedule. But the existing models on spurious trip rate (STR) or probability of failing safely (PFS) are too simplified and not accurate, in-depth studies of availability to obtain more accurate PFS for SIS are required. Based on the analysis of factors that influence the PFS for the SIS, using reliability block diagram method (RBD), the quantitative study of PFS for the SIS is carried out, and gives some application examples. The results show that, the common cause failure will increase the PFS; degraded operation does not affect the availability of the SIS; if the equipment was tested and repaired one by one, the unavailability of the SIS can be ignored; the corresponding occurrence time of independent safe undetected failure should be the system lifecycle (SL) rather than the proof test interval and the independent safe undetected failure is the largest contribution to the PFS for the SIS

  5. Reliability and validity of aggressive driving measures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengzhi; Li, Changji; Long, Yunfang; Zhan, Chenglie; Hennessy, Dwight

    2004-12-01

    The present research was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Chinese versions of the Self Report Driver Behavior Aggression and Assertiveness subscales, the Driving Vengeance Questionnaire, and the Violent Driving Questionnaire. Study 1 found that the all scales demonstrated good internal consistency, with alphas ranging from .76 to .87 and that assertive driving was related to demerit points received over the past 12 months while driver aggression and violence were linked to collisions over the past 12 months. Study 2 found that the scales exhibited reasonable test-retest reliability, with correlations ranging from .82 to .89. Finally, Study 3 showed that each scale was predicted by other dangerous driving attitudes and behaviors, similar to the original versions. The consistency between the translated and original scales, the implications for use in a Chinese sample, and the uniformity of actions in the traffic environment across cultures are discussed.

  6. Developing quantitative tools for measuring aspects of prisonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær Minke, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners.......The article describes and discusses the preparation and completion of a quantitative study among prison officers and prisoners....

  7. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  8. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-01-01

      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  9. A novel semi-quantitative method for measuring tissue bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukcevic, G; Volarevic, V; Raicevic, S; Tanaskovic, I; Milicic, B; Vulovic, T; Arsenijevic, S

    2014-03-01

    In this study, we describe a new semi-quantitative method for measuring the extent of bleeding in pathohistological tissue samples. To test our novel method, we recruited 120 female patients in their first trimester of pregnancy and divided them into three groups of 40. Group I was the control group, in which no dilation was applied. Group II was an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using classical mechanical dilators. Group III was also an experimental group, in which dilation was performed using a hydraulic dilator. Tissue samples were taken from the patients' cervical canals using a Novak's probe via energetic single-step curettage prior to any dilation in Group I and after dilation in Groups II and III. After the tissue samples were prepared, light microscopy was used to obtain microphotographs at 100x magnification. The surfaces affected by bleeding were measured in the microphotographs using the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program and its "polylines" function. The lines were used to mark the area around the entire sample (marked A) and to create "polyline" areas around each bleeding area on the sample (marked B). The percentage of the total area affected by bleeding was calculated using the formula: N = Bt x 100 / At where N is the percentage (%) of the tissue sample surface affected by bleeding, At (A total) is the sum of the surfaces of all of the tissue samples and Bt (B total) is the sum of all the surfaces affected by bleeding in all of the tissue samples. This novel semi-quantitative method utilizes the Autodesk AutoCAD 2009 program, which is simple to use and widely available, thereby offering a new, objective and precise approach to estimate the extent of bleeding in tissue samples.

  10. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penny Moss

    Full Text Available Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot. Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%. Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56 years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%. Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add

  11. Quantitative and Qualitative Responses to Topical Cold in Healthy Caucasians Show Variance between Individuals but High Test-Retest Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Penny; Whitnell, Jasmine; Wright, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Increased sensitivity to cold may be a predictor of persistent pain, but cold pain threshold is often viewed as unreliable. This study aimed to determine the within-subject reliability and between-subject variance of cold response, measured comprehensively as cold pain threshold plus pain intensity and sensation quality at threshold. A test-retest design was used over three sessions, one day apart. Response to cold was assessed at four sites (thenar eminence, volar forearm, tibialis anterior, plantar foot). Cold pain threshold was measured using a Medoc thermode and standard method of limits. Intensity of pain at threshold was rated using a 10cm visual analogue scale. Quality of sensation at threshold was quantified with indices calculated from subjects' selection of descriptors from a standard McGill Pain Questionnaire. Within-subject reliability for each measure was calculated with intra-class correlation coefficients and between-subject variance was evaluated as group coefficient of variation percentage (CV%). Gender and site comparisons were also made. Forty-five healthy adults participated: 20 male, 25 female; mean age 29 (range 18-56) years. All measures at all four test sites showed high within-subject reliability: cold pain thresholds r = 0.92-0.95; pain rating r = 0.93-0.97; McGill pain quality indices r = 0.87-0.85. In contrast, all measures showed wide between-subject variance (CV% between 51.4% and 92.5%). Upper limb sites were consistently more sensitive than lower limb sites, but equally reliable. Females showed elevated cold pain thresholds, although similar pain intensity and quality to males. Females were also more reliable and showed lower variance for all measures. Thus, although there was clear population variation, response to cold for healthy individuals was found to be highly reliable, whether measured as pain threshold, pain intensity or sensation quality. A comprehensive approach to cold response testing therefore may add validity and

  12. Reliability and Validity of Finger Strength and Endurance Measurements in Rock Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, Michail Lubomirov; Baláš, Jirí; Tanev, Stoyan Kolev; Andonov, Hristo Stoyanov; Kodejška, Jan; Brown, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: An advanced system for the assessment of climbing-specific performance was developed and used to: (a) investigate the effect of arm fixation (AF) on construct validity evidence and reliability of climbing-specific finger-strength measurement; (b) assess reliability of finger-strength and endurance measurements; and (c) evaluate the…

  13. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.; Keus, S.H.; Munks, L.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains

  14. The Reliability of Anthropometric Measurements Used Preoperatively in Aesthetic Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Kathryn V; Murphy, Blake D; Beber, Brett; Brown, Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Patient outcomes in aesthetic breast surgery are highly dependent on breast measurements used in preoperative planning. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of anthropometric breast measurements. Four raters measured 28 women using 7 measurements: sternal notch to nipple distance (Sn-N), nipple to midline (N-M), nipple to inframammary-fold distance under maximal stretch (N-IMF), breast base width (BW), soft tissue pinch thickness of the upper pole (STPT:UP), STPT at the inframammary fold (STPT:IMF), and anterior pull skin stretch (APSS). Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Inter-rater reliability was excellent for Sn-N, N-M, and BW (ICC = 0.94, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively) and was good for N-IMF (ICC = 0.70). The STPT:UP, STPT:IMF, and APSS measurements were not reliable between raters (ICC reliability was excellent for Sn-N, N-M, and BW for all raters (all ICC > 0.75). The N-IMF intra-rater reliability was excellent in senior raters (ICC > 0.75) and good in junior raters (ICC > 0.6). The STPT:UP, STPT:IMF, and APSS measurements showed fair or poor reliability for most raters (ICC reliable. Dynamic measurements including APSS, STPT:UP, and STUP:IMF are unreliable. N-IMF is the only reliable dynamic measurement, and its reliability improves with increasing clinical experience. The variable reliability of preoperative measurements must be considered in the planning of aesthetic breast surgery. 4 Diagnostic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Quantitative analysis of velopharyngeal movement using a stereoendoscope: accuracy and reliability of range images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Asuka; Mishima, Katsuaki; Shiraishi, Ruriko; Ueyama, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    We developed a novel method of producing accurate range images of the velopharynx using a three-dimensional (3D) endoscope to obtain detailed measurements of velopharyngeal movements. The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between the distance from the endoscope to an object, elucidate the measurement accuracy along the temporal axes, and determine the degree of blurring when using a jig to fix the endoscope. An endoscopic measuring system was developed in which a pattern projection system was incorporated into a commercially available 3D endoscope. After correcting the distortion of the camera images, range images were produced using pattern projection to achieve stereo matching. Graph paper was used to measure the appropriate distance from the camera to an object, the mesial buccal cusp of the right maxillary first molar was measured to clarify the range image stability, and an electric actuator was used to evaluate the measurement accuracy along the temporal axes. The measurement error was substantial when the distance from the camera to the subject was >6.5 cm. The standard error of the 3D coordinate value produced from 30 frames was within 0.1 mm (range, 0.01-0.08 mm). The measurement error of the temporal axes was 9.16% in the horizontal direction and 9.27% in the vertical direction. The optimal distance from the camera to an object is movements.

  16. Quantitative computed tomography in measurement of vertebral trabecular bone mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, M.; Johnell, O.; Jonsson, K.; Redlund-Johnell, I.

    1988-01-01

    Measurement of bone mineral concentration (BMC) can be done by several modalities. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) can be used for measurements at different sites and with different types of bone (trabecular-cortical). This study presents a modified method reducing the influence of fat. Determination of BMC was made from measurements with single-energy computed tomography (CT) of the mean Hounsfield number in the trabecular part of the L1 vertebra. The method takes into account the age-dependent composition of the trabecular part of the vertebra. As the amount of intravertebral fat increases with age, the effective atomic number for these parts decreases. This results in a non-linear calibration curve for single-energy CT. Comparison of BMC values using the non-linear calibration curve or the traditional linear calibration with those obtained with a pixel-by-pixel based electron density calculation method (theoretically better) showed results clearly in favor of the non-linear method. The material consisted of 327 patients aged 6 to 91 years, of whom 197 were considered normal. The normal data show a sharp decrease in trabecular bone after the age of 50 in women. In men a slower decrease was found. The vertebrae were larger in men than in women. (orig.)

  17. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...

  18. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  19. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves

    2009-01-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  20. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  1. Raman spectroscopy of human skin: looking for a quantitative algorithm to reliably estimate human age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzotti, Giuseppe; Boffelli, Marco; Miyamori, Daisuke; Uemura, Takeshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Zhu, Wenliang; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The possibility of examining soft tissues by Raman spectroscopy is challenged in an attempt to probe human age for the changes in biochemical composition of skin that accompany aging. We present a proof-of-concept report for explicating the biophysical links between vibrational characteristics and the specific compositional and chemical changes associated with aging. The actual existence of such links is then phenomenologically proved. In an attempt to foster the basics for a quantitative use of Raman spectroscopy in assessing aging from human skin samples, a precise spectral deconvolution is performed as a function of donors' ages on five cadaveric samples, which emphasizes the physical significance and the morphological modifications of the Raman bands. The outputs suggest the presence of spectral markers for age identification from skin samples. Some of them appeared as authentic "biological clocks" for the apparent exactness with which they are related to age. Our spectroscopic approach yields clear compositional information of protein folding and crystallization of lipid structures, which can lead to a precise identification of age from infants to adults. Once statistically validated, these parameters might be used to link vibrational aspects at the molecular scale for practical forensic purposes.

  2. Practicable methods for histological section thickness measurement in quantitative stereological analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenaers, Cyrill; Popper, Bastian; Rieger, Alexandra; Wanke, Rüdiger; Blutke, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    of SR to efficiently provide accurate section thickness measurements as a prerequisite for reliable estimates of dependent quantitative stereological parameters.

  3. Development of a Quantitative Measure of Holistic Nursing Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchen, Elizabeth

    2015-09-01

    Holistic care has long been a defining attribute of nursing practice. From the earliest years of its formal history, nursing has favored a holistic approach in the care of patients, and such an approach has become more important over time. The expansion of nursing's responsibility in delivering comprehensive primary care, the recognition of the importance of relationship-centered care, and the need for evidence-based legitimation of holistic nursing care and practices to insurance companies, policy-makers, health care providers, and patients highlight the need to examine the holistic properties of nursing care. The Holistic Caring Inventory is a theoretically sound, valid, and reliable tool; however, it does not comprehensively address attributes that have come to define holistic nursing care, necessitating the development of a more current instrument to measure the elements of a holistic perspective in nursing care. The development of a current and more comprehensive measure of holistic nursing care may be critical in demonstrating the importance of a holistic approach to patient care that reflects the principles of relationship-based care, shared decision-making, authentic presence, and pattern recognition. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of twin-dependent triple junction distributions measured from a section plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Graden B.; Field, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate polycrystalline triple junctions are independent microstructural features with distinct properties from their constituent grain boundaries. Despite the influence of triple junctions on material properties, it is impractical to characterize triple junctions on a large scale using current three-dimensional methods. This work demonstrates the ability to characterize twin-dependent triple junction distributions from a section plane by adopting a grain boundary plane stereology. The technique is validated through simulated distributions and simulated electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) data. Measures of validation and convergence are adopted to demonstrate the quantitative reliability of the technique as well as the convergence behavior of twin-dependent triple junction distributions. This technique expands the characterization power of EBSD and prepares the way for characterizing general triple junction distributions from a section plane. - Graphical abstract: The distribution of planes forming a triple junction with a given twin boundary is shown partially in the stereographic projections below from a given projection. The plot on the left shows the ideal/measured distribution and the plot on the right shows the distribution obtained from the stereological method presented here.

  6. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  7. Test-retest reliability of knee kinematics measurement during gait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACLR) is crucial to minimize the risk of joint degeneration. To achieve this, it is essential that the chosen measurement method can accurately assess knee kinematics and detect the changes in multi-planes of motion. However to date, limited ...

  8. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  9. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  10. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  11. Selection and validation of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative sod gene expression analysis in C. elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandesompele Jo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the conserved Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates many biological processes including life span, stress response, dauer diapause and metabolism. Detection of differentially expressed genes may contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism by which the Ins/IGF-1 signaling pathway regulates these processes. Appropriate normalization is an essential prerequisite for obtaining accurate and reproducible quantification of gene expression levels. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for gene expression analysis in C. elegans. Results Real-time quantitative PCR was used to evaluate the expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes (act-1, ama-1, cdc-42, csq-1, eif-3.C, mdh-1, gpd-2, pmp-3, tba-1, Y45F10D.4, rgs-6 and unc-16 in wild-type, three Ins/IGF-1 pathway mutants, dauers and L3 stage larvae. After geNorm analysis, cdc-42, pmp-3 and Y45F10D.4 showed the most stable expression pattern and were used to normalize 5 sod expression levels. Significant differences in mRNA levels were observed for sod-1 and sod-3 in daf-2 relative to wild-type animals, whereas in dauers sod-1, sod-3, sod-4 and sod-5 are differentially expressed relative to third stage larvae. Conclusion Our findings emphasize the importance of accurate normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The methodology used in this study is generally applicable to reliably quantify gene expression levels in the nematode C. elegans using quantitative PCR.

  12. Determining Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    seyed abolfazl zakerian; Roya Azizi; Mehdi Rahgozar

    2013-01-01

    The term usability refers to a special index for success of an operating system. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire as one of the valid and common questionnaires about usability evaluation. The back translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Persian back to English. Moreover, repeatability or test-retest reliability was practically used to determine the reliability of ...

  13. Reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of thoracic kyphosis measurement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eva; McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2014-02-01

    A wide array of instruments are available for non-invasive thoracic kyphosis measurement. Guidelines for selecting outcome measures for use in clinical and research practice recommend that properties such as validity and reliability are considered. This systematic review reports on the reliability and validity of non-invasive methods for measuring thoracic kyphosis. A systematic search of 11 electronic databases located studies assessing reliability and/or validity of non-invasive thoracic kyphosis measurement techniques. Two independent reviewers used a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of retrieved studies. Data was extracted by the primary reviewer. The results were synthesized qualitatively using a level of evidence approach. 27 studies satisfied the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The reliability, validity and both reliability and validity were investigated by sixteen, two and nine studies respectively. 17/27 studies were deemed to be of high quality. In total, 15 methods of thoracic kyphosis were evaluated in retrieved studies. All investigated methods showed high (ICC ≥ .7) to very high (ICC ≥ .9) levels of reliability. The validity of the methods ranged from low to very high. The strongest levels of evidence for reliability exists in support of the Debrunner kyphometer, Spinal Mouse and Flexicurve index, and for validity supports the arcometer and Flexicurve index. Further reliability and validity studies are required to strengthen the level of evidence for the remaining methods of measurement. This should be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sooting turbulent jet flame: characterization and quantitative soot measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, M.; Geigle, K. P.; Meier, W.; Crosland, B. M.; Thomson, K. A.; Smallwood, G. J.

    2011-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelers require high-quality experimental data sets for validation of their numerical tools. Preferred features for numerical simulations of a sooting, turbulent test case flame are simplicity (no pilot flame), well-defined boundary conditions, and sufficient soot production. This paper proposes a non-premixed C2H4/air turbulent jet flame to fill this role and presents an extensive database for soot model validation. The sooting turbulent jet flame has a total visible flame length of approximately 400 mm and a fuel-jet Reynolds number of 10,000. The flame has a measured lift-off height of 26 mm which acts as a sensitive marker for CFD model validation, while this novel compiled experimental database of soot properties, temperature and velocity maps are useful for the validation of kinetic soot models and numerical flame simulations. Due to the relatively simple burner design which produces a flame with sufficient soot concentration while meeting modelers' needs with respect to boundary conditions and flame specifications as well as the present lack of a sooting "standard flame", this flame is suggested as a new reference turbulent sooting flame. The flame characterization presented here involved a variety of optical diagnostics including quantitative 2D laser-induced incandescence (2D-LII), shifted-vibrational coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (SV-CARS), and particle image velocimetry (PIV). Producing an accurate and comprehensive characterization of a transient sooting flame was challenging and required optimization of these diagnostics. In this respect, we present the first simultaneous, instantaneous PIV, and LII measurements in a heavily sooting flame environment. Simultaneous soot and flow field measurements can provide new insights into the interaction between a turbulent vortex and flame chemistry, especially since soot structures in turbulent flames are known to be small and often treated in a statistical manner.

  15. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative facial asymmetry: using three-dimensional photogrammetry to measure baseline facial surface symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Helena O; Morrison, Clinton S; Linden, Olivia; Phillips, Benjamin; Chang, Johnny; Byrne, Margaret E; Sullivan, Stephen R; Forrest, Christopher R

    2014-01-01

    Although symmetry is hailed as a fundamental goal of aesthetic and reconstructive surgery, our tools for measuring this outcome have been limited and subjective. With the advent of three-dimensional photogrammetry, surface geometry can be captured, manipulated, and measured quantitatively. Until now, few normative data existed with regard to facial surface symmetry. Here, we present a method for reproducibly calculating overall facial symmetry and present normative data on 100 subjects. We enrolled 100 volunteers who underwent three-dimensional photogrammetry of their faces in repose. We collected demographic data on age, sex, and race and subjectively scored facial symmetry. We calculated the root mean square deviation (RMSD) between the native and reflected faces, reflecting about a plane of maximum symmetry. We analyzed the interobserver reliability of the subjective assessment of facial asymmetry and the quantitative measurements and compared the subjective and objective values. We also classified areas of greatest asymmetry as localized to the upper, middle, or lower facial thirds. This cluster of normative data was compared with a group of patients with subtle but increasing amounts of facial asymmetry. We imaged 100 subjects by three-dimensional photogrammetry. There was a poor interobserver correlation between subjective assessments of asymmetry (r = 0.56). There was a high interobserver reliability for quantitative measurements of facial symmetry RMSD calculations (r = 0.91-0.95). The mean RMSD for this normative population was found to be 0.80 ± 0.24 mm. Areas of greatest asymmetry were distributed as follows: 10% upper facial third, 49% central facial third, and 41% lower facial third. Precise measurement permitted discrimination of subtle facial asymmetry within this normative group and distinguished norms from patients with subtle facial asymmetry, with placement of RMSDs along an asymmetry ruler. Facial surface symmetry, which is poorly assessed

  17. Reliability analysis for manual radiographic measures of rotatory subluxation or lateral listhesis in adult scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brett A; Horton, William C; Rhee, John M; Edwards, Charles C; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2009-03-15

    Retrospective observational study. To define the inter- and intraobserver reliability of 3 measures of rotatory subluxation (RS) in adult scoliosis (AS). RS is a hallmark of AS. To accurately track this measure, one must know its reliability. Reliability testing has not been performed. PA 36" films of 29 AS patients were collected from one surgeon's practice. Three observers on 2 separate occasions measured all levels with >or=3-mm RS (60 levels, 360 measurements) on the convexity of the involved segment using 3 different techniques-midbody (MB), endplate (EP), and centroid (C). These data were then analyzed to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for inter- and intraobserver reliability. The thoracolumbar/lumbar curve (average 58 degrees ) was the major curve for the majority (62%) of patients. RS at L3/4 was most common (35%). The overall inter- and intraobserver reliability was good-excellent for all methods, but the centroid method consistently had the highest ICC. ICC correlated with observer experience. Moderate-severe arthritic change (present in 55%) and poor image quality (52%) decreased ICC, but it still remained good-excellent for each measure. The reproducibility coefficient for each measure was 4 mm for MB and 2.8 mm for C and EP. MB, EP, and C are reliable techniques to measure RS even in elderly arthritic spines, but the methods inherently produce different values for a given level. The centroid method is most reliable and least influenced by experience. The EP method is easy to perform and very reliable. Spine surgeons should pick their preferred method and apply it consistently. Changes >3 mm suggest RS progression. RS may be a useful measure in addition to Cobb angle in AS. Having defined measurement reliability, the role of RS progression in surgical indications and patient outcomes can be evaluated.

  18. Semiconductor measurement technology: reliability technology for cardiac pacemakers 2: a workshop report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafft, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries are presented of 12 invited talks on the following topics: the procurement and assurance of high reliability electronic parts, leak rate and moisture measurements, pacemaker batteries, and pacemaker leads. The workshop, second in a series, was held in response to strong interest expressed by the pacemaker community to address technical questions relevant to the enhancement and assurance of cardiac pacemaker reliability. Discussed at the workshop were a process validation wafer concept for assuring process uniformity in device chips; screen tests for assuring reliable electronic parts; reliability prediction; reliability comparison of semiconductor technologies; mechanisms of short-circuiting dendritic growths; details of helium and radioisotope leak test methods; a study to correlate package leak rates, as measured with test gasses, and actual moisture infusion; battery life prediction; microcalorimetric measurements to nondestructively evaluate batteries for pacemakers; and an engineer's and a physician's view of the present status of pacemaker leads. References are included with most of the reports

  19. Quantitative analysis of impact measurements using dynamic load cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent J. Maranzano

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is used to estimate material properties from a short duration transient impact force measured by dropping spheres onto rectangular coupons fixed to a dynamic load cell. The contact stress between the dynamic load cell surface and the projectile are modeled using Hertzian contact mechanics. Due to the short impact time relative to the load cell dynamics, an additional Kelvin–Voigt element is included in the model to account for the finite response time of the piezoelectric crystal. Calculations with and without the Kelvin–Voigt element are compared to experimental data collected from combinations of polymeric spheres and polymeric and metallic surfaces. The results illustrate that the inclusion of the Kelvin–Voigt element qualitatively captures the post impact resonance and non-linear behavior of the load cell signal and quantitatively improves the estimation of the Young's elastic modulus and Poisson's ratio. Mathematically, the additional KV element couples one additional differential equation to the Hertzian spring-dashpot equation. The model can be numerically integrated in seconds using standard numerical techniques allowing for its use as a rapid technique for the estimation of material properties. Keywords: Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, Dynamic load cell

  20. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, 2052 (Australia); Dawson, J. R. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Australia Telescope National Facility, P.O. Box 76, Epping, NSW 1710 (Australia); Novak, G. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Fissel, L. M. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA, 22903 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”.

  1. Quantitative Laughter Detection, Measurement, and Classification-A Critical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Sarah; Sessa, Salvatore; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2016-01-01

    The study of human nonverbal social behaviors has taken a more quantitative and computational approach in recent years due to the development of smart interfaces and virtual agents or robots able to interact socially. One of the most interesting nonverbal social behaviors, producing a characteristic vocal signal, is laughing. Laughter is produced in several different situations: in response to external physical, cognitive, or emotional stimuli; to negotiate social interactions; and also, pathologically, as a consequence of neural damage. For this reason, laughter has attracted researchers from many disciplines. A consequence of this multidisciplinarity is the absence of a holistic vision of this complex behavior: the methods of analysis and classification of laughter, as well as the terminology used, are heterogeneous; the findings sometimes contradictory and poorly documented. This survey aims at collecting and presenting objective measurement methods and results from a variety of different studies in different fields, to contribute to build a unified model and taxonomy of laughter. This could be successfully used for advances in several fields, from artificial intelligence and human-robot interaction to medicine and psychiatry.

  2. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C.-E.; Dawson, J. R.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-09-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  3. Measuring Filament Orientation: A New Quantitative, Local Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.-E.; Cunningham, M. R.; Jones, P. A.; Dawson, J. R.; Novak, G.; Fissel, L. M.

    2017-01-01

    The relative orientation between filamentary structures in molecular clouds and the ambient magnetic field provides insight into filament formation and stability. To calculate the relative orientation, a measurement of filament orientation is first required. We propose a new method to calculate the orientation of the one-pixel-wide filament skeleton that is output by filament identification algorithms such as filfinder. We derive the local filament orientation from the direction of the intensity gradient in the skeleton image using the Sobel filter and a few simple post-processing steps. We call this the “Sobel-gradient method.” The resulting filament orientation map can be compared quantitatively on a local scale with the magnetic field orientation map to then find the relative orientation of the filament with respect to the magnetic field at each point along the filament. It can also be used for constructing radial profiles for filament width fitting. The proposed method facilitates automation in analyses of filament skeletons, which is imperative in this era of “big data.”

  4. Quantitative measure of randomness and order for complete genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sing-Guan; Fan, Wen-Lang; Chen, Hong-Da; Wigger, Jan; Torda, Andrew E.; Lee, H. C.

    2009-06-01

    We propose an order index, ϕ , which gives a quantitative measure of randomness and order of complete genomic sequences. It maps genomes to a number from 0 (random and of infinite length) to 1 (fully ordered) and applies regardless of sequence length. The 786 complete genomic sequences in GenBank were found to have ϕ values in a very narrow range, ϕg=0.031-0.015+0.028 . We show this implies that genomes are halfway toward being completely random, or, at the “edge of chaos.” We further show that artificial “genomes” converted from literary classics have ϕ ’s that almost exactly coincide with ϕg , but sequences of low information content do not. We infer that ϕg represents a high information-capacity “fixed point” in sequence space, and that genomes are driven to it by the dynamics of a robust growth and evolution process. We show that a growth process characterized by random segmental duplication can robustly drive genomes to the fixed point.

  5. Quantitative heartbeat coupling measures in human-horse interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanata, Antonio; Guidi, Andrea; Valenza, Gaetano; Baragli, Paolo; Scilingo, Enzo Pasquale

    2016-08-01

    We present a study focused on a quantitative estimation of a human-horse dynamic interaction. A set of measures based on magnitude and phase coupling between heartbeat dynamics of both humans and horses in three different conditions is reported: no interaction, visual/olfactory interaction and grooming. Specifically, Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC), Mean Phase Coherence (MPC) and Dynamic Time Warping (DTW) have been used as estimators of the amount of coupling between human and horse through the analysis of their heart rate variability (HRV) time series in a group of eleven human subjects, and one horse. The rationale behind this study is that the interaction of two complex biological systems go towards a coupling process whose dynamical evolution is modulated by the kind and time duration of the interaction itself. We achieved a congruent and consistent statistical significant difference for all of the three indices. Moreover, a Nearest Mean Classifier was able to recognize the three classes of interaction with an accuracy greater than 70%. Although preliminary, these encouraging results allow a discrimination of three distinct phases in a real human-animal interaction opening to the characterization of the empirically proven relationship between human and horse.

  6. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  7. Reliability of in-Shoe Plantar Pressure Measurements in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Gaj; Novak, Primoz

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressures measurement is a frequently used method in rehabilitation and related research. Metric characteristics of the F-Scan system have been assessed from different standpoints and in different patients, but not its reliability in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, our objective was to assess reliability of the F-Scan plantar…

  8. Reliability and validity of the AutoCAD software method in lumbar lordosis measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatkar, Amir; Amirsasan, Ramin; Abdolvahabi, Zahra; Hadadnezhad, Malihe

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the AutoCAD software method in lumbar lordosis measurement. Fifty healthy volunteers with a mean age of 23 ± 1.80 years were enrolled. A lumbar lateral radiograph was taken on all participants, and the lordosis was measured according to the Cobb method. Afterward, the lumbar lordosis degree was measured via AutoCAD software and flexible ruler methods. The current study is accomplished in 2 parts: intratester and intertester evaluations of reliability as well as the validity of the flexible ruler and software methods. Based on the intraclass correlation coefficient, AutoCAD's reliability and validity in measuring lumbar lordosis were 0.984 and 0.962, respectively. AutoCAD showed to be a reliable and valid method to measure lordosis. It is suggested that this method may replace those that are costly and involve health risks, such as radiography, in evaluating lumbar lordosis.

  9. A Framework for Mixing Methods in Quantitative Measurement Development, Validation, and Revision: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyt, Russell

    2012-01-01

    A framework for quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision that incorporates both qualitative and quantitative methods is introduced. It extends and adapts Adcock and Collier's work, and thus, facilitates understanding of quantitative measurement development, validation, and revision as an integrated and cyclical set of…

  10. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)

  11. Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Sandberg, Lisa; Ressman, John; Diamantoglou, Nicolas; Johansson, Elin; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2018-01-08

    Clinical examinations are subjective and often show a low validity and reliability. Objective and highly reliable quantitative assessments are available in laboratory settings using 3D motion analysis, but these systems are too expensive to use for simple clinical examinations. Qinematic™ is an interactive movement analyses system based on the Kinect camera and is an easy-to-use clinical measurement system for assessing posture, balance and side-bending. The aim of the study was to test the test-retest the reliability and construct validity of Qinematic™ in a healthy population, and to calculate the minimal clinical differences for the variables of interest. A further aim was to identify the discriminative validity of Qinematic™ in people with low-back pain (LBP). We performed a test-retest reliability study (n = 37) with around 1 week between the occasions, a construct validity study (n = 30) in which Qinematic™ was tested against a 3D motion capture system, and a discriminative validity study, in which a group of people with LBP (n = 20) was compared to healthy controls (n = 17). We tested a large range of psychometric properties of 18 variables in three sections: posture (head and pelvic position, weight distribution), balance (sway area and velocity in single- and double-leg stance), and side-bending. The majority of the variables in the posture and balance sections, showed poor/fair reliability (ICC validity (Spearman reliability (ICC =0.898), excellent validity (r = 0.943), and Qinematic™ could differentiate between LPB and healthy individuals (p = 0.012). This paper shows that a novel software program (Qinematic™) based on the Kinect camera for measuring balance, posture and side-bending has poor psychometric properties, indicating that the variables on balance and posture should not be used for monitoring individual changes over time or in research. Future research on the dynamic tasks of Qinematic™ is warranted.

  12. Inter-arch digital model vs. manual cast measurements: Accuracy and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviahde, Heikki; Bukovac, Lea; Jussila, Päivi; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi; Raustia, Aune; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2017-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of inter-arch measurements using digital dental models and conventional dental casts. Thirty sets of dental casts with permanent dentition were examined. Manual measurements were done with a digital caliper directly on the dental casts, and digital measurements were made on 3D models by two independent examiners. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), a paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate intra- and inter-examiner error and to determine the accuracy and reliability of the measurements. The ICC values were generally good for manual and excellent for digital measurements. The Bland-Altman plots of all the measurements showed good agreement between the manual and digital methods and excellent inter-examiner agreement using the digital method. Inter-arch occlusal measurements on digital models are accurate and reliable and are superior to manual measurements.

  13. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  14. An Introduction to Quantitative Measures for Software Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Hyun Jun; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2007-01-01

    The I and C system of NPP has changed from the analog system to the digital-based system using microcontrollers and software. Thus, software has become very important for NPP control system. The software life cycle is divided into the development and maintenance phase largely. Because poor software maintenance work introduces new errors and makes software much complex, we have to consider the effective maintenance methods for the reliability and maintainability of NPP software. Function Block Diagram (FBD) is a standard application programming language for the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) and currently being used in the development of a fully-digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) under the KNICS project. Therefore, the maintenance work will be of great importance in a few years. This paper studies on the measures which give quantitative information to software maintainer and manager before and after modification. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briefly describes software maintenance types and model. In Section 3-5, we introduce the quantitative measures for software maintenance and characteristics of FBD program. A conclusion is provided in Section 6

  15. A comparison of manual anthropometric measurements with Kinect-based scanned measurements in terms of precision and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Sara; Arezes, Pedro; Carvalho, Miguel; Ashdown, Susan P; Castellucci, Ignacio; Leão, Celina

    2018-01-01

    Collecting anthropometric data for real-life applications demands a high degree of precision and reliability. It is important to test new equipment that will be used for data collectionOBJECTIVE:Compare two anthropometric data gathering techniques - manual methods and a Kinect-based 3D body scanner - to understand which of them gives more precise and reliable results. The data was collected using a measuring tape and a Kinect-based 3D body scanner. It was evaluated in terms of precision by considering the regular and relative Technical Error of Measurement and in terms of reliability by using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Reliability Coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement and Coefficient of Variation. The results obtained showed that both methods presented better results for reliability than for precision. Both methods showed relatively good results for these two variables, however, manual methods had better results for some body measurements. Despite being considered sufficiently precise and reliable for certain applications (e.g. apparel industry), the 3D scanner tested showed, for almost every anthropometric measurement, a different result than the manual technique. Many companies design their products based on data obtained from 3D scanners, hence, understanding the precision and reliability of the equipment used is essential to obtain feasible results.

  16. Reliability of EEG Interactions Differs between Measures and Is Specific for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of interaction (connectivity of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from two EEG-recordings separated by 2 weeks. In order to characterize test-retest reliability, we correlated these measures for each group and compared the correlations between measures and between groups. We found that both measures of interaction as well as groups differed from each other in terms of reliability. The strongest correlation coefficients were found for spectrum, coherence, and full frequency directed transfer function (average rho > 0.9. In the delta (2–4 Hz range, reliability was lower for mild cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls and left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy. In the beta (13–30 Hz, gamma (31–80 Hz, and high gamma (81–125 Hz frequency ranges we found decreased reliability in subjective cognitive complaints compared to mild cognitive impairment. In the gamma and high gamma range we found increased reliability in left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to healthy controls. Our results emphasize the importance of documenting reliability of measures of interaction, which may vary considerably between measures, but also between patient populations. We suggest that studies claiming clinical usefulness of measures of interaction should provide information on the reliability of the results. In addition, differences between patient

  17. Application-Driven Reliability Measures and Evaluation Tool for Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishna, C

    2001-01-01

    .... The measure combines graphic-theoretic concepts in evaluating the underlying reliability of the network and other means to evaluate the ability of the network to support interprocessor traffic...

  18. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  19. Modeling reliability measurement of interface on information system: Towards the forensic of rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sitompul, Darwin; Harahap, Marwan

    2018-02-01

    Today almost all machines depend on the software. As a software and hardware system depends also on the rules that are the procedures for its use. If the procedure or program can be reliably characterized by involving the concept of graph, logic, and probability, then regulatory strength can also be measured accordingly. Therefore, this paper initiates an enumeration model to measure the reliability of interfaces based on the case of information systems supported by the rules of use by the relevant agencies. An enumeration model is obtained based on software reliability calculation.

  20. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of masking in plantar pressure measurement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, K; Birch, I; Mc Innes, J; Desloovere, K; Matricali, G A

    2009-10-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is an important tool in gait analysis. Manual placement of small masks (masking) is increasingly used to calculate plantar pressure characteristics. Little is known concerning the reliability of manual masking. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of masking on 2D plantar pressure footprints, in a population with forefoot deformity (i.e. hallux valgus). Using a random repeated-measure design, four observers identified the third metatarsal head on a peak-pressure barefoot footprint, using a small mask. Subsequently, the location of all five metatarsal heads was identified, using the same size of masks and the same protocol. The 2D positional variation of the masks and the peak pressure (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) values of each mask were calculated. For single-masking the lowest inter-observer reliability was found for the distal-proximal direction, causing a clear, adverse impact on the reliability of the pressure characteristics (PP and PTI). In the medial-lateral direction the inter-observer reliability could be scored as high. Intra-observer reliability was better and could be scored as high or good for both directions, with a correlated improved reliability of the pressure characteristics. Reliability of multi-masking showed a similar pattern, but overall values tended to be lower. Therefore, small sized masking in order to define pressure characteristics in the forefoot should be done with care.

  1. Reliable Portfolio Selection Problem in Fuzzy Environment: An mλ Measure Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Feng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a fuzzy portfolio selection problem with guaranteed reliability, in which the fuzzy variables are used to capture the uncertain returns of different securities. To effectively handle the fuzziness in a mathematical way, a new expected value operator and variance of fuzzy variables are defined based on the m λ measure that is a linear combination of the possibility measure and necessity measure to balance the pessimism and optimism in the decision-making process. To formulate the reliable portfolio selection problem, we particularly adopt the expected total return and standard variance of the total return to evaluate the reliability of the investment strategies, producing three risk-guaranteed reliable portfolio selection models. To solve the proposed models, an effective genetic algorithm is designed to generate the approximate optimal solution to the considered problem. Finally, the numerical examples are given to show the performance of the proposed models and algorithm.

  2. The Reliability of Lumbar Lordosis Measurements Using a Flexible-Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-rater and intra-rater reliability of lumbar lordosis measurements taken with a flexible-rule. Two...coefficients (ICC) were used to determine the degree of agreement between measurements. The results suggest that measurements of lumbar lordosis with a

  3. A new reliability measure based on specified minimum distances before the locations of random variables in a finite interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todinov, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    A new reliability measure is proposed and equations are derived which determine the probability of existence of a specified set of minimum gaps between random variables following a homogeneous Poisson process in a finite interval. Using the derived equations, a method is proposed for specifying the upper bound of the random variables' number density which guarantees that the probability of clustering of two or more random variables in a finite interval remains below a maximum acceptable level. It is demonstrated that even for moderate number densities the probability of clustering is substantial and should not be neglected in reliability calculations. In the important special case where the random variables are failure times, models have been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a set of minimum failure-free operating intervals before the random failures, with a specified probability. A model has also been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a minimum availability target. Using the models proposed, a new strategy, models and reliability tools have been developed for setting quantitative reliability requirements which consist of determining the intersection of the hazard rate envelopes (hazard rate upper bounds) which deliver a minimum failure-free operating period before random failures, a risk of premature failure below a maximum acceptable level and a minimum required availability. It is demonstrated that setting reliability requirements solely based on an availability target does not necessarily mean a low risk of premature failure. Even at a high availability level, the probability of premature failure can be substantial. For industries characterised by a high cost of failure, the reliability requirements should involve a hazard rate envelope limiting the risk of failure below a maximum acceptable level

  4. A Reliable Measure of Information Security Awareness and the Identification of Bias in Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata McCormac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q is designed to measure Information Security Awareness. More specifically, the tool measures an individual’s knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behaviour relating to information security in the workplace. This paper reports on the reliability of the HAIS-Q, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The paper also assesses the reliability of three preliminary over-claiming items, designed specifically to complement the HAIS-Q, and identify those individuals who provide socially desirable responses. A total of 197 working Australians completed two iterations of the HAIS-Q and the over-claiming items, approximately 4 weeks apart. Results of the analysis showed that the HAIS-Q was externally reliable and internally consistent. Therefore, the HAIS-Q can be used to reliably measure information security awareness. Reliability testing on the preliminary over-claiming items was not as robust and further development is required and recommended. The implications of these findings mean that organisations can confidently use the HAIS-Q to not only measure the current state of employee information security awareness within their organisation, but they can also measure the effectiveness and impacts of training interventions, information security awareness programs and campaigns. The influence of cultural changes and the effect of security incidents can also be assessed.

  5. Reliability of measuring abductor hallucis muscle parameters using two different diagnostic ultrasound machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Alyse FM

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic ultrasound provides a method of analysing soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system effectively and reliably. The aim of this study was to evaluate within and between session reliability of measuring muscle dorso-plantar thickness, medio-lateral length and cross-sectional area, of the abductor hallucis muscle using two different ultrasound machines, a higher end Philips HD11 Ultrasound machine and clinically orientated Chison 8300 Deluxe Digital Portable Ultrasound System. Methods The abductor hallucis muscle of both the left and right feet of thirty asymptomatic participants was imaged and then measured using both ultrasound machines. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to calculate both within and between session intra-tester reliability. Standard error of the measurement (SEM calculations were undertaken to assess difference between the actual measured score across trials and the smallest real difference (SRD was calculated from the SEM to indicate the degree of change that would exceed the expected trial to trial variability. Results The ICCs, SEM and SRD for dorso-plantar thickness and medial-lateral length were shown to have excellent to high within and between-session reliability for both ultrasound machines. The between-session reliability indices for cross-sectional area were acceptable for both ultrasound machines. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that regardless of the type ultrasound machine, intra-tester reliability for the measurement the abductor hallucis muscle parameters is very high.

  6. Reliability of radiographic measurement of lateral capitellohumeral angle in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Suzuki, Taku; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Oka, Yusuke; Maeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroki; Shizu, Kanae; Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Harumoto

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to validate the reliability of measurement of the lateral capitellohumeral angle (LCHA), an index of sagittal angulation of the elbow, in healthy children. The results were compared to the Baumann angle (BA), which is a similar concept to LCHA.Sixty-two radiographs of the elbow in healthy children (range, 2-11 years) were reviewed by 6 examiners at 2 sessions. The mean value and reliability of the measurement of LCHA and BA were assessed. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).The mean LCHA value was 45° (range, 22° to 70°) and the mean BA was 71° (range, 56° to 86°). The ICCs for intraobserver reliability of the LCHA measurements were almost perfect for 2 examiners, substantial for 3 examiners, and moderate for 1 examiner with a mean value of 0.77 (range, 0.57-0.95). For BA measurements, the ICCs were almost perfect for 1 examiner and substantial for 5 examiners with a mean value of 0.74 (range, 0.66-0.83). The ICCs for interobserver reliability between the first and second measurements were both moderate for LCHA (0.56 and 0.51) and for BA (0.52 and 0.50).LCHA showed almost the same reliability in measurement as BA, which is the gold standard assessment for coronal alignment of the elbow. LCHA showed moderate-to-good reliability in the evaluation of sagittal plane elbow alignment.

  7. An improved in situ measurement of offset phase shift towards quantitative damping-measurement with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minary-Jolandan, Majid; Yu Minfeng

    2008-01-01

    An improved approach is introduced in damping measurement with atomic force microscope (AFM) for the in situ measurement of the offset phase shift needed for determining the intrinsic mechanical damping in nanoscale materials. The offset phase shift is defined and measured at a point of zero contact force according to the deflection part of the AFM force plot. It is shown that such defined offset phase shift is independent of the type of sample material, varied from hard to relatively soft materials in this study. This improved approach allows the self-calibrated and quantitative damping measurement with AFM. The ability of dynamic mechanical analysis for the measurement of damping in isolated one-dimensional nanostructures, e.g. individual multiwalled carbon nanotubes, was demonstrated

  8. A Study on the Quantitative Assessment Method of Software Requirement Documents Using Software Engineering Measures and Bayesian Belief Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung Seop; Kang, Hyun Gook; Park, Ki Hong; Kwon, Kee Choon; Chang, Seung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    One of the major challenges in using the digital systems in a NPP is the reliability estimation of safety critical software embedded in the digital safety systems. Precise quantitative assessment of the reliability of safety critical software is nearly impossible, since many of the aspects to be considered are of qualitative nature and not directly measurable, but they have to be estimated for a practical use. Therefore an expert's judgment plays an important role in estimating the reliability of the software embedded in safety-critical systems in practice, because they can deal with all the diverse evidence relevant to the reliability and can perform an inference based on the evidence. But, in general, the experts' way of combining the diverse evidence and performing an inference is usually informal and qualitative, which is hard to discuss and will eventually lead to a debate about the conclusion. We have been carrying out research on a quantitative assessment of the reliability of safety critical software using Bayesian Belief Networks (BBN). BBN has been proven to be a useful modeling formalism because a user can represent a complex set of events and relationships in a fashion that can easily be interpreted by others. In the previous works we have assessed a software requirement specification of a reactor protection system by using our BBN-based assessment model. The BBN model mainly employed an expert's subjective probabilities as inputs. In the process of assessing the software requirement documents we found out that the BBN model was excessively dependent on experts' subjective judgments in a large part. Therefore, to overcome the weakness of our methodology we employed conventional software engineering measures into the BBN model as shown in this paper. The quantitative relationship between the conventional software measures and the reliability of software were not identified well in the past. Then recently there appeared a few researches on a ranking of

  9. Secondary dentine as a sole parameter for age estimation: Comparison and reliability of qualitative and quantitative methods among North Western adult Indians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir Arora

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The indestructible nature of teeth against most of the environmental abuses makes its use in disaster victim identification (DVI. The present study has been undertaken to examine the reliability of Gustafson’s qualitative method and Kedici’s quantitative method of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation among North Western adult Indians. 196 (M = 85; F = 111 single rooted teeth were collected from the Department of Oral Health Sciences, PGIMER, Chandigarh. Ground sections were prepared and the amount of secondary dentine formed was scored qualitatively according to Gustafson’s (0–3 scoring system (method 1 and quantitatively following Kedici’s micrometric measurement method (method 2. Out of 196 teeth 180 samples (M = 80; F = 100 were found to be suitable for measuring secondary dentine following Kedici’s method. Absolute mean error of age was calculated by both methodologies. Results clearly showed that in pooled data, method 1 gave an error of ±10.4 years whereas method 2 exhibited an error of approximately ±13 years. A statistically significant difference was noted in absolute mean error of age between two methods of measuring secondary dentine for age estimation. Further, it was also revealed that teeth extracted for periodontal reasons severely decreased the accuracy of Kedici’s method however, the disease had no effect while estimating age by Gustafson’s method. No significant gender differences were noted in the absolute mean error of age by both methods which suggest that there is no need to separate data on the basis of gender.

  10. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A new quantitative approach to measure perceived work-related stress in Italian employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevenini, Gabriele; Fratini, Ilaria; Gambassi, Roberto

    2012-09-01

    We propose a method for a reliable quantitative measure of subjectively perceived occupational stress applicable in any company to enhance occupational safety and psychosocial health, to enable precise prevention policies and intervention and to improve work quality and efficiency. A suitable questionnaire was telephonically administered to a stratified sample of the whole Italian population of employees. Combined multivariate statistical methods, including principal component, cluster and discriminant analyses, were used to identify risk factors and to design a causal model for understanding work-related stress. The model explained the causal links of stress through employee perception of imbalance between job demands and resources for responding appropriately, by supplying a reliable U-shaped nonlinear stress index, expressed in terms of values of human systolic arterial pressure. Low, intermediate and high values indicated demotivation (or inefficiency), well-being and distress, respectively. Costs for stress-dependent productivity shortcomings were estimated to about 3.7% of national income from employment. The method identified useful structured information able to supply a simple and precise interpretation of employees' well-being and stress risk. Results could be compared with estimated national benchmarks to enable targeted intervention strategies to protect the health and safety of workers, and to reduce unproductive costs for firms.

  12. Quantitative Measures of Chaotic Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, D. L.; Martin, R. F., Jr.; Burris, C.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been noted that the motion of charged particles in magnetotail-like magnetic fields is chaotic, however, efforts to quantify the degree of chaos have had conflicting conclusions. In this paper we re-examine the question by focusing on quantitative measures of chaos. We first examine the percentage of orbits that enter the chaotic region of phase space and the average trapping time of those particles. We then examine the average exponential divergence rate (AEDR) of the chaotic particles between their first and last crossing of the mid-plane. We show that at resonant energies where the underlying phase space has a high degree of symmetry, only a small number of particle enter the chaotic region, but they are trapped for long periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is very close to the average value of the AEDR. At the off-resonant energies where the phase space is highly asymmetric, the majority of the particle enter the chaotic region for fairly short periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is much smaller than the average value. The root cause is that in the resonant case, the longest-lived orbits tend interact with the current many times and sample the entire chaotic region, whereas in the non-resonant case the longest-lived orbits only interact with the current sheet a small number of times but have very long mirrorings where the motion is nearly regular. Additionally we use an ad-hoc model where we model the current sheet as a Lorentz scattering system with each interaction with the current sheet being considered as a "collision". We find that the average kick per collision is greatest at off-resonant energies. Finally, we propose a chaos parameter as the product of the AEDR times the average chaotic particle trapping time times the percentage of orbits that are chaotic. We find that this takes on peak values at the resonant energies.

  13. Improving the Validity of Quantitative Measures in Applied Linguistics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, James E.; Brown, James Dean; Schoonen, Rob

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and practical issues regarding the use of measurement…

  14. Improving the validity of quantitative measures in applied linguistics research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purpura, J.E.; Brown, J.D.; Schoonen, R.

    2015-01-01

    In empirical applied linguistics research it is essential that the key variables are operationalized in a valid and reliable way, and that the scores are treated appropriately, allowing for a proper testing of the hypotheses under investigation. The current article addresses several theoretical and

  15. Evaluation of quantitative PCR measurement of bacterial colonization of epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Marcin T; Olejnik-Schmidt, Agnieszka K; Myszka, Kamila; Borkowska, Monika; Grajek, Włodzimierz

    2010-01-01

    Microbial colonization is an important step in establishing pathogenic or probiotic relations to host cells and in biofilm formation on industrial or medical devices. The aim of this work was to verify the applicability of quantitative PCR (Real-Time PCR) to measure bacterial colonization of epithelial cells. Salmonella enterica and Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line was used as a model. To verify sensitivity of the assay a competition of the pathogen cells to probiotic microorganism was tested. The qPCR method was compared to plate count and radiolabel approach, which are well established techniques in this area of research. The three methods returned similar results. The best quantification accuracy had radiolabel method, followed by qPCR. The plate count results showed coefficient of variation two-times higher than this of qPCR. The quantitative PCR proved to be a reliable method for enumeration of microbes in colonization assay. It has several advantages that make it very useful in case of analyzing mixed populations, where several different species or even strains can be monitored at the same time.

  16. Reliability of Phase Velocity Measurements of Flexural Acoustic Waves in the Human Tibia In-Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Florian; Schnüriger, Karin; Gerber, Hans; Taylor, William R

    2016-01-01

    Axial-transmission acoustics have shown to be a promising technique to measure individual bone properties and detect bone pathologies. With the ultimate goal being the in-vivo application of such systems, quantification of the key aspects governing the reliability is crucial to bring this method towards clinical use. This work presents a systematic reliability study quantifying the sources of variability and their magnitudes of in-vivo measurements using axial-transmission acoustics. 42 healthy subjects were measured by an experienced operator twice per week, over a four-month period, resulting in over 150000 wave measurements. In a complementary study to assess the influence of different operators performing the measurements, 10 novice operators were trained, and each measured 5 subjects on a single occasion, using the same measurement protocol as in the first part of the study. The estimated standard error for the measurement protocol used to collect the study data was ∼ 17 m/s (∼ 4% of the grand mean) and the index of dependability, as a measure of reliability, was Φ = 0.81. It was shown that the method is suitable for multi-operator use and that the reliability can be improved efficiently by additional measurements with device repositioning, while additional measurements without repositioning cannot improve the reliability substantially. Phase velocity values were found to be significantly higher in males than in females (p < 10-5) and an intra-class correlation coefficient of r = 0.70 was found between the legs of each subject. The high reliability of this non-invasive approach and its intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical properties opens perspectives for the rapid and inexpensive clinical assessment of bone pathologies, as well as for monitoring programmes without any radiation exposure for the patient.

  17. A guide on the elicitation of expert knowledge in constructing BBN for quantitative reliability assessment of safety critical software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Kang, H. G.; Chang, S. C.; Ha, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the methodology which could elicit probabilistic representation from the experts' knowledge or qualitative data. It is necessary to elicit expert's knowledge while we quantitatively assess the reliability of safety critical software using Bayesian Belief Nets(BBNs). Especially in composing the node probability table and in making out the input data for BBN model, experts' qualitative judgment or qualitative data should be converted into probabilistic representation. This conversion process is vulnerable to bias or error. The purpose of the report is to provide the guideline to avoid the occurrence of this kinds of bias/error or to eliminate them which is included in the existing data prepared by experts. The contents of the report are: o The types and the explanation of bias and error The types of bias and error which might be occur in the process of eliciting the expert's knowledge. o The procedure of expert's judgment elicitation. The process and techniques to avoid bias and error in eliciting the expert's judgments. o The examples of expert's knowledge appeared in the BBNs The examples of expert's knowledge (probability values) appeared in the BBNs for assessing the safety of digital system

  18. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in human T cells and neutrophils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledderose Carola

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The choice of reliable reference genes is a prerequisite for valid results when analyzing gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR. This method is frequently applied to study gene expression patterns in immune cells, yet a thorough validation of potential reference genes is still lacking for most leukocyte subtypes and most models of their in vitro stimulation. In the current study, we evaluated the expression stability of common reference genes in two widely used cell culture models-anti-CD3/CD28 activated T cells and lipopolysaccharide stimulated neutrophils-as well as in unselected untreated leukocytes. Results The mRNA expression of 17 (T cells, 7 (neutrophils or 8 (unselected leukocytes potential reference genes was quantified by reverse transcription qPCR, and a ranking of the preselected candidate genes according to their expression stability was calculated using the programs NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper. IPO8, RPL13A, TBP and SDHA were identified as suitable reference genes in T cells. TBP, ACTB and SDHA were stably expressed in neutrophils. TBP and SDHA were also the most stable genes in untreated total blood leukocytes. The critical impact of reference gene selection on the estimated target gene expression is demonstrated for IL-2 and FIH expression in T cells. Conclusions The study provides a shortlist of suitable reference genes for normalization of gene expression data in unstimulated and stimulated T cells, unstimulated and stimulated neutrophils and in unselected leukocytes.

  19. Quantitative measurement of productivity loss due to thermal discomfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Li; Wargocki, Pawel; Lian, Zhiwei

    2011-01-01

    discomfort caused by elevated air temperature had a negative effect on performance. A quantitative relationship was established between thermal sensation votes and task performance. It can be used for economic calculations pertaining to building design and operation when occupant productivity is considered...

  20. Quantitative Ultrasound for Measuring Obstructive Severity in Children with Hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerrolaza, Juan J; Peters, Craig A; Martin, Aaron D; Myers, Emmarie; Safdar, Nabile; Linguraru, Marius George

    2016-04-01

    We define sonographic biomarkers for hydronephrotic renal units that can predict the necessity of diuretic nuclear renography. We selected a cohort of 50 consecutive patients with hydronephrosis of varying severity in whom 2-dimensional sonography and diuretic mercaptoacetyltriglycine renography had been performed. A total of 131 morphological parameters were computed using quantitative image analysis algorithms. Machine learning techniques were then applied to identify ultrasound based safety thresholds that agreed with the t½ for washout. A best fit model was then derived for each threshold level of t½ that would be clinically relevant at 20, 30 and 40 minutes. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve were determined. Improvement obtained by the quantitative imaging method compared to the Society for Fetal Urology grading system and the hydronephrosis index was statistically verified. For the 3 thresholds considered and at 100% sensitivity the specificities of the quantitative imaging method were 94%, 70% and 74%, respectively. Corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.98, 0.94 and 0.94, respectively. Improvement obtained by the quantitative imaging method over the Society for Fetal Urology grade and hydronephrosis index was statistically significant (p hydronephrosis can identify thresholds of clinically significant washout times with 100% sensitivity to decrease the number of diuretic renograms in up to 62% of children. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Quantitative measurement of mixtures by terahertz time–domain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    earth and space science, quality control of food and agricultural products and global environmental monitoring. In quantitative applications, terahertz technology has been widely used for studying dif- ferent kinds of mixtures, such as amino acids,. 8 ter- nary chemical mixtures,. 9 pharmaceuticals,. 10 racemic compounds. 11.

  2. Night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability of arousal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, J S; Clausen, J L; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dimsdale, J E

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of arousals from sleep is clinically important, however, their definition is not well standardized, and little data exist on reliability. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect arousal scoring reliability and night-to-night arousal variability. The night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability was assessed in 20 subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea undergoing attended polysomnography during two consecutive nights. Five definitions of arousal were studied, assessing duration of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changes, increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity and leg movement, association with respiratory events, as well as the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousals. NA. NA. NA. Interscorer reliability varied with the definition of arousal and ranged from an Intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.19 to 0.92. Arousals that included increases in EMG activity or leg movement had the greatest reliability, especially when associated with respiratory events (ICC 0.76 to 0.92). The ASDA arousal definition had high interscorer reliability (ICC 0.84). Reliability was lowest for arousals consisting of EEG changes lasting <3 seconds (ICC 0.19 to 0.37). The within subjects night-to-night arousal variability was low for all arousal definitions In a heterogeneous population, interscorer arousal reliability is enhanced by increases in EMG activity, leg movements, and respiratory events and decreased by short duration EEG arousals. The arousal index night-to-night variability was low for all definitions.

  3. Theoretical approach on microscopic bases of stochastic functional self-organization: quantitative measures of the organizational degree of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oprisan, Sorinel Adrian [Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA (United States)]. E-mail: soprisan@uno.edu

    2001-11-30

    There has been increased theoretical and experimental research interest in autonomous mobile robots exhibiting cooperative behaviour. This paper provides consistent quantitative measures of organizational degree of a two-dimensional environment. We proved, by the way of numerical simulations, that the theoretically derived values of the feature are reliable measures of aggregation degree. The slope of the feature's dependence on memory radius leads to an optimization criterion for stochastic functional self-organization. We also described the intellectual heritages that have guided our research, as well as possible future developments. (author)

  4. Reliability and concurrent validity of postural asymmetry measurement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Ashleigh; Aslaksen, Berit; Kierkegaard, Marie; Furness, James; Gerdhem, Paul; Abbott, Allan

    2017-01-18

    To investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis postural assessment in three anatomical planes. This is an observational reliability and concurrent validity study of adolescent referrals to the Orthopaedic department for scoliosis screening at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden between March-May 2012. A total of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (13.6 ± 0.6 years old) of mild-moderate curvatures (25° ± 12°) were consecutively recruited. Measurement of cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures, pelvic and shoulder tilt, and axial thoracic rotation (ATR) were performed by two trained physiotherapists in one day. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-examiner reliability (ICC2,1) and the intra-rater reliability (ICC3,3) of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter. Spearman's correlation analyses were used to estimate concurrent validity between the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter and Gold Standard Cobb angles from radiographs and the Orthopaedic Systems Inc. Scoliometer. There was excellent reliability between examiners for thoracic kyphosis (ICC2,1 = 0.94), ATR (ICC2,1 = 0.92) and lumbar lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.79). There was adequate reliability between examiners for cervical lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.51), however poor reliability for pelvic and shoulder tilt. Both devices were reproducible in the measurement of ATR when repeated by one examiner (ICC3,3 0.98-1.00). The device had a good correlation with the Scoliometer (rho = 0.78). When compared with Cobb angle from radiographs, there was a moderate correlation for ATR (rho = 0.627). The Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter provides reliable transverse and sagittal cervical, thoracic and lumbar measurements and valid transverse plan measurements of mild-moderate scoliosis deformity.

  5. Improved radiograph measurement inter-observer reliability by use of statistical shape models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, E.C., E-mail: elise.pegg@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Mellon, S.J., E-mail: stephen.mellon@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Salmon, G. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Alvand, A., E-mail: abtin.alvand@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Pandit, H., E-mail: hemant.pandit@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Murray, D.W., E-mail: david.murray@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Gill, H.S., E-mail: richie.gill@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Pre- and post-operative radiographs of patients undergoing joint arthroplasty are often examined for a variety of purposes including preoperative planning and patient assessment. This work examines the feasibility of using active shape models (ASM) to semi-automate measurements from post-operative radiographs for the specific case of the Oxford™ Unicompartmental Knee. Measurements of the proximal tibia and the position of the tibial tray were made using the ASM model and manually. Data were obtained by four observers and one observer took four sets of measurements to allow assessment of the inter- and intra-observer reliability, respectively. The parameters measured were the tibial tray angle, the tray overhang, the tray size, the sagittal cut position, the resection level and the tibial width. Results demonstrated improved reliability (average of 27% and 11.2% increase for intra- and inter-reliability, respectively) and equivalent accuracy (p > 0.05 for compared data values) for all of the measurements using the ASM model, with the exception of the tray overhang (p = 0.0001). Less time (15 s) was required to take measurements using the ASM model compared with manual measurements, which was significant. These encouraging results indicate that semi-automated measurement techniques could improve the reliability of radiographic measurements.

  6. Improved radiograph measurement inter-observer reliability by use of statistical shape models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, E.C.; Mellon, S.J.; Salmon, G.; Alvand, A.; Pandit, H.; Murray, D.W.; Gill, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Pre- and post-operative radiographs of patients undergoing joint arthroplasty are often examined for a variety of purposes including preoperative planning and patient assessment. This work examines the feasibility of using active shape models (ASM) to semi-automate measurements from post-operative radiographs for the specific case of the Oxford™ Unicompartmental Knee. Measurements of the proximal tibia and the position of the tibial tray were made using the ASM model and manually. Data were obtained by four observers and one observer took four sets of measurements to allow assessment of the inter- and intra-observer reliability, respectively. The parameters measured were the tibial tray angle, the tray overhang, the tray size, the sagittal cut position, the resection level and the tibial width. Results demonstrated improved reliability (average of 27% and 11.2% increase for intra- and inter-reliability, respectively) and equivalent accuracy (p > 0.05 for compared data values) for all of the measurements using the ASM model, with the exception of the tray overhang (p = 0.0001). Less time (15 s) was required to take measurements using the ASM model compared with manual measurements, which was significant. These encouraging results indicate that semi-automated measurement techniques could improve the reliability of radiographic measurements

  7. Reliability of measuring hip abductor strength following total knee arthroplasty using a hand-held dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schache, Margaret B; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of measuring hip abductor strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) with two different types of resistance: belt and manual resistance. Test-retest reliability of 30 subjects (17 female, 13 male, 71.9 ± 7.4 years old), 9.2 ± 2.7 days post TKA was measured using belt and therapist resistance. Retest reliability was calculated with intra-class coefficients (ICC3,1) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for both the group average and the individual scores. A paired t-test assessed whether a difference existed between the belt and therapist methods of resistance. ICCs were 0.82 and 0.80 for the belt and therapist resisted methods, respectively. Hip abductor strength increases of 8 N (14%) for belt resisted and 14 N (17%) for therapist resisted measurements of the group average exceeded the 95% CI and may represent real change. For individuals, hip abductor strength increases of 33 N (72%) (belt resisted) and 57 N (79%) (therapist resisted) could be interpreted as real change. Hip abductor strength can be reliably measured using HHD in the clinical setting with the described protocol. Belt resistance demonstrated slightly higher test-retest reliability. Reliable measurement of hip abductor muscle strength in patients with TKA is important to ensure deficiencies are addressed in rehabilitation programs and function is maximized. Hip abductor strength can be reliably measured with a hand-held dynamometer in the clinical setting using manual or belt resistance.

  8. Inter-rater reliability of shoulder measurements in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, A; Van Kampen, M; Vervloesem, N; Clabau, E; Christiaens, M-R; Neven, P; Geraerts, I; Struyf, F; Devoogdt, N

    2017-06-01

    To investigate inter-rater reliability of a set of shoulder measurements including inclinometry [shoulder range of motion (ROM)], acromion-table distance and pectoralis minor muscle length (static scapular positioning), upward rotation with two inclinometers (scapular kinematics) and pain pressure thresholds (muscle tenderness) in middle-aged women. Observational study. Thirty symptom-free middle-aged women (first cohort) were measured by two raters. All measurements with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) below 0.75 were retested after an additional training period in a second cohort of 30 symptom-free middle-aged women. Inter-rater reliability of all variables was measured with the ICC (95% confidence interval) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Acromion-table distance (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.22 to 0.28% of body length), pectoralis minor muscle length (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.16% of body length), pain pressure thresholds (ICC=0.78 to 0.85, SEM 0.39 to 0.70kg) and abduction ROM (ICC=0.77, SEM 5°) showed good to excellent inter-rater reliability in the first cohort. After an additional training period, forward flexion ROM showed good inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.83, SEM 5°), scapular upward rotation in resting position showed moderate reliability (ICC=0.52, SEM 2°), and other scaption angles showed weak reliability (ICC=0.26 to 0.43, SEM 3 to 8°). In a battery of clinical tools to evaluate factors contributing to shoulder pain, static scapular positioning and pressure pain thresholds were found to have good to excellent inter-rater reliability in middle-aged women. Additional training is recommended for measurements with a gravity inclinometer. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  10. Breach Risk Magnitude: A Quantitative Measure of Database Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasnoff, William A

    2016-01-01

    A quantitative methodology is described that provides objective evaluation of the potential for health record system breaches. It assumes that breach risk increases with the number of potential records that could be exposed, while it decreases when more authentication steps are required for access. The breach risk magnitude (BRM) is the maximum value for any system user of the common logarithm of the number of accessible database records divided by the number of authentication steps needed to achieve such access. For a one million record relational database, the BRM varies from 5.52 to 6 depending on authentication protocols. For an alternative data architecture designed specifically to increase security by separately storing and encrypting each patient record, the BRM ranges from 1.3 to 2.6. While the BRM only provides a limited quantitative assessment of breach risk, it may be useful to objectively evaluate the security implications of alternative database organization approaches.

  11. Quantitative method of measuring cancer cell urokinase and metastatic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The metastatic potential of tumors can be evaluated by the quantitative detection of urokinase and DNA. The cell sample selected for examination is analyzed for the presence of high levels of urokinase and abnormal DNA using analytical flow cytometry and digital image analysis. Other factors such as membrane associated urokinase, increased DNA synthesis rates and certain receptors can be used in the method for detection of potentially invasive tumors.

  12. Low-Budget Instrumentation of a Conventional Leg Press to Measure Reliable Isometric-Strength Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Heiner; Groppa, Alessia Severina; Limacher, Regula; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-02-02

    Maximum strength and rate of force development (RFD) are 2 important strength characteristics for everyday tasks and athletic performance. Measurements of both parameters must be reliable. Expensive isokinetic devices with isometric modes are often used. The possibility of cost-effective measurements in a practical setting would facilitate quality control. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of maximum isometric strength (Fmax) and RFD on a conventional leg press. Sixteen subjects (23 ± 2 y, 1.68 ± 0.05 m, 59 ± 5 kg) were tested twice within 1 session. After warm-up, subjects performed 2 times 5 trials eliciting maximum voluntary isometric contractions on an instrumented leg press (1- and 2-legged randomized). Fmax (N) and RFD (N/s) were extracted from force-time curves. Reliability was determined for Fmax and RFD by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the test-retest variability (TRV), and the bias and limits of agreement. Reliability measures revealed good to excellent ICCs of .80-.93. TRV showed mean differences between measurement sessions of 0.4-6.9%. The systematic error was low compared with the absolute mean values (Fmax 5-6%, RFD 1-4%). The implementation of a force transducer into a conventional leg press provides a viable procedure to assess Fmax and RFD. Both performance parameters can be assessed with good to excellent reliability allowing quality control of interventions.

  13. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair.

  14. Fatigue is a reliable, sensitive and unique outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minnock, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in patients with RA. Measurement of fatigue in clinical trials and in clinical practice requires scales that are reproducible, sensitive to change and practical. This study examined the reliability and sensitivity to change of fatigue and its relative independence as an outcome measure in RA.

  15. Assessing the Reliability of Curriculum-Based Measurement: An Application of Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Kim, Dong-Il; Branum-Martin, Lee; Wayman, Miya Miura; Espin, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) as a method for estimating reliability of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) progress-monitoring data. The LGM approach permits the error associated with each measure to differ at each time point, thus providing an alternative method for examining of the…

  16. Accuracy and reliability of facial soft tissue depth measurements using cone beam computer tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to have accurate and reliable measurements of soft tissue thickness for specific landmarks of the face and scalp when producing a facial reconstruction. In the past several methods have been created to measure facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) in cadavers and in the living. The

  17. A clinical tool to measure plagiocephaly in infants using a flexicurve: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amy Leung,1 Pauline Watter,2 John Gavranich3 1Department of Physiotherapy, Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; 2Physiotherapy Division, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 3Child and Family Health Services, West Moreton Health Service District, Ipswich, Australia Purpose: There has been an increasing incidence of infants presenting with plagiocephaly in the last two decades. A practical, economical, and reliable clinical plagiocephaly measure is essential to assess progression and intervention outcomes. This study investigated the reliability of a modified cranial vault asymmetry index using a flexible curve in infants. Measurement: A flexicurve was molded to the infant's head and its shape maintained as it was placed onto paper to trace the head shape. Using a small modification of Loveday and De Chaplain's procedure to measure a cranial vault asymmetry index, a pair of diagonals were drawn at 30° through the midpoint of the central line to their intersection with the traced head outline. The difference in length of the paired diagonals was divided by the short diameter then multiplied by 100%, yielding the modified cranial vault-asymmetry index. Patients and methods: Infants referred to a community health physiotherapist for assessment due to suspected abnormal head shape were included. To explore intrarater reliability, 34 infants aged 3–14 months were measured twice (T1/T1′ at the beginning, and 21 of these remeasured twice at the end (T2/T2′ of their physiotherapy sessions. Test–retest reliability used matched-average data (T1/T1′ and (T2/T2′ from 21 infants. To explore interrater reliability, 18 healthy infants aged 2–6 months were recruited. Each infant was measured once by each rater. Results: For intrarater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient with 54 degrees of freedom (ICCdf54 was 0.868 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.783–0.921; for test–retest reliability, ICCdf20 = 0.958 (95

  18. PI-RADS version 2: quantitative analysis aids reliable interpretation of diffusion-weighted imaging for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Yoon; Jung, Dae Chul; Oh, Young Taik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Su-Jin [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Nam Hoon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Young Deuk; Rha, Koon Ho; Hong, Sung Joon [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Urology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-07-15

    To determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) ratio aids reliable interpretation of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for prostate cancer (PCa). Seventy-six consecutive patients with PCa who underwent DWI and surgery were included. Based on pathologic tumour location, two readers independently performed DWI scoring according to the revised Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADSv2). ADC ratios of benign to cancerous prostatic tissue were then measured independently and compared between cases showing concordant and discordant DWI scores ≥4. Area under the curve (AUC) and threshold of ADC ratio were analyzed for DWI scores ≥4. The rate of inter-reader disagreement for DWI score ≥4 was 11.8% (9/76). ADC ratios were higher in concordant vs. discordant DWI scores ≥4 (median, 1.7 vs. 1.1-1.2; p < 0.001). For DWI scores ≥4, the AUCs of ADC ratios were 0.970 for reader 1 and 0.959 for reader 2. In patients with an ADC ratio >1.3, the rate of inter-reader disagreement for DWI score ≥4 decreased to 5.9-6.0%. An ADC ratio >1.3 yielded 100% (reader 1, 54/54; reader 2, 51/51) positive predictive value for clinically significant cancer. ADC ratios may be useful for reliable interpretation of DWI score ≥4 in PI-RADSv2. (orig.)

  19. Validating Quantitative Measurement Using Qualitative Data: Combining Rasch Scaling and Latent Semantic Analysis in Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Rense

    2015-02-01

    An extension of concurrent validity is proposed that uses qualitative data for the purpose of validating quantitative measures. The approach relies on Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) which places verbal (written) statements in a high dimensional semantic space. Using data from a medical / psychiatric domain as a case study - Near Death Experiences, or NDE - we established concurrent validity by connecting NDErs qualitative (written) experiential accounts with their locations on a Rasch scalable measure of NDE intensity. Concurrent validity received strong empirical support since the variance in the Rasch measures could be predicted reliably from the coordinates of their accounts in the LSA derived semantic space (R2 = 0.33). These coordinates also predicted NDErs age with considerable precision (R2 = 0.25). Both estimates are probably artificially low due to the small available data samples (n = 588). It appears that Rasch scalability of NDE intensity is a prerequisite for these findings, as each intensity level is associated (at least probabilistically) with a well- defined pattern of item endorsements.

  20. Comparison of reliability and responsiveness of patient-reported clinical outcome measures in knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie J; Piva, Sara R; Irrgang, James J; Crossley, Chad; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2012-08-01

    Secondary analysis, pretreatment-posttreatment observational study. To compare the reliability and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living subscale (KOS-ADL), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The WOMAC is the current standard in patient-reported measures of function in patients with knee OA. The KOS-ADL and LEFS were designed for potential use in patients with knee OA. If the KOS-ADL and LEFS are to be considered viable alternatives to the WOMAC for measuring patient-reported function in individuals with knee OA, they should have measurement properties comparable to the WOMAC. It would also be important to determine whether either of these instruments may be superior to the WOMAC in terms of reliability or responsiveness in this population. Data from 168 subjects with knee OA, who participated in a rehabilitation program, were used in the analyses. Reliability and responsiveness of each outcome measure were estimated at follow-ups of 2, 6, and 12 months. Reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) for subjects who were unchanged in status from baseline at each follow-up time, based on a global rating of change score. To examine responsiveness, the standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, minimal clinically important difference, and the Guyatt responsiveness index were calculated for each outcome measure at each follow-up time. All 3 outcome measures demonstrated reasonable reliability and responsiveness to change. Reliability and responsiveness tended to decrease somewhat with increasing follow-up time. There were no substantial differences between outcome measures for reliability or any of the 3 measures of responsiveness at any follow-up time. The results do not indicate that one outcome measure is more reliable or responsive than

  1. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2013-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength

  2. Reliability of cervical lordosis measurement techniques on long-cassette radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusz, Piotr; Tyrakowski, Marcin; Yu, Hailong; Siemionow, Kris

    2016-11-01

    Lateral radiographs are commonly used to assess cervical sagittal alignment. Three assessment methods have been described and are commonly utilized in clinical practice. These methods are described for perfect lateral cervical radiographs, however in everyday practice radiograph quality varies. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and reproducibility of 3 cervical lordosis (CL) measurement methods. Forty-four standing lateral radiographs were randomly chosen from a lateral long-cassette radiograph database. Measurements of CL were performed with: Cobb method C2-C7 (CM), C2-C7 posterior tangent method (PTM), sum of posterior tangent method for each segment (SPTM). Three independent orthopaedic surgeons measured CL using the three methods on 44 lateral radiographs. One researcher used the three methods to measured CL three times at 4-week time intervals. Agreement between the methods as well as their intra- and interobserver reliability were tested and quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and median error for a single measurement (SEM). ICC of 0.75 or more reflected an excellent agreement/reliability. The results were compared with repeated ANOVA test, with p  0.05). All three methods appeared to be highly reliable. Although, high agreement between all measurement methods was shown, we do not recommend using Cobb measurement method interchangeably with PTM or SPTM within a single study as this could lead to error, whereas, such a comparison between tangent methods can be considered.

  3. Reliability and accuracy analysis of a new semiautomatic radiographic measurement software in adult scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Carl-Eric; Bellefleur, Christian; Joncas, Julie; de Lanauze, Dominic; Kadoury, Samuel; Blanke, Kathy; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert

    2011-05-20

    Radiographic software measurement analysis in adult scoliosis. To assess the accuracy as well as the intra- and interobserver reliability of measuring different indices on preoperative adult scoliosis radiographs using a novel measurement software that includes a calibration procedure and semiautomatic features to facilitate the measurement process. Scoliosis requires a careful radiographic evaluation to assess the deformity. Manual and computer radiographic process measures have been studied extensively to determine the reliability and reproducibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Most studies rely on comparing given measurements, which are repeated by the same user or by an expert user. A given measure with a small intra- or interobserver error might be deemed as good repeatability, but all measurements might not be truly accurate because the ground-truth value is often unknown. Thorough accuracy assessment of radiographic measures is necessary to assess scoliotic deformities, compare these measures at different stages or to permit valid multicenter studies. Thirty-four sets of adult scoliosis digital radiographs were measured two times by three independent observers using a novel radiographic measurement software that includes semiautomatic features to facilitate the measurement process. Twenty different measures taken from the Spinal Deformity Study Group radiographic measurement manual were performed on the coronal and sagittal images. Intra- and intermeasurer reliability for each measure was assessed. The accuracy of the measurement software was also assessed using a physical spine model in six different scoliotic configurations as a true reference. The majority of the measures demonstrated good to excellent intra- and intermeasurer reliability, except for sacral obliquity. The standard variation of all the measures was very small: ≤ 4.2° for Cobb angles, ≤ 4.2° for the kyphosis, ≤ 5.7° for the lordosis, ≤ 3.9° for the pelvic angles, and

  4. Reliability measures in item response theory: manifest versus latent correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Verbeke, Geert; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-02-01

    For item response theory (IRT) models, which belong to the class of generalized linear or non-linear mixed models, reliability at the scale of observed scores (i.e., manifest correlation) is more difficult to calculate than latent correlation based reliability, but usually of greater scientific interest. This is not least because it cannot be calculated explicitly when the logit link is used in conjunction with normal random effects. As such, approximations such as Fisher's information coefficient, Cronbach's α, or the latent correlation are calculated, allegedly because it is easy to do so. Cronbach's α has well-known and serious drawbacks, Fisher's information is not meaningful under certain circumstances, and there is an important but often overlooked difference between latent and manifest correlations. Here, manifest correlation refers to correlation between observed scores, while latent correlation refers to correlation between scores at the latent (e.g., logit or probit) scale. Thus, using one in place of the other can lead to erroneous conclusions. Taylor series based reliability measures, which are based on manifest correlation functions, are derived and a careful comparison of reliability measures based on latent correlations, Fisher's information, and exact reliability is carried out. The latent correlations are virtually always considerably higher than their manifest counterparts, Fisher's information measure shows no coherent behaviour (it is even negative in some cases), while the newly introduced Taylor series based approximations reflect the exact reliability very closely. Comparisons among the various types of correlations, for various IRT models, are made using algebraic expressions, Monte Carlo simulations, and data analysis. Given the light computational burden and the performance of Taylor series based reliability measures, their use is recommended. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Quantitative measurement of cyanide species in simulated ferrocyanide Hanford waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, S.A.; Pool, K.H.; Matheson, J.D.

    1993-02-01

    Analytical methods for the quantification of cyanide species in Hanford simulated high-level radioactive waste were pursued in this work. Methods studied include infrared spectroscopy (solid state and solution), Raman spectroscopy, Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and ion chromatography. Of these, infrared, Raman, X-ray diffraction, and ion chromatography techniques show promise in the concentration range of interest. Quantitation limits for these latter four techniques were demonstrated to be approximately 0.1 wt% (as cyanide) using simulated Hanford wastes

  6. Reliability of Instruments Measuring At-Risk and Problem Gambling Among Young Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc......Info covering the years 2009–2015. In total, 50 original research articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: target age under 29 years, using an instrument designed for youth, and reporting a reliability estimate. Articles were evaluated with the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool....... Reliability estimates were reported for five ARPG instruments. Most studies (66%) evaluated the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents was the only novel instrument. In general, the evaluation of instrument reliability was superficial. Despite...

  7. Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasonography to Measure Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabavi, Narjes; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Mohseni Bandpeid, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar paraspinal muscles play an important role in providing both mobility and stability during dynamic tasks. Among paraspinal muscles, transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus have been of particular interest as active stabilizers of the lumbar spine. These muscles may become dysfunctional in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Low back injury can result in muscle inhibition and control loss that cannot recover spontaneously, and specific exercises are required to stimulate their recovery. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of ultrasonography to measure muscle dimensions and to present a reliable method for measuring transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus as stabilizing muscles of the lumbar spine. Fifteen healthy participants (18-55 year olds) were evaluated by a radiologist using ultrasonography (ES500) with two probes (50mm linear 7.5 MHZ and 70 mm curvilinear 3.5 MHz). The muscle thickness of transverse abdominis and the anterior-posterior diameter and cross sectional area of the LMF were measured. To determine within and between days reliabilities, second and third measurements were repeated with half an hour and one week intervals, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for left and right showed good to high reliability for the cross sectional area of lumbar multifidi (0.74 and 0.88, respectively) as well as the anterior-posterior dimensions of lumbar multifidi (0.89 and 0.91, respectively) and transverse abdomini thickness (0.73 and 0.85, respectively). Rehabilitative ultrasonography is a reliable and non-invasive instrument to measure muscle thickness. The method used in this study is a reliable way to measure lumbar stabilizing muscles

  8. Quantitative computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to respiratory symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Dirksen, Asger; Coxson, Harvey O

    2010-01-01

    There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge about the relationship between respiratory symptoms and quantitative high-resolution computed tomography measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  9. Assessment of intra-interobserver reliability of the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and measuring the level of increase in intracranial pressure (ICP is critical, especially for the management of trauma patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit. However, measurements are operator-dependent as in all of the sonographic diagnoses. The aim of this study is to assess the operator variations in the measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD. There were four emergency medicine specialists involved in the study. Each had at least 1 year of experience of ultrasound scans and performed at least 25 prior ocular scans examining the ONSD. Two measurements were made 1 week apart from both axial and longitudinal planes. Sixty healthy adults were involved in the study and every investigator obtained four measurements from each. Intra-interobserver reliabilities were tested. The investigators performed 60 ocular ultrasounds on individual healthy adults and obtained two measurements in axial and longitudinal planes 1 week apart. Therefore, 960 measurements were analyzed. The levels of compatibilities for most of the measurements were found at acceptable levels statistically. However, it is not possible to say that there was a perfect compatibility among the sonographers according to the previously conducted reliability studies of ultrasound measurements. According to our results, it is hard to say that sonographic measurement of the ONSD is a highly reliable method both in longitudinal and transverse planes.

  10. Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. PURPOSE: To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. RESULTS: For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. CONCLUSION: The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population.

  11. Feasibility and Inter-Rater Reliability of Physical Performance Measures in Acutely Admitted Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter-rater reliabi......OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter......-rater reliability of four simple measures of physical performance in acutely admitted older medical patients. DESIGN: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the following were assessed twice by different raters in 52 (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for acute medical illness: isometric hand grip strength, 4......, and 30-s chair stand were 8%, 7%, and 18%, and the SRD95% values were 22%, 17%, and 49%. CONCLUSION: In acutely admitted older medical patients, grip strength, gait speed, and the Cumulated Ambulation Score measurements were feasible and showed high inter-rater reliability when administered by different...

  12. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 clinically relevant sites-mediolateral to the medial femoral tubercle (distal) and lateral to the medial malleolus (local)-on the same day. Intrarater reliability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients. The minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement were calculated. As a measure of responsiveness, the effect size was calculated for the results at baseline and after treatment. [Results] The intrarater reliability was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93-0.97). The standard error of measurement and minimum-detectable-change were 0.70-0.66 and 1.62-1.53, respectively. The pressure pain threshold over the distal site was inadequately responsive in knee osteoarthritis, but the local site was responsive. The effect size was 0.70. [Conclusion] Algometry is reliable and responsive to assess measures of pressure pain threshold for evaluating pain patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  13. Study on highly reliable digital communication technology of reactor nuclear measuring equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengfei; Huang Xiaojin

    2007-01-01

    To meet the need of highly reliable of reactor nuclear measuring equipment, in allusion to the idiographic request of nuclear measuring equipment, the actual technical development and the application in industrial field, we design a kind of redundancy communication net based on PROFIBUS, and a kind of communication interface module based on redundancy PROFIBUS communication, which link the nuclear measuring equipment and PROFIBUS communication net, and also lay a foundation for advanced research. (authors)

  14. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  15. Monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanc, S.; Repa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Description of a monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors and benefits obtained from its use are shown in the presentation. As standard reactor temperature measurement, coolant temperature measurement at fuel assembly outlets and in loops, entered into the In-Reactor Control System , are considered. Such systems have been implemented at two V-230 reactors and are under implementation at other four V-213 reactors. (Authors)

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of Isokinetic Knee Strength Measurements in Children Aged 8 to 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Fritzson, Annelie; Drake, Anna Maria

    Isokinetic dynamometry is a useful tool to objectively assess muscle strength of children and adults in athletic and rehabilitative settings. This study examined test-retest reliability of isokinetic knee strength measurements in children aged 8 to 10 years and defined limits for the minimum difference (MD) in strength that indicates a clinically important change. Isokinetic knee strength measurements (using the Biodex System 4) in children will provide reliable results. Descriptive laboratory study. In 22 healthy children, 5 maximal concentric (CON) knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) contractions at 2 angular velocities (60 deg/s and 180 deg/s) and 5 maximal eccentric (ECC) KE/KF contractions at 60 deg/s were assessed 7 days apart. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1 ) was used to examine relative reliability, and the MD was calculated on the basis of standard error of measurement. ICCs for CON KE/KF peak torque measurements were fair to excellent (range, 0.49-0.81). The MD% values for CON KE and KF ranged from 31% to 37% at 60 deg/s and from 34% to 39% at 180 deg/s. ICCs in the ECC mode were good (range, 0.60-0.70), but associated MD% values were high (>50%). There was no systematic error for CON KE/KF and ECC KE strength measurements at 60 deg/s, but systematic error was found for all other measurements. The dynamometer provides a reliable analysis of isokinetic CON knee strength measurements at 60 deg/s in children aged 8 to 10 years. Measurements at 180 deg/s and in the ECC mode were not reliable, indicating a need for more familiarization prior to testing. The MD values may help clinicians to determine whether a change in knee strength is due to error or intervention.

  17. Reliability of Two Smartphone Applications for Radiographic Measurements of Hallux Valgus Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos E Dinato, Mauro Cesar; Freitas, Marcio de Faria; Milano, Cristiano; Valloto, Elcio; Ninomiya, André Felipe; Pagnano, Rodrigo Gonçalves

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reliability of 2 smartphone applications compared with the traditional goniometer technique for measurement of radiographic angles in hallux valgus and the time required for analysis with the different methods. The radiographs of 31 patients (52 feet) with a diagnosis of hallux valgus were analyzed. Four observers, 2 with >10 years' experience in foot and ankle surgery and 2 in-training surgeons, measured the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using a manual goniometer technique and 2 smartphone applications (Hallux Angles and iPinPoint). The interobserver and intermethod reliability were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and the time required for measurement of the angles among the 3 methods was compared using the Friedman test. A very good or good interobserver reliability was found among the 4 observers measuring the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using the goniometer (ICC 0.913 and 0.821, respectively) and iPinPoint (ICC 0.866 and 0.638, respectively). Using the Hallux Angles application, a very good interobserver reliability was found for measurements of the hallux valgus angle (ICC 0.962) and intermetatarsal angle (ICC 0.935) only among the more experienced observers. The time required for the measurements was significantly shorter for the measurements using both smartphone applications compared with the goniometer method. One smartphone application (iPinPoint) was reliable for measurements of the hallux valgus angles by either experienced or nonexperienced observers. The use of these tools might save time in the evaluation of radiographic angles in the hallux valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The gothic arch: a reliable measurement for developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herickhoff, Paul K; O'Brien, Megan K; Dolan, Lori A; Morcuende, Jose A; Peterson, Jonathan B; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    The "Gothic Arch" is a radio-graphic finding on AP pelvis x-rays postulated to be predictive of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of measurement of the Gothic Arch in patients with no known hip pathology and patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). After obtaining IRB approval, nine skeletally mature patients (18 hips) with no known hip pathology were selected to serve as the control group. The AP pelvis x-rays at skeletal maturity of eight patients (16 hips) with unilateral DDH treated with closed reduction and casting comprised the comparison group. A digitizing program was designed to measure the Gothic Arch based on landmarks identified by the user. Two pediatric orthopaedic surgeons and two orthopaedic residents completed the program on two separate occasions. Intra-and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass cor-relation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Both the unilateral DDH group and the control group demonstrated excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability (ICC >0.70) for base, height, area, and orientation of the Gothic Arch, but poor reliability (ICC Gothic Arch can be reliably measured on AP pelvis x-rays of patients with normal and dysplastic hips. III, Diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Evaluation of validity and reliability of a methodology for measuring human postural attitude and its relation to temporomandibular joint disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Ramón Fuentes; Carter, Pablo; Muñoz, Sergio; Silva, Héctor; Venegas, Gonzalo Hernán Oporto; Cantin, Mario; Ottone, Nicolás Ernesto

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMJDs) are caused by several factors such as anatomical, neuromuscular and psychological alterations. A relationship has been established between TMJDs and postural alterations, a type of anatomical alteration. An anterior position of the head requires hyperactivity of the posterior neck region and shoulder muscles to prevent the head from falling forward. This compensatory muscular function may cause fatigue, discomfort and trigger point activation. To our knowledge, a method for assessing human postural attitude in more than one plane has not been reported. Thus, the aim of this study was to design a methodology to measure the external human postural attitude in frontal and sagittal planes, with proper validity and reliability analyses. METHODS The variable postures of 78 subjects (36 men, 42 women; age 18–24 years) were evaluated. The postural attitudes of the subjects were measured in the frontal and sagittal planes, using an acromiopelvimeter, grid panel and Fox plane. RESULTS The method we designed for measuring postural attitudes had adequate reliability and validity, both qualitatively and quantitatively, based on Cohen’s Kappa coefficient (> 0.87) and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r = 0.824, > 80%). CONCLUSION This method exhibits adequate metrical properties and can therefore be used in further research on the association of human body posture with skeletal types and TMJDs. PMID:26768173

  20. Quantitative mixture fraction measurements in combustion system via laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Mansour, Mohy S.; Imam, Hisham; Elsayed, Khaled A.; Elbaz, Ayman M.; Abbass, Wafaa

    2015-01-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique has been applied to quantitative mixture fraction measurements in flames. The measured spectra of different mixtures of natural gas and air are used to obtain the calibration parameters for local

  1. Semi-automatic quantitative measurements of intracranial internal carotid artery stenosis and calcification using CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bleeker, Leslie; Berg, Rene van den; Majoie, Charles B.; Marquering, Henk A.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Intracranial carotid artery atherosclerotic disease is an independent predictor for recurrent stroke. However, its quantitative assessment is not routinely performed in clinical practice. In this diagnostic study, we present and evaluate a novel semi-automatic application to quantitatively measure intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) degree of stenosis and calcium volume in CT angiography (CTA) images. In this retrospective study involving CTA images of 88 consecutive patients, intracranial ICA stenosis was quantitatively measured by two independent observers. Stenoses were categorized with cutoff values of 30% and 50%. The calcification in the intracranial ICA was qualitatively categorized as absent, mild, moderate, or severe and quantitatively measured using the semi-automatic application. Linear weighted kappa values were calculated to assess the interobserver agreement of the stenosis and calcium categorization. The average and the standard deviation of the quantitative calcium volume were calculated for the calcium categories. For the stenosis measurements, the CTA images of 162 arteries yielded an interobserver correlation of 0.78 (P < 0.001). Kappa values of the categorized stenosis measurements were moderate: 0.45 and 0.58 for cutoff values of 30% and 50%, respectively. The kappa value for the calcium categorization was 0.62, with a good agreement between the qualitative and quantitative calcium assessment. Quantitative degree of stenosis measurement of the intracranial ICA on CTA is feasible with a good interobserver agreement ICA. Qualitative calcium categorization agrees well with quantitative measurements. (orig.)

  2. Opportunities for measuring DNA synthesis time by quantitative autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasileva, D.

    1980-01-01

    DNA sysntesis time (Tsub(s)) in cells of the canine erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis pools was determined by quantitative autoradiography according to Doermer. In contrast to mitosis labelling for Tsub(s) estimation as so far applied, this technique uses well-differentiated cells. After blocking endogeneous DNA synthesis with 5-fluorodeoxyuridine, its further course becomes dependent on exogeneous supply of thymidine, in the form of 14 C-thymidine. From incroporation of the latter into the individual cell within a definite time span (3-7 min) and taking into account its total amount, Tsub(s) may be calculated. The data thus obtained were found to agree with Tsub(s) values as estimated from the labelled mitosis curve

  3. The Reliability of Isometer 2 Device in Measuring of Cervical Flexor and Extensor Muscles Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Reza Soltan-Zadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The strength of a group of muscles can be measured by muscle strength test, employing a force measuring instrument. In order to monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic or training programs we need a reliable technique which is also accurate in repeated measurements. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of an isometric neck muscle force measurement device.  Materials & Methods: Thirty seven healthy non athlete subjects (18 males and 19 females, aged 18-25 participated in this analytical study. The maximal isometric contractions of the neck extensor and flexor muscles were measured in different times and different days and by two different testers. A new sensitive “load cell” was applied to our previously designed neck muscle force measurement apparatus. Results: The results of the inter-trail, test retest, and inter rater reliability (0.86 < ICC < 0.98 , 2.2< Sw <5.1 N indicated that the neck muscle force measurements were highly repeatable and less variable between measurements. There were no statistically significant differences in neck muscle force measurements, between times, between days and between retsters. Maximum isometric contractions were significantly higher in males than in the females (p < 0.001. Women’s neck muscle strengths were 30.8% and 46.1% of men in cervical extension and cervical flexion. Conclusion: In this study we used a new model (Isometer 2 of our previous apparatus (Isometer. The isometric strength of neck flexor and extensor muscles which was measured by Isometer 2 appeared to be a reliable and useful method for measuring the force of the neck extensor and flexor muscles.

  4. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  5. Reliability of Using Motion Sensors to Measure Children’s Physical Activity Levels in Exergaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the reliability of two objective measurement tools in assessing children’s physical activity (PA levels in an exergaming setting. Methods: A total of 377 children (190 girls, Mage = 8.39, SD = 1.55 attended the 30-min exergaming class every other day for 18 weeks. Children’s PA levels were concurrently measured by NL-1000 pedometer and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer, while children’s steps per min and time engaged in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA were estimated, respectively. Results: The results of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC indicated a low degree of reliability (single measures ICC = 0.03 in accelerometers. ANOVA did detect a possible learning effect for 27 classes (p < 0.01, and the single measures ICC was 0.20 for pedometers. Moreover, there was no significant positive relationship between steps per min and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Finally, only 1.3% variance was explained by pedometer as a predictor using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to further explore the relationship between pedometer and accelerometer data. Conclusions: The NL-1000 pedometers and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers have low reliability in assessing elementary school children’s PA levels during exergaming. More research is warranted in determining the reliable and accurate measurement information regarding the use of modern devices in exergaming setting.

  6. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  7. A study on the reliability of sasang constitutional body trunk measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunsu; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Haejung; Kim, Honggie; Baek, Younghwa; Lee, Siwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs) was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  8. Quantitative sensory testing measures individual pain responses in emergency department patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duffy KJ

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin J Duffy, Katharyn L Flickinger, Jeffrey T Kristan, Melissa J Repine, Alexandro Gianforcaro, Rebecca B Hasley, Saad Feroz, Jessica M Rupp, Jumana Al-Baghli, Maria L Pacella, Brian P Suffoletto, Clifton W Callaway Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA Background: Refining and individualizing treatment of acute pain in the emergency department (ED is a high priority, given that painful complaints are the most common reasons for ED visits. Few tools exist to objectively measure pain perception in the ED setting. We speculated that variation in perception of fixed painful stimuli would explain individual variation in reported pain and response to treatment among ED patients. Materials and methods: In three studies, we 1 describe performance characteristics of brief quantitative sensory testing (QST in 50 healthy volunteers, 2 test effects of 10 mg oxycodone versus placebo on QST measures in 18 healthy volunteers, and 3 measure interindividual differences in nociception and treatment responses in 198 ED patients with a painful complaint during ED treatment. QST measures adapted for use in the ED included pressure sensation threshold, pressure pain threshold (PPT, pressure pain response (PPR, and cold pain tolerance (CPT tests. Results: First, all QST measures had high inter-rater reliability and test–retest reproducibility. Second, 10 mg oxycodone reduced PPR, increased PPT, and prolonged CPT. Third, baseline PPT and PPR revealed hyperalgesia in 31 (16% ED subjects relative to healthy volunteers. In 173 (88% ED subjects who completed repeat testing 30 minutes after pain treatment, PPT increased and PPR decreased (Cohen’s dz 0.10–0.19. Verbal pain scores (0–10 for the ED complaint decreased by 2.2 (95% confidence intervals [CI]: 1.9, 2.6 (Cohen’s dz 0.97 but did not covary with the changes in PPT and PPR (r=0.05–0.13. Treatment effects were greatest in ED subjects

  9. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of DT outcome measures in patients with PD. A repeated-measures design was used. Patients with PD ("on" medication, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) performed 2 cognitive tasks (ie, backward digit span task and auditory Stroop task) and 1 functional task (ie, mobile phone task) in combination with walking. Tasks were assessed at 2 time points (same hour) with an interval of 6 weeks. Test-retest reliability was assessed for gait while performing each secondary task (DT gait) for both cognitive tasks while walking (DT cognitive) and for the functional task while walking (DT functional). Sixty-two patients with PD (age=39-89 years, Hoehn and Yahr stages II-III) were included in the study. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed excellent reliability for DT gait measures, ranging between .86 and .95 when combined with the digit span task, between .86 and .95 when combined with the auditory Stroop task, and between .72 and .90 when combined with the mobile phone task. The standard error of measurements for DT gait speed varied between 0.06 and 0.08 m/s, leading to minimal detectable changes between 0.16 and 0.22 m/s. With regard to DT cognitive measures, reaction times showed good-to-excellent reliability (digit span task: ICC=.75; auditory Stroop task: ICC=.82). The results cannot be generalized to patients with advanced disease or to other DT measures. In people with PD, DT measures proved to be reliable for use in clinical studies and look promising for use in clinical practice to assess improvements after DT training. Large effects, however, are needed to obtain meaningful effect sizes.

  10. A method of bias correction for maximal reliability with dichotomous measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Spiridon; Raykov, Tenko

    2010-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the reliability of weighted combinations of a given set of dichotomous measures. Maximal reliability for such measures has been discussed in the past, but the pertinent estimator exhibits a considerable bias and mean squared error for moderate sample sizes. We examine this bias, propose a procedure for bias correction, and develop a more accurate asymptotic confidence interval for the resulting estimator. In most empirically relevant cases, the bias correction and mean squared error correction can be performed simultaneously. We propose an approximate (asymptotic) confidence interval for the maximal reliability coefficient, discuss the implementation of this estimator, and investigate the mean squared error of the associated asymptotic approximation. We illustrate the proposed methods using a numerical example.

  11. Reliability assessment for thickness measurements of pipe wall using probability of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio; Kato, Sho

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliability assessment method for thickness measurements of pipe wall using probability of detection (POD). Thicknesses of pipes are measured by qualified inspectors with ultrasonic thickness gauges. The inspection results are affected by human factors of the inspectors and include some errors, because the inspectors have different experiences and frequency of inspections. In order to ensure reliability for inspection results, first, POD evaluates experimental results of pipe-wall thickness inspection. We verify that the results have differences depending on inspectors including qualified inspectors. Second, two human factors that affect POD are indicated. Finally, it is confirmed that POD can identify the human factors and ensure reliability for pipe-wall thickness inspections. (author)

  12. Reliability Measure Model for Assistive Care Loop Framework Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venki Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Body area wireless sensor networks (BAWSNs are time-critical systems that rely on the collective data of a group of sensor nodes. Reliable data received at the sink is based on the collective data provided by all the source sensor nodes and not on individual data. Unlike conventional reliability, the definition of retransmission is inapplicable in a BAWSN and would only lead to an elapsed data arrival that is not acceptable for time-critical application. Time-driven applications require high data reliability to maintain detection and responses. Hence, the transmission reliability for the BAWSN should be based on the critical time. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to measure a BAWSN's transmission reliability, based on the critical time. The proposed model is evaluated through simulation and then compared with the experimental results conducted in our existing Active Care Loop Framework (ACLF. We further show the effect of the sink buffer in transmission reliability after a detailed study of various other co-existing parameters.

  13. Pneumothorax size measurements on digital chest radiographs: Intra- and inter- rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelle, Andreas; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas; Skorge, Trude D; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Bakke, Per S

    2015-10-01

    Detailed and reliable methods may be important for discussions on the importance of pneumothorax size in clinical decision-making. Rhea's method is widely used to estimate pneumothorax size in percent based on chest X-rays (CXRs) from three measure points. Choi's addendum is used for anterioposterior projections. The aim of this study was to examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Rhea and Choi method using digital CXR in the ward based PACS monitors. Three physicians examined a retrospective series of 80 digital CXRs showing pneumothorax, using Rhea and Choi's method, then repeated in a random order two weeks later. We used the analysis of variance technique by Eliasziw et al. to assess the intrarater and interrater reliability in altogether 480 estimations of pneumothorax size. Estimated pneumothorax sizes ranged between 5% and 100%. The intrarater reliability coefficient was 0.98 (95% one-sided lower-limit confidence interval C 0.96), and the interrater reliability coefficient was 0.95 (95% one-sided lower-limit confidence interval 0.93). This study has shown that the Rhea and Choi method for calculating pneumothorax size has high intrarater and interrater reliability. These results are valid across gender, side of pneumothorax and whether the patient is diagnosed with primary or secondary pneumothorax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha M. McCorkle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Macular pigment optical density (MPOD—assessed using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP—is related to better cognition and brain lutein among adults. However, the reliability of MPOD assessed by cHFP has not been investigated in children. We assessed inter-session reliability of MPOD using modified cHFP. 7–10-year-olds (n = 66 underwent cHFP over 2 visits using 11 examiners. Reliability was also assessed in a subsample (n = 46 with only 2 examiners. Among all participants, there was no significant difference between the two sessions (p = 0.59—session 1: 0.61 ± 0.28; session 2: 0.62 ± 0.27. There was no significant difference in the MPOD of boys vs. girls (p = 0.56. There was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.52x + 0.31; R2 = 0.29, p ≤ 0.005, with a reliability of 0.70 (Cronbach’s α. Among the subsample with 2 examiners, there was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.54x + 0.31; R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005, with a reliability of 0.72 (Cronbach’s α. In conclusion, there is moderate reliability for modified cHFP to measure MPOD in preadolescents. These findings provide support for future studies aiming to conduct noninvasive assessments of retinal xanthophylls and study their association with cognition during childhood.

  15. Quantitative comparison of measurements of urgent care service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong; Prybutok, Victor; Prybutok, Gayle

    2016-01-01

    Service quality and patient satisfaction are essential to health care organization success. Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry introduced SERVQUAL, a prominent service quality measure not yet applied to urgent care. We develop an instrument to measure perceived service quality and identify the determinants of patient satisfaction/ behavioral intentions. We examine the relationships among perceived service quality, patient satisfaction and behavioral intentions, and demonstrate that urgent care service quality is not equivalent using measures of perceptions only, differences of expectations minus perceptions, ratio of perceptions to expectations, and the log of the ratio. Perceptions provide the best measure of urgent care service quality.

  16. RELIABILITY OF ANKLE-FOOT MORPHOLOGY, MOBILITY, STRENGTH, AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of foot posture, morphology, intersegmental mobility, strength and motor control of the ankle-foot complex are commonly used clinically, but measurement properties of many assessments are unclear. To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change of morphology, joint excursion and play, strength, and motor control of the ankle-foot complex. Reliability study. 24 healthy, recreationally-active young adults without history of ankle-foot injury were assessed by two clinicians on two occasions, three to ten days apart. Measurement properties were assessed for foot morphology (foot posture index, total and truncated length, width, arch height), joint excursion (weight-bearing dorsiflexion, rearfoot and hallux goniometry, forefoot inclinometry, 1 st metatarsal displacement) and joint play, strength (handheld dynamometry), and motor control rating during intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises. Clinician order was randomized using a Latin Square. The clinicians performed independent examinations and did not confer on the findings for the duration of the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability and agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,k ) and weighted kappa ( K w ). Test-retest reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .80-1.00, joint excursion: .58-.97, joint play: -.67-.84, strength: .67-.92, IFM motor rating: K W -.01-.71. Inter-rater reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .81-1.00, joint excursion: .32-.97, joint play: -1.06-1.00, strength: .53-.90, and IFM motor rating: K w .02-.56. Measures of ankle-foot posture, morphology, joint excursion, and strength demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability for rating of perceived difficulty and motor performance was good to excellent for short-foot, toe-spread-out, and hallux exercises and poor to fair for lesser toe extension. Joint play measures had

  17. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  18. Reliability and Measurement Error of Tensiomyography to Assess Mechanical Muscle Function: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, Saúl; Loturco, Irineu; Hunter, Angus M; Rodríguez-Ruiz, David; Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego

    2017-12-01

    Martín-Rodríguez, S, Loturco, I, Hunter, AM, Rodríguez-Ruiz, D, and Munguia-Izquierdo, D. Reliability and measurement error of tensiomyography to assess mechanical muscle function: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3524-3536, 2017-Interest in studying mechanical skeletal muscle function through tensiomyography (TMG) has increased in recent years. This systematic review aimed to (a) report the reliability and measurement error of all TMG parameters (i.e., maximum radial displacement of the muscle belly [Dm], contraction time [Tc], delay time [Td], half-relaxation time [½ Tr], and sustained contraction time [Ts]) and (b) to provide critical reflection on how to perform accurate and appropriate measurements for informing clinicians, exercise professionals, and researchers. A comprehensive literature search was performed of the Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Cochrane databases up to July 2017. Eight studies were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis could not be performed because of the low quality of the evidence of some studies evaluated. Overall, the review of the 9 studies involving 158 participants revealed high relative reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for Dm (0.91-0.99); moderate-to-high ICC for Ts (0.80-0.96), Tc (0.70-0.98), and ½ Tr (0.77-0.93); and low-to-high ICC for Td (0.60-0.98), independently of the evaluated muscles. In addition, absolute reliability (coefficient of variation [CV]) was low for all TMG parameters except for ½ Tr (CV = >20%), whereas measurement error indexes were high for this parameter. In conclusion, this study indicates that 3 of the TMG parameters (Dm, Td, and Tc) are highly reliable, whereas ½ Tr demonstrate insufficient reliability, and thus should not be used in future studies.

  19. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weir, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of measuring muscle strength. The reliability of HHD has not been determined in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. Objectives To determine the intertester reliability and the prognostic value of hamstring HHD strength measurement in acute hamstring injuries. Methods We measured knee flexion strength with HHD in 75 athletes at 2 visits, at baseline (within 5 days of hamstring injury) and follow-up (5 to 7 days after the baseline measurement). We assessed isometric hamstring strength in 15° and 90° of knee flexion. Reliability analysis testing was performed by 2 testers independently at the follow-up visit. We recorded the time needed to return to play (RTP) up to 6 months following baseline. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of the strength measurements in injured hamstrings were between 0.75 and 0.83. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between the time to RTP and the strength deficit at 15° of knee flexion measured at baseline (Spearman r = 0.25, P = .045) and at the follow-up visit (Spearman r = 0.26, P = .034). Up to 7% of the variance in time to RTP is explained by this strength deficit. None of the other strength variables were significantly correlated with time to RTP. Conclusion Hamstring strength can be reliably measured with HHD in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. The prognostic value of strength measurements is limited, as there is only a weak association between the time to RTP and hamstring strength deficit after acute injury. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):689-696. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6363.

  20. A method for quantitative measurement of lumbar intervertebral disc structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunset, Andreas; Kjær, Per; Samir Chreiteh, Shadi

    2013-01-01

    There is a shortage of agreement studies relevant for measuring changes over time in lumbar intervertebral disc structures. The objectives of this study were: 1) to develop a method for measurement of intervertebral disc height, anterior and posterior disc material and dural sac diameter using MR...

  1. Quantitative measures of walking and strength provide insight into brain corticospinal tract pathology in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora E Fritz

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative measures of strength and walking are associated with brain corticospinal tract pathology. The addition of these quantitative measures to basic clinical information explains more of the variance in corticospinal tract fractional anisotropy and magnetization transfer ratio than the basic clinical information alone. Outcome measurement for multiple sclerosis clinical trials has been notoriously challenging; the use of quantitative measures of strength and walking along with tract-specific imaging methods may improve our ability to monitor disease change over time, with intervention, and provide needed guidelines for developing more effective targeted rehabilitation strategies.

  2. Reliability analysis of a phaser measurement unit using a generalized fuzzy lambda-tau(GFLT) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komal

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays power consumption is increasing day-by-day. To fulfill failure free power requirement, planning and implementation of an effective and reliable power management system is essential. Phasor measurement unit(PMU) is one of the key device in wide area measurement and control systems. The reliable performance of PMU assures failure free power supply for any power system. So, the purpose of the present study is to analyse the reliability of a PMU used for controllability and observability of power systems utilizing available uncertain data. In this paper, a generalized fuzzy lambda-tau (GFLT) technique has been proposed for this purpose. In GFLT, system components' uncertain failure and repair rates are fuzzified using fuzzy numbers having different shapes such as triangular, normal, cauchy, sharp gamma and trapezoidal. To select a suitable fuzzy number for quantifying data uncertainty, system experts' opinion have been considered. The GFLT technique applies fault tree, lambda-tau method, fuzzified data using different membership functions, alpha-cut based fuzzy arithmetic operations to compute some important reliability indices. Furthermore, in this study ranking of critical components of the system using RAM-Index and sensitivity analysis have also been performed. The developed technique may be helpful to improve system performance significantly and can be applied to analyse fuzzy reliability of other engineering systems. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability of agriculture universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in universal joint bearing assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandar Asonja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research into reliability calculations of agriculture double universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in cardan-type universal joint bearing assemblies. Special laboratory equipment was developed for this research which is presented in the paper. The objective of this research was to test the real life span of universal joint shafts in the laboratory and in field, to obtain the results which can be used to improve the reliability of universal joint shafts. If the presented research were used along with maintenance measures recommended in the paper and with proper use, the level of reliability of the shafts would be 2.1 times higher. The presented results of the research showed that needle bearings, i.e. bearing assemblies of the joints, are the most critical elements on universal joint shafts and are possible causes of their lower reliability. The second universal joint is the part with the lowest reliability in the observed technical system.

  4. Sonographic measurements of the achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad are reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Finn E; Jensen, Signe; Stallknecht, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and precision of sonographic (US) scanning in measuring thickness of the Achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad in patients with heel pain. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive patients referred with heel pain were included. Two...

  5. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  6. Interobserver reliability when using the Van Herick method to measure anterior chamber depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Javed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The Van Herick score has a good interobserver reliability for Grades 1 and 4; however, Grades 2 and 3 require further tests such as gonioscopy or ocular coherence tomography. Temporal and nasal scores demonstrated good agreement; therefore, if the nasal score cannot be measured due to nasal bridge size, the temporal can be used as an approximation.

  7. Generalizability Theory Reliability of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Universal Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Thomas, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African…

  8. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  9. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  10. Toward a Common Language for Measuring Patient Mobility in the Hospital: Reliability and Construct Validity of Interprofessional Mobility Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Erik H; Young, Daniel L; Klein, Lisa M; Kreif, Julie; Shumock, Kara; Hiser, Stephanie; Friedman, Michael; Lavezza, Annette; Jette, Alan; Chan, Kitty S; Needham, Dale M

    2018-02-01

    The lack of common language among interprofessional inpatient clinical teams is an important barrier to achieving inpatient mobilization. In The Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Inpatient Mobility Short Form (IMSF), also called "6-Clicks," and the Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) are part of routine clinical practice. The measurement characteristics of these tools when used by both nurses and physical therapists for interprofessional communication or assessment are unknown. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the reliability and minimal detectable change of AM-PAC IMSF and JH-HLM when completed by nurses and physical therapists and to evaluate the construct validity of both measures when used by nurses. A prospective evaluation of a convenience sample was used. The test-retest reliability and the interrater reliability of AM-PAC IMSF and JH-HLM for inpatients in the neuroscience department (n = 118) of an academic medical center were evaluated. Each participant was independently scored twice by a team of 2 nurses and 1 physical therapist; a total of 4 physical therapists and 8 nurses participated in reliability testing. In a separate inpatient study protocol (n = 69), construct validity was evaluated via an assessment of convergent validity with other measures of function (grip strength, Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale, 2-minute walk test, 5-times sit-to-stand test) used by 5 nurses. The test-retest reliability values (intraclass correlation coefficients) for physical therapists and nurses were 0.91 and 0.97, respectively, for AM-PAC IMSF and 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for JH-HLM. The interrater reliability values (intraclass correlation coefficients) between physical therapists and nurses were 0.96 for AM-PAC IMSF and 0.99 for JH-HLM. Construct validity (Spearman correlations) ranged from 0.25 between JH-HLM and right-hand grip strength to 0.80 between AM-PAC IMSF and the Katz Activities of

  11. Quantitative electroencephalographic measures in homicidal men with antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Nina; Tani, Pekka; Virkkunen, Matti; Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Appelberg, Björn; Naukkarinen, Hannu; Salmi, Tapani

    2005-07-15

    Many symptoms of antisocial personality disorder have been proposed to be related to decreased daytime vigilance. To explore this hypothesis, quantitative analyses were conducted of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity of drug-free and detoxified homicidal male offenders with antisocial personality disorder as the primary diagnosis. Subjects comprised 16 men recruited from a forensic psychiatric examination in a special ward of a university psychiatric hospital. Fifteen healthy age- and gender-matched controls with no criminal record or history of physical violence consisted of hospital staff and students. An overall reduction of alpha power was observed in the waking EEG of offenders. A bilateral increase in occipital delta and theta power was also found in these individuals. This study provides further support to the growing evidence of brain dysfunction in severe aggressive behavior. Homicidal offenders with antisocial personality disorder seem to have difficulties in maintaining normal daytime arousal. Decreased vigilance, together with social and psychological variables, may explain their aberrant behavior in everyday life. New studies are, however, needed to specify the vigilance problems of this patient group.

  12. A simple measurement hammer for quantitative reflex studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, J.; van Leeuwen, J. R.

    1984-01-01

    A reflex hammer for measurement of the mechanical stimulus strength was designed. Combined with standard EMG equipment this instrument permits the study of both stimulus-response relations and latencies of myotatic reflexes. Some results in normal subjects are discussed

  13. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesly, E

    2013-01-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  14. Quantitative measurement of holographic image quality using Adobe Photoshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesly, E.

    2013-02-01

    Measurement of the characteristics of image holograms in regards to diffraction efficiency and signal to noise ratio are demonstrated, using readily available digital cameras and image editing software. Illustrations and case studies, using currently available holographic recording materials, are presented.

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Aksoy, Songül

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. This is a nonrandomized, prospective study with control group. The questionnaire was administered to 249 individuals-130 with vocal complaint and 119 without-with a mean age of 37.8 ± 12.3 years. The Turkish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and perceptual voice evaluation measures were also administered at 2-14 days for retest reliability. The instrument was submitted to validity and reliability evaluation. The V-RQOL measure showed a strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability; the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall V-RQOL was 0.969, the physical functioning domain was 0.949, and the social-emotional domain was 0.940. In the test-retest reliability test, the overall V-RQOL was found to be 0.989. The construct validity of the V-RQOL was determined based on the strength and direction of its relation to the VHI and the perceptual voice evaluation measure. The higher the VHI level, the lower the physical functioning, social-emotional, and overall score levels of the V-RQOL (r = -0.927, r = -0.912, r = -0.944, respectively; P reliability and validity and may play a crucial role in evaluating Turkish-speaking patients with voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju Ri; Ko, Young Jun; Ha, Hyun Geun; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-03-01

    This study was to establish inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging (RUSI) technique for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major at rest and with the shoulder abducted to 90°. Twenty-four young adults (eight men, 16 women; right-handed; mean age [±SD], 24·4 years [±2·6]) with no history of neck, shoulder, or arm pain were recruited. Rhomboid major muscle images were obtained in the resting position and with shoulder in 90° abduction using an ultrasonography system with a 7·5-MHz linear transducer. In these two positions, the examiners found the site at which the transducer could be placed. Two examiners obtained the images of all participants in three test sessions at random. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate reliability. All ICCs (95% CI) were >0·75, ranging from 0·93 to 0·98, which indicates good reliability. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0·75 to 0·94. For the absolute value of the difference in the intra-examiner reliability between the right and left ratios, the ICCs ranged from 0·58 to 0·91. In this study, the intra- and interexaminer reliability of muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major were good. Therefore, we suggest that muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major obtained with the RUSI technique would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. THE RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF THE TRIPLE MEASUREMENTS OF ANALOG PROCESS VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in unit capacity of electric equipment as well as complication of technological processes, devices control and management of the latter in power plants and substations demonstrate the need to improve the reliability and accuracy of measurement information characterizing the state of the objects being managed. The mentioned objective is particularly important for nuclear power plants, where the price of inaccuracy of measurement responsible process variables is particularly high and the error might lead to irreparable consequences. Improving the reliability and accuracy of measurements along with the improvement of the element base is provided by methods of operational validation. These methods are based on the use of information redundancy (structural, topological, temporal. In particular, information redundancy can be achieved by the simultaneous measurement of one analog variable by two (duplication or three devices (triplication i.e., triple redundancy. The problem of operational control of the triple redundant system of measurement of electrical analog variables (currents, voltages, active and reactive power and energy is considered as a special case of signal processing by an orderly sampling on the basis of majority transformation and transformation being close to majority one. Difficulties in monitoring the reliability of measurements are associated with the two tasks. First, one needs to justify the degree of truncation of the distributions of random errors of measurements and allowable residuals of the pairwise differences of the measurement results. The second task consists in formation of the algorithm of joint processing of a set of separate measurements determined as valid. The quality of control is characterized by the reliability, which adopted the synonym of validity, and accuracy of the measuring system. Taken separately, these indicators might lead to opposite results. A compromise solution is therefore proposed

  18. ImageJ: A Free, Easy, and Reliable Method to Measure Leg Ulcers Using Digital Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; Aragón-Hernández, Cristina; Hernández-Herero, María José

    2017-12-01

    Wound measurement to document the healing course of chronic leg ulcers has an important role in the management of these patients. Digital cameras in smartphones are readily available and easy to use, and taking pictures of wounds is becoming a routine in specialized departments. Analyzing digital pictures with appropriate software provides clinicians a quick, clean, and easy-to-use tool for measuring wound area. A set of 25 digital pictures of plain foot and leg ulcers was the basis of this study. Photographs were taken placing a ruler next to the wound in parallel with the healthy skin with the iPhone 6S (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA), which has a camera of 12 megapixels using the flash. The digital photographs were visualized with ImageJ 1.45s freeware (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD; http://imagej.net/ImageJ ). Wound area measurement was carried out by 4 raters: head of the department, wound care nurse, physician, and medical student. We assessed intra- and interrater reliability using the interclass correlation coefficient. To determine intraobserver reliability, 2 of the raters repeated the measurement of the set 1 week after the first reading. The interrater model displayed an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 with 95% confidence interval of 0.999 to 1.000, showing excellent reliability. The intrarater model of both examiners showed excellent reliability. In conclusion, analyzing digital images of leg ulcers with ImageJ estimates wound area with excellent reliability. This method provides a free, rapid, and accurate way to measure wounds and could routinely be used to document wound healing in daily clinical practice.

  19. Reliability of smartphone-based gait measurements for quantification of physical activity/inactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Azuma, Ryohei; Shoji, Naoto; Matsukawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Takahiro; Yamada, Shota

    2017-11-25

    Objective measurements using built-in smartphone sensors that can measure physical activity/inactivity in daily working life have the potential to provide a new approach to assessing workers' health effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and reliability of built-in step counting sensors on smartphones for development of an easy-to-use objective measurement tool that can be applied in ergonomics or epidemiological research. To evaluate the reliability of step counting sensors embedded in seven major smartphone models, the 6-minute walk test was conducted and the following analyses of sensor precision and accuracy were performed: 1) relationship between actual step count and step count detected by sensors, 2) reliability between smartphones of the same model, and 3) false detection rates when sitting during office work, while riding the subway, and driving. On five of the seven models, the inter-class correlations coefficient (ICC (3,1) ) showed high reliability with a range of 0.956-0.993. The other two models, however, had ranges of 0.443-0.504 and the relative error ratios of the sensor-detected step count to the actual step count were ±48.7%-49.4%. The level of agreement between the same models was ICC (3,1) : 0.992-0.998. The false detection rates differed between the sitting conditions. These results suggest the need for appropriate regulation of step counts measured by sensors, through means such as correction or calibration with a predictive model formula, in order to obtain the highly reliable measurement results that are sought in scientific investigation.

  20. How to measure distinct components of visual attention fast and reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Habekost, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Measuring different attentional processes in a fast and reliable way is important in both clinical and experimental settings. However, most tests of visual attention are either lengthy or lack sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. To address this we developed a ten minute test procedure...... for the Swedish Betula-project, a longitudinal study investigating changes in cognitive functions over the adult life span (Nilsson et al., 2004). The test consists of a computer-based letter recognition task with stimulus displays of varied durations followed by pattern masks or a blank screen. The temporal...

  1. Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...

  2. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 cl...

  3. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, van der, C.P.; Zijlstra, W.; Regterschot, G.R.H.; Krijnen, W.P.; Douma, K.W.; Slager, G.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various d...

  4. The Reliability of a Novel Mobile 3-dimensional Wound Measurement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ersilia L; Kumar, Anagha; Bigham, Thomas E; Maselli, Kathryn M; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E

    2016-11-01

    Objective assessment of wound dimensions is essential for tracking progression and determining treatment effectiveness. A reliability study was designed to establish intrarater and interrater reliability of a novel mobile 3-dimensional wound measurement (3DWM) device. Forty-five wounds were assessed by 2 raters using a 3DWM device to obtain length, width, area, depth, and volume measurements. Wounds were also measured manually, using a disposable ruler and digital planimetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to establish intrarater and interrater reliability. High levels of intrarater and interrater agreement were observed for area, length, and width; ICC = 0.998, 0.977, 0.955 and 0.999, 0.997, 0.995, respectively. Moderate levels of intrarater (ICC = 0.888) and interrater (ICC = 0.696) agreement were observed for volume. Lastly, depth yielded an intrarater ICC of 0.360 and an interrater ICC of 0.649. Measures from the 3DWM device were highly correlated with those obtained from scaled photography for length, width, and area (ρ = 0.997, 0.988, 0.997, P device yielded correlations of ρ = 0.990, 0.987, 0.996 with P device was found to be highly reliable for measuring wound areas for a range of wound sizes and types as compared to manual measurement and digital planimetry. The depth and therefore volume measurement using the 3DWM device was found to have a lower ICC, but volume ICC alone was moderate. Overall, this device offers a mobile option for objective wound measurement in the clinical setting.

  5. Quantitative convergent beam electron diffraction measurements of bonding in alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.W.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The QCBED technique of measuring accurate structure factors has been made practical by advances in energy filtering, computing and in the accurate measurement of intensity. Originally attempted in 1965 by the late Peter Goodman (CSIRO, Melbourne) while working with Gunter Lehmpfuhl (Fritz Haber Institut, Berlin), QCBED has been successfully developed and tested in the last decade on simple structures such as Si and MgO. Our work on Alumina is a step up in complexity and has shown that extinction in X-ray diffraction is not correctable to the precision required. In combination with accurate X-ray diffraction, QCBED promises to revolutionize the accuracy of bonding charge density measurements, experimental results which are of significance in the development of Density Functional Theory used in predictive chemistry. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  6. Measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume using computed tomography: reliability by intra- and inter-observer variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Segelsjoe, Monica; Magnusson, Anders; Andersson, Anna; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Unlike other solid organ transplants, pancreas allografts can undergo a substantial decrease in baseline volume after transplantation. This phenomenon has not been well characterized, as there are insufficient data on reliable and reproducible volume assessments. We hypothesized that characterization of pancreatic volume by means of computed tomography (CT) could be a useful method for clinical follow-up in pancreas transplant patients. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of pancreatic volume assessment using CT scan in transplanted patients. Material and Methods CT examinations were performed on 21 consecutive patients undergoing pancreas transplantation. Volume measurements were carried out by two observers tracing the pancreatic contours in all slices. The observers performed the measurements twice for each patient. Differences in volume measurement were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Results The intra-observer variability for the pancreatic volume measurements of Observers 1 and 2 was found to be in almost perfect agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 (0.77-0.96) and 0.99 (0.98-1.0), respectively. Regarding inter-observer validity, the ICCs for the first and second measurements were 0.90 (range, 0.77-0.96) and 0.95 (range, 0.85-0.98), respectively. Conclusion CT volumetry is a reliable and reproducible method for measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume

  7. Measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume using computed tomography: reliability by intra- and inter-observer variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Segelsjoe, Monica; Magnusson, Anders [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: eva.lundqvist.8954@student.uu.se; Andersson, Anna; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza [Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Section of Transplantation Surgery, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Background Unlike other solid organ transplants, pancreas allografts can undergo a substantial decrease in baseline volume after transplantation. This phenomenon has not been well characterized, as there are insufficient data on reliable and reproducible volume assessments. We hypothesized that characterization of pancreatic volume by means of computed tomography (CT) could be a useful method for clinical follow-up in pancreas transplant patients. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of pancreatic volume assessment using CT scan in transplanted patients. Material and Methods CT examinations were performed on 21 consecutive patients undergoing pancreas transplantation. Volume measurements were carried out by two observers tracing the pancreatic contours in all slices. The observers performed the measurements twice for each patient. Differences in volume measurement were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Results The intra-observer variability for the pancreatic volume measurements of Observers 1 and 2 was found to be in almost perfect agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 (0.77-0.96) and 0.99 (0.98-1.0), respectively. Regarding inter-observer validity, the ICCs for the first and second measurements were 0.90 (range, 0.77-0.96) and 0.95 (range, 0.85-0.98), respectively. Conclusion CT volumetry is a reliable and reproducible method for measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume.

  8. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.

  9. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  10. Measuring reliable change in cognition using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Christopher; Newton, Judith; Lonergan, Katie; Madden, Caoifa; Mays, Iain; O'Sullivan, Meabhdh; Costello, Emmet; Pinto-Grau, Marta; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately 50% of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research has indicated that impairment may worsen with disease progression. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was designed to measure neuropsychological functioning in ALS, with its alternate forms (ECAS-A, B, and C) allowing for serial assessment over time. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable change scores for the alternate forms of the ECAS, and to explore practice effects and test-retest reliability of the ECAS's alternate forms. Eighty healthy participants were recruited, with 57 completing two and 51 completing three assessments. Participants were administered alternate versions of the ECAS serially (A-B-C) at four-month intervals. Intra-class correlation analysis was employed to explore test-retest reliability, while analysis of variance was used to examine the presence of practice effects. Reliable change indices (RCI) and regression-based methods were utilized to establish change scores for the ECAS alternate forms. Test-retest reliability was excellent for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total scores of the combined ECAS A, B, and C (all > .90). No significant practice effects were observed over the three testing sessions. RCI and regression-based methods produced similar change scores. The alternate forms of the ECAS possess excellent test-retest reliability in a healthy control sample, with no significant practice effects. The use of conservative RCI scores is recommended. Therefore, a change of ≥8, ≥4, and ≥9 for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total score is required for reliable change.

  11. Inter-rater reliability of measures to characterize the tobacco retail environment in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of a data collection instrument to assess the tobacco retail environ- ment in Mexico, after major marketing regulations were implemented. Materials and methods. In 2013, two data collectors independently evaluated 21 stores in two census tracts, through a data collection instrument that assessed the presence of price promotions, whether single cigarettes were sold, the number of visible advertisements, the pre- sence of signage prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors, and characteristics of cigarette pack displays. We evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the collected data, through the calculation of metrics such as intraclass correlation coefficient, percent agreement, Cohen’s kappa and Krippendorff’s alpha. Results. Most measures demonstrated substantial or perfect inter-rater reliability. Conclusions. Our results indicate the potential utility of the data collection instrument for future point-of-sale research.

  12. Design, validation, and reliability of survey to measure female athlete triad knowledge among coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian E. Frideres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and to test the validity and reliability of an instrument to evaluate coaches' knowledge about the female athlete triad syndrome and their confidence in this knowledge. The instrument collects information regarding: knowledge of the syndrome, components, prevention and intervention; confidence of the coaches in their answers; and coach's characteristics (gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the syndrome and its components, and sport coached. The process of designing the questionnaire and testing the validity and reliability of it was done in four phases: a design and development of the instrument, b content validity, c instrument reliability, and d concurrent validity. The results show that the instrument is suitable for measuring coaches' female athlete triad knowledge. The instrument can contribute to assessing the coaches' knowledge level in relation to this topic.

  13. Cultural Values Predicting Acculturation Orientations: Operationalizing a Quantitative Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehala, Martin

    2012-01-01

    This article proposes that acculturation orientations are related to two sets of cultural values: utilitarianism (Ut) and traditionalism (Tr). While utilitarian values enhance assimilation, traditional values support language and identity maintenance. It is proposed that the propensity to either end of this value opposition can be measured by an…

  14. Quantitative Spectral Radiance Measurements in the HYMETS Arc Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danehy, Paul M.; Hires, Drew V.; Johansen, Craig T.; Bathel, Brett F.; Jones, Stephen B.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Splinter, Scott C.

    2012-01-01

    Calibrated spectral radiance measurements of gaseous emission spectra have been obtained from the HYMETS (Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System) 400 kW arc-heated wind tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. A fiber-optic coupled spectrometer collected natural luminosity from the flow. Spectral radiance measurements are reported between 340 and 1000 nm. Both Silicon Carbide (SiC) and Phenolic Impregnated Carbon Ablator (PICA) samples were placed in the flow. Test gases studied included a mostly-N2 atmosphere (95% nitrogen, 5% argon), a simulated Earth Air atmosphere (75% nitrogen, 20% oxygen, 5% argon) and a simulated Martian atmosphere (71% carbon dioxide, 24% nitrogen, 5% argon). The bulk enthalpy of the flow was varied as was the location of the measurement. For the intermediate flow enthalpy tested (20 MJ/kg), emission from the Mars simulant gas was about 10 times higher than the Air flow and 15 times higher than the mostly-N2 atmosphere. Shock standoff distances were estimated from the spectral radiance measurements. Within-run, run-to-run and day-to-day repeatability of the emission were studied, with significant variations (15-100%) noted.

  15. Measuring thin films using quantitative frustrated total internal reflection (FTIR)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shirota, Minori; van Limbeek, Michiel A.J.; Lohse, Detlef; Sun, Chao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract.: In the study of interactions between liquids and solids, an accurate measurement of the film thickness between the two media is essential to study the dynamics. As interferometry is restricted by the wavelength of the light source used, recent studies of thinner films have prompted the

  16. Reproducibility of Quantitative Structural and Physiological MRI Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-09

    project.org/) and SPSS (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) for data analysis. Mean and confidence inter- vals for each measure are found in Tables 1–7. To assess...visits, and was calculated using a two- way mixed model in SPSS MCV and MRD values closer to 0 are considered to be the most reproducible, and ICC

  17. Quantitative measures of CRE and its link with organizational performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Appel - Meulenbroek, H.A.J.A.

    2007-01-01

    For CREM (Corporate Real Estate Management) to be able to deliver added value to its client organisation, it has to know 1) which CRE aspects influence its employees, processes, machinery, visitors, etc, 2) how these aspects influence performance and 3) how to measure and manage them. Analysis of

  18. CONFOCAL MICROSCOPY SYSTEM PERFORMANCE: FOUNDATIONS FOR MEASUREMENTS, QUANTITATION AND SPECTROSCOPY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM) has enormous potential in many biological fields. The goal of a CLSM is to acquire and quantify fluorescence and in some instruments acquire spectral characterization of the emitted signal. The accuracy of these measurements demands t...

  19. Quantitative approach to measuring the cerebrospinal fluid space with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeumer, H.; Hacke, W.; Hartwich, P.

    1982-01-01

    A method for measuring the subarachnoid space by using an independent CT evaluation unit is described. The normal values have been calculated for patients, according to age, and three examples are presented demonstrating reversible decrease of brain volume in patients suffering anorexia nervosa and chronic alcoholism.

  20. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS. Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may

  1. Reliability of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle architecture measurements obtained with ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bastos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction Currently, little attention is given to the muscle architecture reliability studies of the hamstring using a robust statistical. Our purpose was to determine the reliability of ultrasound measurements of muscle thickness, fascicle length and pennation angle of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, including heteroskedasticity and internal consistency analyses. Methods Two images of biceps femoris and semitendinosus at 50% of the thigh length were acquired from 21 volunteers, in two visits. The parameters were measured three times in each image, and for each muscle. The reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha (αCronbach. The relative standard error of the measurements (%SEM were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were generated. Results All parameters presented excellent ICC for the three repeated measurements (ICC from 0.93 ‒ 0.99 and moderate to excellent reliability intraday (ICC from 0.70 ‒ 0.95 for both muscles. The present study indicates that ultrasound is a reliable tool to estimate the biceps femoris fascicle length (ICC = 0.97, αCronbach = 0.98, %SEM = 7.86 and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.90, αCronbach = 0.95, %SEM = 7.55, as well as the biceps femoris muscle thickness (ICC = 0.89, αCronbach = 0.94, %SEM = 10.23 and semitendinosus muscle thickness (ICC = 0.87, αCronbach = 0.93, %SEM = 1.35. At last, biceps femoris pennation angle (ICC = 0.93, αCronbach = 0.96 and %SEM = 4.36 and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.96, αCronbach = 0.98 and %SEM = 4.25 also had good repeatability. Conclusion Ultrasonography show good repeatability in estimating of muscle architecture parameters.

  2. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Martinho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9 participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96, average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97, and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92 dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice.

  3. Reliability and validity of the Performance Recorder 1 for measuring isometric knee flexor and extensor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Sarah E; Myring, Alec; Peeters, Mon Jef; Pirie, Ian; Jacobs, Rachel; Hunt, Michael A; Garland, S Jayne; Campbell, Kristin L

    2013-11-01

    Muscular strength is a key parameter of rehabilitation programs and a strong predictor of functional capacity. Traditional methods to measure strength, such as manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD), are limited by the strength and experience of the tester. The Performance Recorder 1 (PR1) is a strength assessment tool attached to resistance training equipment and may be a time- and cost-effective tool to measure strength in clinical practice that overcomes some limitations of MMT and HHD. However, reliability and validity of the PR1 have not been reported. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability was assessed using the PR1 in healthy adults (n  =  15) during isometric knee flexion and extension. Criterion-related validity was assessed through comparison of values obtained from the PR1 and Biodex® isokinetic dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak knee flexion (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and knee extension (ICC  =  0.96, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99). Inter-rater reliability was also excellent for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.95, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.97, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Validity was moderate for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.75, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92) but poor for peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.37, 95% CI: 0, 0.73). The PR1 provides a reliable measure of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength in healthy adults that could be used in the clinical setting, but absolute values may not be comparable to strength assessment by gold-standard measures.

  4. Challenge in Enhancing the Teaching and Learning of Variable Measurements in Quantitative Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Chang Peng; Osman, Kamisah; Ahmad, Fauziah

    2013-01-01

    Statistical analysis is one component that cannot be avoided in a quantitative research. Initial observations noted that students in higher education institution faced difficulty analysing quantitative data which were attributed to the confusions of various variable measurements. This paper aims to compare the outcomes of two approaches applied in…

  5. Initial Description of a Quantitative, Cross-Species (Chimpanzee-Human) Social Responsiveness Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Faughn, Carley; Shuman, Jeremy; Petersen, Steve E.; Constantino, John N.; Povinelli, Daniel J.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Comparative studies of social responsiveness, an ability that is impaired in autism spectrum disorders, can inform our understanding of both autism and the cognitive architecture of social behavior. Because there is no existing quantitative measure of social responsiveness in chimpanzees, we generated a quantitative, cross-species…

  6. Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.

  7. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  8. Self-report measures of prospective memory are reliable but not valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale

    2011-03-01

    Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  10. Measurements in quantitative research: how to select and report on research instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Teresa L

    2014-07-01

    Measures exist to numerically represent degrees of attributes. Quantitative research is based on measurement and is conducted in a systematic, controlled manner. These measures enable researchers to perform statistical tests, analyze differences between groups, and determine the effectiveness of treatments. If something is not measurable, it cannot be tested.

  11. Research on reliability measures of the main transformer and GIS equipment manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Honglong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the accidents of the main transformer GIS equipment and the accidents of the high voltage switch equipment, combined with the main transformer switch equipment maintenance experience and electrical theory, the reliability measures of the main transformer GIS equipment during manufacturing stage are studied and improved. Six successful reliability measures are identified: 1) design properly and check the ability of transformer for anti short circuit; 2) choose mature and reliable main transformer HV bushing; 3) choose GIS switch operation mechanism of high quality and reliability; 4) ensure that the insulation margin through tests piece by piece on withstand voltage and partial discharge of the GIS equipment insulation; 5) take test measures such as GIS conductor, shell polishing witness process and full form lightning impulse, to find out and eliminate the defects of abnormal electric field distribution; 6) Anti VFTO design for the main transformer connected with GIS with the voltage of 500 kV should be considered, and its anti VFTO ability to meet the safe operation under VFTO requirements should be checked. This paper proposed 2 new measures: 1) the main transformer insulation material quality standard is determined not only by its high dielectric strength, but more importantly by the homogeneous dielectric electric strength. Insulating Materials with a high and also uniform dielectric strength should be chosen. 2) During the silver-coating stage of the GIS equipment conductor, QC group activities should be organized to ensure that the plating layer quality, and the current lap surface DC resistance measurements should be supervised and witnessed to ensure the quality of the conductor contact surface. These measures are verified in Fuqing project of GIS main transformer equipment manufacturing process, and their effectiveness is proven. (author)

  12. Phase transition traced by conductivity measurements: quantitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keding, Ralf; Ruessel, Christian; Tauch, Diana

    2008-01-01

    to the electrodes, all in a cylindrical geometry. The electrical resistivity of a sample in the system BaAl2B2O7 was measured during cooling between liquidus temperature (T-l) and transformation temperature (T-g) using a fixed frequency of 3.7 Hz. The melt crystallised in this temperature range during cooling...... of conductivity and the resistance changes caused by phase transformation. This enables to determine the crystal growth velocity in the temperature range between 750 and 860 degrees C in a single experiment....

  13. Quantitative measurement of the orbital angular momentum density of light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available of the azimuthal mode index, n, on LCD1 is equiva- lent to n on LCD2. If the reader wishes to orientate the experimental setup differently, such that the two SLMs have the same orientation (i.e., are not mirror images of each other), the complex conjugate... measurement, is separated into two parts: (1) the generation of the optical field and (2) the mea- surement of the OAM density, which is achieved by performing a modal decomposition of the opti- cal field. A. Symmetric Superposition of Two Bessel Beams...

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of shoulders with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: reliability of measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, Francois; Demaille-Wlodyka, Samantha; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Poiraudeau, Serge; Revel, Michel [Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Paris (France); Drape, Jean-Luc; Diche, Thierry; Minvielle, Francois [Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Department of Radiology B, Paris (France); Fermanian, Jacques [Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Necker (AP-HP), Paris (France)

    2005-12-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (AC) were compared with those of contralateral healthy shoulders and the reliability of measures assessed. Twenty-six consecutive patients (26 AC and 14 healthy shoulders) were prospectively assessed. The main measurements were thickness of the joint capsule and synovial membrane in the axillary recess and rotator interval in T1-weighted spin-echo sequence enhanced with intravenous (IV) gadolinium chelate (Gd-chelate). Reliability was studied by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean thickness of the axillary recess on the coronal plane was 9.0{+-}2.2 mm in AC shoulders and 0.4{+-}0.7 mm in healthy shoulders. The mean thickness of the rotator interval on the sagittal plane was 8.4{+-}2.8 in AC shoulders and 0.6{+-}0.8 mm in healthy shoulders. Interobserver reliability was good for the axillary recess, with ICC values of 0.84 for the coronal plane, and good for the rotator interval, with ICC values of 0.80 for the sagittal plane. MRI with IV Gd-chelate injection can show, with acceptable reliability, signal and thickness abnormalities of the shoulder joint capsule and synovial membrane in AC. (orig.)

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging of shoulders with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: reliability of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, Francois; Demaille-Wlodyka, Samantha; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Poiraudeau, Serge; Revel, Michel; Drape, Jean-Luc; Diche, Thierry; Minvielle, Francois; Fermanian, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (AC) were compared with those of contralateral healthy shoulders and the reliability of measures assessed. Twenty-six consecutive patients (26 AC and 14 healthy shoulders) were prospectively assessed. The main measurements were thickness of the joint capsule and synovial membrane in the axillary recess and rotator interval in T1-weighted spin-echo sequence enhanced with intravenous (IV) gadolinium chelate (Gd-chelate). Reliability was studied by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean thickness of the axillary recess on the coronal plane was 9.0±2.2 mm in AC shoulders and 0.4±0.7 mm in healthy shoulders. The mean thickness of the rotator interval on the sagittal plane was 8.4±2.8 in AC shoulders and 0.6±0.8 mm in healthy shoulders. Interobserver reliability was good for the axillary recess, with ICC values of 0.84 for the coronal plane, and good for the rotator interval, with ICC values of 0.80 for the sagittal plane. MRI with IV Gd-chelate injection can show, with acceptable reliability, signal and thickness abnormalities of the shoulder joint capsule and synovial membrane in AC. (orig.)

  17. Reliability generalization of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Hayley M; Smith, Timothy B; Feinauer, Erika; Griner, Derek

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 63(5) of Journal of Counseling Psychology (see record 2016-33161-001). The name of author Erika Feinauer was misspelled as Erika Feinhauer. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Individuals' strength of ethnic identity has been linked with multiple positive indicators, including academic achievement and overall psychological well-being. The measure researchers use most often to assess ethnic identity, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), underwent substantial revision in 2007. To inform scholars investigating ethnic identity, we performed a reliability generalization analysis on data from the revised version (MEIM-R) and compared it with data from the original MEIM. Random-effects weighted models evaluated internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha). Reliability coefficients for the MEIM-R averaged α = .88 across 37 samples, a statistically significant increase over the average of α = .84 for the MEIM across 75 studies. Reliability coefficients for the MEIM-R did not differ across study and participant characteristics such as sample gender and ethnic composition. However, consistently lower reliability coefficients averaging α = .81 were found among participants with low levels of education, suggesting that greater attention to data reliability is warranted when evaluating the ethnic identity of individuals such as middle-school students. Future research will be needed to ascertain whether data with other measures of aspects of personal identity (e.g., racial identity, gender identity) also differ as a function of participant level of education and associated cognitive or maturation processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Reliability of a novel, semi-quantitative scale for classification of structural brain magnetic resonance imaging in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simona; Cioni, Giovanni; Klingels, Katrjin; Ortibus, Els; Van Gestel, Leen; Rose, Stephen; Boyd, Roslyn N; Feys, Hilde; Guzzetta, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    To describe the development of a novel rating scale for classification of brain structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in children with cerebral palsy (CP) and to assess its interrater and intrarater reliability. The scale consists of three sections. Section 1 contains descriptive information about the patient and MRI. Section 2 contains the graphical template of brain hemispheres onto which the lesion is transposed. Section 3 contains the scoring system for the quantitative analysis of the lesion characteristics, grouped into different global scores and subscores that assess separately side, regions, and depth. A larger interrater and intrarater reliability study was performed in 34 children with CP (22 males, 12 females; mean age at scan of 9 y 5 mo [SD 3 y 3 mo], range 4 y-16 y 11 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System level I, [n=22], II [n=10], and level III [n=2]). Very high interrater and intrarater reliability of the total score was found with indices above 0.87. Reliability coefficients of the lobar and hemispheric subscores ranged between 0.53 and 0.95. Global scores for hemispheres, basal ganglia, brain stem, and corpus callosum showed reliability coefficients above 0.65. This study presents the first visual, semi-quantitative scale for classification of brain structural MRI in children with CP. The high degree of reliability of the scale supports its potential application for investigating the relationship between brain structure and function and examining treatment response according to brain lesion severity in children with CP. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  19. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  20. Laser-induced incandescence: Towards quantitative soot volume fraction measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A P; Wienbeucker, F; Beaud, P; Frey, H -M; Gerber, T; Mischler, B; Radi, P P [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Laser-Induced Incandescence has recently emerged as a versatile tool for measuring soot volume fraction in a wide range of combustion systems. In this work we investigate the essential features of the method. LII is based on the acquisition of the incandescence of soot when heated through a high power laser pulse. Initial experiments have been performed on a model laboratory flame. The behaviour of the LII signal is studied experimentally. By applying numerical calculations we investigate the possibility to obtain two-dimensional soot volume fraction distributions. For this purpose a combination of LII with other techniques is required. This part is discussed in some extent and the future work is outlined. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.

  1. Quantitative measurement of interocular suppression in children with amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Sathyasri; Harrison, Emily R; Giaschi, Deborah E

    2012-08-01

    In this study we explored the possibility of using a dichoptic global motion technique to measure interocular suppression in children with amblyopia. We compared children (5-16 years old) with unilateral anisometropic and/or strabismic amblyopia to age-matched control children. Under dichoptic viewing conditions, contrast interference thresholds were determined with a global motion direction-discrimination task. Using virtual reality goggles, high contrast signal dots were presented to the amblyopic eye, while low contrast noise dots were presented to the non-amblyopic fellow eye. The contrast of the noise dots was increased until discrimination of the motion direction of the signal dots reached chance performance. Contrast interference thresholds were significantly lower in the strabismic group than in the anisometropic and control group. Our results suggest that interocular suppression is stronger in strabismic than in anisometropic amblyopia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phase transition traced by conductivity measurements: quantitative analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keding, Ralf; Ruessel, Christian; Tauch, Diana

    2008-01-01

    starting from the electrodes. The change in the conductivity as a function of the temperature was fitted with VFT-equation for both the melt and the crystalline phase. An extrapolation of the resistance of the melt as well as of the crystalline material allows to separate the temperature dependent changes...... of conductivity and the resistance changes caused by phase transformation. This enables to determine the crystal growth velocity in the temperature range between 750 and 860 degrees C in a single experiment.......The measurement of the crystal growth velocity is carried out by analysing the change in the resistivity of the sample. The calculation of the crystal growth velocity is developed for crystal formation in the volume, crystal growth initiated at the electrodes as well as perpendicular...

  3. OPPORTUNISTIC ASPERGILLUS PATHOGENS MEASURED IN HOME AND HOSPITAL TAP WATER BY MOLD SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opportunistic fungal pathogens are a concern because of the increasing number of immunocompromised patients. The goal of this research was to test a simple extraction method and rapid quantitative PCR (QPCR) measurement of the occurrence of potential pathogens, Aspergillus fumiga...

  4. Intra-rater reliability of hallux flexor strength measures using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, June; Treleaven, Julia; Brauer, Sandra G; O'Leary, Shaun; Clark, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a new method in combination with the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) to measure the strength of hallux flexor muscle. Thirty healthy individuals (age: 34.9 ± 12.9 years, height: 170.4 ± 10.5 cm, weight: 69.3 ± 15.3 kg, female = 15) participated. Repeated testing was completed within 7 days. Participants performed strength testing in sitting using a wooden platform in combination with the NWBB. This new method was set up to selectively recruit an intrinsic muscle of the foot, specifically the flexor hallucis brevis muscle. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class coefficients and ordinary least product analysis. To estimate measurement error, standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and percentage error were calculated. Results indicate excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.982, CI = 0.96-0.99) with an absence of systematic bias. SEM, MDC and percentage error value were 0.5, 1.4 and 12 % respectively. This study demonstrates that a new method in combination with the NWBB application is reliable to measure hallux flexor strength and has potential to be used for future research and clinical application.

  5. Reliability, precision, and gender differences in knee internal/external rotation proprioception measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    To develop and assess the reliability and precision of knee internal/external rotation (IR/ER) threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and determine if gender differences exist. Test-retest for the reliability/precision and cross-sectional for gender comparisons. University neuromuscular and human performance research laboratory. Ten subjects for the reliability and precision aim. Twenty subjects (10 males and 10 females) for gender comparisons. All TTDPM tests were performed using a multi-mode dynamometer. Subjects performed TTDPM at two knee positions (near IR or ER end-range). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (3,k)) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to evaluate the reliability and precision. Independent t-tests were used to compare genders. TTDPM toward IR and ER at two knee positions. Intrasession and intersession reliability and precision were good (ICC=0.68-0.86; SEM=0.22°-0.37°). Females had significantly diminished TTDPM toward IR at IR-test position (males: 0.77°±0.14°, females: 1.18°±0.46°, p=0.021) and TTDPM toward IR at the ER-test position (males: 0.87°±0.13°, females: 1.36°±0.58°, p=0.026). No other significant gender differences were found (p>0.05). The current IR/ER TTDPM methods are reliable and accurate for the test-retest or cross-section research design. Gender differences were found toward IR where the ACL acts as the secondary restraint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Quantitative CT measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness are related to D(L)CO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grydeland, Thomas B; Thorsen, Einar; Dirksen, Asger

    2011-01-01

    There is limited knowledge on the relationship between diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(L)CO) and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness.......There is limited knowledge on the relationship between diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (D(L)CO) and quantitative computed tomography (CT) measures of emphysema and airway wall thickness....

  7. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: Multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Y.; Melnikov, A.; Mandelis, A.; Halliop, B.; Kherani, N. P.; Zhu, R.

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters

  8. Optoelectronic transport properties in amorphous/crystalline silicon solar cell heterojunctions measured by frequency-domain photocarrier radiometry: multi-parameter measurement reliability and precision studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Melnikov, A; Mandelis, A; Halliop, B; Kherani, N P; Zhu, R

    2015-03-01

    A theoretical one-dimensional two-layer linear photocarrier radiometry (PCR) model including the presence of effective interface carrier traps was used to evaluate the transport parameters of p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and n-type crystalline silicon (c-Si) passivated by an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (i-layer) nanolayer. Several crystalline Si heterojunction structures were examined to investigate the influence of the i-layer thickness and the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer. The experimental data of a series of heterojunction structures with intrinsic thin layers were fitted to PCR theory to gain insight into the transport properties of these devices. The quantitative multi-parameter results were studied with regard to measurement reliability (uniqueness) and precision using two independent computational best-fit programs. The considerable influence on the transport properties of the entire structure of two key parameters that can limit the performance of amorphous thin film solar cells, namely, the doping concentration of the a-Si:H layer and the i-layer thickness was demonstrated. It was shown that PCR can be applied to the non-destructive characterization of a-Si:H/c-Si heterojunction solar cells yielding reliable measurements of the key parameters.

  9. Quantitative fundus autofluorescence in mice: correlation with HPLC quantitation of RPE lipofuscin and measurement of retina outer nuclear layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Janet R; Blonska, Anna; Flynn, Erin; Duncker, Tobias; Greenberg, Jonathan P; Secondi, Roberta; Ueda, Keiko; Delori, François C

    2013-04-17

    Our study was conducted to establish procedures and protocols for quantitative autofluorescence (qAF) measurements in mice, and to report changes in qAF, A2E bisretinoid concentration, and outer nuclear layer (ONL) thickness in mice of different genotypes and age. Fundus autofluorescence (AF) images (55° lens, 488 nm excitation) were acquired in albino Abca4(-/-), Abca4(+/-), and Abca4(+/+) mice (ages 2-12 months) with a confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO). Gray levels (GLs) in each image were calibrated to an internal fluorescence reference. The bisretinoid A2E was measured by quantitative high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Histometric analysis of ONL thicknesses was performed. The Bland-Altman coefficient of repeatability (95% confidence interval) was ±18% for between-session qAF measurements. Mean qAF values increased with age (2-12 months) in all groups of mice. qAF was approximately 2-fold higher in Abca4(-/-) mice than in Abca4(+/+) mice and approximately 20% higher in heterozygous mice. HPLC measurements of the lipofuscin fluorophore A2E also revealed age-associated increases, and the fold difference between Abca4(-/-) and wild-type mice was more pronounced (approximately 3-4-fold) than measurable by qAF. Moreover, A2E levels declined after 8 months of age, a change not observed with qAF. The decline in A2E levels in the Abca4(-/-) mice corresponded to reduced photoreceptor cell viability as reflected in ONL thinning beginning at 8 months of age. The qAF method enables measurement of in vivo lipofuscin and the detection of genotype and age-associated differences. The use of this approach has the potential to aid in understanding retinal disease processes and will facilitate preclinical studies.

  10. Quantitative and qualitative measures of decomposition: Is there a link?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Robert, J.; Sanchez, Felipe, G.

    2009-03-01

    Decomposition rates of loblolly pine coarse woody debris (CWD) were determined by mass loss and wood density changes for trees that differed in source of mortality (natural, girdle-poison, and felling). Specifically, three treatments were examined: (1) control (CON): natural mortality; (2) CD: 5-fold increase in CWD compared with the CON; and (3) CS: 12-fold increase in snags compared with the CON. The additional CWD in the CD treatment plots and the additional snags in the CS plots were achieved by felling (for the CD plots) or girdling followed by herbicide injection (for the CS plots) select trees in these plots. Consequently,mortality on the CD plots is due to natural causes and felling. Likewise, mortality on the CS plots is due to natural causes and girdle-poison. In each treatment plot, mortality due to natural causes was inventoried since 1997, whereas mortality due to girdle-poison and felling were inventoried since 2001. No significant difference was detected between the rates of decomposition for the CWD on these treatment plots, indicating that source of the tree mortality did not influence rates of decomposition once the tree fell. These experimental measures of decomposition were compared with two decay classification systems (three- and five-unit classifications) to determine linkages. Changes in wood density did not correlate to any decay classification, whereas mass loss had a weak correlation with decay class. However, the large degree of variation limits the utility of decay classification systems in estimating mass loss.

  11. Cyber Physical Systems for User Reliability Measurements in a Sharing Economy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Aria; Jeong, Junho; Kim, Yeichang

    2017-08-13

    As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS). In addition, a user measurement system based on a CPS structure in a sharing economic environment is implemented through analysis of the factors to consider when constructing a CPS.

  12. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in many engineering problems as well as in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbines by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 min. - Highlights: • Semi-Markov models. • Time series generation of wind speed. • Computation of availability, reliability and maintainability.

  13. The validity and reliability of the Functional Strength Measurement (FSM) in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, W F M; Steenbergen, B; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2018-06-07

    There is lack of valid and reliable field-based tests for assessing functional strength in young children with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Functional Strength Measurement in children with ID (FSM-ID). Fifty-two children with mild ID (40 boys and 12 girls, mean age 8.48 years, SD = 1.48) were tested with the FSM. Test-retest reliability (n = 32) was examined by a two-way interclass correlation coefficient for agreement (ICC 2.1A). Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable change were calculated. Construct validity was determined by calculating correlations between the FSM-ID and handheld dynamometry (HHD) (convergent validity), FSM-ID, FSM-ID and subtest strength of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - second edition (BOT-2) (convergent validity) and the FSM-ID and balance subtest of the BOT-2 (discriminant validity). Test-retest reliability ICC ranged 0.89-0.98. Correlation between the items of the FSM-ID and HHD ranged 0.39-0.79 and between FSM-ID and BOT-2 (strength items) 0.41-0.80. Correlation between items of the FSM-ID and BOT-2 (balance items) ranged 0.41-0.70. The FSM-ID showed good test-retest reliability and good convergent validity with the HHD and BOT-2 subtest strength. The correlations assessing discriminant validity were higher than expected. Poor levels of postural control and core stability in children with mild IDs may be the underlying factor of those higher correlations. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Inter-rater reliability of kinesthetic measurements with the KINARM robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-05-22

    Kinesthesia (sense of limb movement) has been extremely difficult to measure objectively, especially in individuals who have survived a stroke. The development of valid and reliable measurements for proprioception is important to developing a better understanding of proprioceptive impairments after stroke and their impact on the ability to perform daily activities. We recently developed a robotic task to evaluate kinesthetic deficits after stroke and found that the majority (~60%) of stroke survivors exhibit significant deficits in kinesthesia within the first 10 days post-stroke. Here we aim to determine the inter-rater reliability of this robotic kinesthetic matching task. Twenty-five neurologically intact control subjects and 15 individuals with first-time stroke were evaluated on a robotic kinesthetic matching task (KIN). Subjects sat in a robotic exoskeleton with their arms supported against gravity. In the KIN task, the robot moved the subjects' stroke-affected arm at a preset speed, direction and distance. As soon as subjects felt the robot begin to move their affected arm, they matched the robot movement with the unaffected arm. Subjects were tested in two sessions on the KIN task: initial session and then a second session (within an average of 18.2 ± 13.8 h of the initial session for stroke subjects), which were supervised by different technicians. The task was performed both with and without the use of vision in both sessions. We evaluated intra-class correlations of spatial and temporal parameters derived from the KIN task to determine the reliability of the robotic task. We evaluated 8 spatial and temporal parameters that quantify kinesthetic behavior. We found that the parameters exhibited moderate to high intra-class correlations between the initial and retest conditions (Range, r-value = [0.53-0.97]). The robotic KIN task exhibited good inter-rater reliability. This validates the KIN task as a reliable, objective method for quantifying

  15. Quantitative metacarpal bone measurements before and after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, J.; Nielsen, H.E.; Kommunehospitalet, Aarhus

    1986-01-01

    The outer (D) and inner diameter (d) of the second metacarpal bone, the combined cortical thickness (D-d), cortical area (D 2 -d 2 ) and bone mass ((D 2 d 2 /D 2 ) were measured in 74 renal transplant (RT) recipients at the time of renal transplantation and in a prospective analysis of 60 recipients after transplantation. The RT patient group was made up of recipients who after renal transplanation developed osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures (RT-ON/SF) and an age- and sex-matched renal control group of subjects who did not develop these complications (RT-C). At the time of renal transplantation, in renal transplant recipient men and women, significantly reduced values in D, D-d and D 2 -d 2 was noticed. These findings could be explained by a higher ratio of bone resoprtion than formation at the periosteal surface. Following renal transplantation, significant increases in d were seen with significant decreases in D-d, D 2 -d 2 and (D 2 -d 2 )/D 2 , probably due to endosteal bone resorption, whereas D was unchanged compared with normal control persons. In the total group and in RT-ON/SF women, D decreased significantly and in ON/SF, increased significantly with significant decrease in bone mass compared with normal women whereas no significant changes in the parameters were seen in RT-C women. These findings indicate that bone loss after transplantation continues at the periosteal surface in women. The bone loss was most markedly demonstrated in women, who subsequently develop osteonecrosis or spontaneous fractures, probably due to combined periosteal and endosteal resorption of calcified bony tissue. (orig.)

  16. The effect of the spatial positioning of items on the reliability of questionnaires measuring affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Leo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation, and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation. It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence. Research purpose: The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect. Motivation for the study: The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire. Research approach, design and method: In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825. Major findings: In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect. Practical implications: These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design. Contribution/value-add: Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and

  17. Reliability and reproducibility of disc-foveal angle measurements by non-mydriatic fundus photography

    OpenAIRE

    Le Jeune, Caroline; Chebli, Fayçal; Leon, Lorette; Anthoine, Emmanuelle; Weber, Michel; Péchereau, Alain; Lebranchu, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Abnormal torsion could be associated with cyclovertical strabismus, but torsion measurements are not reliable in children. To assess an objective fundus torsion evaluation in a paediatric population, we used Non-Mydriatic Fundus photography (NMFP) in healthy and cyclovertical strabismus patients to evaluate the disc-foveal angle over time and observers. Methods We used a retrospective set of NMFP including 24 A or V-pattern strabismus and 27 age-matched normal children (mean age 6.4 a...

  18. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  19. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    in measuring bone density (BMD) in complex anatomic structures which might be overcome using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT).PurposeTo test inter- and intra-observer agreement and reliability of in-house segmentation software measuring BMD adjacent to acetabular cup and to compare measurements performed...... with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...

  20. Reliability of Ultrasonographic Measurement of Cervical Multifidus Muscle Dimensions during Isometric Contraction of Neck Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Amiri Arimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical multifidus is considered as one of the most important neck stabilizers. Weakness and muscular atrophy of this muscle were seen in patients with chronic neck pain. Ultrasonographic imaging is a non-invasive and feasible technique that commonly used to record such changes and measure muscle dimensions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions during isometric contraction of neck muscles. Materials and Method: Ten subjects (5 patients with chronic neck pain and 5 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions were measured at the level of forth cervical vertebrae. Ultrasonographic measurement of cervical multifidus muscle at rest, 50% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC were performed by one examiner within 1 week interval. The dimensions of cervical multifidus muscle including cross-sectional area (CSA, anterior posterior dimension (APD, and lateral dimension (LD were measured. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC were computed for data analysis.Results: The between days reliability of maximum strength of neck muscles and multifidus muscle dimensions at rest, 50% and 100% of MVC of neck muscles were good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.99.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ultrasonographic measuring of cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions during isometric contraction of neck muscles at the level of C4 in females with chronic neck pain and healthy subjects is a reliable and repeatable method.

  1. Reliability of Eustachian tube function measurements in a hypobaric and hyperbaric pressure chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M F; Jansen, S; Mordkovich, O; Hüttenbrink, K-B; Beutner, D

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of the Eustachian tube (ET) function is a challenge. The demand for a precise and meaningful diagnostic tool increases-especially because more and more operative therapies are being offered without objective evidence. The measurement of the ET function by continuous impedance recording in a pressure chamber is an established method, although the reliability of the measurements is still unclear. Twenty-five participants (50 ears) were exposed to phases of compression and decompression in a hypo- and hyperbaric pressure chamber. The ET function reflecting parameters-ET opening pressure (ETOP), ET opening duration (ETOD) and ET opening frequency (ETOF)-were determined under exactly the same preconditions three times in a row. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman plot were used to assess test-retest reliability. ICCs revealed a high correlation for ETOP and ETOF in phases of decompression (passive equalisation) as well as ETOD and ETOP in phases of compression (active induced equalisation). Very high correlation could be shown for ETOD in decompression and ETOF in compression phases. The Bland and Altman graphs could show that measurements provide results within a 95 % confidence interval in compression and decompression phases. We conclude that measurements in a pressure chamber are a very valuable tool in terms of estimating the ET opening and closing function. Measurements show some variance comparing participants, but provide reliable results within a 95 % confidence interval in retest. This study is the basis for enabling efficacy measurements of ET treatment modalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Quantifying frontal plane knee motion during single limb squats: reliability and validity of 2-dimensional measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Craig R; Curran, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    Clinical assessment of lower limb kinematics during dynamic tasks may identify individuals who demonstrate abnormal movement patterns that may lead to etiology of exacerbation of knee conditions such as patellofemoral joint (PFJt) pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability, validity and associated measurement error of a clinically appropriate two-dimensional (2-D) procedure of quantifying frontal plane knee alignment during single limb squats. Nine female and nine male recreationally active subjects with no history of PFJt pain had frontal plane limb alignment assessed using three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis and digital video cameras (2-D analysis) while performing single limb squats. The association between 2-D and 3-D measures was quantified using Pearson's product correlation coefficients. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined for within- and between-session reliability of 2-D data and standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to establish measurement error. Frontal plane limb alignment assessed with 2-D analysis demonstrated good correlation compared with 3-D methods (r = 0.64 to 0.78, p < 0.001). Within-session (0.86) and between-session ICCs (0.74) demonstrated good reliability for 2-D measures and SEM scores ranged from 2° to 4°. 2-D measures have good consistency and may provide a valid measure of lower limb alignment when compared to existing 3-D methods. Assessment of lower limb kinematics using 2-D methods may be an accurate and clinically useful alternative to 3-D motion analysis when identifying individuals who demonstrate abnormal movement patterns associated with PFJt pain. 2b.

  3. Reliability of corneal dynamic scheimpflug analyser measurements in virgin and post-PRK eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK eyes and compare the results between these two groups. METHODS: Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. RESULTS: The intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC ≧ 0.90 in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC ≧ 0.88. The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r = 0.437 and 0.483, respectively, p<0.05 and negatively with deformation amplitude (r = -0.384 and -0.375, respectively, p<0.05 in both groups. Compared to post-PRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29 ± 0.21 vs. 6.96 ± 0.17 ms, p<0.05 and lower deformation amplitude (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.17 ± 0.08 mm, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: CorVis ST demonstrated reliable measurements for CCT, IOP, and 1st applanation time, as well as relatively reliable measurement for deformation amplitude in both virgin and post-PRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter.

  4. The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during short-duration maximal-intensity intermittent cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael; Moir, Gavin L

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of fatigue measures, as derived from 4 separate formulae, during tests of repeat sprint ability. On separate days over a 3-week period, 2 groups of 7 recreationally active men completed 6 trials of 1 of 2 maximal (20 x 5 seconds) intermittent cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 or 30 seconds). All trials were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer, and fatigue scores were derived from measures of mean power output for each sprint. Apart from formula 1, which calculated fatigue from the percentage difference in mean power output between the first and last sprint, all remaining formulae produced fatigue scores that showed a reasonably good level of test-retest reliability in both intermittent test protocols (intraclass correlation range: 0.78-0.86; 95% likely range of true values: 0.54-0.97). Although between-protocol differences in the magnitude of the fatigue scores suggested good construct validity, within-protocol differences highlighted limitations with each formula. Overall, the results support the use of the percentage decrement score as the most valid and reliable measure of fatigue during brief maximal intermittent work.

  5. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Lagerberg, A H; Veeger, H E J

    2015-09-18

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based on a three inertial measurement unit (IMU) configuration was assessed in wheelchair basketball match-like conditions. Twenty participants performed a series of tests reflecting different motion aspects of wheelchair basketball. During the tests wheelchair kinematics were simultaneously measured using IMUs on wheels and frame, and a 24-camera optical motion analysis system serving as gold standard. Results showed only small deviations of the IMU method compared to the gold standard, once a newly developed skid correction algorithm was applied. Calculated Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) showed good estimates for frame displacement (RMSE≤0.05 m) and speed (RMSE≤0.1m/s), except for three truly vigorous tests. Estimates of frame rotation in the horizontal plane (RMSE0.90), rotational speed (ICC>0.99) and IRC (ICC> 0.90) showed high correlations between IMU data and gold standard. IMU based estimation of wheelchair kinematics provided reliable results, except for brief moments of wheel skidding in truly vigorous tests. The IMU method is believed to enable prospective research in wheelchair basketball match conditions and contribute to individual support of athletes in everyday sports practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and Correlation of Static and Dynamic Foot Arch Measurement in a Healthy Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Timo; Zech, Astrid; Wegscheider, Karl; Lezius, Susanne; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Sehner, Susanne; Hollander, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of the medial longitudinal foot arch in children is a controversial topic, as there are many different methods without a definite standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate intraday and interrater reliability regarding dynamic arch index and static arch height, 2) explore the correlation between both arch indices, and 3) examine the variation of the medial longitudinal arch at two different times of the day. Eighty-six children (mean ± SD age, 8.9 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study. Dynamic footprint data were captured with a pedobarographic platform. For static arch measurements, a specially constructed caliper was used to assess heel-to-toe length and dorsum height. A mixed model was established to determine reliability and variation. Reliability was found to be excellent for the static arch height index in sitting (intraday, 0.90; interrater, 0.80) and standing positions (0.88 and 0.85) and for the dynamic arch index (both 1.00). There was poor correlation between static and dynamic assessment of the medial longitudinal arch (standing dynamic arch index, r = -0.138; sitting dynamic arch index, r = -0.070). Static measurements were found to be significantly influenced by the time of day (P body mass index (P mind. For clinical purposes, static and dynamic arch data should be interpreted separately.

  7. Reliability of cervical lordosis and global sagittal spinal balance measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christophe; Ilharreborde, Brice; Azoulay, Robin; Sebag, Guy; Mazda, Keyvan

    2013-06-01

    Radiological reproducibility study. To assess intra and interobserver reliability of radiographic measurements for global sagittal balance parameters and sagittal spine curves, including cervical spine. Sagittal spine balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a main issue and many studies have been reported, showing that coronal and sagittal deformities often involve sagittal cervical unbalance. Global sagittal balance aims to obtain a horizontal gaze and gravity line at top of hips when subject is in a static position, involving adjustment of each spine curvature in the sagittal plane. To our knowledge, no study did use a methodologically validated imaging analysis tool able to appreciate sagittal spine contours and distances in AIS and especially in the cervical region. Lateral full-spine low-dose EOS radiographs were performed in 75 patients divided in three groups (control subjects, AIS, operated AIS). Three observers digitally analyzed twice each radiograph and 11 sagittal measures were collected for each image. Reliability was assessed calculating intraobserver Pearson's r correlation coefficient, interobserver intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) completed with a two-by-two Bland-Altman plot analysis. This measurement method has shown excellent intra and interobserver reliability in all parameters, sagittal curvatures, pelvic parameters and global sagittal balance. This study validated a simple and efficient tool in AIS sagittal contour analysis. It defined new relevant landmarks allowing to characterize cervical segmental curvatures and cervical involvement in global balance.

  8. Inertial Measurement Units for Clinical Movement Analysis: Reliability and Concurrent Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Amri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of a commercially available Xsens MVN BIOMECH inertial-sensor-based motion capture system during clinically relevant functional activities. A clinician with no prior experience of motion capture technologies and an experienced clinical movement scientist each assessed 26 healthy participants within each of two sessions using a camera-based motion capture system and the MVN BIOMECH system. Participants performed overground walking, squatting, and jumping. Sessions were separated by 4 ± 3 days. Reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, and validity was evaluated using the coefficient of multiple correlation and the linear fit method. Day-to-day reliability was generally fair-to-excellent in all three planes for hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in all three tasks. Within-day (between-rater reliability was fair-to-excellent in all three planes during walking and squatting, and poor-to-high during jumping. Validity was excellent in the sagittal plane for hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in all three tasks and acceptable in frontal and transverse planes in squat and jump activity across joints. Our results suggest that the MVN BIOMECH system can be used by a clinician to quantify lower-limb joint angles in clinically relevant movements.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Pragmatics Observational Measure (POM): a new observational measure of pragmatic language for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Speyer, Renée; Pearce, Wendy M

    2014-07-01

    There is a need for a reliable and valid assessment of childhood pragmatic language skills during peer-peer interactions. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed pragmatic assessment, the Pragmatic Observational Measure (POM). The psychometric properties of the POM were investigated from observational data of two studies - study 1 involved 342 children aged 5-11 years (108 children with ADHD; 108 typically developing playmates; 126 children in the control group), and study 2 involved 9 children with ADHD who attended a 7-week play-based intervention. The psychometric properties of the POM were determined based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) taxonomy of psychometric properties and definitions for health-related outcomes; the Pragmatic Protocol was used as the reference tool against which the POM was evaluated. The POM demonstrated sound psychometric properties in all the reliability, validity and interpretability criteria against which it was assessed. The findings showed that the POM is a reliable and valid measure of pragmatic language skills of children with ADHD between the age of 5 and 11 years and has clinical utility in identifying children with pragmatic language difficulty. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Quantitative developments in the cognitive reliability and error analysis method (CREAM) for the assessment of human performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marseguerra, Marzio; Zio, Enrico; Librizzi, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    The current 'second generation' approaches in human reliability analysis focus their attention on the contextual conditions under which a given action is performed rather than on the notion of inherent human error probabilities, as was done in the earlier 'first generation' techniques. Among the 'second generation' methods, this paper considers the Cognitive Reliability and Error Analysis Method (CREAM) and proposes some developments with respect to a systematic procedure for computing probabilities of action failure. The starting point for the quantification is a previously introduced fuzzy version of the CREAM paradigm which is here further extended to include uncertainty on the qualification of the conditions under which the action is performed and to account for the fact that the effects of the common performance conditions (CPCs) on performance reliability may not all be equal. By the proposed approach, the probability of action failure is estimated by rating the performance conditions in terms of their effect on the action

  11. Test-retest reliability of a handheld dynamometer for measurement of isometric cervical muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannebo, Katrine Tranaas; Iversen, Vegard Moe; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2018-03-02

    There is a lack of test-retest reliability studies of measurements of cervical muscle strength, taking into account gender and possible learning effects. To investigate test-retest reliability of measurement of maximal isometric cervical muscle strength by handheld dynamometry. Thirty women (age 20-58 years) and 28 men (age 20-60 years) participated in the study. Maximal isometric strength (neck flexion, neck extension, and right/left lateral flexion) was measured on three separate days at least five days apart by one evaluator. Intra-rater consistency tended to improve from day 1-2 measurements to day 2-3 measurements in both women and men. In women, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for day 2 to day 3 measurements were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.95) for neck flexion, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.94) for neck extension, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92) for right lateral flexion, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-0.95) for left lateral flexion. The corresponding ICCs among men were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for neck flexion, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97) for neck extension, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91) for right lateral flexion and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.50-0.87) for left lateral flexion. This study describes a reliable and easy-to-administer test for assessing maximal isometric cervical muscle strength.

  12. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Bartlett

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Consecutive patients (N = 177 in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs and a short form (SF assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA.Participants were mostly female (82% and white (83% with mean (SD age of 56 (13 years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho's ≥ 0.68 with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725-.883, and Cronbach's alpha from .906-.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger.These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes.

  13. Reliability of widefield capillary microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Masetto, A; Steele, R; Arthurs, E; Baron, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine intra- and inter-observer reliability of widefield microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five SSc patients were examined with a STEMV-8 Zeiss biomicroscope with 50x magnification. The nailfold of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers of both hands of each patient were photographed twice by each of two observers, once in the morning and again in the afternoon (total of 32 pictures). Two raters reviewed the photographs to produce capillary density readings. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the readings were computed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Additional analyses were undertaken to determine the impact of other sources of variability in the data, namely patient, finger, technician and time. Intra-and inter-rater reliability were substantial (ICC 0.72-0.84) when raters were reading the same photographs or photographs taken at the same time of day. Agreement was only fair between morning and afternoon density readings (ICC 0.30-0.37). Patients, individual fingers and technician accounted for a large part of the variability in the data (combined variance component of 7.69 out of the total 12.23). The coefficient of variation of widefield microscopy was 24%. Although intra- and inter-rater reliability of nailfold capillary density measurements using widefield microscopy are good, proper standardisation of the conditions under which capillaroscopy is done and better imaging of nailfold capillary abnormalities should be considered if nailfold capillary density is to be used as an outcome measure in multi-centre clinical trials in SSc.

  14. Reliable cost effective technique for in situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available on these requirements, an in situ stress measurement technique which will be practically applicable in the deep gold mines, has been developed conceptually. Referring to the figure on the following page, this method involves: • a borehole-based system, using... level mines have not been developed. 2 This is some of the background to the present SIMRAC research project, the title ofwhich is “Reliable cost effective technique for in-situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines”. A copy of the research...

  15. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  16. The consultation and relational empathy (CARE) measure: development and preliminary validation and reliability of an empathy-based consultation process measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Stewart W; Maxwell, Margaret; Heaney, David; Watt, Graham Cm

    2004-12-01

    Empathy is a key aspect of the clinical encounter but there is a lack of patient-assessed measures suitable for general clinical settings. Our aim was to develop a consultation process measure based on a broad definition of empathy, which is meaningful to patients irrespective of their socio-economic background. Qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to develop and validate the new measure, which we have called the consultation and relational empathy (CARE) measure. Concurrent validity was assessed by correlational analysis against other validated measures in a series of three pilot studies in general practice (in areas of high or low socio-economic deprivation). Face and content validity was investigated by 43 interviews with patients from both types of areas, and by feedback from GPs and expert researchers in the field. The initial version of the new measure (pilot 1; high deprivation practice) correlated strongly (r = 0.85) with the Reynolds empathy measure (RES) and the Barrett-Lennard empathy subscale (BLESS) (r = 0.63), but had a highly skewed distribution (skew -1.879, kurtosis 3.563). Statistical analysis, and feedback from the 20 patients interviewed, the GPs and the expert researchers, led to a number of modifications. The revised, second version of the CARE measure, tested in an area of low deprivation (pilot 2) also correlated strongly with the established empathy measures (r = 0.84 versus RES and r = 0.77 versus BLESS) but had a less skewed distribution (skew -0.634, kurtosis -0.067). Internal reliability of the revised version was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.92). Patient feedback at interview (n = 13) led to only minor modification. The final version of the CARE measure, tested in pilot 3 (high deprivation practice) confirmed the validation with the other empathy measures (r = 0.85 versus RES and r = 0.84 versus BLESS) and the face validity (feedback from 10 patients). These preliminary results support the validity and reliability of the CARE

  17. Conceptual design of high resolution and reliable density measurement system on helical reactor FFHR-d1 and demonstration on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, T.; Yasuhara, R.; Isobe, M.; Sakamoto, R.; Goto, T.; Kawahata, K.; Sagara, A.; Nakayama, K.; Okajima, S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes a conceptual design of the density measurement system on the helical reactor FFHR-d1 based on its quantitative operation scenario. The density measurement is required to meet the reactor design, and to have a high density resolution of the order of 10 17 m -3 with a time resolution of 10 ms and high reliability (no fringe jump). “A dispersion interferometer” is designed and a prototype is tested and installed on LHD, which can realize a demo relevant density plasma. The prototype demonstrates the feasibility on a demo reactor. (author)

  18. Quantitative echocardiographic measures in the assessment of single ventricle function post-Fontan: Incorporation into routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Rodrigo; Ginde, Salil; Saudek, David; Loomba, Rohit S; Stelter, Jessica; Frommelt, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative echocardiographic measurements of single ventricular (SV) function have not been incorporated into routine clinical practice. A clinical protocol, which included quantitative measurements of SV deformation (global circumferential and longitudinal strain and strain rate), standard deviation of time to peak systolic strain, myocardial performance index (MPI), dP/dT from an atrioventricular valve regurgitant jet, and superior mesenteric artery resistance index, was instituted for all patients with a history of Fontan procedure undergoing echocardiography. All measures were performed real time during clinically indicated studies and were included in clinical reports. A total of 100 consecutive patients (mean age = 11.95±6.8 years, range 17 months-31.3 years) completed the protocol between September 1, 2014 to April 29, 2015. Deformation measures were completed in 100% of the studies, MPI in 93%, dP/dT in 55%, and superior mesenteric artery Doppler in 82%. The studies were reviewed to assess for efficiency in completing the protocol. The average time for image acquisition was 27.4±8.8 (range 10-62 minutes). The average time to perform deformation measures was 10.8±5.5 minutes (range 5-35 minutes) and time from beginning of imaging to report completion was 53.4±13.7 minutes (range 27-107 minutes). There was excellent inter-observer reliability when deformation indices were blindly repeated. Patients with a single left ventricle had significantly higher circumferential strain and strain rate, longitudinal strain and strain rate, and dP/dT compared to a single right ventricle. There were no differences in quantitative indices of ventricular function between patients 10 years post-Fontan. Advanced quantitative assessment of SV function post-Fontan can be consistently and efficiently performed real time during clinically indicated echocardiograms with excellent reliability. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Test-Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clare E; Langbehn, Douglas; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Papoutsi, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test-retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test-retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test-retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test-retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test-retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  20. Test–Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E. Palmer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington’s disease (HD and Parkinson’s disease (PD across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test–retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test–retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test–retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test–retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test–retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  1. Quantitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  2. Validity and Reliability of Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) Measurement During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    DVA is primarily subserved by the vestibulo-ocular reflex mechanism. Individuals with vestibular hypofunction commonly experience highly debilitating illusory movement or blurring of visual images during daily activities possibly, due to impaired DVA. Even without pathologies, gradual age-related morphological deterioration is evident in all components of the vestibular system. We examined the construct validity to detect age-related differences and test-retest reliability of DVA measurements performed during walking. METHODS: Healthy adults were recruited into 3 groups: 1. young (20-39years, n=18), 2. middle-aged (40-59years, n=14), and 3. older adults (60-80years, n=15). Randomly selected seven participants from each group (n=21) participated in retesting. Participants were excluded if they had a history of vestibular or neuromuscular pathologies, dizziness/vertigo or >1 falls in the past year. Older persons with MMSE scores reliability. RESULTS: The three age groups were not different in their height, weight and normal walking speed (p>0.05). The post hoc analyses for DVA measurements demonstrated that each group was significantly different from the other two groups for Near as well as FarDVA (preliability. FarDVA at 0.8 m/s and 1.0 m/s demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.71 and 0.77, respectively).

  3. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  4. Validity and Reliability of a New Device (WIMU®) for Measuring Hamstring Muscle Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate the validity of the WIMU ® system for measuring hamstring muscle extensibility in the passive straight leg raise (PSLR) test using an inclinometer for the criterion and 2) to determine the test-retest reliability of the WIMU ® system to measure hamstring muscle extensibility during the PSLR test. 55 subjects were evaluated on 2 separate occasions. Data from a Unilever inclinometer and WIMU ® system were collected simultaneously. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the validity were very high (0.983-1); a very low systematic bias (-0.21°--0.42°), random error (0.05°-0.04°) and standard error of the estimate (0.43°-0.34°) were observed (left-right leg, respectively) between the 2 devices (inclinometer and the WIMU ® system). The R 2 between the devices was 0.999 (p<0.001) in both the left and right legs. The test-retest reliability of the WIMU ® system was excellent, with ICCs ranging from 0.972-0.995, low coefficients of variation (0.01%), and a low standard error of the estimate (0.19-0.31°). The WIMU ® system showed strong concurrent validity and excellent test-retest reliability for the evaluation of hamstring muscle extensibility in the PSLR test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Measuring Prosocial Tendencies in Germany: Sources of Validity and Reliablity of the Revised Prosocial Tendency Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Ulrich, Natalie; Mussel, Patrick; Carlo, Gustavo; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The prosocial tendencies measure (PTM; Carlo and Randall, 2002) is a widely used measurement for prosocial tendencies in English speaking participants. This instrument distinguishes between six different types of prosocial tendencies that partly share some common basis, but also can be opposed to each other. To examine these constructs in Germany, a study with 1067 participants was conducted. The study investigated the structure of this German version of the PTM-R via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations with similar constructs in subsamples as well as via measurement invariance test concerning the original English version. The German translation showed a similar factor structure to the English version in exploratory factor analysis and in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was found between the English and German language versions of the PTM and support for the proposed six-factor structure (altruistic, anonymous, compliant, dire, emotional and public prosocial behavior) was also found in confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, the expected interrelations of these factors of prosocial behavior tendencies were obtained. Finally, correlations of the prosocial behavior tendencies with validating constructs and behaviors were found. Thus, the findings stress the importance of seeing prosocial behavior not as a single dimension construct, but as a factored construct which now can also be assessed in German speaking participants. PMID:29270144

  6. Reliability of the Danish version of the McGill ingestive skills assessment for observation-based measures during meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Lambert, Heather C; Faber, Jens

    2012-01-01

    To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists.......To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists....

  7. Measuring the airway in 3 dimensions: a reliability and accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Hakan; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the reliability and accuracy of 3 commercially available digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) viewers for measuring upper airway volumes. Thirty cone-beam computed tomography scans were randomly selected, and the upper airway volumes were calculated for both oropharynx and nasal passage. Dolphin3D (version 11, Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif), InVivoDental (version 4.0.70, Anatomage, San Jose, Calif), and OnDemand3D (version 1.0.1.8407, CyberMed, Seoul, Korea) were compared with a previously tested manual segmentation program called OrthoSegment (OS) (developed at the Department of Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio). The measurements were repeated after 2 weeks, and the ICC was used for the reliability tests. All commercially available programs were compared with the OS program by using regression analysis. The Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between the OS and the automatic segmentation programs. The reliability was high for all programs. The highest correlation found was between the OS and Dolphin3D for the oropharynx, and between the OS and InVivoDental for nasal passage volume. A high correlation was found for all programs, but the results also showed statistically significant differences compared with the OS program. The programs also had inconsistencies among themselves. The 3 commercially available DICOM viewers are highly reliable in their airway volume calculations and showed high correlation of results but poor accuracy, suggesting systematic errors. Copyright 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New possibilities for quantitative measurements of regional cerebral blood flow with gold-195m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1985-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurement for nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied to patients after stroke and to volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. The energy spectrum of gold-195m shows two strong photon peaks, one at an energy level of 68 keV and a second at an energy-level of 262 keV. The low energy peak is suitable for perfusion studies in lateral views of the hemispheres; no look-through effect is seen. The high energy level is good for studies in posterior-anterior positions. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated. The area of occluded vessels in the case of stroke can be detected. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. The results prove that, not only with freely diffusible indicators like xenon but also with nondiffusible indicators, it is possible to measure quantitatively cerebral blood flow patterns

  9. Assessment of a portable device for the quantitative measurement of ankle joint stiffness in spastic individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jakob; Grey, Michael J; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2012-01-01

    was measured with the portable device and a stationary torque motor. Inter- and intra-rater reliability was assessed with the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). RESULTS: Stiffness measures with the portable and stationary devices were significantly correlated for controls and MS participants (p...

  10. Quantitative comparison of in situ soil CO2 flux measurement methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennifer D. Knoepp; James M. Vose

    2002-01-01

    Development of reliable regional or global carbon budgets requires accurate measurement of soil CO2 flux. We conducted laboratory and field studies to determine the accuracy and comparability of methods commonly used to measure in situ soil CO2 fluxes. Methods compared included CO2...

  11. Reliability of Pressure Ulcer Rates: How Precisely Can We Differentiate Among Hospital Units, and Does the Standard Signal‐Noise Reliability Measure Reflect This Precision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hospital performance reports often include rankings of unit pressure ulcer rates. Differentiating among units on the basis of quality requires reliable measurement. Our objectives were to describe and apply methods for assessing reliability of hospital‐acquired pressure ulcer rates and evaluate a standard signal‐noise reliability measure as an indicator of precision of differentiation among units. Quarterly pressure ulcer data from 8,199 critical care, step‐down, medical, surgical, and medical‐surgical nursing units from 1,299 US hospitals were analyzed. Using beta‐binomial models, we estimated between‐unit variability (signal) and within‐unit variability (noise) in annual unit pressure ulcer rates. Signal‐noise reliability was computed as the ratio of between‐unit variability to the total of between‐ and within‐unit variability. To assess precision of differentiation among units based on ranked pressure ulcer rates, we simulated data to estimate the probabilities of a unit's observed pressure ulcer rate rank in a given sample falling within five and ten percentiles of its true rank, and the probabilities of units with ulcer rates in the highest quartile and highest decile being identified as such. We assessed the signal‐noise measure as an indicator of differentiation precision by computing its correlations with these probabilities. Pressure ulcer rates based on a single year of quarterly or weekly prevalence surveys were too susceptible to noise to allow for precise differentiation among units, and signal‐noise reliability was a poor indicator of precision of differentiation. To ensure precise differentiation on the basis of true differences, alternative methods of assessing reliability should be applied to measures purported to differentiate among providers or units based on quality. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223598

  12. Reliability of the input admittance of bowed-string instruments measured by the hammer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Woodhouse, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The input admittance at the bridge, measured by hammer testing, is often regarded as the most useful and convenient measurement of the vibrational behavior of a bowed string instrument. However, this method has been questioned, due especially to differences between human bowing and hammer impact. The goal of the research presented here is to investigate the reliability and accuracy of this classic hammer method. Experimental studies were carried out on cellos, with three different driving conditions and three different boundary conditions. Results suggest that there is nothing fundamentally different about the hammer method, compared to other kinds of excitation. The third series of experiments offers an opportunity to explore the difference between the input admittance measuring from one bridge corner to another and that of single strings. The classic measurement is found to give a reasonable approximation to that of all four strings. Some possible differences between the hammer method and normal bowing and implications of the acoustical results are also discussed.

  13. Reliability of a new method for measuring coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Xue; Liu, Qian; He, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane plays a key role in an evaluation of patients with trunk imbalance, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. An established, widely used practice in evaluating trunk imbalance is to drop a plumb line from the C7 vertebra to a key reference axis, the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) in full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs, and measuring the distance between them, the C7-CSVL. However, measuring the CSVL is subject to intraobserver differences, is error-prone, and is of poor reliability. Therefore, the development of a different way to measure trunk imbalance is needed. This study aimed to describe a new method to measure coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), which measures the angle at the intersection between the C7 plumb line and an axis line drawn from the vertebral centroid of the C7 to the middle of the superior border of the symphysis pubis, and to compare the reliability of the ALAT with that of the C7-CSVL. A prospective study at a university hospital was used. The patient sample consisted of sixty-nine consecutively enrolled men and women patients, aged 10-18 years, who had trunk imbalance defined as C7-CSVL longer than 20 mm on computed full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation between C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities. Using a picture archiving and communication system, three radiologists independently evaluated trunk imbalance on the 69 computed radiographs by measuring the C7-CSVL and by measuring the angle determined by the ALAT. Data were analyzed to determine the correlations between the two measures of trunk imbalance, and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each of them. Overall results from the measurements by the C7-CSVL and the ALAT were significantly moderately correlated

  14. Reliability of linear distance measurement for dental implant length with standardized periapical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakoh, Mamoru; Harada, Takuya; Otonari, Takamichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. (author)

  15. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

    2010-12-01

    Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport.

  16. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  17. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method' which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method' which requires estimation of the line of femur. Setting: Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. Participants: 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects. Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Main outcomes: Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs. Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Results Validity (referenced to radiographs: Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988, and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998. Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995 were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained

  18. Reliability and validity of the brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Sherritt, Lon R; Holder, David W; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A; Knight, John R

    2008-12-01

    Developed for use in health research, the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) consists of brief measures of a broad range of religiousness and spirituality (R/S) dimensions. It has established psychometric properties among adults, but little is known about its appropriateness for use with adolescents. We assessed the psychometric properties of the BMMRS among adolescents. We recruited a racially diverse (85% non-White) sample of 305 adolescents aged 12-18 years (median 16 yrs, IQR 14-17) from 3 urban medical clinics; 93 completed a retest 1 week later. We assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We assessed construct validity by examining how well the measures discriminated groups expected to differ based on self-reported religious preference, and how they related to a hypothesized correlate, depressive symptoms. Religious preference was categorized into "No religion/Atheist" (11%), "Don't know/Confused" (9%), or "Named a religion" (80%). Responses to multi-item measures were generally internally consistent (alpha > or = 0.70 for 12/16 measures) and stable over 1 week (intraclass correlation coefficients > or = 0.70 for 14/16). Forgiveness, Negative R/S Coping, and Commitment items showed lower internal cohesiveness. Scores on most measures were higher (p Atheist" group. Forgiveness, Commitment, and Anticipated Support from members of one's congregation were inversely correlated with depressive symptoms, while BMMRS measures assessing negative R/S experiences (Negative R/S Coping, Negative Interactions with others in congregation, Loss in Faith) were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that most BMMRS measures are reliable and valid for use among adolescents.

  19. Reliability and reproducibility of disc-foveal angle measurements by non-mydriatic fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Caroline; Chebli, Fayçal; Leon, Lorette; Anthoine, Emmanuelle; Weber, Michel; Péchereau, Alain; Lebranchu, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal torsion could be associated with cyclovertical strabismus, but torsion measurements are not reliable in children. To assess an objective fundus torsion evaluation in a paediatric population, we used Non-Mydriatic Fundus photography (NMFP) in healthy and cyclovertical strabismus patients to evaluate the disc-foveal angle over time and observers. We used a retrospective set of NMFP including 24 A or V-pattern strabismus and 27 age-matched normal children (mean age 6.4 and 6.7 years respectively), taken during 2 distinct follow-up consultations (separated by 251 and 479 days respectively). Each disc-foveal angle measurement (from which the ocular torsion can be assessed) was performed by 5 different observers, using graphical software and based on reproducible fundus anatomical marks. Statistical analysis was performed with a multivariate ANOVA using group, time and observers as factors, in addition to intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to assess measurement reproducibility. A significant difference of disc-foveal angle measures was observed between groups (p0,97). Abnormal amount of objective torsion could be associated with alphabet-pattern strabismus. Disc-foveal angle evaluation by NMFP in a children population appears as a non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method.

  20. Computational area measurement of orbital floor fractures: Reliability, accuracy and rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouman, Thomas; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Imholz, Benoit; Van Issum, Christopher; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability, accuracy and rapidity of a specific computational method for assessing the orbital floor fracture area on a CT scan. Method: A computer assessment of the area of the fracture, as well as that of the total orbital floor, was determined on CT scans taken from ten patients. The ratio of the fracture's area to the orbital floor area was also calculated. The test–retest precision of measurement calculations was estimated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula to assess the agreement across observers and across measures. The time needed for the complete assessment was also evaluated. Results: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient across observers was 0.92 [0.85;0.96], and the precision of the measures across observers was 4.9%, according to Dahlberg's formula .The mean time needed to make one measurement was 2 min and 39 s (range, 1 min and 32 s to 4 min and 37 s). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that (1) the area of the orbital floor fracture can be rapidly and reliably assessed by using a specific computer system directly on CT scan images; (2) this method has the potential of being routinely used to standardize the post-traumatic evaluation of orbital fractures

  1. Quantitative skin color measurements in acanthosis nigricans patients: colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Bensachee; Devpura, Suneetha; Syed, Zain U; Agbai, Oma N; Vemulapalli, Pranita; Henderson, Marsha; Rehse, Steven J; Mahmoud, Bassel H; Lim, Henry W; Naik, Ratna; Hamzavi, Iltefat H

    2012-08-01

    Tristimulus colorimetry and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) are white-light skin reflectance techniques used to measure the intensity of skin pigmentation. The tristimulus colorimeter is an instrument that measures a perceived color and the DRS instrument measures biological chromophores of the skin, including oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin, melanin and scattering. Data gathered from these tools can be used to understand morphological changes induced in skin chromophores due to conditions of the skin or their treatments. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of these two instruments in color measurements of acanthosis nigricans (AN) lesions. Eight patients with hyperinsulinemia and clinically diagnosable AN were seen monthly. Skin pigmentation was measured at three sites: the inner forearm, the medial aspect of the posterior neck, and anterior neck unaffected by AN. Of the three, measured tristimulus L*a*b* color parameters, the luminosity parameter L* was found to most reliably distinguish lesion from normally pigmented skin. The DRS instrument was able to characterize a lesion on the basis of the calculated melanin concentration, though melanin is a weak indicator of skin change and not a reliable measure to be used independently. Calculated oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were not found to be reliable indicators of AN. Tristimulus colorimetry may provide reliable methods for respectively quantifying and characterizing the objective color change in AN, while DRS may be useful in characterizing changes in skin melanin content associated with this skin condition. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Measurement error of a simplified protocol for quantitative sensory tests in chronic pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Monika; Biurrun Manresa, José; Limacher, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Large-scale application of Quantitative Sensory Tests (QST) is impaired by lacking standardized testing protocols. One unclear methodological aspect is the number of records needed to minimize measurement error. Traditionally, measurements are repeated 3 to 5 times...

  3. Feasibility of Quantitative Ultrasound Measurement of the Heel Bone in People with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mergler, S.; Lobker, B.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Penning, C.

    2010-01-01

    Low bone mineral density (BMD) and fractures are common in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Reduced mobility in case of motor impairment and the use of anti-epileptic drugs contribute to the development of low BMD. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurement of the heel bone is a non-invasive and radiation-free method for measuring bone…

  4. Quantitative laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbiezen, K.; Klein-Douwel, R. J. H.; van Viet, A. P.; Donkerbroek, A. J.; Meerts, W. L.; Dam, N. J.; ter Meulen, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    We present quantitative, in-cylinder, UV-laser-induced fluorescence measurements of nitric oxide in a heavy-duty Diesel engine. Processing of the raw fluorescence signals includes a detailed correction, based on additional measurements, for the effect of laser beam and fluorescence attenuation, and

  5. [Cholinesterases in total blood measured with a semiquantitative technique, and plasma or erythrocyte cholinesterases measured with quantitative techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2007-06-01

    An equivalence model which allows comparison of blood cholinesterase values, measured by Lovibond (semiquantitative technique), and Michel, EQM, Monotest (erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases) values measured by quantitative techniques is required. The performance of Lovibond (Edson tintometric and Limperos & Ranta techniques) were compared with quantitative techniques. The experimental design was descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective. From a working population (18-59 years) in Valle de Aburrá and Near East of Antioquia. 827 representative samples were chosen for their lack of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting plaguicides and affiliated to the Social Security System. (1) 827 workers were classified by Lovibond in four categories: 821 values with 75% of cholinesterase activity or greater (categories 75, 87.5 and 100%) and 6 with cholinesterase activity smaller than 75%. (2) With each quantitative method, the mean values of erythrocyte and plasmatic cholinesterase corresponding to the four values obtained with Lovibond were statistically different to each other. (3) The mean values of each quantitative technique increased when increased the tintometric method value. (4) Lovibond classified the low enzymatic erythrocyte activity very poorly (61-73%), but the classification of the low enzymatic plasma activity was almost completely in error (94-96%). The values of erythrocyte or plasma cholinesterase were adequately estimated by both the quantitative techniques of Michel and EQM and by Lovibond, but only when the enzymatic activity is normal. Lovibond, however, had a poor capacity to designate as "low" the values that were low according to the quantitative tests.

  6. Measuring the validity and reliability of the Apple Watch as a physical activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Godin, Steven D; Owens, Matthew V

    2018-04-04

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the energy expenditure (EE) estimation of Apple Watch among college students. Thirty college students completed two sets of three 10-minute treadmill walking and running trials while wearing three Apple Watches and being connected to indirect calorimetry. The walking trials were at speeds of 54, 80, and 107 m•min-1 while the running trials were at 134, 161, 188m•min-1. Energy expenditure comparisons were made using Two-way ANOVA with repeatedmeasures. Reliability was analyzed by Intraclass Correlation. There was no significant device x speed interactions (F (15, 696) = 1.113, p = 0.341) between the indirect calorimetry (criterion) and Apple Watch. The lowest Inter-Class Correlation (ICC) scores were 0.49 (95%CI) at 54 while the highest were 0.72 (95%CI) at 107 and 134 m•min-1. Apple Watch demonstrated a low to moderate validity and reliability on measuring EE.

  7. Measuring Dispositional Flow: Validity and reliability of the Dispositional Flow State Scale 2, Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eleonora F M; Riva, Giuseppe; Talò, Cosimo; Boffi, Marco; Rainisio, Nicola; Pola, Linda; Diana, Barbara; Villani, Daniela; Argenton, Luca; Inghilleri, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2), for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. In accordance with the guidelines for test adaptation, the scale has been translated with the method of back translation. The understanding of the item has been checked according to the latest standards on the culturally sensitive translation. The scale thus produced was administered to 843 individuals (of which 60.69% female), between the ages of 15 and 74. The sample is balanced between workers and students. The main activities defined by the subjects allow the sample to be divided into three categories: students, workers, athletes (professionals and semi-professionals). The confirmatory factor analysis, conducted using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLM), showed acceptable fit indexes. Reliability and validity have been verified, and structural invariance has been verified on 6 categories of Flow experience and for 3 subsamples with different with different fields of action. Correlational analysis shows significant high values between the nine dimensions. Our data confirmed the validity and reliability of the Italian DFS-2 in measuring Flow experiences. The scale is reliable for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. The Italian version of the scale is suitable for the evaluation of the subjective tendency to experience Flow trait characteristic in different contest, as sport, study and work.

  8. Validating and calibrating the Nintendo Wii balance board to derive reliable center of pressure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Julia M; Mancini, Martina; Peterka, Robert J; Hayes, Tamara L; Horak, Fay B

    2014-09-29

    The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB) has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation) research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the "gold standard" laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP) measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP) to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (<1 Hz). Twelve WBBs were tested to address the issue of inter-device variability. There was a significant effect of sway amplitude, frequency, and direction on the WBB's CoP measurement error, with an increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML) (compared to the anteroposterior (AP)) sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB's, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB's CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB's CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error) from 2-6 mm (before calibration) to 0.5-2 mm (after calibration). WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain) CoP sway measures, from -10.5% (before calibration) to -0.05% (after calibration) (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions). In this study, we characterized the WBB's CoP measurement error under controlled, dynamic

  9. Reliability of segmental accelerations measured using a new wireless gait analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Justin J; Morrison, Steven; James, Daniel A; Barrett, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability, and stride-to-stride reliability, of an accelerometer-based gait analysis system which measured 3D accelerations of the upper and lower body during self-selected slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Eight subjects attended two testing sessions in which accelerometers were attached to the head, neck, lower trunk, and right shank. In the initial testing session, two different examiners attached the accelerometers and performed the same testing procedures. A single examiner repeated the procedure in a subsequent testing session. All data were collected using a new wireless gait analysis system, which features near real-time data transmission via a Bluetooth network. Reliability for each testing condition (4 locations, 3 directions, 3 speeds) was quantified using a waveform similarity statistic known as the coefficient of multiple determination (CMD). CMD's ranged from 0.60 to 0.98 across all test conditions and were not significantly different for inter-examiner (0.86), intra-examiner (0.87), and stride-to-stride reliability (0.86). The highest repeatability for the effect of location, direction and walking speed were for the shank segment (0.94), the vertical direction (0.91) and the fast walking speed (0.91), respectively. Overall, these results indicate that a high degree of waveform repeatability was obtained using a new gait system under test-retest conditions involving single and dual examiners. Furthermore, differences in acceleration waveform repeatability associated with the reapplication of accelerometers were small in relation to normal motor variability.

  10. Improving accuracy and reliability of 186-keV measurements for unattended enrichment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Boyer, Brian D.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Moss, Cal E.; Goda, Joetta M.; Favalli, Andrea; Lombardi, Marcie; Paffet, Mark T.; Hill, Thomas R.; MacArthur, Duncan W.; Smith, Morag K.

    2010-01-01

    Improving the quality of safeguards measurements at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs), whilst reducing the inspection effort, is an important objective given the number of existing and new plants that need to be safeguarded. A useful tool in many safeguards approaches is the on-line monitoring of enrichment in process pipes. One aspect of this measurement is a simple, reliable and precise passive measurement of the 186-keV line from 235 U. (The other information required is the amount of gas in the pipe. This can be obtained by transmission measurements or pressure measurements). In this paper we describe our research efforts towards such a passive measurement system. The system includes redundant measurements of the 186-keV line from the gas and separately from the wall deposits. The design also includes measures to reduce the effect of the potentially important background. Such an approach would practically eliminate false alarms and can maintain the operation of the system even with a hardware malfunction in one of the channels. The work involves Monte Carlo modeling and the construction of a proof-of-principle prototype. We will carry out experimental tests with UF 6 gas in pipes with and without deposits in order to demonstrate the deposit correction.

  11. Reliability and validity of advanced theory-of-mind measures in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Elizabeth O; Homer, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    Although theory-of-mind (ToM) development is well documented for early childhood, there is increasing research investigating changes in ToM reasoning in middle childhood and adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of most advanced ToM measures for use with older children and adolescents have not been firmly established. We report on the reliability and validity of widely used, conventional measures of advanced ToM with this age group. Notable issues with both reliability and validity of several of the measures were evident in the findings. With regard to construct validity, results do not reveal a clear empirical commonality between tasks, and, after accounting for comprehension, developmental trends were evident in only one of the tasks investigated. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Second-order false belief tasks have acceptable internal consistency. The Eyes Test has poor internal consistency. Validity of advanced theory-of-mind tasks is often based on the ability to distinguish clinical from typical groups. What does this study add? This study examines internal consistency across six widely used advanced theory-of-mind tasks. It investigates validity of tasks based on comprehension of items by typically developing individuals. It further assesses construct validity, or commonality between tasks. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  12. Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children’s Physical Activity: How Reliable is the Fitbit Zip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children’s physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994 of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.

  13. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  14. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  15. Improved structural integrity through advances in reliable residual stress measurement: the impact of ENGIN-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.; Santisteban, J. R.

    The determination of accurate reliable residual stresses is critical to many fields of structural integrity. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within engineering components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within engineering, leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise lifing procedures. This paper describes the likely impact of the next generation of dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being constructed and the utility of the technique using examples of residual stresses both beneficial and detrimental to structural integrity.

  16. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Rábago

    Full Text Available Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1-50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the

  17. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Ko, Kyung Hee; Jung, Hae Kyoung; Lee, Jong Tae

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A z ) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US

  18. Qualitative pattern classification of shear wave elastography for breast masses: How it correlates to quantitative measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Jung Hyun, E-mail: lvjenny0417@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University, College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kyung Hee, E-mail: yourheeya@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hae Kyoung, E-mail: AA40501@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Tae, E-mail: jtlee@cha.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-01

    Objective: To determine the correlation of qualitative shear wave elastography (SWE) pattern classification to quantitative SWE measurements and whether it is representative of quantitative SWE values with similar performances. Methods: From October 2012 to January 2013, 267 breast masses of 236 women (mean age: 45.12 ± 10.54 years, range: 21–88 years) who had undergone ultrasonography (US), SWE, and subsequent biopsy were included. US BI-RADS final assessment and qualitative and quantitative SWE measurements were recorded. Correlation between pattern classification and mean elasticity, maximum elasticity, elasticity ratio and standard deviation were evaluated. Diagnostic performances of grayscale US, SWE parameters, and US combined to SWE values were calculated and compared. Results: Of the 267 breast masses, 208 (77.9%) were benign and 59 (22.1%) were malignant. Pattern classifications significantly correlated with all quantitative SWE measurements, showing highest correlation with maximum elasticity, r = 0.721 (P < 0.001). Sensitivity was significantly decreased in US combined to SWE measurements to grayscale US: 69.5–89.8% to 100.0%, while specificity was significantly improved: 62.5–81.7% to 13.9% (P < 0.001). Area under the ROC curve (A{sub z}) did not show significant differences between grayscale US to US combined to SWE (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Pattern classification shows high correlation to maximum stiffness and may be representative of quantitative SWE values. When combined to grayscale US, SWE improves specificity of US.

  19. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  20. Quantitative angle-insensitive flow measurement using relative standard deviation OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiang; Zhang, Buyun; Qi, Li; Wang, Ling; Yang, Qiang; Zhu, Zhuqing; Huo, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhongping

    2017-10-30

    Incorporating different data processing methods, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has the ability for high-resolution angiography and quantitative flow velocity measurements. However, OCT angiography cannot provide quantitative information of flow velocities, and the velocity measurement based on Doppler OCT requires the determination of Doppler angles, which is a challenge in a complex vascular network. In this study, we report on a relative standard deviation OCT (RSD-OCT) method which provides both vascular network mapping and quantitative information for flow velocities within a wide range of Doppler angles. The RSD values are angle-insensitive within a wide range of angles, and a nearly linear relationship was found between the RSD values and the flow velocities. The RSD-OCT measurement in a rat cortex shows that it can quantify the blood flow velocities as well as map the vascular network in vivo .

  1. Factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit in underground uranium mines and preventive measures of misfiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of non-electric detonating circuit are introduced. The main factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit are described. Taking an underground blasting of a uranium mine for example, the reliability of various kinds of detonating network system is calculated using the reliability theory and numerical analysis method. The reasons that cause the misfiring in non-electric detonating circuit system are analyzed, and preventive measures are put forward.(authors)

  2. Quantitative measurements of electromechanical response with a combined optical beam and interferometric atomic force microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labuda, Aleksander; Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research an Oxford Instruments Company, Santa Barbara, California 93117 (United States)

    2015-06-22

    An ongoing challenge in atomic force microscope (AFM) experiments is the quantitative measurement of cantilever motion. The vast majority of AFMs use the optical beam deflection (OBD) method to infer the deflection of the cantilever. The OBD method is easy to implement, has impressive noise performance, and tends to be mechanically robust. However, it represents an indirect measurement of the cantilever displacement, since it is fundamentally an angular rather than a displacement measurement. Here, we demonstrate a metrological AFM that combines an OBD sensor with a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV) to enable accurate measurements of the cantilever velocity and displacement. The OBD/LDV AFM allows a host of quantitative measurements to be performed, including in-situ measurements of cantilever oscillation modes in piezoresponse force microscopy. As an example application, we demonstrate how this instrument can be used for accurate quantification of piezoelectric sensitivity—a longstanding goal in the electromechanical community.

  3. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p reliable measures of leg muscle CSA, and thus could be used to characterize changes in muscle CSA both in flight and on the ground.

  4. Reliability of computed tomography measurements in assessment of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Sören; Wretling, Marie-Louise; Wredmark, Torsten; Shalabi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Advancement in technology of computer tomography (CT) and introduction of new medical imaging softwares enables easy and rapid assessment of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation. Before using these techniques in clinical studies there is a need for evaluation of the reliability of the measurements. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of ImageJ in measuring thigh muscles CSA and attenuation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by computer tomography. 31 patients from an ongoing study of rehabilitation and muscle atrophy after ACL reconstruction were included in the study. Axial CT images with slice thickness of 10 mm at the level of 150 mm above the knee joint were analyzed by two investigators independently at two times with a minimum of 3 weeks between the two readings using NIH ImageJ. CSA and the mean attenuation of individual thigh muscles were analyzed for both legs. Mean CSA and mean attenuation values were in good agreement both when comparing the two observers and the two replicates. The inter- and intraclass correlation (ICC) was generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus. All the ICC values were significant (p < 0,001). Pearson correlation coefficients were also generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus (0.95 for intraobserver and 0.92 for interobserver). This study has presented ImageJ as a method to monitor and evaluate CSA and attenuation of different muscles in the thigh using CT-imaging. The method shows an overall excellent reliability with respect to both observer and replicate

  5. A simple, semi-quantitative method for measuring pulsed soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahama, Y.; Du, J.; Yanagidaira, T.; Hirano, K.

    1993-01-01

    A simple semi-quantitative measurement and image processing system for pulsed soft X-rays with a time and spatial resolution is proposed. Performance of the system is examined using a cylindrical soft X-ray source generated with a plasma device. The system consists of commercial facilities which are easily obtained such as a microchannel plate-phosphor screen combination, a CCD camera, an image memory board and a personal computer. To make a quantitative measurement possible, the image processing and observation of the phosphor screen current are used in conjunction. (author)

  6. rpb2 is a reliable reference gene for quantitative gene expression analysis in the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Tiago R; Peres, Nalu T A; Persinoti, Gabriela F; Silva, Larissa G; Mazucato, Mendelson; Rossi, Antonio; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M

    2012-05-01

    The selection of reference genes used for data normalization to quantify gene expression by real-time PCR amplifications (qRT-PCR) is crucial for the accuracy of this technique. In spite of this, little information regarding such genes for qRT-PCR is available for gene expression analyses in pathogenic fungi. Thus, we investigated the suitability of eight candidate reference genes in isolates of the human dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum subjected to several environmental challenges, such as drug exposure, interaction with human nail and skin, and heat stress. The stability of these genes was determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Best-Keeper programs. The gene with the most stable expression in the majority of the conditions tested was rpb2 (DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II), which was validated in three T. rubrum strains. Moreover, the combination of rpb2 and chs1 (chitin synthase) genes provided for the most reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in T. rubrum under a broad range of biological conditions. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report on the selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR data normalization in dermatophytes and the results of these studies should permit further analysis of gene expression under several experimental conditions, with improved accuracy and reliability.

  7. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, K.

    2005-10-01

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  8. Dual energy quantitative computed tomography (QCT). Precision of the mineral density measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braillon, P.; Bochu, M.

    1989-01-01

    The improvement that could be obtained in quantitative bone mineral measurements by dual energy computed tomography was tested in vitro. From the results of 15 mineral density measurements (in mg Ca/cm 3 , done on a precise lumbar spine phantom (Hologic) and referred to the values obtained on the same slices on a Siemens Osteo-CT phantom, the precision found was 0.8%, six times better than the precision calculated from the uncorrected measured values [fr

  9. Reliability and validity study of a tool to measure cancer stigma: Patient version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this methodological study is to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of “A Questionnaire for Measuring Attitudes toward Cancer (Cancer Stigma - Patient version.” Methods: The sample comprised oncology patients who had active cancer treatment. The construct validity was assessed using the confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54.9±12.3 years. In the confirmatory factor analysis, fit values were determined as comparative fit index = 0.93, goodness of fit index = 0.91, normed-fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation RMSEA = 0.09 (P<0.05 (Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin = 0.88, χ2 = 1084.41, Df = 66, and Barletta's test P<0.000. The first factor was “impossibility of recovery and experience of social discrimination” and the second factor was “stereotypes of cancer patients.” The two-factor structure accounted for 56.74% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.88 for the two-factor scale. Conclusions: “A questionnaire for measuring attitudes toward cancer (cancer stigma - Patient version” is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess stigmatization of cancer in cancer patients.

  10. Reliability and Validity Study of a Tool to Measure Cancer Stigma: Patient Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Medine; Dişsiz, Gülçin; Demir, Filiz; Irız, Sibel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this methodological study is to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of "A Questionnaire for Measuring Attitudes toward Cancer (Cancer Stigma) - Patient version." The sample comprised oncology patients who had active cancer treatment. The construct validity was assessed using the confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The mean age of the participants was 54.9±12.3 years. In the confirmatory factor analysis, fit values were determined as comparative fit index = 0.93, goodness of fit index = 0.91, normed-fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation RMSEA = 0.09 ( P Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.88, χ 2 = 1084.41, Df = 66, and Barletta's test P <0.000). The first factor was "impossibility of recovery and experience of social discrimination" and the second factor was "stereotypes of cancer patients." The two-factor structure accounted for 56.74% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.88 for the two-factor scale. "A questionnaire for measuring attitudes toward cancer (cancer stigma) - Patient version" is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess stigmatization of cancer in cancer patients.

  11. New possibilities for quantitative measurements of regional cerebral blood flow with Au-195 m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1984-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurement for nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied on patients after stroke and an volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow patterns not only in p-a. but also in lateral views of the brain are possible by the use of the recently developed generator for the short lived (30 sec) isotope Au-195 m. The energy spectrum of the eluate of the generator shows two strong photon peaks, one at an energy level of 68 KeV and a second at an energy-level of 262 KeV. The low energy peak is suitable for perfusion studies in lateral views of the hemispheres, no ''look through'' effect is seen. The high energy level is good for studies in p-a-positions. The studies last less than 1 minute and can be repeated after 3 minutes. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated. The area of occluded vessels in the case of stroke can be detected. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulat