WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable power generation

  1. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  2. Windfarm Generation Assessment for ReliabilityAnalysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis; Holmstrøm, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays...

  3. Windfarm generation assessment for reliability analysis of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, N.B.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays...

  4. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  5. Reliability assessment of distribution power systems including distributed generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megdiche, M.

    2004-12-01

    Nowadays, power systems have reached a good level of reliability. Nevertheless, considering the modifications induced by the connections of small independent producers to distribution networks, there's a need to assess the reliability of these new systems. Distribution networks present several functional characteristics, highlighted by the qualitative study of the failures, as dispersed loads at several places, variable topology and some electrotechnical phenomena which must be taken into account to model the events that can occur. The adopted reliability calculations method is Monte Carlo simulations, the probabilistic method most powerful and most flexible to model complex operating of the distribution system. We devoted a first part on the case of a 20 kV feeder to which a cogeneration unit is connected. The method was applied to a software of stochastic Petri nets simulations. Then a second part related to the study of a low voltage power system supplied by dispersed generations. Here, the complexity of the events required to code the method in an environment of programming allowing the use of power system calculations (load flow, short-circuit, load shedding, management of units powers) in order to analyse the system state for each new event. (author)

  6. Reliability of diesel generators in the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.; Huovinen, T.; Norros, L.; Vanhala, J.

    1989-10-01

    Diesel generators are used as emergency AC-power sources in nuclear power plants and they produce electric power for other emergency systems during accidents in which offsite power is lost. The reliability of diesel generators is thus of major concern for overall safety of nuclear power plants. In this study we consider the reliability of diesel generators in the Swedish and Finnish nuclear power plants on the basis of collected operational experience. We classify the occurred failures according to their functional criticality, type and cause. The failures caused by human errors in maintenance and testing are analysed in detail. We analyse also the reliability of the diesel generator subsystems. Further, we study the effect of surveillance test and the type of test on the reliability. Finally we construct an unavailability model for single diesel generator unit and discuss the findings of the study giving some practical recommendations

  7. Generation reliability assessment in oligopoly power market using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haroonabadi, H.; Haghifam, M.R.

    2007-01-01

    This paper addressed issues regarding power generation reliability assessment (HLI) in deregulated power pool markets. Most HLI reliability evaluation methods are based on the loss of load (LOLE) approach which is among the most suitable indices to describe the level of generation reliability. LOLE refers to the time in which load is greater than the amount of available generation. While most reliability assessments deal only with power system constraints, this study considered HLI reliability assessment in an oligopoly power market using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). It evaluated the sensitivity of the reliability index to different reserve margins and future margins. The reliability index was determined by intersecting the offer and demand curves of power plants and comparing them to other parameters. The paper described the fundamentals of an oligopoly power pool market and proposed an algorithm for HLI reliability assessment for such a market. The proposed method was assessed on the IEEE-Reliability Test System with satisfactory results. In all cases, generation reliability indices were evaluated with different reserve margins and various load levels. 19 refs., 7 figs., 1 appendix

  8. The Test-Retest Reliability of New Generation Power Indices of Wingate All-Out Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Ozkaya

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Although reliability correlations of traditional power indices of the Wingate test have been well documented, no study has analyzed new generation power indices based on milliseconds obtained from a Peak Bike. The purpose of this study was to investigate the retest reliability of new generation power indices. Thirty-two well-trained male athletes who were specialized in basketball, football, tennis, or track and field volunteered to take part in the study (age: 24.3 ± 2.2 years; body mass: 77 ± 8.3 kg; height: 180.3 ± 6.3 cm. Participants performed two Wingate all-out sessions on two separate days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error measurement (SEM, smallest real differences (SRD and coefficient of variation (CV scores were analyzed based on the test and retest data. Reliability results of traditional power indices calculated based on 5-s means such as peak power, average power, power drop, and fatigue index ratio were similar with the previous findings in literature (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 2.8%; SEM ≤ 12.28; SRD% ≤ 7.7%. New generation power indices such as peak power, average power, lowest power, power drop, fatigue index, power decline, maximum speed as rpm, and amount of total energy expenditure demonstrated high reliability (ICC ≥ 0.94; CV ≤ 4.3%; SEM ≤ 10.36; SRD% ≤ 8.8%. Time to peak power, time at maximum speed, and power at maximum speed showed a moderate level of reliability (ICC ≥ 0.73; CV ≤ 8.9%; SEM ≤ 63.01; SRD% ≤ 22.4%. The results of this study indicate that reliability correlations and SRD% of new generation power and fatigue-related indices are similar with traditional 5-s means. However, new time-related indices are very sensitive and moderately reliable.

  9. Reliability of diesel generators at the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pulkkinen, Urho [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Vuorimiehentie 5, SF-02150, Espoo (Finland)

    1986-02-15

    The operating experiences of 40 stand-by diesel generators at the Finnish and Swedish nuclear power plants have been analysed with special emphasis on the impact of the frequency of surveillance testing and of the test procedure on diesel generator reliability, the contribution of design, manufacturing, testing and maintenance errors and the potential and actual common cause failures, The results pf the analyses consisted both practical recommendations and mathematical reliability models and useful reliability data. (author)

  10. Nuclear power generating station operability assurance reliability, availability, and maintainability application for maintenance management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleveland, J.W.; Regenie, T.R.; Wilson, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Environmental qualification and equipment warrantee insurance stipulations should be supplemented with a reliable maintainability program structured to identify and control fast failing subcomponents within critical equipment. Anticipation of equipment subcomponent failures can control unnecessary plant off-line occurrences. Incorporation of reliability, availability, and maintainability considerations into plant maintenance policies on power generation and safety related items have positive cost benefit advantages

  11. Trial application of reliability technology to emergency diesel generators at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, S.M.; Boccio, J.L.; Karimian, S.; Azarm, M.A.; Carbonaro, J.; DeMoss, G.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper, a trial application of reliability technology to the emergency diesel generator system at the Trojan Nuclear Power Plant is presented. An approach for formulating a reliability program plan for this system is being developed. The trial application has shown that a reliability program process, using risk- and reliability-based techniques, can be interwoven into current plant operational activities to help in controlling, analyzing, and predicting faults that can challenge safety systems. With the cooperation of the utility, Portland General Electric Co., this reliability program can eventually be implemented at Trojan to track its effectiveness

  12. IEEE guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Presented is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (IEEE) guide for general principles of reliability analysis of nuclear power generating station protection systems. The document has been prepared to provide the basic principles needed to conduct a reliability analysis of protection systems. Included is information on qualitative and quantitative analysis, guides for failure data acquisition and use, and guide for establishment of intervals

  13. Power system reliability impacts of wind generation and operational reserve requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its variability, wind generation integration presents a significant challenge to power system operators in order to maintain adequate reliability levels while ensuring least cost operation. This paper explores the trade-off between the benefits associated to a higher wind penetration and the additional operational reserve requirements that they impose. Such exploration is valued in terms of its effect on power system reliability, measured as an amount of unserved energy. The paper also focuses on how changing the Value of Lost Load (VoLL can be used to attain different reliability targets, and how wind power penetration and the diversity of the wind energy resource will impact quality of supply (in terms of instances of unserved energy. The evaluation of different penetrations of wind power generation, different wind speed profiles, wind resource diversity, and different operational reserve requirements, is conducted on the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING using statistical modeling of wind speed time series and computer simulation through a 24-hour ahead unit commitment algorithm and a Monte Carlo simulation scheme. Results for the SING suggest that while wind generation can significantly reduce generation costs, it can also imply higher security costs to reach acceptable reliability levels.

  14. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  15. Determination of reliability criteria for standby diesel generators at a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, M.G.K.

    1987-01-01

    The requirement for standby diesel generators at nuclear power stations is developed and a probabilistic approach used to define the reliability parameters. The present criteria used when ordering a diesel generator are compared with the testing required by the regulatory body and the most likely requirement following an accident. The impact of this on the diesels at a particular station and the root cause of failures are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Development of reliability program for emergency diesel generators in domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ho; Jung, Hyun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seoung Yeul

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance tests of Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been conducted periodically to verify the reliability and integrity of the EDGs, however, it was found that these surveillance methods were so conservative and severe as to accelerate the degradation of the EDGs. Hence, new regulatory guideline, Reg. Guide 1.9 Rev. 3, was established by the U.S. NRC to resolve these problems. But it requires the additional implementation of reliability program of the EDGs to improve the actual reliability of them. In Korea, the EDGs of Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 were the first plant applying new Reg. guide 1.9 rev.3 and implementing EDG reliability program. Furthermore it is expected that new guideline for the EDGs will be applied to other EDGs of Korean NPPs. In this paper, this reliability program is described, and it can be used as a reference for other EDGs in Korean NPPs

  17. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Henderson, W.; Burghardt, D.; Kripps, L.; Rothleder, B.

    1988-12-01

    This report is a companion report on NUREG/CR-5078, Volume 1, ''A Reliability Program for Emergency Diesel Generators at Nuclear Power Plants: Program Structure.'' The purpose of this report is to provide technical findings and insights related to: failure evaluation, troubleshooting, maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring. Examples and recommendations are provided for each of these areas based on actual emergency diesel generator (EDG) operating experience and the opinions of diesel generator experts. This report expands the more general guidance provided in Volume 1. In addition, a discussion of EDG interactions with other plant systems (e.g., instrument, air, service water, dc power) is provided since experience has shown that these support systems and their operation can adversely affect EDG reliability. Portions of this report have been designed for use by onsite personnel for evaluating operational characteristics of EDGs. 5 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Guide to the collection and presentation of electrical, electronic, and sensing component reliability data for nuclear-power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    This Guide is intended to establish a method of collecting and presenting reliability data for quantitative systematic reliability analysis in nuclear power generating stations, as outlined in IEEE Std 351-1975. Appendix D, which is not a part of IEEE Std 500-1977 but which comprises the bulk of this publication, presents tables of reliability data for nuclear power generating stations, intended for use of nuclear systems reliability analysts or design engineers

  19. Coal-Powered Electric Generating Unit Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Emmanuel [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Coal continues to play a critical role in powering the Nation’s electricity generation, especially for baseload power plants. With aging coal generation assets facing decreased performance due to the state of the equipment, and with challenges exacerbated by the current market pressures on the coal sector, there are opportunities to advance early-stage technologies that can retrofit or replace equipment components. These changes will eventually result in significant improvements in plant performance once further developed and deployed by industry. Research and development in areas such as materials, fluid dynamics, fuel properties and preparation characteristics, and a new generation of plant controls can lead to new components and systems that can help improve the efficiency and reliability of coal-fired power plants significantly, allowing these assets to continue to provide baseload power. Coal stockpiles at electricity generation plants are typically large enough to provide 30 to 60 days of power prior to resupply—significantly enhancing the stability and reliability of the U.S. electricity sector. Falling prices for non-dispatchable renewable energy and mounting environmental regulations, among other factors, have stimulated efforts to improve the efficiency of these coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). In addition, increased reliance on natural gas and non-dispatchable energy sources has spurred efforts to further increase the reliability of coal EGUs. The Coal Powered EGU Efficiency and Reliability Dialogue brought together stakeholders from across the coal EGU industry to discuss methods for improvement. Participants at the event reviewed performance-enhancing innovations in coal EGUs, discussed the potential for data-driven management practices to increase efficiency and reliability, investigated the impacts of regulatory compliance on coal EGU performance, and discussed upcoming challenges for the coal industry. This report documents the key

  20. On the reliability of steam generator performance at nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styrikovich, M.A.; Margulova, T.Kh.

    1974-01-01

    The problem of ensuring reliable operation of steam generators in a nuclear power plant with a water-cooled, water-moderated reactor (WWER) was studied. At a nuclear power plant with a vertical steam generator (specifically, a Westinghouse product) the steam generator tubes were found to have been penetrated. Shutdown was due to corrosion disintegration of the austenitic stainless steel, type 18/8, used as pipe material for the heater surface. The corrosion was the result of the action of chlorine ions concentrated in the moisture contained in the iron oxide films deposited in low parts of the tube bundle, directly at the tube plate. Blowing through did not ensure complete removal of the film, and in some cases the construction features of the steam generator made removal of the film practically impossible. Replacement of type 18/8 stainless steel by other construction material, e.g., Inconel, did not give good results. To ensure reliable operation of vertical steam generators in domestic practice, the generators are designed without a low tube plate (a variant diagram of the vertical steam generator of such construction for the water-cooled, water-moderated reactor 1000 is presented). When low tube plates are used the film deposition is intolerable. For organization of a non-film regime a complex treatment of the feed water is used, in which the amount of complexion is calculated from the stoichmetric ratios with the composition of the feed water. It is noted that, if 100% condensate purification is used with complexon processing of the feed water to the generator, we can calculate the surface of the steam-generator heater without considering the outer placement on the tubes. In this the cost of the steam generator and all the nuclear power plants with WWER type reactors is decreased even with installation of a 100% condensate purification. It is concluded that only simultaneous solution of construction and water-regime problems will ensure relaible operation of

  1. IEEE standard requirements for reliability analysis in the design and operation of safety systems for nuclear power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this standard is to provide uniform, minimum acceptable requirements for the performance of reliability analyses for safety-related systems found in nuclear-power generating stations, but not to define the need for an analysis. The need for reliability analysis has been identified in other standards which expand the requirements of regulations (e.g., IEEE Std 379-1972 (ANSI N41.2-1972), ''Guide for the Application of the Single-Failure Criterion to Nuclear Power Generating Station Protection System,'' which describes the application of the single-failure criterion). IEEE Std 352-1975, ''Guide for General Principles of Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Generating Station Protection Systems,'' provides guidance in the application and use of reliability techniques referred to in this standard

  2. Long term trend analysis of emergency power diesel generator reliability in german nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotthoff, K.; Maqua, M.

    1990-01-01

    The paper deals with a long-term investigation on the availability of diesel generators. This investigation has been performed in two steps in 1980/81 and 1988/89. It is based on the operating experiences of a total of 110 diesel generators in 20 German NPP's. The overall probability of diesel failure during start and short-time operation amounts to about 5E-3/demand. Compared to the result of the first part of the investigation (8E-3/demand) there has been some further improvement of diesel generator performance in recent years. The upper limit calculated for the probability of common mode failures (about 6E-4/demand) is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. The influence of various parameters on the failure probability has been discussed. A statistically significant dependence could not be identified

  3. Diesel-generator reliability at nuclear power plants: data and preliminary analysis. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClymont, A.; McLagan, G.

    1982-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed under RP1233-1 relating to the collection and analysis of data pertaining to diesel generator reliability in nuclear power plants. Drawing from data collected on-site at plants, data supplied by utilites, and data from Licensee Event Reports (LERs), the report describes methods of deriving reliability estimates from data for use in probabilistic risk assessment and presents results when these methods are applied to data collected from 14 plants. Specifically, data are used to estimate diesel failure probabilities for failures to start and failure rates for failures to continue to run. A sampling theory approach and a Bayesian approach to failure probability estimation are compared. The data are used to derive estimates of diesel repair time for some plants, maintenance outages, and multiple diesel failure rates. In addition, a section is included that presents suggestions for failure-rate estimation when an accurate count of diesel start attempts at a plant is not available. The final section presents an analysis of diesel failures based on data from LERs, including a breakdown of failure event by subsystem, failure mode, and failure cause. Appendixes include detailed summaries of the data used in the analysis of previous sections

  4. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Program structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; DeMoss, G.M.; Fragola, J.R.; Appignani, P.L.; Delarche, G.; Boccio, J.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide technical guidelines for NRC staff use in the development of positions for evaluating emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability programs. Such reviews will likely result following resolution of USI A-44 and GSI B-56. The diesel generator reliability program is a management system for achieving and maintaining a selected (or target) level of reliability. This can be achieved by: (1) understanding the factors that control the EDG reliability and (2) then applying reliability and maintenance techniques in the proper proportion to achieve selected performance goals. The concepts and guidelines discussed in this report are concepts and approaches that have been successful in applications where high levels of reliability must be maintained. Both an EDG reliability program process and a set of review items for NRC use are provided. The review items represent a checklist for reviewing EDG reliability programs. They do not, in themselves, constitute a reliability program. Rather, the review items are those distinctive features of a reliability program that must be present for the program to be effective

  5. Reliability analysis of Diesel Generator power supply system of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Pramod Kumar, E-mail: pramodks@igcar.gov.in; Bhuvana, V.; Ramakrishnan, M.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • The unavailability of DG success is 4.75E−3 for 2/4 and 1.47E−3 for 1/4. • Modeling includes sub systems like CB, SSWS, Fuel oil system & 220 V DC. • DG-FR, DG-FR-CCF and DG maintenance is major contributors of DG unavailability. • Uncertainty analysis has been carried out through Monte Carlo simulations. • Sensitivity analysis identifies DG mechanical FR as most sensitive part. - Abstract: The unavailability of Diesel Generator power supply system has been evaluated using Fault tree method with ISOGRAPH reliability software and is found to be 4.75E−3 for 2/4 (DG success) and 1.47E−3 for 1/4 (DG success). Common cause failures contribute significantly to the unavailability of the system. Statistical analysis indicates that the DG unavailability is uncertain by Error Factor 4.4 (90% confidence bound) for 2 out of 4 DG system (system success) and by Error Factor 4.1 (90% confidence bound) for 1 out of 4 DG system (system success). Support systems namely Safety related service water system, Fuel oil system and circuit breaker control power supply dependency have been modeled. Results of importance analysis and sensitivity study are used to identify significant contributors to unavailability. DG fails to run, DG fails to run due to CCF and DG maintenance out of service is identified as dominant and important contributors of DG unavailability. Uncertainty analysis has been carried out through Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. Hydrogen-oxygen steam generator applications for increasing the efficiency, maneuverability and reliability of power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Borzenko, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    The comparative feasibility study of the energy storage technologies showed good applicability of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators (HOSG) based energy storage systems with large-scale hydrogen production. The developed scheme solutions for the use of HOSGs for thermal power (TPP) and nuclear power plants (NPP), and the feasibility analysis that have been carried out have shown that their use makes it possible to increase the maneuverability of steam turbines and provide backup power supply in the event of failure of the main steam generating equipment. The main design solutions for the integration of hydrogen-oxygen steam generators into the main power equipment of TPPs and NPPs, as well as their optimal operation modes, are considered.

  7. The reliability of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higman, C.; DellaVilla, S.; Steele, B. [Syngas Consultants Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents two interlinked projects aimed at supporting the improvement of integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) reliability. The one project comprises the extension of SPS's existing ORAP (Operational Reliability Analysis Program) reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) tracking technology from its existing base in natural gas open and combined cycle operations into IGCC. The other project is using the extended ORAP database to evaluate performance data from existing plants. The initial work has concentrated on evaluating public domain data on the performance of gasification based power and chemical plants. This is being followed up by plant interviews in some 20 plants to verify and expand the database on current performance. 23 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  9. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  10. Influence of 12% Cr martensite steel quality on power generation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolenska, H.; Labanowski, J.; Cwiek, J.; Glowacka, M.; Serbinski, W.

    2001-01-01

    Influence of manufacturing process and heat treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of 12% Cr heat resistance martensitic steels has been discussed. These steels are used for elevated temperatures applications like: heat and power plants, chemical and petrochemical installations. Some cases of manufacturing mistakes of steam pipelines and turbine blades had been presented. These mistakes led to imperfect microstructure resulting in reduced lifetime and insufficient reliability of installations. (author)

  11. Reliable Grid Condition Detection and Control of Single-Phase Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai

    standards addressed to the grid-connected systems will harmonize the combination of the DPGS and the classical power plants. Consequently, the major tasks of this thesis were to develop new grid condition detection techniques and intelligent control in order to allow the DPGS not only to deliver power...... to the utility grid but also to sustain it. This thesis was divided into two main parts, namely "Grid Condition Detection" and "Control of Single-Phase DPGS". In the first part, the main focus was on reliable Phase Locked Loop (PLL) techniques for monitoring the grid voltage and on grid impedance estimation...... techniques. Additionally, a new technique for detecting the islanding mode has been developed and successfully tested. In the second part, the main reported research was concentrated around adaptive current controllers based on the information provided by the grid condition detection techniques. To guarantee...

  12. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  13. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  14. 78 FR 58492 - Generator Verification Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... power capability that is available for planning models and bulk electric system reliability assessments... of generator equipment needed to support Bulk-Power System reliability and enhance coordination of... support Bulk-Power System reliability and will ensure that accurate data is verified and made available...

  15. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  16. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez, Anibal D.

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  17. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  18. A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aselage, Terrence Lee; Siegal, Michael P.; Whalen, Scott; Frederick, Scott K.; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Moorman, Matthew Wallace

    2006-10-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized, thermoelectric power source that can provide in excess of 450 {micro}W of power in a system size of 4.3cc, for a power density of 107 {micro}W/cc, which is denser than any system of this size previously reported. The system operates on 150mW of thermal input, which for this system was simulated with a resistive heater, but in application would be provided by a 0.4g source of {sup 238}Pu located at the center of the device. Output power from this device, while optimized for efficiency, was not optimized for form of the power output, and so the maximum power was delivered at only 41mV. An upconverter to 2.7V was developed concurrently with the power source to bring the voltage up to a usable level for microelectronics.

  19. The Use of Redundancy to Improve Reliability of Deep Space Missions Using Stirling Radioisotope Generator Power Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Gary; Everline, Chet; Schmitz, Paul; Distefano, Sal

    2014-01-01

    This study will look at the 140 We class generator as originally envisioned for the ASRG and a larger generator that is scaled up to use four times the fuel. The results discussed below quantify the effect of the use of smaller generators and indicates that a scheme that makes use of several smaller generators enhances the system reliability and allows for more graceful degradation.

  20. Cost on Reliability and Production Loss for Power Converters in the Doubly Fed Induction Generator to Support Modern Grid Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Lau, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    As wind farms are normally located in remote areas, many grid codes have been issued especially related to the reactive power support. Although the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) based power converter is able to control the active power and reactive power independently, the effects...... of providing reactive power on the lifetime of the power converter and the cost-of-energy of the whole system are seldom evaluated, even though it is an important topic. In this paper, the loss models of the DFIG system are established at various conditions of the reactive power injection. If the mission...... profile is taken into account, the lifespan of the power semiconductors as well as the cost of the reactive power can be calculated. It is concluded that an over-excited reactive power injection significantly reduces the power converter lifetime, only 1/4 of the case that there is no reactive power...

  1. Selection, design, qualification, testing, and reliability of emergency diesel generator units used as Class 1E onsite electric power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    This guide has been prepared for the resolution of Generic Safety Issue B-56, ''Diesel Generator Reliability,'' and is related to Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, ''Station Blackout.'' The resolution of USI A-44 established a need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program that has the capability to achieve and maintain the emergency diesel generator reliability levels in the range of 0.95 per demand or better to cope with station blackout

  2. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirao, Katumi; Sato, Akira; Kaimori, Kimihiro; Kumano, Tetsuji

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear power generation for commercial use in Japan has passed 35 years since beginning of operation in the Tokai Nuclear Power Station in 1966, and has 51 machines of reactor and about 44.92 MW of total output of equipment scale in the 21st century. However, an environment around nuclear energy becomes severer at present, and then so many subjects to be overcome are remained such as increased unreliability of the public on nuclear energy at a chance of critical accident of the JCO uranium processing facility, delay of pull-thermal plan, requirement for power generation cost down against liberalization of electric power, highly aging countermeasure of power plant begun its operation as its Genesis, and so on. Under such conditions, in order that nuclear power generation in Japan survives as one of basic electric source in future, it is necessary not only to pursue safety and reliability of the plant reliable to the public, but also to intend to upgrade its operation and maintenance by positively adopting good examples on operational management method on abroad and to endeavor further upgrading of application ratio of equipments and reduction of generation cost. Here were outlined on operation conditions of nuclear power stations in Japan, and introduced on upgrading of their operational management and maintenance management. (G.K.)

  3. Comparison of Wind Power Converter Reliability with Low-Speed and Medium-Speed Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Franke, Toke

    2015-01-01

    of the turbine to the current and voltage loading of the each power semiconductor is achieved based on the synchronous generator modeling. Afterwards, a simplified approach to calculate the loss profile and the thermal profile is used to determine the most stressed power semiconductors in the converter. Finally...

  4. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  5. Problem of nuclear power plant reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popyrin, L.S.; Nefedov, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of substantiation of rational and methods of ensurance of NPP reliability at the stage of its designing has been studied. It is shown that the optimal level of NPP reliability is determined by coordinating solution of the proiblems for optimization of reliability of power industry, heat and power supply and nuclear power generation systems comprising NPP, and problems of reliability optimization of NPP proper, as a complex engineering system. The conclusion is made that the greatest attention should be paid to the development of mathematical models of reliability, taking into account different methods of equipment redundancy, as well as dependence of failures on barious factors, improvement of NPP reliability indices, development of data base, working out of the complec of consistent standards of reliability. 230 refs.; 2 figs.; 1 tab

  6. The Effect of Flow Swirling on the Safety and Reliability of Nuclear Power Installations of New Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrofanova, O. V.; Ivlev, O. A.; Urtenov, D. S.

    2018-03-01

    Hydrodynamics and heat exchange in the elements of thermal hydraulic tracts of ship nuclear reactors of the new generation were numerically simulated in this work. Parts of the coolant circuit in the collector and piping systems with geometries that may lead to generation of stable large-scale vortexes, causing a wide range of acoustic oscillations of the coolant, were selected as modeling objects. The purpose of the research is to develop principles of physical and mathematical modeling for scientific substantiation of optimal layout solutions that ensure enhanced operational life of icebreaker’s nuclear power installations of new generation with reactors of integral type.

  7. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  8. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  9. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  10. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  11. French power system reliability report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesseron, J.M.

    2009-06-01

    The reliability of the French power system was fully under control in 2008, despite the power outage in the eastern part of the Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur region on November 3, which had been dreaded for several years, since it had not been possible to set up a structurally adequate network. Pursuant to a consultation meeting, the reinforcement solution proposed by RTE was approved by the Minister of Energy, boding well for greater reliability in future. Based on the observations presented in this 2008 Report, RTE's Power System Reliability Audit Mission considers that no new recommendations are needed beyond those expressed in previous reliability reports and during reliability audits. The publication of this yearly report is in keeping with RTE's goal to promote the follow-up over time of the evolution of reliability in its various aspects. RTE thus aims to contribute to the development of reliability culture, by encouraging an improved assessment by the different players (both RTE and network users) of the role they play in building reliability, and by advocating the taking into account of reliability and benchmarking in the European organisations of Transmission System Operators. Contents: 1 - Brief overview of the evolution of the internal and external environment; 2 - Operating situations encountered: climatic conditions, supply / demand balance management, operation of interconnections, management of internal congestion, contingencies affecting the transmission facilities; 3 - Evolution of the reliability reference guide: external reference guide: directives, laws, decrees, etc, ETSO, UCTE, ENTSO-E, contracting contributing to reliability, RTE internal reference guide; 4 - Evolution of measures contributing to reliability in the equipment field: intrinsic performances of components (generating sets, protection systems, operation PLC's, instrumentation and control, automatic frequency and voltage controls, transmission facilities, control systems, load

  12. Improved reliability of power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Nick; Liserre, Marco; Dupont, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Power electronic systems play an increasingly important role in providing high-efficiency power conversion for adjustable-speed drives, power-quality correction, renewable-energy systems, energy-storage systems, and electric vehicles. However, they are often presented with demanding operating...... environments that challenge the reliability aspects of power electronic techniques. For example, increasingly thermally stressful environments are seen in applications such as electric vehicles, where ambient temperatures under the hood exceed 150 °C, while some wind turbine applications can place large...

  13. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska

    2015-01-01

    One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland), NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA), ...

  14. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  15. Reliability technology and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrick, B.J.; Kaplan, S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the history and status of nuclear reliability and the evolution of this subject from art towards science. It shows that that probability theory is the appropriate and essential mathematical language of this subject. The authors emphasize that it is more useful to view probability not as a $prime$frequency$prime$, i.e., not as the result of a statistical experiment, but rather as a measure of state of confidence or a state of knowledge. They also show that the probabilistic, quantitative approach has a considerable history of application in the electric power industry in the area of power system planning. Finally, the authors show that the decision theory notion of utility provides a point of view from which risks, benefits, safety, and reliability can be viewed in a unified way thus facilitating understanding, comparison, and communication. 29 refs

  16. TFTR CAMAC power supplies reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.A.; Bergin, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since the expected life of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been extended into the early 1990's, the issues of equipment wear-out, when to refurbish/replace, and the costs associated with these decisions, must be faced. The management of the maintenance of the TFTR Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA) power supplies within the CAMAC network is a case study of a set of systems to monitor repairable systems reliability, costs, and results of action. The CAMAC network is composed of approximately 500 racks, each with its own power supply. By using a simple reliability estimator on a coarse time interval, in conjunction with determining the root cause of individual failures, a cost effective repair and maintenance program has been realized. This paper describes the estimator, some of the specific causes for recurring failures and their correction, and the subsequent effects on the reliability estimator. By extension of this program the authors can assess the continued viability of CAMAC power supplies into the future, predicting wear-out and developing cost effective refurbishment/replacement policies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  17. Reliability worth assessment of radial systems with distributed generation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellart Llavall, Francesc Xavier

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in technology, utilities generation (DG) on the distribution systems. Reliability worth is very important in power system planning and operation. Having a DG ensures reli increase the reliability worth. This research project presents the study of a radial distribution system and the impact of placing DG in order to increase the reliability worth. where a DG have to be placed. The reliability improvement is measured by different reliability indices tha...

  18. IEEE guide to the collection and presentation of electrical, electronic, and sensing component reliability data for nuclear-power generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Guidelines are given for the purpose of establishing standardization methods for collecting and presenting reliability data for quantitative systematic analysis in nuclear power plants. This guide may be also used for reliability analysis in other segments of power industry. The data considered include failure rates, failure modes and environmental impact on component behavior

  19. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandra, Avinash

    1980-01-01

    The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)

  20. Power grid reliability and security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, Anjan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hauser, Carl [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Bakken, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Anderson, David [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhao, Chuanlin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Liu, Dong [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Yang, Tao [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Meng, Ming [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Zhang, Lin [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Ning, Jiawei [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Tashman, Zaid [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This project has led to the development of a real-time simulation platform for electric power grids called Grid Simulator or GridSim for simulating the dynamic and information network interactions of large- scale power systems. The platform consists of physical models of power system components including synchronous generators, loads and control, which are simulated using a modified commercial power simulator namely Transient Stability Analysis Tool (TSAT) [1] together with data cleanup components, as well as an emulated substation level and wide-area power analysis components. The platform also includes realistic representations of communication network middleware that can emulate the real-time information flow back and forth between substations and control centers in wide-area power systems. The platform has been validated on a realistic 6000-bus model of the western American power system. The simulator GridSim developed in this project is the first of its kind in its ability to simulate real-time response of large-scale power grids, and serves as a cost effective real-time stability and control simulation platform for power industry.

  1. Reliability Issues in Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Jeffrey; Shah, Ashwin

    2005-01-01

    Stirling power conversion is a potential candidate for use in a Radioisotope Power System (RPS) for space science missions because it offers a multifold increase in the conversion efficiency of heat to electric power and reduced requirement of radioactive material. Reliability of an RPS that utilizes Stirling power conversion technology is important in order to ascertain long term successful performance. Owing to long life time requirement (14 years), it is difficult to perform long-term tests that encompass all the uncertainties involved in the design variables of components and subsystems comprising the RPS. The requirement for uninterrupted performance reliability and related issues are discussed, and some of the critical areas of concern are identified. An overview of the current on-going efforts to understand component life, design variables at the component and system levels, and related sources and nature of uncertainties are also discussed. Current status of the 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) reliability efforts is described. Additionally, an approach showing the use of past experience on other successfully used power systems to develop a reliability plan for the SRG110 design is outlined.

  2. Working environment in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The proceedings contain 21 papers, of which 7 are devoted to nuclear power generation. They are concerned with the working environment in the controlled areas of the Bohunice nuclear power plant, the unsuitable design of the control rooms with respect to reliability and safety of operation of the nuclear power plant, optimization of the man-working conditions relation, operation of transport facilities, refuelling and fuel element inspection, the human factor and the probabilityy assessment of the nuclear power plant operating safety, a proposal to establish a universal ergonometric programme for the electric power distribution system, and physical factors in the ergonometric analysis of the working environment. (J.B.)

  3. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project

  4. Reliability of Power Electronic Converter Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -link capacitance in power electronic converter systems; wind turbine systems; smart control strategies for improved reliability of power electronics system; lifetime modelling; power module lifetime test and state monitoring; tools for performance and reliability analysis of power electronics systems; fault...... for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of PECS at different levels of complexity. Drawing on the experience of an international team of experts, this book explores the reliability of PECS covering topics including an introduction to reliability engineering in power...... electronic converter systems; anomaly detection and remaining-life prediction for power electronics; reliability of DC-link capacitors in power electronic converters; reliability of power electronics packaging; modeling for life-time prediction of power semiconductor modules; minimization of DC...

  5. High power klystrons for efficient reliable high power amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, M.

    1980-11-01

    This report covers the design of reliable high efficiency, high power klystrons which may be used in both existing and proposed troposcatter radio systems. High Power (10 kW) klystron designs were generated in C-band (4.4 GHz to 5.0 GHz), S-band (2.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz), and L-band or UHF frequencies (755 MHz to 985 MHz). The tubes were designed for power supply compatibility and use with a vapor/liquid phase heat exchanger. Four (4) S-band tubes were developed in the course of this program along with two (2) matching focusing solenoids and two (2) heat exchangers. These tubes use five (5) tuners with counters which are attached to the focusing solenoids. A reliability mathematical model of the tube and heat exchanger system was also generated.

  6. Philosophy of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amein, H.; Joyia, Y.; Qureshi, M.N.; Asif, M.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the huge power demand in future, the capital investment requirements for the development of power projects to meet the future energy requirements are so alarming that public sector alone cannot manage to raise funds and participation of the private sector in power generation development has become imperative. This paper discusses a power generation philosophy based on preference to the exploitation of indigenous resources and participation of private sector. In order to have diversification in generation resources, due consideration has been given to the development of nuclear power and even non-conventional but promising technologies of solar, wind, biomass and geothermal etc. (author)

  7. Reliability of Power Units in Poland and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available One of a power system’s subsystems is the generation subsystem consisting of power units, the reliability of which to a large extent determines the reliability of the power system and electricity supply to consumers. This paper presents definitions of the basic indices of power unit reliability used in Poland and in the world. They are compared and analysed on the basis of data published by the Energy Market Agency (Poland, NERC (North American Electric Reliability Corporation – USA, and WEC (World Energy Council. Deficiencies and the lack of a unified national system for collecting and processing electric power equipment unavailability data are also indicated.

  8. Carbon capture and storage in power generation and wind energy. Flexibility and reliability issues in scenarios for Northwest Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Deurzen, J.; Seebregts, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Netherlands is both heavily dependent on the success of carbon capture and storage (CCS) and renewable electricity for its decarbonisation policy. The same holds for the EU and some of its Member States like the United Kingdom. This paper discusses several scenarios for the Netherlands within the context of a liberalized and a more and more connected energy market in Northwest-Europe. The research reported here shows that CCS on new coal fired power plants does not pose a threat to the increase in the electricity production by large quantities of wind energy in the electricity system, and vice versa. For renewable energy, several additional policies are in place mainly in the form of financial support as long as these renewable options are not yet profitable. For CCS, financial support is only granted now for a selection of the first demonstration projects now planned in the EU. It is not yet clear if large scale CCS and high shares of wind energy can be incorporated in a balanced way in the electricity system. This paper shows that from a technical and economic point of view, there is room for both, and under which conditions such a two fold growth will be feasible.

  9. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  10. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    Advances in power electronics enable efficient and flexible processing of electric power in the application of renewable energy sources, electric vehicles, adjustable-speed drives, etc. More and more efforts are devoted to better power electronic systems in terms of reliability to ensure high......). A collection of methodologies based on Physics-of-Failure (PoF) approach and mission profile analysis are presented in this paper to perform reliability-oriented design of power electronic systems. The corresponding design procedures and reliability prediction models are provided. Further on, a case study...... on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical components IGBTs. Different aspects of improving the reliability of the power converter are mapped. Finally, the challenges and opportunities to achieve more reliable power electronic systems are addressed....

  11. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangas, H.

    2001-01-01

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  12. Power system reliability analysis using fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkanovski, A.; Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    2006-01-01

    The power system reliability analysis method is developed from the aspect of reliable delivery of electrical energy to customers. The method is developed based on the fault tree analysis, which is widely applied in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). The method is adapted for the power system reliability analysis. The method is developed in a way that only the basic reliability parameters of the analysed power system are necessary as an input for the calculation of reliability indices of the system. The modeling and analysis was performed on an example power system consisting of eight substations. The results include the level of reliability of current power system configuration, the combinations of component failures resulting in a failed power delivery to loads, and the importance factors for components and subsystems. (author)

  13. Power system reliability enhancement by using PowerformerTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat-Allah Hooshmand

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A high-voltage generator PowerformerTM is a new generation of the AC generators. The most significant advantages of these PowerformerTM are their direct connection to high-voltage grid, higher availability, and more reactive power margin, short term overloading capacity and removing the power transformer from the structure of the power plant. In this paper, the installation effect of these generators on the power system reliability is investigated. The amount of the effects depends on the type and location of the power plant, location of the PowerformerTM, the size of load and network topology. For this purpose, in the 6-bus IEEE RBTS system, the conventional generators are replaced by these new PowerformerTM and then, the reliability indices are evaluated. The simulation results show that the reliability indices such as the expected duration of load curtailment (EDLC and the expected energy not served (EENS are improved. .

  14. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  15. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  16. Impacts on power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Sidebotton, P.

    1998-01-01

    The future impact of the arrival of natural gas in the Maritime provinces on electricity generation in the region was discussed. Currently, electrical generation sources in Nova Scotia include hydro generation (9 per cent), coal generation (80 per cent), heavy fuel oil generation (8 per cent), and light oil, wood chips and purchased power (3 per cent). It is expected that with the introduction of natural gas electric utilities will take advantage of new gas combustion turbines which have high efficiency rates. An overview of Westcoast Power's operations across Canada was also presented. The Company has three projects in the Maritimes - the Courtney Bay project in New Brunswick, the Bayside Power project, the Irving Paper project - in addition to the McMahon cogeneration plant in Taylor, B.C. figs

  17. Power generating device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onodera, Toshihiro

    1989-05-02

    The existing power generating device consisting of static components only lacks effective measures to utilize solar energy and maintain power generation, hence it is inevitable to make the device much larger and more complicated in order to utilize it as the primary power source for artificial satellites. In view of the above, in order to offer a power generating device useful for the primary power source for satellites which is simple and can keep power generation by solar energy, this invention proposes a power generating device composed of the following elements: (1) a rectangular parallelopiped No. II superconductor plate; (2) a measure to apply a magnetic field to one face of the above superconductor plate; (3) a measure to provide a temperature difference within the range between the starting temperature and the critical temperature of superconductivity to a pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure; (4) a measure to provide an electrode on each of the other pair of faces meeting at right angles with the face to which the magnetic field was applied by the above measure and form a closed circuit by connecting the each electrode above to each of a pair of electrodes of the load respectively; and (5) a switching measure which is installed in the closed circuit prepared by the above measure and shuts off the closed circuit when the direction of the electric current running the above closed circuit is reversed. 6 figs.

  18. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  19. Long term reliability analysis of standby diesel generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    The long term reliability of 11 diesel generators of 125 to 250 kV A size has been analysed from 26 years of data base information on individual diesel service as standby power supplies for the Chalk River research reactor facilities. Failure to start on demand and failure to run data is presented and failure by diesel subsystem and multiple failures are also analysed. A brief comparison is made with reliability studies of larger diesel generator units used for standby power service in nuclear power plants. (author)

  20. The nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serres, R.

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear generating industry is highly competitive. The installations have an average age of fifteen years and are half way through their expected life. Nuclear power accounts for 70% of the profits of the French generating company, EDF. Nuclear generation has a minimal effect on the atmosphere and France has a level of CO 2 emissions, thought to be the main cause of the greenhouse effect, half that of Europe as a whole. The air in France is purer than in neighbouring countries, mainly because 75% of all electrical power is generated in nuclear plants and 15% in hydroelectric stations. The operations and maintenance of French nuclear power plants in the service and distribution companies out of a total of 100 000 employees in all, 90 % of whom are based in mainland France. (authors)

  1. Reliability models for Space Station power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, C.; Patton, A. D.; Kim, Y.; Wagner, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for the reliability evaluation of Space Station power system. The two options considered are the photovoltaic system and the solar dynamic system. Reliability models for both of these options are described along with the methodology for calculating the reliability indices.

  2. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  3. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  4. Peak power ratio generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  5. Increased nuclear safety and reliability through power beaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coomes, E.P.; Widrig, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Space satellites and platforms currently include self-contained power systems to supply the energy necessary to accomplish mission objectives. With power beaming, the power system is separate from the satellite and the two are connected by an energy beam. This approach is analogous to earth-based central station power generation and distribution over transmission lines to various customers. In space, power is produced by power satellites (central power generating stations) and transmitted via energy beams to individual users. Power beaming has the ability to provide an order of magnitude increase in power availability over solar-based power systems with less mass on orbit. The technologies needed for power beaming are being developed today under existing programs directed by the Strategic Defense Initiative Office, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, and the US Department of Energy. A space power architecture based on power beaming would greatly increase the safety and reliability of employing nuclear power in space

  6. Reliability assurance program for operational emergency ac power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.B.; Ragland, W.A.; Mueller, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive review of emergency ac power systems in nuclear generating plants (the vast majority of these plants contain redundant diesel generator systems) delineates several operational areas that can be improved by instituting a reliability assurance program (RAP), which initially upgrades the diesel generator performance and provides for ongoing monitoring and maintenance based upon alert levels

  7. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  8. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheindlin, A.E.; Jackson, W.D.; Brzozowski, W.S.; Rietjens, L.H.Th.

    1979-01-01

    The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m 3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)

  9. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Susumu; Miki, Takahiro; Suzuki, Kazuichi

    2000-01-01

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  10. Nuclear power generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.R.; Kati, S.L.; Raman, R.; Nanjundeswaran, K.; Nadkarny, G.V.; Verma, R.S.; Mahadeva Rao, K.V.

    1983-01-01

    Indian experience pertaining to investment and generation costs of nuclear power stations is reviewed. The causes of investment cost increases are analysed and the increases are apportioned to escalation, design improvements and safety related adders. The paper brings out the fact that PHWR investment costs in India compare favourably with those experienced in developed countries in spite of the fact that the programme and the unit size are relatively much smaller in India. It brings out that in India at current prices a nuclear power station located over 800 km from coal reserves and operating at 75% capacity factor is competitive with thermal power at 60% capacity factor. (author)

  11. Reliability analysis of grid connected small wind turbine power electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arifujjaman, Md.; Iqbal, M.T.; Quaicoe, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Grid connection of small permanent magnet generator (PMG) based wind turbines requires a power conditioning system comprising a bridge rectifier, a dc-dc converter and a grid-tie inverter. This work presents a reliability analysis and an identification of the least reliable component of the power conditioning system of such grid connection arrangements. Reliability of the configuration is analyzed for the worst case scenario of maximum conversion losses at a particular wind speed. The analysis reveals that the reliability of the power conditioning system of such PMG based wind turbines is fairly low and it reduces to 84% of initial value within one year. The investigation is further enhanced by identifying the least reliable component within the power conditioning system and found that the inverter has the dominant effect on the system reliability, while the dc-dc converter has the least significant effect. The reliability analysis demonstrates that a permanent magnet generator based wind energy conversion system is not the best option from the point of view of power conditioning system reliability. The analysis also reveals that new research is required to determine a robust power electronics configuration for small wind turbine conversion systems.

  12. Resolution of GSI B-56 - Emergency diesel generator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that licensees assess their station blackout coping and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for avoiding a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) a nuclear unit EDG reliability level of at least 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required EDG reliability levels. NUMARC-8700, Guidelines and Technical Bases for NUMARC Initiatives Addressing Station Blackout at Light Water Reactors, also provides guidance on such needs. The resolution of GSI B-56, Diesel Reliability will be accomplished by issuing Regulatory Guide 1.9, Rev. 3, Selection, Design, Qualification, Testing, and Reliability of Diesel Generator Units Used as Onsite Electric Power Systems at Nuclear Plants. This revision will integrate into a single regulatory guide pertinent guidance previously addressed in R.G. 1.9, Rev. 2, R.G. 1.108, and Generic Letter 84-15. R.G. 1.9 has been expanded to define the principal elements of an EDG reliability program for monitoring and maintaining EDG reliability levels selected for SBO. In addition, alert levels and corrective actions have been defined to detect a deteriorating situation for all EDGs assigned to a particular nuclear unit, as well as an individual problem EDG

  13. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  14. Risks of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostert, P.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison is made between the various ways of power generation in the Netherlands and the hazards attached to them. Tables are presented of fuels used, the quantities used per annum and in the course of the last 20 years, accidents and pollution types and percentages, as well as the toxicity and waste disposal risks. (Auth.)

  15. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  16. The obtention of high reliability levels to the increasing of power in hydroelectric generators of modern power plants; A obtencao de altos indices de confiabilidade no aumento de potencia em hidrogeradores de usinas modernizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Octavio A.; Uemori, Mauro K.I.; Spiridon, Michel W. [Asea Brown Boveri Ltda., Osasco, SP (Brazil)

    1993-12-31

    The increase in the power capacity of the generators of existing hydroelectric power plants is presented as an alternative technically feasible and economically advantageous to the increase of the power generation capacity of the Brazilian electric power system. This work presents the need of a global analysis of each case in order to optimize this process and also presents a methodology which may be applied to electric power generators, turbines, transformers and other electrical equipment. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  17. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF POWER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu V.S.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Power distribution systems are basic parts of power systems and reliability of these systems at present is a key issue for power engineering development and requires special attention. Operation of distribution systems is accompanied by a number of factors that produce random data a large number of unplanned interruptions. Research has shown that the predominant factors that have a significant influence on the reliability of distribution systems are: weather conditions (39.7%, defects in equipment(25% and unknown random factors (20.1%. In the article is studied the influence of random behavior and are presented estimations of reliability of predominantly rural electrical distribution systems.

  18. Future nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosbah, D.S.; Nasreddine, M.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  19. CRL research reactor diesel generator reliability study 1960 - 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.; McCauley, G.M.

    1994-07-01

    A data base has been provided for the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) research reactor diesel generator reliability, for use in risk assessment studies of CRL research reactors. Data from 1960 to end of 1992 have been collected, representing 358 diesel generator years of experience. The data is used to provide failure-to-start probabilities and failure-to-run rates. Data is also classified according to subsystem failures, multiple failures and common cause failures. Comparisons with other recent studies of nuclear power plant diesel generator reliability have been made. This revision updates the 1989 September report. (author). 14 refs., 13 tabs., 10 figs

  20. CRNL research reactor diesel generator reliability study 1960-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfield, D.J.

    1989-09-01

    A data base has been provided for the CRNL research reactor diesel generator reliability, for use in risk assessment studies of CRNL research reactors. Data from 1960 to the present have been collected, representing 281 diesel generator years of experience. The data is used to provide failure-to-start probabilities and failure-to-run rates. Data is also classified according to subsystem failures, multiple failures and common cause failures. Comparisons with other recent studies of nuclear power plant diesel generator reliability have been made

  1. Reliability payments to generation capacity in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Pringles, Rolando; Larisson, Carlos; Garcés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Electric power is a critical input to modern economies. Generation adequacy and security of supply in power systems running under competition are currently topics of high concern for consumers, regulators and governments. In a market setting, generation investments and adequacy can only be achieved by an appropriate regulatory framework that sets efficient remuneration to power capacity. Theoretically, energy-only electricity markets are efficient and no additional mechanism is needed. Nonetheless, the energy-only market design suffers from serious drawbacks. Therefore, jointly with the evolution of electricity markets, many remunerating mechanisms for generation capacity have been proposed. Explicit capacity payment was the first remunerating approach implemented and perhaps still the most applied. However, this price-based regulation has been applied no without severe difficulties and criticism. In this paper, a new reliability payment mechanism is envisioned. Capacity of each generating unit is paid according to its effective contribution to overall system reliability. The proposed scheme has many attractive features and preserves the theoretical efficiency properties of energy-only markets. Fairness, incentive compatibility, market power mitigation and settlement rules are investigated in this work. The article also examines the requirements for system data and models in order to implement the proposed capacity mechanism. A numerical example on a real hydrothermal system serves for illustrating the practicability of the proposed approach and the resulting reliability payments to the generation units. - Highlights: • A new approach for remunerating supply reliability provided by generation units is proposed. • The contribution of each generating unit to lessen power shortfalls is determined by simulations. • Efficiency, fairness and incentive compatibility of the proposed reliability payment are assessed

  2. Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2018-01-01

    Power density, efficiency, cost, and reliability are the major challenges when designing a power electronic system. Latest advancements in power semiconductor devices (e.g., silicon carbide devices) and topological innovations have vital contributions to power density and efficiency. Nevertheless......, dedicated heat sink systems for thermal management are required to dissipate the power losses in power electronic systems; otherwise, the power devices will be heated up and eventually fail to operate. In addition, in many mission critical applications (e.g., marine systems), the operating condition (i...

  3. Reliability of power electronic converter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Henry Shu-hung; Blaabjerg, Frede; Pecht, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book outlines current research into the scientific modeling, experimentation, and remedial measures for advancing the reliability, availability, system robustness, and maintainability of Power Electronic Converter Systems (PECS) at different levels of complexity.

  4. Nuclear power - a reliable future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeca, Serban

    2002-01-01

    The Ministry of Education and Research - Department of Research has implemented a national Research and Development program taking into consideration the following: - the requirements of the European Union on research as a factor of development of the knowledge-based society; - the commitments to the assimilation and enforcement of the recommendations of the European Union on nuclear power prompted by the negotiations of the sections 'Science and Research' and ' Energy' of the aquis communautaire; - the major lines of interest in Romania in the nuclear power field established by National Framework Program of Cooperation with IAEA, signed on April 2001; - the short and medium term nuclear options of the Romanian Government; - the objectives of the National Nuclear Plan. The major elements of the nuclear research and development program MENER (Environment, Energy, Resources) supported by the Department of Research of the Ministry of Education and Research are the following: - reactor physics and nuclear fuel management; - operation safety of the Power Unit 1 of Cernavoda Nuclear Electric Power Station; - improved nuclear technological solutions at the Cernavoda NPP; - development of technologies for nuclear fuel cycle; - operation safety of the other nuclear plants in Romania; - assessment of nuclear risks and estimation of the radiological impact on the environment; - behavior of materials under the reactor service conditions and environmental conditions; - design of nuclear systems and equipment for the nuclear power stations and nuclear facilities; - radiological safety; - application of nuclear techniques and technologies in industry, agriculture, medicine and other fields of social life. Research to develop high performance methods and equipment for monitoring nuclear impact on environment are conducted to endorse the measures for radiation protection. Also mentioned are the research on implementing a new type of nuclear fuel cycle in CANDU reactors as well as

  5. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  6. Reliability of PWR type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, A.A.T.; Muniz, A.A.

    1978-12-01

    Results of the analysis of factors influencing the reliability of international nuclear power plants of the PWR type are presented. The reliability factor is estimated and the probability of its having lower values than a certain specified value is discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Designing incentive market mechanisms for improving restructured power system reliabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob; Wu, Qiuwei

    2011-01-01

    state. The reliability management of producers usually cannot be directly controlled by the system operators in a restructured power system. Producers may have no motivation to improve their reliabilities, which can result in serious system unreliability issues in the new environment. Incentive market...... mechanisms for improving the restructured power system reliabilities have been designed in this paper. In the proposed incentive mechanisms, penalty will be implemented on a producer if the failures of its generator(s) result in the variation of electricity prices. Incentive market mechanisms can motivate......In a restructured power system, the monopoly generation utility is replaced by different electricity producers. There exists extreme price volatility caused by random failures by generation or/and transmission systems. In these cases, producers' profits can be much higher than those in the normal...

  8. Increase of hydroelectric power plant operation reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshumbaev, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    The new design of the turbine of hydroelectric power plant (HPP) is executed in the form of a pipe with plates. Proposed solution allows increasing the hydroelectric power plant capacity at existing head and water flow. At that time the HPP turbine reliability is increase, its operation performances are improving. Design efficiency is effective mostly for small-scale and micro-HPP due to reliable operation, low-end technology, and harmless ecological application. (author)

  9. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  10. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  11. Design for Reliability of Power Electronics in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics is the enabling technology for maximizing the power captured from renewable electrical generation, e.g., the wind and solar technology, and also for an efficient integration into the grid. Therefore, it is important that the power electronics are reliable and do not have too many...... failures during operation which otherwise will increase cost for operation, maintenance and reputation. Typically, power electronics in renewable electrical generation has to be designed for 20–30 years of operation, and in order to do that, it is crucial to know about the mission profile of the power...... electronics technology as well as to know how the power electronics technology is loaded in terms of temperature and other stressors relevant, to reliability. Hence, this chapter will show the basics of power electronics technology for renewable energy systems, describe the mission profile of the technology...

  12. Problems in diagnosing and forecasting power equipment reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popkov, V I; Demirchyan, K S

    1979-11-01

    This general survey deals with approaches to the resolution of such problems as the gathering, analysis and systematization of data on component defects in power equipment and setting up feedback with the manufacturing plants and planning organizations to improve equipment reliability. Such efforts on the part of designers, manufacturers and operating and repair organizations in analyzing faults in 300 MW turbogenerators during 1974-1977 reduced the specific fault rate by 20 to 25% and the downtime per failure by 35 to 40%. Since power equipment should operate for several hundreds of thousands of hours (20 to 30 years) and the majority of power components have guaranteed service lives of no more than 10/sup 5/ hours, an extremely difficult problem is the determination of the reliability of equipment past the 10/sup 5/ point. The present trend in the USSR Unified Power System towards increasing the number of shutdowns and startups, which in the case of turbogenerators of up 1200 MW power can reach 7500 to 10,000 cycles is noted. Other areas briefly treated are: MHD generator reliability and economy; nuclear power plant reliability and safety; the reliability of high-power high-voltage thyristor converters; the difficulties involved in scale modeling of power system reliability and the high cost of the requisite full-scale studies; the poor understanding of long term corrosion and erosion processes. The review concludes with arguments in favor of greater computerization of all aspects of power system management.

  13. power system reliability in supplying nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gad, M.M.M.

    2007-01-01

    this thesis presents a simple technique for deducing minimal cut set (MCS) from the defined minimal path set (MPS) of generic distribution system and this technique have been used to evaluate the basic reliability indices of Egypt's second research reactor (ETRR-2) electrical distribution network. the alternative system configurations are then studied to evaluate their impact on service reliability. the proposed MCS approach considers both sustained and temporary outage. the temporary outage constitutes an important parameter in characterizing the system reliability indices for critical load point in distribution system. it is also consider the power quality impact on the reliability indices

  14. Generator technology for HTGR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomba, D.; Thiot, D.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately 15% of the worlds installed capacity in electric energy production is from generators developed and manufactured by GEC Alsthom. GEC Alsthom is now working on the application of generators for HTGR power conversion systems. The main generator characteristics induced by the different HTGR power conversion technology include helium immersion, high helium pressure, brushless excitation system, magnetic bearings, vertical lineshaft, high reliability and long periods between maintenance. (author)

  15. Maximal network reliability for a stochastic power transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yi-Kuei; Yeh, Cheng-Ta

    2011-01-01

    Many studies regarded a power transmission network as a binary-state network and constructed it with several arcs and vertices to evaluate network reliability. In practice, the power transmission network should be stochastic because each arc (transmission line) combined with several physical lines is multistate. Network reliability is the probability that the network can transmit d units of electric power from a power plant (source) to a high voltage substation at a specific area (sink). This study focuses on searching for the optimal transmission line assignment to the power transmission network such that network reliability is maximized. A genetic algorithm based method integrating the minimal paths and the Recursive Sum of Disjoint Products is developed to solve this assignment problem. A real power transmission network is adopted to demonstrate the computational efficiency of the proposed method while comparing with the random solution generation approach.

  16. Reliability study of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemec, J.; Sedlacek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper considers the physical and mathematical bases underlying nuclear power station reliability from the standpoints of material fatigue, thermal yield and ageing. The risk of failure of nuclear power station components is determined by means of the Markov stochastic process

  17. Reliability Evaluation of Power Capacitors in a Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of wind power, reliable and cost-effective wind energy production is of more and more importance. The doubly-fed induction generator based partial-scale wind power converter is still dominating in the existing wind farms. In this paper, the reliability assessment...... block diagram is used to bridge the gap between the Weibull distribution based component-level individual capacitor and the capacitor bank. A case study of a 2 MW wind power converter shows that the lifetime is significantly reduced from the individual capacitor to the capacitor bank. Besides, the dc...... of power capacitors is studied considering the annual mission profile. According to an electro-thermal stress evaluation, the time-to-failure distribution of both the dc-link capacitor and ac-side filter capacitor is detailed investigated. Aiming for the systemlevel reliability analysis, a reliability...

  18. Reliability of power system with open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, A.; Ranjbar, A. M.; Fotuhi Firuzabad, M.; Ehsani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, in many countries, electric utility industry is undergoing considerable changes in regard to its structure and regulation. It can be clearly seen that the thrust towards privatization and deregulation or re regulation of the electric utility industry will introduce numerous reliability problems that will require new criteria and analytical tools that recognize the residual uncertainties in the new environment. In this paper, different risks and uncertainties in competitive electricity markets are briefly introduced; the approach of customers, operators, planners, generation bodies and network providers to the reliability of deregulated system is studied; the impact of dispersed generation on system reliability is evaluated; and finally, the reliability cost/reliability worth issues in the new competitive environment are considered

  19. SG (steam generators) reliability project builds on Owners Group successes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, S.

    1988-01-01

    In 1987, a five-year Steam Generator Reliability Project was established at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to deal with outstanding issues, following on from work initiated by the previous utility industry groupings (Steam Generator Owners Groups I and II). The work done by these groups is discussed and a listing of the major objectives of the new project is provided. (U.K.)

  20. Structural reliability of atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 the first specialized technical manual ''Technique of Calculating the Structural Reliability of an Atomic Power Plant and Its Systems in the Design Stage'' was developed. The present article contains information about the main characteristics and capabilities of the manual. The manual gives recommendations concerning the calculations of the reliability of such specific systems as the reactor control and safety system, the system of instrumentation and automatic control, and safety systems. 2 refs

  1. Reliability of nuclear power plants and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The standard sets the general principles, a list of reliability indexes and demands on their selection. Reliability indexes of nuclear power plants include the simple indexes of fail-safe operation, life and maintainability, and of storage capability. All terms and notions are explained and methods of evaluating the indexes briefly listed - statistical, and calculation experimental. The dates when the standard comes in force in the individual CMEA countries are given. (M.D.)

  2. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 10 14 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  3. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  5. Power generation by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacher, P.

    2004-01-01

    Nuclear power plays an important role in the world, European (33%) and French (75%) power generation. This article aims at presenting in a synthetic way the main reactor types with their respective advantages with respect to the objectives foreseen (power generation, resources valorization, waste management). It makes a fast review of 50 years of nuclear development, thanks to which the nuclear industry has become one of the safest and less environmentally harmful industry which allows to produce low cost electricity: 1 - simplified description of a nuclear power generation plant: nuclear reactor, heat transfer system, power generation system, interface with the power distribution grid; 2 - first historical developments of nuclear power; 3 - industrial development and experience feedback (1965-1995): water reactors (PWR, BWR, Candu), RBMK, fast neutron reactors, high temperature demonstration reactors, costs of industrial reactors; 4 - service life of nuclear power plants and replacement: technical, regulatory and economical lifetime, problems linked with the replacement; 5 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  6. Engineering high reliability, low-jitter Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, L.X.; Lockwood, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    Multimodule pulsed power accelerators typically require high module reliability and nanosecond regime simultaneity between modules. Energy storage using bipolar Marx generators can meet these requirements. Experience gained from computer simulations and the development of the DEMON II Marx generator has led to a fundamental understanding of the operation of these multistage devices. As a result of this research, significant improvements in erection time jitter and reliability have been realized in multistage, bipolar Marx generators. Erection time jitter has been measured as low as 2.5 nanoseconds for the 3.2MV, 16-stage PBFA I Marx and 3.5 nanoseconds for the 6.0MV, 30-stage PBFA II (DEMON II) Marx, while maintaining exceptionally low prefire rates. Performance data are presented from the DEMON II Marx research program, as well as discussions on the use of computer simulations in designing low-jitter Marx generators

  7. Generating Reliable and Affective Choreography through Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jochum, Elizabeth

    How do we define graceful motion? Is grace exclusively the province of living, sentient beings, or is it possible to automate graceful motion? The GRACE project (Generating Reliable and Affective Choreography through Engineering) uses these two questions to investigate what makes movement graceful....... The principal objective is to measure the role of kinesics on human-robot interactions through the development of an automated performance. If it is possible to create an automated program using autonomous, artificial agents that emulate aspects of human gracefulness, then we can apply this understanding more...... widely to contemporary robotics research and human-robot interaction (HRI)....

  8. Improving the reliability of emergency diesel generators through sustained maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, R.

    2000-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Stations Emergency Diesel Generators are vital safety related equipment which ensures power supply to essential equipment during loss of power. In view of their importance Reliability of Diesel generators should be very high. Since these Diesel generators are standby equipment and operate only during demand or during surveillance checks, their demand failure probability should be very low and once they operate their operational availability should be very high. Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam, India consists two pressurised heavy water Reactors each rated at 220 MWe. To supply standby power each unit has two Diesel Generators of I 500 kW capacity each. The Diesel Engine is 16 cylinder 'V' type engine and is cranked by Air starting motor and is connected to generator whose rating at 100% load is 1500 KW. During commissioning and in the initial years of operation these Diesel Generators have encountered many problems. Major problem was Diesel Engine failing to start on demand. This was due to non engagement of air motor pinion with ring gear or continued engagement air motor even after the engine had picked up speed and failure of timer to initiate multiple starts after initial incomplete starts Apart from these there were problems like fuel oil leaks, high jacket water temperatures, low fuel oil pressure trips. Another major problem was with excitation system. How these problems were dealt with thereby reducing the demand failure probability and increasing the operational availability are discussed in this paper. (author)

  9. Microgrids: Reliable power in a small package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krotz, D.

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to power generation in which a cluster of small, on-site generators serve office buildings, industrial parks and homes, is being developed by scientists at the University of California's Berkeley Campus. Called microgrid, the system may well be the answer to satisfying the growing thirst for electricity without the danger of overburdening the aging transmission lines, or building 1,000 new power plants that would be required to meet the ever-growing demand. The new approach relies on small generators such as ordinary reciprocating engines, microturbines, fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems. This microgrid of small generators appears to the main grid as just an ordinary customer. When the grid offers cheap electricity, the microgrid can purchase it, but when prices rise, or when there is a power failure, the microgrid can isolate itself, ensuring uninterrupted power to critical equipment such as computers, communications infrastructure and control systems. The idea is that if sensitive equipment can be powered locally, the vulnerable centralized power system becomes much less critical. The microgrid could be powered by recovered waste heat, a currently wasted by-product of power generation. Waste heat could also cool and dehumidify buildings using thermally activated processes. Microgrids also have the potential to introduce real competition into the electricity market by offering customers a choice; this is expected to have the effect of imposing competitive discipline on power companies. To extend the potential even farther, it is considered well within the realm of possibility that by introducing fuel cell-powered cars into the microgrid, the car could be used as a source of power by simply parking it and plugging it in to supply electricity to the home or the office

  10. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  11. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meslin, Th.; Aufort, P.

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs

  12. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meslin, Th [Electricite de France (EDF), 41 - Saint-Laurent-des-Eaux (France); Aufort, P

    1996-04-01

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs.

  13. Reliability assessment of restructured power systems using reliability network equivalent and pseudo-sequential simulation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Yi; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit; Billinton, Roy; Karki, Rajesh

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a technique to evaluate reliability of a restructured power system with a bilateral market. The proposed technique is based on the combination of the reliability network equivalent and pseudo-sequential simulation approaches. The reliability network equivalent techniques have been implemented in the Monte Carlo simulation procedure to reduce the computational burden of the analysis. Pseudo-sequential simulation has been used to increase the computational efficiency of the non-sequential simulation method and to model the chronological aspects of market trading and system operation. Multi-state Markov models for generation and transmission systems are proposed and implemented in the simulation. A new load shedding scheme is proposed during generation inadequacy and network congestion to minimize the load curtailment. The IEEE reliability test system (RTS) is used to illustrate the technique. (author)

  14. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Eric; Yang, YongPing; Nishimura, Akira; Yilmaz, Ferdi; Kouzani, Abbas

    2010-01-01

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO 2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  15. Reliability of eddy current examination of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birks, A.S.; Ferris, R.H.; Doctor, P.G.; Clark, R.A.; Spanner, G.E.

    1985-04-01

    A unique study of nondestructive examination reliability is underway at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship. Project participants include the Electric Power Research Institute and consortiums from France, Italy, and Japan. This study group has conducted a series of NDE examinations of tubes from a retired-from-service steam generator, using commercially available multifrequency eddy current equipment and ASME procedures. The examination results have been analyzed to identify factors contributing to variations in NDE inspection findings. The reliability of these examinations will then be validated by destructive analyses of the steam generator tubes. The program is expected to contribute to development of a model for steam generator inservice inspection sampling plans and inspection periods, as well as to improved regulatory guidelines for tube plugging

  16. Competitive power markets and grid reliability : keeping the promise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, D.

    2005-01-01

    This white paper discussed various links between restructuring, competitive markets and reliability in the consolidation of electricity markets in Ontario. A historical approach was used, and the first section of the paper reviewed how reliability was managed in the pre-market period. The second section discussed the current reliability model and some of the general issues it has raised, as well as lessons learned. Structural reforms were reviewed. It was noted that currently dominant generators hold more market share than is compatible with ideas of workable competition. Issues concerning the mitigation of market power were discussed, with specific reference to the importance of public opinion. The need for mandatory standards and inclusive processes was emphasized, as well as the implementation of effective communication strategies and consumer education. A resource adequacy mechanism was recommended. The role of the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) was reviewed. Issues concerning consumer protection were examined. Future priorities included investment in infrastructure and reliability, as well as a realignment of markets. It was suggested that energy and reserve trading are critical for ensuring reliability in the market paradigm. Markets and inter-regional trading were discussed in terms of promoting reliability. Improvements in infrastructure were recommended, as well as a reduction in trade barriers. It was concluded that an over-arching, industry-wide commitment to investing in reliability is essential for managing the restructuring and reliability relationship in the years ahead. 15 refs

  17. Enhancing reliability of ultrasonic testing of welds of nuclear power plant equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbinskij, V.G.

    1981-01-01

    Results of investigation of factors influencing the reliability of manual ultrasonic testing of welded joints and weld deposited metal power-generating equipment are presented. Recommendations on the enhancing of reliability are given [ru

  18. Power Industry Reliability Coordination in Asia in a Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Hammons, Thomas J.; Voropai, Nikolai I.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems of power supply reliability in a market environment. The specific features of economic interrelations between the power supply organization and consumers in terms of reliability assurance are examined and the principles of providing power supply reliability are formulated. The economic mechanisms of coordinating the interests of power supply organization and consumers to provide power supply reliability are discussed. Reliability of restructuring China's powe...

  19. Renewable energies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freris, L.; Infield, D.

    2009-01-01

    Power generation from renewable energy sources is different from power generation from classical energies (nuclear, thermal..). Therefore, the integration into the grid of the electricity supplied by renewable sources requires a deep thinking. The reason is that these power sources are controlled by variable elements, like wind, water and sun, which condition production. This book deals with the following aspects in detail: characteristics of classical and intermittent generators; grid balancing between supply and demand; conversion methods of renewable energies into electricity; power systems; privatizing of power generation and birth of new markets, in particular the 'green' power market; development of renewable energies thanks to technical advances. It gives a comprehensive overview of the present day available renewable energy sources for power generation. (J.S.)

  20. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...... presents an overview of the power converters for the DPGS, mainly based on wind turbine systems and photovoltaic systems, covering a wide range of applications. Moreover, the modulation schemes and interfacing power filters for the power converters are also exemplified. Finally, the general control...

  1. Thermoelectric coolers as power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, E.J.; Buist, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are many applications where thermoelectric (TE) coolers can be used effectively as power generators. The literature available on this subject is scarce and very limited in scope. This paper describes the configuration, capability, limitations and performance of TE coolers to be used as power generators. Also presented are performance curves enabling the user to design the optimum TE module for any given power generation application

  2. Integrating generation and transmission networks reliability for unit commitment solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilzadeh, S.; Shayeghi, H.; Hadadian, H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a new method with integration of generation and transmission networks reliability for the solution of unit commitment (UC) problem. In fact, in order to have a more accurate assessment of system reserve requirement, in addition to unavailability of generation units, unavailability of transmission lines are also taken into account. In this way, evaluation of the required spinning reserve (SR) capacity is performed by applying reliability constraints based on loss of load probability and expected energy not supplied (EENS) indices. Calculation of the above parameters is accomplished by employing a novel procedure based on the linear programming which it also minimizes them to achieve optimum level of the SR capacity and consequently a cost-benefit reliability constrained UC schedule. In addition, a powerful solution technique called 'integer-coded genetic algorithm (ICGA)' is being used for the solution of the proposed method. Numerical results on the IEEE reliability test system show that the consideration of transmission network unavailability has an important influence on reliability indices of the UC schedules

  3. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO [de

  4. Power generation and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, L.E.J.; Liss, P.S.; Saunders, P.A.H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reviews environmental aspects of large-scale power generation. It includes historic background of present-generation patterns and a discussion of fossil fuel, nuclear energy, and renewable technologies

  5. SNS AC Power Distribution and Reliability of AC Power Supply

    CERN Document Server

    Holik, Paul S

    2005-01-01

    The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. A design description under the Construction Design and Maintenance (CDM) with regard to regulations (OSHA, NFPA, NEC), reliability issues and maintenance of the AC power distribution system are herewith presented. The SNS Project has 45MW of installed power. The Accelerator Systems are Front End (FE)and LINAC KLYSTRON Building (LK), Central Helium Liquefier (CHL), High Energy Beam Transport (HEBT), Accumulator Ring and Ring to Target Beam Transport (RTBT) Support Buildings have 30MW installed power. FELK has 16MW installed, majority of which is klystron and magnet power supply system. CHL, supporting the super conducting portion of the accelerator has 7MW installed power and the RING Systems (HEBT, RING and RTBT) have also 7MW installed power.*

  6. The third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, H.D.

    1987-01-01

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached of are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objective of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry. (author)

  7. Third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, H.D.

    1988-01-01

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached or are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objectives of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry

  8. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott

    2009-01-01

    Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts) into impedances less than 10 (Omega), from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K.W. Struve, W.A. Stygar, L.K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007), p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6 (Omega), 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10 -4 . The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the design goals related to high reliability and low jitter. While

  9. Forward reliability markets: Less risk, less market power, more efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramton, Peter; Stoft, Steven

    2008-01-01

    A forward reliability market is presented. The market coordinates new entry through the forward procurement of reliability options - physical capacity bundled with a financial option to supply energy above a strike price. The market assures adequate generating resources and prices capacity from the bids of competitive new entry in an annual auction. Efficient performance incentives are maintained from a load-following obligation to supply energy above the strike price. The capacity payment fully hedges load from high spot prices, and reduces supplier risk as well. Market power is reduced in the spot market, since suppliers enter the spot market with a nearly balanced position in times of scarcity. Market power in the reliability market is addressed by not allowing existing supply to impact the capacity price. The approach, which has been adopted in New England and Colombia, is readily adapted to either a thermal system or a hydro system. (author)

  10. Reliability Electrical Power System of Hospital as Cold Standby System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabski Franciszek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The probabilistic model of a hospital electrical power system consisting of mains, an emergency power system and the automatic transfer switch with the generator starter are discussed in this paper. The reliability model is semi-Markov process describing two different units renewable cold standby system and switch. The embedded Semi-Markov processes concept is applied for description of the system evolution. Time to failure of the system is represented by a random variable denoting the first passage time of the process from the given state to the subset of states. The appropriate theorems of the Semi-Markov processes theory allow us to evaluate the reliability function and some reliability characteristics.

  11. Distributed power generation using microturbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available At present, the bulk of the world is electricity is generated in central power stations. This approach, one of `economy of size generates electricity in large power stations and delivers it to load centres via an extensive network of transmission...

  12. Operational reliability of the Point Lepreau GS standby generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loughead, D. A.; McGregor, A. T. [Safety and Compllance Group, New Brunswick Electric Power Commission, Point Lepreau Generating Station, P.O.Box 10 Lepreau, New Brunswick E0G 2H0 (Canada)

    1986-02-15

    Performance of the two Point Lepreau GS standby generators during the first three years of licensed station operation is reviewed. It is shown that the mandated reliability/availability requirements have been met. The nature of starting and running failures has been examined and the consequences, in terms of design and procedural changes, discussed. A brief review of standby generator outages is included to permit estimates of standby generator availability and total Class III standby power unavailability. A pair of simple equations is introduced as a means of estimating the probable economic penalty, both cumulative and incremental, associated with the running failure of one standby generator while the other is on a maintenance outage. (authors)

  13. Operational reliability of the Point Lepreau GS standby generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughead, D.A.; McGregor, A.T.

    1986-01-01

    Performance of the two Point Lepreau GS standby generators during the first three years of licensed station operation is reviewed. It is shown that the mandated reliability/availability requirements have been met. The nature of starting and running failures has been examined and the consequences, in terms of design and procedural changes, discussed. A brief review of standby generator outages is included to permit estimates of standby generator availability and total Class III standby power unavailability. A pair of simple equations is introduced as a means of estimating the probable economic penalty, both cumulative and incremental, associated with the running failure of one standby generator while the other is on a maintenance outage. (authors)

  14. Investments in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The power consumption in the common Nordic power market continues to grow. All potential production technologies entail more or less reduction in quality of the environment. This gives each of the Nordic countries incentives to limit the development of capacity and base themselves increasingly on import, which means that other countries take the political burden with the environmental issues (''free rider problem''). The uncertainty about the climate problem may make it rational to postpone investments which are expensive to reverse, like gas power. If the decisions are delayed too long, however, considerable socio-economic costs may accumulate because the price of electricity becomes too high. The present regulations of the environmental concerns in connection with the granting of concession are expensive and unpredictable and put society unnecessarily to expense

  15. Power generation in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, N.T.

    1976-01-01

    There have been extensive developments in the power supply industry in South Africa. The most evident of these has been the increase in the size of generating units. Escom has recently placed orders for 600 MW units. In South Africa, with its large indigenous reserves of cheap coal, there was no need to rush into a nuclear power programme before it would be economic and, accordingly the first serious study of nuclear power generation was not undertaken until 1966. A final aspect of power generation which is becoming very important is the control of pollution and protection of the environment

  16. Competitiveness of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumi, Yoshihiko

    1998-01-01

    In view of the various merits of nuclear power generation, Japanese electric utilities will continue to promote nuclear power generation. At the same time, however, it is essential to further enhance cost performance. Japanese electric utilities plan to reduce the cost of nuclear power generation, such as increasing the capacity factor, reducing operation and maintenance costs, and reducing construction costs. In Asia, nuclear power will also play an important role as a stable source of energy in the future. For those countries planning to newly introduce nuclear power, safety is the highest priority, and cost competitiveness is important. Moreover, financing will be an essential issue to be resolved. Japan is willing to support the establishment of nuclear power generation in Asia, through its experience and achievements. In doing this, support should not only be bilateral, but should include all nuclear nations around the Pacific rim in a multilateral support network. (author)

  17. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  18. Design and implementation of reliability data system of emergency diesel generator for YGN 3,4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Jang, S. D.; Kim, G. Y.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, Y. H.; Jeong, H. J.; Choi, G. H.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of D 2 REAMS that supports management and monitoring of the reliability data of emergency diesel generator of YGN 3,4 nuclear power plant. D2REAMS is the computerized reliability database management system to control the reliability of the emergency diesel generator of nuclear power plant and consists of seven sub-modules. Also, it was developed with intranet technology to eliminate the common problems of conventional client-server architecture. As the result of this implementation, the reliability and unavailability can be automatically computed by D2REAMS with the stored test and operation data of YGN 3,4 nuclear power plant

  19. Power generation systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor); Chao, Yi (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A power generation system includes a plurality of submerged mechanical devices. Each device includes a pump that can be powered, in operation, by mechanical energy to output a pressurized output liquid flow in a conduit. Main output conduits are connected with the device conduits to combine pressurized output flows output from the submerged mechanical devices into a lower number of pressurized flows. These flows are delivered to a location remote of the submerged mechanical devices for power generation.

  20. Reliability of microcircuits in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, P.M.; Taplin, R.C.

    1986-06-01

    The reliability problems associated with modernizing control systems in nuclear power plants, particularly by using new technology microcircuits, are discussed and twelve problem areas identified. These are: new technology introduction; variability in manufacture; derating necessities; distributed systems; use of redundancy; electrostatic discharge damage; electromagnetic interference; nuclear radiation; thermal effects; contamination, including humidity; mechanical effects, including vibration; and testing. Recommendations for the AECB are given in each area. Guidelines are given for the design, procurement, installation, operation and maintenance stages of use. Recommendations for further work are given

  1. Reliability Improvement of Power Converters by Means of Condition Monitoring of IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2017-01-01

    Power electronic systems have gradually gained an important status in a wide range of industrial applications such as renewable generation, motor drives, automotive, and railway transportation. Accordingly, recent research makes an effort to improve the reliability of power electronic systems...

  2. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  3. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  4. Improvement of power quality using distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Lopez-Rodriguez, M.A.; Flores-Arias, J.M.; Bellido-Outerino, F.J. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento A.C., Electronica y T.E., Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); de-la-Rosa, J.J.G. [Universidad de Cadiz, Area de Electronica, Dpto. ISA, TE y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior Avda, Ramon Puyol, S/N, E-11202-Algeciras-Cadiz (Spain); Ruiz-de-Adana, M. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper addresses how Distributed Generation (DG), particularly when configured in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) mode, can become a powerful reliability solution in highlight automated factories, especially when integrated with complimentary Power Quality (PQ) measures. The paper presents results from the PQ audit conducted at a highly automated plant over last year. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags. Among all categories of electrical disturbances, the voltage sag (dip) and momentary interruption are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addressed the role of the DG/CHP on the reliability of digital factories. (author)

  5. Short-Term and Medium-Term Reliability Evaluation for Power Systems With High Penetration of Wind Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yi; Singh, Chanan; Goel, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    reliability evaluation techniques for power systems are well developed. These techniques are more focused on steady-state (time-independent) reliability evaluation and have been successfully applied in power system planning and expansion. In the operational phase, however, they may be too rough......The expanding share of the fluctuating and less predictable wind power generation can introduce complexities in power system reliability evaluation and management. This entails a need for the system operator to assess the system status more accurately for securing real-time balancing. The existing...... an approximation of the time-varying behavior of power systems with high penetration of wind power. This paper proposes a time-varying reliability assessment technique. Time-varying reliability models for wind farms, conventional generating units, and rapid start-up generating units are developed and represented...

  6. Reliability of dc power supplies in nuclear power plant application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhut, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    In June 1977 the reliability of dc power supplies at nuclear power facilities was questioned. It was postulated that a sudden gross failure of the redundant dc power supplies might occur during normal plant operation, and that this could lead to insufficient shutdown cooling of the reactor core. It was further suggested that this potential for insufficient cooling is great enough to warrant consideration of prompt remedies. The work described herein was part of the NRC staff's efforts aimed towards putting the performance of dc power supplies in proper perspective and was mainly directed towards the particular concern raised at that time. While the staff did not attempt to perform a systematic study of overall dc power supply reliability including all possible failure modes for such supplies, the work summarized herein describes how a probabilistic approach was used to supplement our more usual deterministic approach to reactor safety. Our evaluation concluded that the likelihood of dc power supply failures leading to insufficient shutdown cooling of the reactor core is sufficiently small as to not require any immediate action

  7. Environmental impact of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hester, R.E.; Harrison, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    A series of articles offers answers to questions on the environmental consequences and impact on man of the power generation industry. Subjects discussed in detail include: (i) acid rain and climate change and how the generators of electricity have been expected to play a role disproportionate to their deleterious contributions in improving the situation; (ii) recently adopted air quality management approaches with regard to airborne emissions from power stations and motor vehicles; (iii) the evolution of the UK power industry towards sustainability through considerations for the environment and use of resources in a liberalised market; (iv) the Best Practicable Environmental Option approach to the design and siting of power stations; (v) the environmental impact of nuclear power generation and (vi) electromagnetic fields and the possible effects on man of transmitting electricity in overhead power lines

  8. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. ... (solar power); wind (wind power) and the rest, thermal power and ... probability of a system performing its function adequately for ...

  9. Impacts of Contingency Reserve on Nodal Price and Nodal Reliability Risk in Deregulated Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2013-01-01

    The deregulation of power systems allows customers to participate in power market operation. In deregulated power systems, nodal price and nodal reliability are adopted to represent locational operation cost and reliability performance. Since contingency reserve (CR) plays an important role...... in reliable operation, the CR commitment should be considered in operational reliability analysis. In this paper, a CR model based on customer reliability requirements has been formulated and integrated into power market settlement. A two-step market clearing process has been proposed to determine generation...

  10. Power generation in Southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, J.A. de

    2002-01-01

    This paper outlines the main characteristics of power generation in Southern Africa, in terms of primary energy resources, existing and projected power supply and demand, types and location of power plants, regional integration, and environmental management aspects. Various options for future development of power generation are presented as part of an overall integrated resource planning (IRP) process for the power industry. These include coal and natural gas based options, hydro power and other renewable energy, and nuclear power plants. A specific option, the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR), under development by Eskom Enterprises and other international and local partners, is described in terms of overall design parameters, inherent safety features, economics and environmental aspects. Included is a high level discussion on the selection of materials for the design of this PBMR plant, an advanced design version of a high temperature gas reactor (HTGR). (orig.)

  11. Isolated Power Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator with Improved Power Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Sabha Raj; Patel, Ashish; Giri, Ashutosh

    2018-03-01

    This paper deals wind energy based power generation system using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). It is controlled using advanced enhanced phase-lock loop for power quality features using distribution static compensator to eliminate the harmonics and to provide KVAR compensation as well as load balancing. It also manages rated potential at the point of common interface under linear and non-linear loads. In order to have better efficiency and reliable operation of PMSG driven by wind turbine, it is necessary to analyze the governing equation of wind based turbine and PMSG under fixed and variable wind speed. For handling power quality problems, power electronics based shunt connected custom power device is used in three wire system. The simulations in MATLAB/Simulink environment have been carried out in order to demonstrate this model and control approach used for the power quality enhancement. The performance results show the adequate performance of PMSG based power generation system and control algorithm.

  12. Small nuclear power reactor emergency electric power supply system reliability comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfietti, Gerson

    2003-01-01

    This work presents an analysis of the reliability of the emergency power supply system, of a small size nuclear power reactor. Three different configurations are investigated and their reliability analyzed. The fault tree method is used as the main tool of analysis. The work includes a bibliographic review of emergency diesel generator reliability and a discussion of the design requirements applicable to emergency electrical systems. The influence of common cause failure influences is considered using the beta factor model. The operator action is considered using human failure probabilities. A parametric analysis shows the strong dependence between the reactor safety and the loss of offsite electric power supply. It is also shown that common cause failures can be a major contributor to the system reliability. (author)

  13. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  14. Fast Reliability Assessing Method for Distribution Network with Distributed Renewable Energy Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fan; Huang, Shaoxiong; Ding, Jinjin; Ding, Jinjin; Gao, Bo; Xie, Yuguang; Wang, Xiaoming

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a fast reliability assessing method for distribution grid with distributed renewable energy generation. First, the Weibull distribution and the Beta distribution are used to describe the probability distribution characteristics of wind speed and solar irradiance respectively, and the models of wind farm, solar park and local load are built for reliability assessment. Then based on power system production cost simulation probability discretization and linearization power flow, a optimal power flow objected with minimum cost of conventional power generation is to be resolved. Thus a reliability assessment for distribution grid is implemented fast and accurately. The Loss Of Load Probability (LOLP) and Expected Energy Not Supplied (EENS) are selected as the reliability index, a simulation for IEEE RBTS BUS6 system in MATLAB indicates that the fast reliability assessing method calculates the reliability index much faster with the accuracy ensured when compared with Monte Carlo method.

  15. Reliable control system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Tetsuo; Miyazaki, Shiro

    1980-01-01

    The System 1100 for nuclear power plants is the measuring and control system which utilizes the features of the System 1100 for electric power market in addition to the results of nuclear instrumentation with EBS-ZN series, and it has the following features. The maintenance and inspection in operation are easy. The construction of control loops is made flexibly by the combination of modules. The construction of multi-variable control system using mainly feed forward control is easy. Such functions as the automatic switching of control modes can be included. The switching of manual and automatic operations is easy, and if some trouble occurred in a module, the manual operation can be made. The aseismatic ability is improved by rigid structure cubicles. Nonflammable materials are used for wires, multi-core cables, paints and printed boards. The anti-noise characteristics are improved, and the reliability is high. The policy of developing the System 1100 for nuclear power plants, the type approval tests on modules and units and the type approval test on the system are described. The items of the system type approval test were standard performance test, earthquake test, noise isolation test, temperature and humidity test, and drift test. The aseismatic cubicle showed good endurance in its vibration test. (Kako, I.)

  16. Power generation from waste wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nitsche, H

    1980-04-18

    Since the energy crisis, power generation from waste wood has become increasingly important. The most profitable way to use waste wood in woodworking plants with an annual production of 100 to 150,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark is by combustion and thermal energy recovery. In plants with an annual production of 10,000 m/sup 3/ solid measure of wood chips and bark, electric power generation is a suitable application.

  17. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.; Bowers, H.I.

    1980-08-01

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  18. FUNDAMENTALS OF RELIABILITY OF ELECTRIC POWER SYSTEM AND EQUIPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Engr. Anumaka; Michael Chukwukadibia

    2011-01-01

    Today, the electric power system consists of complex interconnected network which are prone to different problems that militates against the reliability of the power system. Inadequate reliability in the power system causes problems such as high failure rate of power system installations and consumer equipment, transient and intransient faults, symmetrical faults etc. This paper provides an extensive review of the powers system and equipment reliability and related failure patterns in equipment.

  19. Reliability Model of Power Transformer with ONAN Cooling

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sefidgaran; M. Mirzaie; A. Ebrahimzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Reliability of a power system is considerably influenced by its equipments. Power transformers are one of the most critical and expensive equipments of a power system and their proper functions are vital for the substations and utilities. Therefore, reliability model of power transformer is very important in the risk assessment of the engineering systems. This model shows the characteristics and functions of a transformer in the power system. In this paper the reliability model...

  20. Reliability evaluation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondiris, I.L.

    1978-10-01

    The research described in this thesis is concerned with the reliability/safety analysis of complex systems, such as nuclear power stations, basically using the event tree methodology. The thesis introduces and assesses a computational technique which applies the methodology to complex systems by simulating their topology and operational logic. The technique develops the system event tree and relates each branch of this tree to its qualitative and quantitative impact on specified system outcomes following an abnormal operating condition. Then, the thesis aims at deducing the critical failure modes of complex systems. This is achieved by a new technique for deducing the minimal cut or tie sets of various system outcomes. The technique is, furthermore, expanded to identify potential common mode failures and cut or tie sets containing dependent failures of some components. After dealing with the qualitative part of a reliability study, the thesis introduces two methods for calculating the probability of a component being either in the failure or in the partial failure state. The first method deals with revealed faults and makes use of the concept of Markov processes. The second one deals with unrevealed faults and can be used to calculate the relevant probability of component taking into account its inspection and replacement process. (author)

  1. Structural Reliability Methods for Wind Power Converter System Component Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Wind power converter systems are essential subsystems in both off-shore and on-shore wind turbines. It is the main interface between generator and grid connection. This system is affected by numerous stresses where the main contributors might be defined as vibration and temperature loadings....... The temperature variations induce time-varying stresses and thereby fatigue loads. A probabilistic model is used to model fatigue failure for an electrical component in the power converter system. This model is based on a linear damage accumulation and physics of failure approaches, where a failure criterion...... is defined by the threshold model. The attention is focused on crack propagation in solder joints of electrical components due to the temperature loadings. Structural Reliability approaches are used to incorporate model, physical and statistical uncertainties. Reliability estimation by means of structural...

  2. Nuclear power generation and automation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korei, Yoshiro

    1985-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in the total generated electric power has been increasing year after year, and the ensuring of its stable supply has been demanded. For the further development of nuclear power generation, the heightening of economical efficiency which is the largest merit of nuclear power and the public acceptance as a safe and stable electric power source are the important subjects. In order to solve these subjects, in nuclear power generation, various automation techniques have been applied for the purpose of the heightening of reliability, labor saving and the reduction of radiation exposure. Meeting the high needs of automation, the automation technology aided by computers have been applied to the design, manufacture and construction, operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Computer-aided design and the examples of design of a reactor building, pipings and a fuel assembly, an automatic welder for pipings of all position TIG welding type, a new central monitoring and control system, an automatic exchanger of control rod-driving mechanism, an automatic in-service inspection system for nozzles and pipings, and a robot for steam generator maintenance are shown. The trend of technical development and an intelligent moving robot, a system maintenance robot and a four legs walking robot are explained. (Kako, I.)

  3. A Reliability-Oriented Design Method for Power Electronic Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    Reliability is a crucial performance indicator of power electronic systems in terms of availability, mission accomplishment and life cycle cost. A paradigm shift in the research on reliability of power electronics is going on from simple handbook based calculations (e.g. models in MIL-HDBK-217F h...... and reliability prediction models are provided. A case study on a 2.3 MW wind power converter is discussed with emphasis on the reliability critical component IGBT modules....

  4. Reliable, Low Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: 2001 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-08-01

    This report details a research program to develop requirements that support the definition, design, and demonstration of a distributed generation-electric power system interconnection interface concept that allows distributed generation to be interconnected to the electric power system in a manner that provides value to end users without compromising reliability and performance.

  5. Ergonomics and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beyers, C.J.; Bogie, K.D.

    1986-01-01

    The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms

  6. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trebolle, David; Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  7. Distribution planning with reliability options for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trebolle, David [Union Fenosa Distribucion, C/Antonio Lopez, 19, 28026 Madrid (Spain); Gomez, Tomas; Cossent, Rafael; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    The promotion of electricity generation from renewable energy sources (RES) and combined heat and power (CHP) has resulted in increasing penetration levels of distributed generation (DG). However, large-scale connection of DG involves profound changes in the operation and planning of electricity distribution networks. Distribution System Operators (DSOs) play a key role since these agents have to provide flexibility to their networks in order to integrate DG. Article 14.7 of EU Electricity Directive states that DSOs should consider DG as an alternative to new network investments. This is a challenging task, particularly under the current regulatory framework where DSOs must be legally and functionally unbundled from other activities in the electricity sector. This paper proposes a market mechanism, referred to as reliability options for distributed generation (RODG), which provides DSOs with an alternative to the investment in new distribution facilities. The mechanism proposed allocates the firm capacity required to DG embedded in the distribution network through a competitive auction. Additionally, RODG make DG partly responsible for reliability and provide DG with incentives for a more efficient operation taking into account the network conditions. (author)

  8. Reliability evaluation of emergency AC power systems based on operating experience at U.S. nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowsky, P. W. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1986-02-15

    The reliability of emergency AC power Systems has been under study at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and by its contractors for several years. This paper provides the results of work recently performed to evaluate past U.S. nuclear power plant emergency AC power System reliability performance using system level data. Operating experience involving multiple diesel generator failures, unavailabilities, and simultaneous occurrences of failures and out of service diesel generators were used to evaluate reliability performance at individual nuclear power plants covering a 9 year period from 1976 through 1984. The number and nature of failures and distributions of reliability evaluation results are provided. The results show that plant specific performance varied considerably during the period with a large number achieving high reliability performance and a smaller number accounting for lower levels of reliability performance. (author)

  9. Improvement of standards on functional reliability of electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barinov, V.A.; Volkov, G.A.; Kalita, V.V.; Kogan, F.L.; Makarov, S.F.; Manevich, A.S.; Mogirev, V.V.; Sin'chugov, F.I.; Skopintsev, V.A.; Khvoshchinskaya, Z.G.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of the most principal aspects of the existing standards and requirements on assuring safety and stability of electric power systems (EPS) and effective (reliable and economical) power supply of consumers is given. The reliability is determined as ability to accomplish the assigned functions. Basic recommendations on improving the standards regulating the safety and reliability of the NPP functioning are formulated

  10. Technology success: Integration of power plant reliability and effective maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, K.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclear power generation sector has a tradition of utilizing technology as a key attribute for advancement. Companies that own, manage, and operate nuclear power plants can be expected to continue to rely on technology as a vital element of success. Inherent with the operations of the nuclear power industry in many parts of the world is the close connection between efficiency of power plant operations and successful business survival. The relationship among power plant availability, reliability of systems and components, and viability of the enterprise is more evident than ever. Technology decisions need to be accomplished that reflect business strategies, work processes, as well as needs of stakeholders and authorities. Such rigor is needed to address overarching concerns such as power plant life extension and license renewal, new plant orders, outage management, plant safety, inventory management etc. Particular to power plant reliability, the prudent leveraging of technology as a key to future success is vital. A dominant concern is effective asset management as physical plant assets age. Many plants are in, or are entering in, a situation in which systems and component design life and margins are converging such that failure threats can come into play with increasing frequency. Wisely selected technologies can be vital to the identification of emerging threats to reliable performance of key plant features and initiating effective maintenance actions and investments that can sustain or enhance current reliability in a cost effective manner. This attention to detail is vital to investment in new plants as well This paper and presentation will address (1) specific technology success in place at power plants, including nuclear, that integrates attention to attaining high plant reliability and effective maintenance actions as well as (2) complimentary actions that maximize technology success. In addition, the range of benefits that accrue as a result of

  11. High reliability low jitter pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mark E.; Stoltzfus, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    A method and concomitant apparatus for generating pulses comprising providing a laser light source, disposing a voltage electrode between ground electrodes, generating laser sparks using the laser light source via laser spark gaps between the voltage electrode and the ground electrodes, and outputting pulses via one or more insulated ground connectors connected to the voltage electrode.

  12. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  13. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  14. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Reliability of the emergency diesel generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verstegen, C.; Kotthoff, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit - GRS mbH, Schwertnergasse 1, D-5000 Koeln 1, Cologne (Germany)

    1986-02-15

    The paper deals with a statistical investigation on the availability of diesel generators, which has been performed recently The investigation is based on the operating experiences of a total of 40-diesel generators in 10 German NPP's. Both unavailability of the diesel generators due to failures and due to maintenance and repair have been considered.The probability of diesel failure during start and short-time operation amounts?o about 8 x 10{sup -3}/demand. The probability of common mode failures is approximately one order of magnitude smaller. The influence of various parameters on the failure probability has been discussed. A statistically significant dependence could not be identified In addition the investigation shows that the unavailability of the diesel generators due to maintenance and repair is about of the same order magnitude as the probability of diesel failures. (authors)

  16. Economics of generating electricity from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, H.O.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews and compares experiences and projected future construction and electricity generation costs for nuclear and fossil fired power plants. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitive position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budgets, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors is identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climate impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard, mitigation of emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power (au)

  17. Design reliability assurance program for Korean next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Beom-Su; Han, Jin-Kyu; Na, Jang Hwan; Yoo, Kyung Yeong

    1997-01-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) project is to develop standardized nuclear power plant design for the construction of future nuclear power plants in Korea. The main purpose of the KNGR project is to develop the advanced nuclear power plants, which enhance safety and economics significantly through the incorporation of design concepts for severe accident prevention and mitigation, supplementary passive safety concept, simplification and application of modularization and so on. For those, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and availability study will be performed at the early stage of the design, and the Design Reliability Assurance Program (D-RAP) is applied in the development of the KNGR to ensure that the safety and availability evaluated in the PSA and availability study at the early phase of the design is maintained through the detailed design, construction, procurement and operation of the plants. This paper presents the D-RAP concept that could be applied at the stage of the basic design of the nuclear power plants, based on the models for the reference plants and/or similar plants. 4 refs., 1 fig

  18. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  19. Transitioning to Physics-of-Failure as a Reliability Driver in Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Power electronics has progressively gained important status in power generation, distribution and consumption. With more than 70% of electricity processed through power electronics, recent research endeavors to improve the reliability of power electronic systems to comply with more stringent...... constraints on cost, safety and availability in various applications. This paper serves to give an overview of the major aspects of reliability in power electronics and to address the future trends in this multidisciplinary research direction. The ongoing paradigm shift in reliability research is presented...... first. Then the three major aspects of power electronics reliability are discussed, respectively, which cover from physics-of-failure analysis of critical power elec-tronic components, state-of-the-art design for reliability process and robustness validation, and intelligent control and condition...

  20. Generation 'Next' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeev, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    My generation was labeled by Russian mass media as generation 'Next.' My technical education is above average. My current position is as a mechanical engineer in the leading research and development institute for Russian nuclear engineering for peaceful applications. It is noteworthy to point out that many of our developments were really first-of-a-kind in the history of engineering. However, it is difficult to grasp the importance of these accomplishments, especially since the progress of nuclear technologies is at a standstill. Can generation 'Next' be independent in their attitude towards nuclear power or shall we rely on the opinions of elder colleagues in our industry? (authors)

  1. Application of Thermoelectric Devices to Fuel Cell Power Generation: Demonstration and Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huston, John; Wyatt, Chris; Nichols, Chris; Binder, Michael J; Holcomb, Franklin H

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DOD) is concerned with reliable and cost-effective power generation of on-site power generators as well as minimizing the environment impact of these generators. Thermoelectric (TE...

  2. Reliability Analysis Techniques for Communication Networks in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, T. J.; Jang, S. C.; Kang, H. G.; Kim, M. C.; Eom, H. S.; Lee, H. J.

    2006-09-01

    The objectives of this project is to investigate and study existing reliability analysis techniques for communication networks in order to develop reliability analysis models for nuclear power plant's safety-critical networks. It is necessary to make a comprehensive survey of current methodologies for communication network reliability. Major outputs of this study are design characteristics of safety-critical communication networks, efficient algorithms for quantifying reliability of communication networks, and preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks

  3. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  4. Future independent power generation and implications for instruments and controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the independent power producers market is comprised of cogeneration, small power generation, and independent power production (IPP) segments. Shortfalls in future electric supply are expected to lead to significant growth in this market. The opportunities for instruments and controls will shift from traditional electric utility applications to the independent power market with a more diverse set of needs. Importance will be placed on system reliability, quality of power and increased demand for clean kWh

  5. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  6. Reliability Constrained Priority Load Shedding for Aerospace Power System Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Zhu, Jizhong; Kaddah, Sahar S.; Dolce, James L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The need for improving load shedding on board the space station is one of the goals of aerospace power system automation. To accelerate the optimum load-shedding functions, several constraints must be involved. These constraints include congestion margin determined by weighted probability contingency, component/system reliability index, generation rescheduling. The impact of different faults and indices for computing reliability were defined before optimization. The optimum load schedule is done based on priority, value and location of loads. An optimization strategy capable of handling discrete decision making, such as Everett optimization, is proposed. We extended Everett method to handle expected congestion margin and reliability index as constraints. To make it effective for real time load dispatch process, a rule-based scheme is presented in the optimization method. It assists in selecting which feeder load to be shed, the location of the load, the value, priority of the load and cost benefit analysis of the load profile is included in the scheme. The scheme is tested using a benchmark NASA system consisting of generators, loads and network.

  7. Adoption of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommers, P.

    1980-01-01

    This article develops a model of the innovation-adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power pool size, and selected aspects of uncertainty about the innovation are significant predictors of US utility companies' decisions on whether or not to adopt nuclear power generation. 17 references, 2 tables

  8. Experiment research on cognition reliability model of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Bingquan; Fang Xiang

    1999-01-01

    The objective of the paper is to improve the reliability of operation on real nuclear power plant of operators through the simulation research to the cognition reliability of nuclear power plant operators. The research method of the paper is to make use of simulator of nuclear power plant as research platform, to take present international research model of reliability of human cognition based on three-parameter Weibull distribution for reference, to develop and get the research model of Chinese nuclear power plant operators based on two-parameter Weibull distribution. By making use of two-parameter Weibull distribution research model of cognition reliability, the experiments about the cognition reliability of nuclear power plant operators have been done. Compared with the results of other countries such USA and Hungary, the same results can be obtained, which can do good to the safety operation of nuclear power plant

  9. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1981-01-01

    This lecture presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis, outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants and explains the management function as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability. (orig./RW)

  10. Potential for deserts to supply reliable renewable electric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labordena, Mercè; Lilliestam, Johan

    2015-04-01

    To avoid dangerous climate change, the electricity systems must be decarbonized by mid-century. The world has sufficient renewable electricity resources for complete power sector decarbonization, but an expansion of renewables poses several challenges for the electricity systems. First, wind and solar PV power are intermittent and supply-controlled, making it difficult to securely integrate this fluctuating generation into the power systems. Consequently, power sources that are both renewable and dispatchable, such as biomass, hydro and concentrating solar power (CSP), are particularly important. Second, renewable power has a low power density and needs vast areas of land, which is problematic both due to cost reasons and due to land-use conflicts, in particular with agriculture. Renewable and dispatchable technologies that can be built in sparsely inhabited regions or on land with low competition with agriculture would therefore be especially valuable; this land-use competition greatly limits the potential for hydro and biomass electricity. Deserts, however, are precisely such low-competition land, and are at the same time the most suited places for CSP generation, but this option would necessitate long transmission lines from remote places in the deserts to the demand centers such as big cities. We therefore study the potential for fleets of CSP plants in the large deserts of the world to produce reliable and reasonable-cost renewable electricity for regions with high and/or rapidly increasing electricity demand and with a desert within or close to its borders. The regions in focus here are the European Union, North Africa and the Middle East, China and Australia. We conduct the analysis in three steps. First, we identify the best solar generation areas in the selected deserts using geographic information systems (GIS), and applying restrictions to minimize impact on biodiversity, soils, human heath, and land-use and land-cover change. Second, we identify

  11. Fear of nuclear power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higson, D.J. [Paddington, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    Communicating the benefits of nuclear power generation, although essential, is unlikely to be sufficient by itself to counter the misconceptions which hinder the adoption of this technology, viz: that it is unsafe, generates intractable waste, facilitates the proliferation of nuclear weapons, etc. Underlying most of these objections is the fear of radiation, engendered by misunderstandings of the effects of exposure - not the actual risks of radiation exposure themselves. Unfortunately, some aspects of current radiation protection practices promote the misconception that there is no safe dose. A prime purpose of communications from the nuclear industry should be to dispel these misconceptions. (author)

  12. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. Reliability program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The reliability program plan for the Selenide Isotope Generator (SIG) program is presented. It delineates the specific tasks that will be accomplished by Teledyne Energy Systems and its suppliers during design, development, fabrication and test of deliverable Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Electrical Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETG) and associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The Plan is formulated in general accordance with procedures specified in DOE Reliability Engineering Program Requirements Publication No. SNS-2, dated June 17, 1974. The Reliability Program Plan presented herein defines the total reliability effort without further reference to Government Specifications. The reliability tasks to be accomplished are delineated herein and become the basis for contract compliance to the extent specified in the SIG contract Statement of Work

  13. Bayesian approach in the power electric systems study of reliability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Reliability - Power System - Bayes Theorem - Weibull Model - Probability. ... ensure a series of estimated parameter (failure rate, mean time to failure, function .... only on random variable r.v. describing the operating conditions: ..... Multivariate performance reliability prediction in real-time, Reliability Engineering.

  14. Reliability of fossil-fuel and nuclear power installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The conference heard a total of 37 papers of which 24 were inputted in INIS. The subject area was mainly the use of reliability information systems and the production of data banks for these systems, the application of the reliability theory and the reliability analysis of equipment and systems of nuclear power plants. (J.P.)

  15. Steam generator life cycle management: Ontario Power Generation (OPG) experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruska, C.C.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic managed process for steam generators has been implemented at Ontario Power Generation (OPG) nuclear stations for the past several years. One of the key requirements of this managed process is to have in place long range Steam Generator Life Cycle Management (SG LCM) plans for each unit. The primary goal of these plans is to maximize the value of the nuclear facility through safe and reliable steam generator operation over the expected life of the units. The SG LCM plans integrate and schedule all steam generator actions such as inspection, operation, maintenance, modifications, repairs, assessments, R and D, performance monitoring and feedback. This paper discusses OPG steam generator life cycle management experience to date, including successes, failures and how lessons learned have been re-applied. The discussion includes relevant examples from each of the operating stations: Pickering B and Darlington. It also includes some of the experience and lessons learned from the activities carried out to refurbish the steam generators at Pickering A after several years in long term lay-up. The paper is structured along the various degradation modes that have been observed to date at these sites, including monitoring and mitigating actions taken and future plans. (author)

  16. Reliability and safety of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanek, S.

    1979-01-01

    The main problems are briefly discussed associated with the assessment of the safety and reliability of reactor pressure vessels. Two approaches are being applied to the assessment: one is based on the crack arrest temperature, the other on the determination of conditions corresponding to brittle fracture formation and on the determination of the critical defect size. The importance is stressed of continuous in-service inspection which may increase the factor of reliability by up to 10 4 times. (Z.M.)

  17. Reliability Evaluation of Distribution System Considering Sequential Characteristics of Distributed Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Wanxing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In allusion to the randomness of output power of distributed generation (DG, a reliability evaluation model based on sequential Monte Carlo simulation (SMCS for distribution system with DG is proposed. Operating states of the distribution system can be sampled by SMCS in chronological order thus the corresponding output power of DG can be generated. The proposed method has been tested on feeder F4 of IEEE-RBTS Bus 6. The results show that reliability evaluation of distribution system considering the uncertainty of output power of DG can be effectively implemented by SMCS.

  18. An integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, T.; Shimokawa, H.; Matsushima, H.

    1998-01-01

    The responsibility in the nuclear field of the Government, utilities and manufactures has increased in the past years due to the need of stable operation and great reliability of nuclear power plants. The need to improve the reliability is not only for the new plants but also for those now running. So, several measures have been taken to improve reliability. In particular, the plant manufactures have developed a reliability management system for each phase (planning, construction, maintenance and operation) and these have been integrated as a unified system. This integrated reliability management system for nuclear power plants contains information about plant performance, failures and incidents which have occurred in the plants. (author)

  19. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-12-01

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO 2 ) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO 2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods

  20. Validity and Reliability of a Medicine Ball Explosive Power Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbrugger, Barry A.; Haennel, Robert G.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the validity and reliability of a medicine ball throw test to evaluate explosive power. Data on competitive sand volleyball players who performed a medicine ball throw and a standard countermovement jump indicated that the medicine ball throw test was a valid and reliable way to assess explosive power for an analogous total-body movement…

  1. Approach for an integral power transformer reliability model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Steennis, E.F.; Wetzer, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In electrical power transmission and distribution networks power transformers represent a crucial group of assets both in terms of reliability and investments. In order to safeguard the required quality at acceptable costs, decisions must be based on a reliable forecast of future behaviour. The aim

  2. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  3. Cheaper power generation from surplus steam generating capacities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, K.

    1996-01-01

    Prior to independence most industries had their own captive power generation. Steam was generated in own medium/low pressure boilers and passed through extraction condensing turbines for power generation. Extraction steam was used for process. With cheaper power made available in Nehru era by undertaking large hydro power schemes, captive power generation in industries was almost abandoned except in sugar and large paper factories, which were high consumers of steam. (author)

  4. Transforming Ontario's Power Generation Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, J.; Epp, J.; Godsoe, P.C.

    2004-01-01

    The OPG Review Committee was formed by the Ontario Ministry of Energy to provide recommendations and advice on the future role of Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) in the electricity sector. This report describes the future structure of OPG with reference to the appropriate corporate governance and senior management structure. It also discusses the potential refurbishing of the Pickering A nuclear generating Units 1, 2 and 3. The electricity system in Ontario is becoming increasingly fragile. The province relies heavily on electricity imports and the transmission system is being pushed to near capacity. Three nuclear generating units are out of service. The problems can be attributed to the fact that the electricity sector has been subjected to unpredictable policy changes for more than a decade, and that the largest electricity generator (OPG) has not been well governed. OPG has had frequent senior management change, accountability has been weak, and cost overruns have delayed the return to service of the Pickering nuclear power Unit 4. It was noted that the generating assets owned and operated by OPG are capable of providing more than 70 per cent of Ontario's electricity supply. Decisive action is needed now to avoid a potential supply shortage of about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts by 2007. In its current state, OPG risks becoming a burden on ratepayers. Forty recommendations were presented, some of which suggest that OPG should become a rate-regulated commercial utility focused on running and maintaining its core generating assets. This would require that the government act as a shareholder, and the company operate like a commercial business. It was also emphasized that the market must be allowed to bring in new players. refs., tabs., figs

  5. Weibull distribution in reliability data analysis in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yingfei; Zhang Zhijian; Zhang Min; Zheng Gangyang

    2015-01-01

    Reliability is an important issue affecting each stage of the life cycle ranging from birth to death of a product or a system. The reliability engineering includes the equipment failure data processing, quantitative assessment of system reliability and maintenance, etc. Reliability data refers to the variety of data that describe the reliability of system or component during its operation. These data may be in the form of numbers, graphics, symbols, texts and curves. Quantitative reliability assessment is the task of the reliability data analysis. It provides the information related to preventing, detect, and correct the defects of the reliability design. Reliability data analysis under proceed with the various stages of product life cycle and reliability activities. Reliability data of Systems Structures and Components (SSCs) in Nuclear Power Plants is the key factor of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA); reliability centered maintenance and life cycle management. The Weibull distribution is widely used in reliability engineering, failure analysis, industrial engineering to represent manufacturing and delivery times. It is commonly used to model time to fail, time to repair and material strength. In this paper, an improved Weibull distribution is introduced to analyze the reliability data of the SSCs in Nuclear Power Plants. An example is given in the paper to present the result of the new method. The Weibull distribution of mechanical equipment for reliability data fitting ability is very strong in nuclear power plant. It's a widely used mathematical model for reliability analysis. The current commonly used methods are two-parameter and three-parameter Weibull distribution. Through comparison and analysis, the three-parameter Weibull distribution fits the data better. It can reflect the reliability characteristics of the equipment and it is more realistic to the actual situation. (author)

  6. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Research and development of photovoltaic power utilizing system and peripheral technologies (Research and development for enhancing reliability of photovoltaic power generation - Research on long-term reliability of inverter); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Taiyoko hatsuden riyo system shuhen gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu (taiyoko hatsuden no shinraisei kojo ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu - inverter no choki shinraisei no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In fiscal 1999, the power conditioner which is the primary component of a photovoltaic power system was subjected to an accelerated test, etc., for the evaluation of its durability. For the accelerated test, operating conditions were so set that acceleration be implemented according to Arrhenius' law at ambient temperature 40 degrees C and relative humidity 36%. For the operation of the power conditioner, it was so set that the operation duration be 3.5 hours with a rest time of 4.5 hours for the night or the like. In the accelerated test conducted as in the previous year, 1100 cycles were completed recording the maximum, equivalent to approximately 8-1/2 years according to Arrhenius' law. After the test, no life affecting changes were detected in specimen device A, B, or D. Specimen C, however, failed during the test. As for the evaluation of durability of components, the electrolytic capacitor in the power conditioner was named. Reliability related literature was investigated and a durability evaluation test was started, with consideration given to the voltage to apply and service temperature. (NEDO)

  7. Situation of nuclear power generation in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toukai, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear power plants began to be built in Europe in the latter half of 1960. 146 plants are operating and generating about 33% of total power in 2002. France is top of Europe and operating 59 plants, which generate about 75% of power generation in the country. Germany is second and 30%. England is third and 30%. However, Germany decided not to build new atomic power plant in 2000. Movement of non-nuclear power generation is decreasing in Belgium and Switzerland. The liberalization of power generation decreased the wholesale price and BE Company in England was financial difficulties. New nuclear power generation is planning in Finland and France. (S.Y.)

  8. Generating human reliability estimates using expert judgment. Volume 2. Appendices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comer, M.K.; Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.; Gaddy, C.D.

    1984-11-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is conducting a research program to determine the practicality, acceptability, and usefulness of several different methods for obtaining human reliability data and estimates that can be used in nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessments (PRA). One method, investigated as part of this overall research program, uses expert judgment to generate human error probability (HEP) estimates and associated uncertainty bounds. The project described in this document evaluated two techniques for using expert judgment: paired comparisons and direct numerical estimation. Volume 2 provides detailed procedures for using the techniques, detailed descriptions of the analyses performed to evaluate the techniques, and HEP estimates generated as part of this project. The results of the evaluation indicate that techniques using expert judgment should be given strong consideration for use in developing HEP estimates. Judgments were shown to be consistent and to provide HEP estimates with a good degree of convergent validity. Of the two techniques tested, direct numerical estimation appears to be preferable in terms of ease of application and quality of results

  9. Grid Monitoring and Advanced Control of Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timbus, Adrian Vasile

    . As an example, the latest published grid codes stress the ability of distributed generators, especially wind turbines, to stay connected during short grid disturbances and in addition to provide active/reactive power control at the point of common coupling. Based on the above facts, the need for improving...... reported in some countries creating concerns about power system stability. This leads to a continuous evolution of grid interconnection requirements towards a better controllability of generated power and an enhanced contribution of distributed power generation systems to power system stability...... and adding more features to the control of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) arises. As a consequence, this thesis focuses on grid monitoring methods and possible approaches in control in order to obtain a more reliable and  exible power generation system during normal and faulty grid conditions...

  10. ASCERTAINMENT OF ELECTRIC-SUPPLY SCHEMES RELIABILITY FOR THE ATOMIC POWER PLANT AUXILIARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Starzhinskij

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper completes ascertainment of electrical-supply scheme reliability for the auxiliaries of a nuclear power plant. Thereat the author considers the system behavior during the block normal operation, carrying out current maintenance, and capital repairs in combination with initiating events. The initiating events for reactors include complete blackout, i.e. the loss of outside power supply (normal and reserve; emergency switching one of the working turbogenerators; momentary dumping the normal rating to the level of auxiliaries with seating the cutout valve of one turbo-generator. The combination of any initiating event with the repairing mode in case of one of the system elements failure should not lead to blackout occurrence of more than one system of the reliable power supply. This requirement rests content with the help of the reliable power supply system self-dependence (electrical and functional and the emergency power-supply operational autonomy (diesel generator and accumulator batteries.The reliability indicators of the power supply system for the nuclear power plant auxiliaries are the conditional probabilities of conjoined blackout of one, two, and three sections of the reliable power supply conditional upon an initiating event emerging and the blackout of one, two, and three reliable power-supply sections under the normal operational mode. Furthermore, they also are the blackout periodicity of one and conjointly two, three, and four sections of normal operation under the block normal operational mode. It is established that the blackout of one bus section of normal operation and one section of reliable power-supply system of the auxiliaries that does not lead to complete blackout of the plant auxiliaries may occur once in three years. The probability of simultaneous power failure of two or three normal-operation sections and of two reliable power-supply sections during the power plant service life is unlikely.

  11. Radioisotope-powered photovoltaic generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKlveen, J.W.; Uselman, J.

    1979-01-01

    Disposing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants has become one of the most important issues facing the nuclear industry. In a new concept, called a radioisotope photovoltaic generator, a portion of this waste would be used in conjunction with a scintillation material to produce light, with subsequent conversion into electricity via photovoltaic cells. Three types of scintillators and two types of silicon cells were tested in six combinations using 32 P as the radioisotope. The highest system efficiency, determined to be 0.5% when the light intensity was normalized to 100 mW/cm 2 , was obtained using a CsI crystal scintillator and a Helios photovoltaic cell

  12. Nuclear powered freight ships - safe and reliable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafstall, H.C.

    1978-12-01

    The five nuclear-powered ships built in the world so far have entered over 100 ports in 14 countries about 1000 times in 15 years, during which there were no accidents endangering the safety of a ship. However, for the expansion of freight shipping with nuclear power, comprehensive international regulations for safety requirements, responsibility etc., are necessary. Although the NEA/IAEO symposium excluded economic questions on the safety of nuclear powered ships, the trends regarding further development in individual countries became clear

  13. The large-scale integration of wind generation: Impacts on price, reliability and dispatchable conventional suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCormack, John; Hollis, Aidan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effects of large-scale integration of wind powered electricity generation in a deregulated energy-only market on loads (in terms of electricity prices and supply reliability) and dispatchable conventional power suppliers. Hourly models of wind generation time series, load and resultant residual demand are created. From these a non-chronological residual demand duration curve is developed that is combined with a probabilistic model of dispatchable conventional generator availability, a model of an energy-only market with a price cap, and a model of generator costs and dispatch behavior. A number of simulations are performed to evaluate the effect on electricity prices, overall reliability of supply, the ability of a dominant supplier acting strategically to profitably withhold supplies, and the fixed cost recovery of dispatchable conventional power suppliers at different levels of wind generation penetration. Medium and long term responses of the market and/or regulator in the long term are discussed.

  14. Integrated control of next generation power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  15. Influence of reliability of the relay protection to the whole reliability of electric power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojanovski, Ljupcho I.

    2001-01-01

    The influence of the reliability of the elements of relay protection up today analyses of the reliability on electric power systems, very rare has been taken into consideration, in other words, in these analyses it is assumed that the reliability of the protection has value one. In this work an attempt is that through modelling of individual types of protection of the elements of high-voltage systems to make calculation to the influence of the reliability of the relay protection on the total reliability of the high-voltage systems.(Author)

  16. Probabilistic Forecast of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Elkantassi, Soumaya

    2017-01-01

    Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized

  17. Parylene-based electret power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, Hsi-wen; Tai, Yu-Chong

    2008-01-01

    An electret power generator is developed using a new electret made of a charged parylene HT® thin-film polymer. Here, parylene HT® is a room-temperature chemical-vapor-deposited thin-film polymer that is MEMS and CMOS compatible. With corona charge implantation, the surface charge density of parylene HT® is measured as high as 3.69 mC m −2 . Moreover, it is found that, with annealing at 400 °C for 1 h before charge implantation, both the long-term stability and the high-temperature reliability of the electret are improved. For the generator, a new design of the stator/rotor is also developed. The new micro electret generator does not require any sophisticated gap-controlling structure such as tethers. With the conformal coating capability of parylene HT®, it is also feasible to have the electret on the rotors, which is made of either a piece of metal or an insulator. The maximum power output, 17.98 µW, is obtained at 50 Hz with an external load of 80 MΩ. For low frequencies, the generator can harvest 7.7 µW at 10 Hz and 8.23 µW at 20 Hz

  18. Power plant reliability calculation with Markov chain models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senegacnik, A.; Tuma, M.

    1998-01-01

    In the paper power plant operation is modelled using continuous time Markov chains with discrete state space. The model is used to compute the power plant reliability and the importance and influence of individual states, as well as the transition probabilities between states. For comparison the model is fitted to data for coal and nuclear power plants recorded over several years. (orig.) [de

  19. Applying reliability analysis to design electric power systems for More-electric aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baozhu

    The More-Electric Aircraft (MEA) is a type of aircraft that replaces conventional hydraulic and pneumatic systems with electrically powered components. These changes have significantly challenged the aircraft electric power system design. This thesis investigates how reliability analysis can be applied to automatically generate system topologies for the MEA electric power system. We first use a traditional method of reliability block diagrams to analyze the reliability level on different system topologies. We next propose a new methodology in which system topologies, constrained by a set reliability level, are automatically generated. The path-set method is used for analysis. Finally, we interface these sets of system topologies with control synthesis tools to automatically create correct-by-construction control logic for the electric power system.

  20. Nuclear excited power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.Z.; Cox, J.D.

    1989-01-01

    A power generation system is described, comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing helium through the reactor, the helium being excited and forming alpha particles by high frequency radiation from the core of the gaseous core nuclear reactor; a reaction chamber; means for coupling chlorine and hydrogen to the reaction chamber, the helium and alpha particles energizing the chlorine and hydrogen to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for coupling the helium back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor; and means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, to be coupled back to the reaction chamber in a closed loop. The patent also describes a power generation system comprising: a gaseous core nuclear reactor; means for passing hydrogen through the reactor, the hydrogen being excited by high frequency radiation from the core; means for coupling chlorine to a reaction chamber, the hydrogen energizing the chlorine in the chamber to form a high temperature, high pressure hydrogen chloride plasma; means for converting the plasma to electromechanical energy; means for disassociating the hydrogen chloride to form molecular hydrogen and chlorine, and means for coupling the hydrogen back to the gaseous core nuclear reactor in a closed loop

  1. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dange

    Electric power systems are experiencing dramatic changes with respect to structure, operation and regulation and are facing increasing pressure due to environmental and societal constraints. Bulk electric system reliability is an important consideration in power system planning, design and operation particularly in the new competitive environment. A wide range of methods have been developed to perform bulk electric system reliability evaluation. Theoretically, sequential Monte Carlo simulation can include all aspects and contingencies in a power system and can be used to produce an informative set of reliability indices. It has become a practical and viable tool for large system reliability assessment technique due to the development of computing power and is used in the studies described in this thesis. The well-being approach used in this research provides the opportunity to integrate an accepted deterministic criterion into a probabilistic framework. This research work includes the investigation of important factors that impact bulk electric system adequacy evaluation and security constrained adequacy assessment using the well-being analysis framework. Load forecast uncertainty is an important consideration in an electrical power system. This research includes load forecast uncertainty considerations in bulk electric system reliability assessment and the effects on system, load point and well-being indices and reliability index probability distributions are examined. There has been increasing worldwide interest in the utilization of wind power as a renewable energy source over the last two decades due to enhanced public awareness of the environment. Increasing penetration of wind power has significant impacts on power system reliability, and security analyses become more uncertain due to the unpredictable nature of wind power. The effects of wind power additions in generating and bulk electric system reliability assessment considering site wind speed

  2. Power Electronic Packaging Design, Assembly Process, Reliability and Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronic Packaging presents an in-depth overview of power electronic packaging design, assembly,reliability and modeling. Since there is a drastic difference between IC fabrication and power electronic packaging, the book systematically introduces typical power electronic packaging design, assembly, reliability and failure analysis and material selection so readers can clearly understand each task's unique characteristics. Power electronic packaging is one of the fastest growing segments in the power electronic industry, due to the rapid growth of power integrated circuit (IC) fabrication, especially for applications like portable, consumer, home, computing and automotive electronics. This book also covers how advances in both semiconductor content and power advanced package design have helped cause advances in power device capability in recent years. The author extrapolates the most recent trends in the book's areas of focus to highlight where further improvement in materials and techniques can d...

  3. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  4. Reliability allocation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bari, R.A.; Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.

    1985-01-01

    The technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk to reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures is investigated. A methodology is discussed which identifies top level risk indices as objective functions and plant-specific performance variables as decision variables. These are related by a risk model which includes cost as a top level risk index. A multiobjective optimization procedure is used to find non-inferior solutions in terms of the objective functions and the decision variables. The approach is illustrated for a boiling water reactor plant. The use of the methodology for both operating reactors and for advanced designs is briefly discussed. 16 refs., 1 fig

  5. Study on the reliability of large coal-fired and nuclear power plants. Factors affecting power plant reliability. Volume I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The study consisted of a comparative evaluation of 2 nuclear units (Indian Point 2 - Consolidated Edison of New York, Turkey Point 4 - Florida Power and Light Company) and 2 coal-fired units (Bull Run and Widows Creek Unit 8 - Tennessee Valley Authority). The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the underlying causes of unit reliability and the causes of the observed differences in reliability performance of the units. Recommended actions for improving the reliability of one of the study units was to be presented in a format useful to other utility companies for improving reliability of their generating units. The emphasis of the study was on the aspects of management, manning, operations, and maintenance which had a significant impact on unit reliability. Volume 1 includes a summary, a description of the major findings from the comparative evaluation, conclusions based on these findings, and recommendations for improving the reliability of the below average units

  6. Digital Processor Module Reliability Analysis of Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong; Jung, Jae Hyun; Kim, Jae Ho; Kim, Sung Hun

    2005-01-01

    The system used in plant, military equipment, satellite, etc. consists of many electronic parts as control module, which requires relatively high reliability than other commercial electronic products. Specially, Nuclear power plant related to the radiation safety requires high safety and reliability, so most parts apply to Military-Standard level. Reliability prediction method provides the rational basis of system designs and also provides the safety significance of system operations. Thus various reliability prediction tools have been developed in recent decades, among of them, the MI-HDBK-217 method has been widely used as a powerful tool for the prediction. In this work, It is explained that reliability analysis work for Digital Processor Module (DPM, control module of SMART) is performed by Parts Stress Method based on MIL-HDBK-217F NOTICE2. We are using the Relex 7.6 of Relex software corporation, because reliability analysis process requires enormous part libraries and data for failure rate calculation

  7. Power Electronics and Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Ma, Ke; Zhou, Dao

    2012-01-01

    Power Electronics are needed in almost all kind of renewable energy systems. It is used both for controlling the renewable source and also for interfacing to the load, which can be grid-connected or working in stand-alone mode. More and more efforts are put into making renewable energy systems...... better in terms of reliability in order to ensure a high availability of the power sources, in this case the knowledge of mission profile of a certain application is crucial for the reliability evaluation/design of power electronics. In this paper an overview on the power electronic circuits behind...... the most common converter configurations for wind turbine and photovoltaic is done. Next different aspects of improving the system reliability are mapped. Further on examples of how to control the chip temperature in different power electronic configurations as well as operation modes for wind power...

  8. Future of structural reliability methodology in nuclear power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueeller, G I [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Kafka, P [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-10-01

    This paper presents the authors' personal view as to which areas of structural reliability in nuclear power plant design need most urgently to be advanced. Aspects of simulation modeling, design rules, codification and specification of reliability, system analysis, probabilistic structural dynamics, rare events and particularly the interaction of systems and structural reliability are discussed. As an example, some considerations of the interaction effects between the protective systems and the pressure vessel are stated. The paper concludes with recommendation for further research.

  9. Power generation enhancement in a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant using thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Saadat, Mohammad; Palideh, Vahid; Afzal, Sadegh

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric generator was used and simulated within a salinity-gradient solar pond power plant. • Results showed that the thermoelectric generator can be able to enhance the power plant efficiency. • Results showed that the presented models can be able to produce generation even in the cold months. • The optimum size of area of solar pond based on its effect on efficiency is 50,000 m 2 . - Abstract: Salinity-gradient solar pond (SGSP) has been a reliable supply of heat source for power generation when it has been integrated with low temperature thermodynamics cycles like organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Also, thermoelectric generator (TEG) plays a critical role in the production of electricity from renewable energy sources. This paper investigates the potential of thermoelectric generator as a power generation system using heat from SGSP. In this work, thermoelectric generator was used instead of condenser of ORC with the purpose of improving the performance of system. Two new models of SGSP have been presented as: (1) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC without heat exchanger and (2) SGSP using TEG in condenser of ORC with heat exchanger. These proposed systems was evaluated through computer simulations. The ambient conditions were collected from beach of Urmia lake in IRAN. Simulation results indicated that, for identical conditions, the model 1 has higher performance than other model 2. For models 1 and 2 in T LCZ = 90 °C, the overall thermal efficiency of the solar pond power plant, were obtained 0.21% and 0.2% more than ORC without TEG, respectively.

  10. Assessment of power reliability and improvement potential by using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the use of smart reclosers for improving reliability of a distribution system of one of the major cities of Ethiopia. As frequent power interruptions are posing a huge problem to the life of the people and the economy, finding a solution to the problem is very essential. Electric reliability has affected social well ...

  11. Approach to developing reliable space reactor power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondt, J.F.; Shinbrot, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Reactor Power System Project is in the engineering development phase of a three-phase program. During Phase II, the Engineering Development Phase, the SP-100 Project has defined and is pursuing a new approach to developing reliable power systems. The approach to developing such a system during the early technology phase is described in this paper along with some preliminary examples to help explain the approach. Developing reliable components to meet space reactor power system requirements is based on a top down systems approach which includes a point design based on a detailed technical specification of a 100 kW power system

  12. A physical review on power system reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navid, Taghizadegan; Ahmad Reza, Zentabchi; Mohammad Ali, Tavakoli; Nader, Samsunchi; Mohammad Ali, Tavakoli

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Planning and design engineers and management must necessarily take into consideration the funds available, the requirements of regulatory agencies and other restrictions that may be imposed, as well as availability of equipment and supplies. A well-designed electrical power system strikes a reasonable between reliability and cost. A prime responsibility of power system operators is to operate their systems in such a way that will provide the maximum reliability of service possible with the facilities under their control

  13. Maturing Technologies for Stirling Space Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Nowlin, Brentley C.; Dobbs, Michael W.; Schmitz, Paul C.; Huth, James

    2016-01-01

    Stirling Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are being developed as an option to provide power on future space science missions where robotic spacecraft will orbit, flyby, land or rove. A Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG) could offer space missions a more efficient power system that uses one fourth of the nuclear fuel and decreases the thermal footprint of the current state of the art. The RPS Program Office, working in collaboration with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), manages projects to develop thermoelectric and dynamic power systems, including Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs). The Stirling Cycle Technology Development (SCTD) Project, located at Glenn Research Center (GRC), is developing Stirling-based subsystems, including convertors and controllers. The SCTD Project also performs research that focuses on a wide variety of objectives, including increasing convertor temperature capability to enable new environments, improving system reliability or fault tolerance, reducing mass or size, and developing advanced concepts that are mission enabling. Research activity includes maturing subsystems, assemblies, and components to prepare them for infusion into future convertor and generator designs. The status of several technology development efforts are described here. As part of the maturation process, technologies are assessed for readiness in higher-level subsystems. To assess the readiness level of the Dual Convertor Controller (DCC), a Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) was performed and the process and results are shown. Stirling technology research is being performed by the SCTD Project for NASA's RPS Program Office, where tasks focus on maturation of Stirling-based systems and subsystems for future space science missions.

  14. An approach to the conversion of the power generated by an offshore wind power farm connected into seawave power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franzitta, Vicenzo; Messineo, Antonio; Trapanese, Marco

    2011-07-01

    The development of renewable energy systems has been undergoing for the past decades but sea wave's energy resource has been under-utilized. This under-utilization has several reasons: the energy concentration is low in sea waves, extraction of this energy requires leading edge technologies and conversion of the energy into electrical energy is difficult. This study compares two different methods to connect the sea waves' generator to the network and to the offshore wind power farm. The first method consists in a decentralized approach: each generator is connected to the grid through an AC converter. The second method is a partially centralized approach: a rectifier is connected to each generator, all of the generators are then connected together to a common DC bus and power is then converted in AC to be connected to the grid. This study has shown that the partially centralized approach is more reliable and efficient than the decentralized approach.

  15. Application of human reliability analysis methodology of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz S, T. de J.; Nelson E, P. F.

    2009-10-01

    The human reliability analysis (HRA) is a very important part of probabilistic safety analysis. The main contribution of HRA in nuclear power plants is the identification and characterization of the issues that are brought together for an error occurring in the human tasks that occur under normal operation conditions and those made after abnormal event. Additionally, the analysis of various accidents in history, it was found that the human component has been a contributing factor in the cause. Because of need to understand the forms and probability of human error in the 60 decade begins with the collection of generic data that result in the development of the first generation of HRA methodologies. Subsequently develop methods to include in their models additional performance shaping factors and the interaction between them. So by the 90 mid, comes what is considered the second generation methodologies. Among these is the methodology A Technique for Human Event Analysis (ATHEANA). The application of this method in a generic human failure event, it is interesting because it includes in its modeling commission error, the additional deviations quantification to nominal scenario considered in the accident sequence of probabilistic safety analysis and, for this event the dependency actions evaluation. That is, the generic human failure event was required first independent evaluation of the two related human failure events . So the gathering of the new human error probabilities involves the nominal scenario quantification and cases of significant deviations considered by the potential impact on analyzed human failure events. Like probabilistic safety analysis, with the analysis of the sequences were extracted factors more specific with the highest contribution in the human error probabilities. (Author)

  16. Optimum capacity determination of stand-alone hybrid generation system considering cost and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hung-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► This paper presents a methodology for the installation capacity optimization. ► Hybrid generation system is optimized by application of adaptive genetic algorithm. ► A cost investigation is made under various conditions and component characteristics. ► The optimization scheme is validated to meet the annual power load demand. -- Abstract: The aim of this work is to present an optimization methodology for the installation capacity of a stand-alone hybrid generation system, taking into consideration the cost and reliability. Firstly, on the basis of derived steady state models of a wind generator (WG), a photovoltaic array (PV), a battery and an inverter, the hybrid generation system is modeled for the purpose of capacity optimization. Secondly, the power system is analyzed for determining both the system structure and the operation control strategy. Thirdly, according to hourly weather database of wind speed, temperature and solar irradiation, annual power generation capacity is estimated for the system match design in order that an annual power load demand can be met. The capacity determination of a hybrid generation system becomes complicated as a result of the uncertainty in the renewable energy together with load demand and the nonlinearity of system components. Aimed at the power system reliability and the cost minimization, the capacity of a hybrid generation system is optimized by application of an adaptive genetic algorithm (AGA) to individual power generation units. A total cost investigation is made under various conditions, such as wind generator power curves, battery discharge depth and the loss of load probability (LOLP). At the end of this work, the capacity of a hybrid generation system is optimized at two installation sites, namely the offshore Orchid Island and Wuchi in Taiwan. The optimization scheme is validated to optimize power capacities of a photovoltaic array, a battery and a wind turbine generator with a relative

  17. A reliability centered maintenance model applied to the auxiliary feedwater system of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Jefferson Borges

    1998-01-01

    The main objective of maintenance in a nuclear power plant is to assure that structures, systems and components will perform their design functions with reliability and availability in order to obtain a safety and economic electric power generation. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) is a method of systematic review to develop or optimize Preventive Maintenance Programs. This study presents the objectives, concepts, organization and methods used in the development of RCM application to nuclear power plants. Some examples of this application are included, considering the Auxiliary Feedwater System of a generic two loops PWR nuclear power plant of Westinghouse design. (author)

  18. Reliability evaluation of deregulated electric power systems for planning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, A.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Jafari, A.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2008-01-01

    In a deregulated electric power utility industry in which a competitive electricity market can influence system reliability, market risks cannot be ignored. This paper (1) proposes an analytical probabilistic model for reliability evaluation of competitive electricity markets and (2) develops a methodology for incorporating the market reliability problem into HLII reliability studies. A Markov state space diagram is employed to evaluate the market reliability. Since the market is a continuously operated system, the concept of absorbing states is applied to it in order to evaluate the reliability. The market states are identified by using market performance indices and the transition rates are calculated by using historical data. The key point in the proposed method is the concept that the reliability level of a restructured electric power system can be calculated using the availability of the composite power system (HLII) and the reliability of the electricity market. Two case studies are carried out over Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) to illustrate interesting features of the proposed methodology

  19. Research on reliability management systems for Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Nobuo

    2000-01-01

    Investigation on a reliability management system for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has been performed on national and international archived documents as well as on current status of studies at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), US NPPs (McGuire, Seabrook), a French NPP (St. Laurent-des-Eaux), Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industries (CRIEPI), and power plant manufacturers in Japan. As a result of the investigation, the following points were identified: (i) A reliability management system is composed of a maintenance management system to inclusively manage maintenance data, and an anomalies information and reliability data management system to extract data from maintenance results stored in the maintenance management system and construct a reliability database. (ii) The maintenance management system, which is widely-used among NPPs in the US and Europe, is an indispensable system for the increase of maintenance reliability. (iii) Maintenance management methods utilizing reliability data like Reliability Centered Maintenance are applied for NPP maintenance in the US and Europe, and contributing to cost saving. Maintenance templates are effective in the application process. In addition, the following points were proposed on the design of the system: (i) A detailed database on specifications of facilities and components is necessary for the effective use of the system. (ii) A demand database is indispensable for the application of the methods. (iii) Full-time database managers are important to maintain the quality of the reliability data. (author)

  20. Cost of nuclear power generation judged by power rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Takaharu

    1981-01-01

    According to estimation guidance, power rates in general are the proper cost plus the specific compensation and adjustment addition. However, the current system of power rates is of power-source development promotion type involving its tax. The structure of power rate determination must be restudied now especially in connection of nuclear power generation. The cost of nuclear power generation as viewed from power rate is discussed as follows: the fear of military application of power plants, rising plant construction costs, the loophole in fuel cost calculation, unreasonable unit power cost, depreciation and repair cost, business compensation, undue business compensation in nuclear power, the costs of nuclear waste management, doubt concerning nuclear power cost, personnel, pumping-up and power transmission costs in nuclear power, energy balance analysis, nuclear power viewed in entropy, the suppression of power consumption. (J.P.N.)

  1. Wave and tidal generation devices reliability and availability

    CERN Document Server

    Tavner, Peter John

    2017-01-01

    To some extent the wave and tidal generation industry is following in the wake of the wind industry, learning from the growing experience of offshore wind farm deployment. This book combines wind industry lessons with wave and tidal field knowledge to explore the main reliability and availability issues facing this growing industry.

  2. Reliability of scored patient generated subjective global assessment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Establish the reliability of the scored Patient Generated-Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA) in determining nutritional status among Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) naive HIV-infected adults. Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional study among outpatient medical clinics, in The AIDS Support Organization ...

  3. Human reliability analysis of Lingao Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Huang Shudong; Yang Hong; He Aiwu; Huang Xiangrui; Zheng Tao; Su Shengbing; Xi Haiying

    2001-01-01

    The necessity of human reliability analysis (HRA) of Lingao Nuclear Power Station are analyzed, and the method and operation procedures of HRA is briefed. One of the human factors events (HFE) is analyzed in detail and some questions of HRA are discussed. The authors present the analytical results of 61 HFEs, and make a brief introduction of HRA contribution to Lingao Nuclear Power Station

  4. Reliability modeling and analysis of smart power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Karki, Rajesh; Verma, Ajit Kumar

    2014-01-01

    The volume presents the research work in understanding, modeling and quantifying the risks associated with different ways of implementing smart grid technology in power systems in order to plan and operate a modern power system with an acceptable level of reliability. Power systems throughout the world are undergoing significant changes creating new challenges to system planning and operation in order to provide reliable and efficient use of electrical energy. The appropriate use of smart grid technology is an important drive in mitigating these problems and requires considerable research acti

  5. Basic research on human reliability in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Deng Zhiliang

    1996-10-01

    Human reliability in nuclear power plants is one of key factors in nuclear safety and economic operation. According to cognitive science, behaviour theory and ergonomic and on the bases of human cognitive behaviour characteristics, performance shaping factors, human error mechanisms and organization management, the project systematically studied the human reliability in nuclear power plant systems, established the basic theory and methods for analyzing human factor accidents and suggested feasible approaches and countermeasures for precaution against human factor accidents and improving human reliability. The achievement has been applied in operation departments, management departments and scientific research institutions of nuclear power, and has produced guiding significance and practical value to design, operation and management in nuclear power plants. (11 refs.)

  6. Reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems at nuclear power plants: a discussion of NUREG/CR-2989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of emergency alternating-current power systems typical of most nuclear power plants was estimated by using fault-tree analysis of selected typical designs. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. Trends of diesel generator independent failure on demand are included. No one or two improvements can be made at all plants to increase significantly the industry-average emergency alternating-current power system reliability; the most beneficial improvements are varied and plant specific

  7. Reactive power supply by distributed generators

    OpenAIRE

    Braun, M.

    2008-01-01

    Distributed reactive power supply is necessary in distribution networks for an optimized network operation. This paper presents first the reactive power supply capabilities of generators connected to the distribution network (distributed generators). In a second step an approach is proposed of determining the energy losses resulting from reactive power supply by distributed generators. The costs for compensating these losses represent the operational costs of reactive power supply. These cost...

  8. Emergency diesel generator reliability analysis high flux isotope reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merryman, L.; Christie, B.

    1993-01-01

    A program to apply some of the techniques of reliability engineering to the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) was started on August 8, 1992. Part of the program was to track the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators responding to a valid demand. This was done to determine if the performance of the emergency diesel generators (which are more than 25 years old) has deteriorated. The conditional probabilities of the diesel generators were computed and trended for the period from May 1990 to December 1992. The calculations indicate that the performance of the emergency diesel generators has not deteriorated in recent years, i.e., the conditional probabilities of the emergency diesel generators have been fairly stable over the last few years. This information will be one factor than may be considered in the decision to replace the emergency diesel generators

  9. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  10. Reliability-cost models for the power switching devices of wind power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2012-01-01

    In order to satisfy the growing reliability requirements for the wind power converters with more cost-effective solution, the target of this paper is to establish a new reliability-cost model which can connect the relationship between reliability performances and corresponding semiconductor cost...... temperature mean value Tm and fluctuation amplitude ΔTj of power devices, are presented. With the proposed reliability-cost model, it is possible to enable future reliability-oriented design of the power switching devices for wind power converters, and also an evaluation benchmark for different wind power...... for power switching devices. First the conduction loss, switching loss as well as thermal impedance models of power switching devices (IGBT module) are related to the semiconductor chip number information respectively. Afterwards simplified analytical solutions, which can directly extract the junction...

  11. Reliability assessment of distribution system with the integration of renewable distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adefarati, T.; Bansal, R.C.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Addresses impacts of renewable DG on the reliability of the distribution system. • Multi-objective formulation for maximizing the cost saving with integration of DG. • Uses Markov model to study the stochastic characteristics of the major components. • The investigation is done using modified RBTS bus test distribution system. • Proposed approach is useful for electric utilities to enhance the reliability. - Abstract: Recent studies have shown that renewable energy resources will contribute substantially to future energy generation owing to the rapid depletion of fossil fuels. Wind and solar energy resources are major sources of renewable energy that have the ability to reduce the energy crisis and the greenhouse gases emitted by the conventional power plants. Reliability assessment is one of the key indicators to measure the impact of the renewable distributed generation (DG) units in the distribution networks and to minimize the cost that is associated with power outage. This paper presents a comprehensive reliability assessment of the distribution system that satisfies the consumer load requirements with the penetration of wind turbine generator (WTG), electric storage system (ESS) and photovoltaic (PV). A Markov model is proposed to access the stochastic characteristics of the major components of the renewable DG resources as well as their influence on the reliability of a conventional distribution system. The results obtained from the case studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of using WTG, ESS and PV to enhance the reliability of the conventional distribution system.

  12. Electrical system design and reliability at Ontario Hydro nuclear generating stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royce, C. J. [Ontario Hydro, 700 University Avenue, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X6 (Canada)

    1986-02-15

    This paper provides an overview of design practice and the predicted and actual reliability of electrical station service Systems at Ontario Nuclear Generating Stations. Operational experience and licensing changes have indicated the desirability of improving reliability in certain instances. For example, the requirement to start large emergency coolant injection pumps resulted in the turbine generator units in a multi-unit station being used as a back-up power supply. Results of reliability analyses are discussed. To mitigate the effects of common mode events Ontario Hydro adopted a 'two group' approach to the design of safety related Systems. This 'two group' approach is reviewed and a single fully environmentally qualified standby power supply is proposed for future use. (author)

  13. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  14. The reliability of nuclear power plant safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susnik, J.

    1978-01-01

    A criterion was established concerning the protection that nuclear power plant (NPP) safety systems should afford. An estimate of the necessary or adequate reliability of the total complex of safety systems was derived. The acceptable unreliability of auxiliary safety systems is given, provided the reliability built into the specific NPP safety systems (ECCS, Containment) is to be fully utilized. A criterion for the acceptable unreliability of safety (sub)systems which occur in minimum cut sets having three or more components of the analysed fault tree was proposed. A set of input MTBF or MTTF values which fulfil all the set criteria and attain the appropriate overall reliability was derived. The sensitivity of results to input reliability data values was estimated. Numerical reliability evaluations were evaluated by the programs POTI, KOMBI and particularly URSULA, the last being based on Vesely's kinetic fault tree theory. (author)

  15. Strategic bidding of generating units in competitive electricity market with considering their reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soleymani, S.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Shirani, A.R.

    2008-01-01

    In the restructured power systems, they are typically scheduled based on the offers and bids to buy and sell energy and ancillary services (AS) subject to operational and security constraints. Generally, no account is taken of unit reliability when scheduling it. Therefore generating units have no incentive to improve their reliability. This paper proposes a new method to obtain the equilibrium points for reliability and price bidding strategy of units when the unit reliability is considered in the scheduling problem. The proposed methodology employs the supply function equilibrium (SFE) for modeling a unit's bidding strategy. Units change their bidding strategies and improve their reliability until Nash equilibrium points are obtained. GAMS (general algebraic modeling system) language has been used to solve the market scheduling problem using DICOPT optimization software with mixed integer non-linear programming. (author)

  16. Analytical modeling of nuclear power station operator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabri, Z.A.; Husseiny, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The operator-plant interface is a critical component of power stations which requires the formulation of mathematical models to be applied in plant reliability analysis. The human model introduced here is based on cybernetic interactions and allows for use of available data from psychological experiments, hot and cold training and normal operation. The operator model is identified and integrated in the control and protection systems. The availability and reliability are given for different segments of the operator task and for specific periods of the operator life: namely, training, operation and vigilance or near retirement periods. The results can be easily and directly incorporated in system reliability analysis. (author)

  17. Reliability analysis of HVDC grid combined with power flow simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yongtao; Langeland, Tore; Solvik, Johan [DNV AS, Hoevik (Norway); Stewart, Emma [DNV KEMA, Camino Ramon, CA (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Based on a DC grid power flow solver and the proposed GEIR, we carried out reliability analysis for a HVDC grid test system proposed by CIGRE working group B4-58, where the failure statistics are collected from literature survey. The proposed methodology is used to evaluate the impact of converter configuration on the overall reliability performance of the HVDC grid, where the symmetrical monopole configuration is compared with the bipole with metallic return wire configuration. The results quantify the improvement on reliability by using the later alternative. (orig.)

  18. Incorporating Cyber Layer Failures in Composite Power System Reliability Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqi Han

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel approach to analyze the impacts of cyber layer failures (i.e., protection failures and monitoring failures on the reliability evaluation of composite power systems. The reliability and availability of the cyber layer and its protection and monitoring functions with various topologies are derived based on a reliability block diagram method. The availability of the physical layer components are modified via a multi-state Markov chain model, in which the component protection and monitoring strategies, as well as the cyber layer topology, are simultaneously considered. Reliability indices of composite power systems are calculated through non-sequential Monte-Carlo simulation. Case studies demonstrate that operational reliability downgrades in cyber layer function failure situations. Moreover, protection function failures have more significant impact on the downgraded reliability than monitoring function failures do, and the reliability indices are especially sensitive to the change of the cyber layer function availability in the range from 0.95 to 1.

  19. Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok

    2012-01-01

    Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore...... the reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects...

  20. Integrated Control for Small Power Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The control strategies of the small power wind generator are usually divided into the maximum power point tracking (MPPT case, which requires the wind generator produce power as much as possible, and the power limited control (PLC case that demands the wind generator produce a power level following the load requirement. Integration of these two operating cases responding to flexible and sophisticated power demands is the main topic of this article. A small power wind generator including the sluggish mechanical dynamic phenomenon, which uses the permanent magnet synchronous generator, is introduced to validate different control methods integrating MPPT and PLC cases and based on hysteresis control. It is a matter of an indirect power control method derived from three direct methods following perturb and observe principle as well as from a look-up table. To analyze and compare the proposed power control methods, which are implemented into an emulator of a small power wind generator, a power demand profile is used. This profile is randomly generated based on measured rapid wind velocity data. Analyzing experimental results, from the power viewpoint, all proposed methods reveal steady-state error with big amount of peak resulting from the nature of perturb and observe.

  1. Optimal Control of Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Pijarski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system control is a complex task, which is strongly related to the number and kind of generating units as well as to the applied technologies, such as conventional coal fired power plants or wind and photovoltaic farms. Fast development of wind generation that is considered as unstable generation sets new strong requirements concerning remote control and data hubs cooperating with SCADA systems. Considering specific nature of the wind power generation, the authors analyze the problem of optimal control for wind power generation in farms located over a selected remote-controlled part of the Operator grid under advantageous wind conditions. This article presents an original stepwise method for tracing power flows that makes possible to eliminate current (power overloading of power grid branches. Its core idea is to consider the discussed problem as an optimization task.

  2. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station equipment reliability management system innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Ligang; Wang Zongjun

    2006-01-01

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has achieved good performance since its commercial operation in 1994. The equipment reliability management system that features Daya Bay characteristics has been established through constant technology introduction, digestion and innovation. It is also based on the success of operational system, equipment maintenance system and technical support system. The system lays a solid foundation for the long-term safe operation of power station. This article emphasizes on the innovation part of equipment reliability management system in Daya Bay. (authors)

  3. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  4. Improvement of Steam Generator Reliability for GEN-IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seong O; Kim Se Yun; Kim, Seok Hoon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Choi, Byung Seon

    2005-11-15

    The R and D items performed in this study were selected from the R and D task of ' Reliability improvement of Steam Generator' of GEN-IV SFR Component Design and BOP. Since this project deals with one of the most important issues for a GEN-IV SFR system, it needs to enhance the domestic technical backgrounds associated with the corresponding R and D items even for a very short period by 2005. This study provides the R and D results for i) Development of assessment methodology for dissimilar metal weld and ii) Development of multi-dimensional simulation methodology for a SWR event in a SFR steam generator.

  5. Improvement of Steam Generator Reliability for GEN-IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong O; Kim Se Yun; Kim, Seok Hoon; Eoh, Jae Hyuk; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Choi, Byung Seon

    2005-11-01

    The R and D items performed in this study were selected from the R and D task of ' Reliability improvement of Steam Generator' of GEN-IV SFR Component Design and BOP. Since this project deals with one of the most important issues for a GEN-IV SFR system, it needs to enhance the domestic technical backgrounds associated with the corresponding R and D items even for a very short period by 2005. This study provides the R and D results for i) Development of assessment methodology for dissimilar metal weld and ii) Development of multi-dimensional simulation methodology for a SWR event in a SFR steam generator

  6. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  7. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  8. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  9. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources

  10. Power generator in BWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji.

    1984-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to perform stable and dynamic conditioning operation for nuclear fuels in BWR type reactors. Constitution: The conditioning operation for the nuclear fuels is performed by varying the reactor core thermal power in a predetermined pattern by changing the predetermined power changing pattern of generator power, the rising rate of the reactor core thermal power and the upper limit for the rising power of the reactor core thermal power are calculated and the power pattern for the generator is corrected by a power conditioning device such that the upper limit for the thermal power rising rate and the upper limit for the thermal power rising rate are at the predetermined levels. Thus, when the relation between the reactor core thermal power and the generator electrical power is fluctuated, the fluctuation is detected based on the variation in the thermal power rising rate and the limit value for the thermal power rising rate, and the correction is made to the generator power changing pattern so that these values take the predetermined values to thereby perform the stable conditioning operation for the nuclear fuels. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Evaluation of nodal reliability risk in a deregulated power system with photovoltaic power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Qian; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the intermittent characteristic of solar radiation, power system reliability may be affected with high photovoltaic (PV) power penetration. To reduce large variation of PV power, additional system balancing reserve would be needed. In deregulated power systems, deployment of reserves...... and customer reliability requirements are correlated with energy and reserve prices. Therefore a new method should be developed to evaluate the impacts of PV power on customer reliability and system reserve deployment in the new environment. In this study, a method based on the pseudo-sequential Monte Carlo...... simulation technique has been proposed to evaluate the reserve deployment and customers' nodal reliability with high PV power penetration. The proposed method can effectively model the chronological aspects and stochastic characteristics of PV power and system operation with high computation efficiency...

  12. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kueffer, K.

    1980-01-01

    This lecture - presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis. - outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants - quality equipment - operator qualification and training - engineering know how on site - maintenance philosophy and outage planning - information system and feedback of experience - explains the management functions as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability - improvement - a feedback control system - analysis of production losses - optimization in shut-down planning - minimizing disturbances during plant operation - optimizing personnel qualification and efficiency. (orig.)

  13. Transmission cost allocation based on power flow tracing considering reliability benefit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leepreechanon, N.; Singharerg, S.; Padungwech, W.; Nakawiro, W.; Eua-Arporn, B.; David, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Power transmission networks must be able to accommodate the continuously growing demand for reliable and economical electricity. This paper presented a method to allocate transmission use and reliability cost to both generators and end-consumers. Although transmission cost allocation methods change depending on the local context of the electric power industry, there is a common principle that transmission line capacity should be properly allocated to accommodate actual power delivery with an adequate reliability margin. The method proposed in this paper allocates transmission embedded cost to both generators and loads in an equitable manner, incorporating probability indices to allocate transmission reliability margin among users in both supply and demand sides. The application of the proposed method was illustrated using Bialek's tracing method on a multiple-circuit, six-bus transmission system. Probabilistic indices known as the transmission internal reliability margin (TIRM) and transmission external reliability margin (TERM) decomposed from the transmission reliability margin (TRM) were introduced, making true cost of using overall transmission facilities. 6 refs., 11 tabs., 5 figs

  14. A multi-state model for the reliability assessment of a distributed generation system via universal generating function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan-Fu; Zio, Enrico

    2012-01-01

    The current and future developments of electric power systems are pushing the boundaries of reliability assessment to consider distribution networks with renewable generators. Given the stochastic features of these elements, most modeling approaches rely on Monte Carlo simulation. The computational costs associated to the simulation approach force to treating mostly small-sized systems, i.e. with a limited number of lumped components of a given renewable technology (e.g. wind or solar, etc.) whose behavior is described by a binary state, working or failed. In this paper, we propose an analytical multi-state modeling approach for the reliability assessment of distributed generation (DG). The approach allows looking to a number of diverse energy generation technologies distributed on the system. Multiple states are used to describe the randomness in the generation units, due to the stochastic nature of the generation sources and of the mechanical degradation/failure behavior of the generation systems. The universal generating function (UGF) technique is used for the individual component multi-state modeling. A multiplication-type composition operator is introduced to combine the UGFs for the mechanical degradation and renewable generation source states into the UGF of the renewable generator power output. The overall multi-state DG system UGF is then constructed and classical reliability indices (e.g. loss of load expectation (LOLE), expected energy not supplied (EENS)) are computed from the DG system generation and load UGFs. An application of the model is shown on a DG system adapted from the IEEE 34 nodes distribution test feeder.

  15. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1996-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  16. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1995-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  17. Junction Temperature Control for More Reliable Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Markus; Ma, Ke; Buticchi, Giampaolo

    2018-01-01

    The thermal stress of power electronic components is one of the most important causes of their failure. Proper thermal management plays an important role for more reliable and cost-effective energy conversion. As one of the most vulnerable and expensive components, power semiconductor components ...... the desired cost-benefit tradeoff. This paper analyzes also the many open questions of this research area. Among them, it is worth highlighting that a verification of the actual lifetime extension is still missing....

  18. RF Power Generation in LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Brunner, O C; Valuch, D

    2003-01-01

    The counter-rotating proton beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) will be captured and then accelerated to their final energies of 2 x 7 TeV by two identical 400 MHz RF systems. The RF power source required for each beam comprises eight 300 kW klystrons. The output power of each klystron is fed via a circulator and a waveguide line to the input coupler of a single-cell super-conducting (SC) cavity. Four klystrons are powered by a 100 kV, 40A AC/DC power converter, previously used for the operation of the LEP klystrons. A five-gap thyratron crowbar protects the four klystrons in each of these units. The technical specification and measured performance of the various high-power elements are discussed. These include the 400MHz/300kW klystrons with emphasis on their group delay and the three-port circulators, which have to cope with peak reflected power levels up to twice the simultaneously applied incident power of 300 kW. In addition, a novel ferrite loaded waveguide absorber, used as termination for port No...

  19. Nuclear power reactors of new generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Slesarev, I.S.

    1988-01-01

    The paper presents discussions on the following topics: fuel supply for nuclear power; expansion of the sphere of nuclear power applications, such as district heating; comparative estimates of power reactor efficiencies; safety philosophy of advanced nuclear plants, including passive protection and inherent safety concepts; nuclear power unit of enhanced safety for the new generation of nuclear power plants. The emphasis is that designers of new generation reactors face a complicated but technically solvable task of developing highly safe, efficient, and economical nuclear power sources having a wide sphere of application

  20. A Survey on Next-generation Power Grid Data Architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shutang [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Zhu, Dr. Lin [University of Tennessee (UT); Liu, Yong [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun (Arjun) [ORNL; Robertson, Russell [Grid Protection Alliance; King Jr, Thomas J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The operation and control of power grids will increasingly rely on data. A high-speed, reliable, flexible and secure data architecture is the prerequisite of the next-generation power grid. This paper summarizes the challenges in collecting and utilizing power grid data, and then provides reference data architecture for future power grids. Based on the data architecture deployment, related research on data architecture is reviewed and summarized in several categories including data measurement/actuation, data transmission, data service layer, data utilization, as well as two cross-cutting issues, interoperability and cyber security. Research gaps and future work are also presented.

  1. Conscience of Japanese on nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chikio

    1995-01-01

    There are considerably many investigations and researches on the attitude of general public to nuclear power generation, but those which analyzed the contents of attitude or the research which got into the problem of what method is desirable to obtain the understanding of nuclear power generation for power generation side is rarely found. Therefore, the research on where is its cause was begun. As the result, since the attitude to nuclear power generation is related to the attitudes to many things that surround nuclear power generation in addition to that directly to nuclear power generation, it is necessary to elucidate the problem synthetically. The social investigation was carried out for the public of from 18 to 79 years old who live in the supply area of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The data were obtained from those selected by probabilistic sampling, 1000 in urban area (rate of recovery 76%) and 440 in country area (rate of recovery 77%). The way of thinking on making questionnaire is shown. The investigation and the analysis of the obtained data were carried out. What do you recollect as a dangerous matter, the attitude to nuclear power generation, the structure of the conscience to nuclear power generation and its significance, the type classification of people and its features are reported and discussed. (K.I.)

  2. The next generation of power reactors - safety characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modro, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The next generation of commercial nuclear power reactors is characterized by a new approach to achieving reliability of their safety systems. In contrast to current generation reactors, these designs apply passive safety features that rely on gravity-driven transfer processes or stored energy, such as gas-pressurized accumulators or electric batteries. This paper discusses the passive safety system of the AP600 and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) designs

  3. "Life without nuclear power": A nuclear plant retirement formulation model and guide based on economics. San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station case: Economic impacts and reliability considerations leading to plant retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasko, Frank

    Traditionally, electric utilities have been slow to change and very bureaucratic in nature. This culture, in and of itself, has now contributed to a high percentage of United States electric utilities operating uneconomical nuclear plants (Crooks, 2014). The economic picture behind owning and operating United States nuclear plants is less than favorable for many reasons including rising fuel, capital and operating costs (EUCG, 2012). This doctoral dissertation is specifically focused on life without nuclear power. The purpose of this dissertation is to create a model and guide that will provide electric utilities who currently operate or will operate uneconomical nuclear plants the opportunity to economically assess whether or not their nuclear plant should be retired. This economic assessment and stakeholder analysis will provide local government, academia and communities the opportunity to understand how Southern California Edison (SCE) embraced system upgrade import and "voltage support" opportunities to replace "base load" generation from San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station (SONGS) versus building new replacement generation facilities. This model and guide will help eliminate the need to build large replacement generation units as demonstrated in the SONGS case analysis. The application of The Nuclear Power Retirement Model and Guide will provide electric utilities with economic assessment parameters and an evaluation assessment progression needed to better evaluate when an uneconomical nuclear plant should be retired. It will provide electric utilities the opportunity to utilize sound policy, planning and development skill sets when making this difficult decision. There are currently 62 nuclear power plants (with 100 nuclear reactors) operating in the United States (EIA, 2014). From this group, 38 are at risk of early retirement based on the work of Cooper (2013). As demonstrated in my model, 35 of the 38 nuclear power plants qualify to move to the economic

  4. Effect of dc-power-system reliability on reactor-shutdown cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Baranowsky, P.W.; Hickman, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The DC power systems in a nuclear power plant provide control and motive power to valves, instrumentation, emergency diesel generators, and many other components and systems during all phases of plant operation including abnormal shutdowns and accident situations. A specific area of concern is the adequacy of the minimum design requirements for DC power systems, particularly with regard to multiple and common cause failures. This concern relates to the application of the single failure criterion for assuring a reliable DC power supply which may be required for the functionability of shutdown cooling systems. The results are presented of a reliability based study performed to assess the adequacy of DC power supply design requirements for currently operating light water reactors with particular attention to shutdown cooling requirements

  5. New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    New design algorithm and reliability testing of solar powered near-space flight vehicle for defense and security. ... To overcome this problem, we propose a pseudo-satellite system where telecommunication devices are carried on a perpetually flying solar aircraft cruising at stratospheric altitude. Our aircraft will combine ...

  6. Reliability Oriented Circuit Design For Power Electronics Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Cristian

    is presented. Chapter 3 presents the electro-thermal model validation and the reliability studies performed by the proposed tool. The chapter ends with a detailed lifetime analysis, which emphasizes the mission-profile variation and gate-driver parameters variation impact on the PV-inverter devices lifetime......Highly reliable components are required in order to minimize the downtime during the lifetime of the converter and implicitly the maintenance costs. Therefore, the design of high reliable converters under constrained reliability and cost is a great challenge to be overcome in the future....... Moreover, the impact of the mission-profile sampling time on the lifetime estimation accuracy is also determined. The second part of the thesis introduced in Chapter 4, presents a novel gate-driver concept which reduces the dependency of the device power losses variations on the device loading variations...

  7. Component aging and reliability trends in Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankala, K.E.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    A plant-specific reliability data collection and analysis system has been developed at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant to perform tests for component aging and analysis of reliability trends. The system yields both mean values an uncertainty distribution information for reliability parameters to be used in the PSA project underway and in living-PSA applications. Several different trend models are included in the reliability analysis system. Simple analytical expressions have been derived from the parameters of these models, and their variances have been obtained using the information matrix. This paper is focused on the details of the learning/aging models and the estimation of their parameters and statistical accuracies. Applications to the historical data of the Loviisa plant are presented. The results indicate both up- and down-trends in failure rates as well as individuality between nominally identical components

  8. Power generation using photovoltaic induction in an isolated power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, M.; Jiang, J.

    2001-01-01

    Owing to increased emphasis on renewable resources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydroelectric, biogas and etc. has recently assumed greater significance. A single phase capacitor self excited induction generator has emerged as a suitable candidate of isolated power sources. This paper presents performance analysis of a single phase self-excited induction generator driven by photovoltaic (P V) system for low power isolated stand-alone applications. A single phase induction machine can work as a self-excited induction generator when its rotor is driven at suitable speed by an photovoltaic powered do motor. Its excitation is provided by connecting a single phase capacitor bank at a stator terminals. Either to augment grid power or to get uninterrupted power during grid failure stand-alone low capacity ac generators are used. These are driven by photovoltaic, wind power or I C engines using kerosene, diesel, petrol or biogas as fuel. Self-excitation with capacitors at the stator terminals of the stator terminals of the induction machines is well demonstrated experimentally on a P V powered dc motor-induction machine set. The parameters and the excitation requirements of the induction machine run in self-excited induction generator mode are determined. The effects of variations in prime mover speed,terminal capacitance and load power factor on the machine terminal voltage are studied

  9. MHD generator performance analysis for the Advanced Power Train study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pian, C. C. P.; Hals, F. A.

    1984-01-01

    Comparative analyses of different MHD power train designs for early commercial MHD power plants were performed for plant sizes of 200, 500, and 1000 MWe. The work was conducted as part of the first phase of a planned three-phase program to formulate an MHD Advanced Power Train development program. This paper presents the results of the MHD generator design and part-load analyses. All of the MHD generator designs were based on burning of coal with oxygen-enriched air preheated to 1200 F. Sensitivities of the MHD generator design performance to variations in power plant size, coal type, oxygen enrichment level, combustor heat loss, channel length, and Mach number were investigated. Basd on these sensitivity analyses, together with the overall plant performance and cost-of-electricity analyses, as well as reliability and maintenance considerations, a recommended MHD generator design was selected for each of the three power plants. The generators for the 200 MWe and 500 MWe power plant sizes are supersonic designs. A subsonic generator design was selected for the 1000 MWe plant. Off-design analyses of part-load operation of the supersonic channel selected for the 200 MWe power plant were also conductd. The results showed that a relatively high overall net plant efficiency can be maintained during part-laod operation with a supersonic generator design.

  10. Track 2- major components reliability and materials issues. Some performance indicators of PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, S.; Spasojevic, D.; Riznic, J.

    2001-01-01

    The monitoring of operational performance is a crucial aspect of the management of equipment operation and maintenance in many industries, including nuclear and thermal power plants. Monitoring involves the collection and analysis of data on the operation. In these paper an analysis was made of steam generators in operation, i.e., their malfunctions during the plant life cycle with the aim of studying the characteristics of failure rate and repair rate. These values are necessary parameters if we are to determine the reliability and availability of the steam generator as a basis for the analysis of its effect on the safety and efficiency of the nuclear power plant. We analyzed IAEA available data for period from 1971 to 1998. Each steam generator was monitored individually during plants' lifetime. The data on steam generator failures were presented in uniform format, allowing the consistency in failure classification and data reporting. Operational presence of the analyzed steam generators is given for each calendar year and each lifetime year: the failure rate l and repair rate m with associated boundaries are calculated. The general trends in calendar years performance indicators (μ) of steam generators is investigated. The distributions of lifetime l and m are formed, as a complement to the analysis of calendar years performance indicators. With aspect of steam generators influence on reliability and availability of nuclear power plants, the empirical probability distribution for failure rates and repair rates are also constructed. (author)

  11. Method of reliability allocation based on fault tree analysis and fuzzy math in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhaobing; Deng Jian; Cao Xuewu

    2005-01-01

    Reliability allocation is a kind of a difficult multi-objective optimization problem. It can not only be applied to determine the reliability characteristic of reactor systems, subsystem and main components but also be performed to improve the design, operation and maintenance of nuclear plants. The fuzzy math known as one of the powerful tools for fuzzy optimization and the fault analysis deemed to be one of the effective methods of reliability analysis can be applied to the reliability allocation model so as to work out the problems of fuzzy characteristic of some factors and subsystem's choice respectively in this paper. Thus we develop a failure rate allocation model on the basis of the fault tree analysis and fuzzy math. For the choice of the reliability constraint factors, we choose the six important ones according to practical need for conducting the reliability allocation. The subsystem selected by the top-level fault tree analysis is to avoid allocating reliability for all the equipment and components including the unnecessary parts. During the reliability process, some factors can be calculated or measured quantitatively while others only can be assessed qualitatively by the expert rating method. So we adopt fuzzy decision and dualistic contrast to realize the reliability allocation with the help of fault tree analysis. Finally the example of the emergency diesel generator's reliability allocation is used to illustrate reliability allocation model and improve this model simple and applicable. (authors)

  12. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  13. Proceedings of the international conference on nuclear power plant aging, availability factor and reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goel, V.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on nuclear power plant life extension. Topics considered at the conference included availability, accelerated aging techniques, the qualification of electrical equipment, probabilistic risk assessment, reactor maintenance, outages, reliability, computer-aided design, seismic effects, mechanical vibrations, fatigue monitoring, steam generators, and materials degradation by aging and embrittlement

  14. Designing reliable wireless sensor network for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Takeshi; Takahashi, Hiroyuki

    2007-01-01

    This study proposes an innovative method for the monitoring the nuclear power plant. In this field, false detection of the trouble, both 'false negative' and 'false positive' will become a serious problem. In the other hand, since nuclear power plant is such a complicated system, wireless is required for implementing into real field. Considering these backgrounds, we propose a new reliable health monitoring system for nuclear power plant. This is based on an idea, 'a network on a network', such as 'wireless global network' on 'local network with self-maintenance function.' (author)

  15. Enhancement of on-site emergency diesel generator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boner, G.L.; Hanners, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    The University of Dayton Research Institute has concluded a program designed to provide NRC/DOR with technical assistance in evaluating the factors leading to improved reliability of on-site emergency diesel generator (DG) units. The program consisted of a comprehensive review of DG maintenance and operating experience and a comparative evaluation of the DG manufacturer's recommendations. This information, will enable the NRC to improve the basis on which it makes regulatory decisions. The primary goal of the program is to better identify the main problem areas which decrease the reliability of the DG units and make recommendations. The report has attained the program objectives by identifying and discussing the more significant problems and presenting the recommended corrective actions. The identified problems have been categorized into three groups as a function of their significance

  16. Power quality and reliability issues in a deregulated energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huggins, M.J.

    1999-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining power quality and reliability in Ontario's new competitive electricity market was the focus of this paper. The intention of Ontario's deregulation is to lower costs and give customers more power and choice. However, some fear that costs pressures may lead to poorer quality. This paper reviewed the causes, costs, and responsibilities, and made some suggestions concerning how customers can protect their interests as the market opens. It was suggested that in order to assure power quality, especially during the transition period, customers need to take care to design their systems and equipment to tolerate some quality variations. Conversely, utilities need to strive for at least minimum industry standards under most conditions. Contracts should be carefully crafted, with responsibilities for reliability and quality clearly stated. 2 refs

  17. Reliability and discriminatory power of methods for dental plaque quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Prócida Raggio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This in situ study evaluated the discriminatory power and reliability of methods of dental plaque quantification and the relationship between visual indices (VI and fluorescence camera (FC to detect plaque. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Six volunteers used palatal appliances with six bovine enamel blocks presenting different stages of plaque accumulation. The presence of plaque with and without disclosing was assessed using VI. Images were obtained with FC and digital camera in both conditions. The area covered by plaque was assessed. Examinations were done by two independent examiners. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kappa tests to compare different conditions of samples and to assess the inter-examiner reproducibility. RESULTS: Some methods presented adequate reproducibility. The Turesky index and the assessment of area covered by disclosed plaque in the FC images presented the highest discriminatory powers. CONCLUSION: The Turesky index and images with FC with disclosing present good reliability and discriminatory power in quantifying dental plaque.

  18. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation

  19. Advanced energy utilization MHD power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The 'Technical Committee on Advanced Energy Utilization MHD Power Generation' was started to establish advanced energy utilization technologies in Japan, and has been working for three years from June 2004 to May 2007. This committee investigated closed cycle MHD, open cycle MHD, and liquid metal MHD power generation as high-efficiency power generation systems on the earth. Then, aero-space application and deep space exploration technologies were investigated as applications of MHD technology. The spin-off from research and development on MHD power generation such as acceleration and deceleration of supersonic flows was expected to solve unstart phenomena in scramjet engine and also to solve abnormal heating of aircrafts by shock wave. In addition, this committee investigated researches on fuel cells, on secondary batteries, on connection of wind power system to power grid, and on direct energy conversion system from nuclear fusion reactor for future. The present technical report described results of investigations by the committee. (author)

  20. Capacity and reliability analyses with applications to power quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Mohammad; Tu, Fang; Shlapak, Yuri; Kirubarajan, Thiagalingam; Pattipati, Krishna R.; Karanam, Rajaiah

    2001-07-01

    The deregulation of energy markets, the ongoing advances in communication networks, the proliferation of intelligent metering and protective power devices, and the standardization of software/hardware interfaces are creating a dramatic shift in the way facilities acquire and utilize information about their power usage. The currently available power management systems gather a vast amount of information in the form of power usage, voltages, currents, and their time-dependent waveforms from a variety of devices (for example, circuit breakers, transformers, energy and power quality meters, protective relays, programmable logic controllers, motor control centers). What is lacking is an information processing and decision support infrastructure to harness this voluminous information into usable operational and management knowledge to handle the health of their equipment and power quality, minimize downtime and outages, and to optimize operations to improve productivity. This paper considers the problem of evaluating the capacity and reliability analyses of power systems with very high availability requirements (e.g., systems providing energy to data centers and communication networks with desired availability of up to 0.9999999). The real-time capacity and margin analysis helps operators to plan for additional loads and to schedule repair/replacement activities. The reliability analysis, based on computationally efficient sum of disjoint products, enables analysts to decide the optimum levels of redundancy, aids operators in prioritizing the maintenance options for a given budget and monitoring the system for capacity margin. The resulting analytical and software tool is demonstrated on a sample data center.

  1. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.; Schavemaker, P.H.; Sluis, van der L.; Kling, W.L.; Kurowicka, D.; Cooke, R.M.

    2006-01-01

    Stochastic generation, i.e., electrical power production by an uncontrolled primary energy source, is expected to play an important role in future power systems. A new power system structure is created due to the large-scale implementation of this small-scale, distributed, non-dispatchable

  2. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    1968-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  3. Concentrated solar power generation using solar receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce N.; Treece, William Dean; Brown, Dan; Bennhold, Florian; Hilgert, Christoph

    2017-08-08

    Inventive concentrated solar power systems using solar receivers, and related devices and methods, are generally described. Low pressure solar receivers are provided that function to convert solar radiation energy to thermal energy of a working fluid, e.g., a working fluid of a power generation or thermal storage system. In some embodiments, low pressure solar receivers are provided herein that are useful in conjunction with gas turbine based power generation systems.

  4. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Gun; Lee, Han Myung; Song, Ki Dong; Lee, Man Ki; Kim, Seung Su; Moon, Kee Hwan; Chung, Whan Sam; Kim, Kyung Pyo; Cho, Sang Goo

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the role of nuclear power generation under the circumstances of growing concerns about environmental impact and to help decision making in electricity sector. In this study, efforts are made to estimate electricity power generation cost of major power options by incorporating additional cost to reduce environmental impact and to suggest an optimal plant mix in this case. (Author)

  5. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  6. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simola, K.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  7. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  8. Power: towards a third generation definition

    OpenAIRE

    13250612 - Zaaiman, Stephanus Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl) and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morris...

  9. Design of power converter in DFIG wind turbine with enhanced system-level reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Zhang, Guanguan; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of wind power, reliable and cost-effective wind energy production are of more and more importance. As one of the promising configurations, the doubly-fed induction generator based partial-scale wind power converter is still dominating in the existing wind farms...... margin. It can be seen that the B1 lifetime of the grid-side converter and the rotor-side converter deviates a lot by considering the electrical stresses, while they become more balanced by using an optimized reliable design. The system-level lifetime significantly increases with an appropriate design...

  10. Fuse Modeling for Reliability Study of Power Electronic Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahman, Amir Sajjad; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach on reliability of fuses used in power electronic circuits. When fuses are subjected to current pulses, cyclic temperature stress is introduced to the fuse element and will wear out the component. Furthermore, the fuse may be used in a large......, and rated voltage/current are opposed to shift in time to effect early breaking during the normal operation of the circuit. Therefore, in such cases, a reliable protection required for the other circuit components will not be achieved. The thermo-mechanical models, fatigue analysis and thermo...

  11. Development of high-reliability control system for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asami, K.; Yanai, K.; Hirose, H.; Ito, T.

    1983-01-01

    In Japan, many nuclear power generating plants are in operation and under construction. There is a general awareness of the problems in connection with nuclear power generation and strong emphasis is put on achieving highly reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Hitachi has developed a new high-reliability control system. NURECS-3000 (NUclear Power Plant High-REliability Control System), which is applied to the main control systems, such as the reactor feedwater control system, the reactor recirculation control system and the main turbine control system. The NURECS-3000 system was designed taking into account the fact that there will be failures, but the aim is for the system to continue to function correctly; it is therefore a fault-tolerant system. It has redundant components which can be completely isolated from each other in order to prevent fault propagation. The system has a hierarchical configuration, with a main controller, consisting of a triplex microcomputer system, and sub-loop controllers. Special care was taken to ensure the independence of these subsystems. Since most of the redundant system failures are caused by common-mode failures and the reliability of redundant systems depends on the reliability of the common-mode parts, the aim was to minimize these parts. (author)

  12. Capacity value evaluation of photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, I.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents an example of capacity value (kW-value) evaluation of photovoltaic generation from power companies generation planning point of view. The method actually applied to evaluate the supplying capability of conventional generation plants is briefly described. 21 figs, 1 tab

  13. HTS technology - Generating the future of offshore wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Jens

    2010-09-15

    Superconductive generator design is going to become a real competitive alternative in the future. In general, superconductor design is the most competitive out of Direct Drive Systems and best fulfils the needs of the upcoming market - especially in the offshore market, where WECs with higher nominal power up to 10MW are required. Low weight, high reliability and the very good grid behaviour are the main advantages of the superconductor generator design and will lead to lower costs. The other systems are restricted to a smaller energy output range and / or onshore wind power production business.

  14. An Implanted, Stimulated Muscle Powered Piezoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewandowski, Beth; Gustafson, Kenneth; Kilgore, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    A totally implantable piezoelectric generator system able to harness power from electrically activated muscle could be used to augment the power systems of implanted medical devices, such as neural prostheses, by reducing the number of battery replacement surgeries or by allowing periods of untethered functionality. The features of our generator design are no moving parts and the use of a portion of the generated power for system operation and regulation. A software model of the system has been developed and simulations have been performed to predict the output power as the system parameters were varied within their constraints. Mechanical forces that mimic muscle forces have been experimentally applied to a piezoelectric generator to verify the accuracy of the simulations and to explore losses due to mechanical coupling. Depending on the selection of system parameters, software simulations predict that this generator concept can generate up to approximately 700 W of power, which is greater than the power necessary to drive the generator, conservatively estimated to be 50 W. These results suggest that this concept has the potential to be an implantable, self-replenishing power source and further investigation is underway.

  15. Centralized power generation: what share for gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honore, A.; Pharabod, E.; Lecointe, O.; Poyer, L.

    2007-01-01

    Up to a recent past, most energy scenarios were foreseeing a fast growth of natural gas consumption thanks to an assumed strong penetration of gas-fueled power plants. The share of natural gas in the centralized power generation has been the subject of a meeting of the French gas association (AFG) which aimed at answering the following questions: today's position of gas power generation in Europe in the present day context of gas prices (level, volatility), the share of natural gas in the French power mix in the coming years, the strategies of development of gas power plants by historical operators and newcomers, the gas arbitration between its sale to end-users and its use for power generation, and the integration of the CO 2 risk. (J.S.)

  16. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  17. Analyses of reliability characteristics of emergency diesel generator population using empirical Bayes methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, W.E.; Uryas'ev, S.P.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-01-01

    Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) provide backup power to nuclear power plants in case of failure of AC buses. The reliability of EDGs is important to assure response to loss-of-offsite power accident scenarios, a dominant contributor to the plant risk. The reliable performance of EDGs has been of concern both for regulators and plant operators. In this paper the authors present an approach and results from the analysis of failure data from a large population of EDGs. They used empirical Bayes approach to obtain both the population distribution and the individual failure probabilities from EDGs failure to start and load-run data over 4 years for 194 EDGs at 63 plant units

  18. The evaluation of operator reliability factors on power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, Itjeu; Supriatna, Piping; W, Suharyo; Santosa, Kussigit; Darlis; S, Bambang; Y, Sasongko

    1999-01-01

    The sophisticated technology system was not assured the reliability system itself because it has contained a part of human dependence affected successfully of reactor operation either how work smoothly and safe or failure ac cured and then accident appears promptly. The evaluation of operator reliability factor on ABWR power reactor has been carried out which consist of criterion skill and workload according to NUREG/CR-2254, NUREG/CR-4016 and NUREG-0835 the reactor operation reliability emphasize to the operator are synergic between skill and workload themselves. The employee's skill will affect to the type and level of their tasks. The operator's skill depend on education and experiences, position or responsibility of tasks, physical conditions (age uninvalid of physic/mental

  19. Reliability centred maintenance of nuclear power plant facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Zoltan; Novakova, Helena; Hlavac, Pavol; Janicek, Frantisek

    2011-01-01

    A method for the optimization of preventive maintenance nuclear power plant equipment, i.e. reliability centred maintenance, is described. The method enables procedures and procedure schedules to be defined such as allow the maintenance cost to be minimized without compromising operational safety or reliability. Also, combinations of facilities which remain available and ensure reliable operation of the reactor unit during the maintenance of other pieces of equipment are identified. The condition-based maintenance concept is used in this process, thereby preventing unnecessary operator interventions into the equipment, which are often associated with human errors. Where probabilistic safety assessment is available, the most important structures, systems and components with the highest maintenance priority can be identified. (orig.)

  20. Validity And Reliability Of The Stages Cycling Power Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, Cyril; Hausswirth, Christophe; Dorel, Sylvain; Yann, Le Meur

    2017-09-06

    This study aimed to determine the validity and the reliability of the Stages power meter crank system (Boulder, United States) during several laboratory cycling tasks. Eleven trained participants completed laboratory cycling trials on an indoor cycle fitted with SRM Professional and Stages systems. The trials consisted of an incremental test at 100W, 200W, 300W, 400W and four 7s sprints. The level of pedaling asymmetry was determined for each cycling intensity during a similar protocol completed on a Lode Excalibur Sport ergometer. The reliability of Stages and SRM power meters was compared by repeating the incremental test during a test-retest protocol on a Cyclus 2 ergometer. Over power ranges of 100-1250W the Stages system produced trivial to small differences compared to the SRM (standardized typical error values of 0.06, 0.24 and 0.08 for the incremental, sprint and combined trials, respectively). A large correlation was reported between the difference in power output (PO) between the two systems and the level of pedaling asymmetry (r=0.58, p system according to the level of pedaling asymmetry provided only marginal improvements in PO measures. The reliability of the Stages power meter at the sub-maximal intensities was similar to the SRM Professional model (coefficient of variation: 2.1 and 1.3% for Stages and SRM, respectively). The Stages system is a suitable device for PO measurements, except when a typical error of measurement power ranges of 100-1250W is expected.

  1. Conceptual Software Reliability Prediction Models for Nuclear Power Plant Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, G.; Lawrence, D.; Yu, H.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a method to predict the potential reliability of software to be used in a digital system instrumentation and control system. The reliability prediction is to make use of existing measures of software reliability such as those described in IEEE Std 982 and 982.2. This prediction must be of sufficient accuracy to provide a value for uncertainty that could be used in a nuclear power plant probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For the purposes of the project, reliability was defined to be the probability that the digital system will successfully perform its intended safety function (for the distribution of conditions under which it is expected to respond) upon demand with no unintended functions that might affect system safety. The ultimate objective is to use the identified measures to develop a method for predicting the potential quantitative reliability of a digital system. The reliability prediction models proposed in this report are conceptual in nature. That is, possible prediction techniques are proposed and trial models are built, but in order to become a useful tool for predicting reliability, the models must be tested, modified according to the results, and validated. Using methods outlined by this project, models could be constructed to develop reliability estimates for elements of software systems. This would require careful review and refinement of the models, development of model parameters from actual experience data or expert elicitation, and careful validation. By combining these reliability estimates (generated from the validated models for the constituent parts) in structural software models, the reliability of the software system could then be predicted. Modeling digital system reliability will also require that methods be developed for combining reliability estimates for hardware and software. System structural models must also be developed in order to predict system reliability based upon the reliability

  2. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  3. Microscale combustion and power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cadou, Christopher; Ju, Yiguang

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of these devices to realize their full potential. Engineers and scientists working in energy-related fields will find: An overview of the fundamental physics and phenomena of microscale combustion; Presentations of the latest modeling and simulation techniques for gasphase and catalytic micro-reactors; The latest results from experiments in small-scale liquid film, microtube, and porous combustors, micro-thrusters, a...

  4. Reactor fuel reliability constraints on power shape control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelhaus, F.; Hallam, J.; Sauar, T.

    1977-01-01

    The level of reliability of fuel rods operating in commercial nuclear power plants has been less than desired for a number of reasons. Several of these causes have been successfully minimized, but pellet-clad interaction failures persist. Since power and power change are dominant parameters in this failure mode, restrictions on operational maneuvers have been recommended by all U. S. fuel suppliers. Slower-than-design allowable maneuvers decrease the plant capacity factor, which can cost a utility up to $7 million per year per plant. To assist utility engineering and operations personnel in their day-to-day decisions in this regard, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is initiating a project, designated RP895, to develop a fully computerized Power Shape Monitoring System (PSMS) for core-wide fuel rod reliability prediction. This paper describes the PSMS system and details some of the hardware/software requirements as they are now perceived. Salient results from a just-completed complementary EPRI-funded study, RP509, are described; this effort employed hand data acquisition and many man-machine interfaces that will be fully integrated and automated in the PSMS. The capabilities of the PSMS will derive from the use of modern minicomputer hardware and software and from accurate computational modules that enable near-real-time predictive capability

  5. Reliability of the emergency AC power system at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.; Baranowsky, P.W.

    1983-01-01

    The reliability of the emergency ac power systems typical of most nuclear power plants was estimated, and the cost and increase in reliability for several improvements were estimated. Fault trees were constructed based on a detailed design review of the emergency ac power systems of 18 nuclear plants. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. No one or two improvements can be made at all plants to significantly increase the industry-average emergency ac power system reliability; rather the most beneficial improvements are varied and plant specific. Improvements in reliability and the associated costs are estimated using plant specific designs and failure probabilities

  6. Power and the future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rummery, T.E.

    1994-01-01

    In this keynote address, the author, who was acting president of AECL at the time of the conference, emphasizes the importance of nuclear energy to Canada, and its future importance to the developing countries. In 1992, nuclear energy supplied 15% of Canada's electricity, employed 30,000 people in Canada, created at least 10,000 jobs in other sectors, generated federal tax revenues of C$700 million, and by supplanting coal and gas imports saved about C$1 billion. Export sales prospects in China, Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are indicated. AECL is presently undergoing reorganization for greater efficiency. A public opinion poll indicated about 70% Canadian public support for nuclear energy

  7. Uranium availability for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, S.M.; Hogerton, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    Utilities are encouraged to participate in the effort to explore and develop adequate supplies of uranium in order to assure a high level of effort and have some control over production rates. Regulatory commissions are likewise encouraged to be receptive to utility initiatives by granting assurances of favorable rate treatment to cover investments. Confusion arises over the difference between forward coverage based on proven reserves of commercial-grade uranium and long-range availability based on potential resources. Cancellations and delays in the licensing of nuclear power plants have made it difficult for uranium suppliers to proceed with confidence. Drilling difficulties and the short productive life of most uranium mines will probably keep proven reserve levels lower than long-term plant requirements. Several approaches are outlined for developing uranium reserve estimates. ERDA projections are based on ''favorable ground'' areas where uranium deposits are most probable. It is assumed that, where a market exists, minerals will be extracted and traditional procurement methods will evolve. Since utilities are the only industry committed to a viable fuel cycle, they are justified in joining in the search for supplies

  8. Probabilistic forecasting of wind power generation using extreme learning machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    an extreme learning machine (ELM)-based probabilistic forecasting method for wind power generation. To account for the uncertainties in the forecasting results, several bootstrapmethods have been compared for modeling the regression uncertainty, based on which the pairs bootstrap method is identified......Accurate and reliable forecast of wind power is essential to power system operation and control. However, due to the nonstationarity of wind power series, traditional point forecasting can hardly be accurate, leading to increased uncertainties and risks for system operation. This paper proposes...... with the best performance. Consequently, a new method for prediction intervals formulation based on theELMand the pairs bootstrap is developed.Wind power forecasting has been conducted in different seasons using the proposed approach with the historical wind power time series as the inputs alone. The results...

  9. Steam generators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillequin, Jean

    1975-01-01

    The role and the general characteristics of steam generators in nuclear power plants are indicated, and particular types are described according to the coolant nature (carbon dioxide, helium, light water, heavy water, sodium) [fr

  10. Solar power generation in a rural region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The book contains the papers discussions and results of a German/Senegalese seminar on photovoltaic power generation in rural regions of Senegal which was held in Dakar on 19-23 November 1990. (HP) [de

  11. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  12. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  13. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  14. Review of pulsed rf power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies

  15. improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    1, 4 DEPARTMENT OF SYSTEMS ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, AKOKA, YABA, ... pumped storage system for generating hydroelectric power all year round. ... Power supply situation in Nigeria has no doubt ..... (objective functions), criteria for evaluation of control .... adsen H “Para eter esti ation in distributed.

  16. High-Altitude Wind Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—The paper presents the innovative technology of highaltitude wind power generation, indicated as Kitenergy, which exploits the automatic flight of tethered airfoils (e.g., power kites) to extract energy from wind blowing between 200 and 800 m above the ground. The key points of this

  17. Apparatus and method for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, P.; Redding, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    An improved thermal power plant and method of power generation is described which minimizes thermal stress and chemical impurity buildup in the vaporizing component, particularly beneficial under loss of normal feed fluid and startup conditions. The invention is particularly applicable to a liquid metal fast breeder reactor plant

  18. Demonstration of Essential Reliability Services by a 300-MW Solar Photovoltaic Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loutan, Clyde; Klauer, Peter; Chowdhury, Sirajul; Hall, Stephen; Morjaria, Mahesh; Chadliev, Vladimir; Milam, Nick; Milan, Christopher; Gevorgian, Vahan

    2017-03-24

    The California Independent System Operator (CAISO), First Solar, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) conducted a demonstration project on a large utility-scale photovoltaic (PV) power plant in California to test its ability to provide essential ancillary services to the electric grid. With increasing shares of solar- and wind-generated energy on the electric grid, traditional generation resources equipped with automatic governor control (AGC) and automatic voltage regulation controls -- specifically, fossil thermal -- are being displaced. The deployment of utility-scale, grid-friendly PV power plants that incorporate advanced capabilities to support grid stability and reliability is essential for the large-scale integration of PV generation into the electric power grid, among other technical requirements. A typical PV power plant consists of multiple power electronic inverters and can contribute to grid stability and reliability through sophisticated 'grid-friendly' controls. In this way, PV power plants can be used to mitigate the impact of variability on the grid, a role typically reserved for conventional generators. In August 2016, testing was completed on First Solar's 300-MW PV power plant, and a large amount of test data was produced and analyzed that demonstrates the ability of PV power plants to use grid-friendly controls to provide essential reliability services. These data showed how the development of advanced power controls can enable PV to become a provider of a wide range of grid services, including spinning reserves, load following, voltage support, ramping, frequency response, variability smoothing, and frequency regulation to power quality. Specifically, the tests conducted included various forms of active power control such as AGC and frequency regulation; droop response; and reactive power, voltage, and power factor controls. This project demonstrated that advanced power electronics and solar generation can be

  19. Long-Term Reserve Expansion of Power Systems With High Wind Power Penetration Using Universal Generating Function Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    DING, YI; Wang, Peng; Goel, Lalit

    2010-01-01

    from long term planning point of view utilizing universal generating function (UGF) methods. The reliability models of wind farms and conventional generators are represented as the correspondin UGFs and the special operators for these UGFs are defined to evaluate the customer and the system...... reliabilities. The effect of transmission network on customer reliabilities is also considered in the system UGF. The power output models of wind turbine generators in a wind farm considering wind speed correlation and un-correlation are developed, respectively. A reliability-based reserve expansion method...

  20. Improved Reliability of Single-Phase PV Inverters by Limiting the Maximum Feed-in Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    Grid operation experiences have revealed the necessity to limit the maximum feed-in power from PV inverter systems under a high penetration scenario in order to avoid voltage and frequency instability issues. A Constant Power Generation (CPG) control method has been proposed at the inverter level...... devices, allowing a quantitative prediction of the power device lifetime. A study case on a 3 kW single-phase PV inverter has demonstrated the advantages of the CPG control in terms of improved reliability.......Grid operation experiences have revealed the necessity to limit the maximum feed-in power from PV inverter systems under a high penetration scenario in order to avoid voltage and frequency instability issues. A Constant Power Generation (CPG) control method has been proposed at the inverter level....... The CPG control strategy is activated only when the DC input power from PV panels exceeds a specific power limit. It enables to limit the maximum feed-in power to the electric grids and also to improve the utilization of PV inverters. As a further study, this paper investigates the reliability performance...

  1. Reliability metrics extraction for power electronics converter stressed by thermal cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Due to the continuous demands for highly reliable and cost-effective power conversion, the quantified reliability performances of the power electronics converter are becoming emerging needs. The existing reliability modelling approaches for the power electronics converter mainly focuses on the pr...... performance of power electronics system. The final predicted results showed good accuracy with much more reliability information compared to the existing approaches, and the quantified reliability correlation to the mission profiles of converter is mathematically established....

  2. Entropy-generated power and its efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.; Esposito, M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple model for a motor that generates mechanical motion by exploiting an entropic force arising from the topology of the underlying phase space. We show that the generation of mechanical forces in our system is surprisingly robust to local changes in kinetic and topological paramet...... parameters. Furthermore, we find that the efficiency at maximum power may show discontinuities....

  3. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  4. Nuclear power generation costs in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, W.F.

    1983-01-01

    Increasing world energy prices and shortages of fuel resources make the utilization of nuclear power extremely important. The United States nuclear power industry represents the largest body of nuclear power experience in the world. Analysis of the recent United States experience of substantial increases in the cost of nuclear power generation provides good insight into the interdependence of technological, financial, and institutional influences and their combined impact on the economic viability of nuclear power generation. The various factors influencing ultimate generation costs, including construction cost, fuel cost, regulatory reviews, and siting considerations are discussed, and their relative impacts are explored, including discussion of design complexity and related regulatory response. A closer look into the recent relatively high escalation of nuclear plant construction costs shows how differing economic conditions can affect the relative cost effectiveness of various methods of power generation. The vulnerability of capital-intensive, long-lead-time projects to changes in economic conditions and uncertainty in future power demands is discussed. Likewise, the pitfalls of new designs and increased sophistication are contrasted to the advantages which result from proven designs, reliable engineering, and shorter lead times. The value of reliable architect-engineers experienced in the design and construction of the plant is discussed. A discussion is presented of additional regulatory requirements stemming from public safety aspects of nuclear power. These include recognition of requirements for the very large effort for quality assurance of materials and workmanship during plant construction and operation. Likewise, a discussion is included of the demanding nature of operations, maintenance, and modification of plants during the operational phase because of the need for highly qualified operations and maintenance personnel and strict quality assurance

  5. Relativity evaluation of reliability on operation in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inata, Takashi

    1987-01-01

    The report presents a quantitative method for evaluating the reliability of operations conducted in nuclear power plants. The quantitative reliability evaluation method is based on the 'detailed block diagram analysis (De-BDA)'. All units of a series of operations are separately displayed for each block and combined sequentially. Then, calculation is performed to evaluate the reliability. Basically, De-BDA calculation is made for pairs of operation labels, which are connected in parallel or in series at different subordination levels. The applicability of the De-BDA method is demonstrated by carrying out calculation for three model cases: operations in the event of malfunction of the control valve in the main water supply system for PWR, switching from an electrically-operated water supply pump to a turbin-operated water supply pump, and isolation and water removal operation for a low-pressure condensate pump. It is shown that the relative importance of each unit of a series of operations can be evaluated, making it possible to extract those units of greater importance, and that the priority among the factors which affect the reliability of operations can be determined. Results of the De-BDA calculation can serve to find important points to be considered in developing an operation manual, conducting education and training, and improving facilities. (Nogami, K.)

  6. Optimal pricing of non-utility generated electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqi, S.N.; Baughman, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The importance of an optimal pricing policy for pricing non-utility generated power is pointed out in this paper. An optimal pricing policy leads to benefits for all concerned: the utility, industry, and the utility's other customers. In this paper, it is shown that reliability differentiated real-time pricing provides an optimal non-utility generated power pricing policy, from a societal welfare point of view. Firm capacity purchase, and hence an optimal price for purchasing firm capacity, are an integral part of this pricing policy. A case study shows that real-time pricing without firm capacity purchase results in improper investment decisions and higher costs for the system as a whole. Without explicit firm capacity purchase, the utility makes greater investment in capacity addition in order to meet its reliability criteria than is socially optimal. It is concluded that the non-utility generated power pricing policy presented in this paper and implied by reliability differentiated pricing policy results in social welfare-maximizing investment and operation decisions

  7. Situation of nuclear power generation in Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S [Swedish Atomic Forum

    1978-01-01

    In Sweden, nuclear power generation was received initially favorably. In the end of 1960s, however, nuclear power generation got involved in the activities of environment preservation. Then, political parties became opposed to nuclear power generation, and now, the need of nuclear power generation itself is regarded as questionable. In the general election in 1976, the Government opposing the nuclear power generation won. As the result, the conditional nuclear power development law and the energy committee were set up. The committee composed of parliament members, experts, and representatives of enterprises and trade unions is to submit its report so that the parliament can prepare a new energy program in the fall of 1978. Meanwhile, the nuclear fuel safety project formed newly has studied to satisfy the conditions of the law. In Sweden, which has developed nuclear reactors independently from the technology of USA, the oppositions are on the decrease, however. It is awaited what decision will be made by the Government in this fall.

  8. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  9. Problems and solutions of reliability issues for external power supply in the coal mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    И. Ю. Семыкина

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Restructuring of the energy sector  and liberalization of the electricity market resulted in separation of a single industry into a multitude of generating companies, federal and interregional distribution utilities, regional power providers and energy suppliers. For a number of reasons, related to the process of managing separate companies, faults in the laws and regulations, and unsatisfactory technical state of the energy equipment both on the part of distributors and consumers, reliability of energy supply faces increasing negative trends, which potentially can lead to big problems. Up to this day the energy sector does not have a developed database on the state of equipment and results of its maintenance, nor has it defined criteria to actually assess technical conditions of the equipment. The authors propose to develop and implement a mechanism aimed at technical auditing and monitoring of the engineering state of external power supply system, whose results can help in the development of more efficient and economically sound measures to improve reliability of energy supply. In recent years, a lot of attention has been paid to the issues of enhanced security of industrial power supply. However, specific characteristics of underground coal mining and enormous work load of the production process limit the applicability of developed methods and algorithms. Existing research does not address economic issues of reliable energy supply, either direct (economic damage from power interruptions, contractual security of supply, tariff regulation or indirect (charges for utility connection with a required level of reliability. There is no explicit definition for the term «autonomous energy source», nor is there a list of power receivers falling into the first and «special» categories according to their reliability. The paper contains a range of urgent problems and solutions that will increase reliability of external power supply in the coal mines.

  10. Power Generation and Distribution via Distributed Coordination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Oh, Kwang-Kyo; Ahn, Hyo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power coordination, power generation, and power flow control schemes for supply-demand balance in distributed grid networks. Consensus schemes using only local information are employed to generate power coordination, power generation and power flow control signals. For the supply-demand balance, it is required to determine the amount of power needed at each distributed power node. Also due to the different power generation capacities of each power node, coordination of pow...

  11. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronchetti, C.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  12. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimek, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  13. Reliability of high power electron accelerators for radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimek, Z. [Department of Radiation Chemistry and Technology, Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2011-07-01

    Accelerators applied for radiation processing are installed in industrial facilities where accelerator availability coefficient should be at the level of 95% to fulfill requirements according to industry standards. Usually the exploitation of electron accelerator reviles the number of short and few long lasting failures. Some technical shortages can be overcome by practical implementation the experience gained in accelerator technology development by different accelerator manufactures. The reliability/availability of high power accelerators for application in flue gas treatment process must be dramatically improved to meet industrial standards. Support of accelerator technology dedicated for environment protection should be provided by governmental and international institutions to overcome accelerator reliability/availability problem and high risk and low direct profit in this particular application. (author)

  14. New Generation Power System for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loren; Carr, Greg; Deligiannis, Frank; Lam, Barbara; Nelson, Ron; Pantaleon, Jose; Ruiz, Ian; Treicler, John; Wester, Gene; Sauers, Jim; hide

    2004-01-01

    The Deep Space Avionics (DSA) Project is developing a new generation of power system building blocks. Using application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) and power switching modules a scalable power system can be constructed for use on multiple deep space missions including future missions to Mars, comets, Jupiter and its moons. The key developments of the DSA power system effort are five power ASICs and a mod ule for power switching. These components enable a modular and scalab le design approach, which can result in a wide variety of power syste m architectures to meet diverse mission requirements and environments . Each component is radiation hardened to one megarad) total dose. The power switching module can be used for power distribution to regular spacecraft loads, to propulsion valves and actuation of pyrotechnic devices. The number of switching elements per load, pyrotechnic firin gs and valve drivers can be scaled depending on mission needs. Teleme try data is available from the switch module via an I2C data bus. The DSA power system components enable power management and distribution for a variety of power buses and power system architectures employing different types of energy storage and power sources. This paper will describe each power ASIC#s key performance characteristics as well a s recent prototype test results. The power switching module test results will be discussed and will demonstrate its versatility as a multip urpose switch. Finally, the combination of these components will illu strate some of the possible power system architectures achievable fro m small single string systems to large fully redundant systems.

  15. Reliability analyses of safety systems for WWER-440 nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusek, J.; Hojny, V.

    1985-01-01

    The UJV in Rez near Prague studied the reliability of the system of emergency core cooling and of the system for suppressing pressure in the sealed area of the nuclear power plant in the occurrence of a loss-of-coolant accident. The reliability of the systems was evaluated by failure tree analysis. Simulation and analytical calculation programs were developed and used for the reliability analysis. The results are briefly presented of the reliability analyses of the passive system for the immediate short-term flooding of the reactor core, of the active low-pressure system of emergency core cooling, the spray system, the bubble-vacuum system and the system of emergency supply of the steam generators. (E.S.)

  16. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-08-03

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil -- by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines will be presented.

  17. Thermal Management and Reliability of Power Electronics and Electric Machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narumanchi, Sreekant

    2016-06-13

    Increasing the number of electric-drive vehicles (EDVs) on America's roads has been identified as a strategy with near-term potential for dramatically decreasing the nation's dependence on oil - by the U.S. Department of Energy, the federal cross-agency EV-Everywhere Challenge, and the automotive industry. Mass-market deployment will rely on meeting aggressive technical targets, including improved efficiency and reduced size, weight, and cost. Many of these advances will depend on optimization of thermal management. Effective thermal management is critical to improving the performance and ensuring the reliability of EDVs. Efficient heat removal makes higher power densities and lower operating temperatures possible, and in turn enables cost and size reductions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), along with DOE and industry partners is working to develop cost-effective thermal management solutions to increase device and component power densities. In this presentation, the activities in recent years related to thermal management and reliability of automotive power electronics and electric machines are presented.

  18. A large deviation based splitting estimation of power flow reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. Wadman (Wander); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractGiven the continued integration of intermittent renewable generators in electrical power grids, connection overloads are of increasing concern for grid operators. The risk of an overload due to injection variability can be described mathematically as a barrier crossing probability of a

  19. A Large Deviation based Splitting Estimation of Power Flow Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.S. Wadman (Wander); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)

    2016-01-01

    htmlabstractGiven the continued integration of intermittent renewable generators in electrical power grids, connection overloads are of increasing concern for grid operators. The risk of an overload due to injection variability can be described mathematically as a barrier crossing probability of a

  20. Managing relationships between electric power industry restructuring and grid reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    The electricity system is a critical infrastructure, and its continued and reliable functioning is essential to the nation's economy and well-being. However, the inter-dependency of electricity networks is not completely understood. The economic impact of outages was discussed in this white paper. It was suggested that moving to a restructured environment has degraded the reliability of the bulk system. New institutional arrangements and approaches to information management are needed. It was suggested that reliability practices caused the 2003 blackout, and not technical failures. Uncertainties in the restructured market were discussed, as well as incentives to maintain system adequacy. Examples of deregulation in other countries were presented. Organizational complexities were reviewed, including the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC) requirements and the new layers of complexity that have been added to the decision-making process in the light of restructuring. Planning and connectivity issues were reviewed. The need for design standards in power grid control centres was discussed. Difficulties in collecting data from different control centres were considered. Issues concerning the lack of investment in research and development were discussed, with particular reference to the urgent need for coordinated research programs. The looming manpower crisis in the electric power industry was also discussed. Recommendations included ensuring that the transmission system can support a market structure; building a national reliability centre; solving the manpower crisis; and testing market designs before deploying them. It was concluded that good engineering design principles, including experimental economic testing, should be required of any new electricity market design before authorizing its use. 31 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs

  1. Reliability of the emergency ac-power system at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, R.E.; Campbell, D.J.; Baranowsky, P.W.

    1982-01-01

    The reliability of the emergency ac-power systems typical of several nuclear power plants was estimated, the costs of several possible improvements was estimated. Fault trees were constructed based on a detailed design review of the emergency ac-power systems of 18 nuclear plants. The failure probabilities used in the fault trees were calculated from extensive historical data collected from Licensee Event Reports (LERs) and from operating experience information obtained from nuclear plant licensees. It was found that there are not one or two improvements that can be made at all plants to significantly increase the industry-average emergency ac-power-system reliability, but the improvements are varied and plant-specific. Estimates of the improvements in reliability and the associated cost are estimated using plant-specific designs and failure probabilities

  2. Experiences from maintaining the reliability of a nuclear standby diesel generator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tammi, P.

    1982-01-01

    The nuclear standby diesel generator system is quite complicated comprising several mechanical and electrotechnical components, on which the reliability of the system is depending. It is an important support system of the plant safety system, and like the safety system it is composed of separate redundant units. The Loviisa nuclear power station has eight diesel generators. The first four of them were taken into operation in 1976. When the frequency of some mechanical failures showed increase, a project was started at the end of 1980 with the intention to find out potential failure possibilities and means for prevention of failures. The work has been mainly concentrated on improving the reliability of the diesel engines. (Auth.)

  3. From reliability to maintenance of emergency generator sets in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyraud, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The particular conditions of operation of emergency generator sets in a nuclear energy plant induce to take up a strategy of supervision and of maintenance very different of the one recommended for production generator sets. Mechanical and thermal pulls are affected by the size of the set and the choice of rotation running in respect of the wanted power and the response time requirements for the security of nuclear reactor. Reliability studies are helpful to define the strategy of supervision tests. The importance of the number of starts with respect to the running time requires the introduction of the idea of equivalent hours for the definition of maintenance periods. The security of the equipment and the upholding of the reliability at a value close to the optimum impose rigorous choices and strict conditions of supervision and maintenance [fr

  4. Steam generator life-management, reliability, maintenance and refurbishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2012-01-01

    SGC 2012 is a different kind of a conference - it has its own focus, initiatives and objectives and differs from its predecessors. It originated as the Steam Generator and Heat Exchanger Conference in 1990 - a time when premature degradation of steam generators with Alloy 600 tubes was rampant world-wide, and some CANDU steam generators had started to experience significant fouling and corrosion issues. The six previous steam generator conferences were held on a regular cycle, in a very similar format and with a similar theme. We are now in a different era in steam generators. The Alloy 600 tubing has been largely replaced by more robust materials, and the CANDU steam generators have been brought under much more intense and effective life cycle management. Performance of steam generators has improved greatly, and they are no longer considered at risk of limiting the life of the units. Indeed, most Incoloy 800 steam generators in CANDU units are considered to be capable of operating reliably through the 'second life' of the units and are not being replaced during refurbishments. Given this changing environment, the scope of this conference has been expanded from one to three areas: steam generators and heat exchangers as before, but also; controls, valves and pumps, and; reactor components and systems, Programs A, B and C, respectively. The conference is targeting to address the needs and interests of the operating utilities, and to 'focus on what needs attention'. As a means of 'focusing on what needs attention' an 'Issue-Identification and Definition' program was initiated last winter. The Issue-Identification Team operating with COG President Bob Morrison as its Executive Lead, worked to identify issues requiring attention in the three areas of interest. Of the many issues identified by the Team and elaborated on by the Program Developers of this conference, four were recommended for special attention: A. 'Operate Clean - Build Clean - Plant Wide': Despite their

  5. Electrical Power Conversion of a River and Tidal Power Generator: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-09-01

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  6. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lako, P.; Van Rooijen, S.N.M.

    1998-02-01

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  7. Accelerator magnet power supply using storage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karady, G.; Thiessen, H.A.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, a study investigated the feasibility of a large, 60 GeV accelerator. This paper presents the conceptual design of the magnet power supply (PS() and energy storage system. The main ring magnets are supplied by six, high-voltage and two, low-voltage power supplies. These power supplies drive a trapezoidal shaped current wave through the magnets. The peak current is 10 kA and the repetition frequency is 3.3 Hz. During the acceleration period the current is increased from 1040 A to 10,000 A within 50 msec which requires a loop voltage of 120 kV and a peak power of 1250 MW. During the reset period, the PS operates as an inverter with a peak power of -1250 MW. The large energy fluctuation necessitates the use of a storage generator. Because of the relatively high operation frequency, this generator operates in a transient mode which significantly increases the rotor current and losses. The storage generator is directly driven by a variable speed drive, which draws a practically constant power of 17 MW from the ac supply network and eliminates the pulse loading. For the reduction of dc ripple, the power supplies operate in a 24 pulse mode

  8. Analysis of Linear MHD Power Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witalis, E A

    1965-02-15

    The finite electrode size effects on the performance of an infinitely long MHD power generation duct are calculated by means of conformal mapping. The general conformal transformation is deduced and applied in a graphic way. The analysis includes variations in the segmentation degree, the Hall parameter of the gas and the electrode/insulator length ratio as well as the influence of the external circuitry and loading. A general criterion for a minimum of the generator internal resistance is given. The same criterion gives the conditions for the occurrence of internal current leakage between adjacent electrodes. It is also shown that the highest power output at a prescribed efficiency is always obtained when the current is made to flow between exactly opposed electrodes. Curves are presented showing the power-efficiency relations and other generator properties as depending on the segmentation degree and the Hall parameter in the cases of axial and transverse power extraction. The implications of limiting the current to flow between a finite number of identical electrodes are introduced and combined with the condition for current flow between opposed electrodes. The characteristics of generators with one or a few external loads can then be determined completely and examples are given in a table. It is shown that the performance of such generators must not necessarily be inferior to that of segmented generators with many independent loads. However, the problems of channel end losses and off-design loading have not been taken into consideration.

  9. Wind power, distrubted generation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    the possibilities for integration of even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the impact of heat pumps for district heating. The analyses demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without......Denmark has the World?s highest penetration of wind power in electricity generation with a share of 15.0% of total domestic demand in 2002 (DEA, 2004). This is unevenly distributed in the two electricity systems of Denmark giving a share as high as 20.7% in Western Denmark in 2003 up from 18...... power balancing strategies are not applied, costly grid expansions will follow expansions in installed wind power capacity....

  10. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  11. Wastes power generation introduction manual. Main edition; Haikibutsu hatsuden donyu manual. Honpen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    A practical and specific working manual was prepared that satisfies the standards and criteria defined in the relevant law such as the Sanitation and Environment Ordinance No. 249, the guideline for generation of dioxins caused by refuse disposal, and that enables the reports evaluating the wastes quantitatively to be submitted to heads of the local governments when persons in charge of planning the introduction of wastes power generation at local governments discuss the wastes power generation systems. Taking general combustible wastes and sewage sludge treatments as the object, this paper details from the economic performance to size of wastes treatment at the priority limit for the power generation facility introduction. The subject power generation systems include the following: the stoker furnace/separation type ash melting furnace power generation system, the fluidized bed/separation type ash melting furnace power generation system, and the direct type gasification melting furnace power generation system, whose establishment of safety, reliability and stability have been verified by full-size system operation record available at the local governments, the gas turbine re-powering composite type power generation system (gas turbine power plants are installed beside the incineration furnaces) that makes high-efficiency power generation possible, and the RDF power generation system (power generation by mixed combustion with general refuses, and power generation using RDF (refuse derived fuel) exclusive combustion). Other important discussion and assessment items include environment and resource utilization performances. (NEDO)

  12. Power import or domestic power generation using gas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saettler, M.; Bohnenschaefer, W.; Schlesinger, M.

    2001-01-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents expert opinion on the question of how Switzerland could meet its demands for power in the future. The results of the analysis of two options - the import of electrical power or its generation using natural-gas-fired power stations - made in the light of gas market liberalisation are presented. These include the assessment of the use of 'GuD' (combined gas and steam-turbine) power stations in the 100 MW e l to 400 MW e l class regarding their cost, their emissions and primary energy consumption. The authors discuss the assessments from the political and economic points of view. An appendix supplies characteristic data for 'GuD' power stations and an example of a model calculation for a 400 MW e l 'GuD' power station

  13. Reliability and Energy Loss in Full-scale Wind Power Converter Considering Grid Codes and Wind Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Blaabjerg, Frede; Franke, Toke

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing penetration of the wind power, reliable operation and cost-effective wind energy production are of more and more importance. As one of the promising configurations, the cost on reliability and production losses of permanent-magnet synchronous generator based full-scale wind......, if the specific designed wind turbine system operates at different wind classes, it can be seen that higher wind class level results in lower lifetime of the power converter. In respect to the cost of the reactive power, either the OE or the UE reactive power increases the energy loss per year significantly...... power converter is studied considering the grid code with reactive power production as well as the annual wind profile. Regarding the reliability, it is found that either the Over-Excited (OE) or the Under-Excited (UE) reactive power injection threatens the lifespan under all wind classes. Meanwhile...

  14. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su

    1997-12-01

    The major contents in this study are as follows : - long-term forecast to the year of 2040 is provided for nuclear electricity generating capacity by means of logistic curve fitting method. - the role of nuclear power in a national economy is analyzed in terms of environmental regulation. To do so, energy-economy linked model is developed. By using this model, the benefits from the introduction of nuclear power in Korea are estimated. Study on inter-industry economic activity for nuclear industry is carried out by means of an input-output analysis. Nuclear industry is examined in terms of inducement effect of production, of value-added, and of import. - economic analysis of nuclear power generation is performed especially taking into consideration wide variations of foreign currency exchange rate. The result is expressed in levelized generating costs. (author). 27 refs., 24 tabs., 44 figs

  15. Demonstration tokamak fusion power plant for early realization of net electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Shinya, K.; Ogawa, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A demonstration tokamak fusion power plant Demo-CREST is proposed as the device for early realization of net electric power generation by fusion energy. The plasma configuration for Demo-CREST is optimized to satisfy the electric breakeven condition (the condition for net electric power, P e net = 0 MW) with the plasma performance of the ITER reference operation mode. This optimization method is considered to be suitable for the design of a demonstration power plant for early realization of net electric power generation, because the demonstration power plant has to ensure the net electric generation. Plasma performance should also be more reliably achieved than in past design studies. For the plasma performance planned in the present ITER programme, net electric power from 0 to 500 MW is possible with Demo-CREST under the following engineering conditions: maximum magnetic field 16 T, thermal efficiency 30%, NBI system efficiency 50% and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. By replacing the blanket system with one of higher thermal efficiency, a net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the performance of the commercial plant with Demo-CREST can also be studied from the economic point of view. The development path from the experimental reactor 'ITER' to the commercial plant 'CREST' through the demonstration power plant 'Demo-CREST' is proposed as an example of the fast track concept. (author)

  16. Development of Markov model of emergency diesel generator for dynamic reliability analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Young Ho; Choi, Sun Yeong; Yang, Joon Eon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-02-01

    The EDG (Emergency Diesal Generator) of nuclear power plant is one of the most important equipments in mitigating accidents. The FT (Fault Tree) method is widely used to assess the reliability of safety systems like an EDG in nuclear power plant. This method, however, has limitations in modeling dynamic features of safety systems exactly. We, hence, have developed a Markov model to represent the stochastic process of dynamic systems whose states change as time moves on. The Markov model enables us to develop a dynamic reliability model of EDG. This model can represent all possible states of EDG comparing to the FRANTIC code developed by U.S. NRC for the reliability analysis of standby systems. to access the regulation policy for test interval, we performed two simulations based on the generic data and plant specific data of YGN 3, respectively by using the developed model. We also estimate the effects of various repair rates and the fractions of starting failures by demand shock to the reliability of EDG. And finally, Aging effect is analyzed. (author). 23 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  17. Outline of geothermal power generation in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezaki, Y

    1960-01-01

    The utilization of geothermal energy in electrical power generation throughout the world is described. Details of generating capacity and cost are given for Larderello, Italy; Wairakei, New Zealand: and the Geysers, USA. In Japan three types of conversion systems are used. These include the direct use of steam, direct use of hot water and binary fluid type systems. The history of Japanese investigation and exploitation of geothermal energy is reviewed and the status of the Matsukawa, Hakone, Otake and Takenoyu geothermal power plants is discussed. It is recommended that laws be enacted in Japan to encourage the development of this form of energy conversion.

  18. Ejectors of power plants turbine units efficiency and reliability increasing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, K. E.; Ryabchikov, A. Yu.; Kuptsov, V. K.; Murmanskii, I. B.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Zhelonkin, N. V.; Khaet, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The functioning of steam turbines condensation systems influence on the efficiency and reliability of a power plant a lot. At the same time, the condensation system operating is provided by basic ejectors, which maintain the vacuum level in the condenser. Development of methods of efficiency and reliability increasing for ejector functioning is an actual problem of up-to-date power engineering. In the paper there is presented statistical analysis of ejector breakdowns, revealed during repairing processes, the influence of such damages on the steam turbine operating reliability. It is determined, that 3% of steam turbine equipment breakdowns are the ejector breakdowns. At the same time, about 7% of turbine breakdowns are caused by different ejector malfunctions. Developed and approved design solutions, which can increase the ejector functioning indexes, are presented. Intercoolers are designed in separated cases, so the air-steam mixture can’t move from the high-pressure zones to the low-pressure zones and the maintainability of the apparatuses is increased. By U-type tubes application, the thermal expansion effect of intercooler tubes is compensated and the heat-transfer area is increased. By the applied nozzle fixing construction, it is possible to change the distance between a nozzle and a mixing chamber (nozzle exit position) for operating performance optimization. In operating conditions there are provided experimental researches of more than 30 serial ejectors and also high-efficient 3-staged ejector EPO-3-80, designed by authors. The measurement scheme of the designed ejector includes 21 indicator. The results of experimental tests with different nozzle exit positions of the ejector EPO-3-80 stream devices are presented. The pressure of primary stream (water steam) is optimized. Experimental data are well-approved by the calculation results.

  19. Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangachari, S.; Ramash, V.R.; Subramanian, C.K.

    1975-01-01

    The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)

  20. Power generator system for HCL reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scragg, R. L.; Parker, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A power generation system includes a nuclear reactor having a core which in addition to generating heat generates a high frequency electromagnetic radiation. An electromagnetic radiation chamber is positioned to receive at least a portion of the radiation generated by the reactor core. Hydrogen and chlorine are connected into the electromagnetic reactor chamber and react with controlled explosive violence when exposed to the radiation from the nuclear reactor. Oxygen is fed into the reactor chamber as a control medium. The resulting gases under high pressure and temperature are utilized to drive a gas turbine generators. In an alternative embodiment the highly ionized gases, hydrogen and chlorine are utilized as a fluid medium for use in magnetohydrodynamic generators which are attached to the electromagnetic reactor chambers

  1. PEOPLE - The cutting edge in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, M.J.; Hankal, S.

    1995-01-01

    As competition for the United States power consumer increases, generating companies must seek new ways to do business. One way to keep up with the pace of change is to implement unique ideas into various areas of daily operation at the generating station. From subtle new management styles to ambitious employee education programs, changes in operating the management techniques can produce valuable results over time. An educated confident workforce is capable of vast improvement in efficiency and technical competence. We become empowered

  2. Life cycle management at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spekkens, P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper outlines the Life Cycle Management (LCM) program at Ontario Power Generation. LCM is carried out at different levels that includes components, systems, unit and fleet. A system involves cumulative effect of individual component aging. These components include steam generators, pressure tubes and feeders. A unit involves an overall unit aging strategy integrating all systems. At the fleet level, there is an optimal strategy for plant-level investments including end-of-life of a unit

  3. Electric power generation and uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szergenyi, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    Assuming the present trend of nuclear power generation growth, the ratio of nuclear energy in the world power balance will double by the turn of the century. The time of reasonably exploited uranium resources can be predicted as a few decades. Therefore, new nuclear reactor types and more rational uranium management is needed to prolong life of known uranium resources. It was shown how can a better uranium utilization be expected by closed fuel cycles, and what advantages in uranium management can be expected by a better co-operation between small countries and big powers. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 4 figs

  4. Climate protection and reliability of supply. Development of a sustainable power supply concept; Klimaschutz und Versorgungssicherheit. Entwicklung einer nachhaltigen Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Loreck, Charlotte; Mueschen, Klaus

    2009-09-15

    Germany, like other states, committed itself to sustainable development in the Rio declaration of 1992. The boundary conditions for this are set by nature itself, whose laws must be respected if goals like reliability of supply and economic efficiency are to be achieved. This study of the Federal Environmental Office shows how sustainable power supply can be achieved. It is possible to combine climate protection, reliability of supply and economic efficiency, even without nuclear power and without constructing new conventional power plants that do not have the function of combined heat and power generation. (orig.)

  5. Quality control of stainless steel pipings for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Minoru; Kitamura, Ichiro; Ito, Hisao; Sasaki, Ryoichi

    1979-01-01

    The proportion of nuclear power in total power generation is increasing recently in order to avoid the concentrated dependence on petroleum resources, consequently the reliability of operation of nuclear power plants has become important. In order to improve the reliability of plants, the reliability of each machine or equipment must be improved, and for the purpose, the quality control at the time of manufacture is the important factor. The piping systems for BWRs are mostly made of carbon steel, and stainless steel pipings are used for the recirculation system cooling reactors and instrumentation system. Recently, grain boundary type stress corrosion cracking has occurred in the heat-affected zones of welded stainless steel pipings in some BWR plants. In this paper, the quality control of stainless steel pipings is described from the standpoint of preventing stress corrosion cracking in BWR plants. The pipings for nuclear power plants must have sufficient toughness so that the sudden rupture never occurs, and also sufficient corrosion resistance so that corrosion products do not raise the radioactivity level in reactors. The stress corrosion cracking occurred in SUS 304 pipings, the factors affecting the quality of stainless steel pipings, the working method which improves the corrosion resistance and welding control are explained. (Kako, I.)

  6. Reliability and cost evaluation of small isolated power systems containing photovoltaic and wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Rajesh

    Renewable energy application in electric power systems is growing rapidly worldwide due to enhanced public concerns for adverse environmental impacts and escalation in energy costs associated with the use of conventional energy sources. Photovoltaics and wind energy sources are being increasingly recognized as cost effective generation sources. A comprehensive evaluation of reliability and cost is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing these energy sources. The reliability aspects of utilizing renewable energy sources have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Renewable energy sources have the potential to play a significant role in the electrical energy requirements of small isolated power systems which are primarily supplied by costly diesel fuel. A relatively high renewable energy penetration can significantly reduce the system fuel costs but can also have considerable impact on the system reliability. Small isolated systems routinely plan their generating facilities using deterministic adequacy methods that cannot incorporate the highly erratic behavior of renewable energy sources. The utilization of a single probabilistic risk index has not been generally accepted in small isolated system evaluation despite its utilization in most large power utilities. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy. This thesis presents an evaluation model for small isolated systems containing renewable energy sources by integrating simulation models that generate appropriate atmospheric data, evaluate chronological renewable power outputs and combine total available energy and load to provide useful system indices. A software tool SIPSREL+ has been developed which generates

  7. Virtual Generation (Energy Efficiency) The Cheapest Source For Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasnie, Sohail

    2010-09-15

    Energy efficiency is the cheapest source of energy that has escaped the minds of the politicians in the developing countries. This paper argues for large scale utility led end use efficiency programs in a new paradigm, where 1 million efficient light bulbs is synonymous to a 50 MW power station that costs only 2% of the traditional fossil fuel power station and zero maintenance. Bulk procurement, setting up new standards and generation of certified emissions reduction is part of this strategy. It discusses implementation of a $20 million pilot in the Philippines supported by the Asian Development Bank.

  8. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  9. Power Cycling Test Method for Reliability Assessment of Power Device Modules in Respect to Temperature Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Ui-Min; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, Søren

    2018-01-01

    Power cycling test is one of the important tasks to investigate the reliability performance of power device modules in respect to temperature stress. From this, it is able to predict the lifetime of a component in power converters. In this paper, representative power cycling test circuits......, measurement circuits of wear-out failure indicators as well as measurement strategies for different power cycling test circuits are discussed in order to provide the current state of knowledge of this topic by organizing and evaluating current literature. In the first section of this paper, the structure...... of a conventional power device module and its related wear-out failure mechanisms with degradation indicators are discussed. Then, representative power cycling test circuits are introduced. Furthermore, on-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE ON) and forward voltage (VF) measurement circuits for wear-out condition...

  10. Science Based Human Reliability Analysis: Using Digital Nuclear Power Plant Simulators for Human Reliability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Rachel Elizabeth

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) simulators are proliferating in academic research institutions and national laboratories in response to the availability of affordable, digital simulator platforms. Accompanying the new research facilities is a renewed interest in using data collected in NPP simulators for Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) research. An experiment conducted in The Ohio State University (OSU) NPP Simulator Facility develops data collection methods and analytical tools to improve use of simulator data in HRA. In the pilot experiment, student operators respond to design basis accidents in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility. Thirty-three undergraduate and graduate engineering students participated in the research. Following each accident scenario, student operators completed a survey about perceived simulator biases and watched a video of the scenario. During the video, they periodically recorded their perceived strength of significant Performance Shaping Factors (PSFs) such as Stress. This dissertation reviews three aspects of simulator-based research using the data collected in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility: First, a qualitative comparison of student operator performance to computer simulations of expected operator performance generated by the Information Decision Action Crew (IDAC) HRA method. Areas of comparison include procedure steps, timing of operator actions, and PSFs. Second, development of a quantitative model of the simulator bias introduced by the simulator environment. Two types of bias are defined: Environmental Bias and Motivational Bias. This research examines Motivational Bias--that is, the effect of the simulator environment on an operator's motivations, goals, and priorities. A bias causal map is introduced to model motivational bias interactions in the OSU experiment. Data collected in the OSU NPP Simulator Facility are analyzed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Data include crew characteristics, operator surveys, and time to recognize

  11. Improvement of hydroelectric power generation using pumped ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By principle, hydroelectric power generation relies on the law of conservation of energy where kinetic energy that resulted from the movement of the mass of water from the river is translated into electr icity, the quantum of which depends on systemic variables viz: plant efficiency, volumetric water flow through the turbine and ...

  12. Power generation choices: costs, risks and externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This document from OECD deals with the choices between the different means of producing electricity: supply and demand trends, power generation choices, management of development and technologies, environmental impacts and costs around energy sources. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the papers of this volume. (TEC)

  13. Method and apparatus for thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangus, J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for power generation from a recirculating superheat-reheat circuit with multiple expansion stages which alleviates complex control systems and minimizes thermal cycling of system components, particularly the reheater. The invention includes preheating cold reheat fluid from the first expansion stage prior to its entering the reheater with fluid from the evaporator or drum component

  14. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  15. Free piston linear generator for low grid power generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalla Izzeldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Generating power is of great importance nowadays across the world. However, recently, the world became aware of the climatic changes due to the greenhouse effect caused by CO2 emissions and began seeking solutions to reduce the negative impact on the environment. Besides, the exhaustion of fossil fuels and their environmental impact, make it is crucial to develop clean energy sources, and efforts are focused on developing and improving the efficiency of all energy consuming systems. The tubular permanent magnet linear generators (TPMLGs are the best candidate for energy converters. Despite being suffering problem of attraction force between permanent magnets and stator teeth, to eliminate such attraction force, ironless-stator could be considered. Thus, they could waive the presence of any magnetic attraction between the moving and stator part. This paper presents the design and analysis of ironless -cored TPMLG for low grid power generation. The main advantages of this generator are the low cogging force and high efficiency. Therefore, the magnetic field computation of the proposed generator has been performed by applying a magnetic vector potential and utilizing a 2-D finite element analysis (FEA. Moreover, the experimental results for the current profile, pressure profile and velocity profile have been presented.

  16. Ocean Current Power Generator. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Sullivan, G. A.

    2002-07-26

    The Ocean Power Generator is both technically and economically suitable for deployment in the Gulf Stream from the US Navy facility in Dania, Florida. Yet to be completed is the calibration test in the Chesapeake Bay with the prototype dual hydroturbine Underwater Electric Kite. For the production units a revised design includes two ballast tanks mounted as pontoons to provide buoyancy and depth control. The power rating of the Ocean Power Generator has been doubled to 200 kW ready for insertion into the utility grid. The projected cost for a 10 MW installation is $3.38 per watt, a cost that is consistent with wind power pricing when it was in its deployment infancy, and a cost that is far better than photovoltaics after 25 years of research and development. The Gulf Stream flows 24 hours per day, and water flow is both environmentally and ecologically perfect as a renewable energy source. No real estate purchases are necessary, and you cannot see, hear, smell, or touch an Ocean Power Generator.

  17. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ki Dong; Choi, Young Myung; Kim, Hwa Sup; Lee, Man Ki; Moon, Kee Hwan; Kim, Seung Su; Lim, Chae Young

    1998-12-01

    An energy security index was developed to measure how the introduction of nuclear power generation improved the national security of energy supply in Korea. Using the developed index, a quantitative effort was made to analyze the relationship between the nuclear power generation and the national energy security. Environmental impacts were evaluated and a simplified external cost of a specific coal-fired power plant in Korea was estimated using the QUERI program, which was developed by IAEA. In doing so, efforts were made to quantify the health impacts such as mortality, morbidity, and respiratory hospital admissions due to particulates, SOx, and Nox. The effects of CO 2 emission regulation on the national economy were evaluated. In doing so, the introduction of carbon tax was assumed. Several scenarios were established about the share of nuclear power generation and an effort was made to see how much contribution nuclear energy could make to lessen the burden of the regulation on the national economy. This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods. (author). 24 refs., 44 tabs., 9 figs

  18. Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability And Security Research And Development Initiative. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, S.; Meeker, R.; Steurer, M.; Li, H.; Pamidi, S.; Rodrigo, H.; Suryanarayanan, S.; Cartes, D.; Ordonez, J.; Domijan, A.; Liu, W.; Cox, D.; McLaren, P.; Hovsapian, R.; Edwards, D.; Simmons, S.; Wilde, N.; Woodruff, S.; Kopriva, D.; Hussaini, Y.; Mohammed, O.; Zheng, J.; Baldwin, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    This is the final scientific/technical report for the Electric Power Infrastructure Reliability and Security R and D Initiative sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, under award number DE-FG02-05CH11292. This report covers results from the FSU-led, multi-institution effort conducted over the period 8/15/05 to 10/14/2007. Building upon existing infrastructure for power systems research, modeling, and simulation, the Center for Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) at Florida State University (FSU) is developing world-class programs in electric power systems research and education to support future electric power system needs and challenges. With U.S. Department of Energy Support, FSU CAPS has engaged in a multi-faceted effort to conduct basic and applied research towards understanding, developing, and deploying technologies and approaches that can lead to improved reliability and security of the North American electric power generation and delivery infrastructure. This wide-reaching project, through a number of carefully selected thrusts cutting across several research disciplines, set out to address key terrestrial electric utility power system issues and challenges. The challenges and the thrusts to address them were arrived at through analysis of a number of national reports and recommendations combined with input from an experienced multi-disciplined team of power systems research staff and faculty at FSU CAPS. The resulting project effort can be grouped into four major areas: - Power Systems and New Technology Insertion - Controls, Protection, and Security - Simulation Development - High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS)

  19. Power Generation Using Mechanical Wave Energy Converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Chandrasekaran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ocean wave energy plays a significant role in meeting the growing demand of electric power. Economic, environmental, and technical advantages of wave energy set it apart from other renewable energy resources. Present study describes a newly proposed Mechanical Wave Energy Converter (MEWC that is employed to harness heave motion of floating buoy to generate power. Focus is on the conceptual development of the device, illustrating details of component level analysis. Employed methodology has many advantages such as i simple and easy fabrication; ii easy to control the operations during rough weather; and iii low failure rate during normal sea conditions. Experimental investigations carried out on the scaled model of MWEC show better performance and its capability to generate power at higher efficiency in regular wave fields. Design Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA shows rare failure rates for all components except the floating buoy.

  20. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  1. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietala, V.M.; Vawter, G.A.; Brennan, T.M.; Hammons, B.E.; Meyer, W.J.

    1994-11-01

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  2. High power RF oscillator with Marx generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murase, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Izumi

    1980-01-01

    A method to maintain RF oscillation by using many Marx generators was proposed and studied experimentally. Many charging circuits were connected to an oscillator circuit, and successive pulsed charging was made. This successive charging amplified and maintained the RF oscillation. The use of vacuum gaps and high power silicon diodes improved the characteristics of RF current cut-off of the circuit. The efficiency of the pulsed charging from Marx generators to a condenser was theoretically investigated. The theoretical result showed the maximum efficiency of 0.98. The practical efficiency obtained by using a proposed circuit with a high power oscillator was in the range 0.50 to 0.56. The obtained effective output power of the RF pulses was 11 MW. The maximum holding time of the RF pulses was about 21 microsecond. (Kato, T.)

  3. Safety of next generation power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    This book is organized under the following headings: Future needs of utilities regulators, government, and other energy users, PRA and reliability, LMR concepts, LWR design, Advanced reactor technology, What the industry can deliver: advanced LWRs, High temperature gas-cooled reactors, LMR whole-core experiments, Advanced LWR concepts, LWR technology, Forum: public perceptions, What the industry can deliver: LMRs and HTGRs, Criteria and licensing, LMR modeling, Light water reactor thermal-hydraulics, LMR technology, Working together to revitalize nuclear power, Appendix A, luncheon address, Appendix B, banquet address

  4. Thermoelectrical generator powered by human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almasyova, Zuzana; Vala, David; Slanina, Zdenek; Idzkowski, Adam

    2017-08-01

    This article deals with the possibility of using alternative energy sources for power of biomedical sensors with low power consumption, especially using the Peltier effect sources. Energy for powering of the target device has been used from the available renewable photovoltaic effect. The work is using of "energy harvesting" or "harvest energy" produced by autonomous generator harvesting accumulate energy. It allows to start working from 0.25 V. Measuring chain consists of further circuit which is a digital monitoring device for monitoring a voltage, current and power with I2C bus interface. Using the Peltier effect was first tested in a thermocontainer with water when the water heating occurred on the basis of different temperature differential between the cold and hot side of the Peltier element result in the production of energy. Realized prototype was also experimentally tested on human skin, specifically on the back, both in idle mode and under load.

  5. On site power generation protects water supply for Ajax, Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, Mohamed

    2011-01-15

    The Ajax water supply plant treats and distribute water for the town of Ajax and the nearby City of Pickering and the operations staff manages two other treatment plants supplying the City of Oshawa and the Town of Whitby, and a dozen pumping stations, reservoirs and elevated tanks. The plant requires around 2 MW of continuous power to supply its 150,000 customers. Although local utility power is reliable, standby generators are mandated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment. When power goes out problems can result in the plant and system. To avoid these, the Ajax plant staff selected Cummins Power Generation who delivered one 350 kW and two 1500 kW generator sets with automatic transfer switches and paralleling switchgear. These digital systems parallel and synchronize the generator sets with each other and with the utility, which allows the plant to provide continuous service. The plant is designed for twice its current capacity and is ready to handle future requirements.

  6. Reliability evaluation of power supply and distribution for special heat removal systems in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazbec, D.

    1982-01-01

    An example of the power supply and distribution of a Special Emergency Heat Removal System (SEHR) shows how an engineering organization may, with the aid of the analytical method of min-cut sets optimize the system reliability. Herein are given the necessary simple calculation methods. (Auth.)

  7. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  8. Isotope powered Stirling generator for terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingey, G.L.; Sorensen, G.C.; Ross, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    An electric power supply, small enough to be man-portable, is being developed for remote, terrestrial applications. This system is designed for an operating lifetime of five years without maintenance or refueling. A small Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) has been developed. The energy source of the generator is a 60 watt plutonium-238 fuel clad used in the General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) developed for space applications. A free piston Stirling Engine drives a linear alternator to convert the heat to power. The system weighs about 7.5 kg and produces 11 watts AC power with a conversion efficiency of 18.5%. Two engine models have been designed, fabricated, and tested to date: (a) a developmental model instrumented to confirm and test parameters, and (b) an electrically heated model with an electrical heater equipped power input leads. Critical components have been tested for 10,000 to 20,000 hours. One complete generator has been operating for over 11,000 hours. Radioisotope heated prototypes are expected to be fabricated and tested in late 1995

  9. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  10. Optimization of Reliability and Power Consumption in Systems on a Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Simunic, Tajana; Mihic, Kresimir; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2005-01-01

    Aggressive transistor scaling, decreased voltage margins and increased processor power and temperature, have made reliability assessment a much more significant issue in design. Although reliability of devices and interconnect has been broadly studied, here we characterize reliability at the system level. Thus we consider component-based System on Chip designs. Reliability is strongly affected by system temperature, which is in turn driven by power consumption. Thus, component reliability and...

  11. Generating units performances: power system requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourment, C; Girard, N; Lefebvre, H

    1994-08-01

    The part of generating units within the power system is more than providing power and energy. Their performance are not only measured by their energy efficiency and availability. Namely, there is a strong interaction between the generating units and the power system. The units are essential components of the system: for a given load profile the frequency variation follows directly from the behaviour of the units and their ability to adapt their power output. In the same way, the voltage at the units terminals are the key points to which the voltage profile at each node of the network is linked through the active and especially the reactive power flows. Therefore, the customer will experience the frequency and voltage variations induced by the units behaviour. Moreover, in case of adverse conditions, if the units do not operate as well as expected or trip, a portion of the system, may be the whole system, may collapse. The limitation of the performance of a unit has two kinds of consequences. Firstly, it may result in an increased amount of not supplied energy or loss of load probability: for example if the primary reserve is not sufficient, a generator tripping may lead to an abnormal frequency deviation, and load may have to be shed to restore the balance. Secondly, the limitation of a unit performance results in an economic over-cost for the system: for instance, if not enough `cheap` units are able to load-following, other units with higher operating costs have to be started up. We would like to stress the interest for the operators and design teams of the units on the one hand, and the operators and design teams of the system on the other hand, of dialog and information exchange, in operation but also at the conception stage, in order to find a satisfactory compromise between the system requirements and the consequences for the generating units. (authors). 11 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Reliability Assessment Considering the Coordination of Wind Power, Solar Energy and Energy Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haiying; BAI Xiaomin; XU Jing

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of wind power and solar photovoltaic (PV) power in an electric grid can result in a high operating risk due to their randomness and intermi- ttency. Energy storage (ES) can be used to coordinate with them to reduce this risk by improving supply continuity. It is therefore important to evaluate the reliability benefits of systems consist of wind power, solar photovoltaic power and energy storage. The objective of this paper is to evaluate how the parameters such as the capacity and characteristics of ES and the configuration of a hybrid generation system (HGS) affect the system adequacy based on the sequential Monte Carlo approach.

  13. Evaluation of methodologies for remunerating wind power's reliability in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botero B, Sergio; Isaza C, Felipe; Valencia, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Colombia strives to have enough firm capacity available to meet unexpected power shortages and peak demand; this is clear from mechanisms currently in place that provide monetary incentives (in the order of nearly US$ 14/MW h) to power producers that can guarantee electricity provision during scarcity periods. Yet, wind power in Colombia is not able to currently guarantee firm power because an accepted methodology to calculate its potential firm capacity does not exist. In this paper we argue that developing such methodology would provide an incentive to potential investors to enter into this low carbon technology. This paper analyzes three methodologies currently used in energy markets around the world to calculate firm wind energy capacity: PJM, NYISO, and Spain. These methodologies are initially selected due to their ability to accommodate to the Colombian energy regulations. The objective of this work is to determine which of these methodologies makes most sense from an investor's perspective, to ultimately shed light into developing a methodology to be used in Colombia. To this end, the authors developed a methodology consisting on the elaboration of a wind model using the Monte-Carlo simulation, based on known wind behaviour statistics of a region with adequate wind potential in Colombia. The simulation gives back random generation data, representing the resource's inherent variability and simulating the historical data required to evaluate the mentioned methodologies, thus achieving the technology's theoretical generation data. The document concludes that the evaluated methodologies are easy to implement and that these do not require historical data (important for Colombia, where there is almost no historical wind power data). It is also found that the Spanish methodology provides a higher Capacity Value (and therefore a higher return to investors). The financial assessment results show that it is crucial that these types of incentives exist to make viable

  14. Efforts onto electricity and instrumentation technology for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power generation shares more than 1/3 of all amounts of in-land generation at present, as a supplying source of stable electric energy after 2000 either. As a recent example of efforts onto electricity and instrumentation technology for nuclear power generation, there are, on instrumentation control system a new central control board aiming at reduction of operator's load, protection of human error, and upgrading of system reliability and economics by applying high level micro-processor applied technique and high speed data transfer technique to central monitoring operation and plant control protection, on a field of reactor instrumentation a new digital control rod position indicator improved of conventional system on a base of operation experience and recent technology, on a field of radiation instrumentation a new radiation instrumentation system accumulating actual results in a wide application field on a concept of application to nuclear power plant by adopting in-situ separation processing system using local network technique, and on a field of operation maintenance and management a conservation management system for nuclear generation plant intending of further effectiveness of operation maintenance management of power plant by applying of operation experience and recent data processing and communication technology. And, in the large electric apparatus, there are some generators carried out production and verification of a model one with actual size in lengthwise dimension, to correspond to future large capacity nuclear power plant. By this verification, it was proved that even large capacity generator of 1800 MVA class could be manufactured. (G.K.)

  15. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, L.M.

    2008-12-01

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  16. Electrokinetic Power Generation from Liquid Water Microjets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffin, Andrew M.; Saykally, Richard J.

    2008-02-15

    Although electrokinetic effects are not new, only recently have they been investigated for possible use in energy conversion devices. We have recently reported the electrokinetic generation of molecular hydrogen from rapidly flowing liquid water microjets [Duffin et al. JPCC 2007, 111, 12031]. Here, we describe the use of liquid water microjets for direct conversion of electrokinetic energy to electrical power. Previous studies of electrokinetic power production have reported low efficiencies ({approx}3%), limited by back conduction of ions at the surface and in the bulk liquid. Liquid microjets eliminate energy dissipation due to back conduction and, measuring only at the jet target, yield conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%.

  17. Distributed Power-Generation Systems and Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng; Yang, Dongsheng

    2017-01-01

    the challenging issues and, more importantly, to leverage the energy generation, stringent demands from both utility operators and consumers have been imposed on the DPGS. Furthermore, as the core of energy conversion, numerous power electronic converters employing advanced control techniques have been developed...... for the DPGS to consolidate the integration. In light of the above, this paper reviews the power-conversion and control technologies used for DPGSs. The impacts of the DPGS on the distributed grid are also examined, and more importantly, strategies for enhancing the connection and protection of the DPGS...

  18. Human performance and reliability studies on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyaoka, S.

    1988-01-01

    The TMI accident in USA, the Chernobyl accident in USSR and other major accidents overseas have shown that it is necessary to investigate and research human factor problems related to operation, maintenance and others in order to increase the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. Although a variety of countermeasures have been devised, the accidents and failures due to human factors still occur. So far, the problems related to human factors have not been fundamantally and systematically investigated. Also the data base related to this problem has not been developed. Therefore, the government and electric utility industry began the research on the prevention of the accidents caused by human errors. The basic research is carried out by the government, and the applied research is done by electric utility industry. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry established the Human Factors Research Center on July 1, 1987. The research program in the Human Factors Research Center is divided into the basic research to clarity fundamental human characteristics, the systematic research to apply this information and the analytical research on human error experience. These research activities are reported. (Kako, I.)

  19. High-Efficiency Reliable Stirling Generator for Space Exploration Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs advanced power-conversion technologies to improve the efficiency and reliability of power conversion for space exploration missions. We propose to develop...

  20. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-04

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs.

  1. Network integration of distributed power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Peter; Bayoumi, Deia; Haederli, Christoph; Julian, Danny; Suter, Marco

    The world-wide move to deregulation of the electricity and other energy markets, concerns about the environment, and advances in renewable and high efficiency technologies has led to major emphasis being placed on the use of small power generation units in a variety of forms. The paper reviews the position of distributed generation (DG, as these small units are called in comparison with central power plants) with respect to the installation and interconnection of such units with the classical grid infrastructure. In particular, the status of technical standards both in Europe and USA, possible ways to improve the interconnection situation, and also the need for decisions that provide a satisfactory position for the network operator (who remains responsible for the grid, its operation, maintenance and investment plans) are addressed.

  2. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  3. ICAN: High power neutral beam generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustaizis, S.D.; Lalousis, P.; Perrakis, K.; Auvray, P.; Larour, J.; Ducret, J.E.; Balcou, P.

    2015-01-01

    During the last few years there is an increasing interest on the development of alternative high power new negative ion source for Tokamak applications. The proposed new neutral beam device presents a number of advantages with respect to: the density current, the acceleration voltage, the relative compact dimension of the negative ion source, and the coupling of a high power laser beam for photo-neutralization of the negative ion beam. Here we numerically investigate, using a multi- fluid 1-D code, the acceleration and the extraction of high power ion beam from a Magnetically Insulated Diode (MID). The diode configuration will be coupled to a high power device capable of extracting a current up to a few kA with an accelerating voltage up to MeV. An efficiency of up to 92% of the coupling of the laser beam, is required in order to obtain a high power, up to GW, neutral beam. The new high energy, high average power, high efficiency (up to 30%) ICAN fiber laser is proposed for both the plasma generation and the photo-neutralizer configuration. (authors)

  4. Steam generator replacement at the Obrigheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.; Schenk, H.; Huemmler, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Obrigheim Nuclear Power Station (KWO) is equipped with a dual-loop pressurized water reactor of 345 MW electric power; it was built by Siemens in the period 1965 to 1968. By the end of 1983, KWO had produced some 35 billion kWh in 109,000 hours of operation. Repeated leaks in the heater tubes of the two steam generators had occurred since 1971. Both steam generators were replaced in the course of the 1983 annual revision. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) was commissioned to plant and carry out the replacement work. Despite the leakages the steam generators had been run safely and reliably over a period of 14 years until their replacement. Replacing the steam generators was completed within twelve weeks. In addition to the KWO staff and the supervising crew of KWU, some 400 external fitters were employed on the job at peak work-load periods. For the revision of the whole plant, work on the emergency systems and replacement of the steam generators a maximum number of approx. 900 external fitters were employed in the plant in addition to some 250 members of the plant crew. The exposure dose of the personnel sustained in the course of the steam generator replacement was 690 man-rem, which was clearly below previous estimates. (orig.) [de

  5. Unregulated generation relationships at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrayshuen, H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper examines the contractual and mandated power generation pricing relationships between an electric utility and unregulated power generation stations. The topics of the paper include types of generation facilities, current capacity of unregulated generators, rights to power markets, utility planning, responding to a changing market, power purchase agreement relationships, enforcement and renegotiation

  6. EARTHQUAKE RESEARCH PROBLEMS OF NUCLEAR POWER GENERATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Housner, G. W.; Hudson, D. E.

    1963-10-15

    Earthquake problems associated with the construction of nuclear power generators require a more extensive and a more precise knowledge of earthquake characteristics and the dynamic behavior of structures than was considered necessary for ordinary buildings. Economic considerations indicate the desirability of additional research on the problems of earthquakes and nuclear reactors. The nature of these earthquake-resistant design problems is discussed and programs of research are recommended. (auth)

  7. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  8. Feasibility study on volcanic power generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-07-01

    Investigations were carried out to determine the feasibility of volcanic power generation on Satsuma Io Island. Earthquakes were studied, as were the eruptions of subaerial and submarine hot springs. Hydrothermal rock alteration was studied and electrical surveys were made. General geophysical surveying was performed with thermocameras and radiation monitoring equipment. In particular, the Toyoba mine was studied, both with respect to its hot spring and its subsurface temperatures.

  9. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  10. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surroop, Dinesh; Mohee, Romeela

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NO x and SO 2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm 3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO 2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  11. Nuclear Power as a Basis for Future Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro, Igor; Buruchenko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that electrical-power generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, technology and the level of living. Also, strong power industry with diverse energy sources is very important for country independence. In general, electrical energy can be generated from: 1) burning mined and refined energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and 2) harnessing energy sources such as hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal, solar, and wave power. Today, the main sources for electrical-energy generation are: 1) thermal power - primarily using coal and secondarily - natural gas; 2) “large” hydro power from dams and rivers and 3) nuclear power from various reactor designs. The balance of the energy sources is from using oil, biomass, wind, geothermal and solar, and have visible impact just in some countries. In spite of significant emphasis in the world on using renewables sources of energy, in particular, wind and solar, they have quite significant disadvantages compared to “traditional” sources for electricity generation such as thermal, hydro, and nuclear. These disadvantages include low density of energy, which requires large areas to be covered with wind turbines or photovoltaic panels or heliostats, and dependence of these sources on Mother Nature, i.e., to be unreliable ones and to have low (20 - 40%) or very low (5 - 15%) capacity factors. Fossil-fueled power plants represent concentrated and reliable source of energy. Also, they operate usually as “fast-response” plants to follow rapidly changing electrical-energy consumption during a day. However, due to combustion process they emit a lot of carbon dioxide, which contribute to the climate change in the world. Moreover, coal-fired power plants, as the most popular ones, create huge amount of slag and ash, and, eventually, emit other dangerous and harmful gases. Therefore, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which are also concentrated and reliable source of energy

  12. Photovoltaic technologies for commercial power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    Photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  13. Photovoltaic technologies for commerical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.E.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  14. Pec power generation system using pure energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K; Sonai, A; Kano, A [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Cell Technology Development Dept.; Yatake, T [Toshiba International Fuel Cells Corp. (Japan). Plant Engineering Dept.

    2002-07-01

    A polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) power generation system using pure hydrogen was developed by Toshiba International Fuel Cells (TIFC), Japan, under the sponsorship of the World Energy Network (WE-NET) Project. The goals of the project consist of the construction of 30 kilowatt power generation plant for stationary application and target electrical efficiency of over 50 per cent. Two critical technologies were investigated for high utilization stack, as high hydrogen utilization operation represents one of the most important items for the achievement of target efficiency. The first technology examined was the humidification method from cathode side, while the second was the two-block configuration, which is arranged in series in accordance with the flow of hydrogen. Using these technologies as a basis for the work, a 5 kilowatt short stack was developed, and a steady performance was obtained under high hydrogen utilization of up to 98 per cent. It is expected that by March 2003 the design of the hydrogen fueled 30 kilowatt power generation plant will be completed and assembled. 1 ref., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  15. Hardware-oriented reliability centered maintenance for the diesel generators of Wolsong unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Min; Park, Jin Hee; Kim, Tae Woon; Lee, Yoon Kee; Song, Jin Bae

    1997-01-01

    The DGs (Diesel Generators) in NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) has been used for the emergency electric power source to shut down the nuclear reactor safely in case of station blackout. The RCM (Reliability Centered Maintenance) has been applied to DGs for increasing the safety of NPP. The structured defects of DG were not remedied by the improvement of maintenance method. As the first stage of RCM, to find the structured defects, its failure modes were searched and analyzed through the ten year maintenance information. The structured defects such as the air compressor, the lubricating oil pressure, and the insufficient load were the root causes of main failures. The air reservoir reinstallation, the lubricating oil tube modification, the load bank installation, and the qualitative instrumentation were the solutions for the hardware oriented RCM of DGs. There remains the software oriented RCM such as the rejection of useless maintenance, the preventive maintenance, the database of maintenance information, and the predictive maintenance

  16. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskievic, P.

    1996-01-01

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  17. 76 FR 64082 - Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Staff Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power System; Notice of Staff Meeting Take notice that the Federal Energy... R1.3.10 of Commission-approved transmission planning Reliability Standard TPL-002- 0 (System... additional actions necessary to address the matter.\\3\\ \\1\\ Mandatory Reliability Standards for the Bulk-Power...

  18. Facing the challenges of nuclear power at Ontario Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, H.

    1999-01-01

    Nuclear power represents a major portion of Ontario Power Generation's generation mix and it will be the bedrock upon which we build a successful, competitive company. Our nuclear units offer many environmental and economic benefits, the one most relevant to this meeting is their significant contribution to the relatively low carbon intensity of Ontario's and Canada's electricity supply. In recent weeks, we have listened with great interest to the endorsement by our federal Minister of the Environment of nuclear technology as a means of reducing global warming. But endorsements of this type alone are not sufficient to ensure that nuclear remains an acceptable option for managing greenhouse gas emissions. Without public acceptance and support, the entire nuclear investment is endangered. At OPG we face three challenges to building this public support: we must continue to improve our safety margins and operating performance; we must continue to improve the environmental performance at our stations; and we must increase our community outreach. Today I would like to focus on the last two challenges and the actions that we are taking to maintain our social and environmental 'licence to operate.' But before I describe these initiatives, I will tell you about: the new company - Ontario Power Generation; the changes in store for Ontario's electricity sector; and our greenhouse gas emissions - the legacy from Ontario Hydro. (author)

  19. Steam generator replacement at Surry Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, H.S.

    1982-01-01

    The purposes of the steam generator repair program at Surry Power Station were to repair the tube degradation caused by corrosion-related phenomena and to restore the integrity of the steam generators to a level equivalent to new equipment. The repair program consisted of (1) replacing the existing lower-shell assemblies with new ones and (2) adding new moisture separation equipment to the upper-shell assemblies. These tasks required that several pieces of reactor coolant piping, feedwater piping, main steam piping, and the steam generator be cut and refurbished for reinstallation after the new lower shell was in place. The safety implications and other potential effects of the repair program both during the repair work and after the unit was returned to power were part of the design basis of the repair program. The repair program has been completed on Unit 2 without any adverse effects on the health and safety of the general public or to the personnel engaged in the repair work. Before the Unit 1 repair program began, a review of work procedures and field changes for the Unit 2 repair was conducted. Several major changes were made to avoid recurrence of problems and to streamline procedures. Steam generator replacements was completed on June 1, 1981, and the unit is presently in the startup phase of the outrage

  20. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves

    2009-01-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  1. Comparison of the THERP quantitative tables with the human reliability analysis techniques of second generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarenga, Marco Antonio Bayout; Fonseca, Renato Alves [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], e-mail: bayout@cnen.gov.br, e-mail: rfonseca@cnen.gov.br

    2009-07-01

    The methodology THERP is classified as a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) technique of first generation and its emergence was an important initial step for the development of HRA techniques in the industry. Due to the fact of being a first generation technique, THERP quantification tables of human errors are based on a taxonomy that does not take into account the human errors mechanisms. Concerning the three cognitive levels in the Rasmussen framework for the cognitive information processing in human beings, THERP deals in most cases with errors that happen in the perceptual-motor level (stimulus-response). In the rules level, this technique can work better using the time dependent probabilities curves of diagnosis errors, obtained in nuclear power plants simulators. Nevertheless, this is done without processing any error mechanisms. Another deficiency is the fact that the performance shaping factors are in limited number. Furthermore, the influences (predictable or not) of operational context, arising from operational deviations of the most probable (in terms of occurrence probabilities) standard scenarios beside the consequent operational tendencies (operator actions) are not estimated. This work makes a critical analysis of these deficiencies and it points out possible solutions in order to modify the THERP tables, seeking a realistic quantification, that does not underestimate or overestimate the human errors probabilities when applying the HRA techniques to nuclear power plants. The critical analysis is accomplished through a qualitative comparison between THERP, a HRA technique of first generation, with CREAM, as well as ATHEANA, which are HRA techniques of second generation. (author)

  2. Applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The source of electrical power which enables information to be transmitted from the space crafts Voyager 1 and 2 back to Earth after a time period of more than a decade and at a distance of more than a billion miles is known as an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). It utilises the Seebeck effect in producing electricity from heat. In essence it consists of a large number of semiconductor thermocouples connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. A temperature difference is maintained across the thermocouples by providing a heat source, which in the case of an RTG is a radioactive isotope, and the heat sink is space. The combination of an energy-conversion system, free of moving parts and a long-life, high energy-density heat source, provides a supply of electrical power typically in the range of tens to hundred of watts and which operates reliably over extended periods of time. An electric power source, based upon thermoelectric conversion by which utilises a nuclear reactor as a heat source, has also been deployed in space and a 100-kW system is being developed to provide electrical power to a variety of commercial and military projects including SDI. Developments in thermoelectrics that have taken place in the western world during the past 30 years are primarily due to United States interest and involvement in the exploration of space. This paper reviews US applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space. (author)

  3. Human reliability analysis for steam generator feed-and-bleed accident in Bushehr NPP-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafarian, Reza [Valiasr University of Rafsanjan, Rafsanjan, 28 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepanloo, Kamran [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), external link End of North Karegar Av., Tehran 14155-1339 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    According to the incident/accident reports, unsuccessful implementation of steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure is one of the most important events in nuclear power plants operation which greatly contributes to the level of risk of the plants. Generally, the loss of all feed water pumps flow (as one of the precursors) results in failure to maintain adequate cooling of the reactor core unless the operating crew initiate and follow the feed-and-bleed procedure correctly and timely. In this paper, firstly, a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) event tree is presented delineating the major human activities and errors in the implementation of the steam generator (SG) feed-and-bleed procedure following the loss of (both normal and emergency) water feed to four SGs of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 (BNPP-1). Secondly, the graphical method of task analysis as a part of HRA is used as a means of delineating correct and incorrect human actions. To be used in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the outputs of the HRA event trees are fed into the system event trees, functional event trees or system fault trees. As a part of a probabilistic risk assessment of BNPP-1 and to assess the reliability of control room operators, a human reliability analysis model is applied based on the THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) technique. The THERP method is used in the form of event trees named as the probability tree diagrams. In this research the Human Reliability Analysis event tree is constructed based on the background information and assumptions made and on a similar NPP task analysis. It is done so because the BNPP-1 is not an operational nuclear power plant. Thirdly, based on NUREG/CR-1278 Handbook, a computer program has been developed in Visual Basic language and used to illustrate the major human activities and determination of error rates of operators in the course of the implementation of the steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure. Finally, total

  4. Human reliability analysis for steam generator feed-and-bleed accident in Bushehr NPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, Reza; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2006-01-01

    According to the incident/accident reports, unsuccessful implementation of steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure is one of the most important events in nuclear power plants operation which greatly contributes to the level of risk of the plants. Generally, the loss of all feed water pumps flow (as one of the precursors) results in failure to maintain adequate cooling of the reactor core unless the operating crew initiate and follow the feed-and-bleed procedure correctly and timely. In this paper, firstly, a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) event tree is presented delineating the major human activities and errors in the implementation of the steam generator (SG) feed-and-bleed procedure following the loss of (both normal and emergency) water feed to four SGs of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 (BNPP-1). Secondly, the graphical method of task analysis as a part of HRA is used as a means of delineating correct and incorrect human actions. To be used in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the outputs of the HRA event trees are fed into the system event trees, functional event trees or system fault trees. As a part of a probabilistic risk assessment of BNPP-1 and to assess the reliability of control room operators, a human reliability analysis model is applied based on the THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) technique. The THERP method is used in the form of event trees named as the probability tree diagrams. In this research the Human Reliability Analysis event tree is constructed based on the background information and assumptions made and on a similar NPP task analysis. It is done so because the BNPP-1 is not an operational nuclear power plant. Thirdly, based on NUREG/CR-1278 Handbook, a computer program has been developed in Visual Basic language and used to illustrate the major human activities and determination of error rates of operators in the course of the implementation of the steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure. Finally, total

  5. Human Reliability Analysis for steam generator feed-and-bleed accident in Bushehr NPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarian, R.; Sepanloo, K.

    2005-01-01

    According to the incident/accident reports, unsuccessful implementation of steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure is one of the most important events in nuclear power plants operation which greatly contributes to the level of risk of the plants. Generally, the loss of all feed water pumps flow (as one of the precursors) results in failure to maintain adequate cooling of the reactor core unless the operating crew initiate and follow the feed-and-bleed procedure correctly and timely. In this paper, firstly, a Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) event tree is presented delineating the major human activities and errors in the implementation of the steam generator (SG) feed-and-bleed procedure following the loss of (both normal and emergency) water feed to four SGs of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant unit1 (BNPP-1). Secondly, the graphical method of task analysis as a part of HRA is used as a means of delineating correct and incorrect human actions. To be used in the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), the outputs of the HRA event trees are fed into the system event trees, functional event trees or system fault trees. As a part of a probabilistic risk assessment of BNPP-1 and to assess the reliability of control room operators, a human reliability analysis model is applied based on the THERP (Technique for Human Error Rate Prediction) technique. The THERP method is used in the form of event trees named as the probability tree diagrams. In this research the Human Reliability Analysis event tree is constructed based on the background information and assumptions made and on a similar NPP task analysis. It is done so because the BNPP-1 is not an operational nuclear power plant. Thirdly, based on NUREG/CR-1278 Handbook, a computer program has been developed in Visual Basic language and used to illustrate the major human activities and determination of error rates of operators in the course of the implementation of the steam generator feed-and-bleed procedure. Finally, total

  6. Reliability of the electric power supply in the safety apparatus of nuclear power plants: a comparative analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the risk of total loss of electric power supply to the Class 1E system. Two alternatives are focused: a system with two off-site and two onsite power supplies emergency power supply, as recommended by the American Regulations, and a system with only one off-site and four on-site power supplies, applicable when two off-site are not available. To allow the fact that the equipment can be repaired, the method proper involves use of the Markov model, with which one can find, for each configuration of the system, the change over time of the probability of a simultaneous failure of all power sources. The sensitivity of each parameter is studied in each case and, on the basis of the results of the study, the author conclude that the system with two off-site power supplies is preferable in all alternatives analysed, although the system with one off-site power supply can be adopted with high reliability diesel-generators. (author)

  7. An application of the fault tree analysis for the power system reliability estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkanovski, A.; Cepin, M.; Mavko, B.

    2007-01-01

    The power system is a complex system with its main function to produce, transfer and provide consumers with electrical energy. Combinations of failures of components in the system can result in a failure of power delivery to certain load points and in some cases in a full blackout of power system. The power system reliability directly affects safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants because the loss of offsite power is a significant contributor to the core damage frequency in probabilistic safety assessments of nuclear power plants. The method, which is based on the integration of the fault tree analysis with the analysis of the power flows in the power system, was developed and implemented for power system reliability assessment. The main contributors to the power system reliability are identified, both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  8. Determination of the Level of Influence of Various Factors on the Reliability of Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Popescu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Consumers supply with qualitative electric power is one of the priority requirements imposed to power systems. Currently, in electricity networks take place a number of planned and unplanned disconnections, which interrupt the power and affect consumers, causing economic damage. To ensure the quality of power supply it is essential to know the factors that influence the reliability of power systems, which have a visible impact on the variation of reliability of equipment installed in power systems. This paper is devoted to problems of calculation and analysis of power systems reliability and estimation of the impact of various factors that influence the supply of consumers.

  9. A dynamic simulation model for assessing the overall impact of incentive policies on power system reliability, costs and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez-Lopez, A.S.; Martinez-Val, J.M.; Moratilla-Soria, B.Y.

    2017-01-01

    The liberalization of power markets has entailed dramatic changes in power system planning worldwide. The inception of new alternative technologies, smart grids and distributed generation and storage is expected to make system planning even more challenging. Government policies still play a major role in the evolution of a country's power generation mix, even in those countries with liberalized markets. This paper presents a System Dynamics model aimed at assessing the overall technical, economic and environmental impact of renewable energy incentives and capacity payment policies. The model has been used to simulate Spain's power industry in order to assess the impact of electric power policies with the goal of getting insights regarding how to achieve an optimum power generation mix. The main conclusions of the present paper are (i) the necessity of specific regulatory actions in Spain in order to keep adequate reliability levels, avoid price spikes and boom and bust investment cycles as well as to deploy specific technologies, (ii) the fact that capacity payments are a better instrument for keeping adequate reserve margins and avoiding power price spikes than renewable energy incentives and (iii) the evidence that both instruments entail additional system costs over the base case scenario. - Highlights: • A System Dynamics model of Spain's power generation mix is proposed. • The overall policy impact on system costs, environment and reliability is assessed. • Current policies are not enough to keep adequate reliability levels. • Capacity payments are an adequate instrument for guaranteeing system reliability. • RES incentives do not solve reliability issues and entail greater system costs.

  10. Reliability research to nuclear power plant operators based on several methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiang; Li Fu; Zhao Bingquan

    2009-01-01

    The paper utilizes many kinds of international reliability research methods, and summarizes the review of reliability research of Chinese nuclear power plant operators in past over ten years based on the simulator platform of nuclear power plant. The paper shows the necessity and feasibility of the research to nuclear power plant operators from many angles including human cognition reliability, fuzzy mathematics model and psychological research model, etc. It will be good to the safe operation of nuclear power plant based on many kinds of research methods to the reliability research of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  11. Reliability of electric generation units by evaluating the loss of power and efficiency of turbines; Confiabilidad de las unidades de generacion electrica mediante la evaluacion de la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de las turbinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Solis, Jose Antonio; Cristalinas Navarro, Victor Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the specialized technical service to evaluate the loss of power and efficiency of an open steam turbine is to quantify these losses caused by the deterioration of internal seals, deterioration of the steam path geometry components (nozzles and blades) and increased roughness of the blades and nozzle surface due to erosion (steam, humidity and impacts) and, also, due to salts deposition. In the same way, to establish a set of recommendations, in order of importance by the attention of the Power Plant with the purpose of recovering the major quantity of power and efficiency lost by the steam turbine and assurance, by means of technical supervision of the activities set in the recommendations, and in accordance with CFE rules, international standards and the personal experience of the Instituto de Investogaciones Electricas (IIE), staff, an acceptable quality in rehabilitation of mechanical components such as the maintenance of the steam turbine itself. Using an application example, this paper describes, the methodology of execution of this kind of services. Also, the quality of the maintenance and the rehabilitation of the steam turbine components are quantified. [Spanish] El objetivo del servicio tecnico especializado para evaluar la perdida de potencia y eficiencia de una turbina de vapor abierta es cuantificar dichas perdidas a causa del deterioro de los sellos internos, del deterioro la geometria de referencia de los componentes del canal de vapor (alabes fijos y alabes moviles) y del aumento de la rugosidad de la superficie de los alabes a causa de la erosion (marcas de vapor, de humedad y de impactos) y de la deposicion de sales. Asimismo, establecer una serie de recomendaciones en orden prioritario para la atencion de la central, con el fin de recuperar la mayor parte de la potencia y eficiencia perdidas por la turbina y asegurando, mediante la supervision tecnica de las actividades resultantes de las recomendaciones y conforme a la normativa de la

  12. Powering Kuwait into the 21. century: Alternatives for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boncourt, Maite de

    2012-01-01

    Kuwait is facing a surge in the consumption of power. The current power fuel mix, based on oil, appears unsustainable. Yet Kuwait has a large number of assets. The power fuel mix can be optimized and diversified to include alternatives to oil such as gas or renewables, so as to benefit from the opportunity cost of oil (the price at which this oil could be sold on international market). The country has gas reserves and a good potential in renewable technologies. If energy efficiency can be considered as a potential resource, then much can be achieved in this area as well, given Kuwait's current power and water per capita consumption rates, which are among the highest in the world. The present tendency has been to go for step-by-step fixes, adding emergency power plants which have increased power generation costs and a non-optimized system. Kuwait is on the verge of defining a new power fuel mix, with more gas, and developing new R and D projects. In this context, this memorandum looks at alternatives, and concludes that in the long term a diversified power mix has to be developed. The current gas glut at the world level, resulting both from the production of unconventional gas resources and the economic recession hitting Europe, offers a sizable opportunity for gas imports. A transition strategy for the power sector could make use of gas imports. In the longer term, however, Kuwait should not make a one-way bet and develop its domestic gas resources. This paper urges the adoption of a common gas strategy integrated into a power sector strategy, through consultation with all actors. It would include reserves, costs, feasibility and potential uses, as well as economic opportunities. As the region is facing gas shortages and Kuwait ranks independence of supply among its policy priorities, renewable, and in particular solar have their own place in the power mix. The country indeed disposes of substantial and relatively predictable renewable energy resources. Those are

  13. Reliable implementation of intelligent load control and decentralized power generation in the E-Energy project E-DeMa; Zuverlaessige Integration intelligenter Laststeuerung und dezentraler Energieerzeugung im E-Energy Projekt E-DeMa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langhammer, N.; Kays, R. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kommunikationstechnik; Mueller, C.; Wietfeld, C. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Kommunikationsnetze; Kreutz, S.; Belitz, H.J.; Koenig, D.; Rehtanz, C. [Technische Univ. Dortmund (Germany). Inst. fuer Energiesysteme, Energieeffizienz und Energiewirtschaft

    2012-07-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on the integration of intelligent load control and distributed power producers into future smart grid energy systems. The authors present the approaches and innovations that have been developed in the framework of the E-Energy project E-DeMa. The focus of this paper is on the implementation of a communication infrastructure that has been built up in E-DeMa in a large-scale field test in two pilot regions and is currently being tested. Furthermore, the economic potential of the so-called aggregator is presented that summarizes a variety of loads in the retail sector in and intelligently controls remotely.

  14. Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik

    Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity of conven......Increasing levels of penetration of wind power and other renewable generations in European power systems pose challenges to power system security. The power system operators are continuously challenged especially when generations from renewables are high thereby reducing online capacity......, one of them being the North East area with high share of wind power generation.The aim of this study is to investigate how renewable generations like wind power can contribute to the power system defence plans. This PhD project “Integration of Renewable Generation in Power System Defence Plans...

  15. Demonstration test for reliability of valves for atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Shiro

    1978-01-01

    The demonstration test on the reliability of valves for atomic power plants being carried out by the Nuclear Engineering Test Center is reported. This test series is conducted as six-year project from FY 1976 to FY 1981 at the Isogo Test Center. The demonstration test consists of (1) environmental test, (2) reaction force test, (3) vibration test, (4) stress measurement test, (5) operational characteristic test, (6) flow resistance coefficient measuring test, (7) leakage test and (8) safety valve and relief valve test. These contents are explained about the special requirements for nuclear use, for example, the enviornmental condition after the design base accident of PWRs and BWRs, the environmental test sequence for isolation valves of containment vessels under the emergency condition, the seismic test condition for valves of nuclear use, the various stress measurements under thermal transient conditions, the leak test after 500 cycles between the normal operating conditions for PWRs and BWRs and the start up conditions and so on. As for the testing facilities, the whole flow diagram is shown, in which the environmental test section, the vibration test section, the steam test section, the hot water test section, the safety valve test section and main components are included. The specifications of each test section and main components are presented. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Efforts to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plants in Kyushu Electric Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    After the Fukushima accident, Kyushu Electric Power Co. took emergency safety measures requested by government to ensure power supply, coolant supply pumps and cooling water so as to keep cooling fuels in the reactor and spent fuel storage pool in case of losses of ordinary cooling capability caused by earthquake and tsunami. In order to improve safety and reliability of nuclear power plants, further efforts based on lessons learned from the Fukushima accident had been made to diversify corresponding equipment of safety measures in terms of prevention of core damage, prevention of containment failure, mitigation of radioactive materials release, cooling of spent fuel pit and ensurance of power supply, and to enhance emergency response capability so as to make operational management more complete. Additional safety measures applicable to new regulatory requirements against severe accidents were in progress. This article introduced details of such activities. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Improving Reliability of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays for Pumping Solid State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Baggott, Renee S.; Lockard, George E.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2005-01-01

    Most Lidar applications rely on moderate to high power solid state lasers to generate the required transmitted pulses. However, the reliability of solid state lasers, which can operate autonomously over long periods, is constrained by their laser diode pump arrays. Thermal cycling of the active regions is considered the primary reason for rapid degradation of the quasi-CW high power laser diode arrays, and the excessive temperature rise is the leading suspect in premature failure. The thermal issues of laser diode arrays are even more drastic for 2-micron solid state lasers which require considerably longer pump pulses compared to the more commonly used pump arrays for 1-micron lasers. This paper describes several advanced packaging techniques being employed for more efficient heat removal from the active regions of the laser diode bars. Experimental results for several high power laser diode array devices will be reported and their performance when operated at long pulsewidths of about 1msec will be described.

  18. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  19. Development of the ultra high efficiency thermal power generation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Toshihiro

    2010-09-15

    In order to prevent global warming, attention is focused on nuclear power generation and renewable energy such as wind and solar power generation. The electric power suppliers of Japan are aiming to increase the amount of nuclear and non-fossil fuel power generation over 50% of the total power generation by 2020. But this means that the remaining half will still be of thermal power generation using fossil fuel and will still play an important role. Under such circumstances, further efficiency improvement of the thermal power generation and its aggressive implementation is ongoing in Japan.

  20. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  1. Development of wind power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiquan, Y.; Yan, C.; Lijun, X.

    1995-01-01

    Present status and development of wind power generation in China is described in this paper. China is vast in territory with abundant wind resources. The exploitable wind energy in China is estimated up to 253,000 MW. At present, more than 150 thousand small WTGs of a total capacity of 17 MW are used to provide residential electricity uses in non-grid connected areas and 13 wind farms, with above 160 medium and large scale grid connected WTGs (50-500 kW) of a total capacity of 30 MW, have been constructed. At the same time, some progress has been made in the fields of nation-wide wind resource assessment, measurement technology of wind turbine performance, the assimilation of foreign wind turbine technology, grid connected WTG technology and the operation of wind farm etc. It is planned that the total installed capacity of WTGs will reach 1000 MW by the end of 2000. Wind power generation could be a part of electric power industry in China. (Author)

  2. Power Generator with Thermo-Differential Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, John R.; Nguyen, James

    2010-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generator consists of an oven box and a solar cooker/solar reflector unit. The solar reflector concentrates sunlight into heat and transfers the heat into the oven box via a heat pipe. The oven box unit is surrounded by five thermoelectric modules and is located at the bottom end of the solar reflector. When the heat is pumped into one side of the thermoelectric module and ejected from the opposite side at ambient temperatures, an electrical current is produced. Typical temperature accumulation in the solar reflector is approximately 200 C (392 F). The heat pipe then transfers heat into the oven box with a loss of about 40 percent. At the ambient temperature of about 20 C (68 F), the temperature differential is about 100 C (180 F) apart. Each thermoelectric module, generates about 6 watts of power. One oven box with five thermoelectric modules produces about 30 watts. The system provides power for unattended instruments in remote areas, such as space colonies and space vehicles, and in polar and other remote regions on Earth.

  3. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  4. Power generation from lignite coal in Bulgaria - problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batov, S.; Gadjanov, P.; Panchev, T.

    1997-01-01

    The bulk of lignite coal produced in Bulgaria is used as fuel for the thermal power plants (TPP) built in Maritsa East coal field. A small part of it goes to production of briquettes and to fuel the auxiliary power plants of industrial enterprises. The total installed capacity of the power plants in the region of Maritsa East is 2490 MW, and the electric power generated by them is about 30% of the total power generated in the country. It should be noted that these power plants were subjected to a number of rehabilitations aiming to improve their technical and economic parameters. Irrespective of that, however, solution has still to be sought to a number of problems related to utilisation of the low-grade lignite coal for power generation. On the whole, they can be divided in the following groups: Those related to lignite coal mining can be referred to the first group. Lignite coal is mined in comparatively complicated mining and geological conditions characterized mainly by earth creep and deformation. The second group of problems is related to coal quality control. It is a fact of major significance that the quality indices of coal keep changing all the time in uneven steps without any definite laws to govern it. That creates hard problems in the process of coal transportation, crushing and combustion. The next group of problems concerns operation and upgrading of the power generation equipment. That applies especially to the existing boilers which bum low-grade fuel in order to improve their operation in terms of higher thermal efficiency, controllability, reliability, improved environmental indices, etc. An increasingly high importance is attached to environmental impact problems incident to lignite coal utilisation. Abatement of sulphur oxide emissions and dust pollution is a problem solution of which cannot wait. The possibilities for partial solution of the environmental problems through increasing the thermal efficiency of facilities at the thermal Power

  5. Evaluation Of Different Power Conditioning Options For Stirling Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigos, A.; Blanes, J. M.; Carrasco, J. A.; Maset, E.; Montalban, G.; Ejea, J.; Ferreres, A.; Sanchis, E.

    2011-10-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines are an interesting alternative for electrical power systems, especially in deep space missions where photovoltaic systems are not feasible. This kind of power generators contains two main parts, the Stirling machine and the linear alternator that converts the mechanical energy from the piston movement to electrical energy. Since the generated power is in AC form, several aspects should be assessed to use such kind of generators in a spacecraft power system: AC/DC topologies, power factor correction, power regulation techniques, integration into the power system, etc. This paper details power generator operation and explores different power conversion approaches.

  6. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nevrala; Stanislav Misak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generator...

  7. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  8. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  9. Clean fossil-fuelled power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, Tony

    2008-01-01

    Using fossil fuels is likely to remain the dominant means of producing electricity in 2030 and even 2050, partly because power stations have long lives. There are two main ways of reducing CO 2 emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants. These are carbon capture and storage (CCS), which can produce near-zero CO 2 emissions, and increases in plant efficiency, which can give rise to significant reductions in CO 2 emissions and to reduced costs. If a typical UK coal-fired plant was replaced by today's best available technology, it would lead to reductions of around 25% in emissions of CO 2 per MW h of electricity produced. Future technologies are targeting even larger reductions in emissions, as well as providing a route, with CCS, to zero emissions. These two routes are linked and they are both essential activities on the pathway to zero emissions. This paper focuses on the second route and also covers an additional third route for reducing emissions, the use of biomass. It discusses the current status of the science and technologies for fossil-fuelled power generation and outlines likely future technologies, development targets and timescales. This is followed by a description of the scientific and technological developments that are needed to meet these challenges. Once built, a power plant can last for over 40 years, so the ability to upgrade and retrofit a plant during its lifetime is important

  10. The environmental challenges of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schelling, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    In two decades, three momentous changes have occurred that will influence power generation for decades to come. Coal has become a culprit responsible for respiratory disease and acid rain; carbon dioxide has become a culprit widely believed capable of changes in climate greater than any that have occurred in ten thousand years; and nuclear power in many countries has become an outcast. The irony is that nuclear power promised clean air and no greenhouse effect. The great gathering of heads of state in Rio in 1992 was the celebration of a problem; whether it was the beginning of a solution remains to be seen. The paper is followed by a discussion by Dominique Finon, Director, Institut d'Economie et de Politique de l'Energie, CNRS and Universite of Grenoble, France. He presents a divergent view to the wait-and-see attitude that appears from Schelling's discourse. He points to the increasing array of technological options available to the power industry and discusses the need for dynamic approaches to problems such as global warming. 5 refs

  11. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  12. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  13. French nuclear power plants for heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, Y.

    1984-01-01

    The considerable importance that France attributes to nuclear energy is well known even though as a result of the economic crisis and the energy savings it is possible to observe a certain downward trend in the rate at which new power plants are being started up. In July 1983, a symbolic turning-point was reached - at more than 10 thousand million kW.h nuclear power accounted, for the first time, for more than 50% of the total amount of electricity generated, or approx. 80% of the total electricity output of thermal origin. On the other hand, the direct contribution - excluding the use of electricity - of nuclear energy to the heat market in France remains virtually nil. The first part of this paper discusses the prospects and realities of the application, at low and intermediate temperatures, of nuclear heat in France, while the second part describes the French nuclear projects best suited to the heat market (excluding high temperatures). (author)

  14. Next-Generation Shipboard DC Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Sulligoi, Giorgio; Cuzner, Rob

    2016-01-01

    sources (RES) are commonly recognized as the major driven force of the revolution, the outburst of customer electronics and new kinds of household electronics is also powering this change. In this context, dc power distribution technologies have made a comeback and keep gaining a commendable increase...... in research interests and industrial applications. In addition, the concept of flexible and smart distribution has also been proposed, which tends to exploit distributed generation and pack the distributed RESs and local electrical loads as an independent and self-sustainable entity, namely microgrid....... At present, the research of dc microgrid has investigated and developed a series of advanced methods in control, management and objective-oriented optimization, which would found the technical interface enabling the future applications in multiple industrial areas, such as smart buildings, electric vehicles...

  15. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  16. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Savage

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts into impedances less than 10  Ω, from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K. W. Struve, W. A. Stygar, L. K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007, p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6  Ω, 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10^{-4}. The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the

  17. Modeling high-Power Accelerators Reliability-SNS LINAC (SNS-ORNL); MAX LINAC (MYRRHA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitigoi, A. E.; Fernandez Ramos, P.

    2013-01-01

    Improving reliability has recently become a very important objective in the field of particle accelerators. The particle accelerators in operation are constantly undergoing modifications, and improvements are implemented using new technologies, more reliable components or redundant schemes (to obtain more reliability, strength, more power, etc.) A reliability model of SNS (Spallation Neutron Source) LINAC has been developed within MAX project and analysis of the accelerator systems reliability has been performed within the MAX project, using the Risk Spectrum reliability analysis software. The analysis results have been evaluated by comparison with the SNS operational data. Results and conclusions are presented in this paper, oriented to identify design weaknesses and provide recommendations for improving reliability of MYRRHA linear accelerator. The SNS reliability model developed for the MAX preliminary design phase indicates possible avenues for further investigation that could be needed to improve the reliability of the high-power accelerators, in view of the future reliability targets of ADS accelerators.

  18. Modeling the economics and market adoption of distributed power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maribu, Karl Magnus

    2006-01-01

    After decades of power generating units increasing in size, there is currently a growing focus on distributed generation, power generation close to energy loads. Investments in large-scale units have been driven by economy of scale, but recent technological improvements on small generating plants have made it possible to exploit the benefits of local power generation to a larger extent than previously. Distributed generation can improve power system efficiency because heat can be recovered from thermal units to supply heat and thermally activated cooling, and because small-scale renewables have a promising end-user market. Further benefits of distributed generation include improved reliability, deferral of often controversial and costly grid investments and reduction of grid losses. The new appeal of small-scale power generation means that there is a need for new tools to analyze distributed generation, both from a system perspective and from the perspective of potential developers. In this thesis, the focus is on the value of power generation for end-users. The thesis identifies how an end-user can find optimal distributed generation systems and investment strategies under a variety of economic and regulatory scenarios. The final part of the thesis extends the analysis with a bottom up model of how the economics of distributed generation for a representative set of building types can transfer to technology diffusion in a market. Four separate research papers make up the thesis. In the first paper, Optimal Investment Strategies in Decentralized Renewable Power Generation under Uncertainty, a method for evaluation of investments in renewable power units under price uncertainty is presented. It is assumed the developer has a building with an electricity load and a renewable power resource. The case study compares a set of wind power systems with different capacity and finds that capacity depends on the electricity price and that there under uncertain prices can be a

  19. Laser peening applications for next generation of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.; Truong, C.; Walter, M.; Chen, H.-L.; Hackel, L.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of electricity by nuclear power can assist in achieving goals of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Increased safety and reliability are necessary attributes of any new nuclear power plants. High pressure, hot water and radiation contribute to operating environments where Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement can lead to potential component failures. Desire for improved steam conversion efficiency pushes the fatigue stress limits of turbine blades and other rotating equipment. For nuclear reactor facilities now being designed and built and for the next generations of designs, laser peening could be incorporated to provide significant performance life to critical subsystems and components making them less susceptible to fatigue, SCC and radiation induced embrittlement. These types of components include steam turbine blades, hubs and bearings as well as reactor components including cladding material, housings, welded assemblies, fittings, pipes, flanges, vessel penetrations, nuclear waste storage canisters. Laser peening has proven to be a commercial success in aerospace applications and has recently been put into use for gas and steam turbine generators and light water reactors. An expanded role for this technology for the broader nuclear power industry would be a beneficial extension. (author)

  20. Multi-Objective Reservoir Optimization Balancing Energy Generation and Firm Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang-Fang Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To maximize annual power generation and to improve firm power are important but competing goals for hydropower stations. The firm power output is decisive for the installed capacity in design, and represents the reliability of the power generation when the power plant is put into operation. To improve the firm power, the whole generation process needs to be as stable as possible, while the maximization of power generation requires a rapid rise of the water level at the beginning of the storage period. Taking the minimal power output as the firm power, both the total amount and the reliability of the hydropower generation are considered simultaneously in this study. A multi-objective model to improve the comprehensive benefits of hydropower stations are established, which is optimized by Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm-II (NSGA-II. The Three Gorges Cascade Hydropower System (TGCHS is taken as the study case, and the Pareto Fronts in different search spaces are obtained. The results not only prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, but also provide operational references for the TGCHS, indicating that there is room of improvement for both the annual power generation and the firm power.