WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable confidence measures

  1. Methodology for building confidence measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramson, Aaron L.

    2004-04-01

    This paper presents a generalized methodology for propagating known or estimated levels of individual source document truth reliability to determine the confidence level of a combined output. Initial document certainty levels are augmented by (i) combining the reliability measures of multiply sources, (ii) incorporating the truth reinforcement of related elements, and (iii) incorporating the importance of the individual elements for determining the probability of truth for the whole. The result is a measure of confidence in system output based on the establishing of links among the truth values of inputs. This methodology was developed for application to a multi-component situation awareness tool under development at the Air Force Research Laboratory in Rome, New York. Determining how improvements in data quality and the variety of documents collected affect the probability of a correct situational detection helps optimize the performance of the tool overall.

  2. Development, validity and reliability testing of the East Midlands Evaluation Tool (EMET) for measuring impacts on trainees' confidence and competence following end of life care training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, B; Parry, R; Bird, L; Watson, S; Faull, C

    2017-02-02

    To develop, test and validate a versatile questionnaire, the East Midlands Evaluation Tool (EMET), for measuring effects of end of life care training events on trainees' self-reported confidence and competence. A paper-based questionnaire was designed on the basis of the English Department of Health's core competences for end of life care, with sections for completion pretraining, immediately post-training and also for longer term follow-up. Preliminary versions were field tested at 55 training events delivered by 13 organisations to 1793 trainees working in diverse health and social care backgrounds. Iterative rounds of development aimed to maximise relevance to events and trainees. Internal consistency was assessed by calculating interitem correlations on questionnaire responses during field testing. Content validity was assessed via qualitative content analysis of (1) responses to questionnaires completed by field tester trainers and (2) field notes from a workshop with a separate cohort of experienced trainers. Test-retest reliability was assessed via repeat administration to a cohort of student nurses. The EMET comprises 27 items with Likert-scaled responses supplemented with questions seeking free-text responses. It measures changes in self-assessed confidence and competence on 5 subscales: communication skills; assessment and care planning; symptom management; advance care planning; overarching values and knowledge. Test-retest reliability was found to be good, as was internal consistency: the questions successfully assess different aspects of the same underlying concept. The EMET provides a time-efficient, reliable and flexible means of evaluating effects of training on self-reported confidence and competence in the key elements of end of life care. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. Probabilistic confidence for decisions based on uncertain reliability estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Stuart G.

    2013-05-01

    Reliability assessments are commonly carried out to provide a rational basis for risk-informed decisions concerning the design or maintenance of engineering systems and structures. However, calculated reliabilities and associated probabilities of failure often have significant uncertainties associated with the possible estimation errors relative to the 'true' failure probabilities. For uncertain probabilities of failure, a measure of 'probabilistic confidence' has been proposed to reflect the concern that uncertainty about the true probability of failure could result in a system or structure that is unsafe and could subsequently fail. The paper describes how the concept of probabilistic confidence can be applied to evaluate and appropriately limit the probabilities of failure attributable to particular uncertainties such as design errors that may critically affect the dependability of risk-acceptance decisions. This approach is illustrated with regard to the dependability of structural design processes based on prototype testing with uncertainties attributable to sampling variability.

  4. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  5. A systematic review of maternal confidence for physiologic birth: characteristics of prenatal care and confidence measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Melissa D; Saftner, Melissa A; Larson, Bridget; Weinfurter, Elizabeth V

    2014-01-01

    Because a focus on physiologic labor and birth has reemerged in recent years, care providers have the opportunity in the prenatal period to help women increase confidence in their ability to give birth without unnecessary interventions. However, most research has only examined support for women during labor. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the research literature for information about prenatal care approaches that increase women's confidence for physiologic labor and birth and tools to measure that confidence. Studies were reviewed that explored any element of a pregnant woman's interaction with her prenatal care provider that helped build confidence in her ability to labor and give birth. Timing of interaction with pregnant women included during pregnancy, labor and birth, and the postpartum period. In addition, we looked for studies that developed a measure of women's confidence related to labor and birth. Outcome measures included confidence or similar concepts, descriptions of components of prenatal care contributing to maternal confidence for birth, and reliability and validity of tools measuring confidence. The search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and Scopus databases provided a total of 893 citations. After removing duplicates and articles that did not meet inclusion criteria, 6 articles were included in the review. Three relate to women's confidence for labor during the prenatal period, and 3 describe tools to measure women's confidence for birth. Research about enhancing women's confidence for labor and birth was limited to qualitative studies. Results suggest that women desire information during pregnancy and want to use that information to participate in care decisions in a relationship with a trusted provider. Further research is needed to develop interventions to help midwives and physicians enhance women's confidence in their ability to give birth and to develop a tool to measure confidence for use during prenatal care. © 2014 by

  6. Sample size planning for composite reliability coefficients: accuracy in parameter estimation via narrow confidence intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Leann; Kelley, Ken

    2012-11-01

    Composite measures play an important role in psychology and related disciplines. Composite measures almost always have error. Correspondingly, it is important to understand the reliability of the scores from any particular composite measure. However, the point estimates of the reliability of composite measures are fallible and thus all such point estimates should be accompanied by a confidence interval. When confidence intervals are wide, there is much uncertainty in the population value of the reliability coefficient. Given the importance of reporting confidence intervals for estimates of reliability, coupled with the undesirability of wide confidence intervals, we develop methods that allow researchers to plan sample size in order to obtain narrow confidence intervals for population reliability coefficients. We first discuss composite reliability coefficients and then provide a discussion on confidence interval formation for the corresponding population value. Using the accuracy in parameter estimation approach, we develop two methods to obtain accurate estimates of reliability by planning sample size. The first method provides a way to plan sample size so that the expected confidence interval width for the population reliability coefficient is sufficiently narrow. The second method ensures that the confidence interval width will be sufficiently narrow with some desired degree of assurance (e.g., 99% assurance that the 95% confidence interval for the population reliability coefficient will be less than W units wide). The effectiveness of our methods was verified with Monte Carlo simulation studies. We demonstrate how to easily implement the methods with easy-to-use and freely available software. ©2011 The British Psychological Society.

  7. How do regulators measure public confidence?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, A.; Besenyei, E.

    2006-01-01

    The conclusions and recommendations of this session can be summarized this way. - There are some important elements of confidence: visibility, satisfaction, credibility and reputation. The latter can consist of trust, positive image and knowledge of the role the organisation plays. A good reputation is hard to achieve but easy to lose. - There is a need to define what public confidence is and what to measure. The difficulty is that confidence is a matter of perception of the public, so what we try to measure is the perception. - It is controversial how to take into account the results of confidence measurement because of the influence of the context. It is not an exact science, results should be examined cautiously and surveys should be conducted frequently, at least every two years. - Different experiences were explained: - Quantitative surveys - among the general public or more specific groups like the media; - Qualitative research - with test groups and small panels; - Semi-quantitative studies - among stakeholders who have regular contracts with the regulatory body. It is not clear if the results should be shared with the public or just with other authorities and governmental organisations. - Efforts are needed to increase visibility, which is a prerequisite for confidence. - A practical example of organizing an emergency exercise and an information campaign without taking into account the real concerns of the people was given to show how public confidence can be decreased. - We learned about a new method - the so-called socio-drama - which addresses another issue also connected to confidence - the notion of understanding between stakeholders around a nuclear site. It is another way of looking at confidence in a more restricted group. (authors)

  8. Large Sample Confidence Intervals for Item Response Theory Reliability Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Björn; Xin, Tao

    2018-01-01

    In applications of item response theory (IRT), an estimate of the reliability of the ability estimates or sum scores is often reported. However, analytical expressions for the standard errors of the estimators of the reliability coefficients are not available in the literature and therefore the variability associated with the estimated reliability…

  9. The theory of confidence-building measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darilek, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the theory of Confidence-Building Measures (CBMs) in two ways. First, it employs a top-down, deductively oriented approach to explain CBM theory in terms of the arms control goals and objectives to be achieved, the types of measures to be employed, and the problems or limitations likely to be encountered when applying CBMs to conventional or nuclear forces. The chapter as a whole asks how various types of CBMs might function during a political - military escalation from peacetime to a crisis and beyond (i.e. including conflict), as well as how they might operate in a de-escalatory environment. In pursuit of these overarching issues, the second section of the chapter raises a fundamental but complicating question: how might the next all-out war actually come aoubt - by unpremeditated escalation resulting from misunderstanding or miscalculation, or by premeditation resulting in a surprise attack? The second section of the paper addresses this question, explores its various implications for CBMs, and suggests the potential contribution of different types of CBMs toward successful resolution of the issues involved

  10. Current Developments in Measuring Academic Behavioural Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Using published findings and by further analyses of existing data, the structure, validity and utility of the Academic Behavioural Confidence scale (ABC) is critically considered. Validity is primarily assessed through the scale's relationship with other existing scales as well as by looking for predicted differences. The utility of the ABC scale…

  11. Evaluating Measures of Optimism and Sport Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Gerard J.; Perera, Harsha N.; Furst, Andrea J.; Thomas, Patrick R.

    2016-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R), the Sport Confidence Inventory (SCI), and the Carolina SCI (CSCI) were examined in a study involving 260 athletes. The study aimed to test the dimensional structure, convergent and divergent validity, and invariance over competition level of scores generated by these…

  12. Alternative confidence measure for local matching stereo algorithms

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhlovu, T

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a confidence measure applied to individual disparity estimates in local matching stereo correspondence algorithms. It aims at identifying textureless areas, where most local matching algorithms fail. The confidence measure works...

  13. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  14. Social Information Is Integrated into Value and Confidence Judgments According to Its Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Benedetto; Bobadilla-Suarez, Sebastian; Nouguchi, Takao; Sharot, Tali; Love, Bradley C

    2017-06-21

    How much we like something, whether it be a bottle of wine or a new film, is affected by the opinions of others. However, the social information that we receive can be contradictory and vary in its reliability. Here, we tested whether the brain incorporates these statistics when judging value and confidence. Participants provided value judgments about consumer goods in the presence of online reviews. We found that participants updated their initial value and confidence judgments in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account both the uncertainty of their initial beliefs and the reliability of the social information. Activity in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex tracked the degree of belief update. Analogous to how lower-level perceptual information is integrated, we found that the human brain integrates social information according to its reliability when judging value and confidence. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The field of perceptual decision making has shown that the sensory system integrates different sources of information according to their respective reliability, as predicted by a Bayesian inference scheme. In this work, we hypothesized that a similar coding scheme is implemented by the human brain to process social signals and guide complex, value-based decisions. We provide experimental evidence that the human prefrontal cortex's activity is consistent with a Bayesian computation that integrates social information that differs in reliability and that this integration affects the neural representation of value and confidence. Copyright © 2017 De Martino et al.

  15. Using the Reliability Theory for Assessing the Decision Confidence Probability for Comparative Life Cycle Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Larrey-Lassalle, Pyrène; Faure, Thierry; Dumoulin, Nicolas; Roux, Philippe; Mathias, Jean-Denis

    2016-03-01

    Comparative decision making process is widely used to identify which option (system, product, service, etc.) has smaller environmental footprints and for providing recommendations that help stakeholders take future decisions. However, the uncertainty problem complicates the comparison and the decision making. Probability-based decision support in LCA is a way to help stakeholders in their decision-making process. It calculates the decision confidence probability which expresses the probability of a option to have a smaller environmental impact than the one of another option. Here we apply the reliability theory to approximate the decision confidence probability. We compare the traditional Monte Carlo method with a reliability method called FORM method. The Monte Carlo method needs high computational time to calculate the decision confidence probability. The FORM method enables us to approximate the decision confidence probability with fewer simulations than the Monte Carlo method by approximating the response surface. Moreover, the FORM method calculates the associated importance factors that correspond to a sensitivity analysis in relation to the probability. The importance factors allow stakeholders to determine which factors influence their decision. Our results clearly show that the reliability method provides additional useful information to stakeholders as well as it reduces the computational time.

  16. MEASUREMENT: ACCOUNTING FOR RELIABILITY IN PERFORMANCE ESTIMATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Brian; Sutter, Robert; Burroughs, Thomas; Dunagan, W Claiborne

    2014-01-01

    When evaluating physician performance measures, physician leaders are faced with the quandary of determining whether departures from expected physician performance measurements represent a true signal or random error. This uncertainty impedes the physician leader's ability and confidence to take appropriate performance improvement actions based on physician performance measurements. Incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurement is a valuable way of reducing the impact of random error in the measurements, such as those caused by small sample sizes. Consequently, the physician executive has more confidence that the results represent true performance and is positioned to make better physician performance improvement decisions. Applying reliability adjustment to physician-level performance data is relatively new. As others have noted previously, it's important to keep in mind that reliability adjustment adds significant complexity to the production, interpretation and utilization of results. Furthermore, the methods explored in this case study only scratch the surface of the range of available Bayesian methods that can be used for reliability adjustment; further study is needed to test and compare these methods in practice and to examine important extensions for handling specialty-specific concerns (e.g., average case volumes, which have been shown to be important in cardiac surgery outcomes). Moreover, it's important to note that the provider group average as a basis for shrinkage is one of several possible choices that could be employed in practice and deserves further exploration in future research. With these caveats, our results demonstrate that incorporating reliability adjustment into physician performance measurements is feasible and can notably reduce the incidence of "real" signals relative to what one would expect to see using more traditional approaches. A physician leader who is interested in catalyzing performance improvement

  17. Confidence Estimation of Reliability Indices of the System with Elements Duplication and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Pavlov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a problem to estimate a confidence interval of the main reliability indices such as availability rate, mean time between failures, and operative availability (in the stationary state for the model of the system with duplication and independent recovery of elements.Presents a solution of the problem for a situation that often arises in practice, when there are unknown exact values of the reliability parameters of the elements, and only test data of the system or its individual parts (elements, subsystems for reliability are known. It should be noted that the problems of the confidence estimate of reliability indices of the complex systems based on the testing results of their individual elements are fairly common function in engineering practice when designing and running the various engineering systems. The available papers consider this problem, mainly, for non-recovery systems.Describes a solution of this problem for the important particular case when the system elements are duplicated by the reserved elements, and the elements that have failed in the course of system operation are recovered (regardless of the state of other elements.An approximate solution of this problem is obtained for the case of high reliability or "fast recovery" of elements on the assumption that the average recovery time of elements is small as compared to the average time between failures.

  18. Confidence bounds of recurrence-based complexity measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schinkel, Stefan; Marwan, N.; Dimigen, O.; Kurths, J.

    2009-01-01

    In the recent past, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) has gained an increasing interest in various research areas. The complexity measures the RQA provides have been useful in describing and analysing a broad range of data. It is known to be rather robust to noise and nonstationarities. Yet, one key question in empirical research concerns the confidence bounds of measured data. In the present Letter we suggest a method for estimating the confidence bounds of recurrence-based complexity measures. We study the applicability of the suggested method with model and real-life data.

  19. An assessment of the precision and confidence of aquatic eddy correlation measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donis, Daphne; Holtappels, Moritz; Noss, Christian

    2015-01-01

    facility with well-constrained hydrodynamics. These observations are used to review data processing procedures and to recommend improved deployment methods, thus improving the precision, reliability, and confidence of EC measurements. Specifically, this study demonstrates that 1) the alignment of the time...... series based on maximum cross correlation improved the precision of EC flux estimations; 2) an oxygen sensor with a response time of

  20. Building, measuring and improving public confidence in the nuclear regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    An important factor for public confidence in the nuclear regulator is the general public trust of the government and its representatives, which is clearly not the same in all countries. Likewise, cultural differences between countries can be considerable, and similar means of communication between government authorities and the public may not be universally effective. Nevertheless, this workshop identified a number of common principles for the communication of nuclear regulatory decisions that can be recommended to all regulators. They have been cited in particular for their ability to help build, measure and/or improve overall public confidence in the nuclear regulator. (author)

  1. The short version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale: its validity, reliability, and relationship to balance impairment and falls in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Stacey; Goldberg, Allon; Wallace, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    A shortened version of the ABC 16-item scale (ABC-16), the ABC-6, has been proposed as an alternative balance confidence measure. We investigated whether the ABC-6 is a valid and reliable measure of balance confidence and examined its relationship to balance impairment and falls in older adults. Thirty-five community-dwelling older adults completed the ABC-16, including the 6 questions of the ABC-6. They also completed the following clinical balance tests: unipedal stance time (UST), functional reach (FR), Timed Up and Go (TUG), and maximum step length (MSL). Participants reported 12-month falls history. Balance confidence on the ABC-6 was significantly lower than on the ABC-16, however scores were highly correlated. Fallers reported lower balance confidence than non-fallers as measured by the ABC-6 scale, but confidence did not differ between the groups with the ABC-16. The ABC-6 significantly correlated with all balance tests assessed and number of falls. The ABC-16 significantly correlated with all balance tests assessed, but not with number of falls. Test-retest reliability for the ABC-16 and ABC-6 was good to excellent. The ABC-6 is a valid and reliable measure of balance confidence in community-dwelling older adults, and shows stronger relationships to falls than does the ABC-16. The ABC-6 may be a more useful balance confidence assessment tool than the ABC-16. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The short version of the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale: Its validity, reliability, and relationship to balance impairment and falls in older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Schepens, Stacey; Goldberg, Allon; Wallace, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    A shortened version of the ABC 16-item scale (ABC-16), the ABC-6, has been proposed as an alternative balance confidence measure. We investigated whether the ABC-6 is a valid and reliable measure of balance confidence and examined its relationship to balance impairment and falls in older adults. Thirty-five community-dwelling older adults completed the ABC-16, including the six questions of the ABC-6. They also completed the following clinical balance tests: unipedal stance time (UST), functi...

  3. Generalized Confidence Intervals and Fiducial Intervals for Some Epidemiological Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Bebu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For binary outcome data from epidemiological studies, this article investigates the interval estimation of several measures of interest in the absence or presence of categorical covariates. When covariates are present, the logistic regression model as well as the log-binomial model are investigated. The measures considered include the common odds ratio (OR from several studies, the number needed to treat (NNT, and the prevalence ratio. For each parameter, confidence intervals are constructed using the concepts of generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities. Numerical results show that the confidence intervals so obtained exhibit satisfactory performance in terms of maintaining the coverage probabilities even when the sample sizes are not large. An appealing feature of the proposed solutions is that they are not based on maximization of the likelihood, and hence are free from convergence issues associated with the numerical calculation of the maximum likelihood estimators, especially in the context of the log-binomial model. The results are illustrated with a number of examples. The overall conclusion is that the proposed methodologies based on generalized pivotal quantities and fiducial quantities provide an accurate and unified approach for the interval estimation of the various epidemiological measures in the context of binary outcome data with or without covariates.

  4. Editorial: disarmament, non proliferation, confidence-building measures, armament control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soutou, Georges-Henri

    2015-01-01

    After having described the vicious circle existing between disarmament and security as it appeared before and during the first World War, the author deals with the specific case of nuclear disarmament as it was first addressed just after the Second World War, and was then not accepted by the Russians. He comments the political and strategical approach adopted by the Kennedy administration, notably within the context of severe crises (Berlin and Cuba). This resulted in the re-establishment of a relationship between war and policy as defined by Clausewitz, but based on a trilogy of three inseparable pairs: deterrence and armament control, armament control and non proliferation, armament control and confidence-building measures. The author shows that this trilogy has been somehow operating until the end of Cold War, and that nothing works anymore since the end of Cold War and of the bipolar world

  5. IMPROVING SEMI-GLOBAL MATCHING: COST AGGREGATION AND CONFIDENCE MEASURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. d’Angelo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models are one of the basic products that can be generated from remotely sensed imagery. The Semi Global Matching (SGM algorithm is a robust and practical algorithm for dense image matching. The connection between SGM and Belief Propagation was recently developed, and based on that improvements such as correction of over-counting the data term, and a new confidence measure have been proposed. Later the MGM algorithm has been proposed, it aims at improving the regularization step of SGM, but has only been evaluated on the Middlebury stereo benchmark so far. This paper evaluates these proposed improvements on the ISPRS satellite stereo benchmark, using a Pleiades Triplet and a Cartosat-1 Stereo pair. The over-counting correction slightly improves matching density, at the expense of adding a few outliers. The MGM cost aggregation shows leads to a slight increase of accuracy.

  6. Confidence Measurement in the Light of Signal Detection Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eMassoni

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We compare three alternative methods for eliciting retrospective confidence in the context of a simple perceptual task: the Simple Confidence Rating (a direct report on a numerical scale, the Quadratic Scoring Rule (a post-wagering procedure and the Matching Probability (a generalization of the no-loss gambling method. We systematically compare the results obtained with these three rules to the theoretical confidence levels that can be inferred from performance in the perceptual task using Signal Detection Theory. We find that the Matching Probability provides better results in that respect. We conclude that Matching Probability is particularly well suited for studies of confidence that use Signal Detection Theory as a theoretical framework.

  7. Confidence-building measures in the Asia-Pacific region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Huasun

    1991-01-01

    The regional confidence-building, security and disarmament issues in the Asia-Pacific region, and in particular, support to non-proliferation regime and establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones are reviewed

  8. Development and validation of an instrument to measure nurse educator perceived confidence in clinical teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van N B; Forbes, Helen; Mohebbi, Mohammadreza; Duke, Maxine

    2017-12-01

    Teaching nursing in clinical environments is considered complex and multi-faceted. Little is known about the role of the clinical nurse educator, specifically the challenges related to transition from clinician, or in some cases, from newly-graduated nurse to that of clinical nurse educator, as occurs in developing countries. Confidence in the clinical educator role has been associated with successful transition and the development of role competence. There is currently no valid and reliable instrument to measure clinical nurse educator confidence. This study was conducted to develop and psychometrically test an instrument to measure perceived confidence among clinical nurse educators. A multi-phase, multi-setting survey design was used. A total of 468 surveys were distributed, and 363 were returned. Data were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The instrument was successfully tested and modified in phase 1, and factorial validity was subsequently confirmed in phase 2. There was strong evidence of internal consistency, reliability, content, and convergent validity of the Clinical Nurse Educator Skill Acquisition Assessment instrument. The resulting instrument is applicable in similar contexts due to its rigorous development and validation process. © 2017 The Authors. Nursing & Health Sciences published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Performance of classification confidence measures in dynamic classifier systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefka, D.; Holeňa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), s. 299-319 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : classifier combining * dynamic classifier systems * classification confidence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2013

  10. Reliability of Composite Dichotomous Measurements

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinková, Patrícia; Zvára, Karel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 2 (2010), s. 103-109 ISSN 1801-5603 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : reliability * binary data * logistic regression * Cronbach alpha * Rasch model * myocardial perfusion diagnosis Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research http://www.ejbi.cz/articles/201012/65/1.html

  11. The reliability of commonly used electrophysiology measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K E; Lohse, K R; Mayer, I M S; Strigaro, G; Desikan, M; Casula, E P; Meunier, S; Popa, T; Lamy, J-C; Odish, O; Leavitt, B R; Durr, A; Roos, R A C; Tabrizi, S J; Rothwell, J C; Boyd, L A; Orth, M

    Electrophysiological measures can help understand brain function both in healthy individuals and in the context of a disease. Given the amount of information that can be extracted from these measures and their frequent use, it is essential to know more about their inherent reliability. To understand the reliability of electrophysiology measures in healthy individuals. We hypothesized that measures of threshold and latency would be the most reliable and least susceptible to methodological differences between study sites. Somatosensory evoked potentials from 112 control participants; long-latency reflexes, transcranial magnetic stimulation with resting and active motor thresholds, motor evoked potential latencies, input/output curves, and short-latency sensory afferent inhibition and facilitation from 84 controls were collected at 3 visits over 24 months at 4 Track-On HD study sites. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients for absolute agreement, and the effects of reliability on statistical power are demonstrated for different sample sizes and study designs. Measures quantifying latencies, thresholds, and evoked responses at high stimulator intensities had the highest reliability, and required the smallest sample sizes to adequately power a study. Very few between-site differences were detected. Reliability and susceptibility to between-site differences should be evaluated for electrophysiological measures before including them in study designs. Levels of reliability vary substantially across electrophysiological measures, though there are few between-site differences. To address this, reliability should be used in conjunction with theoretical calculations to inform sample size and ensure studies are adequately powered to detect true change in measures of interest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The reliability and validity of three questionnaires: The Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale, Simulation Design Scale, and Educational Practices Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unver, Vesile; Basak, Tulay; Watts, Penni; Gaioso, Vanessa; Moss, Jacqueline; Tastan, Sevinc; Iyigun, Emine; Tosun, Nuran

    2017-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt the "Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning Scale" (SCLS), "Simulation Design Scale" (SDS), and "Educational Practices Questionnaire" (EPQ) developed by Jeffries and Rizzolo into Turkish and establish the reliability and the validity of these translated scales. A sample of 87 nursing students participated in this study. These scales were cross-culturally adapted through a process including translation, comparison with original version, back translation, and pretesting. Construct validity was evaluated by factor analysis, and criterion validity was evaluated using the Perceived Learning Scale, Patient Intervention Self-confidence/Competency Scale, and Educational Belief Scale. Cronbach's alpha values were found as 0.77-0.85 for SCLS, 0.73-0.86 for SDS, and 0.61-0.86 for EPQ. The results of this study show that the Turkish versions of all scales are validated and reliable measurement tools.

  13. De-escalatory confidence-building measures after START

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockton, P.N.

    1992-01-01

    The very notion of examining de-escalatory CBMs in the context of the START negotiations appears odd. Given the immense progress in US-Soviet relations, of which the proposed START agreement is emblematic, the risk of the two nations stumbling to the brink of war seems increasingly remote. Why bother analyzing CBMs designed to help resolve such an improbable event? The obvious answer is that relations between the US and the Soviet Union - or whatever array of nations succeed it - could take an unforeseeable turn for the worse. Once ratified, the START agreement is supposed to remain in force for seven years, more than enough time for political tensions to return with a vengeance. This suggests a more prudent question: if our two nations do stumble to the brink of war, will the START agreement affect the prospect of de-escalatory CBMs? And if the US and Soviet Union pursue deeper force-reductions in a follow-on START II agreement, could that agreement be designed to facilitate more effective de-escalatory measures? This paper sets the stage for addressing such questions by outlining the START agreement and offering a brief overview of how START might affect the prospects for CBMs. Then, after examining some specific CBM proposals in light of START, an analysis will be made of the de-escalatory problems and opportunities that a Start II treaty might create

  14. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  15. Reliability importance measures and their calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andsten, R.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The importance of a component to the system reliability or availability and to the system failure rate can be measured by a number of importance measures. Such measures can be used to guide the system design improvement actions as well as the diagnostic and repair actions. This report develops relationships between several importance measures, illustrates their meaning with interpretations and applications, and describes the computer program called IMPO that calculates importance measures when the system minimum cat sets and component parameters are given. A user's manual is included with illustrative examples

  16. Measuring Confidence Levels of Male and Female Students in Open Access Enabling Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Mirella

    2015-01-01

    The study of confidence was undertaken at the University of Newcastle with students selecting science courses at two campuses. The students were enrolled in open access programs and aimed to gain access to undergraduate studies in various disciplines at University. The "third person effect" was used to measure the confidence levels of…

  17. Confidence building measures at sea:opportunities for India and Pakistan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vohra, Ravi Bhushan Rear Admiral (; ); Ansari, Hasan Masood Rear Admiral (; )

    2003-12-01

    The sea presents unique possibilities for implementing confidence building measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan that are currently not available along the contentious land borders surrounding Jammu and Kashmir. This is due to the nature of maritime issues, the common military culture of naval forces, and a less contentious history of maritime interaction between the two nations. Maritime issues of mutual concern provide a strong foundation for more far-reaching future CBMs on land, while addressing pressing security, economic, and humanitarian needs at sea in the near-term. Although Indian and Pakistani maritime forces currently have stronger opportunities to cooperate with one another than their counterparts on land, reliable mechanisms to alleviate tension or promote operational coordination remain non-existent. Therefore, possible maritime CBMs, as well as pragmatic mechanisms to initiate and sustain cooperation, require serious examination. This report reflects the unique joint research undertaking of two retired Senior Naval Officers from both India and Pakistan, sponsored by the Cooperative Monitoring Center of the International Security Center at Sandia National Laboratories. Research focuses on technology as a valuable tool to facilitate confidence building between states having a low level of initial trust. Technical CBMs not only increase transparency, but also provide standardized, scientific means of interacting on politically difficult problems. Admirals Vohra and Ansari introduce technology as a mechanism to facilitate consistent forms of cooperation and initiate discussion in the maritime realm. They present technical CBMs capable of being acted upon as well as high-level political recommendations regarding the following issues: (1) Delimitation of the maritime boundary between India and Pakistan and its relationship to the Sir Creek dispute; (2) Restoration of full shipping links and the security of ports and cargos; (3) Fishing within

  18. Automated reliability assessment for spectroscopic redshift measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, S.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fèvre, O.; Vibert, D.; Schmitt, A.; Surace, C.; Copin, Y.; Garilli, B.; Moresco, M.; Pozzetti, L.

    2018-03-01

    Context. Future large-scale surveys, such as the ESA Euclid mission, will produce a large set of galaxy redshifts (≥106) that will require fully automated data-processing pipelines to analyze the data, extract crucial information and ensure that all requirements are met. A fundamental element in these pipelines is to associate to each galaxy redshift measurement a quality, or reliability, estimate. Aim. In this work, we introduce a new approach to automate the spectroscopic redshift reliability assessment based on machine learning (ML) and characteristics of the redshift probability density function. Methods: We propose to rephrase the spectroscopic redshift estimation into a Bayesian framework, in order to incorporate all sources of information and uncertainties related to the redshift estimation process and produce a redshift posterior probability density function (PDF). To automate the assessment of a reliability flag, we exploit key features in the redshift posterior PDF and machine learning algorithms. Results: As a working example, public data from the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey is exploited to present and test this new methodology. We first tried to reproduce the existing reliability flags using supervised classification in order to describe different types of redshift PDFs, but due to the subjective definition of these flags (classification accuracy 58%), we soon opted for a new homogeneous partitioning of the data into distinct clusters via unsupervised classification. After assessing the accuracy of the new clusters via resubstitution and test predictions (classification accuracy 98%), we projected unlabeled data from preliminary mock simulations for the Euclid space mission into this mapping to predict their redshift reliability labels. Conclusions: Through the development of a methodology in which a system can build its own experience to assess the quality of a parameter, we are able to set a preliminary basis of an automated reliability assessment for

  19. Stress Rupture Life Reliability Measures for Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Thesken, John C.; Phoenix, S. Leigh; Grimes-Ledesma, Lorie

    2007-01-01

    Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels (COPVs) are often used for storing pressurant gases onboard spacecraft. Kevlar (DuPont), glass, carbon and other more recent fibers have all been used as overwraps. Due to the fact that overwraps are subjected to sustained loads for an extended period during a mission, stress rupture failure is a major concern. It is therefore important to ascertain the reliability of these vessels by analysis, since the testing of each flight design cannot be completed on a practical time scale. The present paper examines specifically a Weibull statistics based stress rupture model and considers the various uncertainties associated with the model parameters. The paper also examines several reliability estimate measures that would be of use for the purpose of recertification and for qualifying flight worthiness of these vessels. Specifically, deterministic values for a point estimate, mean estimate and 90/95 percent confidence estimates of the reliability are all examined for a typical flight quality vessel under constant stress. The mean and the 90/95 percent confidence estimates are computed using Monte-Carlo simulation techniques by assuming distribution statistics of model parameters based also on simulation and on the available data, especially the sample sizes represented in the data. The data for the stress rupture model are obtained from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL) stress rupture testing program, carried out for the past 35 years. Deterministic as well as probabilistic sensitivities are examined.

  20. Reliability of reflectance measures in passive filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldiva de André, Carmen Diva; Afonso de André, Paulo; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Carvalho de Oliveira, Regiani; Singer, Julio M.

    2014-08-01

    Measurements of optical reflectance in passive filters impregnated with a reactive chemical solution may be transformed to ozone concentrations via a calibration curve and constitute a low cost alternative for environmental monitoring, mainly to estimate human exposure. Given the possibility of errors caused by exposure bias, it is common to consider sets of m filters exposed during a certain period to estimate the latent reflectance on n different sample occasions at a certain location. Mixed models with sample occasions as random effects are useful to analyze data obtained under such setups. The intra-class correlation coefficient of the mean of the m measurements is an indicator of the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates. Our objective is to determine m in order to obtain a pre-specified reliability of the estimates, taking possible outliers into account. To illustrate the procedure, we consider an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Experimental Air Pollution, University of São Paulo, Brazil (LPAE/FMUSP), where sets of m = 3 filters were exposed during 7 days on n = 9 different occasions at a certain location. The results show that the reliability of the latent reflectance estimates for each occasion obtained under homoskedasticity is km = 0.74. A residual analysis suggests that the within-occasion variance for two of the occasions should be different from the others. A refined model with two within-occasion variance components was considered, yielding km = 0.56 for these occasions and km = 0.87 for the remaining ones. To guarantee that all estimates have a reliability of at least 80% we require measurements on m = 10 filters on each occasion.

  1. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Reliability and validity of the German short version of the Activities specific Balance Confidence (ABC-D6) scale in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Nadja

    2014-01-01

    The Activities specific Balance Confidence (ABC) is a questionnaire which was developed to assess falls-associated self-efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate reliability and validity of the German abbreviated 6-item version of the ABC scores in community-dwelling older people. The study sample included 384 subjects (age 71.1 ± 9.7). In order to determine the psychometric properties, reliability and validity were assessed through administration of the German adaptation of the ABC-D16 to participants twice, 10 days apart, and comparison of the ABC-D16 and the ABC-D6 with functional measures of balance and mobility (one-leg stance; 10 m walk; TUG; Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale (FAB)), physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE)), physical fitness (30s arm curl, 30s chair stand, 6 min walk), cognition (Trail-Making-Test (TMT)), falls status, and quality of life (SF36). Factor analyses suggested a 1-factor solution for the ABC-D6 scale (explained variance 79.8%). Internal consistency (.95) and test-retest reliability (.98) for the ABC-D6 scores were excellent. Scores on the ABC-D6 were significantly lower than on the ABC-D16, but ABC-D16 and ABC-D6 scores were highly correlated (.94). There was an increasing difference in the ABC-scores between men and women with increasing age. Fallers reported lower balance confidence than non-fallers. The ABC-D6 score significantly correlated with functional measures of balance and mobility, physical activity, physical fitness, cognition, and quality of life (-.698valid instrument to asses falls-associated self-efficacy and may be used in future research projects and clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measurement-based reliability/performability models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, Mei-Chen

    1987-01-01

    Measurement-based models based on real error-data collected on a multiprocessor system are described. Model development from the raw error-data to the estimation of cumulative reward is also described. A workload/reliability model is developed based on low-level error and resource usage data collected on an IBM 3081 system during its normal operation in order to evaluate the resource usage/error/recovery process in a large mainframe system. Thus, both normal and erroneous behavior of the system are modeled. The results provide an understanding of the different types of errors and recovery processes. The measured data show that the holding times in key operational and error states are not simple exponentials and that a semi-Markov process is necessary to model the system behavior. A sensitivity analysis is performed to investigate the significance of using a semi-Markov process, as opposed to a Markov process, to model the measured system.

  4. A computer program (COSTUM) to calculate confidence intervals for in situ stress measurements. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzik, E.J.; Walker, J.R.; Martin, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    The state of in situ stress is one of the parameters required both for the design and analysis of underground excavations and for the evaluation of numerical models used to simulate underground conditions. To account for the variability and uncertainty of in situ stress measurements, it is desirable to apply confidence limits to measured stresses. Several measurements of the state of stress along a borehole are often made to estimate the average state of stress at a point. Since stress is a tensor, calculating the mean stress and confidence limits using scalar techniques is inappropriate as well as incorrect. A computer program has been written to calculate and present the mean principle stresses and the confidence limits for the magnitudes and directions of the mean principle stresses. This report describes the computer program, COSTUM

  5. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  6. Radiographic measurement reliability of lumbar lordosis in ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Sub; Goh, Tae Sik; Park, Shi Hwan; Lee, Hong Seok; Suh, Kuen Tak

    2013-04-01

    Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of the several different methods to measure lumbar lordosis have been reported. However, it has not been studied sofar in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We evaluated the inter and intraobserver reliabilities of six specific measures of global lumbar lordosis in patients with AS. Ninety-one consecutive patients with AS who met the most recently modified New York criteria were enrolled and underwent anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of whole spine. The radiographs were divided into non-ankylosis (no bony bridge in the lumbar spine), incomplete ankylosis (lumbar spines were partially connected by bony bridge) and complete ankylosis groups to evaluate the reliability of the Cobb L1-S1, Cobb L1-L5, centroid, posterior tangent L1-S1, posterior tangent L1-L5, and TRALL methods. The radiographs were composed of 39 non-ankylosis, 27 incomplete ankylosis and 25 complete ankylosis. Intra- and inter-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) of all six methods were generally high. The ICCs were all ≥0.77 (excellent) for the six radiographic methods in the combined group. However, a comparison of the ICCs, 95 % confidence intervals and mean absolute difference (MAD) between groups with varying degrees of ankylosis showed that the reliability of the lordosis measurements decreased in proportion to the severity of ankylosis. The Cobb L1-S1, Cobb L1-L5 and posterior tangent L1-S1 method demonstrated higher ICCs for both inter and intraobserver comparisons and the other methods showed lower ICCs in all groups. The intraobserver MAD was similar in the Cobb L1-S1 and Cobb L1-L5 (2.7°-4.3°), but the other methods showed higher intraobserver MAD. Interobserver MAD of Cobb L1-L5 only showed low in all group. These results are the first to provide a reliability analysis of different global lumbar lordosis measurement methods in AS. The findings in this study demonstrated that the Cobb L1-L5 method is reliable for measuring

  7. Measuring the cortical silent period can increase diagnostic confidence for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelhaas, H.J.; Arts, I.M.P.; Overeem, S.; Houtman, C.J.; Janssen, H.; Kleine, B.U.; Munneke, M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated a modified measurement of the cortical silent period (CSP) as a simple procedure to add further confidence in the diagnostic work-up for ALS. Thirty-seven consecutive patients with a suspicion of having ALS were included together with 25 healthy volunteers, and followed until a final

  8. Reliability of radiographic measurements for acute distal radius fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, Narelle J.; Asadollahi, Saeed; Parrish, Frank; Ridgway, Jacqueline; Tran, Phong; Keating, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    The management of distal radial fractures is guided by the interpretation of radiographic findings. The aim of this investigation was to determine the intra- and inter-observer reliability of eight traditionally reported anatomic radiographic parameters in adults with an acute distal radius fracture. Five observers participated. All were routinely involved in making treatment decisions based on distal radius fracture radiographs. Observers performed independent repeated measurements on 30 radiographs for eight anatomical parameters: dorsal shift (mm), intra-articular gap (mm), intra-articular step (mm), palmar tilt (degrees), radial angle (degrees), radial height (mm), radial shift (mm), ulnar variance (mm). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and the magnitude of retest errors were calculated. Measurement reliability was summarised as high (ICC > 0.80), moderate (0.60–0.80) or low (<0.60). Intra-observer reliability was high for dorsal shift and palmar tilt; moderate for radial angle, radial height, ulnar variance and radial shift; and low for intra-articular gap and step. Inter-observer reliability was high for palmar tilt; moderate for dorsal shift, ulnar variance, radial angle and radial height; and low for radial shift, intra-articular gap and step. Error magnitude (95 % confidence interval) was within 1–2 mm for intra-articular gap and step, 2–4 mm for ulnar variance, 4–6 mm for radial shift, dorsal shift and radial height, and 6–8° for radial angle and palmar tilt. Based on previous reports of critical values for palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle, error margins appear small enough for measurements to be useful in guiding treatment decisions. Our findings indicate that clinicians cannot reliably measure values ≤1 mm for intra-articular gap and step when interpreting radiographic parameters using the standardised methods investigated in this study. As a guide for treatment selection, palmar tilt, ulnar variance and radial angle

  9. Reliability measures in managing GI bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2012-06-01

    Multiple procedures and devices are used in a complex interplay to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. To model how a large variety of diagnostic and therapeutic components interact in the successful management of GI bleeding. The analysis uses the concept of reliability block diagrams from probability theory to model management outcome. Separate components of the management process are arranged in a serial or parallel fashion. If the outcome depends on the function of each component individually, such components are modeled to be arranged in series. If components complement each other and can mutually compensate for each of their failures, such components are arranged in a parallel fashion. General endoscopy practice. Patients with GI bleeding of unknown etiology. All available endoscopic and radiographic means to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. Process reliability in achieving hemostasis. Serial arrangements tend to reduce process reliability, whereas parallel arrangements increase it. Whenever possible, serial components should be bridged and complemented by additional alternative (parallel) routes of operation. Parallel components with low individual reliability can still contribute to overall process reliability as long as they function independently of other pre-existing alternatives. Probability of success associated with individual components is partly unknown. Modeling management of GI bleeding by a reliability block diagram provides a useful tool in assessing the impact of individual endoscopic techniques and administrative structures on the overall outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Raven’s Progressive Matrices, manipulations of complexity and measures of accuracy, speed and confidence

    OpenAIRE

    LAZAR STANKOV; KARL SCHWEIZER

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of complexity-enhancing manipulations of two cognitive tasks – Swaps and Triplet Numbers tests (Stankov, 2000) – on their relationship with Raven’s Progressive Matrices test representing aspects of fluid intelligence. The complexity manipulations involved four treatment levels, each requiring an increasing number of components and relationships among these components. The accuracy, speed of processing, and confidence measures were decomposed into experimental a...

  11. Computationally efficient SVM multi-class image recognition with confidence measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makili, Lazaro; Vega, Jesus; Dormido-Canto, Sebastian; Pastor, Ignacio; Murari, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Typically, machine learning methods produce non-qualified estimates, i.e. the accuracy and reliability of the predictions are not provided. Transductive predictors are very recent classifiers able to provide, simultaneously with the prediction, a couple of values (confidence and credibility) to reflect the quality of the prediction. Usually, a drawback of the transductive techniques for huge datasets and large dimensionality is the high computational time. To overcome this issue, a more efficient classifier has been used in a multi-class image classification problem in the TJ-II stellarator database. It is based on the creation of a hash function to generate several 'one versus the rest' classifiers for every class. By using Support Vector Machines as the underlying classifier, a comparison between the pure transductive approach and the new method has been performed. In both cases, the success rates are high and the computation time with the new method is up to 0.4 times the old one.

  12. Limits of reliability for the measurement of integral count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erbeszkorn, L.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for exact and approximate calculation of reliability limits of measured nuclear integral count. The formulae are applicable in measuring conditions which assure the Poisson distribution of the counts. The coefficients of the approximate formulae for 90, 95, 98 and 99 per cent reliability levels are given. The exact reliability limits for 90 per cent reliability level are calculated up to 80 integral counts. (R.J.)

  13. Measuring older adults' sedentary time: reliability, validity, and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paul A; Clark, Bronwyn K; Healy, Genevieve N; Eakin, Elizabeth G; Winkler, Elisabeth A H; Owen, Neville

    2011-11-01

    With evidence that prolonged sitting has deleterious health consequences, decreasing sedentary time is a potentially important preventive health target. High-quality measures, particularly for use with older adults, who are the most sedentary population group, are needed to evaluate the effect of sedentary behavior interventions. We examined the reliability, validity, and responsiveness to change of a self-report sedentary behavior questionnaire that assessed time spent in behaviors common among older adults: watching television, computer use, reading, socializing, transport and hobbies, and a summary measure (total sedentary time). In the context of a sedentary behavior intervention, nonworking older adults (n = 48, age = 73 ± 8 yr (mean ± SD)) completed the questionnaire on three occasions during a 2-wk period (7 d between administrations) and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph model GT1M) for two periods of 6 d. Test-retest reliability (for the individual items and the summary measure) and validity (self-reported total sedentary time compared with accelerometer-derived sedentary time) were assessed during the 1-wk preintervention period, using Spearman (ρ) correlations and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Responsiveness to change after the intervention was assessed using the responsiveness statistic (RS). Test-retest reliability was excellent for television viewing time (ρ (95% CI) = 0.78 (0.63-0.89)), computer use (ρ (95% CI) = 0.90 (0.83-0.94)), and reading (ρ (95% CI) = 0.77 (0.62-0.86)); acceptable for hobbies (ρ (95% CI) = 0.61 (0.39-0.76)); and poor for socializing and transport (ρ < 0.45). Total sedentary time had acceptable test-retest reliability (ρ (95% CI) = 0.52 (0.27-0.70)) and validity (ρ (95% CI) = 0.30 (0.02-0.54)). Self-report total sedentary time was similarly responsive to change (RS = 0.47) as accelerometer-derived sedentary time (RS = 0.39). The summary measure of total sedentary time has good repeatability and modest validity and is

  14. Evaluation of error bands and confidence limits for thermal measurements in the CFTL bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, K.W.; Sanders, J.P.; Conklin, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Surface cladding temperatures for the fuel rod simulators in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) must be inferred from a measurement at a thermocouple junction within the rod. This step requires the evaluation of the thermal field within the rod based on known parameters such as heat generation rate, dimensional tolerances, thermal properties, and contact coefficients. Uncertainties in the surface temperature can be evaluated by assigning error bands to each of the parameters used in the calculation. A statistical method has been employed to establish the confidence limits for the surface temperature from a combination of the standard deviations of the important parameters. This method indicates that for a CFTL fuel rod simulator with a total power of 38 kW and a ratio of maximum to average axial power of 1.21, the 95% confidence limit for the calculated surface temperature is +- 45 0 C at the midpoint of the rod

  15. TWO CRITERIA FOR GOOD MEASUREMENTS IN RESEARCH: VALIDITY AND RELIABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haradhan Kumar Mohajan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reliability and validity are two most important and fundamental features in the evaluation of any measurement instrument or toll for a good research. The purpose of this research is to discuss the validity and reliability of measurement instruments that are used in research. Validity concerns what an instrument measures, and how well it does so. Reliability concerns the faith that one can have in the data obtained from use of an instrument, that is, the degree to which any measuring tool controls for random error. An attempt has been taken here to review the reliability and validity, and threat to them in some details.

  16. Non-proliferation and confidence-building measures in Asia and the Pacific

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    In the face of improved international relations, regional and subregional issues have acquired additional urgency and importance in the field of disarmament and international security. The pursuit of regional solutions to regional problems is thus being actively encouraged by the international community. Towards this end, the United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs is seeking to promote regional approaches to disarmament either through the united nations regional centres for peace and Disarmament or cooperation with individual Governments. Within this framework this conference was dealing with non-proliferation and confidence-building measures in Asia and the Pacific region

  17. A method of bias correction for maximal reliability with dichotomous measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penev, Spiridon; Raykov, Tenko

    2010-02-01

    This paper is concerned with the reliability of weighted combinations of a given set of dichotomous measures. Maximal reliability for such measures has been discussed in the past, but the pertinent estimator exhibits a considerable bias and mean squared error for moderate sample sizes. We examine this bias, propose a procedure for bias correction, and develop a more accurate asymptotic confidence interval for the resulting estimator. In most empirically relevant cases, the bias correction and mean squared error correction can be performed simultaneously. We propose an approximate (asymptotic) confidence interval for the maximal reliability coefficient, discuss the implementation of this estimator, and investigate the mean squared error of the associated asymptotic approximation. We illustrate the proposed methods using a numerical example.

  18. Determination and Interpretation of Characteristic Limits for Radioactivity Measurements: Decision Threshhold, Detection Limit and Limits of the Confidence Interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Since 2004, the environment programme of the IAEA has included activities aimed at developing a set of procedures for analytical measurements of radionuclides in food and the environment. Reliable, comparable and fit for purpose results are essential for any analytical measurement. Guidelines and national and international standards for laboratory practices to fulfil quality assurance requirements are extremely important when performing such measurements. The guidelines and standards should be comprehensive, clearly formulated and readily available to both the analyst and the customer. ISO 11929:2010 is the international standard on the determination of the characteristic limits (decision threshold, detection limit and limits of the confidence interval) for measuring ionizing radiation. For nuclear analytical laboratories involved in the measurement of radioactivity in food and the environment, robust determination of the characteristic limits of radioanalytical techniques is essential with regard to national and international regulations on permitted levels of radioactivity. However, characteristic limits defined in ISO 11929:2010 are complex, and the correct application of the standard in laboratories requires a full understanding of various concepts. This publication provides additional information to Member States in the understanding of the terminology, definitions and concepts in ISO 11929:2010, thus facilitating its implementation in Member State laboratories.

  19. How to Measure the Onset of Babbling Reliably?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molemans, Inge; van den Berg, Renate; van Severen, Lieve; Gillis, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Various measures for identifying the onset of babbling have been proposed in the literature, but a formal definition of the exact procedure and a thorough validation of the sample size required for reliably establishing babbling onset is lacking. In this paper the reliability of five commonly used measures is assessed using a large longitudinal…

  20. Peer Evaluation Can Reliably Measure Local Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-García, Victoria; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Duda, Romain; Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Gallois, Sandrine; Guèze, Maximilien; Napitupulu, Lucentezza; Pyhälä, Aili

    2016-01-01

    We assess the consistency of measures of individual local ecological knowledge obtained through peer evaluation against three standard measures: identification tasks, structured questionnaires, and self-reported skills questionnaires. We collected ethnographic information among the Baka (Congo), the Punan (Borneo), and the Tsimane' (Amazon) to…

  1. Design, validation, and reliability of survey to measure female athlete triad knowledge among coaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian E. Frideres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to design and to test the validity and reliability of an instrument to evaluate coaches' knowledge about the female athlete triad syndrome and their confidence in this knowledge. The instrument collects information regarding: knowledge of the syndrome, components, prevention and intervention; confidence of the coaches in their answers; and coach's characteristics (gender, degree held, years of experience in coaching females, continuing education participation specific to the syndrome and its components, and sport coached. The process of designing the questionnaire and testing the validity and reliability of it was done in four phases: a design and development of the instrument, b content validity, c instrument reliability, and d concurrent validity. The results show that the instrument is suitable for measuring coaches' female athlete triad knowledge. The instrument can contribute to assessing the coaches' knowledge level in relation to this topic.

  2. Political factors in the development and implementation of technology-based confidence-building measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The second half of the 20th century has been characterized by the continuous development and improvement of weapons of mass destruction, including strategic bombers, missiles, chemical and biological agents, and of course, a variety of nuclear weapons. In contrast to the massive change in military capabilities brought about by the rapid development of science and technology, international relations is still dominated by relations between sovereign nation states and characterized by distrust and narrow interests. At the same time that scientific developments created the foundation for the nuclear arms race, however the scientific and technical community has also sought some antidotes. Technology-based confidence building measures (TBCBMS), designed to reduce international conflict and to prevent nuclear war, have been proposed by scientists from the US and the USSR. These TBCBMS have taken a number of forms such as cooperative research and development programs, joint panels and meetings of professional societies, and specially dedicated international forums. These have provided a meeting ground for the exchange of views among scientists from many different countries. In addition, a number of more direct forms of TBCBMS, such as satellite-based observation systems and IAEA nuclear safeguards, have national technical means of verification. More recently, there have been a number of proposals to apply many of these technologies to verification of conventional force reduction, arms control, and other confidence-building measures in context of regional conflicts in the Third World. An International Satellite Monitoring Agency has bee proposed to develop space-based technologies such as observation satellites to increase stability and prevent the outbreak of accidental war in regional contexts such as the Middle East

  3. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability Using Smart Card Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  4. Measuring Passenger Travel Time Reliability using Smartcard Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bagherian, M.; Cats, O.; van Oort, N.; Hickman, M

    2016-01-01

    Service reliability is a key performance measure for transit agencies in increasing their service quality and thus ridership. Conventional reliability metrics are established based on vehicle movements and thus do not adequately reflect passenger’s experience. In the past few years, the growing

  5. Measuring time and risk preferences: Reliability, stability, domain specificity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wölbert, E.M.; Riedl, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To accurately predict behavior economists need reliable measures of individual time preferences and attitudes toward risk and typically need to assume stability of these characteristics over time and across decision domains. We test the reliability of two choice tasks for eliciting discount rates,

  6. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ). This article aimed at discussing both reliability and inequality measures from the Weimal distribution. The work has derived and discussed theoretically, expressions for the survival and hazard function of the Weimal distribution. The ordinary ...

  7. Measuring the Confidence of 8th Grade Taiwanese Students' Knowledge of Acids and Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Brady Michael; Liu, Chia-Ju; Chiu, Houn-Lin; Tsai, Chun-Yen

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether gender differences were present on the confidence judgments made by 8th grade Taiwanese students on the accuracy of their responses to acid-base test items. A total of 147 (76 male, 71 female) students provided item-specific confidence judgments during a test of their knowledge of acids and bases. Using the…

  8. Pneumothorax size measurements on digital chest radiographs: Intra- and inter- rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelle, Andreas; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas; Skorge, Trude D; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Bakke, Per S

    2015-10-01

    Detailed and reliable methods may be important for discussions on the importance of pneumothorax size in clinical decision-making. Rhea's method is widely used to estimate pneumothorax size in percent based on chest X-rays (CXRs) from three measure points. Choi's addendum is used for anterioposterior projections. The aim of this study was to examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Rhea and Choi method using digital CXR in the ward based PACS monitors. Three physicians examined a retrospective series of 80 digital CXRs showing pneumothorax, using Rhea and Choi's method, then repeated in a random order two weeks later. We used the analysis of variance technique by Eliasziw et al. to assess the intrarater and interrater reliability in altogether 480 estimations of pneumothorax size. Estimated pneumothorax sizes ranged between 5% and 100%. The intrarater reliability coefficient was 0.98 (95% one-sided lower-limit confidence interval C 0.96), and the interrater reliability coefficient was 0.95 (95% one-sided lower-limit confidence interval 0.93). This study has shown that the Rhea and Choi method for calculating pneumothorax size has high intrarater and interrater reliability. These results are valid across gender, side of pneumothorax and whether the patient is diagnosed with primary or secondary pneumothorax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinimetric properties of the Tinetti Mobility Test, Four Square Step Test, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, and spatiotemporal gait measures in individuals with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, Anne D; Fritz, Nora E; Kostyk, Sandra K; Young, Gregory S; Kegelmeyer, Deb A

    2014-09-01

    Individuals with Huntington's disease (HD) experience balance and gait problems that lead to falls. Clinicians currently have very little information about the reliability and validity of outcome measures to determine the efficacy of interventions that aim to reduce balance and gait impairments in HD. This study examined the reliability and concurrent validity of spatiotemporal gait measures, the Tinetti Mobility Test (TMT), Four Square Step Test (FSST), and Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale in individuals with HD. Participants with HD [n = 20; mean age ± SD=50.9 ± 13.7; 7 male] were tested on spatiotemporal gait measures and the TMT, FSST, and ABC Scale before and after a six week period to determine test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) values. Linear relationships between gait and clinical measures were estimated using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Spatiotemporal gait measures, the TMT total and the FSST showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC > 0.75). MDC values were 0.30 m/s and 0.17 m/s for velocity in forward and backward walking respectively, four points for the TMT, and 3s for the FSST. The TMT and FSST were highly correlated with most spatiotemporal measures. The ABC Scale demonstrated lower reliability and less concurrent validity than other measures. The high test-retest reliability over a six week period and concurrent validity between the TMT, FSST, and spatiotemporal gait measures suggest that the TMT and FSST may be useful outcome measures for future intervention studies in ambulatory individuals with HD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A Reliable Measure of Information Security Awareness and the Identification of Bias in Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata McCormac

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Human Aspects of Information Security Questionnaire (HAIS-Q is designed to measure Information Security Awareness. More specifically, the tool measures an individual’s knowledge, attitude, and self-reported behaviour relating to information security in the workplace. This paper reports on the reliability of the HAIS-Q, including test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The paper also assesses the reliability of three preliminary over-claiming items, designed specifically to complement the HAIS-Q, and identify those individuals who provide socially desirable responses. A total of 197 working Australians completed two iterations of the HAIS-Q and the over-claiming items, approximately 4 weeks apart. Results of the analysis showed that the HAIS-Q was externally reliable and internally consistent. Therefore, the HAIS-Q can be used to reliably measure information security awareness. Reliability testing on the preliminary over-claiming items was not as robust and further development is required and recommended. The implications of these findings mean that organisations can confidently use the HAIS-Q to not only measure the current state of employee information security awareness within their organisation, but they can also measure the effectiveness and impacts of training interventions, information security awareness programs and campaigns. The influence of cultural changes and the effect of security incidents can also be assessed.

  11. Reliability of measuring abductor hallucis muscle parameters using two different diagnostic ultrasound machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron Alyse FM

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnostic ultrasound provides a method of analysing soft tissue structures of the musculoskeletal system effectively and reliably. The aim of this study was to evaluate within and between session reliability of measuring muscle dorso-plantar thickness, medio-lateral length and cross-sectional area, of the abductor hallucis muscle using two different ultrasound machines, a higher end Philips HD11 Ultrasound machine and clinically orientated Chison 8300 Deluxe Digital Portable Ultrasound System. Methods The abductor hallucis muscle of both the left and right feet of thirty asymptomatic participants was imaged and then measured using both ultrasound machines. Interclass correlation coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence intervals (CI were used to calculate both within and between session intra-tester reliability. Standard error of the measurement (SEM calculations were undertaken to assess difference between the actual measured score across trials and the smallest real difference (SRD was calculated from the SEM to indicate the degree of change that would exceed the expected trial to trial variability. Results The ICCs, SEM and SRD for dorso-plantar thickness and medial-lateral length were shown to have excellent to high within and between-session reliability for both ultrasound machines. The between-session reliability indices for cross-sectional area were acceptable for both ultrasound machines. Conclusion The results of the current study suggest that regardless of the type ultrasound machine, intra-tester reliability for the measurement the abductor hallucis muscle parameters is very high.

  12. Recommendations for certification or measurement of reliability for reliable digital archival repositories with emphasis on access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Regina Ventura Amorim Gonçalez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Considering the guidelines of ISO 16363: 2012 (Space data and information transfer systems -- Audit and certification of trustworthy digital repositories and the text of CONARQ Resolution 39 for certification of Reliable Digital Archival Repository (RDC-Arq, verify the technical recommendations should be used as the basis for a digital archival repository to be considered reliable. Objective: Identify requirements for the creation of Reliable Digital Archival Repositories with emphasis on access to information from the ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. Methodology: For the development of the study, the methodology consisted of an exploratory, descriptive and documentary theoretical investigation, since it is based on ISO 16363: 2012 and CONARQ Resolution 39. From the perspective of the problem approach, the study is qualitative and quantitative, since the data were collected, tabulated, and analyzed from the interpretation of their contents. Results: We presented a set of Checklist Recommendations for reliability measurement and/or certification for RDC-Arq with a clipping focused on the identification of requirements with emphasis on access to information is presented. Conclusions: The right to information as well as access to reliable information is a premise for Digital Archival Repositories, so the set of recommendations is directed to archivists who work in Digital Repositories and wish to verify the requirements necessary to evaluate the reliability of the Digital Repository or still guide the information professional in collecting requirements for repository reliability certification.

  13. Bayesian-statistical decision threshold, detection limit, and confidence interval in nuclear radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weise, K.

    1998-01-01

    When a contribution of a particular nuclear radiation is to be detected, for instance, a spectral line of interest for some purpose of radiation protection, and quantities and their uncertainties must be taken into account which, such as influence quantities, cannot be determined by repeated measurements or by counting nuclear radiation events, then conventional statistics of event frequencies is not sufficient for defining the decision threshold, the detection limit, and the limits of a confidence interval. These characteristic limits are therefore redefined on the basis of Bayesian statistics for a wider applicability and in such a way that the usual practice remains as far as possible unaffected. The principle of maximum entropy is applied to establish probability distributions from available information. Quantiles of these distributions are used for defining the characteristic limits. But such a distribution must not be interpreted as a distribution of event frequencies such as the Poisson distribution. It rather expresses the actual state of incomplete knowledge of a physical quantity. The different definitions and interpretations and their quantitative consequences are presented and discussed with two examples. The new approach provides a theoretical basis for the DIN 25482-10 standard presently in preparation for general applications of the characteristic limits. (orig.) [de

  14. Developing information-space Confidence Building Measures (CBMs) between India and Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamin, Tughral

    2014-06-01

    The Internet has changed the world in ways hitherto unknown. The international financial system, air, land and maritime transport systems are all digitally linked. Similarly most militaries are fully or partially networked. This has not only sped up the decision making processes at all levels, it has also rendered these systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Cyber-warfare is now recognized as the most potent form of non-kinetic war fighting. In order to prevent large scale network-attacks, cyber-powers are simultaneously spending a lot of time, money and effort to erect redundant cyber-defenses and enhancing their offensive cyber capabilities. Difficulties in creating a stable environment in information-space stem from differing national perceptions regarding the freedom of the Internet, application of international law and problems associated with attribution. This paper discusses a range of Confidence Building Measures that can be created between India and Pakistan in information-space to control malicious cyber behavior and avert an inadvertent war.

  15. A test chip for automatic reliability measurements of interconnect vias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lippe, K.; Hasper, A.; Elfrink, G.W.; Niehof, J.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1992-01-01

    A test circuit for electromigration reliability measurements was designed and tested. The device under test (DUT) is a via-hole chain. The test circuit permits simultaneous measurements of a number of DUTs, and a fatal error of one DUT does not influence the measurement results of the other DUTs.

  16. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: interrater reliability and concurrent validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    Research into the pathophysiology and treatment of hypertrophic scar (HSc) remains limited by the heterogeneity of scar and the imprecision with which its severity is measured. The objective of this study was to test the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the Cutometer measurement of elasticity, the Mexameter measurement of erythema and pigmentation, and total thickness measure of the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar, and HSc. Three independent investigators evaluated 128 sites (severe HSc, moderate or mild HSc, donor site, and normal skin) on 32 burn survivors using all of the above measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient, which was used to measure interrater reliability, reflects the inherent amount of error in the measure and is considered acceptable when it is >0.75. Interrater reliability of the totals of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS fell below the acceptable limit ( congruent with0.50). The individual subscales of the mVSS fell well below the acceptable level (0.89) for each study site with the exception of severe scar. Mexameter and DermaScan C reliability measurements were acceptable for all sites (>0.82). Concurrent validity correlations with the mVSS were significant except for the comparison of the mVSS pliability subscale and the Cutometer maximum deformation measure comparison in severe scar. In conclusion, the Mexameter and DermaScan C measurements of scar color and thickness of all sites, as well as the Cutometer measurement of elasticity in all but the most severe scars shows high interrater reliability. Their significant concurrent validity with the mVSS confirms that these tools are measuring the same traits as the mVSS, and in a more objective way.

  18. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijens, Laura; Barikroo, Ali; Pilz, Walmari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables

  19. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  20. Using LISREL to Evaluate Measurement Models and Scale Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleishman, John; Benson, Jeri

    1987-01-01

    LISREL program was used to examine measurement model assumptions and to assess reliability of Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory for Children, Form B. Data on 722 third-sixth graders from over 70 schools in large urban school district were used. LISREL program assessed (1) nature of basic measurement model for scale, (2) scale invariance across…

  1. Reliability-guided digital image correlation for image deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bing

    2009-01-01

    A universally applicable reliability-guided digital image correlation (DIC) method is proposed for reliable image deformation measurement. The zero-mean normalized cross correlation (ZNCC) coefficient is used to identify the reliability of the point computed. The correlation calculation begins with a seed point and is then guided by the ZNCC coefficient. That means the neighbors of the point with the highest ZNCC coefficient in a queue for computed points will be processed first. Thus the calculation path is always along the most reliable direction, and possible error propagation of the conventional DIC method can be avoided. The proposed novel DIC method is universally applicable to the images with shadows, discontinuous areas, and deformation discontinuity. Two image pairs were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, and the successful results clearly demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness

  2. Reliability of measuring hip abductor strength following total knee arthroplasty using a hand-held dynamometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schache, Margaret B; McClelland, Jodie A; Webster, Kate E

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the test-retest reliability of measuring hip abductor strength in patients with total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using a hand-held dynamometer (HHD) with two different types of resistance: belt and manual resistance. Test-retest reliability of 30 subjects (17 female, 13 male, 71.9 ± 7.4 years old), 9.2 ± 2.7 days post TKA was measured using belt and therapist resistance. Retest reliability was calculated with intra-class coefficients (ICC3,1) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for both the group average and the individual scores. A paired t-test assessed whether a difference existed between the belt and therapist methods of resistance. ICCs were 0.82 and 0.80 for the belt and therapist resisted methods, respectively. Hip abductor strength increases of 8 N (14%) for belt resisted and 14 N (17%) for therapist resisted measurements of the group average exceeded the 95% CI and may represent real change. For individuals, hip abductor strength increases of 33 N (72%) (belt resisted) and 57 N (79%) (therapist resisted) could be interpreted as real change. Hip abductor strength can be reliably measured using HHD in the clinical setting with the described protocol. Belt resistance demonstrated slightly higher test-retest reliability. Reliable measurement of hip abductor muscle strength in patients with TKA is important to ensure deficiencies are addressed in rehabilitation programs and function is maximized. Hip abductor strength can be reliably measured with a hand-held dynamometer in the clinical setting using manual or belt resistance.

  3. Inter-rater reliability of shoulder measurements in middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Groef, A; Van Kampen, M; Vervloesem, N; Clabau, E; Christiaens, M-R; Neven, P; Geraerts, I; Struyf, F; Devoogdt, N

    2017-06-01

    To investigate inter-rater reliability of a set of shoulder measurements including inclinometry [shoulder range of motion (ROM)], acromion-table distance and pectoralis minor muscle length (static scapular positioning), upward rotation with two inclinometers (scapular kinematics) and pain pressure thresholds (muscle tenderness) in middle-aged women. Observational study. Thirty symptom-free middle-aged women (first cohort) were measured by two raters. All measurements with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) below 0.75 were retested after an additional training period in a second cohort of 30 symptom-free middle-aged women. Inter-rater reliability of all variables was measured with the ICC (95% confidence interval) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Acromion-table distance (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.22 to 0.28% of body length), pectoralis minor muscle length (ICC=0.91, SEM 0.16% of body length), pain pressure thresholds (ICC=0.78 to 0.85, SEM 0.39 to 0.70kg) and abduction ROM (ICC=0.77, SEM 5°) showed good to excellent inter-rater reliability in the first cohort. After an additional training period, forward flexion ROM showed good inter-rater reliability (ICC=0.83, SEM 5°), scapular upward rotation in resting position showed moderate reliability (ICC=0.52, SEM 2°), and other scaption angles showed weak reliability (ICC=0.26 to 0.43, SEM 3 to 8°). In a battery of clinical tools to evaluate factors contributing to shoulder pain, static scapular positioning and pressure pain thresholds were found to have good to excellent inter-rater reliability in middle-aged women. Additional training is recommended for measurements with a gravity inclinometer. Copyright © 2016 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Test-retest reliability for aerodynamic measures of voice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awan, Shaheen N; Novaleski, Carolyn K; Yingling, Julie R

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intrasubject reliability of aerodynamic characteristics of the voice within typical/normal speakers across testing sessions using the Phonatory Aerodynamic System (PAS 6600; KayPENTAX, Montvale, NJ). Participants were 60 healthy young adults (30 males and 30 females) between the ages 18 and 31 years with perceptually typical voice. Participants were tested using the PAS 6600 (Phonatory Aerodynamic System) on two separate days with approximately 1 week between each session at approximately the same time of day. Four PAS protocols were conducted (vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, comfortable sustained phonation, and voicing efficiency) and measures of expiratory volume, maximum phonation time, mean expiratory airflow (during vowel production) and target airflow (obtained via syllable repetition), peak air pressure, aerodynamic power, aerodynamic resistance, and aerodynamic efficiency were obtained during each testing session. Associated acoustic measures of vocal intensity and frequency were also collected. All phonations were elicited at comfortable pitch and loudness. All aerodynamic and associated variables evaluated in this study showed useable test-retest reliability (ie, intraclass correlation coefficients [ICCs] ≥ 0.60). A high degree of mean test-retest reliability was found across all subjects for aerodynamic and associated acoustic measurements of vital capacity, maximum sustained phonation, glottal resistance, and vocal intensity (all with ICCs > 0.75). Although strong ICCs were observed for measures of glottal power and mean expiratory airflow in males, weaker overall results for these measures (ICC range: 0.60-0.67) were observed in females subjects and sizable coefficients of variation were observed for measures of power, resistance, and efficiency in both men and women. Differences in degree of reliability from measure to measure were revealed in greater detail using methods such as ICCs and

  5. Nanoscale deformation measurements for reliability assessment of material interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gollhardt, Astrid; Vogel, Dietmar; Michel, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    With the development and application of micro/nano electronic mechanical systems (MEMS, NEMS) for a variety of market segments new reliability issues will arise. The understanding of material interfaces is the key for a successful design for reliability of MEMS/NEMS and sensor systems. Furthermore in the field of BIOMEMS newly developed advanced materials and well known engineering materials are combined despite of fully developed reliability concepts for such devices and components. In addition the increasing interface-to volume ratio in highly integrated systems and nanoparticle filled materials are challenges for experimental reliability evaluation. New strategies for reliability assessment on the submicron scale are essential to fulfil the needs of future devices. In this paper a nanoscale resolution experimental method for the measurement of thermo-mechanical deformation at material interfaces is introduced. The determination of displacement fields is based on scanning probe microscopy (SPM) data. In-situ SPM scans of the analyzed object (i.e. material interface) are carried out at different thermo-mechanical load states. The obtained images are compared by grayscale cross correlation algorithms. This allows the tracking of local image patterns of the analyzed surface structure. The measurement results are full-field displacement fields with nanometer resolution. With the obtained data the mixed mode type of loading at material interfaces can be analyzed with highest resolution for future needs in micro system and nanotechnology.

  6. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yamagchii, Kechiro; Lassen, Anders; Ring, Poul

    1998-01-01

    Yamaguchi, K., Lassen, A. And Ring, P. Reliability and Accuracy of Brain Volume Measurement on MR Imaging. Abstract at ESMRMB98 European Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine and Biology, Geneva, Sept 17-20, 1998 Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Hvidovre University Hospital...

  7. Efficiency criteria for high reliability measured system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sal'nikov, N.L.

    2012-01-01

    The procedures of structural redundancy are usually used to develop high reliability measured systems. To estimate efficiency of such structures the criteria to compare different systems has been developed. So it is possible to develop more exact system by inspection of redundant system data unit stochastic characteristics in accordance with the developed criteria [ru

  8. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as

  9. Reliability of surface EMG measurements from the suprahyoid muscle complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kothari, Mohit; Stubbs, Peter William; Pedersen, Asger Roer

    2017-01-01

    of using the suprahyoid muscle complex (SMC) using surface electromyography (sEMG) to assess changes to neural pathways by determining the reliability of measurements in healthy participants over days. Methods: Seventeen healthy participants were recruited. Measurements were performed twice with one week...... on stimulus type/intensity) had significantly different MEP values between day 1 and day 2 for single pulse and paired pulse TMS. A large stimulus artefact resulted in MEP responses that could not be assessed in four participants. Conclusions: The assessment of the SMC using sEMG following TMS was poorly...... reliable for ≈50% of participants. Although using sEMG to assess swallowing musculature function is easier to perform clinically and more comfortable to patients than invasive measures, as the measurement of muscle activity using TMS is unreliable, the use of sEMG for this muscle group is not recommended...

  10. A Study on the Reliability of Sasang Constitutional Body Trunk Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunsu Jang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM. The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  11. A study on the reliability of sasang constitutional body trunk measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Eunsu; Kim, Jong Yeol; Lee, Haejung; Kim, Honggie; Baek, Younghwa; Lee, Siwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Body trunk measurement for human plays an important diagnostic role not only in conventional medicine but also in Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM). The Sasang constitutional body trunk measurement (SCBTM) consists of the 5-widths and the 8-circumferences which are standard locations currently employed in the SCM society. This study suggests to what extent a comprehensive training can improve the reliability of the SCBTM. Methods. We recruited 10 male subjects and 5 male observers with no experience of anthropometric measurement. We conducted measurements twice before and after a comprehensive training. Relative technical error of measurement (%TEMs) was produced to assess intra and inter observer reliabilities. Results. Post-training intra-observer %TEMs of the SCBTM were 0.27% to 1.85% reduced from 0.27% to 6.26% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training inter-observer %TEMs of those were 0.56% to 1.66% reduced from 1.00% to 9.60% in pre-training, respectively. Post-training % total TEMs which represent the whole reliability were 0.68% to 2.18% reduced from maximum value of 10.18%. Conclusion. A comprehensive training makes the SCBTM more reliable, hence giving a sufficiently confident diagnostic tool. It is strongly recommended to give a comprehensive training in advance to take the SCBTM.

  12. Techniques, processes, and measures for software safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparkman, D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a detailed survey of current recommended practices and measurement techniques for the development of reliable and safe software-based systems. This report is intended to assist the United States Nuclear Reaction Regulation (NRR) in determining the importance and maturity of the available techniques and in assessing the relevance of individual standards for application to instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power generating stations. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides technical support for the Instrumentation and Control System Branch (ICSB) of NRRin advanced instrumentation and control systems, distributed digital systems, software reliability, and the application of verificafion and validafion for the development of software

  13. The Validity and Reliability Characteristics of the M-BACK Questionnaire to Assess the Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge of Mental Health Staff Regarding Metabolic Health of Mental Health Service Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Watkins

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAddressing the burden of poor physical health and the subsequent gap in life expectancy experienced by people with mental illness is a major priority in mental health services. To equip mental health staff with the competence to deliver evidence-based interventions, targeted staff training regarding metabolic health is required. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of staff training regarding metabolic health, we aimed to develop a succinct measure to determine the barriers, attitudes, confidence, and knowledge of health practitioners through the development and test–retest reliability of the Metabolic-Barriers, Attitudes, Confidence, and Knowledge Questionnaire (M-BACK.MethodsThe M-BACK questionnaire was developed to evaluate the impact of specialized training in metabolic health care for mental health nurses. Content of the M-BACK was developed from a literature review and refined by an expert review panel and validated via a piloting process. To determine the test–retest reliability of the M-BACK, 31 nursing students recruited from the University of Notre Dame, Sydney completed the questionnaire on two separate occasions, 7 days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated for the total score, as well as each of the four domains.ResultsPilot testing was undertaken with a sample of 106 mental health nurses with a mean age 48.2, ranging from 24 to 63 years of age, who participated in six training courses. Questionnaire development resulted in a 16-item instrument, with each item is scored on a five-point Likert scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” Test–retest reliability of the M-BACK was completed by 30 of 31 nursing students recruited, ICCs ranged from 0.62 to 0.96.ConclusionThe M-BACK is a reliable measure of the key elements of practitioner perceptions of barriers, and their knowledge, attitudes, and confidence regarding metabolic monitoring in people with mental

  14. A new measurement of workload in Web application reliability assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CUI Xia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Web application has been popular in various fields of social life.It becomes more and more important to study the reliability of Web application.In this paper the definition of Web application failure is firstly brought out,and then the definition of Web application reliability.By analyzing data in the IIS server logs and selecting corresponding usage and information delivery failure data,the paper study the feasibility of Web application reliability assessment from the perspective of Web software system based on IIS server logs.Because the usage for a Web site often has certain regularity,a new measurement of workload in Web application reliability assessment is raised.In this method,the unit is removed by weighted average technique;and the weights are assessed by setting objective function and optimization.Finally an experiment was raised for validation.The experiment result shows the assessment of Web application reliability base on the new workload is better.

  15. A clinical tool to measure plagiocephaly in infants using a flexicurve: a reliability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung A

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Amy Leung,1 Pauline Watter,2 John Gavranich3 1Department of Physiotherapy, Royal Children's Hospital, Brisbane, Australia; 2Physiotherapy Division, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; 3Child and Family Health Services, West Moreton Health Service District, Ipswich, Australia Purpose: There has been an increasing incidence of infants presenting with plagiocephaly in the last two decades. A practical, economical, and reliable clinical plagiocephaly measure is essential to assess progression and intervention outcomes. This study investigated the reliability of a modified cranial vault asymmetry index using a flexible curve in infants. Measurement: A flexicurve was molded to the infant's head and its shape maintained as it was placed onto paper to trace the head shape. Using a small modification of Loveday and De Chaplain's procedure to measure a cranial vault asymmetry index, a pair of diagonals were drawn at 30° through the midpoint of the central line to their intersection with the traced head outline. The difference in length of the paired diagonals was divided by the short diameter then multiplied by 100%, yielding the modified cranial vault-asymmetry index. Patients and methods: Infants referred to a community health physiotherapist for assessment due to suspected abnormal head shape were included. To explore intrarater reliability, 34 infants aged 3–14 months were measured twice (T1/T1′ at the beginning, and 21 of these remeasured twice at the end (T2/T2′ of their physiotherapy sessions. Test–retest reliability used matched-average data (T1/T1′ and (T2/T2′ from 21 infants. To explore interrater reliability, 18 healthy infants aged 2–6 months were recruited. Each infant was measured once by each rater. Results: For intrarater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient with 54 degrees of freedom (ICCdf54 was 0.868 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.783–0.921; for test–retest reliability, ICCdf20 = 0.958 (95

  16. Reliability of impedance cardiography in measuring central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Bonde, J; Stadeager, C

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study described here was to investigate the reliability of impedance cardiography (IC) in measuring cardiac output (CO) and central blood volume. Absolute values and changes in these variables obtained by impedance cardiography and by isotope- or thermodilution techniques were...... suitable for repeated measurements in studies on the haemodynamic effects of physiological or pharmacological intervention. Impedance cardiography is sufficiently reliable for comparison of absolute values of CO between different groups of patients. We cannot recommend impedance cardiography...... healthy subjects and in 25 unmedicated patients with ischaemic heart disease. We obtained significant correlations between absolute values (y = 0.68x + 1.48) and changes (y = 1.00x + 0.0003) in CO measured by IC and isotope- or thermodilution. IC significantly overestimated absolute values of CO (P less...

  17. Reliability and relationship of radiographic measurements in hallux valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Ahn, Soyeon; Chung, Chin Youb; Sung, Ki Hyuk; Park, Moon Seok

    2012-09-01

    Although various radiographic measurements have been developed and used for evaluating hallux valgus, not all are universally believed to be necessary and their relationships have not been clearly established. Determining which are related could provide some insight into which might be useful and which would not. We investigated the reliability of eight radiographic measurements used to evaluate hallux valgus, and determined which were correlated and which predicted the hallux valgus angle. We determined eight radiographic indices for 732 patients (mean age, 51 years; SD, 17 years; 107 males and 625 females) with hallux valgus: hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, hallux interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, proximal phalangeal articular angle, simplified metatarsus adductus angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, and sesamoid rotation angle. Intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each radiographic measurement were analyzed on 36 feet from 36 randomly selected patients. Correlations among the radiographic measurements were analyzed. Radiographic measurements predicting hallux valgus angle were evaluated using multiple regression analysis. Hallux valgus angle had the highest reliability, whereas the distal metatarsal articular angle and simplified metatarsus adductus angle had the lowest. Distal metatarsal articular angle, intermetatarsal angle, and sesamoid rotation angle had the highest correlations with hallux valgus angle. Distal metatarsal articular angle correlated with sesamoid rotation angle. The intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, distal metatarsal articular angle, first metatarsal protrusion distance, sesamoid rotation angle, and metatarsus adductus angle predicted the hallux valgus angle. We suggest using hallux valgus angle, intermetatarsal angle, interphalangeal angle, sesamoid rotation angle, and first metatarsal protrusion distance considering their reliability and prediction of the deformity.

  18. Inter-Rater Reliability of Cyclotorsion Measurements Using Fundus Photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Muriel; Kanku, Madeleine; Traber, Ghislaine L

    2018-04-01

    The foveo-papillary angle (FPA) on fundus photographs is the accepted standard for the measurement of ocular cyclotorsion. We assessed the inter-rater reliability of this method in healthy subjects and in patients with trochlear nerve palsies. In this methodological study, fundus photographs of healthy subjects and of patients with trochlear nerve palsies were made with a fundus camera (Zeiss Fundus Camera FF 450 plus, Jena, Germany). Three independent observers measured the FPA on the fundus photographs of all subjects in synedra View (synedra View 16, Version 16.0.0.11, Innsbruck, Austria). One hundred and four eyes of 52 subjects (26 healthy controls and 26 patients) were assessed. The mean FPA of the healthy controls was 5.80 degrees (°) [± 0.44 standard error of the mean (SEM)] compared to 11.55° (± 0.80 SEM) for patients with trochlear nerve palsies. The inter-rater reliability of all measured FPAs showed an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97 - 0.98). The inter-rater reliability of objective cyclotorsion measurements using fundus photographs was very high. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Reliability of Eustachian tube function measurements in a hypobaric and hyperbaric pressure chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M F; Jansen, S; Mordkovich, O; Hüttenbrink, K-B; Beutner, D

    2017-12-01

    Measurement of the Eustachian tube (ET) function is a challenge. The demand for a precise and meaningful diagnostic tool increases-especially because more and more operative therapies are being offered without objective evidence. The measurement of the ET function by continuous impedance recording in a pressure chamber is an established method, although the reliability of the measurements is still unclear. Twenty-five participants (50 ears) were exposed to phases of compression and decompression in a hypo- and hyperbaric pressure chamber. The ET function reflecting parameters-ET opening pressure (ETOP), ET opening duration (ETOD) and ET opening frequency (ETOF)-were determined under exactly the same preconditions three times in a row. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland and Altman plot were used to assess test-retest reliability. ICCs revealed a high correlation for ETOP and ETOF in phases of decompression (passive equalisation) as well as ETOD and ETOP in phases of compression (active induced equalisation). Very high correlation could be shown for ETOD in decompression and ETOF in compression phases. The Bland and Altman graphs could show that measurements provide results within a 95 % confidence interval in compression and decompression phases. We conclude that measurements in a pressure chamber are a very valuable tool in terms of estimating the ET opening and closing function. Measurements show some variance comparing participants, but provide reliable results within a 95 % confidence interval in retest. This study is the basis for enabling efficacy measurements of ET treatment modalities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Test-retest reliability of behavioral measures of impulsive choice, impulsive action, and inattention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weafer, Jessica; Baggott, Matthew J; de Wit, Harriet

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity are widely used in substance abuse research, yet relatively little attention has been devoted to establishing their psychometric properties, especially their reliability over repeated administration. The current study examined the test-retest reliability of a battery of standardized behavioral impulsivity tasks, including measures of impulsive choice (i.e., delay discounting, probability discounting, and the Balloon Analogue Risk Task), impulsive action (i.e., the stop signal task, the go/no-go task, and commission errors on the continuous performance task), and inattention (i.e., attention lapses on a simple reaction time task and omission errors on the continuous performance task). Healthy adults (n = 128) performed the battery on two separate occasions. Reliability estimates for the individual tasks ranged from moderate to high, with Pearson correlations within the specific impulsivity domains as follows: impulsive choice (r range: .76-.89, ps reliable measures and thus can be confidently used to assess various facets of impulsivity as intermediate phenotypes for drug abuse.

  1. Characterization of perovskite solar cells: Towards a reliable measurement protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zimmermann

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lead halide perovskite solar cells have shown a tremendous rise in power conversion efficiency with reported record efficiencies of over 20% making this material very promising as a low cost alternative to conventional inorganic solar cells. However, due to a differently severe “hysteretic” behaviour during current density-voltage measurements, which strongly depends on scan rate, device and measurement history, preparation method, device architecture, etc., commonly used solar cell measurements do not give reliable or even reproducible results. For the aspect of commercialization and the possibility to compare results of different devices among different laboratories, it is necessary to establish a measurement protocol which gives reproducible results. Therefore, we compare device characteristics derived from standard current density-voltage measurements with stabilized values obtained from an adaptive tracking of the maximum power point and the open circuit voltage as well as characteristics extracted from time resolved current density-voltage measurements. Our results provide insight into the challenges of a correct determination of device performance and propose a measurement protocol for a reliable characterisation which is easy to implement and has been tested on varying perovskite solar cells fabricated in different laboratories.

  2. Relating measurement invariance, cross-level invariance, and multilevel reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Jak, S.; Jorgensen, T.D.

    2017-01-01

    Data often have a nested, multilevel structure, for example when data are collected from children in classrooms. This kind of data complicate the evaluation of reliability and measurement invariance, because several properties can be evaluated at both the individual level and the cluster level, as well as across levels. For example, cross-level invariance implies equal factor loadings across levels, which is needed to give latent variables at the two levels a similar interpretation. Reliabili...

  3. Is linear distance measured by panoramic radiography reliable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Keiichi; Wakoh, Mamoru; Sano, Tsukasa; Suehiro, Atsushi; Sekine, Hideshi; Kousuge, Yuuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to re-examine the reliability of distance measurements on clinical panoramic radiographs by comparing them with computed tomography (CT) images, from which the most accurate distance measurement is possible. Twenty pairs of images from patients examined both with panoramic radiography and CT for dental implant treatment planning in the premolar and molar regions of the mandible were used. The vertical linear distance between the alveolar crest and the closest mandibular canal was measured by three experienced oral radiologists on both images. The distances measured on panoramic radiographs were corrected for the magnification factor at the focal plane. Double-oblique cross-sectional images were used for CT. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between distances obtained from both images. The paired t test was performed for statistical comparison. Error levels with the panoramic radiograph versus the CT image were also calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant strong linear correlation (R=0.90; p<0.01). However, the corrected value of distance measured on panoramic radiographs tended to be too small, and a significant difference was observed (p<0.05). The error level was approximately 10% (9.6±7.3%). Distance measurement on clinical panoramic radiographs is less reliable than CT images and cannot be recommended. (author)

  4. Reliability and Validity of Computerized Force Platform Measures of Balance Function in Healthy Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harro, Cathy C; Garascia, Chelsea

    2018-01-10

    Postural control declines with aging and is an independent risk factor for falls in older adults. Objective examination of balance function is warranted to direct fall prevention strategies. Force platform (FP) systems provide quantitative measures of postural control and analysis of different aspects of balance. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of FP measures in healthy older adults. This study enrolled 46 healthy elderly adults, mean age 67.67 (5.1) years, who had no history of falls. They were assessed on 3 standardized tests on the NeuroCom Equitest FP system: limits of stability (LOS), motor control test (MCT), and sensory organization test (SOT). The test battery was administered twice within a 10-day period for test-retest reliability; intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change based on a 95% confidence interval (MDC95) were calculated. FP measures were compared with criterion clinical balance (Mini-BESTest and Functional Gait Assessment) and gait (10-m walk and 6-minute walk) measures to examine concurrent validity using Pearson correlation coefficients. Multiple linear regression analysis examined whether age and activity level were associated with FP performance. The α level was set at P point excursion measures all demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.90, 0.85, and 0.77, respectively), whereas moderate to good reliability was found for SOT vestibular ratio score (ICC = 0.71). There was large variability in performance in this healthy elderly cohort, resulting in relatively large MDC95 for these measures, especially for the LOS test. Fair correlations were found between LOS end point excursion and clinical balance and gait measures (r = 0.31-0.49), and between MCT average latency and gait measures only (r = -0.32). No correlations were found between SOT measures and clinical balance and gait measures. Age was only marginally

  5. Insightful practice: a reliable measure for medical revalidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Bruce; Sullivan, Frank M; Mercer, Stewart W; Russell, Andrew; Bruce, David A

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical revalidation decisions need to be reliable if they are to reassure on the quality and safety of professional practice. This study tested an innovative method in which general practitioners (GPs) were assessed on their reflection and response to a set of externally specified feedback. Setting and participants 60 GPs and 12 GP appraisers in the Tayside region of Scotland, UK. Methods A feedback dataset was specified as (1) GP-specific data collected by GPs themselves (patient and colleague opinion; open book self-evaluated knowledge test; complaints) and (2) Externally collected practice-level data provided to GPs (clinical quality and prescribing safety). GPs' perceptions of whether the feedback covered UK General Medical Council specified attributes of a ‘good doctor’ were examined using a mapping exercise. GPs' professionalism was examined in terms of appraiser assessment of GPs' level of insightful practice, defined as: engagement with, insight into and appropriate action on feedback data. The reliability of assessment of insightful practice and subsequent recommendations on GPs' revalidation by face-to-face and anonymous assessors were investigated using Generalisability G-theory. Main outcome measures Coverage of General Medical Council attributes by specified feedback and reliability of assessor recommendations on doctors' suitability for revalidation. Results Face-to-face assessment proved unreliable. Anonymous global assessment by three appraisers of insightful practice was highly reliable (G=0.85), as were revalidation decisions using four anonymous assessors (G=0.83). Conclusions Unlike face-to-face appraisal, anonymous assessment of insightful practice offers a valid and reliable method to decide GP revalidation. Further validity studies are needed. PMID:22653078

  6. ImageJ: A Free, Easy, and Reliable Method to Measure Leg Ulcers Using Digital Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; Aragón-Hernández, Cristina; Hernández-Herero, María José

    2017-12-01

    Wound measurement to document the healing course of chronic leg ulcers has an important role in the management of these patients. Digital cameras in smartphones are readily available and easy to use, and taking pictures of wounds is becoming a routine in specialized departments. Analyzing digital pictures with appropriate software provides clinicians a quick, clean, and easy-to-use tool for measuring wound area. A set of 25 digital pictures of plain foot and leg ulcers was the basis of this study. Photographs were taken placing a ruler next to the wound in parallel with the healthy skin with the iPhone 6S (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA), which has a camera of 12 megapixels using the flash. The digital photographs were visualized with ImageJ 1.45s freeware (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD; http://imagej.net/ImageJ ). Wound area measurement was carried out by 4 raters: head of the department, wound care nurse, physician, and medical student. We assessed intra- and interrater reliability using the interclass correlation coefficient. To determine intraobserver reliability, 2 of the raters repeated the measurement of the set 1 week after the first reading. The interrater model displayed an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 with 95% confidence interval of 0.999 to 1.000, showing excellent reliability. The intrarater model of both examiners showed excellent reliability. In conclusion, analyzing digital images of leg ulcers with ImageJ estimates wound area with excellent reliability. This method provides a free, rapid, and accurate way to measure wounds and could routinely be used to document wound healing in daily clinical practice.

  7. Tactile acuity charts: a reliable measure of spatial acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bruns

    Full Text Available For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds.

  8. Tactile acuity charts: a reliable measure of spatial acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Patrick; Camargo, Carlos J; Campanella, Humberto; Esteve, Jaume; Dinse, Hubert R; Röder, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    For assessing tactile spatial resolution it has recently been recommended to use tactile acuity charts which follow the design principles of the Snellen letter charts for visual acuity and involve active touch. However, it is currently unknown whether acuity thresholds obtained with this newly developed psychophysical procedure are in accordance with established measures of tactile acuity that involve passive contact with fixed duration and control of contact force. Here we directly compared tactile acuity thresholds obtained with the acuity charts to traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds in a group of young healthy adults. For this purpose, two types of charts, using either Braille-like dot patterns or embossed Landolt rings with different orientations, were adapted from previous studies. Measurements with the two types of charts were equivalent, but generally more reliable with the dot pattern chart. A comparison with the two-point and grating orientation task data showed that the test-retest reliability of the acuity chart measurements after one week was superior to that of the passive methods. Individual thresholds obtained with the acuity charts agreed reasonably with the grating orientation threshold, but less so with the two-point threshold that yielded relatively distinct acuity estimates compared to the other methods. This potentially considerable amount of mismatch between different measures of tactile acuity suggests that tactile spatial resolution is a complex entity that should ideally be measured with different methods in parallel. The simple test procedure and high reliability of the acuity charts makes them a promising complement and alternative to the traditional two-point and grating orientation thresholds.

  9. The Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument is a Valid and Reliable Measure of Nutrition Literacy in Adults with Chronic Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Heather D; Ellerbeck, Edward F; Gajewski, Byron; Zhang, Chuanwu; Sullivan, Debra K

    2018-03-01

    To test the reliability and validity of the Nutrition Literacy Assessment Instrument (NLit) in adult primary care and identify the relationship between nutrition literacy and diet quality. This instrument validation study included a cross-sectional sample participating in up to 2 visits 1 month apart. A total of 429 adults with nutrition-related chronic disease were recruited from clinics and a patient registry affiliated with a Midwestern university medical center. Nutrition literacy was measured by the NLit, which was composed of 6 subscales: nutrition and health, energy sources in food, food label and numeracy, household food measurement, food groups, and consumer skills. Diet quality was measured by Healthy Eating Index-2010 with nutrient data from Diet History Questionnaire II surveys. The researchers measured factor validity and reliability by using binary confirmatory factor analysis; test-retest reliability was measured by Pearson r and the intraclass correlation coefficient, and relationships between nutrition literacy and diet quality were analyzed by linear regression. The NLit demonstrated substantial factor validity and reliability (0.97; confidence interval, 0.96-0.98) and test-retest reliability (0.88; confidence interval, 0.85-0.90). Nutrition literacy was the most significant predictor of diet quality (β = .17; multivariate coefficient = 0.10; P measuring nutrition literacy in adult primary care patients. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measuring reliability under epistemic uncertainty: Review on non-probabilistic reliability metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Rui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a systematic review of non-probabilistic reliability metrics is conducted to assist the selection of appropriate reliability metrics to model the influence of epistemic uncertainty. Five frequently used non-probabilistic reliability metrics are critically reviewed, i.e., evidence-theory-based reliability metrics, interval-analysis-based reliability metrics, fuzzy-interval-analysis-based reliability metrics, possibility-theory-based reliability metrics (posbist reliability and uncertainty-theory-based reliability metrics (belief reliability. It is pointed out that a qualified reliability metric that is able to consider the effect of epistemic uncertainty needs to (1 compensate the conservatism in the estimations of the component-level reliability metrics caused by epistemic uncertainty, and (2 satisfy the duality axiom, otherwise it might lead to paradoxical and confusing results in engineering applications. The five commonly used non-probabilistic reliability metrics are compared in terms of these two properties, and the comparison can serve as a basis for the selection of the appropriate reliability metrics.

  11. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Cade, Fabiano; Melki, Samir; Pasquale, Louis R; Dohlman, Claes H; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT) and a motion sensor. Methods The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS) comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline) IOP. Results On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg) and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg) (P=0.45), suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001), and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001). Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001). Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute), during which the IOP is not expected to change. Conclusion IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results. PMID:24531415

  12. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Eleftherios I; Cade, Fabiano; Melki, Samir; Pasquale, Louis R; Dohlman, Claes H; Ciolino, Joseph B

    2014-01-01

    To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT) and a motion sensor. The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS) comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline) IOP. On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg) and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg) (P=0.45), suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001), and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001). Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001). Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute), during which the IOP is not expected to change. IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.

  13. Reliability of ultrasound for measurement of selected foot structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crofts, G; Angin, S; Mickle, K J; Hill, S; Nester, C J

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between the lower leg muscles, foot structures and function is essential to explain how disease or injury may relate to changes in foot function and clinical pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the inter-operator reliability of an ultrasound protocol to quantify features of: rear, mid and forefoot sections of the plantar fascia (PF); flexor hallucis brevis (FHB); flexor digitorum brevis (FDB); abductor hallucis (AbH); flexor digitorum longus (FDL); flexor hallucis longus (FHL); tibialis anterior (TA); and peroneus longus and brevis (PER). A sample of 6 females and 4 males (mean age 29.1 ± 7.2 years, mean BMI 25.5 ± 4.8) was recruited from a university student and staff population. Scans were obtained using a portable Venue 40 musculoskeletal ultrasound system (GE Healthcare UK) with a 5-13 MHz wideband linear array probe with a 12.7 mm × 47.1mm footprint by two operators in the same scanning session. Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) values for muscle thickness (ICC range 0.90-0.97), plantar fascia thickness (ICC range 0.94-0.98) and cross sectional muscle measurements (ICC range 0.91-0.98) revealed excellent inter-operator reliability. The limits of agreement, relative to structure size, ranged from 9.0% to 17.5% for muscle thickness, 11.0-18.0% for plantar fascia, and 11.0-26.0% for cross sectional area measurements. The ultrasound protocol implemented in this work has been shown to be reliable. It therefore offers the opportunity to quantify the structures concerned and better understand their contributions to foot function. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Accuracy and reliability of three-dimensional surface reconstruction measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizukami, Chikashi; Yamamoto, Etsuo; Ohmura, Masaki; Oiki, Hiroyuki; Tsuji, Jun; Muneta, Yuki; Tanabe, Makito; Hakuba, Nobuhiro; Azemoto, Syougo.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a new three-dimensional (3-D) surface reconstruction system to measure the temporal bones. This system offers the advantage of observation of the external aperture of the vestibular aqueduct and the porus acusticus internus in living subjects. However, its accuracy has not been confirmed. To investigate the accuracy of this new system, we measured the length of an in situ ceramic ossicular replacement prosthesis (CORP) of known length of 6.0 mm using 3-D surface reconstruction, conventional plain X-ray and polytomography. The CORP was scanned in the axial, sagittal and oblique directions. The mean measured length obtained with the 3-D surface reconstruction images was 5.94±0.21 on vertical scans, 5.91±0.27 on horizontal scans, and 6.01±0.25 on oblique scans. There were no significant differences among the measured lengths obtained in the three directions. Therefore, this 3-D surface reconstruction measurement system is considered to be reliable. Conversely, the mean measured length obtained by plain X-ray was 7.98±0.20, and by polytomography it was 7.94±0.23. These conventional methods have the inherent disadvantage of magnification of size which consequently requires correction. (author)

  15. Quantitative measurement of hypertrophic scar: intrarater reliability, sensitivity, and specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedelec, Bernadette; Correa, José A; Rachelska, Grazyna; Armour, Alexis; LaSalle, Léo

    2008-01-01

    The comparison of scar evaluation over time requires measurement tools with acceptable intrarater reliability and the ability to discriminate skin characteristics of interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intrarater reliability and sensitivity and specificity of the Cutometer, the Mexameter, and the DermaScan C relative to the modified Vancouver Scar Scale (mVSS) in patient-matched normal skin, normal scar (donor sites), and hypertrophic scar (HSc). A single investigator evaluated four tissue types (severe HSc, less severe HSc, donor site, and normal skin) in 30 burn survivors with all four measurement tools. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the Cutometer was acceptable (> or =0.75) for the maximum deformation measure for the donor site and normal skin (>0.78) but was below the acceptable range for the HSc sites and all other parameters. The ICC for the Mexameter erythema (>0.75) and melanin index (>0.89) and the DermaScan C total thickness measurement (>0.82) were acceptable for all sites. The ICC for the total of the height, pliability, and vascularity subscales of the mVSS was acceptable (0.81) for normal scar but below the acceptable range for the scar sites. The DermaScan C was clearly able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin based on the total thickness measure. The Cutometer was less discriminating but was still able to discriminate HSc from normal scar and normal skin. The Mexameter erythema index was not a good discriminator of HSc and normal scar. Receiver operating characteristic curves were generated to establish the best cutoff point for the DermaScan C total thickness and the Cutometer maximum deformation, which were 2.034 and 0.387 mm, respectively. This study showed that although the Cutometer, the DermaScan C, and the Mexameter have measurement properties that make them attractive substitutes for the mVSS, caution must be used when interpreting results since the Cutometer has a ceiling effect when

  16. Reliability of a single objective measure in assessing sleepiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Jackson, Nicholas; Maislin, Greg; Gurubhagavatula, Indira; George, Charles F; Pack, Allan I

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate reliability of single objective tests in assessing sleepiness. Subjects who completed polysomnography underwent a 4-nap multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) the following day. Prior to each nap opportunity on MSLT, subjects performed the psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) and divided attention driving task (DADT). Results of single versus multiple test administrations were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and adjusted for test administration order effects to explore time of day effects. Measures were explored as continuous and binary (i.e., impaired or not impaired). Community-based sample evaluated at a tertiary, university-based sleep center. 372 adult commercial vehicle operators oversampled for increased obstructive sleep apnea risk. N/A. AS CONTINUOUS MEASURES, ICC WERE AS FOLLOWS: MSLT 0.45, PVT median response time 0.69, PVT number of lapses 0.51, 10-min DADT tracking error 0.87, 20-min DADT tracking error 0.90. Based on binary outcomes, ICC were: MSLT 0.63, PVT number of lapses 0.85, 10-min DADT 0.95, 20-min DADT 0.96. Statistically significant time of day effects were seen in both the MSLT and PVT but not the DADT. Correlation between ESS and different objective tests was strongest for MSLT, range [-0.270 to -0.195] and persisted across all time points. Single DADT and PVT administrations are reliable measures of sleepiness. A single MSLT administration can reasonably discriminate individuals with MSL < 8 minutes. These results support the use of a single administration of some objective tests of sleepiness when performed under controlled conditions in routine clinical care.

  17. How “consistent” is “consistent”? A clinician-based assessment of the reliability of expressions used by radiologists to communicate diagnostic confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenkrantz, A.B.; Kiritsy, M.; Kim, S.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the degree of variability in clinicians' interpretation of expressions used by radiologists to communicate their level of diagnostic confidence within radiological reports. Materials and methods: Clinicians were solicited to complete a prospective survey asking them to select the approximate perceived level of certainty, expressed as a percentage, associated with 20 expressions used by radiologists to communicate their level of diagnostic confidence within radiological reports. The median and inter-decile range (IDR) were computed for each expression, with a smaller IDR indicating greater reproducibility. Clinicians were also asked questions regarding their attitudes about radiologists' communication of diagnostic confidence. Results: Forty-nine surveys were completed. Median confidence associated with the expressions ranged from 10–90%. Reproducibility of the expressions was variable, as IDR ranged from 15–53%, although a median IDR of 40% indicated overall poor reproducibility. Expressions with relatively higher reproducibility included “most likely”, “likely”, and “unlikely” (IDR 15–20%), whereas expressions with relatively lower reproducibility included “compatible with”, “suspicious for”, “possibly,” and “can be seen in the setting of” (IDR ≥45%). Only 20% of clinicians agreed or strongly agreed that radiologists consistently use such expressions within their reports. Fifty-five percent of clinicians preferred that diagnostic confidence be communicated as a percentage rather than as a textual expression. Conclusion: There was poor reproducibility in clinicians' interpretations of many expressions used by radiologists to communicate their level of diagnostic confidence. Use of percentages to convey diagnostic confidence within reports may mitigate this source of ambiguity in radiologists' communication with clinicians. - Highlights: • Clinicians recorded certainty associated with

  18. Measure of Truck Delay and Reliability at the Corridor Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Freight transportation provides a significant contribution to our nations economy. A reliable and accessible freight network enables business in the Twin Cities to be more competitive in the Upper Midwest region. Accurate and reliable freight data...

  19. Damage preventing measures for wind turbines. Phase 1- Reliability data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Fredrik; Eriksson, Emil; Dahlberg, Magnus

    2010-08-15

    The state of existing reliability and failure data in the public sources has been investigated. The prime goal has been to evaluate the data's usefulness for developing damage preventing measures. Some publicly available databases exist, and the data has been presented in several papers in the literature. The results from the investigation can seem quite negative. Detailed data are lacking and the level of detailed reporting has even been decreasing in recent years. Information on the impact of load condition on failures, which is an important question, are lacking throughout in the statistics. Some components dominate the failure statistics. These are for example the gearboxes, where failures lead to long down times. Failures of the electrical system lead to considerably shorter down times but the failure rate is much higher. Severe rotor failures seem to be rare, but they occur and the consequences can be dramatic. Operators and insurance companies are demanding improved insight in damage collection, maintenance and overall damage preventing measures. Closer cooperation with these parties could be a fruitful way of gathering more useful data. Improvements for future databases are suggested. A structure for damage collection is proposed. Comparing experience of damage preventing measures from other industries, knowledge about the nature of the damage mechanism and current practice in the wind industry will be an important tool in the evaluation of different damage preventing measures. This will be done in the following phases of this project

  20. Reliable intraocular pressure measurement using automated radio-wave telemetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paschalis EI

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios I Paschalis,* Fabiano Cade,* Samir Melki, Louis R Pasquale, Claes H Dohlman, Joseph B CiolinoMassachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: To present an autonomous intraocular pressure (IOP measurement technique using a wireless implantable transducer (WIT and a motion sensor.Methods: The WIT optical aid was implanted within the ciliary sulcus of a normotensive rabbit eye after extracapsular clear lens extraction. An autonomous wireless data system (AWDS comprising of a WIT and an external antenna aided by a motion sensor provided continuous IOP readings. The sensitivity of the technique was determined by the ability to detect IOP changes resulting from the administration of latanoprost 0.005% or dorzolamide 2%, while the reliability was determined by the agreement between baseline and vehicle (saline IOP.Results: On average, 12 diurnal and 205 nocturnal IOP measurements were performed with latanoprost, and 26 diurnal and 205 nocturnal measurements with dorzolamide. No difference was found between mean baseline IOP (13.08±2.2 mmHg and mean vehicle IOP (13.27±2.1 mmHg (P=0.45, suggesting good measurement reliability. Both antiglaucoma medications caused significant IOP reduction compared to baseline; latanoprost reduced mean IOP by 10% (1.3±3.54 mmHg; P<0.001, and dorzolamide by 5% (0.62±2.22 mmHg; P<0.001. Use of latanoprost resulted in an overall twofold higher IOP reduction compared to dorzolamide (P<0.001. Repeatability was ±1.8 mmHg, assessed by the variability of consecutive IOP measurements performed in a short period of time (≤1 minute, during which the IOP is not expected to change.Conclusion: IOP measurements in conscious rabbits obtained without the need for human interactions using the AWDS are feasible and provide reproducible results.Keywords: IOP, pressure transducer, wireless, MEMS, implant, intraocular

  1. On the Reliability of Implicit and Explicit Memory Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Axel; Wippich, Werner

    2000-01-01

    Studied the reliability of implicit and explicit memory tests in experiments involving these tests. Results with 168, 84, 120, and 128 undergraduates show that methodological artifacts may cause implicit memory tests to have lower reliability than explicit memory tests, but that implicit tests need not necessarily be less reliable. (SLD)

  2. Regional inversion of CO2 ecosystem fluxes from atmospheric measurements. Reliability of the uncertainty estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, G.; Chevallier, F.; Breon, F.M.; Yver, C.; Ciais, P.; Ramonet, M.; Schmidt, M. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, UMR8212, IPSL, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Alemanno, M. [Servizio Meteorologico dell' Aeronautica Militare Italiana, Centro Aeronautica Militare di Montagna, Monte Cimone/Sestola (Italy); Apadula, F. [Research on Energy Systems, RSE, Environment and Sustainable Development Department, Milano (Italy); Hammer, S. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Institut fuer Umweltphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Haszpra, L. [Hungarian Meteorological Service, Budapest (Hungary); Meinhardt, F. [Federal Environmental Agency, Kirchzarten (Germany); Necki, J. [AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow (Poland); Piacentino, S. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Palermo (Italy); Thompson, R.L. [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena (Germany); Vermeulen, A.T. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, EEE-EA, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    The Bayesian framework of CO2 flux inversions permits estimates of the retrieved flux uncertainties. Here, the reliability of these theoretical estimates is studied through a comparison against the misfits between the inverted fluxes and independent measurements of the CO2 Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) made by the eddy covariance technique at local (few hectares) scale. Regional inversions at 0.5{sup 0} resolution are applied for the western European domain where {approx}50 eddy covariance sites are operated. These inversions are conducted for the period 2002-2007. They use a mesoscale atmospheric transport model, a prior estimate of the NEE from a terrestrial ecosystem model and rely on the variational assimilation of in situ continuous measurements of CO2 atmospheric mole fractions. Averaged over monthly periods and over the whole domain, the misfits are in good agreement with the theoretical uncertainties for prior and inverted NEE, and pass the chi-square test for the variance at the 30% and 5% significance levels respectively, despite the scale mismatch and the independence between the prior (respectively inverted) NEE and the flux measurements. The theoretical uncertainty reduction for the monthly NEE at the measurement sites is 53% while the inversion decreases the standard deviation of the misfits by 38 %. These results build confidence in the NEE estimates at the European/monthly scales and in their theoretical uncertainty from the regional inverse modelling system. However, the uncertainties at the monthly (respectively annual) scale remain larger than the amplitude of the inter-annual variability of monthly (respectively annual) fluxes, so that this study does not engender confidence in the inter-annual variations. The uncertainties at the monthly scale are significantly smaller than the seasonal variations. The seasonal cycle of the inverted fluxes is thus reliable. In particular, the CO2 sink period over the European continent likely ends later than

  3. Test-retest reliability of a handheld dynamometer for measurement of isometric cervical muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannebo, Katrine Tranaas; Iversen, Vegard Moe; Fimland, Marius Steiro; Mork, Paul Jarle

    2018-03-02

    There is a lack of test-retest reliability studies of measurements of cervical muscle strength, taking into account gender and possible learning effects. To investigate test-retest reliability of measurement of maximal isometric cervical muscle strength by handheld dynamometry. Thirty women (age 20-58 years) and 28 men (age 20-60 years) participated in the study. Maximal isometric strength (neck flexion, neck extension, and right/left lateral flexion) was measured on three separate days at least five days apart by one evaluator. Intra-rater consistency tended to improve from day 1-2 measurements to day 2-3 measurements in both women and men. In women, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for day 2 to day 3 measurements were 0.91 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.95) for neck flexion, 0.88 (95% CI, 0.76-0.94) for neck extension, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.68-0.92) for right lateral flexion, and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.78-0.95) for left lateral flexion. The corresponding ICCs among men were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.72-0.93) for neck flexion, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-0.97) for neck extension, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.65-0.91) for right lateral flexion and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.50-0.87) for left lateral flexion. This study describes a reliable and easy-to-administer test for assessing maximal isometric cervical muscle strength.

  4. Reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device for measuring the range of motion in the dart-throwing motion plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasubuchi, Kenji; Dohi, Yoshihiro; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Fukumoto, Takahiko

    2018-02-26

    Dart-throwing motion (DTM) is an important component of wrist function and, consequently, has the potential to become an evaluation tool in rehabilitation. However, no measurement method is currently available to reliably measure range of motion (ROM) of the wrist in the DTM plane. To determine the reliability and responsiveness of a goniometric device to measure wrist ROM in the DTM plane. ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured in 70 healthy participants. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to evaluate the relative reliability of measurement, and a Bland-Altman analysis conducted to establish its absolute reliability, including the 95% limits of agreement (95% LOA). The standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) were calculated as measures of responsiveness. The intra-rater ICC was 0.87, and an inter-rater ICC of 0.71. There was no evidence of a fixed or proportional bias. For intra- and inter-rater reliability, 95% LOA ranged from -13.83 to 11.12 and from -17.75 to 16.19, respectively. The SEM and MDC 95 were 4.5° and 12.4°, respectively, for intra-rater reliability, and 6.0° and 16.6°, respectively, for inter-rater reliability. The ROM of the wrist in the DTM plane was measured with fair-to-good reliability and responsiveness and, therefore, has the potential to become an evaluation tool for rehabilitation.

  5. The reliability of prayer-based self-efficacy scale to assess self-confidence of Muslims with low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Obaidi, Saud; Wall, James C; Mulekar, Madhuri S; Al-Mutairie, Rebecca

    2012-06-01

    Low back pain (LBP) may challenge an individual's self-confidence to perform usual daily activities such as Islamic daily prayer. Existing self-efficacy scales may not be appropriate to assess individual's self-confidence to perform Islamic prayers. This study aimed to develop a scale to assess self-confidence to prepare and perform Islamic prayer in the presence of LBP, the Islamic Prayer-based Self-efficacy Scale (IpbSeS), and to determine its consistency. The IpbSeS consists of three parts: pre-prayer preparation, getting to and from the mosque, and positions and movements during prayer. On a scale of 0 to 6, 0 indicates 'not at all confident' and 6 'fully confident'. Sixty individuals with LBP gave their responses on two different visits. Pain intensity was assessed by the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), and the pain intensity changes were assessed using a seven-point global patient rating scale. Descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlation coefficient, Wilcoxon test and t-test were used in the analysis (alpha set at 0.05). VAS scores did not differ significantly between visits. No association was found between VAS and age (r = 0.039, p = 0.77) and between VAS and body mass index (BMI; r = 0.06, p = 0. 67). All 28 questions have consistent responses on two visits (0.75 ≤ r ≤ 0.99, p Muslims in the presence of LBP to pray. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. A Systematic Review of Statistical Methods Used to Test for Reliability of Medical Instruments Measuring Continuous Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafdzah Zaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice.   Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC is the most popular method with 25 (60% studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%. Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28% reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71% also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies.

  7. Measuring Workplace Travel Behaviour: Validity and Reliability of Survey Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas A. Petrunoff

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the (previously untested reliability and validity of survey questions commonly used to assess travel mode and travel time. Methods. Sixty-five respondents from a staff survey of travel behaviour conducted in a south-western Sydney hospital agreed to complete a travel diary for a week, wear an accelerometer over the same period, and twice complete an online travel survey an average of 21 days apart. The agreement in travel modes between the self-reported online survey and travel diary was examined with the kappa statistic. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to examine agreement of travel time from home to workplace measured between the self-reported online survey and four-day travel diary. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA time of active and nonactive travellers was compared by t-test. Results. There was substantial agreement between travel modes (K=0.62, P<0.0001 and a moderate correlation for travel time (ρ=0.75, P<0.0001 reported in the travel diary and online survey. There was a high level of agreement for travel mode (K=0.82, P<0.0001 and travel time (ρ=0.83, P<0.0001 between the two travel surveys. Accelerometer data indicated that for active travellers, 16% of the journey-to-work time is MVPA, compared with 6% for car drivers. Active travellers were significantly more active across the whole workday. Conclusions. The survey question “How did you travel to work this week? If you used more than one transport mode specify the one you used for the longest (distance portion of your journey” is reliable over 21 days and agrees well with a travel diary.

  8. The reliability of head film measurements. 3. Tracing superimposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Miller, D; Molthen, R

    1976-12-01

    The superimposition of tracings from lateral skull x-ray films taken at different timepoints is an important method for assessing developmental and treatment changes through time. The usefulness of the data derived is, however, limited by the fact that the physical act of superimposing tracings is performed with some error. The magnitudes of error for superimpositions on different "planes" have not been amenable to quantitation by previously available methods. Using newly developed computer-aided techniques, we have been able to quantitate both the primary errors of tracing superimposition and the associated secondary landmark displacements for four conventionally employed anatomic reference "planes". For each reference "plane," twenty-five independent film pairs were examined independently by each of four judges. Therefore, 100 acts of tracing superimposition were available for each reference "plane." Output data are presented which appear to support the conclusion that measurement errors in tracing superimposition are a consequential factor affecting the confidence which should be placed in head film comparisons, particularly with regard to individual cases. Some consequences of this conclusion with respect to growth prediction and to the evaluation of treatment effects are considered.

  9. Improving Metrological Reliability of Information-Measuring Systems Using Mathematical Modeling of Their Metrological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnosov, R. Yu; Chernyshova, T. I.; Chernyshov, V. N.

    2018-05-01

    The algorithms for improving the metrological reliability of analogue blocks of measuring channels and information-measuring systems are developed. The proposed algorithms ensure the optimum values of their metrological reliability indices for a given analogue circuit block solution.

  10. Using the confidence interval confidently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazra, Avijit

    2017-10-01

    Biomedical research is seldom done with entire populations but rather with samples drawn from a population. Although we work with samples, our goal is to describe and draw inferences regarding the underlying population. It is possible to use a sample statistic and estimates of error in the sample to get a fair idea of the population parameter, not as a single value, but as a range of values. This range is the confidence interval (CI) which is estimated on the basis of a desired confidence level. Calculation of the CI of a sample statistic takes the general form: CI = Point estimate ± Margin of error, where the margin of error is given by the product of a critical value (z) derived from the standard normal curve and the standard error of point estimate. Calculation of the standard error varies depending on whether the sample statistic of interest is a mean, proportion, odds ratio (OR), and so on. The factors affecting the width of the CI include the desired confidence level, the sample size and the variability in the sample. Although the 95% CI is most often used in biomedical research, a CI can be calculated for any level of confidence. A 99% CI will be wider than 95% CI for the same sample. Conflict between clinical importance and statistical significance is an important issue in biomedical research. Clinical importance is best inferred by looking at the effect size, that is how much is the actual change or difference. However, statistical significance in terms of P only suggests whether there is any difference in probability terms. Use of the CI supplements the P value by providing an estimate of actual clinical effect. Of late, clinical trials are being designed specifically as superiority, non-inferiority or equivalence studies. The conclusions from these alternative trial designs are based on CI values rather than the P value from intergroup comparison.

  11. 用Delta法估计多维测验合成信度的置信区间%Estimating the Confidence Interval of Composite Reliability of a Multidimensional Test With the Delta Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶宝娟; 温忠麟

    2012-01-01

    Reliability is very important in evaluating the quality of a test. Based on the confirmatory factor analysis, composite reliabili- ty is a good index to estimate the test reliability for general applications. As is well known, point estimate contains limited information a- bout a population parameter and cannot indicate how far it can be from the population parameter. The confidence interval of the parame- ter can provide more information. In evaluating the quality of a test, the confidence interval of composite reliability has received atten- tion in recent years. There are three approaches to estimating the confidence interval of composite reliability of an unidimensional test: the Bootstrap method, the Delta method, and the direct use of the standard error of a software output (e. g. , LISREL). The Bootstrap method pro- vides empirical results of the standard error, and is the most credible method. But it needs data simulation techniques, and its computa- tion process is rather complex. The Delta method computes the standard error of composite reliability by approximate calculation. It is simpler than the Bootstrap method. The LISREL software can directly prompt the standard error, and it is the easiest among the three methods. By simulation study, it had been found that the interval estimates obtained by the Delta method and the Bootstrap method were almost identical, whereas the results obtained by LISREL and by the Bootstrap method were substantially different ( Ye & Wen, 2011 ). The Delta method is recommended when the confidence interval of composite reliability of a unidimensional test is estimated, because the Delta method is simpler than the Bootstrap method. There was little research about how to compute the confidence interval of composite reliability of a multidimensional test. We de- duced a formula by using the Delta method for computing the standard error of composite reliability of a multidimensional test. Based on the standard error, the

  12. Test-Retest Reliability of Measurements of Hand-Grip Strength Obtained by Dynamometry from Older Adults: A Systematic Review of Research in the PubMed Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, R W

    2017-01-01

    A systematic review was performed to summarize literature describing the test-retest reliability of grip strength measures obtained from older adults. Relevant literature was identified via a PubMed search. Seventeen articles were deemed appropriate based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. The relative test-retest reliability of grip strength measures obtained by dynamometry was good to excellent (intra-class correlation coefficients > 0.80) in all but 3 studies, which involved older adults with severe dementia. Absolute reliability, as indicated by summary statistics such as the minimum detectable change (95%), was more variable. As a percentage, that change ranged from 14.5% to 98.5%. Consequently, clinicians can be confident in the relative reliability of grip strength measures obtained from at risk older adults. However, relatively large percentage changes in grip strength may be necessary to conclude with confidence that a real change has occurred over time in some populations.

  13. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 2. Technical Report #1201

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the second-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  14. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 3. Technical Report #1202

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Cheng-Fei; Irvin, P. Shawn; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the third-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  15. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 5. Technical Report #1204

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fifth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  16. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 4. Technical Report #1203

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the fourth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  17. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 6. Technical Report #1205

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the sixth-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  18. Analyzing the Reliability of the easyCBM Reading Comprehension Measures: Grade 7. Technical Report #1206

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, P. Shawn; Alonzo, Julie; Lai, Cheng-Fei; Park, Bitnara Jasmine; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we present the results of a reliability study of the seventh-grade multiple choice reading comprehension measures available on the easyCBM learning system conducted in the spring of 2011. Analyses include split-half reliability, alternate form reliability, person and item reliability as derived from Rasch analysis,…

  19. Reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Gross Motor Function Measure in children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Kênnea M.; Albuquerque, Karolina A.; Ferreira, Marina L.; Aguiar, Stéphany K. B.; Mancini, Marisa C.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the intra- and interrater reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the 66-item Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-66). METHOD: The sample included 48 children with cerebral palsy (CP), ranging from 2-17 years old, classified at levels I to IV of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and four child rehabilitation examiners. A main examiner evaluated all children using the GMFM-66 and video-recorded the assessments. The other examiners watched the video recordings and scored them independently for the assessment of interrater reliability. For the intrarater reliability evaluation, the main examiner watched the video recordings one month after the evaluation and re-scored each child. We calculated reliability by using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with their respective 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: Excellent test reliability was documented. The intrarater reliability of the total sample was ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99), and the interrater reliability was ICC=0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.98). The reliability across GMFCS levels ranged from ICC=0.92 (95% CI 0.72-0.98) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99); the lowest value was the interrater reliability for the GMFCS IV group. Reliability in the five GMFM dimensions varied from ICC=0.95 (95% CI 0.93-0.97) to ICC=0.99 (95% CI 0.99-0.99). CONCLUSION: The Brazilian Portuguese version of the GMFM-66 showed excellent intra- and interrater reliability when used in Brazilian children with CP levels GMFCS I to IV. PMID:26786081

  20. Resiliency as a component importance measure in network reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, John C.; Ramirez-Marquez, Jose Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    This paper seeks to define the concept of resiliency as a component importance measure related to network reliability. Resiliency can be defined as a composite of: (1) the ability of a network to provide service despite external failures and (2) the time to restore service when in the presence of such failures. Although, Resiliency has been extensively studied in different research areas, this paper will study the specific aspects of quantifiable network resiliency when the network is experiencing potential catastrophic failures from external events and/or influences, and when it is not known a priori which specific components within the network will fail. A formal definition for Category I resiliency is proposed and a step-by-step approach based on Monte-Carlo simulation to calculate it is defined. To illustrate the approach, two-terminal networks with varying degrees of redundancy, have been considered. The results obtained for test networks show that this new quantifiable concept of resiliency provides insight into the performance and topology of the network. Future use for this work could include methods for safeguarding critical network components and optimizing the use of redundancy as a technique to improve network resiliency.

  1. Forgotten marriages? Measuring the reliability of marriage histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marriage histories are a valuable data source for investigating nuptiality. While researchers typically acknowledge the problems associated with their use, it is unknown to what extent these problems occur and how marriage analyses are affected. OBJECTIVE This paper seeks to investigate the quality of marriage histories by measuring levels of misreporting, examining the characteristics associated with misreporting, and assessing whether misreporting biases marriage indicators. METHODS Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH), I compare marriage histories reported by the same respondents at two different points in time. I investigate whether respondents consistently report their spouses (by name), status of marriage, and dates of marriage. I use multivariate regression models to investigate the characteristics associated with misreporting. Finally, I examine whether misreporting marriages and marriage dates affects marriage indicators. RESULTS Results indicate that 28.3% of men and 17.9% of women omitted at least one marriage in one of the survey waves. Multivariate regression models show that misreporting is not random: marriage, individual, interviewer, and survey characteristics are associated with marriage omission and marriage date inconsistencies. Misreporting also affects marriage indicators. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study of its kind to examine the reliability of marriage histories collected in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. Although marriage histories are frequently used to study marriage dynamics, until now no knowledge has existed on the degree of misreporting. Misreporting in marriage histories is shown to be non-negligent and could potentially affect analyses. PMID:27152090

  2. Reliability and Inequality Measures for the Weimal Distribution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    understanding the reliability of systems and their .... Using the identity given by Gradshteyn and Ryzhik (2007) for power series raised to a positive integer i, we have: (∑. ) ..... probability distributions for lifetimes of systems of components. Thesis,.

  3. Development of a reliable, valid measure to assess parents' and teachers' understanding of postural care for children with physical disabilities: the (UKC PostCarD) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotham, S; Hutton, E; Hamilton-West, K E

    2015-11-01

    Previous research has highlighted lack of knowledge, understanding and confidence among parents and teachers responsible for the postural care of children with physical disability. Interventions designed to improve these qualities require a reliable and validated tool to assess pre- and post-intervention levels. Currently, however, no validated measure of postural care confidence (i.e. self-efficacy) exists. Hence, the aim of this research was to develop a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess parents' and teachers' confidence, alongside knowledge and understanding of postural care - the Understanding Knowledge and Confidence in providing POSTural CARe for children with Disabilities (UKC PostCarD) questionnaire. Items were developed by a multidisciplinary team and designed to map onto the content of 'An A-to-Z of Postural Care'. Parents, teachers and therapists assessed items for face validity. Scale reliability was then assessed using Cronbach's alpha and known-group validity was assessed by comparing scores of an 'expert' group (physiotherapists and occupational therapists) with those of a 'non-expert' group (with no formal training in postural care). The total scale and all three subscales (understanding and knowledge, confidence and concerns) demonstrated adequate reliability (α > 0.83) and subscale correlations formed a logical pattern (understanding and knowledge correlated positively with confidence and negatively with concerns). Experts' (n = 111) scores were higher than non-experts' (n = 79) for the total scale and all subscales (P children with disabilities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Reliability of skin testing as a measure of nutritional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forse, R.A.; Christou, N.; Meakins, J.L.; MacLean, L.D.; Shizgal, H.M.

    1981-01-01

    The reliability of skin testing to assess the nutritional state was evaluated in 257 patients who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN). The nutritional state was assessed by determining body composition, by multiple-isotope dilution. Immunocompetence was simultaneously evaluated by skin testing with five recall antigens. These measurements were carried out before and at two-week intervals during TPN. A statistically significant relationship existed between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. A body composition consistent with malnutrition was present in the anergic patients, while body composition was normal in the patients who reacted normally to skin testing. However, a considerable overlap existed as 43% of the reactive patients were malnourished, and 21% of the anergic patients were normally nourished. Thirty-seven (43%) of the 86 anergic patients converted and became reactive during TPN, and their body composition improved significantly. The remaining 49 anergic patients (57%) did not convert, and their body composition did not change despite similar nutritional support. The principal difference between the two groups of anergic patients was the nature of the therapy administered. In the anergic patients who converted, therapy was aggressive and appropriate, and clinical improvement occurred in 23 (62.2%) of the patients, with a mortality of 5.4%. In the 49 patients who remained anergic, therapy was often inappropriate or unsuccessful, with clinical improvement in only three (6.1%) of the patients and a mortality of 42.8%. The data demonstrated a significant relationship between the response to skin testing and the nutritional state. However, because of the wide overlap, skin testing does not accurately assess a person's nutritional state. The persistence of the anergic state is indicative of a lack of response to therapy

  5. Five-band microwave radiometer system for noninvasive brain temperature measurement in newborn babies: Phantom experiment and confidence interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, T.; Hirata, H.; Hand, J. W.; van Leeuwen, J. M. J.; Mizushina, S.

    2011-10-01

    Clinical trials of hypothermic brain treatment for newborn babies are currently hindered by the difficulty in measuring deep brain temperatures. As one of the possible methods for noninvasive and continuous temperature monitoring that is completely passive and inherently safe is passive microwave radiometry (MWR). We have developed a five-band microwave radiometer system with a single dual-polarized, rectangular waveguide antenna operating within the 1-4 GHz range and a method for retrieving the temperature profile from five radiometric brightness temperatures. This paper addresses (1) the temperature calibration for five microwave receivers, (2) the measurement experiment using a phantom model that mimics the temperature profile in a newborn baby, and (3) the feasibility for noninvasive monitoring of deep brain temperatures. Temperature resolutions were 0.103, 0.129, 0.138, 0.105 and 0.111 K for 1.2, 1.65, 2.3, 3.0 and 3.6 GHz receivers, respectively. The precision of temperature estimation (2σ confidence interval) was about 0.7°C at a 5-cm depth from the phantom surface. Accuracy, which is the difference between the estimated temperature using this system and the measured temperature by a thermocouple at a depth of 5 cm, was about 2°C. The current result is not satisfactory for clinical application because the clinical requirement for accuracy must be better than 1°C for both precision and accuracy at a depth of 5 cm. Since a couple of possible causes for this inaccuracy have been identified, we believe that the system can take a step closer to the clinical application of MWR for hypothermic rescue treatment.

  6. Reliability of infrared thermometric measurements of skin temperature in the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packham, Tara L; Fok, Diana; Frederiksen, Karen; Thabane, Lehana; Buckley, Norman

    2012-01-01

    Clinical measurement study. Skin temperature asymmetries (STAs) are used in the diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS), but little evidence exists for reliability of the equipment and methods. This study examined the reliability of an inexpensive infrared (IR) thermometer and measurement points in the hand for the study of STA. ST was measured three times at five points on both hands with an IR thermometer by two raters in 20 volunteers (12 normals and 8 CRPS). ST measurement results using IR thermometers support inter-rater reliability: intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimate for single measures 0.80; all ST measurement points were also highly reliable (ICC single measures, 0.83-0.91). The equipment demonstrated excellent reliability, with little difference in the reliability of the five measurement sites. These preliminary findings support their use in future CRPS research. Not applicable. Copyright © 2012 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability and validity for measurement of body composition: A field ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All three of these instruments do not involve high costs, do not require high technical skills, mobile, save time, and are suitable for use in large populations. Because all three instruments can estimate the percentage of body fat, but it is important to identify the most appropriate instruments and have high reliability. Hence, this ...

  8. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ix I. Introduction ...RELIABILITY OF REPAIRABLE USAF SYSTEMS I. Introduction General Issue The United States relies on complex systems to protect and project the national...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Implementing a Lifecycle Mangement Framework, Washington DC, DC: DoD, 2008

  9. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  10. Reliability of Wearable Inertial Measurement Units to Measure Physical Activity in Team Handball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luteberget, Live S; Holme, Benjamin R; Spencer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    To assess the reliability and sensitivity of commercially available inertial measurement units to measure physical activity in team handball. Twenty-two handball players were instrumented with 2 inertial measurement units (OptimEye S5; Catapult Sports, Melbourne, Australia) taped together. They participated in either a laboratory assessment (n = 10) consisting of 7 team handball-specific tasks or field assessment (n = 12) conducted in 12 training sessions. Variables, including PlayerLoad™ and inertial movement analysis (IMA) magnitude and counts, were extracted from the manufacturers' software. IMA counts were divided into intensity bands of low (1.5-2.5 m·s -1 ), medium (2.5-3.5 m·s -1 ), high (>3.5 m·s -1 ), medium/high (>2.5 m·s -1 ), and total (>1.5 m·s -1 ). Reliability between devices and sensitivity was established using coefficient of variation (CV) and smallest worthwhile difference (SWD). Laboratory assessment: IMA magnitude showed a good reliability (CV = 3.1%) in well-controlled tasks. CV increased (4.4-6.7%) in more-complex tasks. Field assessment: Total IMA counts (CV = 1.8% and SWD = 2.5%), PlayerLoad (CV = 0.9% and SWD = 2.1%), and their associated variables (CV = 0.4-1.7%) showed a good reliability, well below the SWD. However, the CV of IMA increased when categorized into intensity bands (2.9-5.6%). The reliability of IMA counts was good when data were displayed as total, high, or medium/high counts. A good reliability for PlayerLoad and associated variables was evident. The CV of the previously mentioned variables was well below the SWD, suggesting that OptimEye's inertial measurement unit and its software are sensitive for use in team handball.

  11. Reliability and reproducibility analysis of the Cobb angle and assessing sagittal plane by computer-assisted and manual measurement tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weifei; Liang, Jie; Du, Yuanli; Tan, Xiaoyi; Xiang, Xuanping; Wang, Wanhong; Ru, Neng; Le, Jinbo

    2014-02-06

    Although many studies on reliability and reproducibility of measurement have been performed on coronal Cobb angle, few results about reliability and reproducibility are reported on sagittal alignment measurement including the pelvis. We usually use SurgimapSpine software to measure the Cobb angle in our studies; however, there are no reports till date on its reliability and reproducible measurements. Sixty-eight standard standing posteroanterior whole-spine radiographs were reviewed. Three examiners carried out the measurements independently under the settings of manual measurement on X-ray radiographies and SurgimapSpine software on the computer. Parameters measured included pelvic incidence, sacral slope, pelvic tilt, Lumbar lordosis (LL), thoracic kyphosis, and coronal Cobb angle. SPSS 16.0 software was used for statistical analyses. The means, standard deviations, intraclass and interclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. There was no notable difference between the two tools (P = 0.21) for the coronal Cobb angle. In the sagittal plane parameters, the ICC of intraobserver reliability for the manual measures varied from 0.65 (T2-T5 angle) to 0.95 (LL angle). Further, for SurgimapSpine tool, the ICC ranged from 0.75 to 0.98. No significant difference in intraobserver reliability was found between the two measurements (P > 0.05). As for the interobserver reliability, measurements with SurgimapSpine tool had better ICC (0.71 to 0.98 vs 0.59 to 0.96) and Pearson's coefficient (0.76 to 0.99 vs 0.60 to 0.97). The reliability of SurgimapSpine measures was significantly higher in all parameters except for the coronal Cobb angle where the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Although the differences between the two methods are very small, the results of this study indicate that the SurgimapSpine measurement is an equivalent measuring tool to the traditional manual in coronal Cobb angle, but is advantageous in spino

  12. Can Reliability of Multiple Component Measuring Instruments Depend on Response Option Presentation Mode?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menold, Natalja; Raykov, Tenko

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the possible dependency of composite reliability on presentation format of the elements of a multi-item measuring instrument. Using empirical data and a recent method for interval estimation of group differences in reliability, we demonstrate that the reliability of an instrument need not be the same when polarity of the…

  13. Use of and confidence in administering outcome measures among clinical prosthetists: Results from a national survey and mixed-methods training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunaurd, Ignacio; Spaulding, Susan E; Amtmann, Dagmar; Salem, Rana; Gailey, Robert; Morgan, Sara J; Hafner, Brian J

    2015-08-01

    Outcome measures can be used in prosthetic practices to evaluate interventions, inform decision making, monitor progress, document outcomes, and justify services. Strategies to enhance prosthetists' ability to use outcome measures are needed to facilitate their adoption in routine practice. To assess prosthetists' use of outcome measures and evaluate the effects of training on their confidence in administering performance-based measures. Cross-sectional and single-group pretest-posttest survey. Seventy-nine certified prosthetists (mean of 16.0 years of clinical experience) were surveyed about their experiences with 20 standardized outcome measures. Prosthetists were formally trained by the investigators to administer the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor. Prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor was measured before and after training. The majority of prosthetists (62%) were classified as non-routine outcome measure users. Confidence administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor prior to training was low-to-moderate across the study sample. Training significantly (p measures. Interactive training resulted in a statistically significant increase of prosthetists' confidence in administering the Timed Up and Go and Amputee Mobility Predictor and may facilitate use of outcome measures in clinical practice. Frequency of outcome measure use in the care of persons with limb loss has not been studied. Study results suggest that prosthetists may not regularly use standardized outcome measures and report limited confidence in administering them. Training enhances confidence and may encourage use of outcome measures in clinical practice. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  14. Confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Zachary; Felker, Sydney

    2012-06-01

    On tasks that require the mental rotation of 3-dimensional figures, males typically exhibit higher accuracy than females. Using the most common measure of mental rotation (i.e., the Mental Rotations Test), we investigated whether individual variability in confidence mediates this sex difference in mental rotation performance. In each of four experiments, the sex difference was reliably elicited and eliminated by controlling or manipulating participants' confidence. Specifically, confidence predicted performance within and between sexes (Experiment 1), rendering confidence irrelevant to the task reliably eliminated the sex difference in performance (Experiments 2 and 3), and manipulating confidence significantly affected performance (Experiment 4). Thus, confidence mediates the sex difference in mental rotation performance and hence the sex difference appears to be a difference of performance rather than ability. Results are discussed in relation to other potential mediators and mechanisms, such as gender roles, sex stereotypes, spatial experience, rotation strategies, working memory, and spatial attention.

  15. Measuring awareness of financial skills: reliability and validity of a new measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, K; Tuokko, H A; Mateer, C A; Hultsch, D F

    2004-03-01

    This paper examines the psychometric properties of a three-part (participant, informant, and performance) Measure for assessing Awareness of Financial Skills (MAFS). The MAFS was administered to 10 seniors with dementia and 25 well-functioning seniors, and their informants. Measures of cognitive functioning, social desirability, neuroticism, and perceived control were administered to each participant to allow for an assessment of validity. Internal consistency estimates for the participant and informant questionnaires were found to be 0.92 and 0.97, respectively. Convergent validity analysis indicated that performance on this measure was related to level of cognitive functioning, with higher level of unawareness associated with decreased cognitive ability. Discriminant validity analysis showed that performance on this measure was not related to social desirability or neuroticism. This study provides evidence that the MAFS is a reliable and valid tool for assessing awareness of financial skills in older adults.

  16. Test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand measures in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regterschot, G Ruben H; Zhang, Wei; Baldus, Heribert; Stevens, Martin; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated test-retest reliability of sensor-based sit-to-stand (STS) peak power and other STS measures in young and older adults. In addition, test-retest reliability of the sensor method was compared to test-retest reliability of the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT) and Five-Times-Sit-to-Stand Test (FTSST) in older adults. Ten healthy young female adults (20-23 years) and 31 older adults (21 females; 73-94 years) participated in two assessment sessions separated by 3-8 days. Vertical peak power was assessed during three (young adults) and five (older adults) normal and fast STS trials with a hybrid motion sensor worn on the hip. Older adults also performed the FTSST and TUGT. The average sensor-based STS peak power of the normal STS trials and the average sensor-based STS peak power of the fast STS trials showed excellent test-retest reliability in young adults (intra-class correlation (ICC)≥0.90; zero in 95% confidence interval of mean difference between test and retest (95%CI of D); standard error of measurement (SEM)≤6.7% of mean peak power) and older adults (ICC≥0.91; zero in 95%CI of D; SEM≤9.9%). Test-retest reliability of sensor-based STS peak power and TUGT (ICC=0.98; zero in 95%CI of D; SEM=8.5%) was comparable in older adults, test-retest reliability of the FTSST was lower (ICC=0.73; zero outside 95%CI of D; SEM=14.4%). Sensor-based STS peak power demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and may therefore be useful for clinical assessment of functional status and fall risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Use of a tibial accelerometer to measure ground reaction force in running: A reliability and validity comparison with force plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raper, Damian P; Witchalls, Jeremy; Philips, Elissa J; Knight, Emma; Drew, Michael K; Waddington, Gordon

    2018-01-01

    The use of microsensor technologies to conduct research and implement interventions in sports and exercise medicine has increased recently. The objective of this paper was to determine the validity and reliability of the ViPerform as a measure of load compared to vertical ground reaction force (GRF) as measured by force plates. Absolute reliability assessment, with concurrent validity. 10 professional triathletes ran 10 trials over force plates with the ViPerform mounted on the mid portion of the medial tibia. Calculated vertical ground reaction force data from the ViPerform was matched to the same stride on the force plate. Bland-Altman (BA) plot of comparative measure of agreement was used to assess the relationship between the calculated load from the accelerometer and the force plates. Reliability was calculated by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals. BA plot indicates minimal agreement between the measures derived from the force plate and ViPerform, with variation at an individual participant plot level. Reliability was excellent (ICC=0.877; 95% CI=0.825-0.917) in calculating the same vertical GRF in a repeated trial. Standard error of measure (SEM) equalled 99.83 units (95% CI=82.10-119.09), which, in turn, gave a minimum detectable change (MDC) value of 276.72 units (95% CI=227.32-330.07). The ViPerform does not calculate absolute values of vertical GRF similar to those measured by a force plate. It does provide a valid and reliable calculation of an athlete's lower limb load at constant velocity. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of Various Measurement Stations for Determining Plantar Fascia Thickness and Echogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebisi Bisi-Balogun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of ultrasound (US measurements of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia (PF at different measurement stations along its length using a standardized protocol. Twelve healthy subjects (24 feet were enrolled. The PF was imaged in the longitudinal plane. Subjects were assessed twice to evaluate the intra-rater reliability. A quantitative evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia was performed using Image J, a digital image analysis and viewer software. A sonography evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the PF showed a high relative reliability with an Intra class correlation coefficient of ≥0.88 at all measurement stations. However, the measurement stations for both the PF thickness and echogenicity which showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs did not have the highest absolute reliability. Compared to other measurement stations, measuring the PF thickness at 3 cm distal and the echogenicity at a region of interest 1 cm to 2 cm distal from its insertion at the medial calcaneal tubercle showed the highest absolute reliability with the least systematic bias and random error. Also, the reliability was higher using a mean of three measurements compared to one measurement. To reduce discrepancies in the interpretation of the thickness and echogenicity measurements of the PF, the absolute reliability of the different measurement stations should be considered in clinical practice and research rather than the relative reliability with the ICC.

  19. Reliability of Various Measurement Stations for Determining Plantar Fascia Thickness and Echogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi-Balogun, Adebisi; Cassel, Michael; Mayer, Frank

    2016-04-13

    This study aimed to determine the relative and absolute reliability of ultrasound (US) measurements of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia (PF) at different measurement stations along its length using a standardized protocol. Twelve healthy subjects (24 feet) were enrolled. The PF was imaged in the longitudinal plane. Subjects were assessed twice to evaluate the intra-rater reliability. A quantitative evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the plantar fascia was performed using Image J, a digital image analysis and viewer software. A sonography evaluation of the thickness and echogenicity of the PF showed a high relative reliability with an Intra class correlation coefficient of ≥0.88 at all measurement stations. However, the measurement stations for both the PF thickness and echogenicity which showed the highest intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) did not have the highest absolute reliability. Compared to other measurement stations, measuring the PF thickness at 3 cm distal and the echogenicity at a region of interest 1 cm to 2 cm distal from its insertion at the medial calcaneal tubercle showed the highest absolute reliability with the least systematic bias and random error. Also, the reliability was higher using a mean of three measurements compared to one measurement. To reduce discrepancies in the interpretation of the thickness and echogenicity measurements of the PF, the absolute reliability of the different measurement stations should be considered in clinical practice and research rather than the relative reliability with the ICC.

  20. Reliability and validity of aggressive driving measures in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengzhi; Li, Changji; Long, Yunfang; Zhan, Chenglie; Hennessy, Dwight

    2004-12-01

    The present research was designed to examine the psychometric properties of Chinese versions of the Self Report Driver Behavior Aggression and Assertiveness subscales, the Driving Vengeance Questionnaire, and the Violent Driving Questionnaire. Study 1 found that the all scales demonstrated good internal consistency, with alphas ranging from .76 to .87 and that assertive driving was related to demerit points received over the past 12 months while driver aggression and violence were linked to collisions over the past 12 months. Study 2 found that the scales exhibited reasonable test-retest reliability, with correlations ranging from .82 to .89. Finally, Study 3 showed that each scale was predicted by other dangerous driving attitudes and behaviors, similar to the original versions. The consistency between the translated and original scales, the implications for use in a Chinese sample, and the uniformity of actions in the traffic environment across cultures are discussed.

  1. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-01-01

      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Finger Strength and Endurance Measurements in Rock Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailov, Michail Lubomirov; Baláš, Jirí; Tanev, Stoyan Kolev; Andonov, Hristo Stoyanov; Kodejška, Jan; Brown, Lee

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: An advanced system for the assessment of climbing-specific performance was developed and used to: (a) investigate the effect of arm fixation (AF) on construct validity evidence and reliability of climbing-specific finger-strength measurement; (b) assess reliability of finger-strength and endurance measurements; and (c) evaluate the…

  3. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strouwen, C.; Molenaar, E.A.; Keus, S.H.; Munks, L.; Bloem, B.R.; Nieuwboer, A.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains

  4. The Reliability of Anthropometric Measurements Used Preoperatively in Aesthetic Breast Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Kathryn V; Murphy, Blake D; Beber, Brett; Brown, Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Patient outcomes in aesthetic breast surgery are highly dependent on breast measurements used in preoperative planning. The purpose of this study is to determine the reliability of anthropometric breast measurements. Four raters measured 28 women using 7 measurements: sternal notch to nipple distance (Sn-N), nipple to midline (N-M), nipple to inframammary-fold distance under maximal stretch (N-IMF), breast base width (BW), soft tissue pinch thickness of the upper pole (STPT:UP), STPT at the inframammary fold (STPT:IMF), and anterior pull skin stretch (APSS). Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Inter-rater reliability was excellent for Sn-N, N-M, and BW (ICC = 0.94, 0.90, and 0.76, respectively) and was good for N-IMF (ICC = 0.70). The STPT:UP, STPT:IMF, and APSS measurements were not reliable between raters (ICC reliability was excellent for Sn-N, N-M, and BW for all raters (all ICC > 0.75). The N-IMF intra-rater reliability was excellent in senior raters (ICC > 0.75) and good in junior raters (ICC > 0.6). The STPT:UP, STPT:IMF, and APSS measurements showed fair or poor reliability for most raters (ICC reliable. Dynamic measurements including APSS, STPT:UP, and STUP:IMF are unreliable. N-IMF is the only reliable dynamic measurement, and its reliability improves with increasing clinical experience. The variable reliability of preoperative measurements must be considered in the planning of aesthetic breast surgery. 4 Diagnostic. © 2015 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Measuring medial longitudinal arch deformation during gait. A reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bencke, Jesper; Christiansen, Ditte; Jensen, Anne Kathrine Bendrup

    2012-01-01

    during gait and to compare this method with a static measure and a 2D dynamic method. Fifty-two feet (26 healthy male participants) were tested twice 4-9 days apart in a biomechanical gait analysis laboratory using a 3D three-marker foot model, a 2D video-based model for the measurement of MLAD during...

  6. The Reliability of Randomly Generated Math Curriculum-Based Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strait, Gerald G.; Smith, Bradley H.; Pender, Carolyn; Malone, Patrick S.; Roberts, Jarod; Hall, John D.

    2015-01-01

    "Curriculum-Based Measurement" (CBM) is a direct method of academic assessment used to screen and evaluate students' skills and monitor their responses to academic instruction and intervention. Interventioncentral.org offers a math worksheet generator at no cost that creates randomly generated "math curriculum-based measures"…

  7. Intra- and interobserver reliability of quantitative ultrasound measurement of the plantar fascia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Moelgaard, Carsten; Lykkegaard Olesen, Jens

    2011-01-01

    To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and measurement precision of sonographic assessment of plantar fascia thickness when using one, the mean of two, or the mean of three measurements. Two experienced observers scanned 20 healthy subjects twice with 60 minutes between test and retest. A GE LOGIQe ultrasound scanner was used in the study. The built-in software in the scanner was used to measure the thickness of the plantar fascia (PF). Reliability was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and limits of agreement (LOA). Intraobserver reliability (ICC) using one measurement was 0.50 for one observer and 0.52 for the other, and using the mean of three measurements intraobserver reliability increased up to 0.77 and 0.67, respectively. Interobserver reliability (ICC) when using one measurement was 0.62 and increased to 0.82 when using the average of three measurements. LOA showed that when using the average of three measurements, LOA decreased to 0.6 mm, corresponding to 17.5% of the mean thickness of the PF. The results showed that reliability increases when using the mean of three measurements compared with one. Limits of agreement based on intratester reliability shows that changes in thickness that are larger than 0.6 mm can be considered actual changes in thickness and not a result of measurement error. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A reliable and valid questionnaire was developed to measure computer vision syndrome at the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguí, María del Mar; Cabrero-García, Julio; Crespo, Ana; Verdú, José; Ronda, Elena

    2015-06-01

    To design and validate a questionnaire to measure visual symptoms related to exposure to computers in the workplace. Our computer vision syndrome questionnaire (CVS-Q) was based on a literature review and validated through discussion with experts and performance of a pretest, pilot test, and retest. Content validity was evaluated by occupational health, optometry, and ophthalmology experts. Rasch analysis was used in the psychometric evaluation of the questionnaire. Criterion validity was determined by calculating the sensitivity and specificity, receiver operator characteristic curve, and cutoff point. Test-retest repeatability was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance by Cohen's kappa (κ). The CVS-Q was developed with wide consensus among experts and was well accepted by the target group. It assesses the frequency and intensity of 16 symptoms using a single rating scale (symptom severity) that fits the Rasch rating scale model well. The questionnaire has sensitivity and specificity over 70% and achieved good test-retest repeatability both for the scores obtained [ICC = 0.802; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.673, 0.884] and CVS classification (κ = 0.612; 95% CI: 0.384, 0.839). The CVS-Q has acceptable psychometric properties, making it a valid and reliable tool to control the visual health of computer workers, and can potentially be used in clinical trials and outcome research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of test-retest reliability in measuring individual and group differences in executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paap, Kenneth R; Sawi, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Studies testing for individual or group differences in executive functioning can be compromised by unknown test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliabilities across an interval of about one week were obtained from performance in the antisaccade, flanker, Simon, and color-shape switching tasks. There is a general trade-off between the greater reliability of single mean RT measures, and the greater process purity of measures based on contrasts between mean RTs in two conditions. The individual differences in RT model recently developed by Miller and Ulrich was used to evaluate the trade-off. Test-retest reliability was statistically significant for 11 of the 12 measures, but was of moderate size, at best, for the difference scores. The test-retest reliabilities for the Simon and flanker interference scores were lower than those for switching costs. Standard practice evaluates the reliability of executive-functioning measures using split-half methods based on data obtained in a single day. Our test-retest measures of reliability are lower, especially for difference scores. These reliability measures must also take into account possible day effects that classical test theory assumes do not occur. Measures based on single mean RTs tend to have acceptable levels of reliability and convergent validity, but are "impure" measures of specific executive functions. The individual differences in RT model shows that the impurity problem is worse than typically assumed. However, the "purer" measures based on difference scores have low convergent validity that is partly caused by deficiencies in test-retest reliability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. How to measure wisdom: content, reliability, and validity of five measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glück, Judith; König, Susanne; Naschenweng, Katja; Redzanowski, Uwe; Dorner, Lara; Straßer, Irene; Wiedermann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Wisdom is a field of growing interest both inside and outside academic psychology, and researchers are increasingly interested in using measures of wisdom in their work. However, wisdom is a highly complex construct, and its various operationalizations are based on quite different definitions. Which measure a researcher chooses for a particular research project may have a strong influence on the results. This study compares four well-established measures of wisdom—the Self-Assessed Wisdom Scale (Webster, 2003, 2007), the Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale (Ardelt, 2003), the Adult Self-Transcendence Inventory (Levenson et al., 2005), and the Berlin Wisdom Paradigm (Baltes and Smith, 1990; Baltes and Staudinger, 2000)—with respect to content, reliability, factorial structure, and construct validity (relationships to wisdom nomination, interview-based wisdom ratings, and correlates of wisdom). The sample consisted of 47 wisdom nominees and 123 control participants. While none of the measures performed “better” than the others by absolute standards, recommendations are given for researchers to select the most suitable measure for their substantive interests. In addition, a “Brief Wisdom Screening Scale” is introduced that contains those 20 items from the three self-report scales that were most highly correlated with the common factor across the scales. PMID:23874310

  11. Test-retest reliability of knee kinematics measurement during gait ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACLR) is crucial to minimize the risk of joint degeneration. To achieve this, it is essential that the chosen measurement method can accurately assess knee kinematics and detect the changes in multi-planes of motion. However to date, limited ...

  12. Effectiveness and reliability of emergency measures for flood prevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lendering, K.T.; Jonkman, S.N.; Kok, M.

    2014-01-01

    Floods in the summer of 2013 in Central Europe demonstrated once again that floods account for a large part of damage and loss of life caused by natural disasters. During flood threats emergency measures, such as sand bags and big bags, are often applied to strengthen the flood defences and attempt

  13. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  14. Determining Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    seyed abolfazl zakerian; Roya Azizi; Mehdi Rahgozar

    2013-01-01

    The term usability refers to a special index for success of an operating system. This study aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the Software Usability Measurements Inventory (SUMI) questionnaire as one of the valid and common questionnaires about usability evaluation. The back translation method was used to translate the questionnaire from English to Persian back to English. Moreover, repeatability or test-retest reliability was practically used to determine the reliability of ...

  15. The reliability, validity, and feasibility of physical activity measurement in adults with traumatic brain injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassett, Leanne; Moseley, Anne; Harmer, Alison; van der Ploeg, Hidde P

    2015-01-01

    To determine the reliability and validity of the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with a Physical Disability (PASIPD) in adults with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and estimate the proportion of the sample participants who fail to meet the World Health Organization guidelines for physical activity. A single-center observational study recruited a convenience sample of 30 community-based ambulant adults with severe TBI. Participants completed the PASIPD on 2 occasions, 1 week apart, and wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X; ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, Florida) for the 7 days between these 2 assessments. The PASIPD test-retest reliability was substantial (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.92), and the correlation with the accelerometer ranged from too low to be meaningful (R = 0.09) to moderate (R = 0.57). From device-based measurement of physical activity, 56% of participants failed to meet the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. The PASIPD is a reliable measure of the type of physical activity people with severe TBI participate in, but it is not a valid measure of the amount of moderate to vigorous physical activity in which they engage. Accelerometers should be used to quantify moderate to vigorous physical activity in people with TBI.

  16. Reliability and validity of non-radiographic methods of thoracic kyphosis measurement: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Eva; McCreesh, Karen; Lewis, Jeremy

    2014-02-01

    A wide array of instruments are available for non-invasive thoracic kyphosis measurement. Guidelines for selecting outcome measures for use in clinical and research practice recommend that properties such as validity and reliability are considered. This systematic review reports on the reliability and validity of non-invasive methods for measuring thoracic kyphosis. A systematic search of 11 electronic databases located studies assessing reliability and/or validity of non-invasive thoracic kyphosis measurement techniques. Two independent reviewers used a critical appraisal tool to assess the quality of retrieved studies. Data was extracted by the primary reviewer. The results were synthesized qualitatively using a level of evidence approach. 27 studies satisfied the eligibility criteria and were included in the review. The reliability, validity and both reliability and validity were investigated by sixteen, two and nine studies respectively. 17/27 studies were deemed to be of high quality. In total, 15 methods of thoracic kyphosis were evaluated in retrieved studies. All investigated methods showed high (ICC ≥ .7) to very high (ICC ≥ .9) levels of reliability. The validity of the methods ranged from low to very high. The strongest levels of evidence for reliability exists in support of the Debrunner kyphometer, Spinal Mouse and Flexicurve index, and for validity supports the arcometer and Flexicurve index. Further reliability and validity studies are required to strengthen the level of evidence for the remaining methods of measurement. This should be addressed by future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability of ultrasound thickness measurement of the abdominal muscles during clinical isometric endurance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ShahAli, Shabnam; Arab, Amir Massoud; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi, Esmaeil; Bahmani, Andia; Karimi, Noureddin; Nabavi, Hoda

    2015-07-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the intra-examiner reliability of ultrasound (US) thickness measurement of abdominal muscles activity when supine lying and during two isometric endurance tests in subjects with and without Low back pain (LBP). A total of 19 women (9 with LBP, 10 without LBP) participated in the study. Within-day reliability of the US thickness measurements at supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests were assessed in all subjects. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to assess the relative reliability of thickness measurement. The standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and the coefficient of variation (CV) were used to evaluate the absolute reliability. Results indicated high ICC scores (0.73-0.99) and also small SEM and MDC scores for within-day reliability assessment. The Bland-Altman plots of agreement in US measurement of the abdominal muscles during the two isometric endurance tests demonstrated that 95% of the observations fall between the limits of agreement for test and retest measurements. Together the results indicate high intra-tester reliability for the US measurement of the thickness of abdominal muscles in all the positions tested. According to the study's findings, US imaging can be used as a reliable method for assessment of abdominal muscles activity in supine lying and the two isometric endurance tests employed, in participants with and without LBP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures based on fear of reinjury/lack of confidence and return-to-sport status after ACL reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentz, Trevor A; Zeppieri, Giorgio; George, Steven Z; Tillman, Susan M; Moser, Michael W; Farmer, Kevin W; Chmielewski, Terese L

    2015-02-01

    Fear of reinjury and lack of confidence influence return-to-sport outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The physical, psychosocial, and functional recovery of patients reporting fear of reinjury or lack of confidence as their primary barrier to resuming sports participation is unknown. To compare physical impairment, functional, and psychosocial measures between subgroups based on return-to-sport status and fear of reinjury/lack of confidence in the return-to-sport stage and to determine the association of physical impairment and psychosocial measures with function for each subgroup at 6 months and 1 year after surgery. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. Physical impairment (quadriceps index [QI], quadriceps strength/body weight [QSBW], hamstring:quadriceps strength ratio [HQ ratio], pain intensity), self-report of function (International Knee Documentation Committee [IKDC]), and psychosocial (Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia-shortened form [TSK-11]) measures were collected at 6 months and 1 year after surgery in 73 patients with ACL reconstruction. At 1 year, subjects were divided into "return-to-sport" (YRTS) or "not return-to-sport" (NRTS) subgroups based on their self-reported return to preinjury sport status. Patients in the NRTS subgroup were subcategorized as NRTS-Fear/Confidence if fear of reinjury/lack of confidence was the primary reason for not returning to sports, and all others were categorized as NRTS-Other. A total of 46 subjects were assigned to YRTS, 13 to NRTS-Other, and 14 to NRTS-Fear/Confidence. Compared with the YRTS subgroup, the NRTS-Fear/Confidence subgroup was older and had lower QSBW, lower IKDC score, and higher TSK-11 score at 6 months and 1 year; however, they had similar pain levels. In the NRTS-Fear/Confidence subgroup, the IKDC score was associated with QSBW and pain at 6 months and QSBW, QI, pain, and TSK-11 scores at 1 year. Elevated pain-related fear of movement/reinjury, quadriceps weakness, and

  19. Reliability analysis for manual radiographic measures of rotatory subluxation or lateral listhesis in adult scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Brett A; Horton, William C; Rhee, John M; Edwards, Charles C; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2009-03-15

    Retrospective observational study. To define the inter- and intraobserver reliability of 3 measures of rotatory subluxation (RS) in adult scoliosis (AS). RS is a hallmark of AS. To accurately track this measure, one must know its reliability. Reliability testing has not been performed. PA 36" films of 29 AS patients were collected from one surgeon's practice. Three observers on 2 separate occasions measured all levels with >or=3-mm RS (60 levels, 360 measurements) on the convexity of the involved segment using 3 different techniques-midbody (MB), endplate (EP), and centroid (C). These data were then analyzed to determine the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for inter- and intraobserver reliability. The thoracolumbar/lumbar curve (average 58 degrees ) was the major curve for the majority (62%) of patients. RS at L3/4 was most common (35%). The overall inter- and intraobserver reliability was good-excellent for all methods, but the centroid method consistently had the highest ICC. ICC correlated with observer experience. Moderate-severe arthritic change (present in 55%) and poor image quality (52%) decreased ICC, but it still remained good-excellent for each measure. The reproducibility coefficient for each measure was 4 mm for MB and 2.8 mm for C and EP. MB, EP, and C are reliable techniques to measure RS even in elderly arthritic spines, but the methods inherently produce different values for a given level. The centroid method is most reliable and least influenced by experience. The EP method is easy to perform and very reliable. Spine surgeons should pick their preferred method and apply it consistently. Changes >3 mm suggest RS progression. RS may be a useful measure in addition to Cobb angle in AS. Having defined measurement reliability, the role of RS progression in surgical indications and patient outcomes can be evaluated.

  20. Semiconductor measurement technology: reliability technology for cardiac pacemakers 2: a workshop report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafft, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries are presented of 12 invited talks on the following topics: the procurement and assurance of high reliability electronic parts, leak rate and moisture measurements, pacemaker batteries, and pacemaker leads. The workshop, second in a series, was held in response to strong interest expressed by the pacemaker community to address technical questions relevant to the enhancement and assurance of cardiac pacemaker reliability. Discussed at the workshop were a process validation wafer concept for assuring process uniformity in device chips; screen tests for assuring reliable electronic parts; reliability prediction; reliability comparison of semiconductor technologies; mechanisms of short-circuiting dendritic growths; details of helium and radioisotope leak test methods; a study to correlate package leak rates, as measured with test gasses, and actual moisture infusion; battery life prediction; microcalorimetric measurements to nondestructively evaluate batteries for pacemakers; and an engineer's and a physician's view of the present status of pacemaker leads. References are included with most of the reports

  1. The Development of the Redox Concept Inventory as a Measure of Students' Symbolic and Particulate Redox Understandings and Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandriet, Alexandra R.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Redox Concept Inventory (ROXCI) as a measure of students' understandings and confidence of both the symbolic and particulate domains of oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions. The ROXCI was created using a mixed-methods design in which the items were developed based upon themes that emerged from…

  2. The navicular position test - a reliable measure of the navicular bone position during rest and loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spörndly-Nees, Søren; Dåsberg, Brian; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2011-01-01

    .08 degrees, ICC = 0.91. Discussion: The present data support The Navicular Position Test as a reliable test of the navicular bone position during rest and loading measured in a simple test set-up. Conclusion: The Navicular Position Test was shown to have a high intraday-, intra- and inter-tester reliability...

  3. Reliability of in-Shoe Plantar Pressure Measurements in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmar, Gaj; Novak, Primoz

    2009-01-01

    Plantar pressures measurement is a frequently used method in rehabilitation and related research. Metric characteristics of the F-Scan system have been assessed from different standpoints and in different patients, but not its reliability in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Therefore, our objective was to assess reliability of the F-Scan plantar…

  4. The Reliability and Validity of Discrete and Continuous Measures of Psychopathology: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markon, Kristian E.; Chmielewski, Michael; Miller, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 meta-analyses involving 58 studies and 59,575 participants, we quantitatively summarized the relative reliability and validity of continuous (i.e., dimensional) and discrete (i.e., categorical) measures of psychopathology. Overall, results suggest an expected 15% increase in reliability and 37% increase in validity through adoption of a…

  5. Reliability and validity of the AutoCAD software method in lumbar lordosis measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatkar, Amir; Amirsasan, Ramin; Abdolvahabi, Zahra; Hadadnezhad, Malihe

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of the AutoCAD software method in lumbar lordosis measurement. Fifty healthy volunteers with a mean age of 23 ± 1.80 years were enrolled. A lumbar lateral radiograph was taken on all participants, and the lordosis was measured according to the Cobb method. Afterward, the lumbar lordosis degree was measured via AutoCAD software and flexible ruler methods. The current study is accomplished in 2 parts: intratester and intertester evaluations of reliability as well as the validity of the flexible ruler and software methods. Based on the intraclass correlation coefficient, AutoCAD's reliability and validity in measuring lumbar lordosis were 0.984 and 0.962, respectively. AutoCAD showed to be a reliable and valid method to measure lordosis. It is suggested that this method may replace those that are costly and involve health risks, such as radiography, in evaluating lumbar lordosis.

  6. Supersonic shear imaging provides a reliable measurement of resting muscle shear elastic modulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacourpaille, Lilian; Hug, François; Bouillard, Killian; Nordez, Antoine; Hogrel, Jean-Yves

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the reliability of shear elastic modulus measurements performed using supersonic shear imaging (SSI) in nine resting muscles (i.e. gastrocnemius medialis, tibialis anterior, vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, triceps brachii, biceps brachii, brachioradialis, adductor pollicis obliquus and abductor digiti minimi) of different architectures and typologies. Thirty healthy subjects were randomly assigned to the intra-session reliability (n = 20), inter-day reliability (n = 21) and the inter-observer reliability (n = 16) experiments. Muscle shear elastic modulus ranged from 2.99 (gastrocnemius medialis) to 4.50 kPa (adductor digiti minimi and tibialis anterior). On the whole, very good reliability was observed, with a coefficient of variation (CV) ranging from 4.6% to 8%, except for the inter-operator reliability of adductor pollicis obliquus (CV = 11.5%). The intraclass correlation coefficients were good (0.871 ± 0.045 for the intra-session reliability, 0.815 ± 0.065 for the inter-day reliability and 0.709 ± 0.141 for the inter-observer reliability). Both the reliability and the ease of use of SSI make it a potentially interesting technique that would be of benefit to fundamental, applied and clinical research projects that need an accurate assessment of muscle mechanical properties. (note)

  7. Inter-arch digital model vs. manual cast measurements: Accuracy and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiviahde, Heikki; Bukovac, Lea; Jussila, Päivi; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi; Raustia, Aune; Pirttiniemi, Pertti

    2017-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of inter-arch measurements using digital dental models and conventional dental casts. Thirty sets of dental casts with permanent dentition were examined. Manual measurements were done with a digital caliper directly on the dental casts, and digital measurements were made on 3D models by two independent examiners. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), a paired sample t-test or Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate intra- and inter-examiner error and to determine the accuracy and reliability of the measurements. The ICC values were generally good for manual and excellent for digital measurements. The Bland-Altman plots of all the measurements showed good agreement between the manual and digital methods and excellent inter-examiner agreement using the digital method. Inter-arch occlusal measurements on digital models are accurate and reliable and are superior to manual measurements.

  8. Development of an instrument for direct ozone production rate measurements: measurement reliability and current limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklaveniti, Sofia; Locoge, Nadine; Stevens, Philip S.; Wood, Ezra; Kundu, Shuvashish; Dusanter, Sébastien

    2018-02-01

    Ground-level ozone (O3) is an important pollutant that affects both global climate change and regional air quality, with the latter linked to detrimental effects on both human health and ecosystems. Ozone is not directly emitted in the atmosphere but is formed from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOCs), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and sunlight. The photochemical nature of ozone makes the implementation of reduction strategies challenging and a good understanding of its formation chemistry is fundamental in order to develop efficient strategies of ozone reduction from mitigation measures of primary VOCs and NOx emissions. An instrument for direct measurements of ozone production rates (OPRs) was developed and deployed in the field as part of the IRRONIC (Indiana Radical, Reactivity and Ozone Production Intercomparison) field campaign. The OPR instrument is based on the principle of the previously published MOPS instrument (Measurement of Ozone Production Sensor) but using a different sampling design made of quartz flow tubes and a different Ox (O3 and NO2) conversion-detection scheme composed of an O3-to-NO2 conversion unit and a cavity attenuated phase shift spectroscopy (CAPS) NO2 monitor. Tests performed in the laboratory and in the field, together with model simulations of the radical chemistry occurring inside the flow tubes, were used to assess (i) the reliability of the measurement principle and (ii) potential biases associated with OPR measurements. This publication reports the first field measurements made using this instrument to illustrate its performance. The results showed that a photo-enhanced loss of ozone inside the sampling flow tubes disturbs the measurements. This issue needs to be solved to be able to perform accurate ambient measurements of ozone production rates with the instrument described in this study. However, an attempt was made to investigate the OPR sensitivity to NOx by adding NO inside the instrument

  9. A comparison of manual anthropometric measurements with Kinect-based scanned measurements in terms of precision and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragança, Sara; Arezes, Pedro; Carvalho, Miguel; Ashdown, Susan P; Castellucci, Ignacio; Leão, Celina

    2018-01-01

    Collecting anthropometric data for real-life applications demands a high degree of precision and reliability. It is important to test new equipment that will be used for data collectionOBJECTIVE:Compare two anthropometric data gathering techniques - manual methods and a Kinect-based 3D body scanner - to understand which of them gives more precise and reliable results. The data was collected using a measuring tape and a Kinect-based 3D body scanner. It was evaluated in terms of precision by considering the regular and relative Technical Error of Measurement and in terms of reliability by using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, Reliability Coefficient, Standard Error of Measurement and Coefficient of Variation. The results obtained showed that both methods presented better results for reliability than for precision. Both methods showed relatively good results for these two variables, however, manual methods had better results for some body measurements. Despite being considered sufficiently precise and reliable for certain applications (e.g. apparel industry), the 3D scanner tested showed, for almost every anthropometric measurement, a different result than the manual technique. Many companies design their products based on data obtained from 3D scanners, hence, understanding the precision and reliability of the equipment used is essential to obtain feasible results.

  10. Reliability of EEG Interactions Differs between Measures and Is Specific for Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvonne Höller

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alterations of interaction (connectivity of the EEG reflect pathological processes in patients with neurologic disorders. Nevertheless, it is questionable whether these patterns are reliable over time in different measures of interaction and whether this reliability of the measures is the same across different patient populations. In order to address this topic we examined 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment, five patients with subjective cognitive complaints, six patients with right-lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, seven patients with left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy, and 20 healthy controls. We calculated 14 measures of interaction from two EEG-recordings separated by 2 weeks. In order to characterize test-retest reliability, we correlated these measures for each group and compared the correlations between measures and between groups. We found that both measures of interaction as well as groups differed from each other in terms of reliability. The strongest correlation coefficients were found for spectrum, coherence, and full frequency directed transfer function (average rho > 0.9. In the delta (2–4 Hz range, reliability was lower for mild cognitive impairment compared to healthy controls and left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy. In the beta (13–30 Hz, gamma (31–80 Hz, and high gamma (81–125 Hz frequency ranges we found decreased reliability in subjective cognitive complaints compared to mild cognitive impairment. In the gamma and high gamma range we found increased reliability in left lateralized temporal lobe epilepsy patients compared to healthy controls. Our results emphasize the importance of documenting reliability of measures of interaction, which may vary considerably between measures, but also between patient populations. We suggest that studies claiming clinical usefulness of measures of interaction should provide information on the reliability of the results. In addition, differences between patient

  11. Application-Driven Reliability Measures and Evaluation Tool for Fault-Tolerant Real-Time Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krishna, C

    2001-01-01

    .... The measure combines graphic-theoretic concepts in evaluating the underlying reliability of the network and other means to evaluate the ability of the network to support interprocessor traffic...

  12. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  13. Modeling reliability measurement of interface on information system: Towards the forensic of rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.; Sitompul, Darwin; Harahap, Marwan

    2018-02-01

    Today almost all machines depend on the software. As a software and hardware system depends also on the rules that are the procedures for its use. If the procedure or program can be reliably characterized by involving the concept of graph, logic, and probability, then regulatory strength can also be measured accordingly. Therefore, this paper initiates an enumeration model to measure the reliability of interfaces based on the case of information systems supported by the rules of use by the relevant agencies. An enumeration model is obtained based on software reliability calculation.

  14. Inter- and intrarater reliability of two proprioception tests using clinical applicable measurement tools in subjects with and without knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baert, Isabel A C; Lluch, Enrique; Struyf, Thomas; Peeters, Greta; Van Oosterwijck, Sophie; Tuynman, Joanna; Rufai, Salim; Struyf, Filip

    2018-06-01

    The therapeutic value of proprioceptive-based exercises in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) management warrants investigation of proprioceptive testing methods easily accessible in clinical practice. To estimate inter- and intrarater reliability of the knee joint position sense (KJPS) test and knee force sense (KFS) test in subjects with and without KOA. Cross-sectional test-retest design. Two blinded raters performed independently repeated measures of the KJPS and KFS test, using an analogue inclinometer and handheld dynamometer, respectively, in eight KOA patients (12 symptomatic knees) and 26 healthy controls (52 asymptomatic knees). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs; model 2,1), standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change with 95% confidence bounds (MDC 95 ) were calculated. For KJPS, results showed good to excellent test-retest agreement (ICCs 0.70-0.95 in KOA patients; ICCs 0.65-0.85 in healthy controls). A 2° measurement error (SEM 1°) was reported when measuring KJPS in multiple test positions and calculating mean repositioning error. Testing KOA patients pre and post therapy a repositioning error larger than 4° (MDC 95 ) is needed to consider true change. Measuring KFS using handheld dynamometry showed poor to fair interrater and poor to excellent intrarater reliability in subjects with and without KOA. Measuring KJPS in multiple test positions using an analogue inclinometer and calculating mean repositioning error is reliable and can be used in clinical practice. We do not recommend the use of the KFS test to clinicians. Further research is required to establish diagnostic accuracy and validity of our KJPS test in larger knee pain populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluating test-retest reliability in patient-reported outcome measures for older people: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Myung Sook; Kang, Kyung Ja; Jang, Sun Joo; Lee, Joo Yun; Chang, Sun Ju

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the components of test-retest reliability including time interval, sample size, and statistical methods used in patient-reported outcome measures in older people and to provide suggestions on the methodology for calculating test-retest reliability for patient-reported outcomes in older people. This was a systematic literature review. MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO were searched from January 1, 2000 to August 10, 2017 by an information specialist. This systematic review was guided by both the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist and the guideline for systematic review published by the National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency in Korea. The methodological quality was assessed by the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement Instruments checklist box B. Ninety-five out of 12,641 studies were selected for the analysis. The median time interval for test-retest reliability was 14days, and the ratio of sample size for test-retest reliability to the number of items in each measure ranged from 1:1 to 1:4. The most frequently used statistical methods for continuous scores was intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Among the 63 studies that used ICCs, 21 studies presented models for ICC calculations and 30 studies reported 95% confidence intervals of the ICCs. Additional analyses using 17 studies that reported a strong ICC (>0.09) showed that the mean time interval was 12.88days and the mean ratio of the number of items to sample size was 1:5.37. When researchers plan to assess the test-retest reliability of patient-reported outcome measures for older people, they need to consider an adequate time interval of approximately 13days and the sample size of about 5 times the number of items. Particularly, statistical methods should not only be selected based on the types of scores of the patient-reported outcome measures, but should also be described clearly in

  16. Measuring physical activity in young people with cerebral palsy: validity and reliability of the ActivPAL™ monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bania, Theofani

    2014-09-01

    We determined the criterion validity and the retest reliability of the ΑctivPAL™ monitor in young people with diplegic cerebral palsy (CP). Activity monitor data were compared with the criterion of video recording for 10 participants. For the retest reliability, activity monitor data were collected from 24 participants on two occasions. Participants had to have diplegic CP and be between 14 and 22 years of age. They also had to be of Gross Motor Function Classification System level II or III. Outcomes were time spent in standing, number of steps (physical activity) and time spent in sitting (sedentary behaviour). For criterion validity, coefficients of determination were all high (r(2)  ≥ 0.96), and limits of group agreement were relatively narrow, but limits of agreement for individuals were narrow only for number of steps (≥5.5%). Relative reliability was high for number of steps (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.87) and moderate for time spent in sitting and lying, and time spent in standing (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.60-0.66). For groups, changes of up to 7% could be due to measurement error with 95% confidence, but for individuals, changes as high as 68% could be due to measurement error. The results support the criterion validity and the retest reliability of the ActivPAL™ to measure physical activity and sedentary behaviour in groups of young people with diplegic CP but not in individuals. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Inter- and intra-observer reliability of masking in plantar pressure measurement analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, K; Birch, I; Mc Innes, J; Desloovere, K; Matricali, G A

    2009-10-01

    Plantar pressure measurement is an important tool in gait analysis. Manual placement of small masks (masking) is increasingly used to calculate plantar pressure characteristics. Little is known concerning the reliability of manual masking. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of masking on 2D plantar pressure footprints, in a population with forefoot deformity (i.e. hallux valgus). Using a random repeated-measure design, four observers identified the third metatarsal head on a peak-pressure barefoot footprint, using a small mask. Subsequently, the location of all five metatarsal heads was identified, using the same size of masks and the same protocol. The 2D positional variation of the masks and the peak pressure (PP) and pressure time integral (PTI) values of each mask were calculated. For single-masking the lowest inter-observer reliability was found for the distal-proximal direction, causing a clear, adverse impact on the reliability of the pressure characteristics (PP and PTI). In the medial-lateral direction the inter-observer reliability could be scored as high. Intra-observer reliability was better and could be scored as high or good for both directions, with a correlated improved reliability of the pressure characteristics. Reliability of multi-masking showed a similar pattern, but overall values tended to be lower. Therefore, small sized masking in order to define pressure characteristics in the forefoot should be done with care.

  18. Reliable Portfolio Selection Problem in Fuzzy Environment: An mλ Measure Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Feng

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a fuzzy portfolio selection problem with guaranteed reliability, in which the fuzzy variables are used to capture the uncertain returns of different securities. To effectively handle the fuzziness in a mathematical way, a new expected value operator and variance of fuzzy variables are defined based on the m λ measure that is a linear combination of the possibility measure and necessity measure to balance the pessimism and optimism in the decision-making process. To formulate the reliable portfolio selection problem, we particularly adopt the expected total return and standard variance of the total return to evaluate the reliability of the investment strategies, producing three risk-guaranteed reliable portfolio selection models. To solve the proposed models, an effective genetic algorithm is designed to generate the approximate optimal solution to the considered problem. Finally, the numerical examples are given to show the performance of the proposed models and algorithm.

  19. Precision of lumbar intervertebral measurements: does a computer-assisted technique improve reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Adam M; Spratt, Kevin F; Genuario, James; McGough, William; Kosman, Katherine; Lurie, Jon; Sengupta, Dilip K

    2011-04-01

    Comparison of intra- and interobserver reliability of digitized manual and computer-assisted intervertebral motion measurements and classification of "instability." To determine if computer-assisted measurement of lumbar intervertebral motion on flexion-extension radiographs improves reliability compared with digitized manual measurements. Many studies have questioned the reliability of manual intervertebral measurements, although few have compared the reliability of computer-assisted and manual measurements on lumbar flexion-extension radiographs. Intervertebral rotation, anterior-posterior (AP) translation, and change in anterior and posterior disc height were measured with a digitized manual technique by three physicians and by three other observers using computer-assisted quantitative motion analysis (QMA) software. Each observer measured 30 sets of digital flexion-extension radiographs (L1-S1) twice. Shrout-Fleiss intraclass correlation coefficients for intra- and interobserver reliabilities were computed. The stability of each level was also classified (instability defined as >4 mm AP translation or 10° rotation), and the intra- and interobserver reliabilities of the two methods were compared using adjusted percent agreement (APA). Intraobserver reliability intraclass correlation coefficients were substantially higher for the QMA technique THAN the digitized manual technique across all measurements: rotation 0.997 versus 0.870, AP translation 0.959 versus 0.557, change in anterior disc height 0.962 versus 0.770, and change in posterior disc height 0.951 versus 0.283. The same pattern was observed for interobserver reliability (rotation 0.962 vs. 0.693, AP translation 0.862 vs. 0.151, change in anterior disc height 0.862 vs. 0.373, and change in posterior disc height 0.730 vs. 0.300). The QMA technique was also more reliable for the classification of "instability." Intraobserver APAs ranged from 87 to 97% for QMA versus 60% to 73% for digitized manual

  20. The Reliability of Lumbar Lordosis Measurements Using a Flexible-Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intra-rater and intra-rater reliability of lumbar lordosis measurements taken with a flexible-rule. Two...coefficients (ICC) were used to determine the degree of agreement between measurements. The results suggest that measurements of lumbar lordosis with a

  1. Reliability of radiographic measurement of lateral capitellohumeral angle in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Masaki; Suzuki, Taku; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Oka, Yusuke; Maeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Hiroki; Shizu, Kanae; Tsuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Katsuji; Yamada, Harumoto

    2018-04-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to validate the reliability of measurement of the lateral capitellohumeral angle (LCHA), an index of sagittal angulation of the elbow, in healthy children. The results were compared to the Baumann angle (BA), which is a similar concept to LCHA.Sixty-two radiographs of the elbow in healthy children (range, 2-11 years) were reviewed by 6 examiners at 2 sessions. The mean value and reliability of the measurement of LCHA and BA were assessed. Intraobserver reliability and interobserver reliability were calculated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs).The mean LCHA value was 45° (range, 22° to 70°) and the mean BA was 71° (range, 56° to 86°). The ICCs for intraobserver reliability of the LCHA measurements were almost perfect for 2 examiners, substantial for 3 examiners, and moderate for 1 examiner with a mean value of 0.77 (range, 0.57-0.95). For BA measurements, the ICCs were almost perfect for 1 examiner and substantial for 5 examiners with a mean value of 0.74 (range, 0.66-0.83). The ICCs for interobserver reliability between the first and second measurements were both moderate for LCHA (0.56 and 0.51) and for BA (0.52 and 0.50).LCHA showed almost the same reliability in measurement as BA, which is the gold standard assessment for coronal alignment of the elbow. LCHA showed moderate-to-good reliability in the evaluation of sagittal plane elbow alignment.

  2. Reliability of Phase Velocity Measurements of Flexural Acoustic Waves in the Human Tibia In-Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogl, Florian; Schnüriger, Karin; Gerber, Hans; Taylor, William R

    2016-01-01

    Axial-transmission acoustics have shown to be a promising technique to measure individual bone properties and detect bone pathologies. With the ultimate goal being the in-vivo application of such systems, quantification of the key aspects governing the reliability is crucial to bring this method towards clinical use. This work presents a systematic reliability study quantifying the sources of variability and their magnitudes of in-vivo measurements using axial-transmission acoustics. 42 healthy subjects were measured by an experienced operator twice per week, over a four-month period, resulting in over 150000 wave measurements. In a complementary study to assess the influence of different operators performing the measurements, 10 novice operators were trained, and each measured 5 subjects on a single occasion, using the same measurement protocol as in the first part of the study. The estimated standard error for the measurement protocol used to collect the study data was ∼ 17 m/s (∼ 4% of the grand mean) and the index of dependability, as a measure of reliability, was Φ = 0.81. It was shown that the method is suitable for multi-operator use and that the reliability can be improved efficiently by additional measurements with device repositioning, while additional measurements without repositioning cannot improve the reliability substantially. Phase velocity values were found to be significantly higher in males than in females (p < 10-5) and an intra-class correlation coefficient of r = 0.70 was found between the legs of each subject. The high reliability of this non-invasive approach and its intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical properties opens perspectives for the rapid and inexpensive clinical assessment of bone pathologies, as well as for monitoring programmes without any radiation exposure for the patient.

  3. Night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability of arousal measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loredo, J S; Clausen, J L; Ancoli-Israel, S; Dimsdale, J E

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of arousals from sleep is clinically important, however, their definition is not well standardized, and little data exist on reliability. The purpose of this study is to determine factors that affect arousal scoring reliability and night-to-night arousal variability. The night-to-night arousal variability and interscorer reliability was assessed in 20 subjects with and without obstructive sleep apnea undergoing attended polysomnography during two consecutive nights. Five definitions of arousal were studied, assessing duration of electroencephalographic (EEG) frequency changes, increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity and leg movement, association with respiratory events, as well as the American Sleep Disorders Association (ASDA) definition of arousals. NA. NA. NA. Interscorer reliability varied with the definition of arousal and ranged from an Intraclass correlation (ICC) of 0.19 to 0.92. Arousals that included increases in EMG activity or leg movement had the greatest reliability, especially when associated with respiratory events (ICC 0.76 to 0.92). The ASDA arousal definition had high interscorer reliability (ICC 0.84). Reliability was lowest for arousals consisting of EEG changes lasting <3 seconds (ICC 0.19 to 0.37). The within subjects night-to-night arousal variability was low for all arousal definitions In a heterogeneous population, interscorer arousal reliability is enhanced by increases in EMG activity, leg movements, and respiratory events and decreased by short duration EEG arousals. The arousal index night-to-night variability was low for all definitions.

  4. Derivation of confidence intervals of service measures in a base-stock inventory control system with low-frequent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    We explore a base-stock system with backlogging where the demand process is a compound renewal process and the compound element is a delayed geometric distribution. For this setting it is proven in [4] that the long-run average service measures order fill rate (OFR) and volume fill rate (VFR) are...

  5. Derivation of confidence intervals of service measures in a base-stock inventory control system with low-frequent demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We explore a base-stock system with backlogging where the demand process is a compound renewal process and the compound element is a delayed geometric distribution. For this setting it holds that the long-run average service measures order fill rate (OFR) and volume fill rate (VFR) are equal in v...

  6. Reliability and concurrent validity of postural asymmetry measurement in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prowse, Ashleigh; Aslaksen, Berit; Kierkegaard, Marie; Furness, James; Gerdhem, Paul; Abbott, Allan

    2017-01-18

    To investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis postural assessment in three anatomical planes. This is an observational reliability and concurrent validity study of adolescent referrals to the Orthopaedic department for scoliosis screening at Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden between March-May 2012. A total of 31 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis (13.6 ± 0.6 years old) of mild-moderate curvatures (25° ± 12°) were consecutively recruited. Measurement of cervical, thoracic and lumbar curvatures, pelvic and shoulder tilt, and axial thoracic rotation (ATR) were performed by two trained physiotherapists in one day. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to determine the inter-examiner reliability (ICC2,1) and the intra-rater reliability (ICC3,3) of the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter. Spearman's correlation analyses were used to estimate concurrent validity between the Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter and Gold Standard Cobb angles from radiographs and the Orthopaedic Systems Inc. Scoliometer. There was excellent reliability between examiners for thoracic kyphosis (ICC2,1 = 0.94), ATR (ICC2,1 = 0.92) and lumbar lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.79). There was adequate reliability between examiners for cervical lordosis (ICC2,1 = 0.51), however poor reliability for pelvic and shoulder tilt. Both devices were reproducible in the measurement of ATR when repeated by one examiner (ICC3,3 0.98-1.00). The device had a good correlation with the Scoliometer (rho = 0.78). When compared with Cobb angle from radiographs, there was a moderate correlation for ATR (rho = 0.627). The Baseline ® Body Level/Scoliosis meter provides reliable transverse and sagittal cervical, thoracic and lumbar measurements and valid transverse plan measurements of mild-moderate scoliosis deformity.

  7. Improved radiograph measurement inter-observer reliability by use of statistical shape models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pegg, E.C., E-mail: elise.pegg@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Mellon, S.J., E-mail: stephen.mellon@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Salmon, G. [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Alvand, A., E-mail: abtin.alvand@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Pandit, H., E-mail: hemant.pandit@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Murray, D.W., E-mail: david.murray@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom); Gill, H.S., E-mail: richie.gill@ndorms.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Sciences, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Oxford OX3 7LD (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    Pre- and post-operative radiographs of patients undergoing joint arthroplasty are often examined for a variety of purposes including preoperative planning and patient assessment. This work examines the feasibility of using active shape models (ASM) to semi-automate measurements from post-operative radiographs for the specific case of the Oxford™ Unicompartmental Knee. Measurements of the proximal tibia and the position of the tibial tray were made using the ASM model and manually. Data were obtained by four observers and one observer took four sets of measurements to allow assessment of the inter- and intra-observer reliability, respectively. The parameters measured were the tibial tray angle, the tray overhang, the tray size, the sagittal cut position, the resection level and the tibial width. Results demonstrated improved reliability (average of 27% and 11.2% increase for intra- and inter-reliability, respectively) and equivalent accuracy (p > 0.05 for compared data values) for all of the measurements using the ASM model, with the exception of the tray overhang (p = 0.0001). Less time (15 s) was required to take measurements using the ASM model compared with manual measurements, which was significant. These encouraging results indicate that semi-automated measurement techniques could improve the reliability of radiographic measurements.

  8. Improved radiograph measurement inter-observer reliability by use of statistical shape models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegg, E.C.; Mellon, S.J.; Salmon, G.; Alvand, A.; Pandit, H.; Murray, D.W.; Gill, H.S.

    2012-01-01

    Pre- and post-operative radiographs of patients undergoing joint arthroplasty are often examined for a variety of purposes including preoperative planning and patient assessment. This work examines the feasibility of using active shape models (ASM) to semi-automate measurements from post-operative radiographs for the specific case of the Oxford™ Unicompartmental Knee. Measurements of the proximal tibia and the position of the tibial tray were made using the ASM model and manually. Data were obtained by four observers and one observer took four sets of measurements to allow assessment of the inter- and intra-observer reliability, respectively. The parameters measured were the tibial tray angle, the tray overhang, the tray size, the sagittal cut position, the resection level and the tibial width. Results demonstrated improved reliability (average of 27% and 11.2% increase for intra- and inter-reliability, respectively) and equivalent accuracy (p > 0.05 for compared data values) for all of the measurements using the ASM model, with the exception of the tray overhang (p = 0.0001). Less time (15 s) was required to take measurements using the ASM model compared with manual measurements, which was significant. These encouraging results indicate that semi-automated measurement techniques could improve the reliability of radiographic measurements

  9. [Reliability study in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a chairside digital model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinggang, Liu; Xiaoxian, Chen

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to evaluate the reliability of the software Picpick in the measurement of the cusp inclination angle of a digital model. Twenty-one trimmed models were used as experimental objects. The chairside digital impression was then used for the acquisition of 3D digital models, and the software Picpick was employed for the measurement of the cusp inclination of these models. The measurements were repeated three times, and the results were compared with a gold standard, which was a manually measured experimental model cusp angle. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. The paired t test value of the two measurement methods was 0.91. The ICCs between the two measurement methods and three repeated measurements were greater than 0.9. The digital model achieved a smaller coefficient of variation (9.9%). The software Picpick is reliable in measuring the cusp inclination of a digital model.

  10. Low-Budget Instrumentation of a Conventional Leg Press to Measure Reliable Isometric-Strength Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, Heiner; Groppa, Alessia Severina; Limacher, Regula; Radlinger, Lorenz

    2016-02-02

    Maximum strength and rate of force development (RFD) are 2 important strength characteristics for everyday tasks and athletic performance. Measurements of both parameters must be reliable. Expensive isokinetic devices with isometric modes are often used. The possibility of cost-effective measurements in a practical setting would facilitate quality control. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of measurements of maximum isometric strength (Fmax) and RFD on a conventional leg press. Sixteen subjects (23 ± 2 y, 1.68 ± 0.05 m, 59 ± 5 kg) were tested twice within 1 session. After warm-up, subjects performed 2 times 5 trials eliciting maximum voluntary isometric contractions on an instrumented leg press (1- and 2-legged randomized). Fmax (N) and RFD (N/s) were extracted from force-time curves. Reliability was determined for Fmax and RFD by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the test-retest variability (TRV), and the bias and limits of agreement. Reliability measures revealed good to excellent ICCs of .80-.93. TRV showed mean differences between measurement sessions of 0.4-6.9%. The systematic error was low compared with the absolute mean values (Fmax 5-6%, RFD 1-4%). The implementation of a force transducer into a conventional leg press provides a viable procedure to assess Fmax and RFD. Both performance parameters can be assessed with good to excellent reliability allowing quality control of interventions.

  11. A Reliable Method to Measure Lip Height Using Photogrammetry in Unilateral Cleft Lip Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zeeuw, Frederique; Murabit, Amera; Volcano, Johnny; Torensma, Bart; Patel, Brijesh; Hay, Norman; Thorburn, Guy; Morris, Paul; Sommerlad, Brian; Gnarra, Maria; van der Horst, Chantal; Kangesu, Loshan

    2015-09-01

    There is still no reliable tool to determine the outcome of the repaired unilateral cleft lip (UCL). The aim of this study was therefore to develop an accurate, reliable tool to measure vertical lip height from photographs. The authors measured the vertical height of the cutaneous and vermilion parts of the lip in 72 anterior-posterior view photographs of 17 patients with repairs to a UCL. Points on the lip's white roll and vermillion were marked on both the cleft and the noncleft sides on each image. Two new concepts were tested. First, photographs were standardized using the horizontal (medial to lateral) eye fissure width (EFW) for calibration. Second, the authors tested the interpupillary line (IPL) and the alar base line (ABL) for their reliability as horizontal lines of reference. Measurements were taken by 2 independent researchers, at 2 different time points each. Overall 2304 data points were obtained and analyzed. Results showed that the method was very effective in measuring the height of the lip on the cleft side with the noncleft side. When using the IPL, inter- and intra-rater reliability was 0.99 to 1.0, with the ABL it varied from 0.91 to 0.99 with one exception at 0.84. The IPL was easier to define because in some subjects the overhanging nasal tip obscured the alar base and gave more consistent measurements possibly because the reconstructed alar base was sometimes indistinct. However, measurements from the IPL can only give the percentage difference between the left and right sides of the lip, whereas those from the ABL can also give exact measurements. Patient examples were given that show how the measurements correlate with clinical assessment. The authors propose this method of photogrammetry with the innovative use of the IPL as a reliable horizontal plane and use of the EFW for calibration as a useful and reliable tool to assess the outcome of UCL repair.

  12. Fatigue is a reliable, sensitive and unique outcome measure in rheumatoid arthritis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Minnock, Patricia

    2009-12-01

    Fatigue is an important symptom in patients with RA. Measurement of fatigue in clinical trials and in clinical practice requires scales that are reproducible, sensitive to change and practical. This study examined the reliability and sensitivity to change of fatigue and its relative independence as an outcome measure in RA.

  13. Assessing the Reliability of Curriculum-Based Measurement: An Application of Latent Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Seungsoo; Kim, Dong-Il; Branum-Martin, Lee; Wayman, Miya Miura; Espin, Christine A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the use of Latent Growth Modeling (LGM) as a method for estimating reliability of Curriculum-Based Measurement (CBM) progress-monitoring data. The LGM approach permits the error associated with each measure to differ at each time point, thus providing an alternative method for examining of the…

  14. Accuracy and reliability of facial soft tissue depth measurements using cone beam computer tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, Zacharias; Damstra, Janalt; Gerrits, Pieter; Ren, Yijin

    2010-01-01

    It is important to have accurate and reliable measurements of soft tissue thickness for specific landmarks of the face and scalp when producing a facial reconstruction. In the past several methods have been created to measure facial soft tissue thickness (FSTT) in cadavers and in the living. The

  15. Comparison of reliability and responsiveness of patient-reported clinical outcome measures in knee osteoarthritis rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Valerie J; Piva, Sara R; Irrgang, James J; Crossley, Chad; Fitzgerald, G Kelley

    2012-08-01

    Secondary analysis, pretreatment-posttreatment observational study. To compare the reliability and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), the Knee Outcome Survey activities of daily living subscale (KOS-ADL), and the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The WOMAC is the current standard in patient-reported measures of function in patients with knee OA. The KOS-ADL and LEFS were designed for potential use in patients with knee OA. If the KOS-ADL and LEFS are to be considered viable alternatives to the WOMAC for measuring patient-reported function in individuals with knee OA, they should have measurement properties comparable to the WOMAC. It would also be important to determine whether either of these instruments may be superior to the WOMAC in terms of reliability or responsiveness in this population. Data from 168 subjects with knee OA, who participated in a rehabilitation program, were used in the analyses. Reliability and responsiveness of each outcome measure were estimated at follow-ups of 2, 6, and 12 months. Reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) for subjects who were unchanged in status from baseline at each follow-up time, based on a global rating of change score. To examine responsiveness, the standard error of the measurement, minimal detectable change, minimal clinically important difference, and the Guyatt responsiveness index were calculated for each outcome measure at each follow-up time. All 3 outcome measures demonstrated reasonable reliability and responsiveness to change. Reliability and responsiveness tended to decrease somewhat with increasing follow-up time. There were no substantial differences between outcome measures for reliability or any of the 3 measures of responsiveness at any follow-up time. The results do not indicate that one outcome measure is more reliable or responsive than

  16. Reliability of isometric lower-extremity muscle strength measurements in children with cerebral palsy: implications for measurement design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemse, Lydia; Brehm, Merel A.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Jansen, Laura; Woudenberg-Vos, Hester; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2013-01-01

    Children with cerebral palsy (CP) typically show muscle weakness of the lower extremities, which can be measured with the use of handheld dynamometry (HHD). The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine test-retest reliability and measurement error of isometric lower-extremity strength

  17. Reliability of the craniocervical posture assessment: visual and angular measurements using photographs and radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadotti, Inae C; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Silveira, Anelise; Magee, David

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the craniocervical posture in a sagittal view using quantitative measurements on photographs and radiographs and to determine the agreement of the visual assessment of posture between raters. One photograph and 1 radiograph of the sagittal craniocervical posture were simultaneously taken from 39 healthy female subjects. Three angles were measured on the photographs and 10 angles on the radiographs of 22 subjects using Alcimage software (Alcimage; Uberlândia, MG, Brazil). Two repeated measurements were performed by 2 raters. The measurements were compared within and between raters to test the intrarater and interrater reliability, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient and SEM were used. κ Agreement was calculated for the visual assessment of 39 subjects using photographs and radiographs between 2 raters. Good to excellent intrarater and interrater intraclass correlation coefficient values were found on both photographs and radiographs. Interrater SEM was large and clinically significant for cervical lordosis photogrammetry and for 1 angle measuring cervical lordosis on radiographs. Interrater κ agreement for the visual assessment using photographs was poor (κ = 0.37). The raters were reliable to measure angles in photographs and radiographs to quantify craniocervical posture with exception of 2 angles measuring lordosis of the cervical spine when compared between raters. The visual assessment of posture between raters was not reliable. © 2013. Published by National University of Health Sciences All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of cervical lordosis measurement techniques on long-cassette radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janusz, Piotr; Tyrakowski, Marcin; Yu, Hailong; Siemionow, Kris

    2016-11-01

    Lateral radiographs are commonly used to assess cervical sagittal alignment. Three assessment methods have been described and are commonly utilized in clinical practice. These methods are described for perfect lateral cervical radiographs, however in everyday practice radiograph quality varies. The aim of this study was to compare the reliability and reproducibility of 3 cervical lordosis (CL) measurement methods. Forty-four standing lateral radiographs were randomly chosen from a lateral long-cassette radiograph database. Measurements of CL were performed with: Cobb method C2-C7 (CM), C2-C7 posterior tangent method (PTM), sum of posterior tangent method for each segment (SPTM). Three independent orthopaedic surgeons measured CL using the three methods on 44 lateral radiographs. One researcher used the three methods to measured CL three times at 4-week time intervals. Agreement between the methods as well as their intra- and interobserver reliability were tested and quantified by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and median error for a single measurement (SEM). ICC of 0.75 or more reflected an excellent agreement/reliability. The results were compared with repeated ANOVA test, with p  0.05). All three methods appeared to be highly reliable. Although, high agreement between all measurement methods was shown, we do not recommend using Cobb measurement method interchangeably with PTM or SPTM within a single study as this could lead to error, whereas, such a comparison between tangent methods can be considered.

  19. Reliability and accuracy analysis of a new semiautomatic radiographic measurement software in adult scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, Carl-Eric; Bellefleur, Christian; Joncas, Julie; de Lanauze, Dominic; Kadoury, Samuel; Blanke, Kathy; Parent, Stefan; Labelle, Hubert

    2011-05-20

    Radiographic software measurement analysis in adult scoliosis. To assess the accuracy as well as the intra- and interobserver reliability of measuring different indices on preoperative adult scoliosis radiographs using a novel measurement software that includes a calibration procedure and semiautomatic features to facilitate the measurement process. Scoliosis requires a careful radiographic evaluation to assess the deformity. Manual and computer radiographic process measures have been studied extensively to determine the reliability and reproducibility in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. Most studies rely on comparing given measurements, which are repeated by the same user or by an expert user. A given measure with a small intra- or interobserver error might be deemed as good repeatability, but all measurements might not be truly accurate because the ground-truth value is often unknown. Thorough accuracy assessment of radiographic measures is necessary to assess scoliotic deformities, compare these measures at different stages or to permit valid multicenter studies. Thirty-four sets of adult scoliosis digital radiographs were measured two times by three independent observers using a novel radiographic measurement software that includes semiautomatic features to facilitate the measurement process. Twenty different measures taken from the Spinal Deformity Study Group radiographic measurement manual were performed on the coronal and sagittal images. Intra- and intermeasurer reliability for each measure was assessed. The accuracy of the measurement software was also assessed using a physical spine model in six different scoliotic configurations as a true reference. The majority of the measures demonstrated good to excellent intra- and intermeasurer reliability, except for sacral obliquity. The standard variation of all the measures was very small: ≤ 4.2° for Cobb angles, ≤ 4.2° for the kyphosis, ≤ 5.7° for the lordosis, ≤ 3.9° for the pelvic angles, and

  20. Reliability measures in item response theory: manifest versus latent correlation functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Elasma; Molenberghs, Geert; Alonso, Ariel; Verbeke, Geert; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-02-01

    For item response theory (IRT) models, which belong to the class of generalized linear or non-linear mixed models, reliability at the scale of observed scores (i.e., manifest correlation) is more difficult to calculate than latent correlation based reliability, but usually of greater scientific interest. This is not least because it cannot be calculated explicitly when the logit link is used in conjunction with normal random effects. As such, approximations such as Fisher's information coefficient, Cronbach's α, or the latent correlation are calculated, allegedly because it is easy to do so. Cronbach's α has well-known and serious drawbacks, Fisher's information is not meaningful under certain circumstances, and there is an important but often overlooked difference between latent and manifest correlations. Here, manifest correlation refers to correlation between observed scores, while latent correlation refers to correlation between scores at the latent (e.g., logit or probit) scale. Thus, using one in place of the other can lead to erroneous conclusions. Taylor series based reliability measures, which are based on manifest correlation functions, are derived and a careful comparison of reliability measures based on latent correlations, Fisher's information, and exact reliability is carried out. The latent correlations are virtually always considerably higher than their manifest counterparts, Fisher's information measure shows no coherent behaviour (it is even negative in some cases), while the newly introduced Taylor series based approximations reflect the exact reliability very closely. Comparisons among the various types of correlations, for various IRT models, are made using algebraic expressions, Monte Carlo simulations, and data analysis. Given the light computational burden and the performance of Taylor series based reliability measures, their use is recommended. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Reliability of Instruments Measuring At-Risk and Problem Gambling Among Young Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edgren, Robert; Castrén, Sari; Mäkelä, Marjukka

    2016-01-01

    This review aims to clarify which instruments measuring at-risk and problem gambling (ARPG) among youth are reliable and valid in light of reported estimates of internal consistency, classification accuracy, and psychometric properties. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, and Psyc......Info covering the years 2009–2015. In total, 50 original research articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria: target age under 29 years, using an instrument designed for youth, and reporting a reliability estimate. Articles were evaluated with the revised Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool....... Reliability estimates were reported for five ARPG instruments. Most studies (66%) evaluated the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents. The Gambling Addictive Behavior Scale for Adolescents was the only novel instrument. In general, the evaluation of instrument reliability was superficial. Despite...

  2. Reliability of Rehabilitative Ultrasonography to Measure Transverse Abdominis and Multifidus Muscle Dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabavi, Narjes; Mosallanezhad, Zahra; Haghighatkhah, Hamid Reza; Mohseni Bandpeid, Mohammad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Lumbar paraspinal muscles play an important role in providing both mobility and stability during dynamic tasks. Among paraspinal muscles, transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus have been of particular interest as active stabilizers of the lumbar spine. These muscles may become dysfunctional in chronic low back pain (CLBP). Low back injury can result in muscle inhibition and control loss that cannot recover spontaneously, and specific exercises are required to stimulate their recovery. The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of ultrasonography to measure muscle dimensions and to present a reliable method for measuring transverse abdominis and lumbar multifidus as stabilizing muscles of the lumbar spine. Fifteen healthy participants (18-55 year olds) were evaluated by a radiologist using ultrasonography (ES500) with two probes (50mm linear 7.5 MHZ and 70 mm curvilinear 3.5 MHz). The muscle thickness of transverse abdominis and the anterior-posterior diameter and cross sectional area of the LMF were measured. To determine within and between days reliabilities, second and third measurements were repeated with half an hour and one week intervals, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficient for left and right showed good to high reliability for the cross sectional area of lumbar multifidi (0.74 and 0.88, respectively) as well as the anterior-posterior dimensions of lumbar multifidi (0.89 and 0.91, respectively) and transverse abdomini thickness (0.73 and 0.85, respectively). Rehabilitative ultrasonography is a reliable and non-invasive instrument to measure muscle thickness. The method used in this study is a reliable way to measure lumbar stabilizing muscles

  3. Assessment of intra-interobserver reliability of the sonographic optic nerve sheath diameter measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuba Cimilli Ozturk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis and measuring the level of increase in intracranial pressure (ICP is critical, especially for the management of trauma patients in the emergency department and intensive care unit. However, measurements are operator-dependent as in all of the sonographic diagnoses. The aim of this study is to assess the operator variations in the measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD. There were four emergency medicine specialists involved in the study. Each had at least 1 year of experience of ultrasound scans and performed at least 25 prior ocular scans examining the ONSD. Two measurements were made 1 week apart from both axial and longitudinal planes. Sixty healthy adults were involved in the study and every investigator obtained four measurements from each. Intra-interobserver reliabilities were tested. The investigators performed 60 ocular ultrasounds on individual healthy adults and obtained two measurements in axial and longitudinal planes 1 week apart. Therefore, 960 measurements were analyzed. The levels of compatibilities for most of the measurements were found at acceptable levels statistically. However, it is not possible to say that there was a perfect compatibility among the sonographers according to the previously conducted reliability studies of ultrasound measurements. According to our results, it is hard to say that sonographic measurement of the ONSD is a highly reliable method both in longitudinal and transverse planes.

  4. Harmonization process and reliability assessment of anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Gómez-Cabello

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. PURPOSE: To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. RESULTS: For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. CONCLUSION: The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population.

  5. Feasibility and Inter-Rater Reliability of Physical Performance Measures in Acutely Admitted Older Medical Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodilsen, Ann Christine; Juul-Larsen, Helle Gybel; Petersen, Janne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter-rater reliabi......OBJECTIVE: Physical performance measures can be used to predict functional decline and increased dependency in older persons. However, few studies have assessed the feasibility or reliability of such measures in hospitalized older patients. Here we assessed the feasibility and inter......-rater reliability of four simple measures of physical performance in acutely admitted older medical patients. DESIGN: During the first 24 hours of hospitalization, the following were assessed twice by different raters in 52 (≥ 65 years) patients admitted for acute medical illness: isometric hand grip strength, 4......, and 30-s chair stand were 8%, 7%, and 18%, and the SRD95% values were 22%, 17%, and 49%. CONCLUSION: In acutely admitted older medical patients, grip strength, gait speed, and the Cumulated Ambulation Score measurements were feasible and showed high inter-rater reliability when administered by different...

  6. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 clinically relevant sites-mediolateral to the medial femoral tubercle (distal) and lateral to the medial malleolus (local)-on the same day. Intrarater reliability was estimated by intraclass correlation coefficients. The minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement were calculated. As a measure of responsiveness, the effect size was calculated for the results at baseline and after treatment. [Results] The intrarater reliability was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.93-0.97). The standard error of measurement and minimum-detectable-change were 0.70-0.66 and 1.62-1.53, respectively. The pressure pain threshold over the distal site was inadequately responsive in knee osteoarthritis, but the local site was responsive. The effect size was 0.70. [Conclusion] Algometry is reliable and responsive to assess measures of pressure pain threshold for evaluating pain patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  7. Study on highly reliable digital communication technology of reactor nuclear measuring equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengfei; Huang Xiaojin

    2007-01-01

    To meet the need of highly reliable of reactor nuclear measuring equipment, in allusion to the idiographic request of nuclear measuring equipment, the actual technical development and the application in industrial field, we design a kind of redundancy communication net based on PROFIBUS, and a kind of communication interface module based on redundancy PROFIBUS communication, which link the nuclear measuring equipment and PROFIBUS communication net, and also lay a foundation for advanced research. (authors)

  8. Reliability of measuring pelvic floor elevation with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device

    OpenAIRE

    Ubukata, Hitomi; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Huo, Ming

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability of measuring the amount of pelvic floor elevation during pelvic and abdominal muscle contraction with a diagnostic ultrasonic imaging device. [Subjects] The study group comprised 11 healthy women without urinary incontinence or previous birth experience. [Methods] We measured the displacement elevation of the bladder base during contraction of the abdominal and pelvic floor muscles was measured using a diagnostic ultrasoni...

  9. Monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanc, S.; Repa, M.

    2001-01-01

    Description of a monitoring system for accuracy and reliability characteristics of standard temperature measurements in WWER-440 reactors and benefits obtained from its use are shown in the presentation. As standard reactor temperature measurement, coolant temperature measurement at fuel assembly outlets and in loops, entered into the In-Reactor Control System , are considered. Such systems have been implemented at two V-230 reactors and are under implementation at other four V-213 reactors. (Authors)

  10. Test-Retest Reliability of Isokinetic Knee Strength Measurements in Children Aged 8 to 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagher, Kristina; Fritzson, Annelie; Drake, Anna Maria

    Isokinetic dynamometry is a useful tool to objectively assess muscle strength of children and adults in athletic and rehabilitative settings. This study examined test-retest reliability of isokinetic knee strength measurements in children aged 8 to 10 years and defined limits for the minimum difference (MD) in strength that indicates a clinically important change. Isokinetic knee strength measurements (using the Biodex System 4) in children will provide reliable results. Descriptive laboratory study. In 22 healthy children, 5 maximal concentric (CON) knee extensor (KE) and knee flexor (KF) contractions at 2 angular velocities (60 deg/s and 180 deg/s) and 5 maximal eccentric (ECC) KE/KF contractions at 60 deg/s were assessed 7 days apart. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2.1 ) was used to examine relative reliability, and the MD was calculated on the basis of standard error of measurement. ICCs for CON KE/KF peak torque measurements were fair to excellent (range, 0.49-0.81). The MD% values for CON KE and KF ranged from 31% to 37% at 60 deg/s and from 34% to 39% at 180 deg/s. ICCs in the ECC mode were good (range, 0.60-0.70), but associated MD% values were high (>50%). There was no systematic error for CON KE/KF and ECC KE strength measurements at 60 deg/s, but systematic error was found for all other measurements. The dynamometer provides a reliable analysis of isokinetic CON knee strength measurements at 60 deg/s in children aged 8 to 10 years. Measurements at 180 deg/s and in the ECC mode were not reliable, indicating a need for more familiarization prior to testing. The MD values may help clinicians to determine whether a change in knee strength is due to error or intervention.

  11. Reliability of Two Smartphone Applications for Radiographic Measurements of Hallux Valgus Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos E Dinato, Mauro Cesar; Freitas, Marcio de Faria; Milano, Cristiano; Valloto, Elcio; Ninomiya, André Felipe; Pagnano, Rodrigo Gonçalves

    The objective of the present study was to assess the reliability of 2 smartphone applications compared with the traditional goniometer technique for measurement of radiographic angles in hallux valgus and the time required for analysis with the different methods. The radiographs of 31 patients (52 feet) with a diagnosis of hallux valgus were analyzed. Four observers, 2 with >10 years' experience in foot and ankle surgery and 2 in-training surgeons, measured the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using a manual goniometer technique and 2 smartphone applications (Hallux Angles and iPinPoint). The interobserver and intermethod reliability were estimated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and the time required for measurement of the angles among the 3 methods was compared using the Friedman test. A very good or good interobserver reliability was found among the 4 observers measuring the hallux valgus angle and intermetatarsal angle using the goniometer (ICC 0.913 and 0.821, respectively) and iPinPoint (ICC 0.866 and 0.638, respectively). Using the Hallux Angles application, a very good interobserver reliability was found for measurements of the hallux valgus angle (ICC 0.962) and intermetatarsal angle (ICC 0.935) only among the more experienced observers. The time required for the measurements was significantly shorter for the measurements using both smartphone applications compared with the goniometer method. One smartphone application (iPinPoint) was reliable for measurements of the hallux valgus angles by either experienced or nonexperienced observers. The use of these tools might save time in the evaluation of radiographic angles in the hallux valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The gothic arch: a reliable measurement for developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herickhoff, Paul K; O'Brien, Megan K; Dolan, Lori A; Morcuende, Jose A; Peterson, Jonathan B; Weinstein, Stuart L

    2013-01-01

    The "Gothic Arch" is a radio-graphic finding on AP pelvis x-rays postulated to be predictive of hip osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of measurement of the Gothic Arch in patients with no known hip pathology and patients with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). After obtaining IRB approval, nine skeletally mature patients (18 hips) with no known hip pathology were selected to serve as the control group. The AP pelvis x-rays at skeletal maturity of eight patients (16 hips) with unilateral DDH treated with closed reduction and casting comprised the comparison group. A digitizing program was designed to measure the Gothic Arch based on landmarks identified by the user. Two pediatric orthopaedic surgeons and two orthopaedic residents completed the program on two separate occasions. Intra-and interobserver reliability were determined using intraclass cor-relation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Both the unilateral DDH group and the control group demonstrated excellent inter- and intraobserver reliability (ICC >0.70) for base, height, area, and orientation of the Gothic Arch, but poor reliability (ICC Gothic Arch can be reliably measured on AP pelvis x-rays of patients with normal and dysplastic hips. III, Diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  13. The Reliability of Isometer 2 Device in Measuring of Cervical Flexor and Extensor Muscles Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asghar Reza Soltan-Zadeh

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The strength of a group of muscles can be measured by muscle strength test, employing a force measuring instrument. In order to monitor the effectiveness of a therapeutic or training programs we need a reliable technique which is also accurate in repeated measurements. The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of an isometric neck muscle force measurement device.  Materials & Methods: Thirty seven healthy non athlete subjects (18 males and 19 females, aged 18-25 participated in this analytical study. The maximal isometric contractions of the neck extensor and flexor muscles were measured in different times and different days and by two different testers. A new sensitive “load cell” was applied to our previously designed neck muscle force measurement apparatus. Results: The results of the inter-trail, test retest, and inter rater reliability (0.86 < ICC < 0.98 , 2.2< Sw <5.1 N indicated that the neck muscle force measurements were highly repeatable and less variable between measurements. There were no statistically significant differences in neck muscle force measurements, between times, between days and between retsters. Maximum isometric contractions were significantly higher in males than in the females (p < 0.001. Women’s neck muscle strengths were 30.8% and 46.1% of men in cervical extension and cervical flexion. Conclusion: In this study we used a new model (Isometer 2 of our previous apparatus (Isometer. The isometric strength of neck flexor and extensor muscles which was measured by Isometer 2 appeared to be a reliable and useful method for measuring the force of the neck extensor and flexor muscles.

  14. The reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Jason J; Mitchell, G Lynn; Good, Gregory W

    2003-06-01

    To investigate within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of hand-held refractometry water content measures of hydrogel lenses. Nineteen lenses of various nominal water contents were examined by two examiners on two occasions separated by 1 hour. An Atago N2 hand-held refractometer was used for all water content measures. Lenses were presented in a random order to each examiner by a third party, and examiners were masked to any potential lens identifiers. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), 95% limits of agreement, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used to characterize the within- and between-examiner reliability and validity of lens water content measures. Within-examiner reliability was excellent (ICC, 0.97; 95% limits of agreement, -3.6% to +5.7%), and the inter-visit mean difference of 1.1 +/- 2.4% was not biased (p = 0.08). Between-examiner reliability was also excellent (ICC, 0.98; 95% limits of agreement, -4.1% to +3.9%). The mean difference between examiners was -0.1 +/- 2.1% (p = 0.83). The mean difference between the nominally reported water content and our water content measures was -2.1 +/- 1.7% (p refractometry and is material dependent. Therefore, investigators may need to account for bias when measuring hydrogel lens water content via hand-held refractometry.

  15. Reliability of Using Motion Sensors to Measure Children’s Physical Activity Levels in Exergaming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zeng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study examined the reliability of two objective measurement tools in assessing children’s physical activity (PA levels in an exergaming setting. Methods: A total of 377 children (190 girls, Mage = 8.39, SD = 1.55 attended the 30-min exergaming class every other day for 18 weeks. Children’s PA levels were concurrently measured by NL-1000 pedometer and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer, while children’s steps per min and time engaged in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous PA were estimated, respectively. Results: The results of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC indicated a low degree of reliability (single measures ICC = 0.03 in accelerometers. ANOVA did detect a possible learning effect for 27 classes (p < 0.01, and the single measures ICC was 0.20 for pedometers. Moreover, there was no significant positive relationship between steps per min and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Finally, only 1.3% variance was explained by pedometer as a predictor using Hierarchical Linear Modeling to further explore the relationship between pedometer and accelerometer data. Conclusions: The NL-1000 pedometers and ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers have low reliability in assessing elementary school children’s PA levels during exergaming. More research is warranted in determining the reliable and accurate measurement information regarding the use of modern devices in exergaming setting.

  16. Test-Retest Reliability of Dual-Task Outcome Measures in People With Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strouwen, Carolien; Molenaar, Esther A L M; Keus, Samyra H J; Münks, Liesbeth; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Nieuwboer, Alice

    2016-08-01

    Dual-task (DT) training is gaining ground as a physical therapy intervention in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Future studies evaluating the effect of such interventions need reliable outcome measures. To date, the test-retest reliability of DT measures in patients with PD remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of DT outcome measures in patients with PD. A repeated-measures design was used. Patients with PD ("on" medication, Mini-Mental State Examination score ≥24) performed 2 cognitive tasks (ie, backward digit span task and auditory Stroop task) and 1 functional task (ie, mobile phone task) in combination with walking. Tasks were assessed at 2 time points (same hour) with an interval of 6 weeks. Test-retest reliability was assessed for gait while performing each secondary task (DT gait) for both cognitive tasks while walking (DT cognitive) and for the functional task while walking (DT functional). Sixty-two patients with PD (age=39-89 years, Hoehn and Yahr stages II-III) were included in the study. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) showed excellent reliability for DT gait measures, ranging between .86 and .95 when combined with the digit span task, between .86 and .95 when combined with the auditory Stroop task, and between .72 and .90 when combined with the mobile phone task. The standard error of measurements for DT gait speed varied between 0.06 and 0.08 m/s, leading to minimal detectable changes between 0.16 and 0.22 m/s. With regard to DT cognitive measures, reaction times showed good-to-excellent reliability (digit span task: ICC=.75; auditory Stroop task: ICC=.82). The results cannot be generalized to patients with advanced disease or to other DT measures. In people with PD, DT measures proved to be reliable for use in clinical studies and look promising for use in clinical practice to assess improvements after DT training. Large effects, however, are needed to obtain meaningful effect sizes.

  17. Reliability assessment for thickness measurements of pipe wall using probability of detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamoto, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Fumio; Kato, Sho

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliability assessment method for thickness measurements of pipe wall using probability of detection (POD). Thicknesses of pipes are measured by qualified inspectors with ultrasonic thickness gauges. The inspection results are affected by human factors of the inspectors and include some errors, because the inspectors have different experiences and frequency of inspections. In order to ensure reliability for inspection results, first, POD evaluates experimental results of pipe-wall thickness inspection. We verify that the results have differences depending on inspectors including qualified inspectors. Second, two human factors that affect POD are indicated. Finally, it is confirmed that POD can identify the human factors and ensure reliability for pipe-wall thickness inspections. (author)

  18. Reliability and validity of selected measures associated with increased fall risk in females over the age of 45 years with distal radius fracture - A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; MacDermid, Joy C; Richardson, Julie; MacIntyre, Norma J; Grewal, Ruby

    2015-01-01

    Clinical measurement. This study examined test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected tests and measures that assess balance impairment, fear of falling (FOF), impaired physical activity (PA), and lower extremity muscle strength (LEMS) in females >45 years of age after the distal radius fracture (DRF) population. Twenty one female participants with DRF were assessed on two occasions. Timed Up and Go, Functional Reach, and One Leg Standing tests assessed balance impairment. Shortened Falls Efficacy Scale, Activity-specific Balance Confidence scale, and Fall Risk Perception Questionnaire assessed FOF. International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity were administered to assess PA level. Chair stand test and isometric muscle strength testing for hip and knee assessed LEMS. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) examined the test-retest reliability of the measures. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined concurrent relationships between the measures. The results demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC between 0.50 and 0.96) and low to moderate concordance between the measures (low if r ≤ 0.4; moderate if r = 0.4-0.7). The results provide preliminary estimates of test-retest reliability and convergent/divergent construct validity of selected measures associated with increased risk for falling in the females >45 years of age after DRF. Further research directions to advance knowledge regarding fall risk assessment in DRF population have been identified. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reliability Measure Model for Assistive Care Loop Framework Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venki Balasubramanian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Body area wireless sensor networks (BAWSNs are time-critical systems that rely on the collective data of a group of sensor nodes. Reliable data received at the sink is based on the collective data provided by all the source sensor nodes and not on individual data. Unlike conventional reliability, the definition of retransmission is inapplicable in a BAWSN and would only lead to an elapsed data arrival that is not acceptable for time-critical application. Time-driven applications require high data reliability to maintain detection and responses. Hence, the transmission reliability for the BAWSN should be based on the critical time. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to measure a BAWSN's transmission reliability, based on the critical time. The proposed model is evaluated through simulation and then compared with the experimental results conducted in our existing Active Care Loop Framework (ACLF. We further show the effect of the sink buffer in transmission reliability after a detailed study of various other co-existing parameters.

  20. Reliability of Heterochromatic Flicker Photometry in Measuring Macular Pigment Optical Density among Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha M. McCorkle

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Macular pigment optical density (MPOD—assessed using customized heterochromatic flicker photometry (cHFP—is related to better cognition and brain lutein among adults. However, the reliability of MPOD assessed by cHFP has not been investigated in children. We assessed inter-session reliability of MPOD using modified cHFP. 7–10-year-olds (n = 66 underwent cHFP over 2 visits using 11 examiners. Reliability was also assessed in a subsample (n = 46 with only 2 examiners. Among all participants, there was no significant difference between the two sessions (p = 0.59—session 1: 0.61 ± 0.28; session 2: 0.62 ± 0.27. There was no significant difference in the MPOD of boys vs. girls (p = 0.56. There was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.52x + 0.31; R2 = 0.29, p ≤ 0.005, with a reliability of 0.70 (Cronbach’s α. Among the subsample with 2 examiners, there was a significant correlation between sessions (Y = 0.54x + 0.31; R2 = 0.32, p < 0.005, with a reliability of 0.72 (Cronbach’s α. In conclusion, there is moderate reliability for modified cHFP to measure MPOD in preadolescents. These findings provide support for future studies aiming to conduct noninvasive assessments of retinal xanthophylls and study their association with cognition during childhood.

  1. RELIABILITY OF ANKLE-FOOT MORPHOLOGY, MOBILITY, STRENGTH, AND MOTOR PERFORMANCE MEASURES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, John J; Koldenhoven, Rachel M; Saliba, Susan A; Hertel, Jay

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of foot posture, morphology, intersegmental mobility, strength and motor control of the ankle-foot complex are commonly used clinically, but measurement properties of many assessments are unclear. To determine test-retest and inter-rater reliability, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change of morphology, joint excursion and play, strength, and motor control of the ankle-foot complex. Reliability study. 24 healthy, recreationally-active young adults without history of ankle-foot injury were assessed by two clinicians on two occasions, three to ten days apart. Measurement properties were assessed for foot morphology (foot posture index, total and truncated length, width, arch height), joint excursion (weight-bearing dorsiflexion, rearfoot and hallux goniometry, forefoot inclinometry, 1 st metatarsal displacement) and joint play, strength (handheld dynamometry), and motor control rating during intrinsic foot muscle (IFM) exercises. Clinician order was randomized using a Latin Square. The clinicians performed independent examinations and did not confer on the findings for the duration of the study. Test-retest and inter-tester reliability and agreement was assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC 2,k ) and weighted kappa ( K w ). Test-retest reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .80-1.00, joint excursion: .58-.97, joint play: -.67-.84, strength: .67-.92, IFM motor rating: K W -.01-.71. Inter-rater reliability ICC were as follows: morphology: .81-1.00, joint excursion: .32-.97, joint play: -1.06-1.00, strength: .53-.90, and IFM motor rating: K w .02-.56. Measures of ankle-foot posture, morphology, joint excursion, and strength demonstrated fair to excellent test-retest and inter-rater reliability. Test-retest reliability for rating of perceived difficulty and motor performance was good to excellent for short-foot, toe-spread-out, and hallux exercises and poor to fair for lesser toe extension. Joint play measures had

  2. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, K W; Regterschot, G R H; Krijnen, W P; Slager, G E C; van der Schans, C P; Zijlstra, W

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various degrees of extension. Measurements between 110 and 130° extension present the highest values and the most significant increase after training. The objective of this study is to determine the test-retest reliability of muscle strength measurements by the Q Force in older adults in 110° extension. Forty-one healthy older adults, 13 males and 28 females were included in the study. Mean (SD) age was 81.9 (4.89) years. Isometric muscle strength of the Quadriceps muscle was assessed with the Q Force at 110° of knee extension. Participants were measured at two sessions with a three to eight day interval between sessions. To determine relative reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated. To determine absolute reliability, Bland and Altman Limits of Agreement (LOA) were calculated and t-tests were performed. Relative reliability of the Q Force is good to excellent as all ICC coefficients are higher than 0.75. Generally a large 95 % LOA, reflecting only moderate absolute reliability, is found as exemplified for the peak torque left leg of -18.6 N to 33.8 N and the right leg of -9.2 N to 26.4 N was between 15.7 and 23.6 Newton representing 25.2 % to 39.9 % of the size of the mean. Small systematic differences in mean were found between measurement session 1 and 2. The present study shows that the Q Force has excellent relative test-retest reliability, but limited absolute test-retest reliability. Since the Q Force is relatively cheap and mobile it is suitable for

  3. Reliability and Measurement Error of Tensiomyography to Assess Mechanical Muscle Function: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Rodríguez, Saúl; Loturco, Irineu; Hunter, Angus M; Rodríguez-Ruiz, David; Munguia-Izquierdo, Diego

    2017-12-01

    Martín-Rodríguez, S, Loturco, I, Hunter, AM, Rodríguez-Ruiz, D, and Munguia-Izquierdo, D. Reliability and measurement error of tensiomyography to assess mechanical muscle function: A systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3524-3536, 2017-Interest in studying mechanical skeletal muscle function through tensiomyography (TMG) has increased in recent years. This systematic review aimed to (a) report the reliability and measurement error of all TMG parameters (i.e., maximum radial displacement of the muscle belly [Dm], contraction time [Tc], delay time [Td], half-relaxation time [½ Tr], and sustained contraction time [Ts]) and (b) to provide critical reflection on how to perform accurate and appropriate measurements for informing clinicians, exercise professionals, and researchers. A comprehensive literature search was performed of the Pubmed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Cochrane databases up to July 2017. Eight studies were included in this systematic review. Meta-analysis could not be performed because of the low quality of the evidence of some studies evaluated. Overall, the review of the 9 studies involving 158 participants revealed high relative reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) for Dm (0.91-0.99); moderate-to-high ICC for Ts (0.80-0.96), Tc (0.70-0.98), and ½ Tr (0.77-0.93); and low-to-high ICC for Td (0.60-0.98), independently of the evaluated muscles. In addition, absolute reliability (coefficient of variation [CV]) was low for all TMG parameters except for ½ Tr (CV = >20%), whereas measurement error indexes were high for this parameter. In conclusion, this study indicates that 3 of the TMG parameters (Dm, Td, and Tc) are highly reliable, whereas ½ Tr demonstrate insufficient reliability, and thus should not be used in future studies.

  4. Strength Measurements in Acute Hamstring Injuries: Intertester Reliability and Prognostic Value of Handheld Dynamometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reurink, Gustaaf; Goudswaard, Gert Jan; Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Verhaar, Jan A N; Weir, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Cohort study, repeated measures. Background Although hamstring strength measurements are used for assessing prognosis and monitoring recovery after hamstring injury, their actual clinical relevance has not been established. Handheld dynamometry (HHD) is a commonly used method of measuring muscle strength. The reliability of HHD has not been determined in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. Objectives To determine the intertester reliability and the prognostic value of hamstring HHD strength measurement in acute hamstring injuries. Methods We measured knee flexion strength with HHD in 75 athletes at 2 visits, at baseline (within 5 days of hamstring injury) and follow-up (5 to 7 days after the baseline measurement). We assessed isometric hamstring strength in 15° and 90° of knee flexion. Reliability analysis testing was performed by 2 testers independently at the follow-up visit. We recorded the time needed to return to play (RTP) up to 6 months following baseline. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients of the strength measurements in injured hamstrings were between 0.75 and 0.83. There was a statistically significant but weak correlation between the time to RTP and the strength deficit at 15° of knee flexion measured at baseline (Spearman r = 0.25, P = .045) and at the follow-up visit (Spearman r = 0.26, P = .034). Up to 7% of the variance in time to RTP is explained by this strength deficit. None of the other strength variables were significantly correlated with time to RTP. Conclusion Hamstring strength can be reliably measured with HHD in athletes with acute hamstring injuries. The prognostic value of strength measurements is limited, as there is only a weak association between the time to RTP and hamstring strength deficit after acute injury. Level of Evidence Prognosis, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):689-696. Epub 12 May 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6363.

  5. Reliability analysis of a phaser measurement unit using a generalized fuzzy lambda-tau(GFLT) technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komal

    2018-05-01

    Nowadays power consumption is increasing day-by-day. To fulfill failure free power requirement, planning and implementation of an effective and reliable power management system is essential. Phasor measurement unit(PMU) is one of the key device in wide area measurement and control systems. The reliable performance of PMU assures failure free power supply for any power system. So, the purpose of the present study is to analyse the reliability of a PMU used for controllability and observability of power systems utilizing available uncertain data. In this paper, a generalized fuzzy lambda-tau (GFLT) technique has been proposed for this purpose. In GFLT, system components' uncertain failure and repair rates are fuzzified using fuzzy numbers having different shapes such as triangular, normal, cauchy, sharp gamma and trapezoidal. To select a suitable fuzzy number for quantifying data uncertainty, system experts' opinion have been considered. The GFLT technique applies fault tree, lambda-tau method, fuzzified data using different membership functions, alpha-cut based fuzzy arithmetic operations to compute some important reliability indices. Furthermore, in this study ranking of critical components of the system using RAM-Index and sensitivity analysis have also been performed. The developed technique may be helpful to improve system performance significantly and can be applied to analyse fuzzy reliability of other engineering systems. Copyright © 2018 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability of agriculture universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in universal joint bearing assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аleksandar Asonja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research into reliability calculations of agriculture double universal joint shafts based on temperature measuring in cardan-type universal joint bearing assemblies. Special laboratory equipment was developed for this research which is presented in the paper. The objective of this research was to test the real life span of universal joint shafts in the laboratory and in field, to obtain the results which can be used to improve the reliability of universal joint shafts. If the presented research were used along with maintenance measures recommended in the paper and with proper use, the level of reliability of the shafts would be 2.1 times higher. The presented results of the research showed that needle bearings, i.e. bearing assemblies of the joints, are the most critical elements on universal joint shafts and are possible causes of their lower reliability. The second universal joint is the part with the lowest reliability in the observed technical system.

  7. Sonographic measurements of the achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad are reliable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Finn E; Jensen, Signe; Stallknecht, Sandra E

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine intra- and interobserver reliability and precision of sonographic (US) scanning in measuring thickness of the Achilles tendon, plantar fascia, and heel fat pad in patients with heel pain. METHODS: Seventeen consecutive patients referred with heel pain were included. Two...

  8. Test-Retest Reliability of Self-Reported Sexual Health Measures among US Hispanic Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F.; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Constantine, Norman A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Although Hispanic adolescents in the USA are often the focus of sexual health interventions, their response to survey measures has rarely been assessed within evaluation studies. This study documents the test-retest reliability of a wide range of self-reported sexual health values, attitudes, knowledge and behaviours among Hispanic…

  9. Interobserver reliability when using the Van Herick method to measure anterior chamber depth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Javed

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: The Van Herick score has a good interobserver reliability for Grades 1 and 4; however, Grades 2 and 3 require further tests such as gonioscopy or ocular coherence tomography. Temporal and nasal scores demonstrated good agreement; therefore, if the nasal score cannot be measured due to nasal bridge size, the temporal can be used as an approximation.

  10. Generalizability Theory Reliability of Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement in Universal Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Thomas, Erin L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) in the context of universal screening from a generalizability theory framework. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 145) participated in the study. The sample included 54% female students, 49% White students, 23% African…

  11. Establishing Reliability and Construct Validity for an Instrument to Measure Environmental Connectedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beery, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study is to establish a reliable and valid measure of environmental connectedness (EC) to allow for further exploration of the Swedish Outdoor Recreation in Change national survey data. The Nordic concept of friluftsliv (nature-based outdoor recreation) and the environmental psychology concept of EC are explored to…

  12. Reliability of three-dimensional sonographic measurements in early pregnancy using virtual reality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Verwoerd-Dikkeboom (Christine); A.H.J. Koning (Anton); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); M. Rousian (Melek); P.J. van der Spek (Peter); N. Exalto (Niek); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To establish the reliability of three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound measurements in early pregnancy using a virtual reality system (the Barco I-Space). Methods: The study included 28 pregnancies with gestational ages ranging from 6 to 14 (median, 10) weeks. 3D volumes were

  13. Accounting for measurement reliability to improve the quality of inference in dental microhardness research: a worked example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Ivan; Klaric, Eva; Tarle, Zrinka

    2016-07-01

    Dental microhardness experiments are influenced by unobserved factors related to the varying tooth characteristics that affect measurement reproducibility. This paper explores the appropriate analytical tools for modeling different sources of unobserved variability to reduce the biases encountered and increase the validity of microhardness studies. The enamel microhardness of human third molars was measured by Vickers diamond. The effects of five bleaching agents-10, 16, and 30 % carbamide peroxide, and 25 and 38 % hydrogen peroxide-were examined, as well as the effect of artificial saliva and amorphous calcium phosphate. To account for both between- and within-tooth heterogeneity in evaluating treatment effects, the statistical analysis was performed in the mixed-effects framework, which also included the appropriate weighting procedure to adjust for confounding. The results were compared to those of the standard ANOVA model usually applied. The weighted mixed-effects model produced the parameter estimates of different magnitude and significance than the standard ANOVA model. The results of the former model were more intuitive, with more precise estimates and better fit. Confounding could seriously bias the study outcomes, highlighting the need for more robust statistical procedures in dental research that account for the measurement reliability. The presented framework is more flexible and informative than existing analytical techniques and may improve the quality of inference in dental research. Reported results could be misleading if underlying heterogeneity of microhardness measurements is not taken into account. The confidence in treatment outcomes could be increased by applying the framework presented.

  14. Toward a Common Language for Measuring Patient Mobility in the Hospital: Reliability and Construct Validity of Interprofessional Mobility Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Erik H; Young, Daniel L; Klein, Lisa M; Kreif, Julie; Shumock, Kara; Hiser, Stephanie; Friedman, Michael; Lavezza, Annette; Jette, Alan; Chan, Kitty S; Needham, Dale M

    2018-02-01

    The lack of common language among interprofessional inpatient clinical teams is an important barrier to achieving inpatient mobilization. In The Johns Hopkins Hospital, the Activity Measure for Post-Acute Care (AM-PAC) Inpatient Mobility Short Form (IMSF), also called "6-Clicks," and the Johns Hopkins Highest Level of Mobility (JH-HLM) are part of routine clinical practice. The measurement characteristics of these tools when used by both nurses and physical therapists for interprofessional communication or assessment are unknown. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the reliability and minimal detectable change of AM-PAC IMSF and JH-HLM when completed by nurses and physical therapists and to evaluate the construct validity of both measures when used by nurses. A prospective evaluation of a convenience sample was used. The test-retest reliability and the interrater reliability of AM-PAC IMSF and JH-HLM for inpatients in the neuroscience department (n = 118) of an academic medical center were evaluated. Each participant was independently scored twice by a team of 2 nurses and 1 physical therapist; a total of 4 physical therapists and 8 nurses participated in reliability testing. In a separate inpatient study protocol (n = 69), construct validity was evaluated via an assessment of convergent validity with other measures of function (grip strength, Katz Activities of Daily Living Scale, 2-minute walk test, 5-times sit-to-stand test) used by 5 nurses. The test-retest reliability values (intraclass correlation coefficients) for physical therapists and nurses were 0.91 and 0.97, respectively, for AM-PAC IMSF and 0.94 and 0.95, respectively, for JH-HLM. The interrater reliability values (intraclass correlation coefficients) between physical therapists and nurses were 0.96 for AM-PAC IMSF and 0.99 for JH-HLM. Construct validity (Spearman correlations) ranged from 0.25 between JH-HLM and right-hand grip strength to 0.80 between AM-PAC IMSF and the Katz Activities of

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Turkish Version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcaner, Zahide Çiler; Aksoy, Songül

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to test the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Voice-Related Quality of Life (V-RQOL) questionnaire. This is a nonrandomized, prospective study with control group. The questionnaire was administered to 249 individuals-130 with vocal complaint and 119 without-with a mean age of 37.8 ± 12.3 years. The Turkish version of the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) and perceptual voice evaluation measures were also administered at 2-14 days for retest reliability. The instrument was submitted to validity and reliability evaluation. The V-RQOL measure showed a strong internal consistency and test-retest reliability; the Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the overall V-RQOL was 0.969, the physical functioning domain was 0.949, and the social-emotional domain was 0.940. In the test-retest reliability test, the overall V-RQOL was found to be 0.989. The construct validity of the V-RQOL was determined based on the strength and direction of its relation to the VHI and the perceptual voice evaluation measure. The higher the VHI level, the lower the physical functioning, social-emotional, and overall score levels of the V-RQOL (r = -0.927, r = -0.912, r = -0.944, respectively; P reliability and validity and may play a crucial role in evaluating Turkish-speaking patients with voice disorders. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ju Ri; Ko, Young Jun; Ha, Hyun Geun; Lee, Wan Hee

    2016-03-01

    This study was to establish inter-rater and intrarater reliability of the rehabilitative ultrasonographic imaging (RUSI) technique for muscle thickness measurement of the rhomboid major at rest and with the shoulder abducted to 90°. Twenty-four young adults (eight men, 16 women; right-handed; mean age [±SD], 24·4 years [±2·6]) with no history of neck, shoulder, or arm pain were recruited. Rhomboid major muscle images were obtained in the resting position and with shoulder in 90° abduction using an ultrasonography system with a 7·5-MHz linear transducer. In these two positions, the examiners found the site at which the transducer could be placed. Two examiners obtained the images of all participants in three test sessions at random. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate reliability. All ICCs (95% CI) were >0·75, ranging from 0·93 to 0·98, which indicates good reliability. The ICCs for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0·75 to 0·94. For the absolute value of the difference in the intra-examiner reliability between the right and left ratios, the ICCs ranged from 0·58 to 0·91. In this study, the intra- and interexaminer reliability of muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major were good. Therefore, we suggest that muscle thickness measurements of the rhomboid major obtained with the RUSI technique would be useful for clinical rehabilitative assessment. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. THE RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF THE TRIPLE MEASUREMENTS OF ANALOG PROCESS VARIABLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anishchenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increase in unit capacity of electric equipment as well as complication of technological processes, devices control and management of the latter in power plants and substations demonstrate the need to improve the reliability and accuracy of measurement information characterizing the state of the objects being managed. The mentioned objective is particularly important for nuclear power plants, where the price of inaccuracy of measurement responsible process variables is particularly high and the error might lead to irreparable consequences. Improving the reliability and accuracy of measurements along with the improvement of the element base is provided by methods of operational validation. These methods are based on the use of information redundancy (structural, topological, temporal. In particular, information redundancy can be achieved by the simultaneous measurement of one analog variable by two (duplication or three devices (triplication i.e., triple redundancy. The problem of operational control of the triple redundant system of measurement of electrical analog variables (currents, voltages, active and reactive power and energy is considered as a special case of signal processing by an orderly sampling on the basis of majority transformation and transformation being close to majority one. Difficulties in monitoring the reliability of measurements are associated with the two tasks. First, one needs to justify the degree of truncation of the distributions of random errors of measurements and allowable residuals of the pairwise differences of the measurement results. The second task consists in formation of the algorithm of joint processing of a set of separate measurements determined as valid. The quality of control is characterized by the reliability, which adopted the synonym of validity, and accuracy of the measuring system. Taken separately, these indicators might lead to opposite results. A compromise solution is therefore proposed

  18. Reliability of smartphone-based gait measurements for quantification of physical activity/inactivity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebara, Takeshi; Azuma, Ryohei; Shoji, Naoto; Matsukawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Akiyama, Tomohiro; Kurihara, Takahiro; Yamada, Shota

    2017-11-25

    Objective measurements using built-in smartphone sensors that can measure physical activity/inactivity in daily working life have the potential to provide a new approach to assessing workers' health effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the characteristics and reliability of built-in step counting sensors on smartphones for development of an easy-to-use objective measurement tool that can be applied in ergonomics or epidemiological research. To evaluate the reliability of step counting sensors embedded in seven major smartphone models, the 6-minute walk test was conducted and the following analyses of sensor precision and accuracy were performed: 1) relationship between actual step count and step count detected by sensors, 2) reliability between smartphones of the same model, and 3) false detection rates when sitting during office work, while riding the subway, and driving. On five of the seven models, the inter-class correlations coefficient (ICC (3,1) ) showed high reliability with a range of 0.956-0.993. The other two models, however, had ranges of 0.443-0.504 and the relative error ratios of the sensor-detected step count to the actual step count were ±48.7%-49.4%. The level of agreement between the same models was ICC (3,1) : 0.992-0.998. The false detection rates differed between the sitting conditions. These results suggest the need for appropriate regulation of step counts measured by sensors, through means such as correction or calibration with a predictive model formula, in order to obtain the highly reliable measurement results that are sought in scientific investigation.

  19. How to measure distinct components of visual attention fast and reliably

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangkilde, Signe Allerup; Kyllingsbæk, Søren; Habekost, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Measuring different attentional processes in a fast and reliable way is important in both clinical and experimental settings. However, most tests of visual attention are either lengthy or lack sensitivity, specificity, and reliability. To address this we developed a ten minute test procedure...... for the Swedish Betula-project, a longitudinal study investigating changes in cognitive functions over the adult life span (Nilsson et al., 2004). The test consists of a computer-based letter recognition task with stimulus displays of varied durations followed by pattern masks or a blank screen. The temporal...

  20. Reliability and Validity of an Internet-based Questionnaire Measuring Lifetime Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    De Vera, Mary A.; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-01-01

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005–2006. Reliability was examined u...

  1. Reliability and responsiveness of algometry for measuring pressure pain threshold in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Ebru Kaya; Ozdincler, Arzu Razak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to establish the intrarater reliability and responsiveness of a clinically available algometer in patients with knee osteoarthritis as well as to determine the minimum-detectable-change and standard error of measurement of testing to facilitate clinical interpretation of temporal changes. [Subjects] Seventy-three patients with knee osteoarthritis were included. [Methods] Pressure pain threshold measured by algometry was evaluated 3 times at 2-min intervals over 2 cl...

  2. Reliability of the Q Force; a mobile instrument for measuring isometric quadriceps muscle strength

    OpenAIRE

    Schans, van der, C.P.; Zijlstra, W.; Regterschot, G.R.H.; Krijnen, W.P.; Douma, K.W.; Slager, G.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability to generate muscle strength is a pre-requisite for all human movement. Decreased quadriceps muscle strength is frequently observed in older adults and is associated with a decreased performance and activity limitations. To quantify the quadriceps muscle strength and to monitor changes over time, instruments and procedures with a sufficient reliability are needed. The Q Force is an innovative mobile muscle strength measurement instrument suitable to measure in various d...

  3. The Reliability of a Novel Mobile 3-dimensional Wound Measurement Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghel, Ersilia L; Kumar, Anagha; Bigham, Thomas E; Maselli, Kathryn M; Steinberg, John S; Evans, Karen K; Kim, Paul J; Attinger, Christopher E

    2016-11-01

    Objective assessment of wound dimensions is essential for tracking progression and determining treatment effectiveness. A reliability study was designed to establish intrarater and interrater reliability of a novel mobile 3-dimensional wound measurement (3DWM) device. Forty-five wounds were assessed by 2 raters using a 3DWM device to obtain length, width, area, depth, and volume measurements. Wounds were also measured manually, using a disposable ruler and digital planimetry. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to establish intrarater and interrater reliability. High levels of intrarater and interrater agreement were observed for area, length, and width; ICC = 0.998, 0.977, 0.955 and 0.999, 0.997, 0.995, respectively. Moderate levels of intrarater (ICC = 0.888) and interrater (ICC = 0.696) agreement were observed for volume. Lastly, depth yielded an intrarater ICC of 0.360 and an interrater ICC of 0.649. Measures from the 3DWM device were highly correlated with those obtained from scaled photography for length, width, and area (ρ = 0.997, 0.988, 0.997, P device yielded correlations of ρ = 0.990, 0.987, 0.996 with P device was found to be highly reliable for measuring wound areas for a range of wound sizes and types as compared to manual measurement and digital planimetry. The depth and therefore volume measurement using the 3DWM device was found to have a lower ICC, but volume ICC alone was moderate. Overall, this device offers a mobile option for objective wound measurement in the clinical setting.

  4. Measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume using computed tomography: reliability by intra- and inter-observer variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Segelsjoe, Monica; Magnusson, Anders; Andersson, Anna; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background Unlike other solid organ transplants, pancreas allografts can undergo a substantial decrease in baseline volume after transplantation. This phenomenon has not been well characterized, as there are insufficient data on reliable and reproducible volume assessments. We hypothesized that characterization of pancreatic volume by means of computed tomography (CT) could be a useful method for clinical follow-up in pancreas transplant patients. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of pancreatic volume assessment using CT scan in transplanted patients. Material and Methods CT examinations were performed on 21 consecutive patients undergoing pancreas transplantation. Volume measurements were carried out by two observers tracing the pancreatic contours in all slices. The observers performed the measurements twice for each patient. Differences in volume measurement were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Results The intra-observer variability for the pancreatic volume measurements of Observers 1 and 2 was found to be in almost perfect agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 (0.77-0.96) and 0.99 (0.98-1.0), respectively. Regarding inter-observer validity, the ICCs for the first and second measurements were 0.90 (range, 0.77-0.96) and 0.95 (range, 0.85-0.98), respectively. Conclusion CT volumetry is a reliable and reproducible method for measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume

  5. Measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume using computed tomography: reliability by intra- and inter-observer variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundqvist, Eva; Segelsjoe, Monica; Magnusson, Anders [Uppsala Univ., Dept. of Radiology, Oncology and Radiation Science, Section of Radiology, Uppsala (Sweden)], E-mail: eva.lundqvist.8954@student.uu.se; Andersson, Anna; Biglarnia, Ali-Reza [Dept. of Surgical Sciences, Section of Transplantation Surgery, Uppsala Univ. Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    Background Unlike other solid organ transplants, pancreas allografts can undergo a substantial decrease in baseline volume after transplantation. This phenomenon has not been well characterized, as there are insufficient data on reliable and reproducible volume assessments. We hypothesized that characterization of pancreatic volume by means of computed tomography (CT) could be a useful method for clinical follow-up in pancreas transplant patients. Purpose To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of pancreatic volume assessment using CT scan in transplanted patients. Material and Methods CT examinations were performed on 21 consecutive patients undergoing pancreas transplantation. Volume measurements were carried out by two observers tracing the pancreatic contours in all slices. The observers performed the measurements twice for each patient. Differences in volume measurement were used to evaluate intra- and inter-observer variability. Results The intra-observer variability for the pancreatic volume measurements of Observers 1 and 2 was found to be in almost perfect agreement, with an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.90 (0.77-0.96) and 0.99 (0.98-1.0), respectively. Regarding inter-observer validity, the ICCs for the first and second measurements were 0.90 (range, 0.77-0.96) and 0.95 (range, 0.85-0.98), respectively. Conclusion CT volumetry is a reliable and reproducible method for measurement of transplanted pancreatic volume.

  6. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  7. Measuring reliable change in cognition using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Christopher; Newton, Judith; Lonergan, Katie; Madden, Caoifa; Mays, Iain; O'Sullivan, Meabhdh; Costello, Emmet; Pinto-Grau, Marta; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately 50% of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research has indicated that impairment may worsen with disease progression. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was designed to measure neuropsychological functioning in ALS, with its alternate forms (ECAS-A, B, and C) allowing for serial assessment over time. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable change scores for the alternate forms of the ECAS, and to explore practice effects and test-retest reliability of the ECAS's alternate forms. Eighty healthy participants were recruited, with 57 completing two and 51 completing three assessments. Participants were administered alternate versions of the ECAS serially (A-B-C) at four-month intervals. Intra-class correlation analysis was employed to explore test-retest reliability, while analysis of variance was used to examine the presence of practice effects. Reliable change indices (RCI) and regression-based methods were utilized to establish change scores for the ECAS alternate forms. Test-retest reliability was excellent for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total scores of the combined ECAS A, B, and C (all > .90). No significant practice effects were observed over the three testing sessions. RCI and regression-based methods produced similar change scores. The alternate forms of the ECAS possess excellent test-retest reliability in a healthy control sample, with no significant practice effects. The use of conservative RCI scores is recommended. Therefore, a change of ≥8, ≥4, and ≥9 for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total score is required for reliable change.

  8. Inter-rater reliability of measures to characterize the tobacco retail environment in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissa G Hall

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of a data collection instrument to assess the tobacco retail environ- ment in Mexico, after major marketing regulations were implemented. Materials and methods. In 2013, two data collectors independently evaluated 21 stores in two census tracts, through a data collection instrument that assessed the presence of price promotions, whether single cigarettes were sold, the number of visible advertisements, the pre- sence of signage prohibiting the sale of cigarettes to minors, and characteristics of cigarette pack displays. We evaluated the inter-rater reliability of the collected data, through the calculation of metrics such as intraclass correlation coefficient, percent agreement, Cohen’s kappa and Krippendorff’s alpha. Results. Most measures demonstrated substantial or perfect inter-rater reliability. Conclusions. Our results indicate the potential utility of the data collection instrument for future point-of-sale research.

  9. Measures for a reliable and environmental power supply. Massnahmen fuer eine sichere und umweltvertraegliche Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolinski, U; Ziesing, H J

    1978-01-01

    This brochure, supplement and final part of a 1976 DIW study (Reliability, Pricing, and Environmental Aspects of Power Supply), presents the necessary technical and energy policy measures required for achieving certain goals in energy policy. Present and future measures taken in West Germany are presented. Effects and consequences of these steps are investigated, although a quantitative analysis was only possible in a few cases. Measures for ensuring the energy supply are listed according to energy sources; measures to reduce environmental pollution deal with pollutant emissions, thermal pollution, optical and acoustic load factors, and energy conservation.

  10. Confidant Relations in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Isaacs

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Confidants are often described as the individuals with whom we choose to disclose personal, intimate matters. The presence of a confidant is associated with both mental and physical health benefits. In this study, 135 Italian adults responded to a structured questionnaire that asked if they had a confidant, and if so, to describe various features of the relationship. The vast majority of participants (91% reported the presence of a confidant and regarded this relationship as personally important, high in mutuality and trust, and involving minimal lying. Confidants were significantly more likely to be of the opposite sex. Participants overall were significantly more likely to choose a spouse or other family member as their confidant, rather than someone outside of the family network. Familial confidants were generally seen as closer, and of greater value, than non-familial confidants. These findings are discussed within the context of Italian culture.

  11. Measuring walking within and outside the neighborhood in Chinese elders: reliability and validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cerin Ester

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Walking is a preferred, prevalent and recommended activity for aging populations and is influenced by the neighborhood built environment. To study this influence it is necessary to differentiate whether walking occurs within or outside of the neighborhood. The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ collects information on setting-specific physical activity, including walking, inside and outside one's neighborhood. While the NPAQ has shown to be a reliable measure in adults, its reliability in older adults is unknown. Additionally its validity and the influence of type of neighborhood on reliability and validity have yet to be explored. Methods The NPAQ walking component was adapted for Chinese speaking elders (NWQ-CS. Ninety-six Chinese elders, stratified by social economic status and neighborhood walkability, wore an accelerometer and completed a log of walks for 7 days. Following the collection of valid data the NWQ-CS was interviewer-administered. Fourteen to 20 days (average of 17 days later the NWQ-CS was re-administered. Test-retest reliability and validity of the NWQ-CS were assessed. Results Reliability and validity estimates did not differ with type of neighborhood. NWQ-CS measures of walking showed moderate to excellent reliability. Reliability was generally higher for estimates of weekly frequency than minutes of walking. Total weekly minutes of walking were moderately related to all accelerometry measures. Moderate-to-strong associations were found between the NWQ-CS and log-of-walks variables. The NWQ-CS yielded statistically significantly lower mean values of total walking, weekly minutes of walking for transportation and weekly frequency of walking for transportation outside the neighborhood than the log-of-walks. Conclusions The NWQ-CS showed measurement invariance across types of neighborhoods. It is a valid measure of walking for recreation and frequency of walking for transport. However, it may

  12. Reliability of biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscle architecture measurements obtained with ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Bastos de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Introduction Currently, little attention is given to the muscle architecture reliability studies of the hamstring using a robust statistical. Our purpose was to determine the reliability of ultrasound measurements of muscle thickness, fascicle length and pennation angle of the biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, including heteroskedasticity and internal consistency analyses. Methods Two images of biceps femoris and semitendinosus at 50% of the thigh length were acquired from 21 volunteers, in two visits. The parameters were measured three times in each image, and for each muscle. The reliability was analyzed by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and Cronbach’s alpha (αCronbach. The relative standard error of the measurements (%SEM were calculated and Bland-Altman plots were generated. Results All parameters presented excellent ICC for the three repeated measurements (ICC from 0.93 ‒ 0.99 and moderate to excellent reliability intraday (ICC from 0.70 ‒ 0.95 for both muscles. The present study indicates that ultrasound is a reliable tool to estimate the biceps femoris fascicle length (ICC = 0.97, αCronbach = 0.98, %SEM = 7.86 and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.90, αCronbach = 0.95, %SEM = 7.55, as well as the biceps femoris muscle thickness (ICC = 0.89, αCronbach = 0.94, %SEM = 10.23 and semitendinosus muscle thickness (ICC = 0.87, αCronbach = 0.93, %SEM = 1.35. At last, biceps femoris pennation angle (ICC = 0.93, αCronbach = 0.96 and %SEM = 4.36 and semitendinosus (ICC = 0.96, αCronbach = 0.98 and %SEM = 4.25 also had good repeatability. Conclusion Ultrasonography show good repeatability in estimating of muscle architecture parameters.

  13. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia M. Martinho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9 participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96, average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97, and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92 dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice.

  14. Reliability and validity of the Performance Recorder 1 for measuring isometric knee flexor and extensor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Sarah E; Myring, Alec; Peeters, Mon Jef; Pirie, Ian; Jacobs, Rachel; Hunt, Michael A; Garland, S Jayne; Campbell, Kristin L

    2013-11-01

    Muscular strength is a key parameter of rehabilitation programs and a strong predictor of functional capacity. Traditional methods to measure strength, such as manual muscle testing (MMT) and hand-held dynamometry (HHD), are limited by the strength and experience of the tester. The Performance Recorder 1 (PR1) is a strength assessment tool attached to resistance training equipment and may be a time- and cost-effective tool to measure strength in clinical practice that overcomes some limitations of MMT and HHD. However, reliability and validity of the PR1 have not been reported. Test-retest and inter-rater reliability was assessed using the PR1 in healthy adults (n  =  15) during isometric knee flexion and extension. Criterion-related validity was assessed through comparison of values obtained from the PR1 and Biodex® isokinetic dynamometer. Test-retest reliability was excellent for peak knee flexion (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] of 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and knee extension (ICC  =  0.96, 95% CI: 0.87, 0.99). Inter-rater reliability was also excellent for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.95, 95% CI: 0.85, 0.99) and peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.97, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.99). Validity was moderate for peak knee flexion (ICC  =  0.75, 95% CI: 0.38, 0.92) but poor for peak knee extension (ICC  =  0.37, 95% CI: 0, 0.73). The PR1 provides a reliable measure of isometric knee flexor and extensor strength in healthy adults that could be used in the clinical setting, but absolute values may not be comparable to strength assessment by gold-standard measures.

  15. Using VIIRS Day/Night Band to Measure Electricity Supply Reliability: Preliminary Results from Maharashtra, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Mann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Unreliable electricity supplies are common in developing countries and impose large socio-economic costs, yet precise information on electricity reliability is typically unavailable. This paper presents preliminary results from a machine-learning approach for using satellite imagery of nighttime lights to develop estimates of electricity reliability for western India at a finer spatial scale. We use data from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS onboard the Suomi National Polar Partnership (SNPP satellite together with newly-available data from networked household voltage meters. Our results point to the possibilities of this approach as well as areas for refinement. With currently available training data, we find a limited ability to detect individual outages identified by household-level measurements of electricity voltage. This is likely due to the relatively small number of individual outages observed in our preliminary data. However, we find that the approach can estimate electricity reliability rates for individual locations fairly well, with the predicted versus actual regression yielding an R2 > 0.5. We also find that, despite the after midnight overpass time of the SNPP satellite, the reliability estimates derived are representative of daytime reliability.

  16. Measuring conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence in an evaluation of outdoor programs for inner-city youth in Baltimore, Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephanie V; Broaddus, Elena T; Winch, Peter J

    2016-08-01

    Substantial evidence supports the value of outdoor education programs for promoting healthy adolescent development, yet measurement of program outcomes often lacks rigor. Accurately assessing the impacts of programs that seek to promote positive youth development is critical for determining whether youth are benefitting as intended, identifying best practices and areas for improvement, and informing decisions about which programs to invest in. We generated brief, customized instruments for measuring three outcomes among youth participants in Baltimore City Outward Bound programs: conflict management, emotional self-efficacy, and problem solving confidence. Measures were validated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of pilot-testing data from two groups of program participants. We describe our process of identifying outcomes for measurement, developing and adapting measurement instruments, and validating these instruments. The finalized measures support evaluations of outdoor education programs serving urban adolescent youth. Such evaluations enhance accountability by determining if youth are benefiting from programs as intended, and strengthen the case for investment in programs with demonstrated success. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Validity and test-retest reliability of manual goniometers for measuring passive hip range of motion in femoroacetabular impingement patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nussbaumer Silvio

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aims of this study were to evaluate the construct validity (known group, concurrent validity (criterion based and test-retest (intra-rater reliability of manual goniometers to measure passive hip range of motion (ROM in femoroacetabular impingement patients and healthy controls. Methods Passive hip flexion, abduction, adduction, internal and external rotation ROMs were simultaneously measured with a conventional goniometer and an electromagnetic tracking system (ETS on two different testing sessions. A total of 15 patients and 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls participated in the study. Results The goniometer provided greater hip ROM values compared to the ETS (range 2.0-18.9 degrees; P P Conclusions The present study suggests that goniometer-based assessments considerably overestimate hip joint ROM by measuring intersegmental angles (e.g., thigh flexion on trunk for hip flexion rather than true hip ROM. It is likely that uncontrolled pelvic rotation and tilt due to difficulties in placing the goniometer properly and in performing the anatomically correct ROM contribute to the overrating of the arc of these motions. Nevertheless, conventional manual goniometers can be used with confidence for longitudinal assessments in the clinic.

  18. Reliability and Validity of a Newly Developed Measure of Citizenship Among Persons with Mental Illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria J; Clayton, Ashley; Rowe, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Following development of a 46-item of measure citizenship, a framework for supporting the full membership in society of persons with mental illness, this study tested the measure's reliability and validity. 110 persons from a mental health center completed a questionnaire packet containing the citizenship measure and other measures to assess internal consistency and validity of the citizenship instrument. Correlation matrices were examined for associations between the citizenship instrument and other measures. Stepwise regression examines demographic factors, sense of community, and social capital as predictors of citizenship, recovery, and well-being. Analyses revealed that the measure is psychometrically sound. The measure captures subjective information about the degree to which individuals experience rights, sense of belonging, and other factors associated with community membership that have been previously difficult to assess. The measure establishes a platform for interventions to support the full participation in society of persons with mental illnesses.

  19. Self-report measures of prospective memory are reliable but not valid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttl, Bob; Kibreab, Mekale

    2011-03-01

    Are self-report measures of prospective memory (ProM) reliable and valid? To examine this question, 240 undergraduate student volunteers completed several widely used self-report measures of ProM including the Prospective Memory Questionnaire (PMQ), the Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire (PRMQ), the Comprehensive Assessment of Prospective Memory (CAPM) questionnaire, self-reports of retrospective memory (RetM), objective measures of ProM and RetM, and measures of involvement in activities and events, memory strategies and aids use, personality and verbal intelligence. The results showed that both convergent and divergent validity of ProM self-reports are poor, even though we assessed ProM using a newly developed, reliable continuous measure. Further analyses showed that a substantial proportion of variability in ProM self-report scores was due to verbal intelligence, personality (conscientiousness, neuroticism), activities and event involvement (busyness), and use of memory strategies and aids. ProM self-reports have adequate reliability, but poor validity and should not be interpreted as reflecting ProM ability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. The reliability of a severity rating scale to measure stuttering in an unfamiliar language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Laura; Wilson, Linda; Copley, Anna; Hewat, Sally; Lim, Valerie

    2014-06-01

    With increasing multiculturalism, speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are likely to work with stuttering clients from linguistic backgrounds that differ from their own. No research to date has estimated SLPs' reliability when measuring severity of stuttering in an unfamiliar language. Therefore, this study was undertaken to estimate the reliability of SLPs' use of a 9-point severity rating (SR) scale, to measure severity of stuttering in a language that was different from their own. Twenty-six Australian SLPs rated 20 speech samples (10 Australian English [AE] and 10 Mandarin) of adults who stutter using a 9-point SR scale on two separate occasions. Judges showed poor agreement when using the scale to measure stuttering in Mandarin samples. Results also indicated that 50% of individual judges were unable to reliably measure the severity of stuttering in AE. The results highlight the need for (a) SLPs to develop intra- and inter-judge agreement when using the 9-point SR scale to measure severity of stuttering in their native language (in this case AE) and in unfamiliar languages; and (b) research into the development and evaluation of practice and/or training packages to assist SLPs to do so.

  1. Quantitative outcome measures for systemic sclerosis-related Microangiopathy - Reliability of image acquisition in Nailfold Capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinsdale, Graham; Moore, Tonia; O'Leary, Neil; Berks, Michael; Roberts, Christopher; Manning, Joanne; Allen, John; Anderson, Marina; Cutolo, Maurizio; Hesselstrand, Roger; Howell, Kevin; Pizzorni, Carmen; Smith, Vanessa; Sulli, Alberto; Wildt, Marie; Taylor, Christopher; Murray, Andrea; Herrick, Ariane L

    2017-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopic parameters hold increasing promise as outcome measures for clinical trials in systemic sclerosis (SSc). Their inclusion as outcomes would often naturally require capillaroscopy images to be captured at several time points during any one study. Our objective was to assess repeatability of image acquisition (which has been little studied), as well as of measurement. 41 patients (26 with SSc, 15 with primary Raynaud's phenomenon) and 10 healthy controls returned for repeat high-magnification (300×) videocapillaroscopy mosaic imaging of 10 digits one week after initial imaging (as part of a larger study of reliability). Images were assessed in a random order by an expert blinded observer and 4 outcome measures extracted: (1) overall image grade and then (where possible) distal vessel locations were marked, allowing (2) vessel density (across the whole nailfold) to be calculated (3) apex width measurement and (4) giant vessel count. Intra-rater, intra-visit and intra-rater inter-visit (baseline vs. 1week) reliability were examined in 475 and 392 images respectively. A linear, mixed-effects model was used to estimate variance components, from which intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined. Intra-visit and inter-visit reliability estimates (ICCs) were (respectively): overall image grade, 0.97 and 0.90; vessel density, 0.92 and 0.65; mean vessel width, 0.91 and 0.79; presence of giant capillary, 0.68 and 0.56. These estimates were conditional on each parameter being measurable. Within-operator image analysis and acquisition are reproducible. Quantitative nailfold capillaroscopy, at least with a single observer, provides reliable outcome measures for clinical studies including randomised controlled trials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Research on reliability measures of the main transformer and GIS equipment manufacturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Honglong

    2014-01-01

    Based on the accidents of the main transformer GIS equipment and the accidents of the high voltage switch equipment, combined with the main transformer switch equipment maintenance experience and electrical theory, the reliability measures of the main transformer GIS equipment during manufacturing stage are studied and improved. Six successful reliability measures are identified: 1) design properly and check the ability of transformer for anti short circuit; 2) choose mature and reliable main transformer HV bushing; 3) choose GIS switch operation mechanism of high quality and reliability; 4) ensure that the insulation margin through tests piece by piece on withstand voltage and partial discharge of the GIS equipment insulation; 5) take test measures such as GIS conductor, shell polishing witness process and full form lightning impulse, to find out and eliminate the defects of abnormal electric field distribution; 6) Anti VFTO design for the main transformer connected with GIS with the voltage of 500 kV should be considered, and its anti VFTO ability to meet the safe operation under VFTO requirements should be checked. This paper proposed 2 new measures: 1) the main transformer insulation material quality standard is determined not only by its high dielectric strength, but more importantly by the homogeneous dielectric electric strength. Insulating Materials with a high and also uniform dielectric strength should be chosen. 2) During the silver-coating stage of the GIS equipment conductor, QC group activities should be organized to ensure that the plating layer quality, and the current lap surface DC resistance measurements should be supervised and witnessed to ensure the quality of the conductor contact surface. These measures are verified in Fuqing project of GIS main transformer equipment manufacturing process, and their effectiveness is proven. (author)

  3. Measurement of the Inter-Rater Reliability Rate Is Mandatory for Improving the Quality of a Medical Database: Experience with the Paulista Lung Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauricella, Leticia L; Costa, Priscila B; Salati, Michele; Pego-Fernandes, Paulo M; Terra, Ricardo M

    2018-06-01

    Database quality measurement should be considered a mandatory step to ensure an adequate level of confidence in data used for research and quality improvement. Several metrics have been described in the literature, but no standardized approach has been established. We aimed to describe a methodological approach applied to measure the quality and inter-rater reliability of a regional multicentric thoracic surgical database (Paulista Lung Cancer Registry). Data from the first 3 years of the Paulista Lung Cancer Registry underwent an audit process with 3 metrics: completeness, consistency, and inter-rater reliability. The first 2 methods were applied to the whole data set, and the last method was calculated using 100 cases randomized for direct auditing. Inter-rater reliability was evaluated using percentage of agreement between the data collector and auditor and through calculation of Cohen's κ and intraclass correlation. The overall completeness per section ranged from 0.88 to 1.00, and the overall consistency was 0.96. Inter-rater reliability showed many variables with high disagreement (>10%). For numerical variables, intraclass correlation was a better metric than inter-rater reliability. Cohen's κ showed that most variables had moderate to substantial agreement. The methodological approach applied to the Paulista Lung Cancer Registry showed that completeness and consistency metrics did not sufficiently reflect the real quality status of a database. The inter-rater reliability associated with κ and intraclass correlation was a better quality metric than completeness and consistency metrics because it could determine the reliability of specific variables used in research or benchmark reports. This report can be a paradigm for future studies of data quality measurement. Copyright © 2018 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of shoulders with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: reliability of measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, Francois; Demaille-Wlodyka, Samantha; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Poiraudeau, Serge; Revel, Michel [Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine, Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Paris (France); Drape, Jean-Luc; Diche, Thierry; Minvielle, Francois [Hopital Cochin (AP-HP), Department of Radiology B, Paris (France); Fermanian, Jacques [Universite Rene Descartes, Department of Biostatistics, Hopital Necker (AP-HP), Paris (France)

    2005-12-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (AC) were compared with those of contralateral healthy shoulders and the reliability of measures assessed. Twenty-six consecutive patients (26 AC and 14 healthy shoulders) were prospectively assessed. The main measurements were thickness of the joint capsule and synovial membrane in the axillary recess and rotator interval in T1-weighted spin-echo sequence enhanced with intravenous (IV) gadolinium chelate (Gd-chelate). Reliability was studied by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean thickness of the axillary recess on the coronal plane was 9.0{+-}2.2 mm in AC shoulders and 0.4{+-}0.7 mm in healthy shoulders. The mean thickness of the rotator interval on the sagittal plane was 8.4{+-}2.8 in AC shoulders and 0.6{+-}0.8 mm in healthy shoulders. Interobserver reliability was good for the axillary recess, with ICC values of 0.84 for the coronal plane, and good for the rotator interval, with ICC values of 0.80 for the sagittal plane. MRI with IV Gd-chelate injection can show, with acceptable reliability, signal and thickness abnormalities of the shoulder joint capsule and synovial membrane in AC. (orig.)

  5. Reliability and Validity of the Behavioral Addiction Measure for Video Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, James L; Williams, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Most tests of video game addiction have weak construct validity and limited ability to correctly identify people in denial. The purpose of the present research was to investigate the reliability and validity of a new test of video game addiction (Behavioral Addiction Measure-Video Gaming [BAM-VG]) that was developed in part to address these deficiencies. Regular adult video gamers (n = 506) were recruited from a Canadian online panel and completed a survey containing three measures of excessive video gaming (BAM-VG; DSM-5 criteria for Internet Gaming Disorder [IGD]; and the IGD-20), as well as questions concerning extensiveness of video game involvement and self-report of problems associated with video gaming. One month later, they were reassessed for the purposes of establishing test-retest reliability. The BAM-VG demonstrated good internal consistency as well as 1 month test-retest reliability. Criterion-related validity was demonstrated by significant correlations with the following: time spent playing, self-identification of video game problems, and scores on other instruments designed to assess video game addiction (DSM-5 IGD, IGD-20). Consistent with the theory, principal component analysis identified two components underlying the BAM-VG that roughly correspond with impaired control and significant negative consequences deriving from this impaired control. Together with its excellent construct validity and other technical features, the BAM-VG represents a reliable and valid test of video game addiction.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of shoulders with idiopathic adhesive capsulitis: reliability of measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, Francois; Demaille-Wlodyka, Samantha; Mayoux-Benhamou, Marie-Anne; Poiraudeau, Serge; Revel, Michel; Drape, Jean-Luc; Diche, Thierry; Minvielle, Francois; Fermanian, Jacques

    2005-01-01

    The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in idiopathic adhesive capsulitis (AC) were compared with those of contralateral healthy shoulders and the reliability of measures assessed. Twenty-six consecutive patients (26 AC and 14 healthy shoulders) were prospectively assessed. The main measurements were thickness of the joint capsule and synovial membrane in the axillary recess and rotator interval in T1-weighted spin-echo sequence enhanced with intravenous (IV) gadolinium chelate (Gd-chelate). Reliability was studied by use of the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The mean thickness of the axillary recess on the coronal plane was 9.0±2.2 mm in AC shoulders and 0.4±0.7 mm in healthy shoulders. The mean thickness of the rotator interval on the sagittal plane was 8.4±2.8 in AC shoulders and 0.6±0.8 mm in healthy shoulders. Interobserver reliability was good for the axillary recess, with ICC values of 0.84 for the coronal plane, and good for the rotator interval, with ICC values of 0.80 for the sagittal plane. MRI with IV Gd-chelate injection can show, with acceptable reliability, signal and thickness abnormalities of the shoulder joint capsule and synovial membrane in AC. (orig.)

  7. Reliability generalization of the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrington, Hayley M; Smith, Timothy B; Feinauer, Erika; Griner, Derek

    2016-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 63(5) of Journal of Counseling Psychology (see record 2016-33161-001). The name of author Erika Feinauer was misspelled as Erika Feinhauer. All versions of this article have been corrected.] Individuals' strength of ethnic identity has been linked with multiple positive indicators, including academic achievement and overall psychological well-being. The measure researchers use most often to assess ethnic identity, the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), underwent substantial revision in 2007. To inform scholars investigating ethnic identity, we performed a reliability generalization analysis on data from the revised version (MEIM-R) and compared it with data from the original MEIM. Random-effects weighted models evaluated internal consistency coefficients (Cronbach's alpha). Reliability coefficients for the MEIM-R averaged α = .88 across 37 samples, a statistically significant increase over the average of α = .84 for the MEIM across 75 studies. Reliability coefficients for the MEIM-R did not differ across study and participant characteristics such as sample gender and ethnic composition. However, consistently lower reliability coefficients averaging α = .81 were found among participants with low levels of education, suggesting that greater attention to data reliability is warranted when evaluating the ethnic identity of individuals such as middle-school students. Future research will be needed to ascertain whether data with other measures of aspects of personal identity (e.g., racial identity, gender identity) also differ as a function of participant level of education and associated cognitive or maturation processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Reliability and concurrent validity of the iPhone® Compass application to measure thoracic rotation range of motion (ROM) in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ben; Cox, Alistair J.; Anderson, Sarah L.; Keogh, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Background Several water-based sports (swimming, surfing and stand up paddle boarding) require adequate thoracic mobility (specifically rotation) in order to perform the appropriate activity requirements. The measurement of thoracic spine rotation is problematic for clinicians due to a lack of convenient and reliable measurement techniques. More recently, smartphones have been used to quantify movement in various joints in the body; however, there appears to be a paucity of research using smartphones to assess thoracic spine movement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability (intra and inter rater) and validity of the iPhone® app (Compass) when assessing thoracic spine rotation ROM in healthy individuals. Methods A total of thirty participants were recruited for this study. Thoracic spine rotation ROM was measured using both the current clinical gold standard, a universal goniometer (UG) and the Smart Phone Compass app. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was determined with a Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Validation of the Compass app in comparison to the UG was measured using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and levels of agreement were identified with Bland–Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. Results Both the UG and Compass app measurements both had excellent reproducibility for intra-rater (ICC 0.94–0.98) and inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.72–0.89). However, the Compass app measurements had higher intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.96 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.93–0.99]; vs. ICC = 0.94 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.88–0.99]) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87 − 0.89; 95% CI [0.74–0.95] vs. ICC = 0.72 − 0.82; 95% CI [0.21–0.94]). A strong and significant correlation was found between the UG and the Compass app, demonstrating good concurrent validity (r = 0.835, p reliable tool for measuring thoracic spine rotation which produces greater

  9. Reliability of BOD POD Measurements Remains High After a Short-Duration Low-Carbohydrate Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Beau Kjerulf; Edsall, Kathleen M; Greer, Anna E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether expected changes in body weight via a 3-day low-carbohydrate (LC) diet will disrupt the reliability of air displacement plethysmography measurements via BOD POD. Twenty-four subjects recorded their typical diets for 3 days before BOD POD and 7-site skinfold analyses. Subjects were matched for lean body mass and divided into low-CHO (LC) and control (CON) groups. The LC group was given instruction intended to prevent more than 50 grams/day of carbohydrate consumption for 3 consecutive days, and the CON group replicated their previously recorded diet. Body composition measurements were repeated after dietary intervention. Test-retest reliability measures were significant (p fat percentage in both the LC and the CON groups (rs = .993 and .965, respectively). Likewise, skinfold analysis for body fat percentage reliability was high in both groups (rs = .996 and .997, respectively). There were significant differences between 1st and 2nd BOD POD measurements for body mass (72.9 ± 13.3 vs. 72.1 ± 13.0 kg [M ± SD]) and body volume (69.0 ± 12.7-68.1 ± 12.2 L) in the LC group (p .05) in BOD POD-determined body fat percentage, lean body mass, or fat mass between the 1st and 2nd trial in either group. Body composition measures via BOD POD and 7-site skinfolds remain reliable after 3 days of an LC diet despite significant decreases in body mass.

  10. Reliability, precision, and measurement in the context of data from ability tests, surveys, and assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, W P Jr; Elbaum, B; Coulter, A

    2010-01-01

    Reliability coefficients indicate the proportion of total variance attributable to differences among measures separated along a quantitative continuum by a testing, survey, or assessment instrument. Reliability is usually considered to be influenced by both the internal consistency of a data set and the number of items, though textbooks and research papers rarely evaluate the extent to which these factors independently affect the data in question. Probabilistic formulations of the requirements for unidimensional measurement separate consistency from error by modelling individual response processes instead of group-level variation. The utility of this separation is illustrated via analyses of small sets of simulated data, and of subsets of data from a 78-item survey of over 2,500 parents of children with disabilities. Measurement reliability ultimately concerns the structural invariance specified in models requiring sufficient statistics, parameter separation, unidimensionality, and other qualities that historically have made quantification simple, practical, and convenient for end users. The paper concludes with suggestions for a research program aimed at focusing measurement research more on the calibration and wide dissemination of tools applicable to individuals, and less on the statistical study of inter-variable relations in large data sets.

  11. Intra-rater reliability of hallux flexor strength measures using the Nintendo Wii Balance Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, June; Treleaven, Julia; Brauer, Sandra G; O'Leary, Shaun; Clark, Ross A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability of a new method in combination with the Nintendo Wii Balance Board (NWBB) to measure the strength of hallux flexor muscle. Thirty healthy individuals (age: 34.9 ± 12.9 years, height: 170.4 ± 10.5 cm, weight: 69.3 ± 15.3 kg, female = 15) participated. Repeated testing was completed within 7 days. Participants performed strength testing in sitting using a wooden platform in combination with the NWBB. This new method was set up to selectively recruit an intrinsic muscle of the foot, specifically the flexor hallucis brevis muscle. Statistical analysis was performed using intra-class coefficients and ordinary least product analysis. To estimate measurement error, standard error of measurement (SEM), minimal detectable change (MDC) and percentage error were calculated. Results indicate excellent intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.982, CI = 0.96-0.99) with an absence of systematic bias. SEM, MDC and percentage error value were 0.5, 1.4 and 12 % respectively. This study demonstrates that a new method in combination with the NWBB application is reliable to measure hallux flexor strength and has potential to be used for future research and clinical application.

  12. Reliability, precision, and gender differences in knee internal/external rotation proprioception measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takashi; Sell, Timothy C; Abt, John P; Lephart, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    To develop and assess the reliability and precision of knee internal/external rotation (IR/ER) threshold to detect passive motion (TTDPM) and determine if gender differences exist. Test-retest for the reliability/precision and cross-sectional for gender comparisons. University neuromuscular and human performance research laboratory. Ten subjects for the reliability and precision aim. Twenty subjects (10 males and 10 females) for gender comparisons. All TTDPM tests were performed using a multi-mode dynamometer. Subjects performed TTDPM at two knee positions (near IR or ER end-range). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC (3,k)) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to evaluate the reliability and precision. Independent t-tests were used to compare genders. TTDPM toward IR and ER at two knee positions. Intrasession and intersession reliability and precision were good (ICC=0.68-0.86; SEM=0.22°-0.37°). Females had significantly diminished TTDPM toward IR at IR-test position (males: 0.77°±0.14°, females: 1.18°±0.46°, p=0.021) and TTDPM toward IR at the ER-test position (males: 0.87°±0.13°, females: 1.36°±0.58°, p=0.026). No other significant gender differences were found (p>0.05). The current IR/ER TTDPM methods are reliable and accurate for the test-retest or cross-section research design. Gender differences were found toward IR where the ACL acts as the secondary restraint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cyber Physical Systems for User Reliability Measurements in a Sharing Economy Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Aria; Jeong, Junho; Kim, Yeichang

    2017-08-13

    As the sharing economic market grows, the number of users is also increasing but many problems arise in terms of reliability between providers and users in the processing of services. The existing methods provide shared economic systems that judge the reliability of the provider from the viewpoint of the user. In this paper, we have developed a system for establishing mutual trust between providers and users in a shared economic environment to solve existing problems. In order to implement a system that can measure and control users' situation in a shared economic environment, we analyzed the necessary factors in a cyber physical system (CPS). In addition, a user measurement system based on a CPS structure in a sharing economic environment is implemented through analysis of the factors to consider when constructing a CPS.

  14. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in many engineering problems as well as in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbines by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 min. - Highlights: • Semi-Markov models. • Time series generation of wind speed. • Computation of availability, reliability and maintainability.

  15. The validity and reliability of the Functional Strength Measurement (FSM) in children with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aertssen, W F M; Steenbergen, B; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2018-06-07

    There is lack of valid and reliable field-based tests for assessing functional strength in young children with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). The aim of this study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and construct validity of the Functional Strength Measurement in children with ID (FSM-ID). Fifty-two children with mild ID (40 boys and 12 girls, mean age 8.48 years, SD = 1.48) were tested with the FSM. Test-retest reliability (n = 32) was examined by a two-way interclass correlation coefficient for agreement (ICC 2.1A). Standard error of measurement and smallest detectable change were calculated. Construct validity was determined by calculating correlations between the FSM-ID and handheld dynamometry (HHD) (convergent validity), FSM-ID, FSM-ID and subtest strength of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency - second edition (BOT-2) (convergent validity) and the FSM-ID and balance subtest of the BOT-2 (discriminant validity). Test-retest reliability ICC ranged 0.89-0.98. Correlation between the items of the FSM-ID and HHD ranged 0.39-0.79 and between FSM-ID and BOT-2 (strength items) 0.41-0.80. Correlation between items of the FSM-ID and BOT-2 (balance items) ranged 0.41-0.70. The FSM-ID showed good test-retest reliability and good convergent validity with the HHD and BOT-2 subtest strength. The correlations assessing discriminant validity were higher than expected. Poor levels of postural control and core stability in children with mild IDs may be the underlying factor of those higher correlations. © 2018 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inter-rater reliability of kinesthetic measurements with the KINARM robotic exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2017-05-22

    Kinesthesia (sense of limb movement) has been extremely difficult to measure objectively, especially in individuals who have survived a stroke. The development of valid and reliable measurements for proprioception is important to developing a better understanding of proprioceptive impairments after stroke and their impact on the ability to perform daily activities. We recently developed a robotic task to evaluate kinesthetic deficits after stroke and found that the majority (~60%) of stroke survivors exhibit significant deficits in kinesthesia within the first 10 days post-stroke. Here we aim to determine the inter-rater reliability of this robotic kinesthetic matching task. Twenty-five neurologically intact control subjects and 15 individuals with first-time stroke were evaluated on a robotic kinesthetic matching task (KIN). Subjects sat in a robotic exoskeleton with their arms supported against gravity. In the KIN task, the robot moved the subjects' stroke-affected arm at a preset speed, direction and distance. As soon as subjects felt the robot begin to move their affected arm, they matched the robot movement with the unaffected arm. Subjects were tested in two sessions on the KIN task: initial session and then a second session (within an average of 18.2 ± 13.8 h of the initial session for stroke subjects), which were supervised by different technicians. The task was performed both with and without the use of vision in both sessions. We evaluated intra-class correlations of spatial and temporal parameters derived from the KIN task to determine the reliability of the robotic task. We evaluated 8 spatial and temporal parameters that quantify kinesthetic behavior. We found that the parameters exhibited moderate to high intra-class correlations between the initial and retest conditions (Range, r-value = [0.53-0.97]). The robotic KIN task exhibited good inter-rater reliability. This validates the KIN task as a reliable, objective method for quantifying

  17. The effect of the spatial positioning of items on the reliability of questionnaires measuring affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh Leo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Extant research has shown that the relationship between spatial location and affect may have pervasive effects on evaluation. In particular, experimental findings on embodied cognition indicate that a person is spatially orientated to position what is positive at the top and what is negative at the bottom (vertical spatial orientation, and to a lesser extent, to position what is positive on the left and what is negative on the right (horizontal spatial orientation. It is therefore hypothesised, that when there is congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire, the reliability will be higher than in the case of incongruence. Research purpose: The principal objective of the two studies reported here was to ascertain the extent to which congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the layout of the questionnaire (spatial positioning of questionnaire items may impact on the reliability of a questionnaire measuring affect. Motivation for the study: The spatial position of items on a questionnaire measuring affect may indirectly impact on the reliability of the questionnaire. Research approach, design and method: In both studies, a controlled experimental research design was conducted using a sample of university students (n = 1825. Major findings: In both experiments, evidence was found to support the hypothesis that greater congruence between a respondent’s spatial orientation (related to affect and the spatial positioning (layout of a questionnaire leads to higher reliability on a questionnaire measuring affect. Practical implications: These findings may serve to create awareness of the influence of the spatial positioning of items as a confounding variable in questionnaire design. Contribution/value-add: Overall, this research complements previous studies by confirming the metaphorical representation of affect and

  18. Reliability and reproducibility of disc-foveal angle measurements by non-mydriatic fundus photography

    OpenAIRE

    Le Jeune, Caroline; Chebli, Fayçal; Leon, Lorette; Anthoine, Emmanuelle; Weber, Michel; Péchereau, Alain; Lebranchu, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Abnormal torsion could be associated with cyclovertical strabismus, but torsion measurements are not reliable in children. To assess an objective fundus torsion evaluation in a paediatric population, we used Non-Mydriatic Fundus photography (NMFP) in healthy and cyclovertical strabismus patients to evaluate the disc-foveal angle over time and observers. Methods We used a retrospective set of NMFP including 24 A or V-pattern strabismus and 27 age-matched normal children (mean age 6.4 a...

  19. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  20. Intra- and inter-observer agreement and reliability of bone mineral density measurements around acetabular cup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder; Overgaard, Soren; Torfing, Trine

    2017-01-01

    in measuring bone density (BMD) in complex anatomic structures which might be overcome using dual-energy computed tomography (DECT).PurposeTo test inter- and intra-observer agreement and reliability of in-house segmentation software measuring BMD adjacent to acetabular cup and to compare measurements performed...... with single-energy CT (SECT) and DECT in cemented and cementless cups.Material and Methods: Twenty-four acetabular cups inserted in porcine hip specimens were scanned with SECT and DECT. Bone density was measured in a three-dimensional volume adjacent to the cup. Double measurements were performed.......Results: BMD derived from SECT was approximately four times higher than that of DECT. In both scan modes, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was >0.90 with no differences between repeated measurements, except for uncemented cups where a statistically significant difference of 11 mg/cm3 was found...

  1. Reliability of Ultrasonographic Measurement of Cervical Multifidus Muscle Dimensions during Isometric Contraction of Neck Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Amiri Arimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical multifidus is considered as one of the most important neck stabilizers. Weakness and muscular atrophy of this muscle were seen in patients with chronic neck pain. Ultrasonographic imaging is a non-invasive and feasible technique that commonly used to record such changes and measure muscle dimensions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions during isometric contraction of neck muscles. Materials and Method: Ten subjects (5 patients with chronic neck pain and 5 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions were measured at the level of forth cervical vertebrae. Ultrasonographic measurement of cervical multifidus muscle at rest, 50% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC were performed by one examiner within 1 week interval. The dimensions of cervical multifidus muscle including cross-sectional area (CSA, anterior posterior dimension (APD, and lateral dimension (LD were measured. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC were computed for data analysis.Results: The between days reliability of maximum strength of neck muscles and multifidus muscle dimensions at rest, 50% and 100% of MVC of neck muscles were good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.99.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ultrasonographic measuring of cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions during isometric contraction of neck muscles at the level of C4 in females with chronic neck pain and healthy subjects is a reliable and repeatable method.

  2. Quantifying frontal plane knee motion during single limb squats: reliability and validity of 2-dimensional measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Craig R; Curran, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    Clinical assessment of lower limb kinematics during dynamic tasks may identify individuals who demonstrate abnormal movement patterns that may lead to etiology of exacerbation of knee conditions such as patellofemoral joint (PFJt) pain. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability, validity and associated measurement error of a clinically appropriate two-dimensional (2-D) procedure of quantifying frontal plane knee alignment during single limb squats. Nine female and nine male recreationally active subjects with no history of PFJt pain had frontal plane limb alignment assessed using three-dimensional (3-D) motion analysis and digital video cameras (2-D analysis) while performing single limb squats. The association between 2-D and 3-D measures was quantified using Pearson's product correlation coefficients. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were determined for within- and between-session reliability of 2-D data and standard error of measurement (SEM) was used to establish measurement error. Frontal plane limb alignment assessed with 2-D analysis demonstrated good correlation compared with 3-D methods (r = 0.64 to 0.78, p < 0.001). Within-session (0.86) and between-session ICCs (0.74) demonstrated good reliability for 2-D measures and SEM scores ranged from 2° to 4°. 2-D measures have good consistency and may provide a valid measure of lower limb alignment when compared to existing 3-D methods. Assessment of lower limb kinematics using 2-D methods may be an accurate and clinically useful alternative to 3-D motion analysis when identifying individuals who demonstrate abnormal movement patterns associated with PFJt pain. 2b.

  3. Reliability of corneal dynamic scheimpflug analyser measurements in virgin and post-PRK eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK eyes and compare the results between these two groups. METHODS: Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. RESULTS: The intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC ≧ 0.90 in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC ≧ 0.88. The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r = 0.437 and 0.483, respectively, p<0.05 and negatively with deformation amplitude (r = -0.384 and -0.375, respectively, p<0.05 in both groups. Compared to post-PRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29 ± 0.21 vs. 6.96 ± 0.17 ms, p<0.05 and lower deformation amplitude (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.17 ± 0.08 mm, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: CorVis ST demonstrated reliable measurements for CCT, IOP, and 1st applanation time, as well as relatively reliable measurement for deformation amplitude in both virgin and post-PRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter.

  4. The reliability and validity of fatigue measures during short-duration maximal-intensity intermittent cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Stone, Michael H; Stewart, Andrew M; Hughes, Michael; Moir, Gavin L

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the reliability and validity of fatigue measures, as derived from 4 separate formulae, during tests of repeat sprint ability. On separate days over a 3-week period, 2 groups of 7 recreationally active men completed 6 trials of 1 of 2 maximal (20 x 5 seconds) intermittent cycling tests with contrasting recovery periods (10 or 30 seconds). All trials were conducted on a friction-braked cycle ergometer, and fatigue scores were derived from measures of mean power output for each sprint. Apart from formula 1, which calculated fatigue from the percentage difference in mean power output between the first and last sprint, all remaining formulae produced fatigue scores that showed a reasonably good level of test-retest reliability in both intermittent test protocols (intraclass correlation range: 0.78-0.86; 95% likely range of true values: 0.54-0.97). Although between-protocol differences in the magnitude of the fatigue scores suggested good construct validity, within-protocol differences highlighted limitations with each formula. Overall, the results support the use of the percentage decrement score as the most valid and reliable measure of fatigue during brief maximal intermittent work.

  5. Opportunities for measuring wheelchair kinematics in match settings; reliability of a three inertial sensor configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Slikke, R M A; Berger, M A M; Bregman, D J J; Lagerberg, A H; Veeger, H E J

    2015-09-18

    Knowledge of wheelchair kinematics during a match is prerequisite for performance improvement in wheelchair basketball. Unfortunately, no measurement system providing key kinematic outcomes proved to be reliable in competition. In this study, the reliability of estimated wheelchair kinematics based on a three inertial measurement unit (IMU) configuration was assessed in wheelchair basketball match-like conditions. Twenty participants performed a series of tests reflecting different motion aspects of wheelchair basketball. During the tests wheelchair kinematics were simultaneously measured using IMUs on wheels and frame, and a 24-camera optical motion analysis system serving as gold standard. Results showed only small deviations of the IMU method compared to the gold standard, once a newly developed skid correction algorithm was applied. Calculated Root Mean Square Errors (RMSE) showed good estimates for frame displacement (RMSE≤0.05 m) and speed (RMSE≤0.1m/s), except for three truly vigorous tests. Estimates of frame rotation in the horizontal plane (RMSE0.90), rotational speed (ICC>0.99) and IRC (ICC> 0.90) showed high correlations between IMU data and gold standard. IMU based estimation of wheelchair kinematics provided reliable results, except for brief moments of wheel skidding in truly vigorous tests. The IMU method is believed to enable prospective research in wheelchair basketball match conditions and contribute to individual support of athletes in everyday sports practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reliability and Correlation of Static and Dynamic Foot Arch Measurement in a Healthy Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Timo; Zech, Astrid; Wegscheider, Karl; Lezius, Susanne; Braumann, Klaus-Michael; Sehner, Susanne; Hollander, Karsten

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of the medial longitudinal foot arch in children is a controversial topic, as there are many different methods without a definite standard procedure. The purpose of this study was to 1) investigate intraday and interrater reliability regarding dynamic arch index and static arch height, 2) explore the correlation between both arch indices, and 3) examine the variation of the medial longitudinal arch at two different times of the day. Eighty-six children (mean ± SD age, 8.9 ± 1.9 years) participated in the study. Dynamic footprint data were captured with a pedobarographic platform. For static arch measurements, a specially constructed caliper was used to assess heel-to-toe length and dorsum height. A mixed model was established to determine reliability and variation. Reliability was found to be excellent for the static arch height index in sitting (intraday, 0.90; interrater, 0.80) and standing positions (0.88 and 0.85) and for the dynamic arch index (both 1.00). There was poor correlation between static and dynamic assessment of the medial longitudinal arch (standing dynamic arch index, r = -0.138; sitting dynamic arch index, r = -0.070). Static measurements were found to be significantly influenced by the time of day (P body mass index (P mind. For clinical purposes, static and dynamic arch data should be interpreted separately.

  7. Reliability of cervical lordosis and global sagittal spinal balance measurements in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Christophe; Ilharreborde, Brice; Azoulay, Robin; Sebag, Guy; Mazda, Keyvan

    2013-06-01

    Radiological reproducibility study. To assess intra and interobserver reliability of radiographic measurements for global sagittal balance parameters and sagittal spine curves, including cervical spine. Sagittal spine balance in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a main issue and many studies have been reported, showing that coronal and sagittal deformities often involve sagittal cervical unbalance. Global sagittal balance aims to obtain a horizontal gaze and gravity line at top of hips when subject is in a static position, involving adjustment of each spine curvature in the sagittal plane. To our knowledge, no study did use a methodologically validated imaging analysis tool able to appreciate sagittal spine contours and distances in AIS and especially in the cervical region. Lateral full-spine low-dose EOS radiographs were performed in 75 patients divided in three groups (control subjects, AIS, operated AIS). Three observers digitally analyzed twice each radiograph and 11 sagittal measures were collected for each image. Reliability was assessed calculating intraobserver Pearson's r correlation coefficient, interobserver intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) completed with a two-by-two Bland-Altman plot analysis. This measurement method has shown excellent intra and interobserver reliability in all parameters, sagittal curvatures, pelvic parameters and global sagittal balance. This study validated a simple and efficient tool in AIS sagittal contour analysis. It defined new relevant landmarks allowing to characterize cervical segmental curvatures and cervical involvement in global balance.

  8. Inertial Measurement Units for Clinical Movement Analysis: Reliability and Concurrent Validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Al-Amri

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability and concurrent validity of a commercially available Xsens MVN BIOMECH inertial-sensor-based motion capture system during clinically relevant functional activities. A clinician with no prior experience of motion capture technologies and an experienced clinical movement scientist each assessed 26 healthy participants within each of two sessions using a camera-based motion capture system and the MVN BIOMECH system. Participants performed overground walking, squatting, and jumping. Sessions were separated by 4 ± 3 days. Reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of measurement, and validity was evaluated using the coefficient of multiple correlation and the linear fit method. Day-to-day reliability was generally fair-to-excellent in all three planes for hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in all three tasks. Within-day (between-rater reliability was fair-to-excellent in all three planes during walking and squatting, and poor-to-high during jumping. Validity was excellent in the sagittal plane for hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in all three tasks and acceptable in frontal and transverse planes in squat and jump activity across joints. Our results suggest that the MVN BIOMECH system can be used by a clinician to quantify lower-limb joint angles in clinically relevant movements.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Pragmatics Observational Measure (POM): a new observational measure of pragmatic language for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, Reinie; Munro, Natalie; Wilkes-Gillan, Sarah; Speyer, Renée; Pearce, Wendy M

    2014-07-01

    There is a need for a reliable and valid assessment of childhood pragmatic language skills during peer-peer interactions. This study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed pragmatic assessment, the Pragmatic Observational Measure (POM). The psychometric properties of the POM were investigated from observational data of two studies - study 1 involved 342 children aged 5-11 years (108 children with ADHD; 108 typically developing playmates; 126 children in the control group), and study 2 involved 9 children with ADHD who attended a 7-week play-based intervention. The psychometric properties of the POM were determined based on the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health status Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) taxonomy of psychometric properties and definitions for health-related outcomes; the Pragmatic Protocol was used as the reference tool against which the POM was evaluated. The POM demonstrated sound psychometric properties in all the reliability, validity and interpretability criteria against which it was assessed. The findings showed that the POM is a reliable and valid measure of pragmatic language skills of children with ADHD between the age of 5 and 11 years and has clinical utility in identifying children with pragmatic language difficulty. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability and Validity of Selected PROMIS Measures in People with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Bartlett

    Full Text Available To evaluate the reliability and validity of 11 PROMIS measures to assess symptoms and impacts identified as important by people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA.Consecutive patients (N = 177 in an observational study completed PROMIS computer adapted tests (CATs and a short form (SF assessing pain, fatigue, physical function, mood, sleep, and participation. We assessed test-test reliability and internal consistency using correlation and Cronbach's alpha. We assessed convergent validity by examining Pearson correlations between PROMIS measures and existing measures of similar domains and known groups validity by comparing scores across disease activity levels using ANOVA.Participants were mostly female (82% and white (83% with mean (SD age of 56 (13 years; 24% had ≤ high school, 29% had RA ≤ 5 years with 13% ≤ 2 years, and 22% were disabled. PROMIS Physical Function, Pain Interference and Fatigue instruments correlated moderately to strongly (rho's ≥ 0.68 with corresponding PROs. Test-retest reliability ranged from .725-.883, and Cronbach's alpha from .906-.991. A dose-response relationship with disease activity was evident in Physical Function with similar trends in other scales except Anger.These data provide preliminary evidence of reliability and construct validity of PROMIS CATs to assess RA symptoms and impacts, and feasibility of use in clinical care. PROMIS instruments captured the experiences of RA patients across the broad continuum of RA symptoms and function, especially at low disease activity levels. Future research is needed to evaluate performance in relevant subgroups, assess responsiveness and identify clinically meaningful changes.

  11. Reliability of widefield capillary microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Masetto, A; Steele, R; Arthurs, E; Baron, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine intra- and inter-observer reliability of widefield microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five SSc patients were examined with a STEMV-8 Zeiss biomicroscope with 50x magnification. The nailfold of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers of both hands of each patient were photographed twice by each of two observers, once in the morning and again in the afternoon (total of 32 pictures). Two raters reviewed the photographs to produce capillary density readings. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the readings were computed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Additional analyses were undertaken to determine the impact of other sources of variability in the data, namely patient, finger, technician and time. Intra-and inter-rater reliability were substantial (ICC 0.72-0.84) when raters were reading the same photographs or photographs taken at the same time of day. Agreement was only fair between morning and afternoon density readings (ICC 0.30-0.37). Patients, individual fingers and technician accounted for a large part of the variability in the data (combined variance component of 7.69 out of the total 12.23). The coefficient of variation of widefield microscopy was 24%. Although intra- and inter-rater reliability of nailfold capillary density measurements using widefield microscopy are good, proper standardisation of the conditions under which capillaroscopy is done and better imaging of nailfold capillary abnormalities should be considered if nailfold capillary density is to be used as an outcome measure in multi-centre clinical trials in SSc.

  12. Reliable cost effective technique for in situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stacey, TR

    1995-07-01

    Full Text Available on these requirements, an in situ stress measurement technique which will be practically applicable in the deep gold mines, has been developed conceptually. Referring to the figure on the following page, this method involves: • a borehole-based system, using... level mines have not been developed. 2 This is some of the background to the present SIMRAC research project, the title ofwhich is “Reliable cost effective technique for in-situ ground stress measurements in deep gold mines”. A copy of the research...

  13. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  14. Test-Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Clare E; Langbehn, Douglas; Tabrizi, Sarah J; Papoutsi, Marina

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD) across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test-retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test-retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test-retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test-retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test-retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  15. Test–Retest Reliability of Measures Commonly Used to Measure Striatal Dysfunction across Multiple Testing Sessions: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare E. Palmer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive impairment is common amongst many neurodegenerative movement disorders such as Huntington’s disease (HD and Parkinson’s disease (PD across multiple domains. There are many tasks available to assess different aspects of this dysfunction, however, it is imperative that these show high test–retest reliability if they are to be used to track disease progression or response to treatment in patient populations. Moreover, in order to ensure effects of practice across testing sessions are not misconstrued as clinical improvement in clinical trials, tasks which are particularly vulnerable to practice effects need to be highlighted. In this study we evaluated test–retest reliability in mean performance across three testing sessions of four tasks that are commonly used to measure cognitive dysfunction associated with striatal impairment: a combined Simon Stop-Signal Task; a modified emotion recognition task; a circle tracing task; and the trail making task. Practice effects were seen between sessions 1 and 2 across all tasks for the majority of dependent variables, particularly reaction time variables; some, but not all, diminished in the third session. Good test–retest reliability across all sessions was seen for the emotion recognition, circle tracing, and trail making test. The Simon interference effect and stop-signal reaction time (SSRT from the combined-Simon-Stop-Signal task showed moderate test–retest reliability, however, the combined SSRT interference effect showed poor test–retest reliability. Our results emphasize the need to use control groups when tracking clinical progression or use pre-baseline training on tasks susceptible to practice effects.

  16. Validity and Reliability of Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) Measurement During Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Nandini; Peters, Brian T.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2014-01-01

    DVA is primarily subserved by the vestibulo-ocular reflex mechanism. Individuals with vestibular hypofunction commonly experience highly debilitating illusory movement or blurring of visual images during daily activities possibly, due to impaired DVA. Even without pathologies, gradual age-related morphological deterioration is evident in all components of the vestibular system. We examined the construct validity to detect age-related differences and test-retest reliability of DVA measurements performed during walking. METHODS: Healthy adults were recruited into 3 groups: 1. young (20-39years, n=18), 2. middle-aged (40-59years, n=14), and 3. older adults (60-80years, n=15). Randomly selected seven participants from each group (n=21) participated in retesting. Participants were excluded if they had a history of vestibular or neuromuscular pathologies, dizziness/vertigo or >1 falls in the past year. Older persons with MMSE scores reliability. RESULTS: The three age groups were not different in their height, weight and normal walking speed (p>0.05). The post hoc analyses for DVA measurements demonstrated that each group was significantly different from the other two groups for Near as well as FarDVA (preliability. FarDVA at 0.8 m/s and 1.0 m/s demonstrated good test-retest reliability (ICCs 0.71 and 0.77, respectively).

  17. Pattern of alveolar bone loss and reliability of measurements with the radiographic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rise, J.; Albandar, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this paper were to study the pattern of bone loss among different teeth at the individual level and to study the effect of using different aggregated units of analysis on measurement error. Bone loss was assessed in standardized periapical radiographs from 293 subjects (18-68 years), and the mean bone loss score for each tooth type was calculated. These were then correlated by means of factor analysis to study the bone loss pattern. Reliability (measurement error) was studied by the internal consistency and the test-retest methods. The pattern of bone loss showed a unidimensional pattern, indicating that any tooth will work equally well as a dependent variable for epidemiologic descriptive purposes. However, a more thorough analysis also showed a multidimensional pattern in terms of four dimensions, which correspond to four tooth groups: incisors, upper premolars, lower premolars and molars. The four dimensions accounted for 80% of the toal variance. The multidimensional pattern may be important for the modeling of bone loss; thus different models may explain the four dimension (indices) used as dependent variables. The reliability (internal consistency) of the four indices was satisfactory. By the test-retest method, reliability was higher when the more aggregated unit (the individual) was used

  18. Validity and Reliability of a New Device (WIMU®) for Measuring Hamstring Muscle Extensibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muyor, José M

    2017-09-01

    The aims of the current study were 1) to evaluate the validity of the WIMU ® system for measuring hamstring muscle extensibility in the passive straight leg raise (PSLR) test using an inclinometer for the criterion and 2) to determine the test-retest reliability of the WIMU ® system to measure hamstring muscle extensibility during the PSLR test. 55 subjects were evaluated on 2 separate occasions. Data from a Unilever inclinometer and WIMU ® system were collected simultaneously. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the validity were very high (0.983-1); a very low systematic bias (-0.21°--0.42°), random error (0.05°-0.04°) and standard error of the estimate (0.43°-0.34°) were observed (left-right leg, respectively) between the 2 devices (inclinometer and the WIMU ® system). The R 2 between the devices was 0.999 (p<0.001) in both the left and right legs. The test-retest reliability of the WIMU ® system was excellent, with ICCs ranging from 0.972-0.995, low coefficients of variation (0.01%), and a low standard error of the estimate (0.19-0.31°). The WIMU ® system showed strong concurrent validity and excellent test-retest reliability for the evaluation of hamstring muscle extensibility in the PSLR test. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Measuring Prosocial Tendencies in Germany: Sources of Validity and Reliablity of the Revised Prosocial Tendency Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Johannes; Ulrich, Natalie; Mussel, Patrick; Carlo, Gustavo; Hewig, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    The prosocial tendencies measure (PTM; Carlo and Randall, 2002) is a widely used measurement for prosocial tendencies in English speaking participants. This instrument distinguishes between six different types of prosocial tendencies that partly share some common basis, but also can be opposed to each other. To examine these constructs in Germany, a study with 1067 participants was conducted. The study investigated the structure of this German version of the PTM-R via exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, correlations with similar constructs in subsamples as well as via measurement invariance test concerning the original English version. The German translation showed a similar factor structure to the English version in exploratory factor analysis and in confirmatory factor analysis. Measurement invariance was found between the English and German language versions of the PTM and support for the proposed six-factor structure (altruistic, anonymous, compliant, dire, emotional and public prosocial behavior) was also found in confirmatory factor analysis. Furthermore, the expected interrelations of these factors of prosocial behavior tendencies were obtained. Finally, correlations of the prosocial behavior tendencies with validating constructs and behaviors were found. Thus, the findings stress the importance of seeing prosocial behavior not as a single dimension construct, but as a factored construct which now can also be assessed in German speaking participants. PMID:29270144

  20. Reliability of the Danish version of the McGill ingestive skills assessment for observation-based measures during meals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Lambert, Heather C; Faber, Jens

    2012-01-01

    To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists.......To establish measurement equivalence in terms of reliability of the Danish version of the Canadian McGill ingestive skills assessment (MISA) for use by occupational therapists....

  1. Measuring the airway in 3 dimensions: a reliability and accuracy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El, Hakan; Palomo, Juan Martin

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the reliability and accuracy of 3 commercially available digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) viewers for measuring upper airway volumes. Thirty cone-beam computed tomography scans were randomly selected, and the upper airway volumes were calculated for both oropharynx and nasal passage. Dolphin3D (version 11, Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif), InVivoDental (version 4.0.70, Anatomage, San Jose, Calif), and OnDemand3D (version 1.0.1.8407, CyberMed, Seoul, Korea) were compared with a previously tested manual segmentation program called OrthoSegment (OS) (developed at the Department of Orthodontics at Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio). The measurements were repeated after 2 weeks, and the ICC was used for the reliability tests. All commercially available programs were compared with the OS program by using regression analysis. The Pearson correlation was used to evaluate the correlation between the OS and the automatic segmentation programs. The reliability was high for all programs. The highest correlation found was between the OS and Dolphin3D for the oropharynx, and between the OS and InVivoDental for nasal passage volume. A high correlation was found for all programs, but the results also showed statistically significant differences compared with the OS program. The programs also had inconsistencies among themselves. The 3 commercially available DICOM viewers are highly reliable in their airway volume calculations and showed high correlation of results but poor accuracy, suggesting systematic errors. Copyright 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Raising Confident Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Raising Confident Kids KidsHealth / For Parents / Raising Confident Kids What's in ...

  3. Reliability of Pressure Ulcer Rates: How Precisely Can We Differentiate Among Hospital Units, and Does the Standard Signal‐Noise Reliability Measure Reflect This Precision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hospital performance reports often include rankings of unit pressure ulcer rates. Differentiating among units on the basis of quality requires reliable measurement. Our objectives were to describe and apply methods for assessing reliability of hospital‐acquired pressure ulcer rates and evaluate a standard signal‐noise reliability measure as an indicator of precision of differentiation among units. Quarterly pressure ulcer data from 8,199 critical care, step‐down, medical, surgical, and medical‐surgical nursing units from 1,299 US hospitals were analyzed. Using beta‐binomial models, we estimated between‐unit variability (signal) and within‐unit variability (noise) in annual unit pressure ulcer rates. Signal‐noise reliability was computed as the ratio of between‐unit variability to the total of between‐ and within‐unit variability. To assess precision of differentiation among units based on ranked pressure ulcer rates, we simulated data to estimate the probabilities of a unit's observed pressure ulcer rate rank in a given sample falling within five and ten percentiles of its true rank, and the probabilities of units with ulcer rates in the highest quartile and highest decile being identified as such. We assessed the signal‐noise measure as an indicator of differentiation precision by computing its correlations with these probabilities. Pressure ulcer rates based on a single year of quarterly or weekly prevalence surveys were too susceptible to noise to allow for precise differentiation among units, and signal‐noise reliability was a poor indicator of precision of differentiation. To ensure precise differentiation on the basis of true differences, alternative methods of assessing reliability should be applied to measures purported to differentiate among providers or units based on quality. © 2016 The Authors. Research in Nursing & Health published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27223598

  4. Reliability of the input admittance of bowed-string instruments measured by the hammer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ailin; Woodhouse, Jim

    2014-12-01

    The input admittance at the bridge, measured by hammer testing, is often regarded as the most useful and convenient measurement of the vibrational behavior of a bowed string instrument. However, this method has been questioned, due especially to differences between human bowing and hammer impact. The goal of the research presented here is to investigate the reliability and accuracy of this classic hammer method. Experimental studies were carried out on cellos, with three different driving conditions and three different boundary conditions. Results suggest that there is nothing fundamentally different about the hammer method, compared to other kinds of excitation. The third series of experiments offers an opportunity to explore the difference between the input admittance measuring from one bridge corner to another and that of single strings. The classic measurement is found to give a reasonable approximation to that of all four strings. Some possible differences between the hammer method and normal bowing and implications of the acoustical results are also discussed.

  5. Reliability of a new method for measuring coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui-Fang; Liu, Kun; Wang, Xue; Liu, Qian; He, Jia-Wei; Wang, Xiang-Yang; Yan, Zhi-Han

    2015-12-01

    Accurate determination of the extent of trunk imbalance in the coronal plane plays a key role in an evaluation of patients with trunk imbalance, such as patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. An established, widely used practice in evaluating trunk imbalance is to drop a plumb line from the C7 vertebra to a key reference axis, the central sacral vertical line (CSVL) in full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs, and measuring the distance between them, the C7-CSVL. However, measuring the CSVL is subject to intraobserver differences, is error-prone, and is of poor reliability. Therefore, the development of a different way to measure trunk imbalance is needed. This study aimed to describe a new method to measure coronal trunk imbalance, the axis-line-angle technique (ALAT), which measures the angle at the intersection between the C7 plumb line and an axis line drawn from the vertebral centroid of the C7 to the middle of the superior border of the symphysis pubis, and to compare the reliability of the ALAT with that of the C7-CSVL. A prospective study at a university hospital was used. The patient sample consisted of sixty-nine consecutively enrolled men and women patients, aged 10-18 years, who had trunk imbalance defined as C7-CSVL longer than 20 mm on computed full-spine standing anterioposterior radiographs. Data were analyzed to determine the correlation between C7-CSVL and ALAT measurements and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities. Using a picture archiving and communication system, three radiologists independently evaluated trunk imbalance on the 69 computed radiographs by measuring the C7-CSVL and by measuring the angle determined by the ALAT. Data were analyzed to determine the correlations between the two measures of trunk imbalance, and to determine intraobserver and interobserver reliabilities of each of them. Overall results from the measurements by the C7-CSVL and the ALAT were significantly moderately correlated

  6. Reliability of linear distance measurement for dental implant length with standardized periapical radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakoh, Mamoru; Harada, Takuya; Otonari, Takamichi

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the accuracy of distance measurements of implant length based on periapical radiographs compared with that of other modalities. We carried out an experimental trial to compare precision in distance measurement. Dental implant fixtures were buried in the canine and first molar regions. These were then subjected to periapical (PE) radiography, panoramic (PA) radiography conventional (CV) and medical computed (CT) tomography. The length of the implant fixture on each film was measured by nine observers and degree of precision was statistically analyzed. The precision of both PE radiographs and CT tomograms was closest at the highest level. Standardized PE radiography, in particular, was superior to CT tomography in the first molar region. This suggests that standardized PE radiographs should be utilized as a reliable modality for longitudinal and linear distance measurement, depending on implant length at local implantation site. (author)

  7. Reliability of anthropometric measurements in young male and female artistic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siatras, Theophanis; Skaperda, Malamati; Mameletzi, Dimitra

    2010-12-01

    Body dimensions and body composition of children participating in artistic activities, such as gymnastics and many types of dancing, are important factors in performance improvement. The present study aimed to determine the reliability of a series of selected anthropometric measurements in young male and female gymnasts. Segment lengths, body breadths, circumferences, and skinfold thickness were measured in 20 young gymnasts by the same experienced examiner, using portable and easy-to-use instruments. All parameters were measured twice (test-retest) under the same conditions within a week's period. The high intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranging from 0.87 to 0.99, as well as the low coefficient of variation (CV) values (artistic gymnasts. Therefore, these measurements could contribute to further research in this field of investigation, helping to monitor young artistic gymnasts' growth status and identify specific characteristics for increased performance in this sport.

  8. Reliability and validity of an internet-based questionnaire measuring lifetime physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Mary A; Ratzlaff, Charles; Doerfling, Paul; Kopec, Jacek

    2010-11-15

    Lifetime exposure to physical activity is an important construct for evaluating associations between physical activity and disease outcomes, given the long induction periods in many chronic diseases. The authors' objective in this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (L-PAQ), a novel Internet-based, self-administered instrument measuring lifetime physical activity, among Canadian men and women in 2005-2006. Reliability was examined using a test-retest study. Validity was examined in a 2-part study consisting of 1) comparisons with previously validated instruments measuring similar constructs, the Lifetime Total Physical Activity Questionnaire (LT-PAQ) and the Chasan-Taber Physical Activity Questionnaire (CT-PAQ), and 2) a priori hypothesis tests of constructs measured by the L-PAQ. The L-PAQ demonstrated good reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.67 (household activity) to 0.89 (sports/recreation). Comparison between the L-PAQ and the LT-PAQ resulted in Spearman correlation coefficients ranging from 0.41 (total activity) to 0.71 (household activity); comparison between the L-PAQ and the CT-PAQ yielded coefficients of 0.58 (sports/recreation), 0.56 (household activity), and 0.50 (total activity). L-PAQ validity was further supported by observed relations between the L-PAQ and sociodemographic variables, consistent with a priori hypotheses. Overall, the L-PAQ is a useful instrument for assessing multiple domains of lifetime physical activity with acceptable reliability and validity.

  9. Validity and reliability of using photography for measuring knee range of motion: a methodological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adie Sam

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinimetric properties of knee goniometry are essential to appreciate in light of its extensive use in the orthopaedic and rehabilitative communities. Intra-observer reliability is thought to be satisfactory, but the validity and inter-rater reliability of knee goniometry often demonstrate unacceptable levels of variation. This study tests the validity and reliability of measuring knee range of motion using goniometry and photographic records. Methods Design: Methodology study assessing the validity and reliability of one method ('Marker Method' which uses a skin marker over the greater trochanter and another method ('Line of Femur Method' which requires estimation of the line of femur. Setting: Radiology and orthopaedic departments of two teaching hospitals. Participants: 31 volunteers (13 arthritic and 18 healthy subjects. Knee range of motion was measured radiographically and photographically using a goniometer. Three assessors were assessed for reliability and validity. Main outcomes: Agreement between methods and within raters was assessed using concordance correlation coefficient (CCCs. Agreement between raters was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs. 95% limits of agreement for the mean difference for all paired comparisons were computed. Results Validity (referenced to radiographs: Each method for all 3 raters yielded very high CCCs for flexion (0.975 to 0.988, and moderate to substantial CCCs for extension angles (0.478 to 0.678. The mean differences and 95% limits of agreement were narrower for flexion than they were for extension. Intra-rater reliability: For flexion and extension, very high CCCs were attained for all 3 raters for both methods with slightly greater CCCs seen for flexion (CCCs varied from 0.981 to 0.998. Inter-rater reliability: For both methods, very high ICCs (min to max: 0.891 to 0.995 were obtained for flexion and extension. Slightly higher coefficients were obtained

  10. Reliability and validity of the brief multidimensional measure of religiousness/spirituality among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sion Kim; Sherritt, Lon R; Holder, David W; Kulig, John; Shrier, Lydia A; Knight, John R

    2008-12-01

    Developed for use in health research, the Brief Multidimensional Measure of Religiousness/Spirituality (BMMRS) consists of brief measures of a broad range of religiousness and spirituality (R/S) dimensions. It has established psychometric properties among adults, but little is known about its appropriateness for use with adolescents. We assessed the psychometric properties of the BMMRS among adolescents. We recruited a racially diverse (85% non-White) sample of 305 adolescents aged 12-18 years (median 16 yrs, IQR 14-17) from 3 urban medical clinics; 93 completed a retest 1 week later. We assessed internal consistency and test-retest reliability. We assessed construct validity by examining how well the measures discriminated groups expected to differ based on self-reported religious preference, and how they related to a hypothesized correlate, depressive symptoms. Religious preference was categorized into "No religion/Atheist" (11%), "Don't know/Confused" (9%), or "Named a religion" (80%). Responses to multi-item measures were generally internally consistent (alpha > or = 0.70 for 12/16 measures) and stable over 1 week (intraclass correlation coefficients > or = 0.70 for 14/16). Forgiveness, Negative R/S Coping, and Commitment items showed lower internal cohesiveness. Scores on most measures were higher (p Atheist" group. Forgiveness, Commitment, and Anticipated Support from members of one's congregation were inversely correlated with depressive symptoms, while BMMRS measures assessing negative R/S experiences (Negative R/S Coping, Negative Interactions with others in congregation, Loss in Faith) were positively correlated with depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that most BMMRS measures are reliable and valid for use among adolescents.

  11. Reliability and reproducibility of disc-foveal angle measurements by non-mydriatic fundus photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Jeune, Caroline; Chebli, Fayçal; Leon, Lorette; Anthoine, Emmanuelle; Weber, Michel; Péchereau, Alain; Lebranchu, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Abnormal torsion could be associated with cyclovertical strabismus, but torsion measurements are not reliable in children. To assess an objective fundus torsion evaluation in a paediatric population, we used Non-Mydriatic Fundus photography (NMFP) in healthy and cyclovertical strabismus patients to evaluate the disc-foveal angle over time and observers. We used a retrospective set of NMFP including 24 A or V-pattern strabismus and 27 age-matched normal children (mean age 6.4 and 6.7 years respectively), taken during 2 distinct follow-up consultations (separated by 251 and 479 days respectively). Each disc-foveal angle measurement (from which the ocular torsion can be assessed) was performed by 5 different observers, using graphical software and based on reproducible fundus anatomical marks. Statistical analysis was performed with a multivariate ANOVA using group, time and observers as factors, in addition to intraclass coefficient correlation (ICC) to assess measurement reproducibility. A significant difference of disc-foveal angle measures was observed between groups (p0,97). Abnormal amount of objective torsion could be associated with alphabet-pattern strabismus. Disc-foveal angle evaluation by NMFP in a children population appears as a non-invasive, reliable and reproducible method.

  12. Computational area measurement of orbital floor fractures: Reliability, accuracy and rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouman, Thomas; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Imholz, Benoit; Van Issum, Christopher; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability, accuracy and rapidity of a specific computational method for assessing the orbital floor fracture area on a CT scan. Method: A computer assessment of the area of the fracture, as well as that of the total orbital floor, was determined on CT scans taken from ten patients. The ratio of the fracture's area to the orbital floor area was also calculated. The test–retest precision of measurement calculations was estimated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula to assess the agreement across observers and across measures. The time needed for the complete assessment was also evaluated. Results: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient across observers was 0.92 [0.85;0.96], and the precision of the measures across observers was 4.9%, according to Dahlberg's formula .The mean time needed to make one measurement was 2 min and 39 s (range, 1 min and 32 s to 4 min and 37 s). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that (1) the area of the orbital floor fracture can be rapidly and reliably assessed by using a specific computer system directly on CT scan images; (2) this method has the potential of being routinely used to standardize the post-traumatic evaluation of orbital fractures

  13. Reliability and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures among individuals with and without chronic neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinicians frequently rely on subjective categorization of impairments in mobility, strength, and endurance for clinical decision-making; however, these assessments are often unreliable and lack sensitivity to change. The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater reliability, minimum detectable change (MDC), and group differences in quantitative cervicothoracic measures for individuals with and without chronic neck pain (NP). Methods Nineteen individuals with NP and 20 healthy controls participated in this case control study. Two physical therapists performed a 30-minute examination on separate days. A handheld dynamometer, gravity inclinometer, ruler, and stopwatch were used to quantify cervical range of motion (ROM), cervical muscle strength and endurance, and scapulothoracic muscle length and strength, respectively. Results Intraclass correlation coefficients for inter-rater reliability were significantly greater than zero for most impairment measures, with point estimates ranging from 0.45 to 0.93. The NP group exhibited reduced cervical ROM (P ≤ 0.012) and muscle strength (P ≤ 0.038) in most movement directions, reduced cervical extensor endurance (P = 0.029), and reduced rhomboid and middle trapezius muscle strength (P ≤ 0.049). Conclusions Results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining objective cervicothoracic impairment measures with acceptable inter-rater agreement across time. The clinical utility of these measures is supported by evidence of impaired mobility, strength, and endurance among patients with NP, with corresponding MDC values that can help establish benchmarks for clinically significant change. PMID:23114092

  14. Measuring the validity and reliability of the Apple Watch as a physical activity monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Godin, Steven D; Owens, Matthew V

    2018-04-04

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the energy expenditure (EE) estimation of Apple Watch among college students. Thirty college students completed two sets of three 10-minute treadmill walking and running trials while wearing three Apple Watches and being connected to indirect calorimetry. The walking trials were at speeds of 54, 80, and 107 m•min-1 while the running trials were at 134, 161, 188m•min-1. Energy expenditure comparisons were made using Two-way ANOVA with repeatedmeasures. Reliability was analyzed by Intraclass Correlation. There was no significant device x speed interactions (F (15, 696) = 1.113, p = 0.341) between the indirect calorimetry (criterion) and Apple Watch. The lowest Inter-Class Correlation (ICC) scores were 0.49 (95%CI) at 54 while the highest were 0.72 (95%CI) at 107 and 134 m•min-1. Apple Watch demonstrated a low to moderate validity and reliability on measuring EE.

  15. Measuring Dispositional Flow: Validity and reliability of the Dispositional Flow State Scale 2, Italian version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Eleonora F M; Riva, Giuseppe; Talò, Cosimo; Boffi, Marco; Rainisio, Nicola; Pola, Linda; Diana, Barbara; Villani, Daniela; Argenton, Luca; Inghilleri, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2), for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. In accordance with the guidelines for test adaptation, the scale has been translated with the method of back translation. The understanding of the item has been checked according to the latest standards on the culturally sensitive translation. The scale thus produced was administered to 843 individuals (of which 60.69% female), between the ages of 15 and 74. The sample is balanced between workers and students. The main activities defined by the subjects allow the sample to be divided into three categories: students, workers, athletes (professionals and semi-professionals). The confirmatory factor analysis, conducted using the Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLM), showed acceptable fit indexes. Reliability and validity have been verified, and structural invariance has been verified on 6 categories of Flow experience and for 3 subsamples with different with different fields of action. Correlational analysis shows significant high values between the nine dimensions. Our data confirmed the validity and reliability of the Italian DFS-2 in measuring Flow experiences. The scale is reliable for use with Italian adults, young adults and adolescents. The Italian version of the scale is suitable for the evaluation of the subjective tendency to experience Flow trait characteristic in different contest, as sport, study and work.

  16. Validating and calibrating the Nintendo Wii balance board to derive reliable center of pressure measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Julia M; Mancini, Martina; Peterka, Robert J; Hayes, Tamara L; Horak, Fay B

    2014-09-29

    The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB) has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation) research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the "gold standard" laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP) measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP) to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (<1 Hz). Twelve WBBs were tested to address the issue of inter-device variability. There was a significant effect of sway amplitude, frequency, and direction on the WBB's CoP measurement error, with an increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML) (compared to the anteroposterior (AP)) sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB's, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB's CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB's CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error) from 2-6 mm (before calibration) to 0.5-2 mm (after calibration). WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain) CoP sway measures, from -10.5% (before calibration) to -0.05% (after calibration) (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions). In this study, we characterized the WBB's CoP measurement error under controlled, dynamic

  17. Reliability of segmental accelerations measured using a new wireless gait analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Justin J; Morrison, Steven; James, Daniel A; Barrett, Rod

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-examiner reliability, and stride-to-stride reliability, of an accelerometer-based gait analysis system which measured 3D accelerations of the upper and lower body during self-selected slow, preferred and fast walking speeds. Eight subjects attended two testing sessions in which accelerometers were attached to the head, neck, lower trunk, and right shank. In the initial testing session, two different examiners attached the accelerometers and performed the same testing procedures. A single examiner repeated the procedure in a subsequent testing session. All data were collected using a new wireless gait analysis system, which features near real-time data transmission via a Bluetooth network. Reliability for each testing condition (4 locations, 3 directions, 3 speeds) was quantified using a waveform similarity statistic known as the coefficient of multiple determination (CMD). CMD's ranged from 0.60 to 0.98 across all test conditions and were not significantly different for inter-examiner (0.86), intra-examiner (0.87), and stride-to-stride reliability (0.86). The highest repeatability for the effect of location, direction and walking speed were for the shank segment (0.94), the vertical direction (0.91) and the fast walking speed (0.91), respectively. Overall, these results indicate that a high degree of waveform repeatability was obtained using a new gait system under test-retest conditions involving single and dual examiners. Furthermore, differences in acceleration waveform repeatability associated with the reapplication of accelerometers were small in relation to normal motor variability.

  18. Can the combined use of an ensemble based modelling approach and the analysis of measured meteorological trends lead to increased confidence in climate change impact assessments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gädeke, Anne; Koch, Hagen; Pohle, Ina; Grünewald, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    simulate a strong decrease in future long term annual precipitation, the dynamical DAs simulate a tendency towards increasing precipitation. The trend analysis suggests that precipitation has not changed significantly during the period 1961-2006. Therefore, the decrease simulated by the statistical DAs should be interpreted as a rather dry future projection. Concerning air temperature, measured and simulated trends agree on a positive trend. Also the uncertainty related to the hydrological model within the climate change modelling chain is comparably low when long-term averages are considered but increases significantly during extreme events. This proposed framework of combining an ensemble based modelling approach with measured trend analysis is a promising approach for regional stakeholders to gain more confidence into the final results of climate change impact assessments. However, climate change impact assessments will remain highly uncertain. Thus, flexible adaptation strategies need to be developed which should not only consider climate but also other aspects of global change.

  19. Improving accuracy and reliability of 186-keV measurements for unattended enrichment monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianakiev, Kiril D.; Boyer, Brian D.; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Moss, Cal E.; Goda, Joetta M.; Favalli, Andrea; Lombardi, Marcie; Paffet, Mark T.; Hill, Thomas R.; MacArthur, Duncan W.; Smith, Morag K.

    2010-01-01

    Improving the quality of safeguards measurements at Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plants (GCEPs), whilst reducing the inspection effort, is an important objective given the number of existing and new plants that need to be safeguarded. A useful tool in many safeguards approaches is the on-line monitoring of enrichment in process pipes. One aspect of this measurement is a simple, reliable and precise passive measurement of the 186-keV line from 235 U. (The other information required is the amount of gas in the pipe. This can be obtained by transmission measurements or pressure measurements). In this paper we describe our research efforts towards such a passive measurement system. The system includes redundant measurements of the 186-keV line from the gas and separately from the wall deposits. The design also includes measures to reduce the effect of the potentially important background. Such an approach would practically eliminate false alarms and can maintain the operation of the system even with a hardware malfunction in one of the channels. The work involves Monte Carlo modeling and the construction of a proof-of-principle prototype. We will carry out experimental tests with UF 6 gas in pipes with and without deposits in order to demonstrate the deposit correction.

  20. Reliability and validity of advanced theory-of-mind measures in middle childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Elizabeth O; Homer, Bruce D

    2017-09-01

    Although theory-of-mind (ToM) development is well documented for early childhood, there is increasing research investigating changes in ToM reasoning in middle childhood and adolescence. However, the psychometric properties of most advanced ToM measures for use with older children and adolescents have not been firmly established. We report on the reliability and validity of widely used, conventional measures of advanced ToM with this age group. Notable issues with both reliability and validity of several of the measures were evident in the findings. With regard to construct validity, results do not reveal a clear empirical commonality between tasks, and, after accounting for comprehension, developmental trends were evident in only one of the tasks investigated. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Second-order false belief tasks have acceptable internal consistency. The Eyes Test has poor internal consistency. Validity of advanced theory-of-mind tasks is often based on the ability to distinguish clinical from typical groups. What does this study add? This study examines internal consistency across six widely used advanced theory-of-mind tasks. It investigates validity of tasks based on comprehension of items by typically developing individuals. It further assesses construct validity, or commonality between tasks. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  1. Using Wireless Pedometers to Measure Children’s Physical Activity: How Reliable is the Fitbit Zip?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the reliability of wireless pedometers in measuring elementary school children’s physical activity. Activity measurement using a wireless pedometer Fitbit ZipTM was compared to activity measurement using Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 for a group of randomly selected 25 children in Grades 3, 4, and 5. Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometers were found to have an appropriate degree (Nunnally & Bernstein, 1994 of accuracy and reliability compared to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer. The Fitbit ZipTM wireless pedometer collected more step counts than the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 pedometer; however, the difference was not statistically significant. Participants reported that they preferred wearing the Fitbit ZipTM to the Yamax Digi-WalkerTM SW701 because the Fitbit ZipTM was more comfortable to wear and less likely to fall off. Participants also reported being more motivated to move while wearing the Fitbit ZipTM.

  2. Simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure without specialized equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jin-Peng; Ji, Zhong-Hua; Zhao, Yan-Ting; Chang, Xue-Fang; Xiao, Lian-Tuan; Jia, Suo-Tang

    2013-09-01

    We present a simple, reliable, and nondestructive method for the measurement of vacuum pressure in a magneto-optical trap. The vacuum pressure is verified to be proportional to the collision rate constant between cold atoms and the background gas with a coefficient k, which can be calculated by means of the simple ideal gas law. The rate constant for loss due to collisions with all background gases can be derived from the total collision loss rate by a series of loading curves of cold atoms under different trapping laser intensities. The presented method is also applicable for other cold atomic systems and meets the miniaturization requirement of commercial applications.

  3. A New Approach for Reliability Life Prediction of Rail Vehicle Axle by Considering Vibration Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Bayraktar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of vibration on the axle has been considered. Vibration measurements at different speeds have been performed on the axle of a running rail vehicle to figure out displacement, acceleration, time, and frequency response. Based on the experimental works, equivalent stress has been used to find out life of the axles for 90% and 10% reliability. Calculated life values of the rail vehicle axle have been compared with the real life data and it is found that the life of a vehicle axle taking into account the vibration effects is in good agreement with the real life of the axle.

  4. Improved structural integrity through advances in reliable residual stress measurement: the impact of ENGIN-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L.; Santisteban, J. R.

    The determination of accurate reliable residual stresses is critical to many fields of structural integrity. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within engineering components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within engineering, leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise lifing procedures. This paper describes the likely impact of the next generation of dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being constructed and the utility of the technique using examples of residual stresses both beneficial and detrimental to structural integrity.

  5. TEST-RETEST RELIABILITY OF HAND GRIP STRENGTH MEASUREMENT USING A JAMAR HAND DYNAMOMETER IN PATIENTS WITH ACUTE AND CHRONIC CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ejazi G

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the test-retest reliability of Jamar hand held dynamometer for measuring handgrip strength (HGS in patients with acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy and to find out the difference in measurement of the handgrip strength between acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy. Methods: A prospective, observational and non-experimental, the comparative study design was used. A sample of 72 subjects (37 women and 35 men suffering from cervical radiculopathy were divided into two groups i.e., Group A(acute and Group B(chronic, handgrip strength was measured using Jamar hand held dynamometer on two occasions by the same rater with an interval of 7-days. Data collection was based on standard guidelines of American Society of Hand Therapists. Three gripping trials (measured in Kg with patient’s arm in standardized arm position were recorded. The data was analyzed from the mean score obtained from the sample. Result: One-way Analysis of Variance(ANOVA was used to evaluate test-retest reliability and Tukey-Kramer Multiple Comparison Test used to find the difference between handgrip strength among acute and chronic Cervical radiculopathy cases. Greater P-value (>0.05 in both testing session, as well as 95% of the confidence interval, shows the reliability of the instrument and lesser p-value (0.05 in female subjects shows no significant difference in handgrip strength between the two groups. Conclusion: Excellent test-retest reliability for hand grip strength measurement was measured in patients with acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy shows that the equipment could be used as an assessment tool for this patient and significant difference exists among male handgrip strength between acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy cases whereas no difference exists among female handgrip strength between acute and chronic cervical radiculopathy cases.

  6. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Rábago

    Full Text Available Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1-50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the

  7. Targeting Low Career Confidence Using the Career Planning Confidence Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuliffe, Garrett; Jurgens, Jill C.; Pickering, Worth; Calliotte, James; Macera, Anthony; Zerwas, Steven

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe the development and validation of a test of career planning confidence that makes possible the targeting of specific problem issues in employment counseling. The scale, developed using a rational process and the authors' experience with clients, was tested for criterion-related validity against 2 other measures. The scale…

  8. Is radiographic measurement of bony landmarks reliable for lateral meniscal sizing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jung-Ro; Kim, Taik-Seon; Lim, Hong-Chul; Lim, Hyung-Tae; Yang, Jae-Hyuk

    2011-03-01

    The accuracy of meniscal measurement methods is still in debate. The authors' protocol for radiologic measurements will provide reproducible bony landmarks, and this measurement method of the lateral tibial plateau will correlate with the actual anatomic value. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty-five samples of fresh lateral meniscus with attached proximal tibia were obtained during total knee arthroplasty. Each sample was obtained without damage to the meniscus and bony attachment sites. The inclusion criterion was mild to moderate osteoarthritis in patients with mechanical axis deviation of less than 15°. Knees with lateral compartment osteoarthritic change or injured or degenerated menisci were excluded. For the lateral tibial plateau length measurements, the radiographic beam was angled 10° caudally at neutral rotation, which allowed differentiation of the lateral plateau cortical margins from the medial plateau. The transition points were identified and used for length measurement. The values of length were then compared with the conventional Pollard method and the anatomic values. The width measurement was done according to Pollard's protocol. For each knee, the percentage deviation from the anatomic dimension was recorded. Intraobserver error and interobserver error were calculated. The deviation of the authors' radiographic length measurements from anatomic dimensions was 1.4 ± 1.1 mm. The deviation of Pollard's radiographic length measurements was 4.1 ± 2.0 mm. With respect to accuracy-which represents the frequency of measurements that fall within 10% of measurements-the accuracy of authors' length was 98%, whereas for Pollard's method it was 40%. There was a good correlation between anatomic meniscal dimensions and each radiologic plateau dimensions for lateral meniscal width (R(2) = .790) and the authors' lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .823) and fair correlation for Pollard's lateral meniscal length (R(2) = .660). The reliability of each

  9. Factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit in underground uranium mines and preventive measures of misfiring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qin

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of non-electric detonating circuit are introduced. The main factors influencing the reliability of non-electric detonating circuit are described. Taking an underground blasting of a uranium mine for example, the reliability of various kinds of detonating network system is calculated using the reliability theory and numerical analysis method. The reasons that cause the misfiring in non-electric detonating circuit system are analyzed, and preventive measures are put forward.(authors)

  10. How to reliably deliver narrow individual-patient error bars for optimization of pacemaker AV or VV delay using a "pick-the-highest" strategy with haemodynamic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Darrel P

    2013-03-10

    Intuitive and easily-described, "pick-the-highest" is often recommended for quantitative optimization of AV and especially VV delay settings of biventricular pacemakers (BVP; cardiac resynchronization therapy, CRT). But reliable selection of the optimum setting is challenged by beat-to-beat physiological variation, which "pick-the-highest" combats by averaging multiple heartbeats. Optimization is not optimization unless the optimum is identified confidently. This document shows how to calculate how many heartbeats must be averaged to optimize reliably by pick-the-highest. Any reader, by conducting a few measurements, can calculate for locally-available methods (i) biological scatter between replicate measurements, and (ii) curvature of the biological response. With these, for any clinically-desired precision of optimization, the necessary number of heartbeats can be calculated. To achieve 95% confidence of getting within ±∆x of the true optimum, the number of heartbeats needed is 2(scatter/curvature)(2)/∆x(4) per setting. Applying published scatter/curvature values (which readers should re-evaluate locally) indicates that optimizing AV, even coarsely with a 40ms-wide band of precision, requires many thousand beats. For VV delay, the number approaches a million. Moreover, identifying the optimum twice as precisely requires 30-fold more beats. "Pick the highest" is quick to say but slow to do. We must not expect staff to do the impossible; nor criticise them for not doing so. Nor should we assume recommendations and published protocols are well-designed. Reliable AV or VV optimization, using "pick-the-highest" on commonly-recommended manual measurements, is unrealistic. Improving time-efficiency of the optimization process to become clinically realistic may need a curve-fitting strategy instead, with all acquired data marshalled conjointly. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Reliability and Validity of Ultrasound Cross Sectional Area Measurements for Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M.; Martin, David S.; Cunningham, David; Matz, Timothy; Caine, Timothy; Hackney, Kyle J.; Arzeno, Natalia; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2010-01-01

    Limb muscle atrophy and the accompanying decline in function can adversely affect the performance of astronauts during mission-related activities and upon re-ambulation in a gravitational environment. Previous characterization of space flight-induced muscle atrophy has been performed using pre and post flight magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition to being costly and time consuming, MRI is an impractical methodology for assessing in-flight changes in muscle size. Given the mobility of ultrasound (US) equipment, it may be more feasible to evaluate changes in muscle size using this technique. PURPOSE: To examine the reliability and validity of using a customized template to acquire panoramic ultrasound (US) images for determining quadriceps and gastrocnemius anatomical cross sectional area (CSA). METHODS: Vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), medial gastrocnemius (MG), and lateral gastrocnemius (LG) CSA were assessed in 10 healthy individuals (36+/-2 yrs) using US and MRI. Panoramic US images were acquired by 2 sonographers using a customized template placed on the thigh and calf and analyzed by the same 2 sonographers (CX50 Philips). MRI images of the leg were acquired while subjects were supine in a 1.5T scanner (Signa Horizon LX, General Electric) and were analyzed by 3 trained investigators. The average of the 2 US and 3 MRI values were used for validity analysis. RESULTS: High inter-experimenter reliability was found for both the US template and MRI analysis as coefficients of variation across muscles ranged from 2.4 to 4.1% and 2.8 to 3.8%, respectively. Significant correlations were found between US and MRI CSA measures (VL, r = 0.85; RF, r = 0.60; MG, r = 0.86; LG, r = 0.73; p reliable measures of leg muscle CSA, and thus could be used to characterize changes in muscle CSA both in flight and on the ground.

  12. Reliability of computed tomography measurements in assessment of thigh muscle cross-sectional area and attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, Sören; Wretling, Marie-Louise; Wredmark, Torsten; Shalabi, Adel

    2010-01-01

    Advancement in technology of computer tomography (CT) and introduction of new medical imaging softwares enables easy and rapid assessment of muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and attenuation. Before using these techniques in clinical studies there is a need for evaluation of the reliability of the measurements. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer reliability of ImageJ in measuring thigh muscles CSA and attenuation in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury by computer tomography. 31 patients from an ongoing study of rehabilitation and muscle atrophy after ACL reconstruction were included in the study. Axial CT images with slice thickness of 10 mm at the level of 150 mm above the knee joint were analyzed by two investigators independently at two times with a minimum of 3 weeks between the two readings using NIH ImageJ. CSA and the mean attenuation of individual thigh muscles were analyzed for both legs. Mean CSA and mean attenuation values were in good agreement both when comparing the two observers and the two replicates. The inter- and intraclass correlation (ICC) was generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus. All the ICC values were significant (p < 0,001). Pearson correlation coefficients were also generally very high with values from 0.98 to 1.00 for all comparisons except for the area of semimembranosus (0.95 for intraobserver and 0.92 for interobserver). This study has presented ImageJ as a method to monitor and evaluate CSA and attenuation of different muscles in the thigh using CT-imaging. The method shows an overall excellent reliability with respect to both observer and replicate

  13. Intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of measurement of ultrasound imaging for muscle thickness and pennation angle of tibialis anterior muscle in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ki Hun; Lee, Hwang Jae; Lee, Wan Hee

    2017-07-01

    Dysfunction of skeletal muscle has been commonly reported in stroke patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra- and inter-rater reliabilities of measurement of ultrasound imaging (USI) for pennation angle (PA) and muscle thickness (MT) of tibialis anterior muscle in stroke patients. Thirty-four stroke patients (19 men) participated in this study. USI was used for measurement of PA and MT of the tibialis anterior muscles at rest and during maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). Two examiners acquired images from all participants during two separate testing sessions, seven days apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs), confidence interval (CI), standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change, and Bland-Altman plots were used for estimation of reliability. In the intra-rater reliability between measures, for all variables (PA and MT of the paretic and non-paretic sides of tibialis anterior muscles at rest and during MVC), the ICCs ranged between 0.639 and 0.998 and the CI was within an acceptable range of 0.388-0.999. In inter-rater reliability between examiners for the two tests, for all variables, the ICCs ranged between 0.690 and 0.995 and the CI was within an acceptable range of 0.463-0.997. In addition, significant difference was observed between the paretic and non-paretic sides of the tibialis anterior muscle architecture (p stroke patients. In addition, objective and quantitative measurements of tibialis anterior muscle using USI may provide appropriate management for the walking recovery of stroke patients.

  14. Reliability and validity study of a tool to measure cancer stigma: Patient version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medine Yilmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this methodological study is to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of “A Questionnaire for Measuring Attitudes toward Cancer (Cancer Stigma - Patient version.” Methods: The sample comprised oncology patients who had active cancer treatment. The construct validity was assessed using the confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54.9±12.3 years. In the confirmatory factor analysis, fit values were determined as comparative fit index = 0.93, goodness of fit index = 0.91, normed-fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation RMSEA = 0.09 (P<0.05 (Kaiser–Meyer–Olkin = 0.88, χ2 = 1084.41, Df = 66, and Barletta's test P<0.000. The first factor was “impossibility of recovery and experience of social discrimination” and the second factor was “stereotypes of cancer patients.” The two-factor structure accounted for 56.74% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.88 for the two-factor scale. Conclusions: “A questionnaire for measuring attitudes toward cancer (cancer stigma - Patient version” is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess stigmatization of cancer in cancer patients.

  15. Reliability and Validity Study of a Tool to Measure Cancer Stigma: Patient Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Medine; Dişsiz, Gülçin; Demir, Filiz; Irız, Sibel; Alacacioglu, Ahmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this methodological study is to establish the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of "A Questionnaire for Measuring Attitudes toward Cancer (Cancer Stigma) - Patient version." The sample comprised oncology patients who had active cancer treatment. The construct validity was assessed using the confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis. The mean age of the participants was 54.9±12.3 years. In the confirmatory factor analysis, fit values were determined as comparative fit index = 0.93, goodness of fit index = 0.91, normed-fit index=0.91, and root mean square error of approximation RMSEA = 0.09 ( P Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin = 0.88, χ 2 = 1084.41, Df = 66, and Barletta's test P <0.000). The first factor was "impossibility of recovery and experience of social discrimination" and the second factor was "stereotypes of cancer patients." The two-factor structure accounted for 56.74% of the variance. The Cronbach's alpha value was determined as 0.88 for the two-factor scale. "A questionnaire for measuring attitudes toward cancer (cancer stigma) - Patient version" is a reliable and valid questionnaire to assess stigmatization of cancer in cancer patients.

  16. Poor Reliability of Wrist Blood Pressure Self-Measurement at Home: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiglia, Edoardo; Tikhonoff, Valérie; Albertini, Federica; Palatini, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    The reliability of blood pressure measurement with wrist devices, which has not previously been assessed under real-life circumstances in general population, is dependent on correct positioning of the wrist device at heart level. We determined whether an error was present when blood pressure was self-measured at the wrist in 721 unselected subjects from the general population. After training, blood pressure was measured in the office and self-measured at home with an upper-arm device (the UA-767 Plus) and a wrist device (the UB-542, not provided with a position sensor). The upper-arm-wrist blood pressure difference detected in the office was used as the reference measurement. The discrepancy between office and home differences was the home measurement error. In the office, systolic blood pressure was 2.5% lower at wrist than at arm (P=0.002), whereas at home, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher at wrist than at arm (+5.6% and +5.4%, respectively; Pblood pressure values likely because of a poor memory and rendition of the instructions, leading to the wrong position of the wrist. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Computerized measures of finger tapping: reliability, malingering and traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubel, Kerry A; Yund, E William; Herron, Timothy J; Woods, David L

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed computerized finger tapping metrics in four experiments. Experiment 1 showed tapping-rate differences associated with hand dominance, digits, sex, and fatigue that replicated those seen in a previous, large-scale community sample. Experiment 2 revealed test-retest correlations (r = .91) that exceeded those reported in previous tapping studies. Experiment 3 investigated subjects simulating symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI); 62% of malingering subjects produced abnormally slow tapping rates. A tapping-rate malingering index, based on rate-independent tapping patterns, provided confirmatory evidence of malingering in 48% of the subjects with abnormal tapping rates. Experiment 4 compared tapping in 24 patients with mild TBI (mTBI) and a matched control group; mTBI patients showed slowed tapping without evidence of malingering. Computerized finger tapping measures are reliable measures of motor speed, useful in detecting subjects performing with suboptimal effort, and are sensitive to motor abnormalities following mTBI.

  18. Measurement of HDO Products Using GC-TCD: Towards Obtaining Reliable Analytical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuas Oman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reported the method development and validation of a gas chromatography with thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD method for the measurement of the gaseous products of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO. The method validation parameters include selectivity, precision (repeatability and reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, limit of detection (LoD, limit of quantitation (LoQ, and robustness. The results showed that the developed method was able to separate the target components (H2, CO2, CH4 and CO from their mixtures without any special sample treatment. The validated method was selective, precise, accurate, and robust. Application of the developed and validated GC-TCD method to the measurement of by-product components of HDO of bio-oil revealed a good performance with relative standard deviation (RSD less than 1.0% for all target components, implying that the process of method development and validation provides a trustworthy way of obtaining reliable analytical data.

  19. Confiabilidade da medida de espessuras musculares pela ultrassonografia Reliability of muscle thickness measurements using ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio Chagas Gomes

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a confiabilidade das medidas de espessuras dos músculos flexores e extensores do cotovelo e joelho pela ultrassonografia (US, quantificando o erro típico associado a essas medidas (ETM. MÉTODOS: A confiabilidade (duas medidas interdias foi determinada em 15 voluntários aparentemente saudáveis (oito mulheres, 33,9 ± 11,4 anos, 76 ± 21kg, 170 ± 10cm. As imagens da musculatura flexora (FC e extensora do cotovelo (EC e flexora (FJ e extensora do joelho (EJ foram obtidas pela US bidimensional no modo B, utilizando transdutor de 7,5MHz. As espessuras do tecido muscular compreendidas entre as interfaces com o osso e com o tecido adiposo foram medidas em sítios anatômicos identificados e registrados para ser repetidos na segunda medida. RESULTADOS: A ANOVA não identificou diferenças significativas entre as medidas repetidas. Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram FC = 0,970, EC = 0,971, FJ = 0,555 e EJ = 0,929 (P PURPOSE: To determine the reliability of muscle thickness measurements of elbow and knee flexors and extensors using ultrasound, and to quantify the typical error associated to the measurements (TEM. METHODS: The test-retest reliability was determined in 15 apparently healthy volunteers (8 women, 34 ± 11 years, 76 ± 21 kg, 170 ± 10 cm. The images of elbow flexors (EF and extensors (EE and knee flexors (KF and extensors (KE were obtained using a two dimensional mode B ultrasound instrument with a 7.5 MHz transducer. Muscle thickness between the adipose tissue and bone interfaces were measured at anatomical landmarks previously identified and recorded to assure the exact site for the retest. RESULTS: ANOVA did not identify any significant differences between the repeated measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC of each pair of measure were EF = 0.970, EE = 0.971, KF = 0.555 e KE = 0.929 (P < 0.05 for all. The coefficients of variation were 3.9 %, 6.1 %, 6.6 % e 4.6 %, and TEM 1.3 mm, 1

  20. Inter-device reliability of an automatic-scoring actigraph for measuring sleep in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Driller

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Actigraphy has become a common method of measuring sleep due to its non-invasive, cost-effective nature. An actigraph (Readiband™ that utilizes automatic scoring algorithms has been used in the research, but is yet to be evaluated for its inter-device reliability. A total of 77 nights of sleep data from 11 healthy adult participants was collected while participants were concomitantly wearing two Readiband™ actigraphs attached together (ACT1 and ACT2. Sleep indices including total sleep time (TST, sleep latency (SL, sleep efficiency (SE%, wake after sleep onset (WASO, total time in bed (TTB, wake episodes per night (WE, sleep onset variance (SOV and wake variance (WV were assessed between the two devices using mean differences, 95% levels of agreement, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, typical error of measurement (TEM and coefficient of variation (CV% analysis. There were no significant differences between devices for any of the measured sleep variables (p>0.05. TST, SE, SL, TTB, SOV and WV all resulted in very high ICC's (>0.90, with WASO and WE resulting in high ICC's between devices (0.85 and 0.80, respectively. Mean differences of −2.1 and 0.2 min for TST and SL were associated with a low TEM between devices (9.5 and 3.8 min, respectively. SE resulted in a 0.3% mean difference between devices. The Readiband™ is a reliable tool for researchers using multiple devices of this brand in sleep studies to assess basic measures of sleep quality and quantity in healthy adult populations.

  1. Reliability and validity of the test of incremental respiratory endurance measures of inspiratory muscle performance in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Magno F; Roach, Kathryn E; Vital, Isabel; Urdaneta, Gisel; Balestrini, Kira; Calderon-Candelario, Rafael A; Campos, Michael A; Cahalin, Lawrence P

    2018-01-01

    The Test of Incremental Respiratory Endurance (TIRE) provides a comprehensive assessment of inspiratory muscle performance by measuring maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) over time. The integration of MIP over inspiratory duration (ID) provides the sustained maximal inspiratory pressure (SMIP). Evidence on the reliability and validity of these measurements in COPD is not currently available. Therefore, we assessed the reliability, responsiveness and construct validity of the TIRE measures of inspiratory muscle performance in subjects with COPD. Test-retest reliability, known-groups and convergent validity assessments were implemented simultaneously in 81 male subjects with mild to very severe COPD. TIRE measures were obtained using the portable PrO2 device, following standard guidelines. All TIRE measures were found to be highly reliable, with SMIP demonstrating the strongest test-retest reliability with a nearly perfect intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.99, while MIP and ID clustered closely together behind SMIP with ICC values of about 0.97. Our findings also demonstrated known-groups validity of all TIRE measures, with SMIP and ID yielding larger effect sizes when compared to MIP in distinguishing between subjects of different COPD status. Finally, our analyses confirmed convergent validity for both SMIP and ID, but not MIP. The TIRE measures of MIP, SMIP and ID have excellent test-retest reliability and demonstrated known-groups validity in subjects with COPD. SMIP and ID also demonstrated evidence of moderate convergent validity and appear to be more stable measures in this patient population than the traditional MIP.

  2. The reliability of repeated TMS measures in older adults and in patients with subacute and chronic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi M. Schambra

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS measures in healthy older adults and stroke patients has been insufficiently characterized. We determined whether common TMS measures could reliably evaluate change in individuals and in groups using the smallest detectable change (SDC, or could tell subjects apart using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. We used a single-rater test-retest design in older healthy, subacute stroke, and chronic stroke subjects. At twice daily sessions on two consecutive days, we recorded resting motor threshold, test stimulus intensity, recruitment curves, short-interval intracortical inhibition and facilitation, and long-interval intracortical inhibition. Using variances estimated from a random effects model, we calculated the SDC and ICC for each TMS measure. For all TMS measures in all groups, SDCs for single subjects were large; only with modest group sizes did the SDCs become low. Thus, while these TMS measures cannot be reliably used as a biomarker to detect individual change, they can reliably detect change exceeding measurement noise in moderate-sized groups. For several of the TMS measures, ICCs were universally high, suggesting that they can reliably discriminate between subjects. Though most TMS measures have sufficient reliability in particular contexts, work establishing their validity, responsiveness, and clinical relevance is still needed.

  3. Reliability of corneal dynamic scheimpflug analyser measurements in virgin and post-PRK eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Hua, Yanjun; Eidet, Jon Roger; Hu, Di; Wang, Jingting; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2014-01-01

    To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) eyes and compare the results between these two groups. Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. The intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC ≧ 0.90) in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC ≧ 0.88). The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r = 0.437 and 0.483, respectively, pPRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29 ± 0.21 vs. 6.96 ± 0.17 ms, pPRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter.

  4. The Model Confidence Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger; Nason, James M.

    The paper introduces the model confidence set (MCS) and applies it to the selection of models. A MCS is a set of models that is constructed such that it will contain the best model with a given level of confidence. The MCS is in this sense analogous to a confidence interval for a parameter. The MCS......, beyond the comparison of models. We apply the MCS procedure to two empirical problems. First, we revisit the inflation forecasting problem posed by Stock and Watson (1999), and compute the MCS for their set of inflation forecasts. Second, we compare a number of Taylor rule regressions and determine...... the MCS of the best in terms of in-sample likelihood criteria....

  5. Measuring functional, interactive and critical health literacy of Chinese secondary school students: reliable, valid and feasible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuaijun; Davis, Elise; Yu, Xiaoming; Naccarella, Lucio; Armstrong, Rebecca; Abel, Thomas; Browne, Geoffrey; Shi, Yanqin

    2018-04-01

    Health literacy is an increasingly important topic in the global context. In mainland China, health literacy measures mainly focus on health knowledge and practices or on the functional domain for adolescents. However, little is known about interactive and critical domains. This study aimed to adopt a skills-based and three-domain (functional, interactive and critical) instrument to measure health literacy in Chinese adolescents and to examine the status and determinants of each domain. Using a systematic review, the eight-item Health Literacy Assessment Tool (HLAT-8) was selected and translated from English to Chinese (c-HLAT-8). Following the translation process, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four secondary schools in Beijing, China. A total of 650 students in Years 7-9 were recruited to complete a self-administered questionnaire that assessed socio-demographics, self-efficacy, social support, school environment, community environment and health literacy. Results showed that the c-HLAT-8 had satisfactory reliability (Cronbach's α = 0.79; intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.72) and strong validity (translation validity index (TVI) ≥0.95; χ 2 / df = 3.388, p students had an average score of 26.37 (±5.89) for the c-HLAT-8. When the determinants of each domain of health literacy were examined, social support was the strongest predictor of interactive and critical health literacy. On the contrary, self-efficacy and school environment played more dominant roles in predicting functional health literacy. The c-HLAT-8 was demonstrated to be a reliable, valid and feasible instrument for measuring functional, interactive and critical health literacy among Chinese students. The current findings indicate that increasing self-efficacy, social support and creating supportive environments are important for promoting health literacy in secondary school settings in China.

  6. Work-related measures of physical and behavioral health function: Test-retest reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Molly Elizabeth; Meterko, Mark; Marfeo, Elizabeth E; McDonough, Christine M; Jette, Alan M; Ni, Pengsheng; Bogusz, Kara; Rasch, Elizabeth K; Brandt, Diane E; Chan, Leighton

    2015-10-01

    The Work Disability Functional Assessment Battery (WD-FAB), developed for potential use by the US Social Security Administration to assess work-related function, currently consists of five multi-item scales assessing physical function and four multi-item scales assessing behavioral health function; the WD-FAB scales are administered as Computerized Adaptive Tests (CATs). The goal of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the WD-FAB Physical Function and Behavioral Health CATs. We administered the WD-FAB scales twice, 7-10 days apart, to a sample of 376 working age adults and 316 adults with work-disability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated to measure the consistency of the scores between the two administrations. Standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC90) were also calculated to measure the scales precision and sensitivity. For the Physical Function CAT scales, the ICCs ranged from 0.76 to 0.89 in the working age adult sample, and 0.77-0.86 in the sample of adults with work-disability. ICCs for the Behavioral Health CAT scales ranged from 0.66 to 0.70 in the working age adult sample, and 0.77-0.80 in the adults with work-disability. The SEM ranged from 3.25 to 4.55 for the Physical Function scales and 5.27-6.97 for the Behavioral Health function scales. For all scales in both samples, the MDC90 ranged from 7.58 to 16.27. Both the Physical Function and Behavioral Health CATs of the WD-FAB demonstrated good test-retest reliability in adults with work-disability and general adult samples, a critical requirement for assessing work related functioning in disability applicants and in other contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Accuracy and Reliability of the Kinect Version 2 for Clinical Measurement of Motor Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Otte

    Full Text Available The introduction of low cost optical 3D motion tracking sensors provides new options for effective quantification of motor dysfunction.The present study aimed to evaluate the Kinect V2 sensor against a gold standard motion capture system with respect to accuracy of tracked landmark movements and accuracy and repeatability of derived clinical parameters.Nineteen healthy subjects were concurrently recorded with a Kinect V2 sensor and an optical motion tracking system (Vicon. Six different movement tasks were recorded with 3D full-body kinematics from both systems. Tasks included walking in different conditions, balance and adaptive postural control. After temporal and spatial alignment, agreement of movements signals was described by Pearson's correlation coefficient and signal to noise ratios per dimension. From these movement signals, 45 clinical parameters were calculated, including ranges of motions, torso sway, movement velocities and cadence. Accuracy of parameters was described as absolute agreement, consistency agreement and limits of agreement. Intra-session reliability of 3 to 5 measurement repetitions was described as repeatability coefficient and standard error of measurement for each system.Accuracy of Kinect V2 landmark movements was moderate to excellent and depended on movement dimension, landmark location and performed task. Signal to noise ratio provided information about Kinect V2 landmark stability and indicated larger noise behaviour in feet and ankles. Most of the derived clinical parameters showed good to excellent absolute agreement (30 parameters showed ICC(3,1 > 0.7 and consistency (38 parameters showed r > 0.7 between both systems.Given that this system is low-cost, portable and does not require any sensors to be attached to the body, it could provide numerous advantages when compared to established marker- or wearable sensor based system. The Kinect V2 has the potential to be used as a reliable and valid clinical

  8. Measuring the quality of patient-centered care: why patient-reported measures are critical to reliable assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzelepis F

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Flora Tzelepis, Robert W Sanson-Fisher, Alison C Zucca, Elizabeth A FradgleyPriority Research Centre for Health Behaviour, University of Newcastle and Hunter Medical Research Institute, Newcastle, NSW, AustraliaPurpose: The Institute of Medicine (IOM identified patient-centeredness as crucial to quality health care. The IOM endorsed six patient-centeredness dimensions that stipulated that care must be: respectful to patients’ values, preferences, and expressed needs; coordinated and integrated; provide information, communication, and education; ensure physical comfort; provide emotional support; and involve family and friends. Patient-reported measures examine the patient’s perspective and are essential to the accurate assessment of patient-centered care. This article’s objectives are to: 1 use the six IOM-endorsed patient-centeredness dimensions as a framework to outline why patient-reported measures are crucial to the reliable measurement of patient-centered care; and 2 to identify existing patient-reported measures that assess each patient-centered care dimension.Methods: For each IOM-endorsed patient-centeredness dimension, the published literature was searched to highlight the essential role of patients in assessing patient-centered care and informing quality improvement efforts. Existing literature was also searched to identify examples of patient-reported measures that assess each patient-centeredness dimension.Conclusion: Patient-reported measures are arguably the best way to measure patient-centeredness. For instance, patients are best positioned to determine whether care aligns with patient values, preferences, and needs and the Measure of Patient Preferences is an example of a patient-reported measure that does so. Furthermore, only the patient knows whether they received the level of information desired, and if information was understood and can be recalled. Patient-reported measures that examine information provision include

  9. New Interview and Observation Measures of the Broader Autism Phenotype: Description of Strategy and Reliability Findings for the Interview Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Jeremy R; De Jonge, Maretha V; Wallace, Simon; Pickles, Andrew; Rutter, Michael L; Le Couteur, Ann S; van Engeland, Herman; Wittemeyer, Kerstin; McConachie, Helen; Roge, Bernadette; Mantoulan, Carine; Pedersen, Lennart; Isager, Torben; Poustka, Fritz; Bolte, Sven; Bolton, Patrick; Weisblatt, Emma; Green, Jonathan; Papanikolaou, Katerina; Baird, Gillian; Bailey, Anthony J

    2015-10-01

    Clinical genetic studies confirm the broader autism phenotype (BAP) in some relatives of individuals with autism, but there are few standardized assessment measures. We developed three BAP measures (informant interview, self-report interview, and impression of interviewee observational scale) and describe the development strategy and findings from the interviews. International Molecular Genetic Study of Autism Consortium data were collected from families containing at least two individuals with autism. Comparison of the informant and self-report interviews was restricted to samples in which the interviews were undertaken by different researchers from that site (251 UK informants, 119 from the Netherlands). Researchers produced vignettes that were rated blind by others. Retest reliability was assessed in 45 participants. Agreement between live scoring and vignette ratings was very high. Retest stability for the interviews was high. Factor analysis indicated a first factor comprising social-communication items and rigidity (but not other repetitive domain items), and a second factor comprised mainly of reading and spelling impairments. Whole scale Cronbach's alphas were high for both interviews. The correlation between interviews for factor 1 was moderate (adult items 0.50; childhood items 0.43); Kappa values for between-interview agreement on individual items were mainly low. The correlations between individual items and total score were moderate. The inclusion of several factor 2 items lowered the overall Cronbach's alpha for the total set. Both interview measures showed good reliability and substantial stability over time, but the findings were better for factor 1 than factor 2. We recommend factor 1 scores be used for characterising the BAP. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  10. Reliable energy supply. The new measuring of the world; Energiesicherheit. Die neue Vermessung der Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Kraenner, S.

    2007-07-01

    The author presents a convincing final speech for a cooperative energy policy in an European frame, which supplies our economy with energy from different sources: payable, nonpolluting, reliable. The main topics are: what is reliability of energy supply; new measuring of the world during exploitation of new energy resources; energy superpower Russia; way up of Asia; common European energy policy; the defence of the last paradise's; ways out of dependency - sun or atom; the power of right and the diplomacy of the future. (GL) [German] Beim Run auf die letzten Energieressourcen wird derzeit die Welt neu vermessen. Die internationalen Machtverhaeltnisse verschieben sich entlang der Frage, wer die Ressourcen und den Zugang zum Weltmarkt kontrolliert. Das neue Sorgenkind der Weltgemeinschaft heisst Energiesicherheit. Der Begriff meint nicht nur die sichere und bezahlbare Versorgung mit Energie, sondern eine Politik, die im Kampf um Rohstoffe nicht neue Konflikte schafft und die Umwelt schaedigt. Was bedeutet es, wenn Russland die neue Erdgaspipeline durch die Ostsee fuehren will, ueber Meeresboden, in dem die Giftgasgranaten zweier Weltkriege liegen? Gibt es eine Alternative zu der gefaehrlichen Grossmachtpolitik, die Laender wie China, die USA und Russland derzeit verfolgen? Als Antwort auf die weltweite Energiekrise plaediert Mueller-Kraenner fuer eine kooperative Energiepolitik im europaeischen Rahmen, die unsere Wirtschaft mit Energie aus unterschiedlichen Quellen versorgt: bezahlbar, umweltfreundlich, sicher. (orig.)

  11. Reliable electricity. The effects of system integration and cooperative measures to make it work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagspiel, Simeon; Koeln Univ.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of system integration for reliability of supply in regional electricity systems along with cooperative measures to support it. Specifically, we set up a model to contrast the benefits from integration through statistical balancing (i.e., a positive externality) with the risk of cascading outages (a negative externality). The model is calibrated with a comprehensive dataset comprising 28 European countries on a high spatial and temporal resolution. We find that positive externalities from system integration prevail, and that cooperation is key to meet reliability targets efficiently. To enable efficient solutions in a non-marketed environment, we formulate the problem as a cooperative game and study different rules to allocate the positive and negative effects to individual countries. Strikingly, we find that without a mechanism, the integrated solution is unstable. In contrast, proper transfer payments can be found to make all countries better off in full integration, and the Nucleolus is identified as a particularly promising candidate. The rule could be used as a basis for compensation payments to support the successful integration and cooperation of electricity systems.

  12. Reliable electricity. The effects of system integration and cooperative measures to make it work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagspiel, Simeon [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Koeln Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Economics

    2017-12-15

    We investigate the effects of system integration for reliability of supply in regional electricity systems along with cooperative measures to support it. Specifically, we set up a model to contrast the benefits from integration through statistical balancing (i.e., a positive externality) with the risk of cascading outages (a negative externality). The model is calibrated with a comprehensive dataset comprising 28 European countries on a high spatial and temporal resolution. We find that positive externalities from system integration prevail, and that cooperation is key to meet reliability targets efficiently. To enable efficient solutions in a non-marketed environment, we formulate the problem as a cooperative game and study different rules to allocate the positive and negative effects to individual countries. Strikingly, we find that without a mechanism, the integrated solution is unstable. In contrast, proper transfer payments can be found to make all countries better off in full integration, and the Nucleolus is identified as a particularly promising candidate. The rule could be used as a basis for compensation payments to support the successful integration and cooperation of electricity systems.

  13. Reliability of salivary testosterone measurements in diagnosis of Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omnia Youssef

    2010-07-01

    Conclusion: Determination of salivary testosterone is a reliable method to detect changes in the concentration of available biologically active testosterone in the serum. Salivary testosterone provides a sensitive, simple, reliable, non-invasive and uncomplicated diagnostic approach for PCOS.

  14. Reliability Assessment for PSC Box-Girder Bridges Based on SHM Strain Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliability assessment method for prestressed concrete (PSC continuous box-girder bridges based on structural health monitoring (SHM strain measurements was proposed. First, due to the fact that measured strain was compositive and the variation periods of its components were different, a series of limit state equations under normal use limit state were given. Then, a linear fitting method was used to determine the relationship between the ambient temperature and the measured strain, which was aimed at extracting the vehicle load effect and the temperature load effect from the measured strain. Finally, according to the equivalent normalization method, the load effects unsatisfying the normal distribution by probability density function fitting were transformed, and the daily failure probabilities of monitored positions were calculated for evaluating the safety state of the girder. The results show that (1 the top plate of the box girder is more sensitive than the bottom plate to the high temperature, (2 the daily and seasonal strain variations induced by uniform temperature reveal an inconsistent tendency to the seasonal variation for mid-span cross sections, and (3 the generalized extreme value distribution is recommended for temperature gradient stress and vehicle induced stress fitting for box-girder bridges.

  15. Research on the reliability of measurement of natural radioactive nuclide concentration of U-238

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Seok Ki; Kim, Gee Hyun [Dept. of Nuclear engineering, Univ. of SeJong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Sun Dong; Lee, Hoon [KoFONS, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Naturally occurred radioactive materials (NORM) can be found all around us and people are exposed to this no matter what they do or where they live. In this study, two indirect measurement methods of NORM U-238 has been reviewed; one that has used HPGe on the basis of the maintenance, and the other is disequilibrium theory of radioactive equilibrium relationships of mother and daughter nuclide at Decay-chain of NORM U-238. For this review, complicated pre-processing process (Breaking->Fusion->Chromatography->Electron deposit) has been used , and then carried out a comparative research with direct measurement method that makes use of and measures Alpha spectrometer. Through the experiment as above, we could infer the daughter nuclide whose radioactive equilibrium has been maintained with U-238. Therefore, we could find out that the daughter nuclide suitable to be applied to Gamma indirect measurement method was Th-234. Due to Pearson Correlation statistics, we could find out the reliability of the result value that has been analyzed by using Th-234.

  16. Analytic tools for investigating the structure of network reliability measures with regard to observation correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prószyński, W.; Kwaśniak, M.

    2018-03-01

    A global measure of observation correlations in a network is proposed, together with the auxiliary indices related to non-diagonal elements of the correlation matrix. Based on the above global measure, a specific representation of the correlation matrix is presented, being the result of rigorously proven theorem formulated within the present research. According to the theorem, each positive definite correlation matrix can be expressed by a scale factor and a so-called internal weight matrix. Such a representation made it possible to investigate the structure of the basic reliability measures with regard to observation correlations. Numerical examples carried out for two test networks illustrate the structure of those measures that proved to be dependent on global correlation index. Also, the levels of global correlation are proposed. It is shown that one can readily find an approximate value of the global correlation index, and hence the correlation level, for the expected values of auxiliary indices being the only knowledge about a correlation matrix of interest. The paper is an extended continuation of the previous study of authors that was confined to the elementary case termed uniform correlation. The extension covers arbitrary correlation matrices and a structure of correlation effect.

  17. Interrater Reliability of mHealth App Rating Measures: Analysis of Top Depression and Smoking Cessation Apps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Adam C; Torous, John; Chan, Steven; Raynor, Geoffrey Stephen; Shwarts, Erik; Shanahan, Meghan; Landman, Adam B

    2016-02-10

    There are over 165,000 mHealth apps currently available to patients, but few have undergone an external quality review. Furthermore, no standardized review method exists, and little has been done to examine the consistency of the evaluation systems themselves. We sought to determine which measures for evaluating the quality of mHealth apps have the greatest interrater reliability. We identified 22 measures for evaluating the quality of apps from the literature. A panel of 6 reviewers reviewed the top 10 depression apps and 10 smoking cessation apps from the Apple iTunes App Store on these measures. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for each of the measures and reported by app category and in aggregate. The measure for interactiveness and feedback was found to have the greatest overall interrater reliability (alpha=.69). Presence of password protection (alpha=.65), whether the app was uploaded by a health care agency (alpha=.63), the number of consumer ratings (alpha=.59), and several other measures had moderate interrater reliability (alphas>.5). There was the least agreement over whether apps had errors or performance issues (alpha=.15), stated advertising policies (alpha=.16), and were easy to use (alpha=.18). There were substantial differences in the interrater reliabilities of a number of measures when they were applied to depression versus smoking apps. We found wide variation in the interrater reliability of measures used to evaluate apps, and some measures are more robust across categories of apps than others. The measures with the highest degree of interrater reliability tended to be those that involved the least rater discretion. Clinical quality measures such as effectiveness, ease of use, and performance had relatively poor interrater reliability. Subsequent research is needed to determine consistent means for evaluating the performance of apps. Patients and clinicians should consider conducting their own assessments of apps, in conjunction with

  18. Validating and Calibrating the Nintendo Wii Balance Board to Derive Reliable Center of Pressure Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia M. Leach

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nintendo Wii balance board (WBB has generated significant interest in its application as a postural control measurement device in both the clinical and (basic, clinical, and rehabilitation research domains. Although the WBB has been proposed as an alternative to the “gold standard” laboratory-grade force plate, additional research is necessary before the WBB can be considered a valid and reliable center of pressure (CoP measurement device. In this study, we used the WBB and a laboratory-grade AMTI force plate (AFP to simultaneously measure the CoP displacement of a controlled dynamic load, which has not been done before. A one-dimensional inverted pendulum was displaced at several different displacement angles and load heights to simulate a variety of postural sway amplitudes and frequencies (<1 Hz. Twelve WBBs were tested to address the issue of inter-device variability. There was a significant effect of sway amplitude, frequency, and direction on the WBB’s CoP measurement error, with an increase in error as both sway amplitude and frequency increased and a significantly greater error in the mediolateral (ML (compared to the anteroposterior (AP sway direction. There was no difference in error across the 12 WBB’s, supporting low inter-device variability. A linear calibration procedure was then implemented to correct the WBB’s CoP signals and reduce measurement error. There was a significant effect of calibration on the WBB’s CoP signal accuracy, with a significant reduction in CoP measurement error (quantified by root-mean-squared error from 2–6 mm (before calibration to 0.5–2 mm (after calibration. WBB-based CoP signal calibration also significantly reduced the percent error in derived (time-domain CoP sway measures, from −10.5% (before calibration to −0.05% (after calibration (percent errors averaged across all sway measures and in both sway directions. In this study, we characterized the WBB’s CoP measurement error

  19. Computing interval-valued reliability measures: application of optimal control methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozin, Igor; Krymsky, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes an approach to deriving interval-valued reliability measures given partial statistical information on the occurrence of failures. We apply methods of optimal control theory, in particular, Pontryagin’s principle of maximum to solve the non-linear optimisation problem and derive...... the probabilistic interval-valued quantities of interest. It is proven that the optimisation problem can be translated into another problem statement that can be solved on the class of piecewise continuous probability density functions (pdfs). This class often consists of piecewise exponential pdfs which appear...... as soon as among the constraints there are bounds on a failure rate of a component under consideration. Finding the number of switching points of the piecewise continuous pdfs and their values becomes the focus of the approach described in the paper. Examples are provided....

  20. Ensuring Structural Integrity through Reliable Residual Stress Measurement: From Crystals to Crankshafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Lyndon

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The determination of accurate, reliable stresses is critical to many fields of engineering and, in particular, the structural integrity and hence, safety, of many systems. Neutron stress measurement is a non-destructive technique that uniquely provides insights into stress fields deep within components and structures. As such, it has become an increasingly important tool within the engineering community leading to improved manufacturing processes to reduce stress and distortion as well as to the definition of more precise structural integrity lifting procedures. This talk describes the current state of the art and identifies the key opportunities for improved structural integrity provided by the 2nd generation dedicated engineering stress diffractometers currently being designed and commissioned world-wide. Examples are provided covering a range of industrially relevant problems from the fields. (author)

  1. Measuring strategies for learning regulation in medical education: scale reliability and dimensionality in a Swedish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelbring, Samuel

    2012-08-15

    The degree of learners' self-regulated learning and dependence on external regulation influence learning processes in higher education. These regulation strategies are commonly measured by questionnaires developed in other settings than in which they are being used, thereby requiring renewed validation. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the learning regulation strategy scales from the Inventory of Learning Styles with Swedish medical students (N = 206). The regulation scales were evaluated regarding their reliability, scale dimensionality and interrelations. The primary evaluation focused on dimensionality and was performed with Mokken scale analysis. To assist future scale refinement, additional item analysis, such as item-to-scale correlations, was performed. Scale scores in the Swedish sample displayed good reliability in relation to published results: Cronbach's alpha: 0.82, 0.72, and 0.65 for self-regulation, external regulation and lack of regulation scales respectively. The dimensionalities in scales were adequate for self-regulation and its subscales, whereas external regulation and lack of regulation displayed less unidimensionality. The established theoretical scales were largely replicated in the exploratory analysis. The item analysis identified two items that contributed little to their respective scales. The results indicate that these scales have an adequate capacity for detecting the three theoretically proposed learning regulation strategies in the medical education sample. Further construct validity should be sought by interpreting scale scores in relation to specific learning activities. Using established scales for measuring students' regulation strategies enables a broad empirical base for increasing knowledge on regulation strategies in relation to different disciplinary settings and contributes to theoretical development.

  2. Measuring strategies for learning regulation in medical education: Scale reliability and dimensionality in a Swedish sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edelbring Samuel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of learners’ self-regulated learning and dependence on external regulation influence learning processes in higher education. These regulation strategies are commonly measured by questionnaires developed in other settings than in which they are being used, thereby requiring renewed validation. The aim of this study was to psychometrically evaluate the learning regulation strategy scales from the Inventory of Learning Styles with Swedish medical students (N = 206. Methods The regulation scales were evaluated regarding their reliability, scale dimensionality and interrelations. The primary evaluation focused on dimensionality and was performed with Mokken scale analysis. To assist future scale refinement, additional item analysis, such as item-to-scale correlations, was performed. Results Scale scores in the Swedish sample displayed good reliability in relation to published results: Cronbach’s alpha: 0.82, 0.72, and 0.65 for self-regulation, external regulation and lack of regulation scales respectively. The dimensionalities in scales were adequate for self-regulation and its subscales, whereas external regulation and lack of regulation displayed less unidimensionality. The established theoretical scales were largely replicated in the exploratory analysis. The item analysis identified two items that contributed little to their respective scales. Discussion The results indicate that these scales have an adequate capacity for detecting the three theoretically proposed learning regulation strategies in the medical education sample. Further construct validity should be sought by interpreting scale scores in relation to specific learning activities. Using established scales for measuring students’ regulation strategies enables a broad empirical base for increasing knowledge on regulation strategies in relation to different disciplinary settings and contributes to theoretical development.

  3. Video training and certification program improves reliability of postischemic neurologic deficit measurement in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taninishi, Hideki; Pearlstein, Molly; Sheng, Huaxin; Izutsu, Miwa; Chaparro, Rafael E; Goldstein, Larry B; Warner, David S

    2016-12-01

    Scoring systems are used to measure behavioral deficits in stroke research. Video-assisted training is used to standardize stroke-related neurologic deficit scoring in humans. We hypothesized that a video-assisted training and certification program can improve inter-rater reliability in assessing neurologic function after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Three expert raters scored neurologic deficits in post-middle cerebral artery occlusion rats using three published systems having different complexity levels (3, 18, or 48 points). The system having the highest point estimate for the correlation between neurologic score and infarct size was selected to create a video-assisted training and certification program. Eight trainee raters completed the video-assisted training and certification program. Inter-rater agreement ( Κ: score) and agreement with expert consensus scores were measured before and after video-assisted training and certification program completion. The 48-point system correlated best with infarct size. Video-assisted training and certification improved agreement with expert consensus scores (pretraining = 65 ± 10, posttraining = 87 ± 14, 112 possible scores, P  0.4 (pretraining = 4, posttraining = 9), and number of categories with an improvement in the Κ: score from pretraining to posttraining (n = 6). Video-assisted training and certification improved trainee inter-rater reliability and agreement with expert consensus behavioral scores in rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Video-assisted training and certification may be useful in multilaboratory preclinical studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Test-retest reliability of spatial and temporal gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy as measured by an electronic walkway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorsdahl, Anne Brit; Moe-Nilssen, Rolf; Strand, Liv Inger

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine test-retest reliability of seven selected temporal and spatial gait parameters and asymmetry measures in children with cerebral palsy. Seventeen children with CP between 3 and 13 years of age walked at three different speeds across an electronic walkway of 5.2m. The tests were repeated after approximately 25 min. The scores were normalized to a walking speed of 1.1m/s to avoid the confounding effect of gait speed on speed dependent gait parameters. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC(1,1) and ICC(3,1)) with 95% confidence intervals, within-subject standard deviation (S(w)) and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were calculated. The relative reliability of cadence, step length, stride length and single stance time was high to excellent (ICC(1,1) between 0.73 and 0.95), while it was poor for step width (ICC(1,1)=0.27 and 0.35). The relative reliability for two calculated asymmetry measures were high for the step length index (ICC(1,1)=0.82) and moderate for the single stance time index (ICC(1,1)=0.49). The absolute reliability values for all gait parameters are reported. Five of seven gait parameters measured by an electronic walkway and normalized to a common walking speed, appear to be highly repeatable in a short-term time span in children with CP who were able to walk without assistive walking devices, provided sufficient cognitive function.

  5. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability of a clinical protocol for measuring turnout in collegiate dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Amanda; Lasner, Andrea; Deu, Rajwinder; Oliphant, Seth; Johnson, Kenneth

    2018-02-02

    Reliable methods of measuring turnout in dancers and comparing active turnout (used in class) with functional (uncompensated) turnout are needed. Authors have suggested measurement techniques but there is no clinically useful, easily reproducible technique with established inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. We adapted a technique based on previous research, which is easily reproducible. We hypothesized excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability between experienced physical therapists (PTs) and a briefly trained faculty member from a university's department of dance. Thirty-two participants were recruited from the same dance department. Dancers' active and functional turnout was measured by each rater. We found that our technique for measuring active and functional turnout has excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when performed by two experienced PTs and by one briefly trained university-level dance faculty member. For active turnout, inter-rater reliability was 0.78 among all raters and 0.82 among only the PT raters; intra-rater reliability was 0.82 among all raters and 0.85 among only the PT raters. For functional turnout, inter-rater reliability was 0.86 among all raters and 0.88 among only the PT raters; intra-rater reliability was 0.87 among all raters and 0.88 among only the PT raters. The measurement technique described provides a standardized protocol with excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability when performed by experienced PTs or by a briefly trained university-level dance faculty member.

  6. Validity and reliability of the Palliative Care Transition Measure for Caregivers (PCTM-C).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, Daniela; Mastroianni, Chiara; Artico, Marco; Biagioli, Valentina; Latina, Roberto; Guarda, Michela; Piredda, Michela; De Marinis, Maria Grazia

    2018-01-21

    Patients suffering from advanced disease face different care transitions. The transition from acute to palliative care is challenging and may lead to the discontinuity of care. Family caregivers become important sources of information, as patients begin to experience difficulties in coping with emotional transition events. The Care Transition Measure was developed to evaluate care transitions as experienced by the elderly. It has never been used in palliative care. The aim of this study was to test the validity and reliability of a modified version of the Palliative Care Transition Measure, specifically the Palliative Care Transition Measure for Caregivers (PCTM-C). The study included two main phases. Phase I focused on the construction of a modified version of the Palliative Care Transition Measure through two focus groups and by computing the content validity index. Phase II focused on testing the psychometric properties of the PCTM-C on 272 family caregivers through confirmatory factor analysis. Result The content validity index for each of the items was higher than 0.80, whereas that for the scale was 0.95. The model tested with confirmatory factor analysis fitted the data well and confirmed that the transition measures referred to communication, integrated care and a trusting-relationship, and therefore the core dimensions of continuity according to existing conceptual models. The internal consistency was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94). Significance of results The PCTM-C proved to be a suitable measure of the quality of such transitions. It may be used in clinical practice as a continuity quality indicator and has the potential to guide interventions to enhance family caregivers' experience of care continuity.

  7. Validity and reliability of simple measurement device to assess the velocity of the barbell during squats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzetti, Silvio; Lamparter, Thomas; Lüthy, Fabian

    2017-12-06

    The velocity of a barbell can provide important insights on the performance of athletes during strength training. The aim of this work was to assess the validity and reliably of four simple measurement devices that were compared to 3D motion capture measurements during squatting. Nine participants were assessed when performing 2 × 5 traditional squats with a weight of 70% of the 1 repetition maximum and ballistic squats with a weight of 25 kg. Simultaneously, data was recorded from three linear position transducers (T-FORCE, Tendo Power and GymAware), an accelerometer based system (Myotest) and a 3D motion capture system (Vicon) as the Gold Standard. Correlations between the simple measurement devices and 3D motion capture of the mean and the maximal velocity of the barbell, as well as the time to maximal velocity, were calculated. The correlations during traditional squats were significant and very high (r = 0.932, 0.990, p squats and was less accurate. All the linear position transducers were able to assess squat performance, particularly during traditional squats and especially in terms of mean velocity and time to maximal velocity.

  8. Reliability of soluble IL-2 receptor measurements obtained with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Takaishi, Masatoshi; Murakami, Yoshie; Ueda, Ryuzo; Yamakido, Michio; Tsubokura, Tokuo.

    1989-09-01

    Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), human soluble interleukin-2 receptors (IL-2R) were measured in the serum of patients with various autoimmune system diseases. To study the sensitivity and specificity of the assay, soluble IL-2Rs were measured in the culture supernatants and in the cell extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells activated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), purified protein derivative of tuberculin, and allogeneic lymphocytes, as well as in the serum of patients with various collagen diseases. The results correlated well with reports from other laboratories. For example, when stimulated by PHA, the greatest amount of soluble IL-2Rs was produced at the fastest rate. In addition, soluble IL-2R levels in the serum of collagen disease patients were significantly higher than those in healthy persons, who themselves exhibited low levels of detectable soluble IL-2Rs. It is hoped that reliable ELISA measurements of soluble IL-2Rs in the serum of atomic bomb survivors will assist in the interpretation of data collected during the work described in RP 2-87, a study of autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases in the Adult Health Study. (author)

  9. Reliability of lower limb alignment measures using an established landmark-based method with a customized computer software program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sled, Elizabeth A.; Sheehy, Lisa M.; Felson, David T.; Costigan, Patrick A.; Lam, Miu; Cooke, T. Derek V.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability of frontal plane lower limb alignment measures using a landmark-based method by (1) comparing inter- and intra-reader reliability between measurements of alignment obtained manually with those using a computer program, and (2) determining inter- and intra-reader reliability of computer-assisted alignment measures from full-limb radiographs. An established method for measuring alignment was used, involving selection of 10 femoral and tibial bone landmarks. 1) To compare manual and computer methods, we used digital images and matching paper copies of five alignment patterns simulating healthy and malaligned limbs drawn using AutoCAD. Seven readers were trained in each system. Paper copies were measured manually and repeat measurements were performed daily for 3 days, followed by a similar routine with the digital images using the computer. 2) To examine the reliability of computer-assisted measures from full-limb radiographs, 100 images (200 limbs) were selected as a random sample from 1,500 full-limb digital radiographs which were part of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study. Three trained readers used the software program to measure alignment twice from the batch of 100 images, with two or more weeks between batch handling. Manual and computer measures of alignment showed excellent agreement (intraclass correlations [ICCs] 0.977 – 0.999 for computer analysis; 0.820 – 0.995 for manual measures). The computer program applied to full-limb radiographs produced alignment measurements with high inter- and intra-reader reliability (ICCs 0.839 – 0.998). In conclusion, alignment measures using a bone landmark-based approach and a computer program were highly reliable between multiple readers. PMID:19882339

  10. The reliability of measuring pain distribution and location using body pain diagrams in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerst, Danielle; Stupar, Maja; Côté, Pierre; Mior, Silvano; Stern, Paula

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the interexaminer reliability of scoring pain distribution using paper and electronic body pain diagrams in patients with acute whiplash-associated disorder and to assess the intermethod reliability of measuring pain distribution and location using paper and electronic diagrams. We conducted an interexaminer reliability study on 80 participants recruited from a randomized controlled trial on the conservative management of acute grade I/II whiplash-associated disorder. Participants were assessed for inclusion/exclusion criteria by an experienced clinician. As part of the baseline assessment, participants independently completed paper and electronic pain diagrams. Diagrams were scored independently by 2 examiners using the body region method. Interexaminer and intermethod reliability was computed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for pain distribution and κ coefficient for pain location. We used Bland-Altman plots to compute limits of agreement. The interexaminer reliability was ICC = 0.925 for paper and ICC = 0.997 for the electronic body pain diagram. The intermethod reliability for measuring pain distribution ranged from ICC = 0.63 to ICC = 0.93. For pain location, the intermethod reliability varied from κ = 0.23 (posterior neck) to κ = 0.90 (right side of the face). We found good to excellent interexaminer reliability for scoring 2 versions of the body pain diagram. Pain distribution and pain location were reliably and consistently measured on body pain diagrams using paper and electronic methods; therefore, clinicians and researchers may choose either medium when using body pain diagrams. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The importance of severity of arthrosis for the reliability of bone mineral density measurement in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayirlioglu, Alper; Gokaslan, Husnu; Cimsit, Canan; Baysal, Begumhan

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of the severity of degenerative changes on measurements of A-P lumbar spines BMD values and to determine the reliability of DEXA measurements associated with severity of the disease on A-P lumbar spines BMD values using DEXA. The measurements using DEXA were taken from L2-L4 spines and femoral neck of total 271 female cases. One hundred and ten of them had mild arthrosis (Group 0), and 69 had severe arthrosis (Group 1). Ninety-two cases without arthrosis were chosen as control group (Group 2). The cases with arthrosic changes were grouped according to their degree of severity of arthrosis. The groups were compared two by two and Tukey multiple comparison test was used for the analysis of the difference of the means of the groups. The mean age of cases was 61.79, 61.84, and 60.47, respectively. The average height was 157.26, 155.93, and 15.92 cm while the average weight was 69.21, 70.78, and 71.45 kg, respectively. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 0.00283, 0.00291, and 0.00293, respectively. L2-L4 A-P spinal BMD values were 0.9870, 0.9848, and 1.0836 g/cm(2) while the femoral neck BMD values were 0.7964, 0.8056, and 0.8223 g/cm(2), respectively. There was no statistical significance between study and control groups in terms of age, weight, height, BMI, and BMD values obtained from femoral neck. However, lumbar region BMD values of the cases with severe arthrosis were statistically significantly high when compared with other two groups. The femoral neck measurement is the prominent alternative method in severe arthrosis while taking measurements from lumbar region is still the most appropriate method in cases with mild arthrosis without having giant osteophytes.

  12. Isometric hand grip strength measured by the Nintendo Wii Balance Board - a reliable new method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomkvist, A W; Andersen, S; de Bruin, E D; Jorgensen, M G

    2016-02-03

    Low hand grip strength is a strong predictor for both long-term and short-term disability and mortality. The Nintendo Wii Balance Board (WBB) is an inexpensive, portable, wide-spread instrument with the potential for multiple purposes in assessing clinically relevant measures including muscle strength. The purpose of the study was to explore intrarater reliability and concurrent validity of the WBB by comparing it to the Jamar hand dynamometer. Intra-rater test-retest cohort design with randomized validity testing on the first session. Using custom WBB software, thirty old adults (69.0 ± 4.2 years of age) were studied for reproducibility and concurrent validity compared to the Jamar hand dynamometer. Reproducibility was tested for dominant and non-dominant hands during the same time-of-day, one week apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) and limits of agreement (LOA) were calculated to describe relative and absolute reproducibility respectively. To describe concurrent validity, Pearson's product-moment correlation and ICC was calculated. Reproducibility was high with ICC values of >0.948 across all measures. Both SEM and LOA were low (0.2-0.5 kg and 2.7-4.2 kg, respectively) in both the dominant and non-dominant hand. For validity, Pearson correlations were high (0.80-0.88) and ICC values were fair to good (0.763-0.803). Reproducibility for WBB was high for relative measures and acceptable for absolute measures. In addition, concurrent validity between the Jamar hand dynamometer and the WBB was acceptable. Thus, the WBB may be a valid instrument to assess hand grip strength in older adults.

  13. Reliability and concurrent validity of the iPhone® Compass application to measure thoracic rotation range of motion (ROM in healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Furness

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Several water-based sports (swimming, surfing and stand up paddle boarding require adequate thoracic mobility (specifically rotation in order to perform the appropriate activity requirements. The measurement of thoracic spine rotation is problematic for clinicians due to a lack of convenient and reliable measurement techniques. More recently, smartphones have been used to quantify movement in various joints in the body; however, there appears to be a paucity of research using smartphones to assess thoracic spine movement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability (intra and inter rater and validity of the iPhone® app (Compass when assessing thoracic spine rotation ROM in healthy individuals. Methods A total of thirty participants were recruited for this study. Thoracic spine rotation ROM was measured using both the current clinical gold standard, a universal goniometer (UG and the Smart Phone Compass app. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was determined with a Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI. Validation of the Compass app in comparison to the UG was measured using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and levels of agreement were identified with Bland–Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. Results Both the UG and Compass app measurements both had excellent reproducibility for intra-rater (ICC 0.94–0.98 and inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.72–0.89. However, the Compass app measurements had higher intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.96 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.93–0.99]; vs. ICC = 0.94 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.88–0.99] and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87 − 0.89; 95% CI [0.74–0.95] vs. ICC = 0.72 − 0.82; 95% CI [0.21–0.94]. A strong and significant correlation was found between the UG and the Compass app, demonstrating good concurrent validity (r = 0.835, p < 0.001. Levels of agreement between the two devices were 24.8° (LoA –9

  14. The reliability of Raman micro-spectroscopy in measuring the density of CO2 mantle fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigi, S.; Frezzotti, M. L.; Ferrando, S.; Villa, I. M.; Maffeis, A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent evaluations of carbon fluxes into and out the Earth's interior recognize that a significant part of the total outgassing of deep Earth carbon occurs in tectonically active areas (Kelemen and Manning, 2015). Potential tracers of carbon fluxes at mantle depths include CO2 fluid inclusions in peridotites. Raman micro-spectroscopy allows calculating the density of CO2 fluids based on the distance of the CO2 Fermi doublet, Δ, in cm-1 (Rosso and Bodnar, 1995). The aim of this work is to check the reliability of Raman densimeter equations (cf. Lamadrid et al., 2016) for high-density CO2 fluids originating at mantle depths. Forty pure CO2 inclusions in peridotites (El Hierro, Canary Islands) of known density (microthermometry) have been analyzed by Raman micro-spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the influence of contaminants on the reliability of equations, 22 CO2-rich inclusions containing subordinate amounts of N2, CO, SO2 have also been studied. Raman spectrometer analytical conditions are: 532 nm laser, 80 mW emission power, T 18°C, 1800 and 600 grating, 1 accumulation x 80 sec. Daily calibration included diamond and atmosphere N2. Results suggest that the "Raman densimeter" represents an accurate method to calculate the density of CO2 mantle fluids. Equations, however, must be applied only to pure CO2 fluids, since contaminants, even in trace amounts (0.39 mol%), affect the Δ resulting in density overestimation. Present study further highlights how analytical conditions and data processing, such as spectral resolution (i.e., grating), calibration linearity, and statistical treatment of spectra, influence the accuracy and the precision of Δ measurements. As a consequence, specific analytical protocols for single Raman spectrometers should be set up in order to get reliable CO2 density data. Kelemen, Peter B., & Craig E. Manning. PNAS, 112.30 (2015): E3997-E4006.Lamadrid, H. M., Moore, L. R., Moncada, D., Rimstidt, J. D., Burruss, R. C., & Bodnar, R. J. Chem

  15. About my Child: measuring 'Complexity' in neurodisability. Evidence of reliability and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzema, A M; Lach, L M; Rosenbaum, P; Nicholas, D

    2016-05-01

    About my Child, 26-item version (AMC-26) was developed as a measure of child health 'complexity' and has been proposed as a tool for understanding the functional needs of children and the priorities of families. The current study investigated the reliability and validity of AMC-26 with a sample of caregivers of children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD; n = 258) who completed AMC-26 as part of a larger study on parenting children with NDD. A subsample of children from the larger study (n = 49) were assessed using standardized measures of cognitive and adaptive functioning. Factor analysis revealed that a four-component model explained 51.12% of the variance. Cronbach's alpha was calculated for each of the four factors and for the scale as a whole, and ranged from 0.75 to 0.85, suggesting a high level of internal consistency. Construct validity was tested through comparisons with the results of standardized measures of child functioning. Predicted relationships for factors one, two and three were statistically significant and in the expected directions. Predictions for factor four were partially supported. AMC-26 was also expected to serve as an indicator of caregiver distress. Drawing on a sample of caregivers from the larger study (n = 251) the model was found to be significant and explained 23% of the variance in caregiver depressive symptoms (R(2)  = .053, F (1, 249) = 14.06, P child function and child health complexity. Such a measure may help elucidate the relationships between child complexity and family well-being. This is an important avenue for further investigation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. A safe and reliable neutralization assay based on pseudovirus to measure neutralizing antibody titer against poliovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaohua; Song, Dongmei; Bai, Han; Lu, Weiwei; Dai, Xinxian; Hao, Chunsheng; Zhang, Zhongyang; Guo, Huijie; Zhang, Yue; Li, Xiuling

    2017-12-01

    With the promotion of inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) and live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV), the global reported cases of poliomyelitis have reduced sharply from 0.35 million in 1988 to 74 in 2015. The Polio Eradication & Endgame Strategic Plan published by WHO in 2013 included the strategy of implementation of poliovirus safe handling and containment measures to minimize the risks of facility-associated reintroduction of virus into the polio-free community to prevent the re-import of poliovirus. Toward this strategy, we produced replication-incompetent pseudovirus of poliovirus type 1, 2, 3 attenuated strains by constructing poliovirus capsid expression vectors and poliovirus replicon then transfecting HEK293T cells and developed a pseudovirus-based neutralization assay (pNA) to determine neutralizing antibody titer which is more secure, time-saving and reliable than conventional neutralization assay (cNA). By using anti-poliovirus rat serum, we demonstrated excellent correlation between neutralizing antibody titers measured by cNA and pNA. It was concluded that pNA can be a potential alternative to replace cNA as a safe and time-saving system for titer determination after live poliovirus's safekeeping. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparison of macro and micro Raman measurement for reliable quantitative analysis of pharmaceutical polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Eduardo M; da Silva, Vitor H; Poppi, Ronei J; Pereira, Claudete F; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2018-05-12

    This work reports on the use of micro- and macro-Raman measurements for quantification of mebendazole (MBZ) polymorphs A, B, and C in mixtures. Three Raman spectrophotometers were studied with a laser spot size of 3, 80 and 100 μm and spectral resolutions of 3.9, 9 and 4 cm -1 , respectively. The samples studied were ternary mixtures varying the MBZ polymorphs A and C from 0 to 100% and polymorph B from 0 to 30%. Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression models were developed using the pre-processing spectra (2nd derivative) of the ternary mixtures. The best performance was obtained when the macro-Raman configuration was applied, obtaining RMSEP values of 1.68%, 1.24% and 2.03% w/w for polymorphs A, B, and C, respectively. In general, micro-Raman presented worst results for MBZ polymorphs prediction because the spectra obtained with this configuration does not represent the bulk proportion of mixtures, which have different particle morphologies and sizes. In addition, the influence of these particle features on micro-Raman measurements was also studied. Finally, the results demonstrated that reliable analytical quantifying of MBZ polymorphs can be reached using a laser with wider area illuminated, thus enabling acquisition of more reproductive and representative spectra of the mixtures. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Reliability of twin-dependent triple junction distributions measured from a section plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Graden B.; Field, David P.

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies indicate polycrystalline triple junctions are independent microstructural features with distinct properties from their constituent grain boundaries. Despite the influence of triple junctions on material properties, it is impractical to characterize triple junctions on a large scale using current three-dimensional methods. This work demonstrates the ability to characterize twin-dependent triple junction distributions from a section plane by adopting a grain boundary plane stereology. The technique is validated through simulated distributions and simulated electron back-scatter diffraction (EBSD) data. Measures of validation and convergence are adopted to demonstrate the quantitative reliability of the technique as well as the convergence behavior of twin-dependent triple junction distributions. This technique expands the characterization power of EBSD and prepares the way for characterizing general triple junction distributions from a section plane. - Graphical abstract: The distribution of planes forming a triple junction with a given twin boundary is shown partially in the stereographic projections below from a given projection. The plot on the left shows the ideal/measured distribution and the plot on the right shows the distribution obtained from the stereological method presented here.

  19. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic; Archer, Jane

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  20. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Joel T.; Buckley, Jonathan D.; Tsiros, Margarita D.; Thewlis, Dominic [University of South Australia, Alliance for Research in Exercise, Nutrition and Activity (ARENA), Sansom Institute for Health Research, GPO Box 2471, Adelaide, South Australia (Australia); Archer, Jane [University of South Australia, Medical Radiation, School of Health Sciences, Adelaide (Australia)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5 %; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2 %). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2 %; LOA ≤11.9 %). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2 %; LOA ≤23.6 %) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6 %; LOA ≤27.5 %). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P < 0.01). Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals. (orig.)

  1. The reliability of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements of bone mineral density in the metatarsals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Joel T; Archer, Jane; Buckley, Jonathan D; Tsiros, Margarita D; Thewlis, Dominic

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the reliability of a simple, efficient technique for measuring bone mineral density (BMD) in the metatarsals using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). BMD of the right foot of 32 trained male distance runners was measured using a DXA scanner with the foot in the plantar position. Separate regions of interest (ROI) were used to assess the BMD of each metatarsal shaft (1st-5th) for each participant. ROI analysis was repeated by the same investigator to determine within-scan intra-rater reliability and by a different investigator to determine within-scan inter-rater reliability. Repeat DXA scans were undertaken for ten participants to assess between-scan intra-rater reliability. Assessment of BMD was consistently most reliable for the first metatarsal across all domains of reliability assessed (intra-class correlation coefficient [ICC] ≥0.97; coefficient of variation [CV] ≤1.5%; limits of agreement [LOA] ≤4.2%). Reasonable levels of intra-rater reliability were also achieved for the second and fifth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.90; CV ≤4.2%; LOA ≤11.9%). Poorer levels of reliability were demonstrated for the third (ICC ≥0.64; CV ≤8.2%; LOA ≤23.6%) and fourth metatarsals (ICC ≥0.67; CV ≤9.6%; LOA ≤27.5%). BMD was greatest in the first and second metatarsals (P Reliable measurements of BMD were achieved for the first, second and fifth metatarsals.

  2. The confidence in diabetes self-care scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Ven, Nicole C W; Weinger, Katie; Yi, Joyce

    2003-01-01

    evaluated in Dutch (n = 151) and U.S. (n = 190) outpatients with type 1 diabetes. In addition to the CIDS scale, assessment included HbA(1c), emotional distress, fear of hypoglycemia, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, and self-care behavior. The Dutch sample completed additional measures on perceived burden......OBJECTIVE: To examine psychometric properties of the Confidence in Diabetes Self-Care (CIDS) scale, a newly developed instrument assessing diabetes-specific self-efficacy in Dutch and U.S. patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Reliability and validity of the CIDS scale were...... and importance of self-care. Test-retest reliability was established in a second Dutch sample (n = 62). RESULTS: Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86 for Dutch patients and 0.90 U.S. patients) and test-retest reliability (Spearman's r = 0.85, P

  3. Reliability of pelvic floor measurements on three- and four-dimensional ultrasound during and after first pregnancy: implications for training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veelen, G A; Schweitzer, K J; van der Vaart, C H

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the reliability of measurements of the levator hiatus and levator-urethra gap (LUG) using three/four-dimensional (3D/4D) transperineal ultrasound in women during their first pregnancy and 6 months postpartum, and to assess the learning process for these measurements. An inexperienced observer was taught to perform measurements of the levator hiatus and LUG by an experienced observer. After training, 3D/4D ultrasound volume datasets of 40 women in the first trimester were analyzed by these two observers. Another training session then took place and both observers repeated the analyses of the same volume datasets. Finally, analyses of 40 volume datasets of the women 6 months postpartum were performed by both observers. Intra- and interobserver reliability were determined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) with 95% CIs. For levator hiatal measurements, in the women during their first pregnancy the interobserver reliability was substantial to almost perfect after both the first and second training session (ICC, 0.62-0.83 and 0.71-0.89, respectively, for anteroposterior diameter, transverse diameter and area at rest, on contraction and on Valsalva) and the intraobserver reliability was substantial to almost perfect for both observers. For these measurements performed once the women had delivered, interobserver reliability was moderate to almost perfect. For LUG measurements performed during pregnancy, interobserver reliability was slight to moderate after the first training session (ICC, 0.14-0.54), but improved after the second training session (ICC, 0.38-0.71), and intraobserver reliability was moderate to substantial for the experienced observer and slight to moderate for the inexperienced observer. For these measurements performed when the women had delivered, interobserver reliability was fair to moderate. The levator hiatus and LUG can be measured reliably using 3D/4D ultrasound in primigravid and primiparous women. The technique to measure

  4. An overview of coefficient alpha and a reliability matrix for estimating adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with psychological research measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponterotto, Joseph G; Ruckdeschel, Daniel E

    2007-12-01

    The present article addresses issues in reliability assessment that are often neglected in psychological research such as acceptable levels of internal consistency for research purposes, factors affecting the magnitude of coefficient alpha (alpha), and considerations for interpreting alpha within the research context. A new reliability matrix anchored in classical test theory is introduced to help researchers judge adequacy of internal consistency coefficients with research measures. Guidelines and cautions in applying the matrix are provided.

  5. A Community Based Study to Test the Reliability and Validity of Physical Activity Measurement Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puneet Misra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physical activity (PA is protective against non-communicable diseases and it can reduce premature mortality. However, it is difficult to assess the frequency, duration, type and intensity of PA. The global physical activity questionnaire (GPAQ has been developed by World Health Organization with the aim of having valid and reliable estimates of PA. The primary aim of this study is to assess the repeatability of the GPAQ instrument and the secondary aim is to validate it against International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and against an objective measure of PA (i.e., using pedometers in both rural and peri-urban areas of North India. Methods: A total of 262 subjects were recruited by random selection from Ballabgarh Block of Haryana State in India. For test retest repeatability of GPAQ and IPAQ, the instruments were administered on two occasions separated by at least 3 days. For concurrent validity, both questionnaires were administered in random order and for criterion validity step counters were used. Spearman′s correlation coefficient, intra-class correlation (ICC and Cohen′s kappa was used in the analysis. Results: For GPAQ validity, the spearman′s Rho ranged from 0.40 to 0.59 and ICC ranged from 0.43 to 0.81 while for IPAQ validity, spearman correlation coefficient ranged from 0.42 to 0.43 and ICC ranged from 0.56 to 0.68. The observed concurrent validity coefficients suggested that both the questionnaires had reasonable agreement (Spearman Rho of >0.90; P < 0.0001; ICC: 0.76-0.91, P < 0.05. Conclusions: GPAQ is similar to IPAQ in measuring PA and can be used for measurement of PA in community settings.

  6. Reliability and measurement error of sagittal spinal motion parameters in 220 patients with chronic low back pain using a three-dimensional measurement device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieritz, Rune M; Bronfort, Gert; Jakobsen, Markus D; Aagaard, Per; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2014-09-01

    A basic premise for any instrument measuring spinal motion is that reliable outcomes can be obtained on a relevant sample under standardized conditions. The purpose of this study was to assess the overall reliability and measurement error of regional spinal sagittal plane motion in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP), and then to evaluate the influence of body mass index, examiner, gender, stability of pain, and pain distribution on reliability and measurement error. This study comprises a test-retest design separated by 7 to 14 days. The patient cohort consisted of 220 individuals with chronic LBP. Kinematics of the lumbar spine were sampled during standardized spinal extension-flexion testing using a 6-df instrumented spatial linkage system. Test-retest reliability and measurement error were evaluated using interclass correlation coefficients (ICC(1,1)) and Bland-Altman limits of agreement (LOAs). The overall test-retest reliability (ICC(1,1)) for various motion parameters ranged from 0.51 to 0.70, and relatively wide LOAs were observed for all parameters. Reliability measures in patient subgroups (ICC(1,1)) ranged between 0.34 and 0.77. In general, greater (ICC(1,1)) coefficients and smaller LOAs were found in subgroups with patients examined by the same examiner, patients with a stable pain level, patients with a body mass index less than below 30 kg/m(2), patients who were men, and patients in the Quebec Task Force classifications Group 1. This study shows that sagittal plane kinematic data from patients with chronic LBP may be sufficiently reliable in measurements of groups of patients. However, because of the large LOAs, this test procedure appears unusable at the individual patient level. Furthermore, reliability and measurement error varies substantially among subgroups of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring Differences in Measurement and Reporting of Classroom Observation Inter-Rater Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Anne Garrison; Gillespie Rouse, Amy; Jones, Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Although inter-rater reliability is an important aspect of using observational instruments, it has received little theoretical attention. In this article, we offer some guidance for practitioners and consumers of classroom observations so that they can make decisions about inter-rater reliability, both for study design and in the reporting of data…

  8. Test-Retest Reliability of a Survey to Measure Transport-Related Physical Activity in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah; Schofield, Grant

    2006-01-01

    The present research details test-retest reliability of a newly developed, telephone-administered TPA survey for adults. This instrument examines barriers, perceptions, and current travel behaviors to place of work/study and local convenience shops. Demonstrated test-retest reliability of the Active Friendly Environments-Transport-Related Physical…

  9. Content Validity and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Halliwick-Concept-Based Instrument "Swimming with Independent Measure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Masa; Vrecar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krusec, Klavdija

    2012-01-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine…

  10. Reliability of Reagent Strips for Semi-quantitative Measurement of Glucosuria in a Neonatal Intensive Care Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolita Bekhof

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The reliability of the semi-quantitative measurement of glucosuria in newborn infants using reagent strips is good, even under the conditions of a NICU. Changes in the rating of reagent strips of more than one category are most likely to be beyond measurement error.

  11. Reliability and validity in measurement of true humeral retroversion by a three-dimensional cylinder fitting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saka, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Hiroki; Hoshi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Toru; Hamada, Hidetoshi; Gamada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-05-01

    Humeral retroversion is defined as the orientation of the humeral head relative to the distal humerus. Because none of the previous methods used to measure humeral retroversion strictly follow this definition, values obtained by these techniques vary and may be biased by morphologic variations of the humerus. The purpose of this study was 2-fold: to validate a method to define the axis of the distal humerus with a virtual cylinder and to establish the reliability of 3-dimensional (3D) measurement of humeral retroversion by this cylinder fitting method. Humeral retroversion in 14 baseball players (28 humeri) was measured by the 3D cylinder fitting method. The root mean square error was calculated to compare values obtained by a single tester and by 2 different testers using the embedded coordinate system. To establish the reliability, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and precision (standard error of measurement [SEM]) were calculated. The root mean square errors for the humeral coordinate system were reliability and precision of the 3D measurement of retroversion yielded an intratester ICC of 0.99 (SEM, 1.0°) and intertester ICC of 0.96 (SEM, 2.8°). The error in measurements obtained by a distal humerus cylinder fitting method was small enough not to affect retroversion measurement. The 3D measurement of retroversion by this method provides excellent intratester and intertester reliability. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. A reliable measure of frailty for a community dwelling older population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fletcher Astrid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frailty remains an elusive concept despite many efforts to define and measure it. The difficulty in translating the clinical profile of frail elderly people into a quantifiable assessment tool is due to the complex and heterogeneous nature of their health problems. Viewing frailty as a 'latent vulnerability' in older people this study aims to derive a model based measurement of frailty and examines its internal reliability in community dwelling elderly. Method The British Women's Heart and Health Study (BWHHS cohort of 4286 women aged 60-79 years from 23 towns in Britain provided 35 frailty indicators expressed as binary categorical variables. These indicators were corrected for measurement error and assigned relative weights in its association with frailty. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA reduced the data to a smaller number of factors and was subjected to confirmatory factor analysis (CFAwhich restricted the model by fitting the EFA-driven structure to observed data. Cox regression analysis compared the hazard ratios for adverse outcomes of the newly developed British frailty index (FI with a widely known FI. This process was replicated in the MRC Assessment study of older people, a larger cohort drawn from 106 general practices in Britain. Results Seven factors explained the association between frailty indicators: physical ability, cardiac symptoms/disease, respiratory symptoms/disease, physiological measures, psychological problems, co-morbidities and visual impairment. Based on existing concepts and statistical indices of fit, frailty was best described using a General Specific Model. The British FI would serve as a better population metric than the FI as it enables people with varying degrees of frailty to be better distinguished over a wider range of scores. The British FI was a better independent predictor of all-cause mortality, hospitalization and institutionalization than the FI in both cohorts. Conclusions

  13. Workplace spirituality in indian organisations: construction of reliable and valid measurement scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabindra Kumar Pradhan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to develop and validate a comprehensive tool for measuring workplace spirituality. On the basis of literature, feedback from academic and industry professionals, a heuristic framework along with a scale on workplace spirituality was proposed and a questionnaire was developed. The instrument obtained empirical views from experts on its dimensions and statements. Content validity ratio (CVR of the instrument was carried out and the retained items were taken for field survey. Three hundred and sixty one executive respondents employed in manufacturing and service organisations in Indian subcontinent responded to the 44 items scale assessing different facets of spirituality at workplace. This helped to validate the factors of workplace spirituality and optimize the contents of the proposed instrument with the help of structural equation modelling. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four distinct factors that constitute the new instrument of workplace spirituality: spiritual orientation, compassion, meaningful work, and alignment of values. Reliability analysis reported high level of internal consistency of the total scale (α = .78 and the five subscales (α’s ranging from .75 to .87. Finally, 30 items were retained with four important factors of Workplace Spirituality Scale.

  14. Status of Siemens steam generator design and measures to assure continuous long-term reliable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoch, G.

    1999-01-01

    Operating pressurized water reactors with U-tube steam generators have encountered difficulties with either one or a combination of inadequate material selection, poor design or manufacturing and an insufficient water chemistry control which resulted in excessive tube degradation. In contrast to the above mentioned problems, steam generators from Siemens/KWU are proving by operating experience that all measures undertaken at the design stage as well as during the operating and maintenance phase were effective enough to counteract any tube corrosion phenomena or other steam generator related problem. An Integrated Service Concept has been developed, applied and wherever necessary improved in order to ensure reliable steam generator operation. The performance of the steam generators is updated continuously, evaluated and implemented in lifetime databases. The main indicator for steam generator integrity are the results of the eddy current testing of the steam generator tubes. Tubes with indications are rated with lifetime threshold values and if necessary plugged, based on individual assessment criteria.(author)

  15. Measures of small business success/performance: Importance, reliability and usability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leković Božidar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to assess the reliability of selected measures of success/performance of small enterprises taking into account all the advantages and disadvantages of objective (traditional, financial and subjective (personal perception indicators. The realization of the basic objective will enable removal of doubt in different categories of success / performance of small businesses, which would be a secondary objective of the paper. The research methodology involves the use parametric procedures due to the characteristics of the selected variables and the number of observations in the sample. Univariate ANOVA and Pearson's coefficient correlation will be the main methods used. The basis of this study consists of data gathered from e-survey of 260 entrepreneurs/ owners/ managers of small enterprises in administrative sub-region of the Republic of Serbia. The analysis results show the correlation between subjective estimate of success of owners/ entrepreneurs/ managers and objective performance indicators, which can be characterized as complementary, meaning that subjective assessment as well as formally stated performance indicators are realistic. In addition, it is important to emphasize as an important result within the group of objective performance indicators, the differences between two groups, financial and non-financial, performance indicators.

  16. Reclaim your creative confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Tom; Kelley, David

    2012-12-01

    Most people are born creative. But over time, a lot of us learn to stifle those impulses. We become warier of judgment, more cautious more analytical. The world seems to divide into "creatives" and "noncreatives," and too many people resign themselves to the latter category. And yet we know that creativity is essential to success in any discipline or industry. The good news, according to authors Tom Kelley and David Kelley of IDEO, is that we all can rediscover our creative confidence. The trick is to overcome the four big fears that hold most of us back: fear of the messy unknown, fear of judgment, fear of the first step, and fear of losing control. The authors use an approach based on the work of psychologist Albert Bandura in helping patients get over their snake phobias: You break challenges down into small steps and then build confidence by succeeding on one after another. Creativity is something you practice, say the authors, not just a talent you are born with.

  17. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemez, Francois M.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to ''forecast,'' that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists ''think.'' This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. ''Confidence'' derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  18. Reliability of new software in measuring cervical multifidus diameters and shoulder muscle strength in a synchronized way; an ultrasonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Rahnama

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the inter-session reliability of new software to measure the diameters of the cervical multifidus muscle (CMM, both at rest and during isometric contractions of the shoulder abductors in subjects with neck pain and in healthy individuals.METHOD: In the present study, the reliability of measuring the diameters of the CMM with the Sonosynch software was evaluated by using 24 participants, including 12 subjects with chronic neck pain and 12 healthy individuals. The anterior-posterior diameter (APD and the lateral diameter (LD of the CMM were measured in a resting state and then repeated during isometric contraction of the shoulder abductors. Measurements were taken on separate occasions 3 to 7 days apart in order to determine inter-session reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM, and smallest detectable difference (SDD were used to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability, respectively.RESULTS: The Sonosynch software has shown to be highly reliable in measuring the diameters of the CMM both in healthy subjects and in those with neck pain. The ICCs 95% CI for APD ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.86 to 0.94 in healthy subjects. For LD, the ICC 95% CI ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.82 to 0.92 in healthy subjects.CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic measurement of the diameters of the CMM using Sonosynch has proved to be reliable especially for APD in healthy subjects as well as subjects with neck pain.

  19. Validity and Reliability of Surface Electromyography Measurements from a Wearable Athlete Performance System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott K. Lynn, Casey M. Watkins, Megan A. Wong, Katherine Balfany, Daniel F. Feeney

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The Athos ® wearable system integrates surface electromyography (sEMG electrodes into the construction of compression athletic apparel. The Athos system reduces the complexity and increases the portability of collecting EMG data and provides processed data to the end user. The objective of the study was to determine the reliability and validity of Athos as compared with a research grade sEMG system. Twelve healthy subjects performed 7 trials on separate days (1 baseline trial and 6 repeated trials. In each trial subjects wore the wearable sEMG system and had a research grade sEMG system’s electrodes placed just distal on the same muscle, as close as possible to the wearable system’s electrodes. The muscles tested were the vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, and biceps femoris (BF. All testing was done on an isokinetic dynamometer. Baseline testing involved performing isometric 1 repetition maximum tests for the knee extensors and flexors and three repetitions of concentric-concentric knee flexion and extension at MVC for each testing speed: 60, 180, and 300 deg/sec. Repeated trials 2-7 each comprised 9 sets where each set included three repetitions of concentric-concentric knee flexion-extension. Each repeated trial (2-7 comprised one set at each speed and percent MVC (50%, 75%, 100% combination. The wearable system and research grade sEMG data were processed using the same methods and aligned in time. The amplitude metrics calculated from the sEMG for each repetition were the peak amplitude, sum of the linear envelope, and 95th percentile. Validity results comprise two main findings. First, there is not a significant effect of system (Athos or research grade system on the repetition amplitude metrics (95%, peak, or sum. Second, the relationship between torque and sEMG is not significantly different between Athos and the research grade system. For reliability testing, the variation across trials and averaged across speeds was 0.8%, 7

  20. Reliability of ultrasonographic measurements in suspected patients of developmental dysplasia of the hip and correlation with the acetabular index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Copuroglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is accepted as a useful imaging modality in the early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Early detection and early treatment of DDH prevents hip dislocation and related physical, social, economic, and psychological problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic and roentgenographic measurements measured by seven different observers. Materials and Methods: The alpha angles of 66 hips in 33 patients were measured using the Graf method by seven different observers. Acetabular index degrees on plane roentgenograms were measured in order to assess the correlation between the ultrasonographic alpha angle and the radiographic acetabular index, which both show the bony acetabular depth, retrospectively. Results: The interclass correlation coefficient, measuring the interobserver reliability, was high and statistically significant for the ultrasonographic measurements. There was a negative correlation between the alpha angle and the acetabular index. Conclusions: Ultrasonography, when applied properly, is a reliable technique between different observers, in the diagnosis and follow up of DDH. When assessed concomitantly with the roentgenographic measurements, the results are reliable and statistically meaningful.

  1. Pattern description and reliability parameters of six force-time related indices measured with plantar pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Kevin; Roosen, Philip; Bruyninckx, Herman; Desloovere, Kaat; Deleu, Paul-Andre; Matricali, Giovanni A; Peeraer, Louis; Staes, Filip

    2013-09-01

    Functional interpretation of plantar pressure measurements is commonly done through the use of ratios and indices which are preceded by the strategic combination of a subsampling method and selection of physical quantities. However, errors which may arise throughout the determination of these temporal indices/ratio calculations (T-IRC) have not been quantified. The purpose of the current study was therefore to estimate the reliability of T-IRC following semi-automatic total mapping (SATM). Using a repeated-measures design, two experienced therapists performed three subsampling sessions on three left and right pedobarographic footprints of ten healthy participants. Following the subsampling, six T-IRC were calculated: Rearfoot-Forefoot_fti, Rearfoot-Midfoot_fti, Forefoot medial/lateral_fti, First ray_fti, Metatarsal 1-Metatarsal 5_fti, Foot medial-lateral_fti. Patterns of the T-IRC were found to be consistent and in good agreement with corresponding knowledge from the literature. The inter-session errors of both therapists were similar in pattern and magnitude. The lowest peak inter-therapist error was found in the First ray_fti (6.5 a.u.) whereas the highest peak inter-therapist error was observed in the Forefoot medial/lateral_fti (27.0 a.u.) The magnitude of the inter-session and inter-therapist error varied over time, precluding the calculation of a simple numerical value for the error. The difference between both error parameters of all T-IRC was negligible which underscores the repeatability of the SATM protocol. The current study reports consistent patterns for six T-IRC and similar inter-session and inter-therapist error. The proposed SATM protocol and the T-IRC may therefore serve as basis for functional interpretation of footprint data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Accuracy and reliability of linear cephalometric measurements from cone-beam computed tomography scans of a dry human skull.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berco, Mauricio; Rigali, Paul H; Miner, R Matthew; DeLuca, Stephelynn; Anderson, Nina K; Will, Leslie A

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy and reliability of 3-dimensional craniofacial measurements obtained from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of a dry human skull. Seventeen landmarks were identified on the skull. CBCT scans were then obtained, with 2 skull orientations during scanning. Twenty-nine interlandmark linear measurements were made directly on the skull and compared with the same measurements made on the CBCT scans. All measurements were made by 2 operators on 4 separate occasions. The method errors were 0.19, 0.21, and 0.19 mm in the x-, y- and z-axes, respectively. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed no significant intraoperator or interoperator differences. The mean measurement error was -0.01 mm (SD, 0.129 mm). Five measurement errors were found to be statistically significantly different; however, all measurement errors were below the known voxel size and clinically insignificant. No differences were found in the measurements from the 2 CBCT scan orientations of the skull. CBCT allows for clinically accurate and reliable 3-dimensional linear measurements of the craniofacial complex. Moreover, skull orientation during CBCT scanning does not affect the accuracy or the reliability of these measurements.

  3. Validity and reliability of a structured-light 3D scanner and an ultrasound imaging system for measurements of facial skin thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Woo; Kim, Sang-Hwan; Gil, Young-Chun; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional (3 D)-scanning-based morphological studies of the face are commonly included in various clinical procedures. This study evaluated validity and reliability of a 3 D scanning system by comparing the ultrasound (US) imaging system versus the direct measurement of facial skin. The facial skin thickness at 19 landmarks was measured using the three different methods in 10 embalmed adult Korean cadavers. Skin thickness was first measured using the ultrasound device, then 3 D scanning of the facial skin surface was performed. After the skin on the left half of face was gently dissected, deviating slightly right of the midline, to separate it from the subcutaneous layer, and the harvested facial skin's thickness was measured directly using neck calipers. The dissected specimen was then scanned again, then the scanned images of undissected and dissected faces were superimposed using Morpheus Plastic Solution (version 3.0) software. Finally, the facial skin thickness was calculated from the superimposed images. The ICC value for the correlations between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement showed excellent reliability (0.849, 95% confidence interval = 0.799-0.887). Bland-Altman analysis showed a good level of agreement between the 3 D scanning system and direct measurement (bias = 0.49 ± 0.49 mm, mean±SD). These results demonstrate that the 3 D scanning system precisely reflects structural changes before and after skin dissection. Therefore, an in-depth morphological study using this 3 D scanning system could provide depth data about the main anatomical structures of face, thereby providing crucial anatomical knowledge for utilization in various clinical applications. Clin. Anat. 30:878-886, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Competition and confidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borloo, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    After a presentation of the new situation of the energy sector with the opening of European energy markets to competition, the author recalls the role of the French government in the organisation and operation of this market: reliable information and protection of consumers, security of supplies with reasonable gas prices, sound relations and partnerships with producing and transit countries. France agrees with the diagnostic of the European Commission about the necessity to improve the operation of the domestic energy markets but differs with the projects of the Commission on the means to be implemented to ensure transparency, non-discrimination, and efficiency in the operation of these markets. (J.S.)

  5. Globalization of consumer confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çelik Sadullah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization of world economies and the importance of nowcasting analysis have been at the core of the recent literature. Nevertheless, these two strands of research are hardly coupled. This study aims to fill this gap through examining the globalization of the consumer confidence index (CCI by applying conventional and unconventional econometric methods. The US CCI is used as the benchmark in tests of comovement among the CCIs of several developing and developed countries, with the data sets divided into three sub-periods: global liquidity abundance, the Great Recession, and postcrisis. The existence and/or degree of globalization of the CCIs vary according to the period, whereas globalization in the form of coherence and similar paths is observed only during the Great Recession and, surprisingly, stronger in developing/emerging countries.

  6. Distinguishing highly confident accurate and inaccurate memory: insights about relevant and irrelevant influences on memory confidence

    OpenAIRE

    Chua, Elizabeth F.; Hannula, Deborah E.; Ranganath, Charan

    2012-01-01

    It is generally believed that accuracy and confidence in one’s memory are related, but there are many instances when they diverge. Accordingly, it is important to disentangle the factors which contribute to memory accuracy and confidence, especially those factors that contribute to confidence, but not accuracy. We used eye movements to separately measure fluent cue processing, the target recognition experience, and relative evidence assessment on recognition confidence and accuracy. Eye movem...

  7. Reliability of length measurements collected by community nurses and health volunteers in rural growth monitoring and promotion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laar, Matilda E; Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Gray-Donald, Katherine

    2018-02-17

    Length measurements are important in growth, monitoring and promotion (GMP) for the surveillance of a child's weight-for-length and length-for-age. These two indices provide an indication of a child's risk of becoming wasted or stunted, and are more informative about a child's growth than the widely used weight-for-age index (underweight). Although the introduction of length measurements in GMP is recommended by the World Health Organization, concerns about the reliability of length measurements collected in rural outreach settings have been expressed by stakeholders. Our aim was to describe the reliability and challenges associated with community health personnel measuring length for rural outreach GMP activities. Two reliability studies (A and B), using 10 children less than 24 months each, were conducted in the GMP services of a rural district in Ghana. Fifteen nurses and 15 health volunteers (HV) with no prior experience in length measurements were trained. Intra- and inter-observer technical error of measurement (TEM), average bias from expert anthropometrist, and coefficient of reliability (R) of length measurements were assessed and compared across sessions. Observations and interviews were used to understand the ability and experiences of health personnel with measuring length at outreach GMP. Inter-observer TEM was larger than intra-observer TEM for both nurses and HV at both sessions and was unacceptably (compared to error standards) high in both groups at both time points. Average biases from expert's measurements were within acceptable limits, however, both groups tended to underestimate length measurements. The R for lengths collected by nurses (92.3%) was higher at session B compared to that of HV (87.5%). Length measurements taken by nurses and HV, and those taken by an experienced anthropometrist at GMP sessions were of moderate agreement (kappa = 0.53, p reliability of length measurements improved after two refresher trainings for nurses but

  8. Intrarater reliability of hand held dynamometry in measuring lower extremity isometric strength using a portable stabilization device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Steven M; Cheng, M Samuel; Smith, A Russell; Kolber, Morey J

    2017-02-01

    Hand held dynamometry (HHD) is a more objective way to quantify muscle force production (MP) compared to traditional manual muscle testing. HHD reliability can be negatively impacted by both the strength of the tester and the subject particularly in the lower extremities due to larger muscle groups. The primary aim of this investigation was to assess intrarater reliability of HHD with use of a portable stabilization device for lower extremity MP in an athletic population. Isometric lower extremity strength was measured for bilateral lower extremities including hip abductors, external rotators, adductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors was measured in a sample of healthy recreational runners (8 male, 7 females, = 30 limbs) training for a marathon. These measurements were assessed using an intrasession intrarater reliability design. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated using 3,1 model based on the single rater design. The standard error of measurement (SEM) for each muscle group was also calculated. ICC were excellent ranging from ICC (3,1) = 0.93-0.98 with standard error of measurements ranging from 0.58 to 17.2 N. This study establishes the use of a HHD with a portable stabilization device as demonstrating good reliability within testers for measuring lower extremity muscle performance in an active healthy population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensitivity, reliability and the effects of diurnal variation on a test battery of field usable upper limb fatigue measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Marcus; Wells, Richard P

    2017-07-01

    Fatigue has been linked to deficits in production quality and productivity and, if of long duration, work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It may thus be a useful risk indicator and design and evaluation tool. However, there is limited information on the test-retest reliability, the sensitivity and the effects of diurnal fluctuation on field usable fatigue measures. This study reports on an evaluation of 11 measurement tools and their 14 parameters. Eight measures were found to have test-retest ICC values greater than 0.8. Four measures were particularly responsive during an intermittent fatiguing condition. However, two responsive measures demonstrated rhythmic behaviour, with significant time effects from 08:00 to mid-afternoon and early evening. Action tremor, muscle mechanomyography and perceived fatigue were found to be most reliable and most responsive; but additional analytical considerations might be required when interpreting daylong responses of MMG and action tremor. Practitioner Summary: This paper presents findings from test-retest and daylong reliability and responsiveness evaluations of 11 fatigue measures. This paper suggests that action tremor, muscle mechanomyography and perceived fatigue were most reliable and most responsive. However, mechanomyography and action tremor may be susceptible to diurnal changes.

  10. "A Comparison of Consensus, Consistency, and Measurement Approaches to Estimating Interrater Reliability"

    OpenAIRE

    Steven E. Stemler

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that the general practice of describing interrater reliability as a single, unified concept is..at best imprecise, and at worst potentially misleading. Rather than representing a single concept, different..statistical methods for computing interrater reliability can be more accurately classified into one of three..categories based upon the underlying goals of analysis. The three general categories introduced and..described in this paper are: 1) consensus estimates, 2) cons...

  11. Reliability measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging in a longitudinal evaluation of mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanto, Theodore P; Pa, Judy; Gazzaley, Adam

    2014-01-01

    As the aging population grows, it has become increasingly important to carefully characterize amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a valuable tool for monitoring disease progression in selectively vulnerable brain regions associated with AD neuropathology. However, the reliability of fMRI data in longitudinal studies of older adults with aMCI is largely unexplored. To address this, aMCI participants completed two visual working tasks, a Delayed-Recognition task and a One-Back task, on three separate scanning sessions over a three-month period. Test-retest reliability of the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activity was assessed using an intraclass correlation (ICC) analysis approach. Results indicated that brain regions engaged during the task displayed greater reliability across sessions compared to regions that were not utilized by the task. During task-engagement, differential reliability scores were observed across the brain such that the frontal lobe, medial temporal lobe, and subcortical structures exhibited fair to moderate reliability (ICC=0.3-0.6), while temporal, parietal, and occipital regions exhibited moderate to good reliability (ICC=0.4-0.7). Additionally, reliability across brain regions was more stable when three fMRI sessions were used in the ICC calculation relative to two fMRI sessions. In conclusion, the fMRI BOLD signal is reliable across scanning sessions in this population and thus a useful tool for tracking longitudinal change in observational and interventional studies in aMCI. © 2013.

  12. Intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer for geriatric and stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Masahiro; Katoh, Munenori; Kawaguchi, Saori; Uemura, Tomomi

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to verify the appropriate number of measurements and the intrarater reliabilities of shoulder joint horizontal adductor muscle strength measurements using a handheld dynamometer (HHD) for geriatric and stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 40 inpatients, who were divided into two groups: 20 stroke patients in the stroke group (SG), and 20 geriatric patients in the no-stroke group (N-SG). Measurements were performed three times using an HHD with a...

  13. Reliability of routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences and research measurements of neonatal skinfold thicknesses: findings from the Born in Bradford study

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jane; Manchester, Ben; Wright, John; Lawlor, Debbie A; Waiblinger, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Summary West J, Manchester B, Wright J, Lawlor DA, Waiblinger D. Reliability of routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences and research measurements of neonatal skinfold thicknesses: findings from the Born in Bradford study. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology 2011. Assessing neonatal size reliably is important for research and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences and of skinfold thicknesses assessed for research purposes. All measurements were undertaken on the same population of neonates born in a large maternity unit in Bradford, UK. Technical error of measurement (TEM), relative TEM and the coefficient of reliability are reported. Intra-observer TEMs for routine circumference measurements were all below 0.4 cm and were generally within ±2-times the mean. Inter-observer TEM ranged from 0.20 to 0.36 cm for head circumference, 0.19 to 0.39 cm for mid upper arm circumference and from 0.39 to 0.77 cm for abdominal circumference. Intra and inter-observer TEM for triceps skinfold thickness ranged from 0.22 to 0.35 mm and 0.15 to 0.54 mm, respectively. Subscapular skinfold thickness TEM values were 0.14 to 0.25 mm for intra-observer measurements and 0.17 to 0.63 mm for inter-observer measurements. Relative TEM values for routine circumferences were all below 4.00% but varied between 2.88% and 14.23% for research skinfold measurements. Reliability was mostly between 80% and 99% for routine circumference measurements and ≥70% for most research skinfold measurements. Routine clinical measurements of neonatal circumferences are reliably assessed in Bradford. Assessing skinfolds in neonates has variable reliability, but on the whole is good. The greater intra-observer, compared with inter-observer, reliability for both sets of measurements highlights the importance of having a minimal number of assessors whenever possible. PMID:21281329

  14. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of two simplified 3-point balance measures in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Miau; Huang, Yi-Jing; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, Gong-Hong; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    The 3-point Berg Balance Scale (BBS-3P) and 3-point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS-3P) were simplified from the BBS and PASS to overcome the complex scoring systems. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P were more feasible in busy clinical practice and showed similarly sound validity and responsiveness to the original measures. However, the reliability of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P is unknown limiting their utility and the interpretability of scores. We aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P in patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. The rehabilitation departments of a medical center and a community hospital. A total of 51 chronic stroke patients (64.7% male). Both balance measures were administered twice 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of both the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The MDC and its percentage over the total score (MDC%) of each measure was calculated for examining the random measurement errors. The ICC values of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The MDC% (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 9.1% (5.1 points) and 8.4% (3.0 points), respectively, indicating that both measures had small and acceptable random measurement errors. Our results showed that both the BBS-3P and the PASS-3P had good test-retest reliability, with small and acceptable random measurement error. These two simplified 3-level balance measures can provide reliable results over time. Our findings support the repeated administration of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P to monitor the balance of patients with stroke. The MDC values can help clinicians and researchers interpret the change scores more precisely.

  15. Sensitivity to mental effort and test-retest reliability of heart rate variability measures in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Shalini; Yadav, Rajeev; Yung, Iris; Zajdel, Daniel P; Oken, Barry S

    2011-10-01

    To determine (1) whether heart rate variability (HRV) was a sensitive and reliable measure in mental effort tasks carried out by healthy seniors and (2) whether non-linear approaches to HRV analysis, in addition to traditional time and frequency domain approaches were useful to study such effects. Forty healthy seniors performed two visual working memory tasks requiring different levels of mental effort, while ECG was recorded. They underwent the same tasks and recordings 2 weeks later. Traditional and 13 non-linear indices of HRV including Poincaré, entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) were determined. Time domain, especially mean R-R interval (RRI), frequency domain and, among non-linear parameters - Poincaré and DFA were the most reliable indices. Mean RRI, time domain and Poincaré were also the most sensitive to different mental effort task loads and had the largest effect size. Overall, linear measures were the most sensitive and reliable indices to mental effort. In non-linear measures, Poincaré was the most reliable and sensitive, suggesting possible usefulness as an independent marker in cognitive function tasks in healthy seniors. A large number of HRV parameters was both reliable as well as sensitive indices of mental effort, although the simple linear methods were the most sensitive. Copyright © 2011 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Validity and Reliability of Field-Based Measures for Assessing Movement Skill Competency in Lifelong Physical Activities: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulteen, Ryan M; Lander, Natalie J; Morgan, Philip J; Barnett, Lisa M; Robertson, Samuel J; Lubans, David R

    2015-10-01

    It has been suggested that young people should develop competence in a variety of 'lifelong physical activities' to ensure that they can be active across the lifespan. The primary aim of this systematic review is to report the methodological properties, validity, reliability, and test duration of field-based measures that assess movement skill competency in lifelong physical activities. A secondary aim was to clearly define those characteristics unique to lifelong physical activities. A search of four electronic databases (Scopus, SPORTDiscus, ProQuest, and PubMed) was conducted between June 2014 and April 2015 with no date restrictions. Studies addressing the validity and/or reliability of lifelong physical activity tests were reviewed. Included articles were required to assess lifelong physical activities using process-oriented measures, as well as report either one type of validity or reliability. Assessment criteria for methodological quality were adapted from a checklist used in a previous review of sport skill outcome assessments. Movement skill assessments for eight different lifelong physical activities (badminton, cycling, dance, golf, racquetball, resistance training, swimming, and tennis) in 17 studies were identified for inclusion. Methodological quality, validity, reliability, and test duration (time to assess a single participant), for each article were assessed. Moderate to excellent reliability results were found in 16 of 17 studies, with 71% reporting inter-rater reliability and 41% reporting intra-rater reliability. Only four studies in this review reported test-retest reliability. Ten studies reported validity results; content validity was cited in 41% of these studies. Construct validity was reported in 24% of studies, while criterion validity was only reported in 12% of studies. Numerous assessments for lifelong physical activities may exist, yet only assessments for eight lifelong physical activities were included in this review

  17. Visual acuity measures do not reliably detect childhood refractive error--an epidemiological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa O'Donoghue

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the utility of uncorrected visual acuity measures in screening for refractive error in white school children aged 6-7-years and 12-13-years. METHODS: The Northern Ireland Childhood Errors of Refraction (NICER study used a stratified random cluster design to recruit children from schools in Northern Ireland. Detailed eye examinations included assessment of logMAR visual acuity and cycloplegic autorefraction. Spherical equivalent refractive data from the right eye were used to classify significant refractive error as myopia of at least 1DS, hyperopia as greater than +3.50DS and astigmatism as greater than 1.50DC, whether it occurred in isolation or in association with myopia or hyperopia. RESULTS: Results are presented from 661 white 12-13-year-old and 392 white 6-7-year-old school-children. Using a cut-off of uncorrected visual acuity poorer than 0.20 logMAR to detect significant refractive error gave a sensitivity of 50% and specificity of 92% in 6-7-year-olds and 73% and 93% respectively in 12-13-year-olds. In 12-13-year-old children a cut-off of poorer than 0.20 logMAR had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 91% in detecting myopia and a sensitivity of 41% and a specificity of 84% in detecting hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Vision screening using logMAR acuity can reliably detect myopia, but not hyperopia or astigmatism in school-age children. Providers of vision screening programs should be cognisant that where detection of uncorrected hyperopic and/or astigmatic refractive error is an aspiration, current UK protocols will not effectively deliver.

  18. Accuracy and Reliability of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Linear and Volumetric Mandibular Condyle Measurements. A Human Cadaver Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sanz, Verónica; Bellot-Arcís, Carlos; Hernández, Virginia; Serrano-Sánchez, Pedro; Guarinos, Juan; Paredes-Gallardo, Vanessa

    2017-09-20

    The accuracy of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) on linear and volumetric measurements on condyles has only been assessed on dry skulls. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of linear and volumetric measurements of mandibular condyles in the presence of soft tissues using CBCT. Six embalmed cadaver heads were used. CBCT scans were taken, followed by the extraction of the condyles. The water displacement technique was used to calculate the volumes of the condyles and three linear measurements were made using a digital caliper, these measurements serving as the gold standard. Surface models of the condyles were obtained using a 3D scanner, and superimposed onto the CBCT images. Condyles were isolated on the CBCT render volume using the surface models as reference and volumes were measured. Linear measurements were made on CBCT slices. The CBCT method was found to be reliable for both volumetric and linear measurements (CV  0.90). Highly accurate values were obtained for the three linear measurements and volume. CBCT is a reliable and accurate method for taking volumetric and linear measurements on mandibular condyles in the presence of soft tissue, and so a valid tool for clinical diagnosis.

  19. A general model of confidence building: analysis and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilgour, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    For more than two decades, security approaches in Europe have included confidence building. Many have argued that Confidence-Building Measures (CBMS) played an essential role in the enormous transformations that took place there. Thus, it is hardly,surprising that CBMs have been proposed as measures to reduce tensions and transform security relationships elsewhere in the world. The move toward wider application of CBMs has strengthened recently, as conventional military, diplomatic, and humanitarian approaches seem to have failed to address problems associated with peace-building and peace support operations. There is, however, a serious problem. We don't really know why, or even how, CBMs work. Consequently, we have no reliable way to design CBMs that would be appropriate in substance, form, and timing for regions culturally, geographically, and militarily different from Europe. Lacking a solid understanding of confidence building, we are handicapped in our efforts to extend its successes to the domain of peace building and peace support. To paraphrase Macintosh, if we don't know how CBMs succeeded in the past, then we are unlikely to be good at maintaining, improving, or extending them. The specific aim of this project is to step into this gap, using the methods of game theory to clarify some aspects of the underlying logic of confidence building. Formal decision models will be shown to contribute new and valuable insights that will assist in the design of CBMs to contribute to new problems and in new arenas. (author)

  20. Is a sphygmomanometer a valid and reliable tool to measure the isometric strength of hip muscles? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Liam Anthony; De Noronha, Marcos; Taylor, Carolyn; Thomas, James

    2015-02-01

    Muscle strength measurement is a key component of physiotherapists' assessment and is frequently used as an outcome measure. A sphygmomanometer is an instrument commonly used to measure blood pressure that can be potentially used as a tool to assess isometric muscle strength. To systematically review the evidence on the reliability and validity of a sphygmomanometer for measuring isometric strength of hip muscles. A literature search was conducted across four databases. Studies were eligible if they presented data on reliability and/or validity, used a sphygmomanometer to measure isometric muscle strength of the hip region, and were peer reviewed. The individual studies were evaluated for quality using a standardized critical appraisal tool. A total of 644 articles were screened for eligibility, with five articles chosen for inclusion. The use of a sphygmomanometer to objectively assess isometric muscle strength of the hip muscles appears to be reliable with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 in elderly and young populations. No studies were identified that have assessed the validity of a sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer appears to be reliable for assessment of isometric muscle strength around the hip joint, but further research is warranted to establish its validity.

  1. Financial Literacy, Confidence and Financial Advice Seeking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kramer, Marc M.

    2016-01-01

    We find that people with higher confidence in their own financial literacy are less likely to seek financial advice, but no relation between objective measures of literacy and advice seeking. The negative association between confidence and advice seeking is more pronounced among wealthy households.

  2. Validity and reliability of an instrumented leg-extension machine for measuring isometric muscle strength of the knee extensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschel, Caroline; Haupenthal, Alessandro; Jacomel, Gabriel Fernandes; Fontana, Heiliane de Brito; Santos, Daniela Pacheco dos; Scoz, Robson Dias; Roesler, Helio

    2015-05-20

    Isometric muscle strength of knee extensors has been assessed for estimating performance, evaluating progress during physical training, and investigating the relationship between isometric and dynamic/functional performance. To assess the validity and reliability of an adapted leg-extension machine for measuring isometric knee extensor force. Validity (concurrent approach) and reliability (test and test-retest approach) study. University laboratory. 70 healthy men and women aged between 20 and 30 y (39 in the validity study and 31 in the reliability study). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values calculated for the maximum voluntary isometric torque of knee extensors at 30°, 60°, and 90°, measured with the prototype and with an isokinetic dynamometer (ICC2,1, validity study) and measured with the prototype in test and retest sessions, scheduled from 48 h to 72 h apart (ICC1,1, reliability study). In the validity analysis, the prototype showed good agreement for measurements at 30° (ICC2,1 = .75, SEM = 18.2 Nm) and excellent agreement for measurements at 60° (ICC2,1 = .93, SEM = 9.6 Nm) and at 90° (ICC2,1 = .94, SEM = 8.9 Nm). Regarding the reliability analysis, between-days' ICC1,1 were good to excellent, ranging from .88 to .93. Standard error of measurement and minimal detectable difference based on test-retest ranged from 11.7 Nm to 18.1 Nm and 32.5 Nm to 50.1 Nm, respectively, for the 3 analyzed knee angles. The analysis of validity and repeatability of the prototype for measuring isometric muscle strength has shown to be good or excellent, depending on the knee joint angle analyzed. The new instrument, which presents a relative low cost and easiness of transportation when compared with an isokinetic dynamometer, is valid and provides consistent data concerning isometric strength of knee extensors and, for this reason, can be used for practical, clinical, and research purposes.

  3. Psychometric properties of the communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA): phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leora R; Babbitt, Edna M; Semik, Patrick; Heinemann, Allen W

    2011-01-01

    Confidence is a construct that has not been explored previously in aphasia research. We developed the Communication Confidence Rating Scale for Aphasia (CCRSA) to assess confidence in communicating in a variety of activities and evaluated its psychometric properties using rating scale (Rasch) analysis. The CCRSA was administered to 21 individuals with aphasia before and after participation in a computer-based language therapy study. Person reliability of the 8-item CCRSA was .77. The 5-category rating scale demonstrated monotonic increases in average measures from low to high ratings. However, one item ("I follow news, sports, stories on TV/movies") misfit the construct defined by the other items (mean square infit = 1.69, item-measure correlation = .41). Deleting this item improved reliability to .79; the 7 remaining items demonstrated excellent fit to the underlying construct, although there was a modest ceiling effect in this sample. Pre- to posttreatment changes on the 7-item CCRSA measure were statistically significant using a paired samples t test. Findings support the reliability and sensitivity of the CCRSA in assessing participants' self-report of communication confidence. Further evaluation of communication confidence is required with larger and more diverse samples.

  4. Feasibility to implement the radioisotopic method of nasal mucociliary transport measurement getting reliable results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troncoso, M.; Opazo, C.; Quilodran, C.; Lizama, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Our goal was to implement the radioisotopic method to measure the nasal mucociliary velocity of transport (NMVT) in a feasible way in order to make it easily available as well as to validate the accuracy of the results. Such a method is needed when primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) is suspected, a disorder characterized for low NMVT, non-specific chronic respiratory symptoms that needs to be confirmed by electronic microscopic cilia biopsy. Methods: We performed one hundred studies from February 2000 until February 2002. Patients aged 2 months to 39 years, mean 9 years. All of them were referred from the Respiratory Disease Department. Ninety had upper or lower respiratory symptoms, ten were healthy controls. The procedure, done be the Nuclear Medicine Technologist, consists to put a 20 μl drop of 99mTc-MAA (0,1 mCi, 4 MBq) behind the head of the inferior turbinate in one nostril using a frontal light, a nasal speculum and a teflon catheter attached to a tuberculin syringe. The drop movement was acquired in a gamma camera-computer system and the velocity was expressed in mm/min. As there is need for the patient not to move during the procedure, sedation has to be used in non-cooperative children. Abnormal NMVT values cases were referred for nasal biopsy. Patients were classified in three groups. Normal controls (NC), PCD confirmed by biopsy (PCDB) and cases with respiratory symptoms without biopsy (RSNB). In all patients with NMVT less than 2.4 mm/min PCD was confirmed by biopsy. There was a clear-cut separation between normal and abnormal values and interestingly even the highest NMVT in PCDB cases was lower than the lowest NMVT in NC. The procedure is not as easy as is generally described in the literature because the operator has to get some skill as well as for the need of sedation in some cases. Conclusion: The procedure gives reliable, reproducible and objective results. It is safe, not expensive and quick in cooperative patients. Although, sometimes

  5. Confidence in Numerical Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemez, Francois M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    This PowerPoint presentation offers a high-level discussion of uncertainty, confidence and credibility in scientific Modeling and Simulation (M&S). It begins by briefly evoking M&S trends in computational physics and engineering. The first thrust of the discussion is to emphasize that the role of M&S in decision-making is either to support reasoning by similarity or to “forecast,” that is, make predictions about the future or extrapolate to settings or environments that cannot be tested experimentally. The second thrust is to explain that M&S-aided decision-making is an exercise in uncertainty management. The three broad classes of uncertainty in computational physics and engineering are variability and randomness, numerical uncertainty and model-form uncertainty. The last part of the discussion addresses how scientists “think.” This thought process parallels the scientific method where by a hypothesis is formulated, often accompanied by simplifying assumptions, then, physical experiments and numerical simulations are performed to confirm or reject the hypothesis. “Confidence” derives, not just from the levels of training and experience of analysts, but also from the rigor with which these assessments are performed, documented and peer-reviewed.

  6. Test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Christos; Giakas, Giannis; Efstathiou, Michalis; Karagiannis, Christos

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test-retest reliability of handgrip strength measurement using a hydraulic hand dynamometer in patients with cervical radiculopathy (CR). A convenience sample of 19 participants (14 men and 5 women; mean ± SD age, 50.5 ± 12 years) with CR was measured using a Jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer by the same rater on 2 different testing sessions with an interval of 7 days between sessions. Data collection procedures followed standardized grip strength testing guidelines established by the American Society of Hand Therapists. During the repeated measures, patients were advised to rest their upper limb in the standardized arm position and encouraged to exert 3 maximum gripping efforts. The mean value of the 3 efforts (measured in kilogram force [Kgf]) was used for data analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient, SEM, and the Bland-Altman plot were used to estimate test-retest reliability and measurement precision. Grip strength measurement in CR demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.976, suggesting excellent test-retest reliability. The small SEM in both testing sessions (SEM1, 2.41 Kgf; SEM2, 2.51 Kgf) as well as the narrow width of the 95% limits of agreements (95% limits of agreement, -4.9 to 4.4 Kgf) in the Bland-Altman plot reflected precise measurements of grip strength in both occasions. Excellent test-retest reliability for grip strength measurement was measured in patients with CR, demonstrating that a hydraulic hand dynamometer could be used as an outcome measure for these patients. Copyright © 2014 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability measurement for mixed mode failures of 33/11 kilovolt electric power distribution stations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M Alwan

    Full Text Available The reliability of the electrical distribution system is a contemporary research field due to diverse applications of electricity in everyday life and diverse industries. However a few research papers exist in literature. This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the reliability of 33/11 Kilovolt high-power stations based on average time between failures. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal fit for the failure data via time between failures. We determine the parameter estimation for all components of the station. We also estimate the reliability value of each component and the reliability value of the system as a whole. The best fitting distribution for the time between failures is a three parameter Dagum distribution with a scale parameter [Formula: see text] and shape parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Our analysis reveals that the reliability value decreased by 38.2% in each 30 days. We believe that the current paper is the first to address this issue and its analysis. Thus, the results obtained in this research reflect its originality. We also suggest the practicality of using these results for power systems for both the maintenance of power systems models and preventive maintenance models.

  8. Validity and Reliability of a Wearable Inertial Sensor to Measure Velocity and Power in the Back Squat and Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orange, Samuel T; Metcalfe, James W; Liefeith, Andreas; Marshall, Phil; Madden, Leigh A; Fewster, Connor R; Vince, Rebecca V

    2018-05-08

    Orange, ST, Metcalfe, JW, Liefeith, A, Marshall, P, Madden, LA, Fewster, CR, and Vince, RV. Validity and reliability of a wearable inertial sensor to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-This study examined the validity and reliability of a wearable inertial sensor to measure velocity and power in the free-weight back squat and bench press. Twenty-nine youth rugby league players (18 ± 1 years) completed 2 test-retest sessions for the back squat followed by 2 test-retest sessions for the bench press. Repetitions were performed at 20, 40, 60, 80, and 90% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) with mean velocity, peak velocity, mean power (MP), and peak power (PP) simultaneously measured using an inertial sensor (PUSH) and a linear position transducer (GymAware PowerTool). The PUSH demonstrated good validity (Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient [r]) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]) only for measurements of MP (r = 0.91; ICC = 0.83) and PP (r = 0.90; ICC = 0.80) at 20% of 1RM in the back squat. However, it may be more appropriate for athletes to jump off the ground with this load to optimize power output. Further research should therefore evaluate the usability of inertial sensors in the jump squat exercise. In the bench press, good validity and reliability were evident only for the measurement of MP at 40% of 1RM (r = 0.89; ICC = 0.83). The PUSH was unable to provide a valid and reliable estimate of any other criterion variable in either exercise. Practitioners must be cognizant of the measurement error when using inertial sensor technology to quantify velocity and power during resistance training, particularly with loads other than 20% of 1RM in the back squat and 40% of 1RM in the bench press.

  9. Accuracy and reliability of wrist-cuff devices for self-measurement of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuya, Masahiro; Chonan, Kenichi; Imai, Yutaka; Goto, Eiji; Ishii, Masao

    2002-04-01

    dorsiflexion was significantly lower than that in palmar extension. In some cases, finger plethysmogram did not disappear during maximum inflation of the wrist-cuff (congruent with 250 mmHg), even in palmar extension and especially in palmar flexion, suggesting incomplete obstruction of radial and/or ulnar arteries during inflation. The results suggest that wrist-cuff devices in the present form are inadequate for self-measurement of blood pressure and, thus, are inadequate for general use or clinical and practical use. However, there is much possibility in wrist-cuff device and the accuracy and reliability of wrist-cuff device are warranted by an improvement of technology.

  10. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  11. Reliability and Validity of a Questionnaire to Measure Consumer Knowledge regarding Safe Practices to Prevent Microbiological Contamination in Restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uggioni, Paula Lazzarin; Salay, Elisabette

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to develop a validated and reliable questionnaire to measure consumer knowledge regarding safe practices to prevent microbiological contamination in restaurants and commercial kitchens. Methods: Non-probabilistic samples of individuals were interviewed in the city of Campinas, Brazil. Questionnaire items…

  12. Reliability of knee joint range of motion and circumference measurements after total knee arthroplasty: does tester experience matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Thomas Linding; Christensen, Malene; Christensen, Stine Sommer

    2010-01-01

    : The design was an intra-tester, inter-tester and intra-day reliability study. Nineteen outpatients (10 females) having received a TKA were examined by an inexperienced and an experienced physiotherapist. Following a standardized protocol, active and passive knee joint ROM and circumference measurements were...

  13. Reliability and reference values of two clinical measurements of dynamic and static knee position in healthy children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortqvist, Maria; Moström, Eva B; Roos, Ewa M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The purposes of this study were to evaluate reliability of the Single-limb mini squat test (a dynamic measure of medio-lateral knee position) and the Quadriceps-angle (Q-angle) (a static measure of medio-lateral knee position), present paediatric reference values of the Q......-angle measurements was found. Reference values for the Q-angle (mean 13.5° (1.9)-15.3° (2.8)) varies with age and gender. No associations were found between dynamic and static measures. CONCLUSIONS: The Single-limb mini squat test showed a moderate reliability and the Q-angle showed a fair to moderate reliability......-angle, and evaluate the association between the tests. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-six healthy children (9-16 years) were included (intra/inter-rater reliability for Q-angle (n = 37/85) and for Single-limb mini squat test (n = 33/28)). Dynamic medio-lateral knee position was assessed by the Single-limb mini squat...

  14. Measuring teacher regulating activities concerning student learning in secondary education classrooms : Reliability and validity of student perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, J. A.; de Jong, F. P. C. M.; Wubbels, Th.; Minnaert, A. E. M. G.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the use and validation of the Pedagogical Practices Inventory, which uses student perceptions arranged into five subscales to measure teacher activities concerning the regulation of student learning in secondary education. To determine the reliability and validity of the

  15. Learning effect of isokinetic measurements in healthy subjects, and reliability and comparability of Biodex and Lido dynamometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Hans; Søndergaard, K; Zachariassen, T

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the learning effect during a set of isokinetic measurements, to evaluate the reliability of the Biodex System 3 PRO dynamometer, and to compare the Biodex System 3 PRO and the Lido Active dynamometers on both extension and flexion over the elbow and the knee a...

  16. Measuring Mobility Limitations in Children with Cerebral Palsy: Interrater and Intrarater Reliability of a Mobility Questionnaire (MobQues)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ravesteyn, Nicolien T.; Dallmeijer, Annet J.; Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Roorda, Leo D.; Becher, Jules G.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to assess the reliability of a mobility questionnaire (MobQues) that was developed to measure the mobility limitations of children with cerebral palsy (CP) as rated by their parents. A clinical version of the questionnaire, consisting of 47 items (MobQues47), is available, as well as a research version with 28…

  17. Feasibility and test-retest reliability of measuring lower‑limb strength in young children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vulpen, L. F.; de Groot, S.; Becher, J. G.; de Wolf, G. S.; Dallmeijer, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Quantifying leg muscle strength in young children with cerebral palsy (CP) is essential for identifying muscle groups for treatment and for monitoring progress. To study the feasibility, intratester reliability and the optimal test design (number of test occasions and repetitions) of measuring

  18. Reliability of fetal cardiac volumetry using spatiotemporal image correlation: assessment of in-vivo and in-vitro measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uittenbogaard, L.B.; Haak, M.C.; Tromp, C.H.N.; Terwee, C.B.; van Vugt, J.M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To assess the reliability of measurement of fetal cardiac ventricular volume, stroke volume, and ejection fraction with four-dimensional ultrasound using spatiotemporal image correlation (STIC). Methods Volume datasets were collected from two sources: 24 from fetuses over a range of

  19. OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Studies. Exercise 5: an international multicenter reliability study using computerized MRI erosion volume measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bird, P; Ejbjerg, B; McQueen, F

    2003-01-01

    with metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints 2 to 5 of the dominant hand included in the field of view. Three readers were instructed to grade MCP 2 and 3 using the OMERACT grading system and then to measure the erosion volume of the same joints using OSIRIS software. The inter-reader reliability of the grading method...

  20. Measuring Integrated Socioemotional Guidance at School: Factor Structure and Reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire (SEG-Q)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Karen; Struyf, Elke

    2013-01-01

    Socioemotional guidance of students has recently become an integral part of education, however no instrument exists to measure integrated socioemotional guidance. This study therefore examines the factor structure and reliability of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire. Psychometric properties of the Socioemotional Guidance Questionnaire and…

  1. Validity and reliability of GPS and LPS for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Polglaze, Ted; Freiwald, Jürgen

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of global (GPS) and local (LPS) positioning systems for measuring distances covered and sprint mechanical properties in team sports. Here, we evaluated two recently released 18 Hz GPS and 20 Hz LPS technologies together with one established 10 Hz GPS technology. Six male athletes (age: 27±2 years; VO2max: 48.8±4.7 ml/min/kg) performed outdoors on 10 trials of a team sport-specific circuit that was equipped with double-light timing gates. The circuit included various walking, jogging, and sprinting sections that were performed either in straight-lines or with changes of direction. During the circuit, athletes wore two devices of each positioning system. From the reported and filtered velocity data, the distances covered and sprint mechanical properties (i.e., the theoretical maximal horizontal velocity, force, and power output) were computed. The sprint mechanical properties were modeled via an inverse dynamic approach applied to the center of mass. The validity was determined by comparing the measured and criterion data via the typical error of estimate (TEE), whereas the reliability was examined by comparing the two devices of each technology (i.e., the between-device reliability) via the coefficient of variation (CV). Outliers due to measurement errors were statistically identified and excluded from validity and reliability analyses. The 18 Hz GPS showed better validity and reliability for determining the distances covered (TEE: 1.6-8.0%; CV: 1.1-5.1%) and sprint mechanical properties (TEE: 4.5-14.3%; CV: 3.1-7.5%) than the 10 Hz GPS (TEE: 3.0-12.9%; CV: 2.5-13.0% and TEE: 4.1-23.1%; CV: 3.3-20.0%). However, the 20 Hz LPS demonstrated superior validity and reliability overall (TEE: 1.0-6.0%; CV: 0.7-5.0% and TEE: 2.1-9.2%; CV: 1.6-7.3%). For the 10 Hz GPS, 18 Hz GPS, and 20 Hz LPS, the relative loss of data sets due to measurement errors was 10.0%, 20.0%, and 15.8%, respectively. This study shows that

  2. Reliability and criterion validity of measurements using a smart phone-based measurement tool for the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sung-Hoon; Kwon, Oh-Yun; Jeon, In-Cheol; Hwang, Ui-Jae; Weon, Jong-Hyuck

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the intra-rater test-retest reliability of a smart phone-based measurement tool (SBMT) and a three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system for measuring the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during single-leg lifting (SLL) and the criterion validity of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis measurement using SBMT compared with a 3D motion analysis system (3DMAS). Seventeen healthy volunteers performed SLL with their dominant leg without bending the knee until they reached a target placed 20 cm above the table. This study used a 3DMAS, considered the gold standard, to measure the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis to assess the criterion validity of the SBMT measurement. Intra-rater test-retest reliability was determined using the SBMT and 3DMAS using intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) [3,1] values. The criterion validity of the SBMT was assessed with ICC [3,1] values. Both the 3DMAS (ICC = 0.77) and SBMT (ICC = 0.83) showed excellent intra-rater test-retest reliability in the measurement of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis during SLL in a supine position. Moreover, the SBMT showed an excellent correlation with the 3DMAS (ICC = 0.99). Measurement of the transverse rotation angle of the pelvis using the SBMT showed excellent reliability and criterion validity compared with the 3DMAS.

  3. The reliability of a VISION COACH task as a measure of psychomotor skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Yubin; Rosopa, Patrick J; Mossey, Mary; Crisler, Matthew C; Drouin, Nathalie; Kopera, Kevin; Brooks, Johnell O

    2014-10-01

    The VISION COACH™ interactive light board is designed to test and enhance participants' psychomotor skills. The primary goal of this study was to examine the test-retest reliability of the Full Field 120 VISION COACH task. One hundred eleven male and 131 female adult participants completed six trials where they responded to 120 randomly distributed lights displayed on the VISION COACH interactive light board. The mean time required for a participant to complete a trial was 101 seconds. Intraclass correlation coefficients, ranging from 0.962 to 0.987 suggest the VISION COACH Full Field 120 task was a reliable task. Cohen's d's of adjacent pairs of trials suggest learning effects did not negatively affect reliability after the third trial.

  4. Reliability of risk assessment measures used in sexually violent predator proceedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Cailey S; Kimonis, Eva R; Otto, Randy K; Kline, Suzonne M; Wasserman, Adam L

    2012-12-01

    The field interrater reliability of three assessment tools frequently used by mental health professionals when evaluating sex offenders' risk for reoffending--the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), the Minnesota Sex Offender Screening Tool-Revised (MnSOST-R) and the Static-99-was examined within the context of sexually violent predator program proceedings. Rater agreement was highest for the Static--99 (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC₁] = .78) and lowest for the PCL-R (ICC₁ = .60; MnSOST-R ICC₁ = .74), although all instruments demonstrated lower field reliability than that reported in their test manuals. Findings raise concerns about the reliability of risk assessment tools that are used to inform judgments of risk in high-stake sexually violent predator proceedings. Implications for future research and suggestions for improving evaluator training to increase accuracy when informing legal decision making are discussed.

  5. Reliability and validity of a dual-probe personal computer-based muscle viewer for measuring the pennation angle of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in patients who have had a stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ji-Eun; Cho, Ki Hun; Yoo, Jun Sang; Lee, Su Jin; Lee, Wan-Hee

    2018-01-01

    Background A dual-probe personal computer-based muscle viewer (DPC-BMW) is advantageous in that it is relatively lightweight and easy to apply. Objective To investigate the reliability and validity of the DPC-BMW in comparison with those of a portable ultrasonography (P-US) device for measuring the pennation angle of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle at rest and during contraction. Methods Twenty-four patients who had a stroke (18 men and 6 women) participated in this study. Using the DPC-BMW and P-US device, the pennation angle of the MG muscle on the affected side was randomly measured. Two examiners randomly obtained the images of all the participants in two separate test sessions, 7 days apart. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), confidence interval, standard error of measurement, Bland-Altman plot, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to estimate their reliability and validity. Results The ICC for the intrarater reliability of the MG muscle pennation angle measured using the DPC-BMW was > 0.916, indicating excellent reliability, and that for the interrater reliability ranged from 0.964 to 0.994. The P-US device also exhibited good reliability. A high correlation was found between the measurements of MG muscle pennation angle obtained using the DPC-BMW and that obtained using the P-US device (p < 0.01). Conclusion The DPC-BMW can provide clear images for accurate measurements, including measurements using dual probes. It has the advantage of rehabilitative US imaging for individuals who have had a stroke. More research studies are needed to evaluate the usefulness of the DPC-BMW in rehabilitation.

  6. Test-Retest Reliability of Handgrip Strength as an Outcome Measure in Patients With Symptoms of Shoulder Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savva, Christos; Mougiaris, Paraskevas; Xadjimichael, Christoforos; Karagiannis, Christos; Efstathiou, Michalis

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the degree of test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement using a hand dynamometer in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. A total of 19 patients (10 women and 9 men; mean ± standard deviation age, 33.2 ± 12.9 years; range 18-59 years) with shoulder impingement syndrome were measured using a hand dynamometer by the same data collector in 2 different testing sessions with a 7-day interval. During each session, patients were encouraged to exert 3 maximal isometric contractions on the affected hand and the mean value of the 3 efforts (measured in kilogram-force [Kgf]) was used for data analysis. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC 2,1 ) as well as the standard error of measurement (SEM) and Bland-Altman plot were used to estimate the degree of test-retest reliability and the measurement error, respectively. Grip strength data analysis revealed an ICC 2,1 score of 0.94, which, based on the Shrout classification, is considered as excellent test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement. The small values of SEMs reported in both sessions (SEM 1 , 2.55 Kgf; SEM 2 , 2.39 Kgf) and the small width of the 95% limits of agreement in the Bland-Altman plot (ranging from -7.39 Kgf to 7.03 Kgf) reflected the measurement precision and the narrow variation of the differences during the 2 testing sessions. Results from this study identified excellent test-retest reliability of grip strength measurement in shoulder impingement syndrome, indicating its potential use as an outcome measure in clinical practice. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    independent data from different disciplines. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models to repository engineering and long term safety assessment. It is judged that most, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for long-term safety. It may also be noted that the feedback requirements from SR-Can to the site modelling are now met in the completed site investigations, subject to levels of uncertainty that are viewed as acceptable. Only a few data points and a few types of data have been omitted from the modelling, mainly because they are judged less relevant and reliable than the data considered. Inclusion of data from outside the Laxemar subarea might have enhanced confidence in the regional model, but only at the locations of the data and these changes in confidence would have been of little significance in relation to implications for the local model area and would not, therefore, have been of any real significance to design or safety assessment. These omissions are judged to have little or no negative impact on confidence in the Laxemar subarea model. In fact, identification of unreliable data and their elimination should have a positive effect on confidence. Poor precision in the measured data is judged to have a limited impact on uncertainties in the site descriptive model, with the exceptions of interpretation and combination of borehole and outcrop fracture data and general uncertainties in sorption data

  8. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    independent data from different disciplines. While some aspects have lower confidence this lack of confidence is handled by providing wider uncertainty ranges, bounding estimates and/or alternative models to repository engineering and long term safety assessment. It is judged that most, of the low confidence aspects have little impact on repository engineering design or for