WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliable change index

  1. FRELIB, Failure Reliability Index Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.B.; Oestergaard, C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Calculation of the reliability index given the failure boundary. A linearization point (design point) is found on the failure boundary for a stationary reliability index (min) and a stationary failure probability density function along the failure boundary, provided that the basic variables are normally distributed. 2 - Method of solution: Iteration along the failure boundary which must be specified - together with its partial derivatives with respect to the basic variables - by the user in a subroutine FSUR. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No distribution information included (first-order-second-moment-method). 20 basic variables (could be extended)

  2. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*: factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejas Javier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibromyalgia (FM is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF, an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61 and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03. The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria. A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35. The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with

  3. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*): factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF), an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61) and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03). The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest) and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria). A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men) with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35). The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with the added advantage

  4. The two errors of using the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) as the standard error of a reliable change index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maassen, Gerard H

    2010-08-01

    In this Journal, Lewis and colleagues introduced a new Reliable Change Index (RCI(WSD)), which incorporated the within-subject standard deviation (WSD) of a repeated measurement design as the standard error. In this note, two opposite errors in using WSD this way are demonstrated. First, being the standard error of measurement of only a single assessment makes WSD too small when practice effects are absent. Then, too many individuals will be designated reliably changed. Second, WSD can grow unlimitedly to the extent that differential practice effects occur. This can even make RCI(WSD) unable to detect any reliable change.

  5. Usefulness of the Reliable Change Index for psychology and psychiatry in clinical practice: a case report of cognitive-behavioral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle de Souza Costa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The reliable change index (RCI is a simple statistical computation which estimate if changes in two psychometric measures are probably due to measurement error or can be accounted by other factor, as a clinical intervention. Despite its clinical usefulness, the method is underutilized by psychiatrists and psychologists. We consider the use of the RCI in clinical practice by a case report of cognitive-behavioral therapy. Method: a female patient of 40 years old sought cognitive-behavioral therapy due to symptoms of depression. We structured the intervention in 16 sessions and used Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II for the assessment of depressive symptoms and answered in each session. Using published data about the BDI-II reliability and its standard deviation, we calculated the RCI before and after the intervention. Results and conclusions: The patient started the treatment with moderate to severe symptoms of depression and showed almost a linear decrease of the symptoms along the sections. Although no reliable change could be associated with the first month of treatment, starting at the second month, we documented a reliable decrease in the depressive symptoms from session 4 to 16. The RCI index it’s a useful method to assess if changes in psychometric measures may represent real change or occur by measurement error.

  6. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) of the WHO-5 in primary prevention of mental disorders. A measurement-based pilot study in positive psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Per; Lindberg, Lone; Moeller, Stine B

    2018-01-01

    with the removal of the stressor. We have focused on a measurement-based method to prevent the development of an adjustment disorder. AIM: The aim of this study has been to analyze from an ongoing Worklife Barometer Survey in which the World Health Organization Well-Being Scale (WHO-5) has been applied to prevent...... distress leading to an adjustment disorder. METHODS: Persons identified with a decrease of 15 points in their repeatedly WHO-5 ratings over three months were through a brief psychological intervention by experienced psychologists. The Reliable Change Index (RCI) was used to determine the clinically...... meaningful change in the WHO-5 ratings. RESULTS: Within the group who received the psychological intervention (N = 1338), 35% of the persons were identified by the RCI analysis to have developed a clinically reliable change in the WHO-5 at the time of the intervention. The remaining 65% of the persons...

  7. How indexes have changed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrar, G.L.

    1993-01-01

    The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1990 and 1991. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net result is that labor costs remained steady for the period

  8. A reliability analysis of the revised competitiveness index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Paul B; Houston, John M

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the reliability of the Revised Competitiveness Index by investigating the test-retest reliability, interitem reliability, and factor structure of the measure based on a sample of 280 undergraduates (200 women, 80 men) ranging in age from 18 to 28 years (M = 20.1, SD = 2.1). The findings indicate that the Revised Competitiveness Index has high test-retest reliability, high inter-item reliability, and a stable factor structure. The results support the assertion that the Revised Competitiveness Index assesses competitiveness as a stable trait rather than a dynamic state.

  9. SDI: Is it a reliable fouling index?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al-Hadidi, A.M.M.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Schippers, J.C.; Wessling, Matthias; van der Meer, Walterus Gijsbertus Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The ASTM considers the silt density index (SDI) test as a standard test for fouling potential of RO and NF feed waters. Up to date, the SDI is used at many full- and pilot-scale installations. The design and choice of the applied RO pretreatment is to a large extent based on the SDI test on the raw

  10. Test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index questionnaire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zwart, B. C. H.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.; Van Duivenbooden, J. C.

    2002-01-01

    The goal of the study was to assess the test-retest reliability of the Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Reliability was tested using a test-retest design with a 4 week interval between measurements. Valid data were collected among 97 elderly construction workers aged 40 years and older. We

  11. Nonlinear Conte-Zbilut-Federici (CZF Method of Computing LF/HF Ratio: A More Reliable Index of Changes in Heart Rate Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Bond Jr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acupuncture treatments are safe and effective for a wide variety of diseases involving autonomic dysregulation. Heart rate variability (HRV is a noninvasive method for assessing sympathovagal balance. The low frequency/high frequency (LF/HF spectral power ratio is an index of sympathovagal influence on heart rate and of cardi

  12. Reliability and Validity of Athletes Disability Index Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noormohammadpour, Pardis; Hosseini Khezri, Alireza; Farahbakhsh, Farzin; Mansournia, Mohammad Ali; Smuck, Matthew; Kordi, Ramin

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate validity and reliability of a new proposed questionnaire for assessment of functional disability in athletes with low back pain (LBP). Validity and reliability study. Elite athletes participating in different fields of sports. Participants were 165 male and female athletes (between 12 and 50 years old) with LBP. Athlete Disability Index (ADI) Questionnaire which is developed by the authors for assessing LBP-related disability in athletes, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RDQ). Self-reported responses were collected regarding LBP-related disability through ADI, ODI, and RDQ. The test-retest reliability was strong, and intraclass correlation value ranged between 0.74 and 0.94. The Cronbach alpha coefficient value of 0.91 (P visual analog scale was r = 0.626 (P disability levels were mild in the large majority of subjects (91.5% and 86.0%, respectively). Alternatively, disability assessments by the ADI did not cluster at the mild level and ranged more broadly from mild to very high. The ADI is a reliable and valid instrument for assessing disability in athletes with LBP. Compared with the available LBP disability questionnaires used in the general population, ADI can more precisely stratify the disability levels of athletes due to LBP.

  13. Reliability of the Emergency Severity Index: Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mirhaghi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Although triage systems based on the Emergency Severity Index (ESI have many advantages in terms of simplicity and clarity, previous research has questioned their reliability in practice. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the reliability of ESI triage scales. Methods: This metaanalysis was performed in March 2014. Electronic research databases were searched and articles conforming to the Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies were selected. Two researchers independently examined selected abstracts. Data were extracted in the following categories: version of scale (latest/older, participants (adult/paediatric, raters (nurse, physician or expert, method of reliability (intra/inter-rater, reliability statistics (weighted/unweighted kappa and the origin and publication year of the study. The effect size was obtained by the Z-transformation of reliability coefficients. Data were pooled with random-effects models and a meta-regression was performed based on the method of moments estimator. Results: A total of 19 studies from six countries were included in the analysis. The pooled coefficient for the ESI triage scales was substantial at 0.791 (95% confidence interval: 0.787‒0.795. Agreement was higher with the latest and adult versions of the scale and among expert raters, compared to agreement with older and paediatric versions of the scales and with other groups of raters, respectively. Conclusion: ESI triage scales showed an acceptable level of overall reliability. However, ESI scales require more development in order to see full agreement from all rater groups. Further studies concentrating on other aspects of reliability assessment are needed.

  14. Reliability and validity of the de Morton Mobility Index in individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tobias; Marks, Detlef; Thiel, Christian; Grüneberg, Christian

    2018-02-04

    To establish the validity and reliability of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with sub-acute stroke. This cross-sectional study was performed in a neurological rehabilitation hospital. We assessed unidimensionality, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, minimal detectable change and possible floor and ceiling effects of the DEMMI in adult patients with sub-acute stroke. The study included a total sample of 121 patients with sub-acute stroke. We analysed validity (n = 109) and reliability (n = 51) in two sub-samples. Rasch analysis indicated unidimensionality with an overall fit to the model (chi-square = 12.37, p = 0.577). All hypotheses on construct validity were confirmed. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.97) were excellent. The minimal detectable change with 90% confidence was 13 points. No floor or ceiling effects were evident. These results indicate unidimensionality, sufficient internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the DEMMI in patients with a sub-acute stroke. Advantages of the DEMMI in clinical application are the short administration time, no need for special equipment and interval level data. The de Morton Mobility Index, therefore, may be a useful performance-based bedside test to measure mobility in individuals with a sub-acute stroke across the whole mobility spectrum. Implications for Rehabilitation The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) is an unidimensional measurement instrument of mobility in individuals with sub-acute stroke. The DEMMI has excellent internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, and sufficient construct validity. The minimal detectable change of the DEMMI with 90% confidence in stroke rehabilitation is 13 points. The lack of any floor or ceiling effects on hospital admission indicates

  15. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    OpenAIRE

    Hai An; Ling Zhou; Hui Sun

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new...

  16. Reliability of levator scapulae index in subjects with and without scapular downward rotation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Yoon, Tae-Lim

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce levator scapulae (LS) measurement using a caliper and the levator scapulae index (LSI) and to investigate intra- and interrater reliability of the LSI in subjects with and without scapular downward rotation syndrome (SDRS). Two raters measured LS length twice in 38 subjects (19 with SDRS and 19 without SDRS). For reliability testing, intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement (SEM), and minimal detectable change (MDC) were calculated. Intrarater reliability analysis resulted with ICCs ranging from 0.94 to 0.98 in subjects with SDRS and 0.96 to 0.98 in subjects without SDRS. These results represented that intrarater reliability in both groups were excellent for measuring LS length with the LSI. Interrater reliability was good (ICC: 0.82) in subjects with SDRS; however, interrater reliability was moderate (ICC: 0.75) in subjects without SDRS. Additionally, SEM and MDC were 0.13% and 0.36% in subjects with SDRS and 0.35% and 0.97% in subjects without SDRS. In subjects with SDRS, low dispersion of the measurement errors and MDC were shown. This study suggested that the LSI is a reliable method to measure LS length and is more reliable for subjects with SDRS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Maturity index on reliability: covering non-technical aspects of IEC61508 reliability certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brombacher, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    One of the more recent developments in the field of reliability and safety is the realisation that these aspects are not only a function of the product itself, but also of the organisation realising this product. A second development is a trend from an often predominantly qualitative analysis towards a quantitative analysis. In contrast to the (older) DIN 0801, the (more recent) IEC61508 requires, on product level, also a quantitative analysis and, on organisational level, an assessment of the lifecycle of a product by analysing the (maturity of the) relevant business processes (DIN V VDE 0801. Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, 1990; DIN V 0801. Grundlegende Sicherheitsbetrachtungen fuer MSR-Schutzeinrichtungen, 1994; DIN V VDE 0801 A1. Grundsaetze fuer Rechner in Systemen mit Sicherheitsaufgaben, Aenderung A1, 1994; IEC 61508 Functional Safety of electrical/electronic/programmable electronic safety-related systems, draft 4.0, 1997). The IEC standard 61508 covers: (i) technical aspects, both on a quantitative and a qualitative level; (ii) organisational aspects, both on aspects of maturity of business processes (quantitative) and on aspects of the definition and application of procedures (qualitative). This paper shows the necessity for an analysis on all aspects in a safety certification process, and presents an overview of the available tools and techniques for the various quadrants. As methods and tools for especially quadrant C are currently unavailable, this paper will propose a method to assess and improve the maturity of an organisation on reliability management: the maturity index on reliability (MIR)

  18. Structural hybrid reliability index and its convergent solving method based on random–fuzzy–interval reliability model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai An

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to resolve the problems of a variety of uncertainty variables that coexist in the engineering structure reliability analysis, a new hybrid reliability index to evaluate structural hybrid reliability, based on the random–fuzzy–interval model, is proposed in this article. The convergent solving method is also presented. First, the truncated probability reliability model, the fuzzy random reliability model, and the non-probabilistic interval reliability model are introduced. Then, the new hybrid reliability index definition is presented based on the random–fuzzy–interval model. Furthermore, the calculation flowchart of the hybrid reliability index is presented and it is solved using the modified limit-step length iterative algorithm, which ensures convergence. And the validity of convergent algorithm for the hybrid reliability model is verified through the calculation examples in literature. In the end, a numerical example is demonstrated to show that the hybrid reliability index is applicable for the wear reliability assessment of mechanisms, where truncated random variables, fuzzy random variables, and interval variables coexist. The demonstration also shows the good convergence of the iterative algorithm proposed in this article.

  19. Measurements of photoinduced refractive index changes in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We report the pump–probe measurements of nonlinear refractive index changes in photochromic bacteriorhodopsin films. The photoinduced absorption is caused by pump beam at 532 nm and the accompanying refractive index changes are studied using a probe beam at 633 nm. The proposed technique is ...

  20. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  1. Establishing Reliable Cognitive Change in Children with Epilepsy: The Procedures and Results for a Sample with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Iterson, Loretta; Augustijn, Paul B.; de Jong, Peter F.; van der Leij, Aryan

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate reliable cognitive change in epilepsy by developing computational procedures to determine reliable change index scores (RCIs) for the Dutch Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. First, RCIs were calculated based on stability coefficients from a reference sample. Then, these RCIs were applied to a…

  2. Establishing reliable cognitive change in children with epilepsy: The procedures and results for a sample with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Iterson, L.; Augustijn, P.B.; de Jong, P.F.; van der Leij, A.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate reliable cognitive change in epilepsy by developing computational procedures to determine reliable change index scores (RCIs) for the Dutch Wechsler Intelligence Scales for Children. First, RCIs were calculated based on stability coefficients from a

  3. Validity and reliability of the Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Maria Carmen; Latorre, Maria do Rosário Dias de Oliveira; Fischer, Frida Marina

    2009-06-01

    To evaluate the validity and reliability of the Portuguese language version of a work ability index. Cross sectional survey of a sample of 475 workers from an electrical company in the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil (spread across ten municipalities in the Campinas area), carried out in 2005. The following aspects of the Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index were evaluated: construct validity, using factorial exploratory analysis, and discriminant capacity, by comparing mean Work Ability Index scores in two groups with different absenteeism levels; criterion validity, by determining the correlation between self-reported health and Work Ability Index score; and reliability, using Cronbach's alpha to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire. Factorial analysis indicated three factors in the work ability construct: issues pertaining to 'mental resources' (20.6% of the variance), self-perceived work ability (18.9% of the variance), and presence of diseases and health-related limitations (18.4% of the variance). The index was capable of discriminating workers according to levels of absenteeism, identifying a significantly lower (pindex and all dimensions of health status analyzed (pindex was high, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.72. The Brazilian version of the Work Ability Index showed satisfactory psychometric properties with respect to construct validity, thus constituting an appropriate option for evaluating work ability in both individual and population-based settings.

  4. Adaptation of the Oswestry Disability Index to Kannada Language and Evaluation of Its Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Venkatdeep; G S, Prashanth; Meravanigi, Gururaja; N, Rajagopalan; Yerramshetty, Janardhan

    2016-06-01

    A translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation study. The aim of this study was to translate, adapt cross-culturally, and validate the Kannada version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). Low back pain is recognized as an important public health problem. Self-administered condition-specific questionnaires are important tools for assessing a patient. For low backache, the ODI is used widely. Preferred language of a region can have an effect on interpretation of questions and thus scoring. A search of literature showed no previously validated Kannada version of the ODI. Cross-cultural adaptation and translation was carried out according to previously set guidelines. Patients were recruited from the orthopedic outpatient department. They filled out a booklet containing the Kannada version of the ODI, Kannada version of the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), and a 10-point visual analog scale for pain (VASpain). The Kannada ODI was answered by 91 patients and retested in 35 patients. After removing questionnaires with stray or ambiguous markings causing difficulty in computation of scores, 76 test questionnaires and 32 retest questionnaires were available for statistical analysis. The Kannada version showed an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). The Kannada version of the ODI showed good correlation with the RMDQ (r = 0.72) and moderate correlation with VASpain (r = 0.58). It also showed an excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.96). Standard error of measurement (SEM) was also low (4.08) and a difference of 11 points is the "Minimum Detectable Change (MDC)." The Kannada version of the ODI that was developed showed consistency and reliability. It can be used for assessment of low back pain and treatment outcomes in Kannada-speaking populations. However, in view of a smaller sample size, it will benefit from verification at multiple centers and with more patients. 3.

  5. The development, validity, and reliability of the Addiction Profile Index (API).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ögel, Kültegin; Evren, Cüneyt; Karadağ, Figen; Gürol, Defne Tamar

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical questionnaire for multidimensional assessment of problems associated with alcohol and substance abuse that would also be useful for treatment planning. The Addiction Profile Index (API) is a self-report questionnaire consisting of 37 items and the following 5 subscales: characteristics of substance use; dependency diagnosis; the effects of subsance use on the user; craving; motivation to quit using substances. The study included 345 alcohol and/or substance abusers from 2 addiction treatment clinics and a prison addiction service. The validity of the questionnaire was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), Readiness to Change Questionnaire (SOCRATES), Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS), Drug Craving Scale (DCS), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID-I), and Addiction Severity Index (ASI). The Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total API was 0.89 and for the subscales it ranged from 0.63 to 0.86. Item-total correlation coefficients ranged from 0.42 to 0.89. The Spearman Brown split-half method coefficient for the total API was 0.83. In all, 4 factors were obtained using explanatory factor analysis that represented 52.3% of the total variance. The API craving subscale was observed to be consistent with PACS and the API motivation subscale was consistent with SOCRATES. The API total score was strongly correlated with the mean MAST score, and the composite ASI medical status, substance use, legal status, and family social relations subscale scores. Based on ROC analyses, the area under curve was 0.90. With a total API cut-off score of 4, the scale's sensitivity and specificity 0.85 was 0.78, respectively. The findings show that the API is a valid and reliable questionnaire that can be used to measure the severity of different dimensions of substance dependency.

  6. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena, E-mail: cpatino@udea.edu.c [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  7. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena; Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  8. The Neck Disability Index-Russian Language Version (NDI-RU): A Study of Validity and Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtadze, Maxim A; Vernon, Howard; Zakharova, Olga B; Kuzminov, Kirill O; Bolotov, Dmitry A

    2015-07-15

    Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric testing. To perform a validated Russian translation and then to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Russian language version of the Neck Disability Index (NDI-RU). Neck pain is highly prevalent and can greatly affect daily activity. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) is the most frequently used scale for self-rating of disability due to neck pain. Its translated versions are applied in many countries. However, the Russian language version of the NDI has not been developed yet. Cross-cultural adaptation of the NDI-RU was performed according to established guidelines. Then, the NDI-RU was evaluated for content validity, concurrent criterion validity, internal consistency, test-retest reliability, factor structure, and minimum detectable change. Two hundred thirty-two patients took part in the study in total: 109 in validity (39.5 ± 10 yr), 123 in reliability (38.4 ± 11 yr; 80 in the test-retest phase). A culturally valid translation was achieved. NDI-RU total scores were distributed normally. Floor/ceiling effects were absent. Good values of Cronbach α were obtained for each item (from 0.80 to 0.84) and for the total NDI-RU (0.83). A 2-factor solution was found for the NDI-RU. The average interitem correlation coefficient was 0.53. Intraclass correlation coefficients for test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.92 for different items and 0.91 for the total NDI-RU. Moderate correlation (Spearman rs = 0.62; P Russian language version of the Neck Disability Index resulted in a valid, reliable instrument that can be used both in clinical practice and scientific investigations. 1.

  9. The Children's Body Image Scale: reliability and use with international standards for body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truby, Helen; Paxton, Susan J

    2008-03-01

    To test the reliability of the Children's Body Image Scale (CBIS) and assess its usefulness in the context of new body size charts for children. Participants were 281 primary schoolchildren with 50% being retested after 3 weeks. The CBIS figure scale was compared with a range of international body mass index (BMI) reference standards. Children had a high degree of body image dissatisfaction. The test-retest reliability of the CBIS was supported. The CBIS is a useful tool for assessing body image in children with sound scale properties. It can also be used to identify the body size of children, which lies outside the healthy weight range of BMI.

  10. High reliability solid refractive index matching materials for field installable connections in FTTH network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kotaro; Kihara, Mitsuru; Shimizu, Tomoya; Yoneda, Keisuke; Kurashima, Toshio

    2015-06-01

    We performed environmental and accelerated aging tests to ensure the long-term reliability of solid type refractive index matching material at a splice point. Stable optical characteristics were confirmed in environmental tests based on an IEC standard. In an accelerated aging test at 140 °C, which is very much higher than the specification test temperature, the index matching material itself and spliced fibers passing through it had steady optical characteristics. Then we performed an accelerated aging test on an index matching material attached to a built-in fiber before splicing it in the worst condition, which is different from the normal use configuration. As a result, we confirmed that the repeated insertion and removal of fiber for splicing resulted in failure. We consider that the repetition of adhesion between index matching material and fibers causes the splice to degrade. With this result, we used the Arrhenius model to estimate a median lifetime of about 68 years in a high temperature environment of 60 °C. Thus solid type index matching material at a splice point is highly reliable over long periods under normal conditions of use.

  11. Cumulative trauma disorders in the upper extremities: reliability of the postural and repetitive risk-factors index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, C P; Harburn, K L; Kramer, J F

    1997-08-01

    This study addresses test-retest reliability of the Postural and Repetitive Risk-Factors Index (PRRI) for work-related upper body injuries. This assessment was developed by the present authors. A repeated measures design was used to assess the test-retest reliability of a videotaped work-site assessment of subjects' movements. Ten heavy users of video display terminals (VDTs) from a local banking industry participated in the study. The 10 subjects' movements were videotaped for 2 hours on each of 2 separate days, while working on-site at their VDTs. The videotaped assessment, which utilized known postural risk factors for developing musculoskeletal disorder, pain, and discomfort in heavy VDT users (ie, repetitiveness, awkward and static postures, and contraction time), was called the PRRI. The videotaped movement assessments were subsequently analyzed in 15-minute sessions (five sessions per 2-hour videotape, which produced a total of 10 sessions over the 2 testing days), and each session was chosen randomly from the videotape. The subjects' movements were given a postural risk score according to the criteria in the PRRI. Each subject was therefore tested a total of 10 times (ie, 10 sessions), over two days. The maximum PRRI score for both sides of the body was 216 points. Reliability coefficients (RCs) for the PRRI scores were calculated, and the reliability of any one session met the minimum criterion for excellent reliability, which was .75. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed that there was no statistically significant difference between sessions (p < .05). Calculations using the standard error of measurement (SEM) indicated that an individual tested once, on one day and with a PRRI score of 25, required a change of at least 8 points in order to be confident that a true change in score had occurred. The significant results from the reliability tests indicated that the PRRI was a reliable measurement tool that could be used by occupational health

  12. Determination of Reliability Index and Weibull Modulus as a Measure of Hypereutectic Silumins Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Szymszal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The first part of the study describes the methods used to determine Weibull modulus and the related reliability index of hypereutectic silumins containing about 17% Si, assigned for manufacture of high-duty castings to be used in automotive applications and aviation. The second part of the study discusses the importance of chemical composition, including the additions of 3% Cu, 1,5% Ni and 1,5% Mg, while in the third part attention was focussed on the effect of process history, including mould type (sand or metal as well as the inoculation process and heat treatment (solutioning and ageing applied to the cast AlSi17Cu3Mg1,5Ni1,5 alloy, on the run of Weibull distribution function and reliability index calculated for the tensile strength Rm of the investigated alloys.

  13. The Addiction Severity Index: Reliability and validity in a Dutch alcoholic population

    OpenAIRE

    Dejong, C.A.J.; Willems, J.C.E.W.; Schippers, G.M.; Hendriks, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was evaluated for its psychometric qualities in a Dutch alcoholic population admitted to an addiction treatment center in the Netherlands. Its factorial structure in this population was found to be consistent with the established six factor structure of the ASI. Reliability analysis revealed that the homogeneity of the subscales was acceptable with the exception of the Alcohol Scale. The six subscales were not highly intercorrelated. The results of this stud...

  14. Reliable Change Indices and Standardized Regression-Based Change Score Norms for Evaluating Neuropsychological Change in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M.; Lineweaver, Tara T.; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    Reliable change index scores (RCIs) and standardized regression-based change score norms (SRBs) permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRBs for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range 6–16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice adjusted RCIs and SRBs were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children’s Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. RCIs and SRBs for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRBs for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. PMID:26043163

  15. Long term test-retest reliability of Oswestry Disability Index in male office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, Rafet; Baltaci, Gul; Ergun, Nevin

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common condition specific outcome measures used in the management of spinal disorders. But there is insufficient study on healthy populations and long term test-retest reliability. This is important because healthy populations are often used for control groups in low back pain interventions, and knowing the reliability of the controls affects the interpretation of the findings of these studies. The purpose of this study is to determine the long term test-retest reliability of ODI in office workers. Participants who have no chronic low back pain history were included in study. Subjects were assessed by the Turkish-ODI 2.0 (e-forms) on 1st, 2nd, 4th, 8th, 15th, 30th days to determine the stability of ODI scores over time. The study began with 58 (12 female, 46 male) participants. 36 (3 female, 33 male) participated for the full 30 days. Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Friedman tests were used. Test-retest reliability was evaluated by using nonparametric statistics. All tests were done by using SPSS-11. There was no statistically significant difference among the median scores of each day. (χ= 6.482, p >  0.05). The difference between median score of the days with 1st day was neither statistically nor clinically significant. ODI has long term test re-test reliability in healthy subjects over a 1 month time interval.

  16. Operator adaptation to changes in system reliability under adaptable automation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavaillaz, Alain; Sauer, Juergen

    2017-09-01

    This experiment examined how operators coped with a change in system reliability between training and testing. Forty participants were trained for 3 h on a complex process control simulation modelling six levels of automation (LOA). In training, participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (50%). The impact of training experience on operator behaviour was examined during a 2.5 h testing session, in which participants either experienced a high- (100%) or low-reliability system (60%). The results showed that most operators did not often switch between LOA. Most chose an LOA that relieved them of most tasks but maintained their decision authority. Training experience did not have a strong impact on the outcome measures (e.g. performance, complacency). Low system reliability led to decreased performance and self-confidence. Furthermore, complacency was observed under high system reliability. Overall, the findings suggest benefits of adaptable automation because it accommodates different operator preferences for LOA. Practitioner Summary: The present research shows that operators can adapt to changes in system reliability between training and testing sessions. Furthermore, it provides evidence that each operator has his/her preferred automation level. Since this preference varies strongly between operators, adaptable automation seems to be suitable to accommodate these large differences.

  17. The reliability of the Extra Load Index as a measure of relative load carriage economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Sean; Cooke, Carlton; Lloyd, Ray

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the reliability of the extra load index (ELI) as a method for assessing relative load carriage economy. Seventeen volunteers (12 males, 5 females) performed walking trials at 3 km·h -1 , 6 km·h -1 and a self-selected speed. Trial conditions were repeated 7 days later to assess test-retest reliability. Trials involved four 4-minute periods of walking, each separated by 5 min of rest. The initial stage was performed unloaded followed in a randomised order by a second unloaded period and walking with backpacks of 7 and 20 kg. Results show ELI values did not differ significantly between trials for any of the speeds (p = 0.46) with either of the additional loads (p = 0.297). The systematic bias, limits of agreement and coefficients of variation were small in all trial conditions. We conclude the ELI appears to be a reliable measure of relative load carriage economy. Practitioner Summary: This paper demonstrates that the ELI is a reliable measure of load carriage economy at a range of walking speeds with both a light and heavy load. The ELI, therefore, represents a useful tool for comparing the relative economy associated with different load carriage systems.

  18. Reliability measures for indexed semi-Markov chains applied to wind energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Petroni, Filippo; Prattico, Flavio

    2015-01-01

    The computation of the dependability measures is a crucial point in many engineering problems as well as in the planning and development of a wind farm. In this paper we address the issue of energy production by wind turbines by using an indexed semi-Markov chain as a model of wind speed. We present the mathematical model, the data and technical characteristics of a commercial wind turbine (Aircon HAWT-10kW). We show how to compute some of the main dependability measures such as reliability, availability and maintainability functions. We compare the results of the model with real energy production obtained from data available in the Lastem station (Italy) and sampled every 10 min. - Highlights: • Semi-Markov models. • Time series generation of wind speed. • Computation of availability, reliability and maintainability.

  19. Determination of Reliability Index and Weibull Modulus as a Measure of Hypereutectic Silumins Survival

    OpenAIRE

    J. Szymszal; J. Piątkowski; J. Przondziono

    2007-01-01

    The first part of the study describes the methods used to determine Weibull modulus and the related reliability index of hypereutectic silumins containing about 17% Si, assigned for manufacture of high-duty castings to be used in automotive applications and aviation. The second part of the study discusses the importance of chemical composition, including the additions of 3% Cu, 1,5% Ni and 1,5% Mg, while in the third part attention was focussed on the effect of process history, including moul...

  20. [Reliability of the PROFUND index to predict 4-year mortality in polypathological patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Manglano, Jesús; Del Corral Beamonte, Esther; Ramos Ibáñez, Rosa; Lambán Aranda, María Pilar; Toyas Miazza, Carla; Rodero Roldán, María Del Mar; Ortiz Domingo, Concepción; Munilla López, Eulalia; de Escalante Yangüela, Begoña

    2016-09-16

    To determine the usefullness of the PROFUND index to assess the risk of global death after 4 years in polypathological patients. Multicenter prospective cohort (Internal Medicine and Geriatrics) study. Polypathological patients admitted between March 1st and June 30th 2011 were included. For each patient, data concerning age, sex, living at home or in a nursing residence, polypathology categories, Charlson, Barthel and Lawton-Brody indexes, Pfeiffer questionnaire, socio-familial Gijon scale, delirium, number of drugs, hemoglobin and creatinine values were gathered, and the PROFUND index was calculated. The follow-up lasted 4 years. We included 441 patients, 324 from Internal Medicine and 117 from Geriatrics, with a mean age of 80.9 (8.7) years. Of them, 245 (55.6%) were women. Heart (62.7%), neurological (41.4%) and respiratory (37.3%) diseases were the most frequent. Geriatrics inpatients were older and more dependants and presented greater cognitive deterioration. After 4 years, 335 (76%) patients died. Mortality was associated with age, dyspnoea, Barthel index<60, delirium, advanced neoplasia and≥4 admissions in the last year. The area under the curve of the PROFUND index was 0.748, 95% CI 0.689-0.806, P<.001 in Internal Medicine and 0.517, 95% CI 0.369-0.666, P=.818 in Geriatrics patients, respectively. The PROFUND index is a reliable tool for predicting long-term global mortality in polypathological patients from Internal Medicine but not from Geriatrics departments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Procedures and methods that increase reliability and reproducibility of the transplanted kidney perfusion index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smokvina, A.

    1994-01-01

    At different times following surgery and during various complications, 119 studies were performed on 57 patients. In many patients studies were repeated several times. Twenty-three studies were performed in as many patients, in whom a normal function of the transplanted kidney was established by other diagnostic methods and retrospective analysis. Comparison was made of the perfusion index results obtained by the Hilson et al. method from 1978 and the ones obtained by my own modified method, which for calculating the index also takes into account: the time difference in appearance of the initial portions of the artery and kidney curves; the positioning of the region of interest over the distal part of the aorta; the bolus injection into the arteriovenous shunt of the forearm with high specific activity of small volumes of Tc-99m labelled agents; a fast 0.5 seconds study of data collection; and a standard for normalization of numerical data. The reliability of one or the other method tested by simulated time shift of the peak of arterial curves shows that the deviation percentage from the main index value in the unmodified method is 2-5 times greater than in the modified method. The normal value of the perfusion index applying the modified method is 91-171. (author)

  2. Modeling Travel Time Reliability of Road Network Considering Connected Vehicle Guidance Characteristics Indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangfeng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Travel time reliability (TTR is one of the important indexes for effectively evaluating the performance of road network, and TTR can effectively be improved using the real-time traffic guidance information. Compared with traditional traffic guidance, connected vehicle (CV guidance can provide travelers with more timely and accurate travel information, which can further improve the travel efficiency of road network. Five CV characteristics indexes are selected as explanatory variables including the Congestion Level (CL, Penetration Rate (PR, Compliance Rate (CR, release Delay Time (DT, and Following Rate (FR. Based on the five explanatory variables, a TTR model is proposed using the multilogistic regression method, and the prediction accuracy and the impact of characteristics indexes on TTR are analyzed using a CV guidance scenario. The simulation results indicate that 80% of the RMSE is concentrated within the interval of 0 to 0.0412. The correlation analysis of characteristics indexes shows that the influence of CL, PR, CR, and DT on the TTR is significant. PR and CR have a positive effect on TTR, and the average improvement rate is about 77.03% and 73.20% with the increase of PR and CR, respectively, while CL and DT have a negative effect on TTR, and TTR decreases by 31.21% with the increase of DT from 0 to 180 s.

  3. The 'Hub Disruption Index', a reliable index sensitive to the brain networks reorganization. A study of the contralesional hemisphere in stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Termenon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stroke, resulting in focal structural damage, induces changes in brain function at both local and global levels. Following stroke, cerebral networks present structural and functional reorganization to compensate for the dysfunctioning provoked by the lesion itself and its remote effects. As some recent studies underlined the role of the contralesional hemisphere during recovery, we studied its role %of the contralesional hemispherein the reorganization of brain function of stroke patients using resting state fMRI and graph theory. We explored this reorganization using the 'hub disruption index' (kappa, a global index sensitive to the reorganization of nodes within the graph. For a given graph metric, kappa of a subject corresponds to the slope of the linear regression model between the mean local network measures of a reference group, and the difference between that reference and the subject under study. In order to translate the use of kappa in clinical context, a prerequisite to achieve meaningful results is to investigate the reliability of this index. In a preliminary part, we studied the reliability of kappa by computing the intraclass correlation coefficient in a cohort of 100 subjects from the Human Connectome Project. Then, we measured intra-hemispheric kappa index in the contralesional hemisphere of 20 subacute stroke patients compared to 20 age-matched healthy controls. Finally, due to the small number of patients, we tested the robustness of our results repeating the experiment 1000 times by bootstrapping on the Human Connectome Project database. Statistical analysis showed a significant reduction of kappa for the contralesional hemisphere of right stroke patients compared to healthy controls. Similar results were observed for the right contralesional hemisphere of left stroke patients. We showed that kappa, is more reliable than global graph metrics and more sensitive to detect differences between groups of patients as compared to

  4. Designing time-of-use program based on stochastic security constrained unit commitment considering reliability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Bashirvand, Mahdi; Solaymani, Soodabeh; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Recently in electricity markets, a massive focus has been made on setting up opportunities for participating demand side. Such opportunities, also known as demand response (DR) options, are triggered by either a grid reliability problem or high electricity prices. Two important challenges that market operators are facing are appropriate designing and reasonable pricing of DR options. In this paper, time-of-use program (TOU) as a prevalent time-varying program is modeled linearly based on own and cross elasticity definition. In order to decide on TOU rates, a stochastic model is proposed in which the optimum TOU rates are determined based on grid reliability index set by the operator. Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate reliability of the power system in each hour. The proposed stochastic model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (SMILP) problem and solved using CPLEX solver. The validity of the method is tested over the IEEE 24-bus test system. In this regard, the impact of the proposed pricing method on system load profile; operational costs and required capacity of up- and down-spinning reserve as well as improvement of load factor is demonstrated. Also the sensitivity of the results to elasticity coefficients is investigated. -- Highlights: ► Time-of-use demand response program is linearly modeled. ► A stochastic model is proposed to determine the optimum TOU rates based on ELNS index set by the operator. ► The model is formulated as a short-term two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem.

  5. Validity and Reliability Study of Bahasa Malaysia Version of Voice Handicap Index-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Fei Ming; Husna Nik Hassan, Nik Fariza; Azman, Mawaddah; Sani, Abdullah; Mat Baki, Marina

    2018-05-21

    This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of Bahasa Malaysia version of Voice Handicap Index-10 (mVHI-10). This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery Department of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from June 2015 to May 2016. The mVHI-10 was produced following a rigorous forward and backward translation. One hundred participants, including 50 healthy volunteers (17 male, 33 female) and 50 patients with voice disorders (26 male, 24 female), were recruited to complete the mVHI-10 before flexible laryngoscopic examinations and acoustic analysis. The mVHI-10 was repeated in 2 weeks via telephone interview or clinic visit. Its reliability and validity were assessed using interclass correlation. The test-retest reliability for total mVHI-10 and each item score was high, with the Cronbach alpha of >0.90. The total mVHI-10 score and domain scores were significantly higher (P Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure was 0.92, which depicted excellent construct validity. There was a significant positive correlation between the mVHI-10 score and jitter and shimmer result (P < 0.001). The present study showed good reliability and validity of the mVHI-10 when applied to both healthy volunteers and patients with voice disorders. We recommend the use of the mVHI-10 in daily clinical practice among Bahasa Malaysia-speaking population. Copyright © 2018 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadollahpour, Faezeh; Baghban, Kowsar; Asadi, Mozhgan

    2015-05-01

    The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI) is one of the instruments used for measuring a dysphagic patient's self-assessment. In some ways, it reflects the patient's quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied in English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in Persian speaking countries. The purpose of this study was to adapt a Persian version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the Persian population with oropharyngeal dysphagia. Some stages for cross-cultural adaptation were performed, which consisted in translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, and final proof reading. The generated Persian DHI was administered to 85 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 89 control subjects at Zahedan city between May 2013 and August 2013. The patients and control subjects answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared. The Persian DHI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficients range from 0.82 to 0.94). Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Persian DHI (r=0.89). There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (P‹0.001). The Persian version of the DHI achieved Face and translation validity. This study demonstrated that the Persian DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effects of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patient life and can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the Persian-speaking dysphagic patients, regardless of the cause or the severity of the dysphagia.

  7. Validity and Reliability of the Persian Version of the Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    faezeh asadollahpour

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Dysphagia Handicap Index (DHI is one of the instruments used for measuring a dysphagic patient’s self-assessment. In some ways, it reflects the patient’s quality of life. Although it has been recognized and widely applied in English speaking populations, it has not been used in its present forms in Persian speaking countries. The purpose of this study was to adapt a Persian version of the DHI and to evaluate its validity, consistency, and reliability in the Persian population with oropharyngeal dysphagia.   Materials and Methods: Some stages for cross-cultural adaptation were performed, which consisted in translation, synthesis, back translation, review by an expert committee, and final proof reading. The generated Persian DHI was administered to 85 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia and 89 control subjects at Zahedan city between May 2013 and August 2013. The patients and control subjects answered the same questionnaire 2 weeks later to verify the test-retest reliability. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. The results of the patients and the control group were compared.   Results: The Persian DHI showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficients range from 0.82 to 0.94. Also, good test-retest reliability was found for the total scores of the Persian DHI (r=0.89. There was a significant difference between the DHI scores of the control group and those of the oropharyngeal dysphagia group (P‹0.001.   Conclusion:  The Persian version of the DHI achieved Face and translation validity. This study demonstrated that the Persian DHI is a valid tool for self-assessment of the handicapping effects of dysphagia on the physical, functional, and emotional aspects of patient life and can be a useful tool for screening and treatment planning for the Persian-speaking dysphagic patients, regardless of the cause or the severity of the dysphagia.

  8. The Barthel Index: comparing inter-rater reliability between nurses and doctors in an older adult rehabilitation unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hartigan, Irene

    2011-02-01

    To ensure accuracy in recording the Barthel Index (BI) in older people, it is essential to determine who is best placed to administer the index. The aim of this study was to compare doctors\\' and nurses\\' reliability in scoring the BI.

  9. Difficulties in using Oswestry Disability Index in Indian patients and validity and reliability of translator-assisted Oswestry Disability Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aithala, Janardhana P

    2015-06-09

    In Indian patients, in view of language plurality and illiteracy, self-reporting of English version of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is not practical. Our study aim was to find out to what extent self-reporting of ODI was possible and in cases where self-reporting was not possible, to see validity and reliability of a translator-assisted ODI score. Fifty patients with low backache and who could not use the English version were assessed with ODI with the use of two translators at a gap of 3 h in a test and retest manner. Patients were also asked to report the most important disabling activity in their day-to-day life. A total of 58 questionnaires were filled during the study period out of which eight patients (14%) self-reported English version; while 50 patients needed a translator. The Cronbach's alpha between two translators for the ODI scores of 50 patients was 0.866, but aggregate of difference between two scores for each ODI component shows high difference between two translators for question nos. 3, 9, and 10. Cronbach's alpha was best when item no. 3 was deleted (0.875, translator 1; 0.777, translator 2). Thirty-seven people did not answer the question related to sexual activity. Agreement between two values was assessed using Kendall's tau and was found good (0.585, Spearman's coefficient 0.741). Kendall's tau values correlating total ODI score and individual components show that all the items move together, but correlation was poor for question no. 3 (P value 0.16 for translator 2). Translator-assisted ODI is a good outcome assessment tool in backache assessment in places where validated local language versions are not available, but in Indian patients, inclusion of question nos. 3 and 8 related to weight lifting and sexual function needs to be reviewed.

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Lower Limb Functional Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Gabel, Charles Philip; Acar, Manolya; Tekindal, Agah

    2015-07-26

    This study aims to adapt culturally a Turkish version of the Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI) and to determine its validity, reliability, internal consistency, measurement sensitivity and factor structure in lower limb problems. The LLFI was translated into Turkish and cross-culturally adapted with a double forward-backward protocol that determined face and content validity. Individuals (n = 120) with lower limb musculoskeletal disorders completed the LLFI and Short Form-36 questionnaires and the Timed Up and Go physical test. The psychometric properties were evaluated for the all participants from patient-reported outcome measures made at baseline and repeated at day 3 to determine criterion between scores (Pearson's r), internal consistency (Cronbachs α) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient - ICC 2.1 ). Error was determined using standard error of the measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change at the 90% level (MDC 90 ), while factor structure was determined using exploratory factor analysis with maximum likelihood extraction and Varimax rotation. The psychometric characteristics showed strong criterion validity (r = 0.74-0.76), high internal consistency (α = 0.82) and high test-retest reability (ICC 2.1  = 0.97). The SEM of 3.2% gave an MDC 90  = 5.8%. The factor structure was uni-dimensional. Turkish version of LLFI was found to be valid and reliable for the measurement of lower limb function in a Turkish population. Implications for Rehabilitation Lower extremity musculoskeletal disorders are common and greatly impact activities among the affected individuals pertaining to daily living, work, leisure and quality of life. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures have advantages as they are practical, cost-effective and clinically convenient for use in patient-centered care. The Lower Limb Functional Index is a recently validated PRO measure shown to have strong clinimetric properties.

  11. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  12. Relevance of the study premises in the reliability indexes; Relevancia das premissas de estudo nos indices de confiabilidade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camara Neto, Felipe [Furnas Centrais Eletricas S.A, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], email: fcamara@furnas.com.br; Schilling, Marcus Th. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF) Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: schilling@ic.uff.br; Silva, Armando M. Leite da [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletricos e Energia], E-mail: armando@unifei.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This article gives subsidies for overcoming the difficulties for the conceptual interpretation of the reliability indexes coming from the probabilistic analysis typical of power systems adequacy. Firstly, it is listed a set of factors that contribute to the generation of significant statistic amplitudes of numerical values. After this, a referential paradigm is obtained for the Brazilian test-system of 107 bars, according to the used methodology in various companies in Brazil. Taking as reference the obtained pattern, a set of experiments is done, and it is obtained the variation range of the severity index, and a set of another traditional indexes in the reliability analysis.

  13. The Addiction Severity Index: reliability and validity in a Dutch alcoholic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, C A; Willems, J C; Schippers, G M; Hendriks, V M

    1995-04-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was evaluated for its psychometric qualities in a Dutch alcoholic population admitted to an addiction treatment center in The Netherlands. Its factorial structure in this population was found to be consistent with the established six factor structure of the ASI. Reliability analysis revealed that the homogeneity of the subscales was acceptable with the exception of the Alcohol Scale. The six subscales were not highly intercorrelated. The results of this study indicate that the ASI is a useful instrument for the assessment of several problems associated with alcoholism. However, the Alcohol Scale appears to be limited as a diagnostic and research instrument in the field of inpatient treatment of alcohol dependence in The Netherlands.

  14. Is pupillary response a reliable index of word recognition? Evidence from a delayed lexical decision task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haro, Juan; Guasch, Marc; Vallès, Blanca; Ferré, Pilar

    2017-10-01

    Previous word recognition studies have shown that the pupillary response is sensitive to a word's frequency. However, such a pupillary effect may be due to the process of executing a response, instead of being an index of word processing. With the aim of exploring this possibility, we recorded the pupillary responses in two experiments involving a lexical decision task (LDT). In the first experiment, participants completed a standard LDT, whereas in the second they performed a delayed LDT. The delay in the response allowed us to compare pupil dilations with and without the response execution component. The results showed that pupillary response was modulated by word frequency in both the standard and the delayed LDT. This finding supports the reliability of using pupillometry for word recognition research. Importantly, our results also suggest that tasks that do not require a response during pupil recording lead to clearer and stronger effects.

  15. Development of a German version of the Oswestry Disability Index. Part 1: cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannion, A F; Junge, A; Fairbank, J C T; Dvorak, J; Grob, D

    2006-01-01

    Patient-orientated assessment methods are of paramount importance in the evaluation of treatment outcome. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the condition-specific questionnaires recommended for use with back pain patients. To date, no German version has been published in the peer-reviewed literature. A cross-cultural adaptation of the ODI for the German language was carried out, according to established guidelines. One hundred patients with chronic low-back pain (35 conservative, 65 surgical) completed a questionnaire booklet containing the newly translated ODI, along with a 0-10 pain visual analogue scale (VAS), the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, and Likert scales for disability, medication intake and pain frequency [to assess ODI's construct (convergent) validity]. Thirty-nine of these patients completed a second questionnaire within 2 weeks (to assess test-retest reliability). The intraclass correlation coefficient for the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. In test-retest, 74% of the individual questions were answered identically, and 21% just one grade higher or lower. The standard error of measurement (SEM) was 3.4, giving a "minimum detectable change" (MDC(95%)) for the ODI of approximately 9 points, i.e. the minimum change in an individual's score required to be considered "real change" (with 95% confidence) over and above measurement error. The ODI scores correlated with VAS pain intensity (r = 0.78, P disability, medication use and pain frequency (in each case P Oswestry questionnaire is reliable and valid, and shows psychometric characteristics as good as, if not better than, the original English version. It should represent a valuable tool for use in future patient-orientated outcome studies in German-speaking lands.

  16. Evaluation of the Validity and Reliability of the Chinese Healthy Eating Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Qun Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Healthy Eating Index (CHEI is a measuring instrument of diet quality in accordance with the Dietary Guidelines for Chinese (DGC-2016. The objective of the study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the CHEI. Data from 12,473 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS-2011, including 3-day–24-h dietary recalls were used in this study. The CHEI was assessed by four exemplary menus developed by the DGC-2016, the general linear models, the independent t-test and the Mann–Whitney U-test, the Spearman’s correlation analysis, the principal components analysis (PCA, the Cronbach’s coefficient, and the Pearson correlation with nutrient intakes. A higher CHEI score was linked with lower exposure to known risk factors of Chinese diets. The CHEI scored nearly perfect for exemplary menus for adult men (99.8, adult women (99.7, and the healthy elderly (99.1, but not for young children (91.2. The CHEI was able to distinguish the difference in diet quality between smokers and non-smokers (P < 0.0001, people with higher and lower education levels (P < 0.0001, and people living in urban and rural areas (P < 0.0001. Low correlations with energy intake for the CHEI total and component scores (|r| < 0.34, P < 0.01 supported the index assessed diet quality independently of diet quantity. The PCA indicated that underlying multiple dimensions compose the CHEI, and Cronbach’s coefficient α was 0.22. Components of dairy, fruits and cooking oils had the greatest impact on the total score. People with a higher CHEI score had not only a higher absolute intake of nutrients (P < 0.001, but also a more nutrient-dense diet (P < 0.001. Our findings support the validity and reliability of the CHEI when using the 3-day–24-h recalls.

  17. Reliability and validity study on the Hungarian versions of the oswestry disability index and the Quebec back pain disability scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, Tamás; Varga, Peter Paul; Szövérfi, Zsolt; Kümin, Michelle; Fairbank, Jeremy; Lazary, Aron

    2013-05-01

    Patient-reported outcome measurements (PROMs) are widely used in spine care. The development of reliable and valid National versions of spine-related disability questionnaires is strongly recommended from both the clinical and scientific points-of-view. The aims of this study were to adapt and validate the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and the Quebec back pain disability scale (QDS) for use with the Hungarian language. After translating and culturally adapting the ODI and QDS, 133 patients with lumbar degenerative spinal disorder filled in the questionnaire booklet twice within 2 weeks. Subjects completed the Hungarian versions of the two PROMs as well as the WHOQoL-BREF validated as a general life quality questionnaire and Visual Analogue Scale of pain. Internal consistency, reliability and construct validity of the questionnaires were determined, as were the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) scores. The Hungarian ODI consisted of one factor that showed good internal consistency (Cronbach-α 0.890). The QDS showed a four-factor structure with Cronbach-α values between 0.788 and 0.917. No significant floor or ceiling effects were observed. The test-retest analysis showed excellent reliability of the Hungarian ODI and QDS. The intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were 0.927 and 0.923, respectively. SEM values of 4.8 and 5.2 resulted in a MDC of 13 and 14 points in the Hungarian ODI and QDS, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) between pain and ODI was 0.680 (p 0.4, p disability measured by the Hungarian ODI and QDS was significantly higher in the surgical subgroup than in non-surgically treated patients (p < 0.001). Translation and cultural adaptation of the ODI and QDS were successful. Hungarian versions of the ODI and QDS proved to be reliable, valid PROMs confirming that they can be used in future clinical and scientific work with Hungarian-speaking spine patients.

  18. Cross-cultural adaptation, validity, and reliability of the Persian version of the spine functional index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarinia, Hamid Reza; Hosseini, Azadeh; Maleki-Ghahfarokhi, Azam; Gabel, Charles Philip; Zohrabi, Majid

    2018-05-15

    There are various instruments and methods to evaluate spinal health and functional status. Whole-spine patient reported outcome (PRO) measures, such as the Spine Functional Index (SFI), assess the spine from the cervical to lumbo-sacral sections as a single kinetic chain. The aim of this study was to cross-culturally adapt the SFI for Persian speaking patients (SFI-Pr) and determine the psychometric properties of reliability and validity (convergent and construct) in a Persian patient population. The SFI (English) PRO was translated into Persian according to published guidelines. Consecutive symptomatic spine patients (104 female and 120 male aged between 18 and 60) were recruited from three Iranian physiotherapy centers. Test-retest reliability was performed in a sub-sample (n = 31) at baseline and repeated between days 3-7. Convergent validity was determined by calculating the Pearson's r correlation coefficient between the SFI-Pr and the Persian Roland Morris Questionnaire (RMQ) for back pain patients and the Neck Disability Index (NDI) for neck patients. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's α. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) used Maximum Likelihood Extraction followed by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA). High levels of internal consistency (α = 0.81, item range = 0.78-0.82) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.96, item range = 0.83-0.98) were obtained. Convergent validity was very good between the SFI and RMQ (r = 0.69) and good between the SFI and NDI (r = 0.57). The EFA from the perspective of parsimony suggests a one-factor solution that explained 26.5% of total variance. The CFA was inconclusive of the one factor structure as the sample size was inadequate. There were no floor or ceiling effects. The SFI-Pr PRO can be applied as a specific whole-spine status assessment instrument for clinical and research studies in Persian language populations.

  19. Estimating the reliability of glycemic index values and potential sources of methodological and biological variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Ausman, Lynne M; Meng, Huicui; Tighiouart, Hocine; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2016-10-01

    The utility of glycemic index (GI) values for chronic disease risk management remains controversial. Although absolute GI value determinations for individual foods have been shown to vary significantly in individuals with diabetes, there is a dearth of data on the reliability of GI value determinations and potential sources of variability among healthy adults. We examined the intra- and inter-individual variability in glycemic response to a single food challenge and methodologic and biological factors that potentially mediate this response. The GI value for white bread was determined by using standardized methodology in 63 volunteers free from chronic disease and recruited to differ by sex, age (18-85 y), and body mass index [BMI (in kg/m 2 ): 20-35]. Volunteers randomly underwent 3 sets of food challenges involving glucose (reference) and white bread (test food), both providing 50 g available carbohydrates. Serum glucose and insulin were monitored for 5 h postingestion, and GI values were calculated by using different area under the curve (AUC) methods. Biochemical variables were measured by using standard assays and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The mean ± SD GI value for white bread was 62 ± 15 when calculated by using the recommended method. Mean intra- and interindividual CVs were 20% and 25%, respectively. Increasing sample size, replication of reference and test foods, and length of blood sampling, as well as AUC calculation method, did not improve the CVs. Among the biological factors assessed, insulin index and glycated hemoglobin values explained 15% and 16% of the variability in mean GI value for white bread, respectively. These data indicate that there is substantial variability in individual responses to GI value determinations, demonstrating that it is unlikely to be a good approach to guiding food choices. Additionally, even in healthy individuals, glycemic status significantly contributes to the variability in GI value

  20. Emergency Severity Index version 4: a valid and reliable tool in pediatric emergency department triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Nicole A; Durani, Yamini; Brecher, Deena; DePiero, Andrew; Loiselle, John; Attia, Magdy

    2012-08-01

    The Emergency Severity Index version 4 (ESI v.4) is the most recently implemented 5-level triage system. The validity and reliability of this triage tool in the pediatric population have not been extensively established. The goals of this study were to assess the validity of ESI v.4 in predicting hospital admission, emergency department (ED) length of stay (LOS), and number of resources utilized, as well as its reliability in a prospective cohort of pediatric patients. The first arm of the study was a retrospective chart review of 780 pediatric patients presenting to a pediatric ED to determine the validity of ESI v.4. Abstracted data included acuity level assigned by the triage nurse using ESI v.4 algorithm, disposition (admission vs discharge), LOS, and number of resources utilized in the ED. To analyze the validity of ESI v.4, patients were divided into 2 groups for comparison: higher-acuity patients (ESI levels 1, 2, and 3) and lower-acuity patients (ESI levels 4 and 5). Pearson χ analysis was performed for categorical variables. For continuous variables, we conducted a comparison of means based on parametric distribution of variables. The second arm was a prospective cohort study to determine the interrater reliability of ESI v.4 among and between pediatric triage (PT) nurses and pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) physicians. Three raters (2 PT nurses and 1 PEM physician) independently assigned triage scores to 100 patients; k and interclass correlation coefficient were calculated among PT nurses and between the primary PT nurses and physicians. In the validity arm, the distribution of ESI score levels among the 780 cases are as follows: ESI 1: 2 (0.25%); ESI 2: 73 (9.4%); ESI 3: 289 (37%); ESI 4: 251 (32%); and ESI 5: 165 (21%). Hospital admission rates by ESI level were 1: 100%, 2: 42%, 3: 14.9%, 4: 1.2%, and 5: 0.6%. The admission rate of the higher-acuity group (76/364, 21%) was significantly greater than the lower-acuity group (4/415, 0.96%), P group was

  1. Reliability of a Novel CBCT-Based 3D Classification System for Maxillary Canine Impactions in Orthodontics: The KPG Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti, Luca; Martin, Conchita

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate both intra- and interoperator reliability of a radiological three-dimensional classification system (KPG index) for the assessment of degree of difficulty for orthodontic treatment of maxillary canine impactions. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of fifty impacted canines, obtained using three different scanners (NewTom, Kodak, and Planmeca), were classified using the KPG index by three independent orthodontists. Measurements were repeated one month later. Based on these two sessions, several recommendations on KPG Index scoring were elaborated. After a joint calibration session, these recommendations were explained to nine orthodontists and the two measurement sessions were repeated. There was a moderate intrarater agreement in the precalibration measurement sessions. After the calibration session, both intra- and interrater agreement were almost perfect. Indexes assessed with Kodak Dental Imaging 3D module software showed a better reliability in z-axis values, whereas indexes assessed with Planmeca Romexis software showed a better reliability in x- and y-axis values. No differences were found between the CBCT scanners used. Taken together, these findings indicate that the application of the instructions elaborated during this study improved KPG index reliability, which was nevertheless variously influenced by the use of different software for images evaluation. PMID:24235889

  2. Reliability of a Novel CBCT-Based 3D Classification System for Maxillary Canine Impactions in Orthodontics: The KPG Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Dalessandri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate both intra- and interoperator reliability of a radiological three-dimensional classification system (KPG index for the assessment of degree of difficulty for orthodontic treatment of maxillary canine impactions. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT scans of fifty impacted canines, obtained using three different scanners (NewTom, Kodak, and Planmeca, were classified using the KPG index by three independent orthodontists. Measurements were repeated one month later. Based on these two sessions, several recommendations on KPG Index scoring were elaborated. After a joint calibration session, these recommendations were explained to nine orthodontists and the two measurement sessions were repeated. There was a moderate intrarater agreement in the precalibration measurement sessions. After the calibration session, both intra- and interrater agreement were almost perfect. Indexes assessed with Kodak Dental Imaging 3D module software showed a better reliability in z-axis values, whereas indexes assessed with Planmeca Romexis software showed a better reliability in x- and y-axis values. No differences were found between the CBCT scanners used. Taken together, these findings indicate that the application of the instructions elaborated during this study improved KPG index reliability, which was nevertheless variously influenced by the use of different software for images evaluation.

  3. Nottingham Prognostic Index in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer: a reliable prognostic tool?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albergaria, André; Ricardo, Sara; Milanezi, Fernanda; Carneiro, Vítor; Amendoeira, Isabel; Vieira, Daniella; Cameselle-Teijeiro, Jorge; Schmitt, Fernando

    2011-01-01

    A breast cancer prognostic tool should ideally be applicable to all types of invasive breast lesions. A number of studies have shown histopathological grade to be an independent prognostic factor in breast cancer, adding prognostic power to nodal stage and tumour size. The Nottingham Prognostic Index has been shown to accurately predict patient outcome in stratified groups with a follow-up period of 15 years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Clinically, breast tumours that lack the expression of Oestrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) are identified as presenting a 'triple-negative' phenotype or as triple-negative breast cancers. These poor outcome tumours represent an easily recognisable prognostic group of breast cancer with aggressive behaviour that currently lack the benefit of available systemic therapy. There are conflicting results on the prevalence of lymph node metastasis at the time of diagnosis in triple-negative breast cancer patients but it is currently accepted that triple-negative breast cancer does not metastasize to axillary nodes and bones as frequently as the non-triple-negative carcinomas, favouring instead, a preferentially haematogenous spread. Hypothetically, this particular tumour dissemination pattern would impair the reliability of using Nottingham Prognostic Index as a tool for triple-negative breast cancer prognostication. The present study tested the effectiveness of the Nottingham Prognostic Index in stratifying breast cancer patients of different subtypes with special emphasis in a triple-negative breast cancer patient subset versus non- triple-negative breast cancer. We demonstrated that besides the fact that TNBC disseminate to axillary lymph nodes as frequently as luminal or HER2 tumours, we also showed that TNBC are larger in size compared with other subtypes and almost all grade 3. Additionally, survival curves demonstrated that these prognostic factors are

  4. Improving the reliability of fishery predictions under climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, Keith

    2015-01-01

    The increasing number of publications assessing impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems and fisheries attests to rising scientific and public interest. A selection of recent papers, dealing more with biological than social and economic aspects, is reviewed here, with particular attention...... to the reliability of projections of climate impacts on future fishery yields. The 2014 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report expresses high confidence in projections that mid- and high-latitude fish catch potential will increase by 2050 and medium confidence that low-latitude catch potential...... understanding of climate impacts, such as how to improve coupled models from physics to fish and how to strengthen confidence in analysis of time series...

  5. Reliability and validity of the Korean version of Pediatric Voice Handicap Index: in school age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Shin; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Choi, Seong Hee; Lee, Won Yong; Hong, Young Hye; Jeong, Nyun Gi; Sung, Myung-Whun; Kim, Kwang Hyun

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Pediatric Voice Handicap Index (pVHI) for cross-cultural adaptation of the Korean version with school age children. The questionnaire was translated into Korean and was completed by 101 Korean parents who have children with or without disordered voice. The Korean version-pVHI scores were obtained with 60 parents of normal children and 41 parents who have children with voice problems. Content validity was verified by five experienced speech-language pathologists with clinical specialization in voice disorders. Internal consistency was calculated through Cronbach's α coefficient and test-retest reliability of the Korean version-pVHI score was determined using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare GRBAS with the Korean version-pVHI scores between normal and dysphonia group. The relationship between the parent-reported the Korean version-pVHI total scores and perceptual ratings of voice quality from experts was investigated using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed that the Korean version-pVHI provided a high internal consistency (α=0.92) and test-retest reliability of its subscales: total (T) 0.97, functional (F) 0.90, physical (P) 0.95, emotional (E) 0.92. The Korean version-pVHI mean scores in normal group were 1.28 (T), 0.62 (F), 0.35 (P) and 0.32 (E), respectively whereas those of the Korean version-pVHI in children group with dysphonia were 23.13 (T), 8.90 (F), 9.54 (P) and 4.93 (E). Significant differences in the Korean version-pVHI (T, F, P, E) and perceptual evaluation (grade, rough, breathy) between normal and dysphonia group were revealed (PKorean version-pVHI parameters (T) and perceptual measures (G) was exhibited in children with dysphonia. The subjective Korean version-pVHI can be applicable and useful supplementary tool for evaluating parents' perception of their children's voice dysfunction, identifying

  6. Reliability and Validity of the Dutch Version of the Behavioural Status Index: A Nurse-Rated Forensic Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakhssi, Farid; de Ruiter, Corine; Bernstein, David

    2010-01-01

    The Behavioural Status Index (BEST-Index) has been introduced into Dutch forensic psychiatry to measure change in risk level of future violence. The BEST-Index is a structured observational measure that assesses aggressive behavior, degree of insight, social skills, self-care, and work and leisure skills during inpatient treatment. Thus far,…

  7. Work index determination with changing of control screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noaparast, M.; Delavarian, M.

    2001-01-01

    Work index is a measure to define ores/minerals grind ability which is significantly used in Bond (1952) to calculate the required energy of ores' comminution. Work index for any material is experimentally calculated under specific conditions and it is a certain value. To understand the effect of changing control screen in work index calculation, three different ores Alam-Kuh Pb-Zn ore, Sarcheshmeh Cu Ore, and Abe-Garm Region Dolomite were tested, using 425, 212,150 and 100 micron screens (totally 12 sets of tests). Results showed that the work index values increase with the increases of screen size. The relation between root of screen size and fines produced per revolution of mill and also, screen size and size of products out of which 80% passes through this size appeared to be linear for all three different ores. The constants of these linear equations were estimated using regression technique

  8. Performance of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) as a reliability index under various distributions in scale reliability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Shraddha; Bastero-Caballero, Rowena F; Sun, Yijun; Zhu, Ray; Murphy, Diane K; Hardas, Bhushan; Koch, Gary

    2018-04-29

    Many published scale validation studies determine inter-rater reliability using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). However, the use of this statistic must consider its advantages, limitations, and applicability. This paper evaluates how interaction of subject distribution, sample size, and levels of rater disagreement affects ICC and provides an approach for obtaining relevant ICC estimates under suboptimal conditions. Simulation results suggest that for a fixed number of subjects, ICC from the convex distribution is smaller than ICC for the uniform distribution, which in turn is smaller than ICC for the concave distribution. The variance component estimates also show that the dissimilarity of ICC among distributions is attributed to the study design (ie, distribution of subjects) component of subject variability and not the scale quality component of rater error variability. The dependency of ICC on the distribution of subjects makes it difficult to compare results across reliability studies. Hence, it is proposed that reliability studies should be designed using a uniform distribution of subjects because of the standardization it provides for representing objective disagreement. In the absence of uniform distribution, a sampling method is proposed to reduce the non-uniformity. In addition, as expected, high levels of disagreement result in low ICC, and when the type of distribution is fixed, any increase in the number of subjects beyond a moderately large specification such as n = 80 does not have a major impact on ICC. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Yoruba version of the Oswestry disability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiyegbusi, Ayoola Ibifubara; Akodu, Ashiyat Kehinde; Agbede, Eniolorunda Olajide

    2017-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a major cause of disability, and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a validated assessment tool for evaluating disability in LBP patients. Cross-cultural adaptation of the ODI is important because not all populations are proficient in English. The Yoruba language is an indigenous language spoken by 40 million people in the Western part of Nigeria and some countries in West Africa and Latin America. Currently, no validated Yoruba version of ODI is available. The aim of the study was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the ODI in Yoruba language for participants with LBP. The ODI was translated into Yoruba, and this translated version was analysed in terms of semantics and linguistics. Then, the Yoruba version was translated back into English and both versions administered to 160 participants with LBP. The internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, criterion validity and test-retest reliability were assessed using Spearman's rank correlation with significance set at Pdisability in LBP patients.

  10. Establishment of the reliability and validity of the Stress Index for Children or Adolescents with Tourette Syndrome (SICATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Kuo-Yu; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Chang, Hsueh-Ling; Wang, Yi-Wen; See, Lai-Chu

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome. Tourette syndrome is a chronic tic disorder, which occurs in childhood. Children with Tourette syndrome exhibit sudden and unexpected voices or movements that may have influence on their daily activities and cause interaction barriers for children with Tourette syndrome. Therefore, a self-report stress index is necessary for children with Tourette syndrome to quickly measure the stress they have. Eight experts rated appropriateness, comprehensiveness and relevance of the questionnaire to establish content validity. A total of 116 paediatric patients filled out the stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome to evaluate its construct validity using exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency. Data from 90 pairs of paediatric patients and their caregivers were used to evaluate the inter-rater reliability. The criterion validity index ranged from 80-98%. One item was deleted because of a small item-to-total correlation. Therefore, 26 items made up the final stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome. In exploratory factor analysis, four factors (unfairly treated, psychological, symptom control and future concern) were achieved and accounted for 52.3% of the total variance. Cronbach's alphas of the stress index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome were 0.89. The inter-rater reliability of stress Index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome (Pearson correlation coefficient between patients and their caregivers) was 0.56. The stress Index for 10-18-years-old children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome is a self-administered tool to assess the stress of children or adolescents with Tourette syndrome. Validity (content and construct) and reliability (internal consistency and inter

  11. The Changing Cost of Performing Agricultural Research: An Index Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Joseph W.; Kaldor, Donald R.

    1981-01-01

    Inflation erodes the purchasing power of dollars in every budget in our society. Budgets of agricultural research organizations have been no exception. Inflation has been defined as an increase in the average of prices {I}. A popular indicator of the rate of inflation is the annual percentage change in the Consumer Price Index (cpr) {2}, The CPI is intended to apply to consumer purchases, yet the concept implies that a similar indicator of the annual percentage change in prices of inputs purc...

  12. Reliability and validity study of the Finnish version 2.0 of the oswestry disability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, Liisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Ylinen, Jari; Salo, Petri; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-02-15

    Prospective clinical validation study. The aims of this study were to translate into Finnish and culturally adapt and study the psycho-metric properties of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.0. The ODI is one of the most commonly reported back-specific disability questionnaires. It is widely used both in clinical work and in medical studies. To date, no validated Finnish version of the ODI version 2.0 has been reported. The ODI version 2.0 was translated into the Finnish language. A total of 115 patients with back pain, referred by the primary care physician to the outpatient clinic of the department of physical medicine and rehabilitation, were recruited for this study. The patients answered a questionnaire package that included the Finnish ODI 2.0, Back Pain Questionnaire for Visual Analogue Assessment (Million-VAS), Visual Analogue Scales of back and leg pain (VASback, VASleg), the Depressions Scale, and a question on their subjectively perceived health. The package was administered twice; 2 weeks before and at the arrival to the clinic. Reproducibility of the ODI was 0.90 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.85-0.94) and the internal consistency was 0.86 (95% CI = 0.81-0.90). Factor analysis showed that the ODI was loaded on 2 factors, which explained 51% of the total variance. In testing convergent validity ODI correlated with Million-VAS, r = 0.75 (95% CI = 0.64-0.84); VASback, r = 0.48 (95% CI = 0.32-0.62); and VAS leg, r = 0.41 (95% CI = 0.23-0.57). The Finnish ODI version 2.0 proved to be a valid and reliable instrument that showed psychometric properties comparable with the original English version. Therefore, it can be used in assessing the disability among Finnish-speaking patients with back pain for both clinical and scientific purposes.

  13. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Arabic version of the reduced Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghadir, Ahmad; Anwer, Shahnawaz; Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Alsanawi, Hisham Abdulaziz

    2016-01-01

    We adapted the reduced Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index for the Arabic language and tested its metric properties in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). One hundred and twenty-one consecutive patients who were referred for physiotherapy to the outpatient department were asked to answer the Arabic version of the reduced WOMAC index (ArWOMAC). After the completion of the ArWOMAC, the intensity of knee pain and general health status were assessed using the visual analog scale (VAS) and the 12-item short form health survey (SF-12), respectively. A second assessment was performed at least 48 h after the first session to assess test-retest reliability. The test-retest reliability was quantified using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC), and Cronbach's alpha was calculated to assess the internal consistency of the Arabic questionnaire. The construct validity was assessed using Spearman rank correlation coefficients. The total ArWOMAC scale and pain and function subscales were internally consistent with Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.91, 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. Test-retest reliability was good to excellent with ICC of 0.91, 0.89 and 0.90, respectively. SF-12 and VAS score significantly correlated with ArWOMAC index (p < 0.01), which support the construct validity. The standard error of measurement (SEM) of the total scale was 2.94, based on repeated measurements for test-retest. The minimum detectable change based on the SEM for test-retest was 8.15. The ArWOMAC index is a reliable and valid instrument for evaluating the severity of knee OA, with metric properties in agreement with the original version. Although, the reduced WOMAC index has been clinically utilized within the Saudi population, the Arabic version of this instrument is not validated for an Arab population to measure lower limb functional disability caused by OA. The Arabic version of reduced WOMAC (ArWOMAC) index is a reliable and valid scale

  14. Index change of chalcogenide materials from precision glass molding processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, J.; Walsh, K.; Lindberg, G.; Benson, R.; Gibson, D.; Bayya, S.; Sanghera, J.; Stover, E.

    2015-05-01

    With the increase in demand for infrared optics for thermal applications and the use of glass molding of chalcogenide materials to support these higher volume optical designs, an investigation of changes to the optical properties of these materials is required. Typical precision glass molding requires specific thermal conditions for proper lens molding of any type of optical glass. With these conditions a change (reduction) of optical index occurs after molding of all oxide glass types and it is presumed that a similar behavior will happen with chalcogenide based materials. We will discuss the effects of a typical molding thermal cycle for use with commercially and newly developed chalcogenide materials and show results of index variation from nominally established material data.

  15. Reliability of ultrasonographic measurements in suspected patients of developmental dysplasia of the hip and correlation with the acetabular index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Copuroglu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ultrasonography is accepted as a useful imaging modality in the early detection of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH. Early detection and early treatment of DDH prevents hip dislocation and related physical, social, economic, and psychological problems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic and roentgenographic measurements measured by seven different observers. Materials and Methods: The alpha angles of 66 hips in 33 patients were measured using the Graf method by seven different observers. Acetabular index degrees on plane roentgenograms were measured in order to assess the correlation between the ultrasonographic alpha angle and the radiographic acetabular index, which both show the bony acetabular depth, retrospectively. Results: The interclass correlation coefficient, measuring the interobserver reliability, was high and statistically significant for the ultrasonographic measurements. There was a negative correlation between the alpha angle and the acetabular index. Conclusions: Ultrasonography, when applied properly, is a reliable technique between different observers, in the diagnosis and follow up of DDH. When assessed concomitantly with the roentgenographic measurements, the results are reliable and statistically meaningful.

  16. A Malay version of the Child Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (Child-OIDP index: assessing validity and reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusof Zamros YM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study aimed to develop and test a Malay version of the Child-OIDP index, evaluate its psychometric properties and report on the prevalence of oral impacts on eight daily performances in a sample of 11–12 year old Malaysian schoolchildren. Methods The Child-OIDP index was translated from English into Malay. The Malay version was tested for reliability and validity on a non-random sample of 132, 11–12 year old schoolchildren from two urban schools in Kuala Lumpur. Psychometric analysis of the Malay Child-OIDP involved face, content, criterion and construct validity tests as well as internal and test-retest reliability. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to assess relationships between Child-OIDP scores and other subjective outcome measures. Results The standardised Cronbach’s alpha was 0.80 and the weighted Kappa was 0.84 (intraclass correlation = 0.79. The index showed significant associations with different subjective measures viz. perceived satisfaction with mouth, perceived needs for dental treatment, perceived oral health status and toothache experience in the previous 3 months (p  Conclusion This study indicated that the Malay Child-OIDP index is a valid and reliable instrument to measure the oral impacts of daily performances in 11–12 year old urban schoolchildren in Malaysia.

  17. The reliability of three psoriasis assessment tools: Psoriasis area and severity index, body surface area and physician global assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bożek, Agnieszka; Reich, Adam

    2017-08-01

    A wide variety of psoriasis assessment tools have been proposed to evaluate the severity of psoriasis in clinical trials and daily practice. The most frequently used clinical instrument is the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI); however, none of the currently published severity scores used for psoriasis meets all the validation criteria required for an ideal score. The aim of this study was to compare and assess the reliability of 3 commonly used assessment instruments for psoriasis severity: the psoriasis area and severity index (PASI), body surface area (BSA) and physician global assessment (PGA). On the scoring day, 10 trained dermatologists evaluated 9 adult patients with plaque-type psoriasis using the PASI, BSA and PGA. All the subjects were assessed twice by each physician. Correlations between the assessments were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was calculated to analyze intra-rater reliability, and the coefficient of variation (CV) was used to assess inter-rater variability. Significant correlations were observed among the 3 scales in both assessments. In all 3 scales the ICCs were > 0.75, indicating high intra-rater reliability. The highest ICC was for the BSA (0.96) and the lowest one for the PGA (0.87). The CV for the PGA and PASI were 29.3 and 36.9, respectively, indicating moderate inter-rater variability. The CV for the BSA was 57.1, indicating high inter-rater variability. Comparing the PASI, PGA and BSA, it was shown that the PGA had the highest inter-rater reliability, whereas the BSA had the highest intra-rater reliability. The PASI showed intermediate values in terms of interand intra-rater reliability. None of the 3 assessment instruments showed a significant advantage over the other. A reliable assessment of psoriasis severity requires the use of several independent evaluations simultaneously.

  18. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  19. A reliable and valid index was developed to measure appropriate psychotropic drug use in dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, K.; Gerritsen, D.L.; Smalbrugge, M.; Nelissen-Vrancken, M.H.J.M.; Wetzels, R.B.; Smeets, C.H.W.; Zuidema, S.U.; Koopmans, R.T.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to develop an index derived from the Medication Appropriateness Index (MAI) items that is suited for clinical studies evaluating appropriateness of psychotropic drug use (PDU) for neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in patients with dementia in nursing homes and to

  20. Turkish Version of the Student Nurse Stress Index: Validity and Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Sarikoc, PhD, RN

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Results showed that the SNSI had a satisfactory level of reliability and validity in nursing students in Turkey. Multicenter studies including nursing students from different nursing schools are recommended for the SNSI to be generalized.

  1. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Intra- and interrater reliability and agreement of the Danish version of the Dynamic Gait Index in older people with balance impairments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønsson, Line R; Kristensen, Morten; Tibaek, Sigrid

    2011-01-01

    To examine the intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement of the Danish version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) in hospitalized and community-dwelling older people with balance impairments.......To examine the intrarater and interrater reliability and agreement of the Danish version of the Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) in hospitalized and community-dwelling older people with balance impairments....

  3. Inter-rater reliability of h-index scores calculated by Web of Science and Scopus for clinical epidemiology scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Benjamin; Alavifard, Sepand; Roberts, Surain; Lanes, Andrea; Ramsay, Tim; Boet, Sylvain

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the inter-rater reliability of Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus when calculating the h-index of 25 senior scientists in the Clinical Epidemiology Program of the Ottawa Hospital Research Institute. Bibliometric information and the h-indices for the subjects were computed by four raters using the automatic calculators in WoS and Scopus. Correlation and agreement between ratings was assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficient and a Bland-Altman plot, respectively. Data could not be gathered from Google Scholar due to feasibility constraints. The Spearman's rank correlation between the h-index of scientists calculated with WoS was 0.81 (95% CI 0.72-0.92) and with Scopus was 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.99). The Bland-Altman plot showed no significant rater bias in WoS and Scopus; however, the agreement between ratings is higher in Scopus compared to WoS. Our results showed a stronger relationship and increased agreement between raters when calculating the h-index of a scientist using Scopus compared to WoS. The higher inter-rater reliability and simple user interface used in Scopus may render it the more effective database when calculating the h-index of senior scientists in epidemiology. © 2016 Health Libraries Group.

  4. Novel Threat-risk Index Using Probabilistic Risk Assessment and Human Reliability Analysis - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Beitel

    2004-02-01

    In support of a national need to improve the current state-of-the-art in alerting decision makers to the risk of terrorist attack, a quantitative approach employing scientific and engineering concepts to develop a threat-risk index was undertaken at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). As a result of this effort, a set of models has been successfully integrated into a single comprehensive model known as Quantitative Threat-Risk Index Model (QTRIM), with the capability of computing a quantitative threat-risk index on a system level, as well as for the major components of the system. Such a threat-risk index could provide a quantitative variant or basis for either prioritizing security upgrades or updating the current qualitative national color-coded terrorist threat alert.

  5. Reliability testing across the Environmental Quality Index and national environmental indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    One challenge in environmental epidemiology is the exploration of cumulative environmental exposure across multiple domains (e.g. air, water, land). The Environmental Quality Index (EQI), created by the U.S. EPA, uses principle component analyses combining environmental domains (...

  6. Between Flexibility and Reliability. Changing Planning Culture in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yuan Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to provide an outline to address questions with regard to the transformation of planning in China that has occurred after the 1980s. The research is using “planning evolution” as the main research skeleton. The starting point is to investigate to what extent Chinese urban planning has developed after the opening up and other reforms under the state-led and market-driven modes of Chinese reformation, and to investigate how the different modes and various actors have influenced urban planning, based on the investigation of the respective political and economic changes within the initial reformation in general, and planning in particular. In recent years, China has undeniably undergone a dramatic process of urban growth and transformation. Apart from its speed and scope, it is less recognized that these processes are confronting the Chinese planning institutions with new and unexpected demands almost on a daily basis. In reference to the increasing importance of private investments and developments within the Chinese urbanization process, a new balance between public planning and private developments, and between top-down and bottom-up approaches is required to be able to generate both a reliable and responsible framework for long-term urban development and a flexible system of implementation that meets the needs of changing conditions and new demands. Flexibility and reliability become the new demands for planning practice. Based on the theory of planning culture, planning traditions, concepts, systems and decision-making processes are always related to the cultural context and cultural background of the people and societies involved. Investigating the contemporary urban transformation and urban development processes in China can allow us to outline the new planning culture of contemporary China in relation to its historical roots and traditional characteristics in a long term framework. I argue that the changing

  7. Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index: Responsiveness, meaningful change, and relative efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Carolina; Bril, Vera; Kapral, Moira; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Davis, Aileen M

    2017-12-05

    To study responsiveness and meaningful change of the Myasthenia Gravis Impairment Index (MGII) and its relative efficiency compared to other measures. We enrolled 95 patients receiving prednisone, IV immunoglobulin (IVIg), or plasma exchange (PLEX) and 54 controls. Patients were assessed with the MGII and other measures-including the Quantitative Myasthenia Gravis Score, Myasthenia Gravis Composite, and Myasthenia Gravis Activities of Daily Living-at baseline and 3-4 weeks after treatment. Statistical markers of responsiveness included between-groups and within-group differences, and we estimated the relative efficiency of the MGII compared to other measures. Patient-meaningful change was assessed with an anchor-based method, using the patient's impression of change. We determined the minimal detectable change (MDC) and the minimal important difference (MID) at the group and individual level. Treated patients had a higher change in MGII scores than controls (analysis of covariance p 1 favoring the MGII. The MGII demonstrated responsiveness to prednisone, IVIg, and PLEX in patients with myasthenia. There is a differential response in ocular and generalized symptoms to type of therapy. The MGII has higher relative efficiency than comparison measures and is viable for use in clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Safety, reliability and worker satisfaction during organizational change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.; Drupsteen, L.; Vroome, E.M.M. de

    2014-01-01

    The research presented in this paper was carried out in four process industry plants in the Netherlands, to identify factors that have the potential to increase safety and reliability while maintaining or improving job satisfaction. The data used were gathered as part of broader trajectories in

  9. 18 CFR 39.10 - Changes to an Electric Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... RULES CONCERNING CERTIFICATION OF THE ELECTRIC RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.10 Changes to an Electric... Reliability Organization Rule or Regional Entity Rule. 39.10 Section 39.10 Conservation of Power and Water...

  10. The Locomotor Capabilities Index; validity and reliability of the Swedish version in adults with lower limb amputation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Ingemar H

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Locomotor Capabilities Index (LCI is a validated measure of lower-limb amputees' ability to perform activities with prosthesis. We have developed the LCI Swedish version and evaluated its validity and reliability. Methods Cross-cultural adaptation to Swedish included forward/backward translations and field testing. The Swedish LCI was then administered to 144 amputees (55 women, mean age 74 (40–93 years, attending post-rehabilitation prosthetic training. Construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship between the LCI and Timed "Up-and-Go" (TUG test and between the LCI and EQ-5D health utility index in 2 subgroups of 40 and 20 amputees, respectively. Discriminative validity was assessed by comparing scores in different age groups and in unilateral and bilateral amputees. Test-retest reliability (1–2 weeks was evaluated in 20 amputees (14 unilateral. Results The Swedish LCI showed good construct convergent validity, with high correlation with the TUG (r = -0.75 and the EQ-5D (r = 0.84, and discriminative validity, with significantly worse mean scores for older than younger and for bilateral than unilateral amputees (p Conclusion The Swedish version of the LCI demonstrated good validity and internal consistency in adult amputees. Test-retest reliability in a small subsample appears to be acceptable. The high ceiling effect of the LCI may imply that it would be most useful in assessing amputees with low to moderate functional abilities.

  11. The Addiction Severity Index: Reliability and validity in a Dutch alcoholic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dejong, C.A.J.; Willems, J.C.E.W.; Schippers, G.M.; Hendriks, V.M.

    1995-01-01

    The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) was evaluated for its psychometric qualities in a Dutch alcoholic population admitted to an addiction treatment center in the Netherlands. Its factorial structure in this population was found to be consistent with the established six factor structure of the ASI.

  12. Methodological considerations concerning the development of oral dental erosion indexes: literature survey, validity and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschmann, Marcus; Bardehle, Doris

    2008-01-01

    Within the context of preventing non-communicable diseases, the World Health Report (2002) and the WHO Global Oral Health Program (2003) put forward a new strategy of disease prevention and health promotion. Greater emphasis is placed on developing global policies in oral health promotion and oral disease prevention. The Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) index does not meet new challenges in the field of oral health. Dental erosion seems to be a growing problem, and in some countries, an increase in erosion of teeth is associated with an increase in the consumption of beverages containing acids. Therefore, within a revision of the WHO Oral Health Surveys Basic Methods, new oral disease patterns, e.g. dental erosion, have to be taken into account. Within the last 20 years, many studies on dental erosion have been carried out and published. There has been a rapid growth in the number of indexes quantifying dental erosion process in different age groups. However, these indexes are not comparable. This article discusses quality criteria which an index intended for assessing tooth erosion should possess. PMID:18228060

  13. A quantitative index for classification of plantar thermal changes in the diabetic foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Contreras, D.; Peregrina-Barreto, H.; Rangel-Magdaleno, J.; Gonzalez-Bernal, J. A.; Altamirano-Robles, L.

    2017-03-01

    One of the main complications caused by diabetes mellitus is the development of diabetic foot, which in turn, can lead to ulcerations. Because ulceration risks are linked to an increase in plantar temperatures, recent approaches analyze thermal changes. These approaches try to identify spatial patterns of temperature that could be characteristic of a diabetic group. However, this is a difficult task since thermal patterns have wide variations resulting on complex classification. Moreover, the measurement of contralateral plantar temperatures is important to determine whether there is an abnormal difference but, this only provides information when thermal changes are asymmetric and in absence of ulceration or amputation. Therefore, in this work is proposed a quantitative index for measuring the thermal change in the plantar region of participants diagnosed diabetes mellitus regards to a reliable reference (control) or regards to the contralateral foot (as usual). Also, a classification of the thermal changes based on a quantitative index is proposed. Such classification demonstrate the wide diversity of spatial distributions in the diabetic foot but also demonstrate that it is possible to identify common characteristics. An automatic process, based on the analysis of plantar angiosomes and image processing, is presented to quantify these thermal changes and to provide valuable information to the medical expert.

  14. A reliability index for assessment of crack profile reconstructed from ECT signals using a neural-network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusa, Noritaka; Chen, Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo; Cheng, Weiying

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes a reliability parameter to enhance an version scheme developed by authors. The scheme is based upon an artificial neural network that simulates mapping between eddy current signals and crack profiles. One of the biggest advantages of the scheme is that it can deal with conductive cracks, which is necessary to reconstruct natural cracks. However, it has one significant disadvantage: the reliability of reconstructed profiles was unknown. The parameter provides an index for assessment of the crack profile and overcomes this disadvantage. After the parameter is validated by reconstruction of simulated cracks, it is applied to reconstruction of natural cracks that occurred in steam generator tubes of a pressurized water reactor. It is revealed that the parameter is applicable to not only simulated cracks but also natural ones. (author)

  15. Gait Deviation Index, Gait Profile Score and Gait Variable Score in children with spastic cerebral palsy: Intra-rater reliability and agreement across two repeated sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Helle Mätzke; Nielsen, Dennis Brandborg; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech; Overgaard, Søren; Holsgaard-Larsen, Anders

    2015-07-01

    The Gait Deviation Index (GDI) and Gait Profile Score (GPS) are the most used summary measures of gait in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, the reliability and agreement of these indices have not been investigated, limiting their clinimetric quality for research and clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the intra-rater reliability and agreement of summary measures of gait (GDI; GPS; and the Gait Variable Score (GVS) derived from the GPS). The intra-rater reliability and agreement were investigated across two repeated sessions in 18 children aged 5-12 years diagnosed with spastic CP. No systematic bias was observed between the sessions and no heteroscedasticity was observed in Bland-Altman plots. For the GDI and GPS, excellent reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.8-0.9 was found, while the GVS was found to have fair to good reliability with ICCs of 0.4-0.7. The agreement for the GDI and the logarithmically transformed GPS, in terms of the standard error of measurement as a percentage of the grand mean (SEM%) varied from 4.1 to 6.7%, whilst the smallest detectable change in percent (SDC%) ranged from 11.3 to 18.5%. For the logarithmically transformed GVS, we found a fair to large variation in SEM% from 7 to 29% and in SDC% from 18 to 81%. The GDI and GPS demonstrated excellent reliability and acceptable agreement proving that they can both be used in research and clinical practice. However, the observed large variability for some of the GVS requires cautious consideration when selecting outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Supporting change processes in design: Complexity, prediction and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, Claudia M. [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: cme26@cam.ac.uk; Keller, Rene [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rk313@cam.ac.uk; Earl, Chris [Open University, Department of Design and Innovation, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: C.F.Earl@open.ac.uk; Clarkson, P. John [Engineering Design Centre, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: pjc10@cam.ac.uk

    2006-12-15

    Change to existing products is fundamental to design processes. New products are often designed through change or modification to existing products. Specific parts or subsystems are changed to similar ones whilst others are directly reused. Design by modification applies particularly to safety critical products where the reuse of existing working parts and subsystems can reduce cost and risk. However change is rarely a matter of just reusing or modifying parts. Changing one part can propagate through the entire design leading to costly rework or jeopardising the integrity of the whole product. This paper characterises product change based on studies in the aerospace and automotive industry and introduces tools to aid designers in understanding the potential effects of change. Two ways of supporting designers are described: probabilistic prediction of the effects of change and visualisation of change propagation through product connectivities. Change propagation has uncertainties which are amplified by the choices designers make in practice as they implement change. Change prediction and visualisation is discussed with reference to complexity in three areas of product development: the structural backcloth of connectivities in the existing product (and its processes), the descriptions of the product used in design and the actions taken to carry out changes.

  17. Clinical use of the ABO-Scoring Index: reliability and subtraction frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieber, William S; Carlson, Sean K; Baumrind, Sheldon; Poulton, Donald R

    2003-10-01

    This study tested the reliability and subtraction frequency of the study model-scoring system of the American Board of Orthodontists (ABO). We used a sample of 36 posttreatment study models that were selected randomly from six different orthodontic offices. Intrajudge and interjudge reliability was calculated using nonparametric statistics (Spearman rank coefficient, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests). We found differences ranging from 3 to 6 subtraction points (total score) for intrajudge scoring between two sessions. For overall total ABO score, the average correlation was .77. Intrajudge correlation was greatest for occlusal relationships and least for interproximal contacts. Interjudge correlation for ABO score averaged r = .85. Correlation was greatest for buccolingual inclination and least for overjet. The data show that some judges, on average, were much more lenient than others and that this resulted in a range of total scores between 19.7 and 27.5. Most of the deductions were found in the buccal segments and most were related to the second molars. We present these findings in the context of clinicians preparing for the ABO phase III examination and for orthodontists in their ongoing evaluation of clinical results.

  18. Reliability and validity of the Bowel Function Index for evaluating opioid-induced constipation: translation, cultural adaptation and validation of the Portuguese version (BFI-P).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas, María; Mendonça, Liliane; Sampaio, Rute; Gouvinhas, Cláudia; Oliveira, Daniela; Castro-Lopes, José Manuel; Azevedo, Luís Filipe

    2017-03-01

    The Bowel Function Index (BFI) is a simple and sound bowel function and opioid-induced constipation (OIC) screening tool. We aimed to develop the translation and cultural adaptation of this measure (BFI-P) and to assess its reliability and validity for the Portuguese language and a chronic pain population. The BFI-P was created after a process including translation, back translation and cultural adaptation. Participants (n = 226) were recruited in a chronic pain clinic and were assessed at baseline and after one week. Internal consistency, test-retest reliability, responsiveness, construct (convergent and known groups) and factorial validity were assessed. Test-retest reliability had an intra-class correlation of 0.605 for BFI mean score. Internal consistency of BFI had Cronbach's alpha of 0.865. The construct validity of BFI-P was shown to be excellent and the exploratory factor analysis confirmed its unidimensional structure. The responsiveness of BFI-P was excellent, with a suggested 17-19 point and 8-12 point change in score constituting a clinically relevant change in constipation for patients with and without previous constipation, respectively. This study had some limitations, namely, the criterion validity of BFI-P was not directly assessed; and the absence of a direct criterion for OIC precluded the assessment of the criterion based responsiveness of BFI-P. Nevertheless, BFI may importantly contribute to better OIC screening and its Portuguese version (BFI-P) has been shown to have excellent reliability, internal consistency, validity and responsiveness. Further suggestions regarding statistically and clinically important change cut-offs for this instrument are presented.

  19. Test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the Barthel Index-based Supplementary Scales in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ya-Chen; Yu, Wan-Hui; Hsueh, I-Ping; Chen, Sheng-Shiung; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    A lack of evidence on the test-retest reliability and responsiveness limits the utility of the BI-based Supplementary Scales (BI-SS) in both clinical and research settings. To examine the test-retest reliability and responsiveness of the BI-based Supplementary Scales (BI-SS) in patients with stroke. A repeated-assessments design (1 week apart) was used to examine the test-retest reliability of the BI-SS. For the responsiveness study, the participants were assessed with the BI-SS and BI (treated as an external criterion) at admission to and discharge from rehabilitation wards. Seven outpatient rehabilitation units and one inpatient rehabilitation unit. Outpatients with chronic stroke. Eighty-four outpatients with chronic stroke participated in the test-retest reliability study. Fifty-seven inpatients completed baseline and follow-up assessments in the responsiveness study. For the test-retest reliability study, the values of the intra-class correlation coefficient and the overall percentage of minimal detectable change for the Ability Scale and Self-perceived Difficulty Scale were 0.97, 12.8%, and 0.78, 35.8%, respectively. For the responsiveness study, the standardized effect size and standardized response mean (representing internal responsiveness) of the Ability Scale and Self-perceived Difficulty Scale were 1.17 and 1.56, and 0.78 and 0.89, respectively. Regarding external responsiveness, the change in score of the Ability Scale had significant and moderate association with that of the BI (r=0.61, Ptest-retest reliability and sufficient responsiveness for patients with stroke. However, the Self-perceived Difficulty Scale of the BI-SS has substantial random measurement error and insufficient external responsiveness, which may affect its utility in clinical settings. The findings of this study provide empirical evidence of psychometric properties of the BI-SS for assessing ability and self-perceived difficulty of ADL in patients with stroke.

  20. Is anterior N2 enhancement a reliable electrophysiological index of concealed information?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganis, Giorgio; Bridges, David; Hsu, Chun-Wei; Schendan, Haline E

    2016-12-01

    Concealed information tests (CITs) are used to determine whether an individual possesses information about an item of interest. Event-related potential (ERP) measures in CITs have focused almost exclusively on the P3b component, showing that this component is larger when lying about the item of interest (probe) than telling the truth about control items (irrelevants). Recent studies have begun to examine other ERP components, such as the anterior N2, with mixed results. A seminal CIT study found that visual probes elicit a larger anterior N2 than irrelevants (Gamer and Berti, 2010) and suggested that this component indexes cognitive control processes engaged when lying about probes. However, this study did not control for potential intrinsic differences among the stimuli: the same probe and irrelevants were used for all participants, and there was no control condition composed of uninformed participants. Here, first we show that the N2 effect found in the study by Gamer and Berti (2010) was in large part due to stimulus differences, as the effect observed in a concealed information condition was comparable to that found in two matched control conditions without any concealed information (Experiments 1 and 2). Next, we addressed the issue of the generality of the N2 findings by counterbalancing a new set of stimuli across participants and by using a control condition with uninformed participants (Experiment 3). Results show that the probe did not elicit a larger anterior N2 than the irrelevants under these controlled conditions. These findings suggest that caution should be taken in using the N2 as an index of concealed information in CITs. Furthermore, they are a reminder that results of CIT studies (not only with ERPs) performed without stimulus counterbalancing and suitable control conditions may be confounded by differential intrinsic properties of the stimuli employed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability and validity of the cross-culturally adapted Turkish version of the Core Outcome Measures Index for low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çetin, Engin; Çelik, Evrim Coşkun; Acaroğlu, Emre; Berk, Haluk

    2018-01-01

    To produce a cross-culturally adapted and validated Turkish version of The Core Outcome Measure Index (COMI) Back questionnaire. Ninety-six Turkish-speaking patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP) were recruited from orthopedic and physical therapy outpatient clinics in a public hospital. They completed a booklet of questionnaires containing Turkish version of COMI, adjectival pain scale, Roland Morris disability questionnaire, European 5 Dimension Questionnaire and brief version of World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire. Within following 7-14 days, 67 patients, reported no or minimal changes in their back pain status, completed the Turkish COMI again to assess reproducibility. Data quality was good with very few missing answers. COMI summary index score displayed 3% floor effects and no ceiling effects. The correlations between the COMI summary index score and each of the full instrument whole scores were found to be excellent to very good (ρ = - 0.81 to 0.74). Reliability expressed as intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.95 (95% CI 0.91-0.97). Standard error of measurement (SEM agreement ) was acceptable at 0.41 and the minimum detectable change (MDC 95% ) was 1.14. Turkish version of the COMI has acceptable psychometric properties. It is a valid and reliable instrument and cross-culturally adapted, in accordance with established guidelines, for the use by Turkish-speaking patients. It can be recommended for use in evaluation of patients with chronic LBP in daily practice, in international multicenter studies and in spine registry systems.

  2. Electric system reliability considerations in a changing utility environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    The utility industry is presently experiencing a number of diverse factors which may alter the way that it operates and in many cases the way in which it is configured. These factors reflect a variety of circumstances including increased competitive pressures and political perception. While many of these changes may result in long term economic and service benefits to the industry and customer alike, it is important to recognize the desirability of orderly change. There is need to implement change in a reasoned manner. In this paper technical as well as economic and political considerations are addressed

  3. Structural and reliability analysis of quality of relationship index in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousson-Gélie, Florence; de Chalvron, Stéphanie; Zozaya, Carole; Lafaye, Anaïs

    2013-01-01

    Among psychosocial factors affecting emotional adjustment and quality of life, social support is one of the most important and widely studied in cancer patients, but little is known about the perception of support in specific significant relationships in patients with cancer. This study examined the psychometric properties of the Quality of Relationship Inventory (QRI) by evaluating its factor structure and its convergent and discriminant validity in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 388 patients completed the QRI. Convergent validity was evaluated by testing the correlations between the QRI subscales and measures of general social support, anxiety and depression symptoms. Discriminant validity was examined by testing group comparison. The QRI's longitudinal invariance across time was also tested. Principal axis factor analysis with promax rotation identified three factors accounting for 42.99% of variance: perceived social support, depth, and interpersonal conflict. Estimates of reliability with McDonald's ω coefficient were satisfactory for all the QRI subscales (ω ranging from 0.75 - 0.85). Satisfaction from general social support was negatively correlated with the interpersonal conflict subscale and positively with the depth subscale. The interpersonal conflict and social support scales were correlated with depression and anxiety scores. We also found a relative stability of QRI subscales (measured 3 months after the first evaluation) and differences between partner status and gender groups. The Quality of Relationship Inventory is a valid tool for assessing the quality of social support in a particular relationship with cancer patients.

  4. Statistical Primer for Athletic Trainers: The Essentials of Understanding Measures of Reliability and Minimal Important Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Lininger, Monica R

    2018-01-01

      To describe the concepts of measurement reliability and minimal important change.   All measurements have some magnitude of error. Because clinical practice involves measurement, clinicians need to understand measurement reliability. The reliability of an instrument is integral in determining if a change in patient status is meaningful.   Measurement reliability is the extent to which a test result is consistent and free of error. Three perspectives of reliability-relative reliability, systematic bias, and absolute reliability-are often reported. However, absolute reliability statistics, such as the minimal detectable difference, are most relevant to clinicians because they provide an expected error estimate. The minimal important difference is the smallest change in a treatment outcome that the patient would identify as important.   Clinicians should use absolute reliability characteristics, preferably the minimal detectable difference, to determine the extent of error around a patient's measurement. The minimal detectable difference, coupled with an appropriately estimated minimal important difference, can assist the practitioner in identifying clinically meaningful changes in patients.

  5. The Functional Living Index-Cancer is a reliable and valid instrument in Chinese cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Daniel Y T; Lee, Alvina H K; Tung, Stewart Y; Wong, Janet Y H; Chan, Y M; Goh, Cynthia R; Cheung, Y B

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the linguistic and psychometric properties of the Functional Living Index-Cancer (FLIC) in assessing the quality of life of Chinese cancer patients. The English FLIC was translated into Traditional Chinese by the standard forward-backward procedure. After cognitive debriefing, a Traditional Chinese FLIC was administered to 500 cancer patients in a major public hospital in Hong Kong. Of which, 200 were invited to complete the questionnaire in 2 weeks. To identify a scale structure appropriate to Chinese, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed on two randomly split halves of the sample. We identified five scales of the Traditional Chinese FLIC which assess the physical, psychological, hardship, nausea and social aspects. These five scales and the overall scale demonstrated satisfactory fit and had the alpha coefficient ranged from 0.68 to 0.92. The intra-class correlation coefficient ranged from 0.67 to 0.88. In addition, all FLIC scales were negatively associated with the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status and, also except for the psychological scale, had lower scores in patients who were treated by chemotherapy. The Traditional Chinese FLIC is an appropriate health indicator for Chinese cancer patients.

  6. Measuring Empathic Tendencies: Reliability And Validity of the Dutch Version of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim De Corte

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI; Davis, 1980 is a commonly used self-report instrument designed to assess empathic tendencies. The IRI consists of four separate subscales: Perspective Taking (PT, Fantasy (FS, Empathic Concern (EC, and Personal Distress (PD. The objective of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Dutch version of the IRI. The IRI was administered to a Dutch sample of 651 normal functioning adults. The factor structure of the IRI was examined by using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. The results of the CFA revealed that there is room for improvement and modification of the original theoretical model. The validity of the IRI was tested using internal criteria (i. e., scale intercorrelations and external criteria (i. e., correlations with subscales of the EQ-i (Bar-On, 1997, the NEO-FFI (Hoekstra, Ormel, & De Fruyt, 1996, Mach-IV (Van Kenhove, Vermeir, & Verniers, 2001, Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965, and the WAIS-III (Wechsler, 2000. Overall, the internal consistency, construct validity, and factor structure of scores from the Dutch version of the IRI suggest that it is a useful instrument to measure people's self-reported empathic tendencies.

  7. Validity and reliability of English and Marathi Oswestry Disability Index (version 2.1a) in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena D; Raiturker, Pradyumna P Pai; Kulkarni, Aditi A

    2013-05-15

    A total of 200 patients with low back pain (LBP) completed an English and Marathi Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires (100 each), visual analogue scale, and Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. To validate the English and Marathi versions of ODI (version 2.1a). Patient-orientated assessment methods are important in the evaluation of treatment outcome. The ODI is one of the condition-specific questionnaires recommended for the use of patients with LBP. An adaptation of the ODI (version 2.1a) for Marathi language was carried out according to established guidelines. Average age of patients who answered the English ODI was 42 ± 15, whereas that of Marathi-speaking patients was 52 ± 15 years. About 40% were males. The Cronbach α reliability score was 0.877 for English and 0.943 for Marathi. Forty-seven and 53 of these patients were retested with English and Marathi ODI within 2 weeks (to assess test-retest reliability). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for the test-retest reliability of the questionnaire was 0.877 and 0.943 for English and Marathi respectively. The ODI scores correlated with visual analogue scale pain intensity (r = 0.67, P Disability Questionnaire score (r = 0.71, P Disability Questionnaire scores (r = 0.503, P Oswestry questionnaire is reliable and valid, and shows psychometric characteristics as good as the English version. It should represent a valuable tool for use in future patient-orientated outcome studies for population with LBP in India.

  8. The validity and reliability of the my jump 2 app for measuring the reactive strength index and drop jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Tom; Bishop, Chris; Antrobus, Mark; Brazier, Jon

    2018-03-27

    This is the first study to independently assess the concurrent validity and reliability of the My Jump 2 app for measuring drop jump performance. It is also the first to evaluate the app's ability to measure the reactive strength index (RSI). Fourteen male sport science students (age: 29.5 ± 9.9 years) performed three drop jumps from 20 cm and 40 cm (totalling 84 jumps), assessed via a force platform and the My Jump 2 app. Reported metrics included reactive strength index, jump height, ground contact time, and mean power. Measurements from both devices were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r), Cronbach's alpha (α), coefficient of variation (CV) and BlandAltman plots. Near perfect agreement was seen between devices at 20 cm for RSI (ICC = 0.95) and contact time (ICC = 0.99) and at 40 cm for RSI (ICC = 0.98), jump height (ICC = 0.96) and contact time (ICC = 0.92); with very strong agreement seen at 20 cm for jump height (ICC = 0.80). In comparison with the force plate the app showed good validity for RSI (20 cm: r = 0.94; 40 cm; r = 0.97), jump height (20 cm: r = 0.80; 40 cm; r = 0.96) and contact time (20 cm = 0.96; 40 cm; r = 0.98). The results of the present study show that the My Jump 2 app is a valid and reliable tool for assessing drop jump performance.

  9. Translation of Oswestry Disability Index into Tamil with Cross Cultural Adaptation and Evaluation of Reliability and Validity§

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua Israel; MacDermid, Joy Christine; Grewal, Ruby; Sekar, Vincent Prabhakaran; Balachandran, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Study Design: Prospective longitudinal validation study Objective: To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to the Tamil language (ODI-T), and to evaluate its reliability and construct validity. Summary of Background Data: ODI is widely used as a disease specific questionnaire in back pain patients to evaluate pain and disability. A thorough literature search revealed that the Tamil version of the ODI has not been previously published. Methods: The ODI was translated and cross-culturally adapted to the Tamil language according to established guidelines. 30 subjects (16 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 42.7 years (S.D. 13.6; Range 22 - 69) with low back pain were recruited to assess the psychometric properties of the ODI-T Questionnaire. Patients completed the ODI-T, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), VAS-pain and VAS-disability at baseline and 24-72 hours from the baseline visit. Results: The ODI-T displayed a high degree of internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. The test-retest reliability was high (n=30) with an ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.96) and a mean re-test difference of 2.6 points lower on re-test. The ODI-T scores exhibited a strong correlation with the RMDQ scores (r = 0.82) pdisability in Tamil speaking patients with low back pain. PMID:24563681

  10. Extracting information from an ensemble of GCMs to reliably assess future global runoff change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sperna Weiland, F.C.; Beek, L.P.H. van; Weerts, A.H.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2011-01-01

    Future runoff projections derived from different global climate models (GCMs) show large differences. Therefore, within this study the, information from multiple GCMs has been combined to better assess hydrological changes. For projections of precipitation and temperature the Reliability ensemble

  11. Translation of oswestry disability index into Tamil with cross cultural adaptation and evaluation of reliability and validity(§).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Joshua Israel; Macdermid, Joy Christine; Grewal, Ruby; Sekar, Vincent Prabhakaran; Balachandran, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Prospective longitudinal validation study. To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) to the Tamil language (ODI-T), and to evaluate its reliability and construct validity. ODI is widely used as a disease specific questionnaire in back pain patients to evaluate pain and disability. A thorough literature search revealed that the Tamil version of the ODI has not been previously published. The ODI was translated and cross-culturally adapted to the Tamil language according to established guidelines. 30 subjects (16 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 42.7 years (S.D. 13.6; Range 22 - 69) with low back pain were recruited to assess the psychometric properties of the ODI-T Questionnaire. Patients completed the ODI-T, Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ), VAS-pain and VAS-disability at baseline and 24-72 hours from the baseline visit. The ODI-T displayed a high degree of internal consistency, with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. The test-retest reliability was high (n=30) with an ICC of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.84 to 0.96) and a mean re-test difference of 2.6 points lower on re-test. The ODI-T scores exhibited a strong correlation with the RMDQ scores (r = 0.82) pTamil version of the ODI Questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to measure subjective outcomes of pain and disability in Tamil speaking patients with low back pain.

  12. Reliability of Doppler and stethoscope methods of determining systolic blood pressures: considerations for calculating an ankle-brachial index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesbro, Steven B; Asongwed, Elmira T; Brown, Jamesha; John, Emmanuel B

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to: (1) identify the interrater and intrarater reliability of systolic blood pressures using a stethoscope and Doppler to determine an ankle-brachial index (ABI), and (2) to determine the correlation between the 2 methods. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) affects approximately 8 to 12 million people in the United States, and nearly half of those with this disease are asymptomatic. Early detection and prompt treatment of PAD will improve health outcomes. It is important that clinicians perform tests that determine the presence of PAD. Two individual raters trained in ABI procedure measured the systolic blood pressures of 20 individuals' upper and lower extremities. Standard ABI measurement protocols were observed. Raters individually recorded the systolic blood pressures of each extremity using a stethoscope and a Doppler, for a total of 640 independent measures. Interrater reliability of Doppler measurements to determine SBP at the ankle was very strong (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.93-0.99) compared to moderate to strong reliability using a stethoscope (ICC, 0.64-0.87). Agreement between the 2 devices to determine SBP was moderate to very weak (ICC, 0.13-0.61). Comparisons of the use of Doppler and stethoscope to determine ABI showed weak to very weak intrarater correlation (ICC, 0.17-0.35). Linear regression analysis of the 2 methods to determine ABI showed positive but weak to very weak correlations (r2 = .013, P = .184). A Doppler ultrasound is recommended over a stethoscope for accuracy in systolic pressure readings for ABI measurements.

  13. The quest for reliable regional scenarios of climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, W.L.

    1991-01-01

    A number of problems still confront climate modelers if the challenge of providing information that can be used for local impact estimation is to be met. First, the models must be improved. Models continue to show large systematic errors, and the structure and behavior of these errors are not well understood. This suggests the need for more analysis, diagnosis, and intercomparison of model results, in order to understand the reasons for the differences among models and their sensitivity to both parameterization and resolution. It is to be hoped that the resources necessary to do this on a sustained and coordinated basis will be made available. It should also be recognized that modeled climate changes will inevitably be in terms of frequency distributions rather than categorical results. Ideally, these distributions should be constructed from the statistics of an ensemble of model runs, rather than by guessing or by uncertain analogs. Such information would permit the determination of the risk or uncertainty of the derived climate impact estimates and would place climate model applications on a firmer scientific basis

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of watershed health propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based drought index (case study: Shazand Watershed in Iran).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Seyed Hamidreza; Hazbavi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    Quantitative response of the watershed health to climate variability is of critical importance for watershed managers. However, existing studies seldom considered the impact of climate variability on watershed health. The present study therefore aimed to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of reliability (R el ), resilience (R es ) and vulnerability (V ul ) indicators in node years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 in connection with Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) for 24 sub-watersheds in the Shazand Watershed of Markazi Province in Iran. The analysis was based on rainfall variability as one of the main climatic drivers. To achieve the study purposes, the monthly rainfall time series of eight rain gauge stations distributed across the watershed or neighboring areas were analyzed and corresponding SPIs and R el R es V ul indicators were calculated. Ultimately, the spatial variation of SPI oriented R el R es V ul was mapped for the study watershed using Geographic Information System (GIS). The average and standard deviation of SPI-R el R es V ul index for the study years of 1986, 1998, 2008 and 2014 was obtained 0.240±0.025, 0.290±0.036, 0.077±0.0280 and 0.241±0.081, respectively. In overall, the results of the study proved the spatiotemporal variations of SPI-R el R es V ul watershed health index in the study area. Accordingly, all the sub-watersheds of the Shazand Watershed were grouped in unhealthy and very unhealthy conditions in all the study years. For 1986 and 1998 all the sub-watersheds were assessed in unhealthy status. Whilst, it declined to very unhealthy condition in 2008 and then some 75% of the watershed ultimately referred again to unhealthy and the rest still remained under very unhealthy conditions in 2014. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reliability and validity study of the Gujarati version of the Oswestry Disability Index 2.1a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sweni; Balaganapathy, M

    2017-09-22

    Among all musculoskeletal disorders back pain is the most common reason for functional limitation in working age. It is due to low back pain (LBP) that the ODI has become one of the principal outcome measures for evaluation of disability and has been widely used in research as well as in clinical practice. So far, validated Gujarati version of the ODI 2.1a has not been reported. To accomplish the translation and validation of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) version 2.1a into the Gujarati language. Cross-sectional study. The validation of the ODI-Gujarati was tested in 120 patients diagnosed with non-specific LBP, who were receiving physiotherapy at a clinic in Gujarat, India. Data was collected at on initial visit and after 48 hours. During both visits, patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index-Gujarati (ODI-G), Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire-Gujarati (RMDQ-G), and Visual Analogue Scale-Pain (VAS-P). Internal consistency was measured by Cronbach's alpha. The Gujarati version indicated high internal consistency (α= 0.96). Test-retest reliability was measured by intra-class correlation coefficient and it revealed very high correlation (ICC = 0.92). Construct validity was confirmed by strong correlation with RMDQ-G (r= 0.76), and concurrent validity indicated moderate correlation with VAS-P (r= 0.50). Factor analysis explained that the ODI was loaded on 1 factor. The Oswestry disability index version 2.1a was successfully translated into Gujarati language, showing excellent psychometric properties. Therefore, it can be used in evaluating the disability amongst Gujarati population with LBP for both clinical and research purposes.

  16. Reading for Reliability: Preservice Teachers Evaluate Web Sources about Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damico, James S.; Panos, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This study examined what happened when 65 undergraduate prospective secondary level teachers across content areas evaluated the reliability of four online sources about climate change: an oil company webpage, a news report, and two climate change organizations with competing views on climate change. The students evaluated the sources at three time…

  17. Village-level supply reliability of surface water irrigation in rural China: effects of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Wang, Jinxia

    2018-06-01

    Surface water, as the largest part of water resources, plays an important role on China's agricultural production and food security. And surface water is vulnerable to climate change. This paper aims to examine the status of the supply reliability of surface water irrigation, and discusses how it is affected by climate change in rural China. The field data we used in this study was collected from a nine-province field survey during 2012 and 2013. Climate data are offered by China's National Meteorological Information Center which contains temperature and precipitation in the past 30 years. A Tobit model (or censored regression model) was used to estimate the influence of climate change on supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Descriptive results showed that, surface water supply reliability was 74 % in the past 3 years. Econometric results revealed that climate variables significantly influenced the supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Specifically, temperature is negatively related with the supply reliability of surface water irrigation; but precipitation positively influences the supply reliability of surface water irrigation. Besides, climate influence differs by seasons. In a word, this paper improves our understanding of the impact of climate change on agriculture irrigation and water supply reliability in the micro scale, and provides a scientific basis for relevant policy making.

  18. The reliability and validity of a Venezuelan version of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauseo Vera, Mayra; Gutiérrez-González, Luis Arturo; Maldonado, Irama; Al Snih, Soham

    2017-09-21

    Spondyloarthropathies (SpA) are disabling diseases with a prevalence of 1.9% in the general population. The indices designed for monitoring the disease should be valid, reliable and cross-culturally adapted for decision-making concerning the appropriate treatment. Changing an adjective or pronoun in a self-administered questionnaire could be the big difference in condensing an idea in a few words and transmitting that concept to all those who share the same language. To develop a Venezuelan version of the original English version of the BASDAI/BASFI and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Venezuelan patients with SpA. Certified linguists were needed for the translation of a Venezuelan version of the BASDAI/BASFI. The evaluation of reliability and validity was performed by calculating correlation coefficients in addition to Cronbach's alpha correlation between the BASDAI score and the clinical parameters (for example: erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein, modified Schöber test, occiput-to-wall distance and enthesis count). We studied 40 patients including 31 men (77.5%) and 9 women (22.5%). The mean age was 35.9 years ± standard deviation (SD) 12.01 and the disease duration was 11.5 years (± SD 9.5). The most common diagnoses were undifferentiated spondyloarthritis (45%), ankylosing spondylitis (27.5%) and psoriatic arthritis (20%). The incidences of reactive arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and juvenile Reiter's syndrome were 2.5% each. The test-retest reliability of the BASDAI and BASFI was high (R = 0.99 and 0.99, respectively; P<.0001). The internal consistency for the BASDAI was high (Cronbach's alpha = 0.88; P=.002) and the intraclass correlation coefficient for internal consistency: 0.9867 (P=.001). Internal consistency for the BASFI: Cronbach's alpha = 0.7985 (P=.002), intraclass correlation coefficient for internal consistency: 0.9055 (P=.001). Construct validity of the BASDAI was high for general well-being of the patient (R = 0

  19. Indexed

    CERN Document Server

    Hagy, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Jessica Hagy is a different kind of thinker. She has an astonishing talent for visualizing relationships, capturing in pictures what is difficult for most of us to express in words. At indexed.blogspot.com, she posts charts, graphs, and Venn diagrams drawn on index cards that reveal in a simple and intuitive way the large and small truths of modern life. Praised throughout the blogosphere as “brilliant,” “incredibly creative,” and “comic genius,” Jessica turns her incisive, deadpan sense of humor on everything from office politics to relationships to religion. With new material along with some of Jessica’s greatest hits, this utterly unique book will thrill readers who demand humor that makes them both laugh and think.

  20. Association of childhood body mass index and change in body mass index with first adult ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjærde, Line K.; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemi...

  1. The Assessment of Sustainability Indexes and Climate Change Impacts on Integrated Water Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Hernández-Bedolla

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Integrated water resource management (IWRM is facing great challenges due to growing uncertainties caused by climate change (CC, rapid socio-economic and technological changes, and population growth. In the present study, we have developed different indices to assess the availability of water using an IWRM approach. These indices evaluate supply to demands, surface availability, groundwater availability, reservoirs, and environmental flow. Moreover, reliability, resilience, and vulnerability were determined. Sustainability index (SI and sustainability index by groups (SG were determined based on the five indices (all indices vary from 0 to 1. The impacts of climate change affect surface and groundwater availability, as do the agricultural, urban, and industrial requirements on the different supplies. We used the generalized AQUATOOL Decision Support System Shell (DSSS to evaluate the IWRM in the Rio Grande Basin (Morelia, México. Various emission scenarios from representative concentration pathways (RCPs were applied to the basin for the years 2015–2039 and 2075–2099. The results indicate increases in agricultural and urban demand, and decreases in surface runoff, as well as groundwater recharge. The proposed indices are useful for different approaches (decision-makers, water policy, and drought risks, among others. CC significantly affects the different proposed indices and indicates a decrease of the SI, SG1, and SG2 (i.e., less availability. For example, we found that SG2 decreased from 0.812 to 0.195 under the RCP 8.5 2075–2099 scenario, and SG2 equal to 0.252 and 0.326 for the RCP 6.0 2075–2099 and RCP 4.5 2070–2099 scenarios, respectively (values close to 0 indicate worst drought conditions.

  2. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    (percent body fat) over time. The gold standard method, hydrodensitometry, has severe limitations for the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the reliability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in detecting percent body fat changes within obese children over time. METHODS: Percent...... body fat by ADP, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured for eight obese children aged 5-12 years enrolled in a weight management program over a 12-month period. These measurements were taken at initial evaluation, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to monitor the progress...... of the subjects and detect any changes in these measures over time. Statistical analysis was used to determine the reliability of the data collected. RESULTS: The reliability estimate for percent body fat by ADP was 0.78. This was much lower than the reliability of BMI, 0.98, and weight measurements, 0...

  3. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  4. Reliability, Construct Validity and Interpretability of the Brazilian version of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Strain Index (SI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Daniela Pereira; Sato, Tatiana de Oliveira; Comper, Maria Luiza Caíres; Silva, Anderson Martins da; Boas, Cristiana Villas; Padula, Rosimeire Simprini

    There are very few observational methods for analysis of biomechanical exposure available in Brazilian-Portuguese. This study aimed to cross-culturally adapt and test the measurement properties of the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) and Strain Index (SI). The cross-cultural adaptation and measurement properties test were established according to Beaton et al. and COSMIN guidelines, respectively. Several tasks that required static posture and/or repetitive motion of upper limbs were evaluated (n>100). The intra-raters' reliability for the RULA ranged from poor to almost perfect (k: 0.00-0.93), and SI from poor to excellent (ICC 2.1 : 0.05-0.99). The inter-raters' reliability was very poor for RULA (k: -0.12 to 0.13) and ranged from very poor to moderate for SI (ICC 2.1 : 0.00-0.53). The agreement was good for RULA (75-100% intra-raters, and 42.24-100% inter-raters) and to SI (EPM: -1.03% to 1.97%; intra-raters, and -0.17% to 1.51% inter-raters). The internal consistency was appropriate for RULA (α=0.88), and low for SI (α=0.65). Moderate construct validity were observed between RULA and SI, in wrist/hand-wrist posture (rho: 0.61) and strength/intensity of exertion (rho: 0.39). The adapted versions of the RULA and SI presented semantic and cultural equivalence for the Brazilian Portuguese. The RULA and SI had reliability estimates ranged from very poor to almost perfect. The internal consistency for RULA was better than the SI. The correlation between methods was moderate only of muscle request/movement repetition. Previous training is mandatory to use of observations methods for biomechanical exposure assessment, although it does not guarantee good reproducibility of these measures. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Measuring reliable change in cognition using the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Christopher; Newton, Judith; Lonergan, Katie; Madden, Caoifa; Mays, Iain; O'Sullivan, Meabhdh; Costello, Emmet; Pinto-Grau, Marta; Vajda, Alice; Heverin, Mark; Pender, Niall; Al-Chalabi, Ammar; Hardiman, Orla; Abrahams, Sharon

    2018-02-01

    Cognitive impairment affects approximately 50% of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Research has indicated that impairment may worsen with disease progression. The Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS) was designed to measure neuropsychological functioning in ALS, with its alternate forms (ECAS-A, B, and C) allowing for serial assessment over time. The aim of the present study was to establish reliable change scores for the alternate forms of the ECAS, and to explore practice effects and test-retest reliability of the ECAS's alternate forms. Eighty healthy participants were recruited, with 57 completing two and 51 completing three assessments. Participants were administered alternate versions of the ECAS serially (A-B-C) at four-month intervals. Intra-class correlation analysis was employed to explore test-retest reliability, while analysis of variance was used to examine the presence of practice effects. Reliable change indices (RCI) and regression-based methods were utilized to establish change scores for the ECAS alternate forms. Test-retest reliability was excellent for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total scores of the combined ECAS A, B, and C (all > .90). No significant practice effects were observed over the three testing sessions. RCI and regression-based methods produced similar change scores. The alternate forms of the ECAS possess excellent test-retest reliability in a healthy control sample, with no significant practice effects. The use of conservative RCI scores is recommended. Therefore, a change of ≥8, ≥4, and ≥9 for ALS Specific, ALS Non-Specific, and ECAS Total score is required for reliable change.

  6. Change in refractive index of muscle tissue during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Chen, Meimei; Liu, Shupeng; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-period fiber-grating (LPG) based Michelson interferometric refractometry to monitor the change in refractive index of porcine muscle during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). As the wavelength of RI interferometer alters with the change in refractive index around the probe, the LPG based refractometry is combined with LITT system to measure the change in refractive index of porcine muscle when irradiated by laser. The experimental results show the denaturation of tissue alters the refractive index significantly and the LPG sensor can be applied to monitor the tissue state during the LITT.

  7. Relationship of the change in implied volatility with the underlying equity index return in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Thakolsri, Supachock; Sethapramote, Yuthana; Jiranyakul, Komain

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the relationship between the change in implied volatility index and the underlying stock index return in the Thai stock market. The data used are daily data during November 2010 to December 2013. The regression analysis is performed on stationary series. The empirical results reveal that there is evidence of a significantly negative and asymmetric relationship between the underlying stock index return and the change in implied volatility. The finding in this study gi...

  8. Delta neutrophil index: A reliable marker to differentiate perforated appendicitis from non-perforated appendicitis in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Hyuk; Cho, Young Suk; Kim, Yoon Sung; Ahn, Hee Cheol; Oh, Young Taeck; Park, Sang O; Won, Moo-Ho; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Young Myeong; Seo, Jeong Yeol; Lee, Young Hwan

    2018-01-01

    Delta neutrophil index (DNI) is a new inflammatory marker and the present study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the DNI for the presence of a perforation in elderly with acute appendicitis. This retrospective observational study was conducted on 108 consecutive elderly patients (≥65 years old) with acute appendicitis treated over a 24-month period. Sixty-nine of the 108 patients (median, IQR: 72, 67-77 years) were allocated to the perforated appendicitis group (63.9%) and 39 to the non-perforated appendicitis group (36.1%). WBC, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and DNI were significantly higher in the perforated group. In multiple logistic regression analyses, initial DNI was the only independent marker that can significantly predict the presence of perforation in multiple regression [odds ratio 9.38, 95% confidence interval (2.51-35.00), P=.001]. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed that DNI is a good predictor for the presence of appendiceal perforation at an optimal cut-off for DNI being 1.4% (sensitivity 67.7%, specificity 90.0%, AUC 0.807). Clinicians can reliably differentiate acute perforated appendicitis from non-perforated appendicitis by DNI level of 1.4 or more in elderly patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Spectral Index Changes with Brightness for γ-Ray Loud Blazars J. H. ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectral index changes depending on γ-ray brightness is obtained. ... the γ-ray band. Key words. Active galactic nuclei (AGN): blazars: γ-ray emission: spectral index. 1. Introduction. Generally, the spectrum of one source changes with its .... Pearl River Scholar Funded Scheme (GDUPS) (2009), Yangcheng Scholar Funded.

  10. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ISSN: 2255-2863 is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence, and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.

  11. Potential change in lodgepole pine site index and distribution under climatic change in Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monserud, R.A. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Portland, OR (United States); Yang, Y.; Huang, S. [Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Forest Management Branch; Tchebakova, N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation). Sukachev Forest Inst.

    2008-02-15

    The Alberta climate model was used in conjunction with climate change scenario projections from 3 global circulation models to estimate the impact of global climate change on lodgepole pine site productivity in Alberta. The modelling study demonstrated that mean growing degree days greater than 5 degrees C (GGD{sub 5}) were increased by 18 per cent, 38 per cent, and 65 per cent by the 2020s, 2050s, and 2080s respectively. Changes in precipitation did not occur. A dryness index was used to predict productivity ranges and GDD{sub 5}. Results showed that productivity increased by 3 meters for each 30-year period. A large reduction in growing areas was also indicated. Initially, warming increased the potential growing range by 67 per cent by the year 2020. By 2080, growing ranges had decreased to 58 per cent of its current area. Changes in range should be considered when setting longer-term forest management plans. It was concluded that the increased risk of both insect and wildfire outbreaks must also be considered. 40 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  12. Climate change vulnerability index for South African aquifers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    received considerable attention from hydrologists during the past decade (e.g. .... ground water trends in response to human-induced climate change: ... Figure 6. Recharge function based on precipitation and slope percentage. The current ...

  13. Modeling of preventive maintenance changes influence upon flight safety indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.В. Гончаренко

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  It is considered a simplified model of connection between the catastrophic events flow frequency and both preventive maintenance changes periodicity and diagnosis depth of aviation equipment. It is deduced specific formulas for computing the changes and diagnostics parameters influence upon the values of both the catastrophic events flow frequency and technical-economical control factor criterion of flight safety levels.

  14. Spatiotemporal variation of long-term drought propensity through reliability-resilience-vulnerability based Drought Management Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Kironmala; Maity, Rajib; Sharma, Ashish; Mehrotra, Rajeshwar

    2014-10-01

    This paper characterizes the long-term, spatiotemporal variation of drought propensity through a newly proposed, namely Drought Management Index (DMI), and explores its predictability in order to assess the future drought propensity and adapt drought management policies for a location. The DMI was developed using the reliability-resilience-vulnerability (RRV) rationale commonly used in water resources systems analysis, under the assumption that depletion of soil moisture across a vertical soil column is equivalent to the operation of a water supply reservoir, and that drought should be managed not simply using a measure of system reliability, but should also take into account the readiness of the system to bounce back from drought to a normal state. Considering India as a test bed, 5 year long monthly gridded (0.5° Lat × 0.5° Lon) soil moisture data are used to compute the RRV at each grid location falling within the study domain. The Permanent Wilting Point (PWP) is used as the threshold, indicative of transition into water stress. The association between resilience and vulnerability is then characterized through their joint probability distribution ascertained using Plackett copula models for four broad soil types across India. The joint cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of resilience and vulnerability form the basis for estimating the DMI as a five-yearly time series at each grid location assessed. The status of DMI over the past 50 years indicate that drought propensity is consistently low toward northern and north eastern parts of India but higher in the western part of peninsular India. Based on the observed past behavior of DMI series on a climatological time scale, a DMI prediction model comprising deterministic and stochastic components is developed. The predictability of DMI for a lead time of 5 years is found to vary across India, with a Pearson correlation coefficient between observed and predicted DMI above 0.6 over most of the study area

  15. Excellent cross-cultural validity, intra-test reliability and construct validity of the dutch rivermead mobility index in patients after stroke undergoing rehabilitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Leo D.; Green, John; De Kluis, Kiki R. A.; Molenaar, Ivo W.; Bagley, Pam; Smith, Jane; Geurts, Alexander C. H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the cross-cultural validity of international Dutch-English comparisons when using the Dutch Rivermead Mobility Index (RMI), and the intra-test reliability and construct validity of the Dutch RMI. Methods: Cross-cultural validity was studied in a combined data-set of Dutch

  16. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, P.T.; Poolman, R.W.; Bakel, T.M. Van; Tuinebreijer, W.E.; Zielinski, S.M.; Bhandari, M.; Patka, P.; Lieshout, E.M. van; Kampen, A. van; Biert, J.; Vugt, A.B. van; Edwards, M.J.R.; Blokhuis, T.J.; Frolke, J.P.; Geeraedts, L.M.G.; Gardeniers, J.W.M.; Tan, E.C.T.H.; Poelhekke, L.M.S.J.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Schreurs, B.W.; et al.,

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of

  17. Reliability, Validity, and Responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for Elderly Patients with a Femoral Neck Fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgers, Paul T. P. W.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; van Bakel, Theodorus M. J.; Tuinebreijer, Wim E.; Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Devereaux, P. J.; Guyatt, Gordon H.; Einhorn, Thomas A.; Thabane, Lehana; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Koval, Kenneth J.; Frihagen, Frede; Tetsworth, Kevin; Guerra-Farfan, Ernesto; Walter, Stephen D.; Sprague, Sheila; Swinton, Marilyn; Scott, Taryn; McKay, Paula; Madden, Kim; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Silva, Heather; Heetveld, Martin J.; Burgers, T. P. W.; Zura, Robert D.; Avram, Victoria; Eygendaal, Denise; Krips, Rover; Raven, Eric E. J.; Haverlag, Robert; Mutsaerts, Eduard L. A. R.; Haverkamp, Daniel; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Beimers, Lijkele; de Vries, Jasper; Zurcher, Arthur W.; Bulstra, Gythe H.; Campo, Martin M.; Somford, Mathijs P.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Festen, Sebastiaan; Geeraedts, Leo M. G.; Peters, Rolf; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Kees Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of

  18. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.T.P.W. Burgers (Paul); R.W. Poolman (Rudolf); T.M. van Bakel (Theodorus); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); S.M. Zielinski (Stephanie); M. Bhandari (Mohit); P. Patka (Peter); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractBackground: The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and

  19. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan SÁNCHEZ

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas. The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society. We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  20. Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Juan Sánchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal (ADCAIJ is an open access journal that publishes articles which contribute new results associated with distributed computing and artificial intelligence,and their application in different areas.The artificial intelligence is changing our society. Its application in distributed environments, such as the Internet, electronic commerce, mobile communications, wireless devices, distributed computing and so on, is increasing and becoming and element of high added value and economic potential in industry and research. These technologies are changing constantly as a result of the large research and technical effort being undertaken in both universities and businesses. The exchange of ideas between scientists and technicians from both academic and business areas is essential to facilitate the development of systems that meet the demands of today's society.We would like to thank all the contributing authors for their hard and highly valuable work. Their work has helped to contribute to the success of this special issue. Finally, the Editors wish to thank Scientific Committee of Advances in Distributed Computing and Artificial Intelligence Journal for the collaboration of this special issue, that notably contributes to improve the quality of the journal. We hope the reader will share our joy and find this special issue very useful.

  1. Reliability and Validity of the ‘‘Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability’’ on Mentally Retarded Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Agha Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Having a good quality of life has always been desirable for humans, and the concept of a good life and the ways of achieving it have become important over the years. Personal wellbeing is the mental component of quality of life. Thus, the current study was conducted to assess the reliability and validity of the ‘‘Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability’’ on mentally retarded students.Method:200 mentally retarded students in north districts of Tehran (districts 1, 2 and 3 were selected by systematic random sampling. The collected data using Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability was analyzed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for internal consistency and linear multivariate regression for construct validity.Results:Results confirmed the reliability and validity for the Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability in mentally retarded students of exceptional schools. Studying the internal consistency of seven items showed that all the items were correlated with the total score and their scores averages were similar to each other. This indicates that the test’s questions have reliability with regard to evaluation of a common feature and results showed Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability had the most extensive coverage of construct validity .Conclusion:Personal Well-Being Index- Cognitive Disability scale could be applied to measure personal wellbeing in mentally retarded students.

  2. Assessing Changes in the Reliability of the U.S. Electric Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Peter H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; LaCommare, Kristina H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sweeney, James L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Over the past 15 years, the most well-publicized efforts to assess trends in U.S. electric power system reliability have focused only on a subset of all power interruption events (see, for example, Amin 2008 and Campbell 2012)—namely, only the very largest events, which trigger immediate emergency reporting to federal agencies and industry regulators. Anecdotally, these events are thought by many to represent no more than 10% of the power interruptions experienced annually by electricity consumers. Moreover, a review of these emergency reports has identified shortcomings in relying on these data as reliable sources for assessing trends, even with the reliability events they report (Fisher et al. 2012). Recent work has begun to address these limitations by examining trends in reliability data collected annually by electricity distribution companies (Eto et al. 2012). In principle, all power interruptions experienced by electricity customers, regardless of size, are recorded by the distribution utility. Moreover, distribution utilities have a long history of recording this information, often in response to mandates from state public utility commissions (Eto et al. 2006). Thus, studies that rely on reliability data collected by distribution utilities can, in principle, provide a more complete basis upon which to assess trends or changes in reliability over time.

  3. Ultrasound assessment for grading structural tendon changes in supraspinatus tendinopathy: an inter-rater reliability study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarbæk, John; Eshøj, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of measuring structural changes in the tendon of patients, clinically diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy (cases) and healthy participants (controls), on ultrasound (US) images captured by standardised procedures. Methods A total of 40 participant...

  4. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vencita Priyanka Aranha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To estimate the reliability and sensitivity to change of the timed standing balance test in children with Down syndrome (DS. Methods: It was a nonblinded, comparison study with a convenience sample of subjects consisting of children with DS (n = 9 aged 8–17 years. The main outcome measure was standing balance which was assessed using timed standing balance test, the time required to maintain in four conditions, eyes open static, eyes closed static, eyes open dynamic, and eyes closed dynamic. Results: Relative reliability was excellent for all four conditions with an Interclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC ranging from 0.91 to 0.93. The variation between repeated measurements for each condition was minimal with standard error of measurement (SEM of 0.21–0.59 s, suggestive of excellent absolute reliability. The sensitivity to change as measured by smallest real change (SRC was 1.27 s for eyes open static, 1.63 s for eyes closed static, 0.58 s for eyes open dynamic, and 0.61 s for eyes closed static. Conclusions: Timed standing balance test is an easy to administer test and sensitive to change with strong absolute and relative reliabilities, an important first step in establishing its utility as a clinical balance measure in children with DS.

  5. Interferometer for Measuring Fast Changes of Refractive Index and Temperature in Transparent Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Arne; Hussmann, E. K.; McLaughlin, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A double‐beam interferometer has been designed for detecting changes of refractive index in transparent liquids associated with the absorption of ionizing radiation energy, due to short electron beam pulses from an accelerator. The response time of the interferometer is less than 0.2 μsec......, and refractive index changes of the order of 10−7 can be measured, corresponding to a temperature change of ∼10−3  °C and an absorbed dose in water of ∼350 rad. The interferometer can be used as either a real‐time or integrating radiation dosimeter, if the temperature coefficient of the refractive index (dn...

  6. Reliability of Coulomb stress changes inferred from correlated uncertainties of finite-fault source models

    KAUST Repository

    Woessner, J.

    2012-07-14

    Static stress transfer is one physical mechanism to explain triggered seismicity. Coseismic stress-change calculations strongly depend on the parameterization of the causative finite-fault source model. These models are uncertain due to uncertainties in input data, model assumptions, and modeling procedures. However, fault model uncertainties have usually been ignored in stress-triggering studies and have not been propagated to assess the reliability of Coulomb failure stress change (ΔCFS) calculations. We show how these uncertainties can be used to provide confidence intervals for co-seismic ΔCFS-values. We demonstrate this for the MW = 5.9 June 2000 Kleifarvatn earthquake in southwest Iceland and systematically map these uncertainties. A set of 2500 candidate source models from the full posterior fault-parameter distribution was used to compute 2500 ΔCFS maps. We assess the reliability of the ΔCFS-values from the coefficient of variation (CV) and deem ΔCFS-values to be reliable where they are at least twice as large as the standard deviation (CV ≤ 0.5). Unreliable ΔCFS-values are found near the causative fault and between lobes of positive and negative stress change, where a small change in fault strike causes ΔCFS-values to change sign. The most reliable ΔCFS-values are found away from the source fault in the middle of positive and negative ΔCFS-lobes, a likely general pattern. Using the reliability criterion, our results support the static stress-triggering hypothesis. Nevertheless, our analysis also suggests that results from previous stress-triggering studies not considering source model uncertainties may have lead to a biased interpretation of the importance of static stress-triggering.

  7. 21 CFR 516.163 - Change in ownership of an index file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR MINOR USE AND MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.163 Change in ownership of an... owner shall submit in writing to FDA a statement that all rights in the index file have been transferred...

  8. Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid in Osteoarthritis Patients ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... and moderate phase patients after intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate, while the effect ...

  9. Reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgers, Paul T P W; Poolman, Rudolf W; Van Bakel, Theodorus M J; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; Zielinski, Stephanie M; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-05-06

    The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) has been extensively evaluated in groups of patients with osteoarthritis, yet not in patients with a femoral neck fracture. This study aimed to determine the reliability, construct validity, and responsiveness of the WOMAC compared with the Short Form-12 (SF-12) and the EuroQol 5D (EQ-5D) questionnaires for the assessment of elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture. Reliability was tested by assessing the Cronbach alpha. Construct validity was determined with the Pearson correlation coefficient. Change scores were calculated from ten weeks to twelve months of follow-up. Standardized response means and floor and ceiling effects were determined. Analyses were performed to compare the results for patients less than eighty years old with those for patients eighty years of age or older. The mean WOMAC total score was 89 points before the fracture in the younger patients and increased from 70 points at ten weeks to 81 points at two years postoperatively. In the older age group, these scores were 86, 75, and 78 points. The mean WOMAC pain scores before the fracture and at ten weeks and two years postoperatively were 92, 76, and 87 points, respectively, in the younger age group and 92, 84, and 93 points in the older age group. Function scores were 89, 68, and 79 points for the younger age group and 84, 71, and 73 points for the older age group. The Cronbach alpha for pain, stiffness, function, and the total scale ranged from 0.83 to 0.98 for the younger age group and from 0.79 to 0.97 for the older age group. Construct validity was good, with 82% and 79% of predefined hypotheses confirmed in the younger and older age groups, respectively. Responsiveness was moderate. No floor effects were found. Moderate to large ceiling effects were found for pain and stiffness scales at ten weeks and twelve months in younger patients (18% to 36%) and in the older age group (38% to 53%). The WOMAC showed good

  10. Effect of Climate Change on Reliability of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Kabarole District, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violet Kisakye

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses the effect of climate change on reliability of rainwater harvesting systems for Kabarole district, Uganda, as predicted by 6 best performing global circulation models (GCMs. A daily water balance model was used to simulate the performance of a rainwater harvesting system using historical daily rainfall data for 20 years. The GCMs used to generate daily rainfall projections for 2025–2055 and 2060–2090 periods included; ACCESS1-0, BCC-CSM-1-M, CNRM-CM5, HADGEM2-CC, HADGEM2-ES and MIROC5. Analysis was based on the Ugandan weather seasons which included March, April, May (MAM and September, October, November (SON rain seasons in addition to December, January, February (DJF and June, July, August (JJA dry seasons. While an increase in reliability is predicted for the SON season, the worst-case scenario is projected during the MAM season with a reliability reduction of over 40% for the 2055–2090 period. This corresponds to a 27% reduction in water security for the same period. The DJF season is also expected to experience reduced water security by 1–8% for 2025–2055 and 2060–2090 with a 0.5 m3 tank size. Therefore, some form of extra harvesting surface and increased tank size will be required to maintain 80% systems reliability considering climate change.

  11. How reliably can climate change and mitigation policy impacts on electric utilities be assessed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlatabadi, H.; Kopp, R.J.; Palmer, K.; De Witt, D.

    1993-01-01

    Numerous mechanisms link climate change and electric utilities. Electricity generation releases radiatively active trace substances (RATS). Significant changes in atmospheric concentration of RATS can lead to a change in regional and global climate regimes. Mitigation action designed to prevent or limit climate change is possible through curbing emissions. Climate change and related mitigation actions impact on electric utilities. Foresight in electric utility planning requires reliable predictions of how the utilities may be affected in the decades ahead. In this paper the impacts of climate change and mitigation policies are noted, and our ability to assess these is reviewed. To this end a suite of models exploring supply and demand questions have been developed. The overall conclusion of the study is that the demand-side uncertainties dominate other unknowns and need to be better characterized and understood. (author)

  12. An analysis of reliability and validity of the papilla index score of implant-supported single crowns of maxillary central incisors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Min; Fei, Wei; Hosseini, Mandana

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To test the reliability and validity of the papilla index scores of the implant-supported single crowns (ISSCs) of maxillary central incisors. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with 25 ISSCs were included. Two prosthodontists evaluated the papilla index score (PIS) of three...... inter-observer agreement. The PIS score demonstrated significant correlation to the corresponding PP value (rs=.567, p=.000). Conclusions: The feasibility, reliability and validity of the PIS made the parameter useful for quality control of the pri-implant soft tissue of ISSCs....... fill percent (PP) was calculated. The validity of PIS was tested against the corresponding papilla fill percent (PP) by using the Spearman correlation analysis. Results: The intra-observer agreement was >70% in 4/5 and >50% in all observations, the pooled Cohen’s ¿ was 0.64 and 0.70 for two observers...

  13. Quantile index for gradual and abrupt change detection from CFB boiler sensor data in online settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maslov, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Kärkkäinen, T.; Tähtinen, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of online detection of gradual and abrupt changes in sensor data having high levels of noise and outliers. We propose a simple heuristic method based on the Quantile Index (QI) and study how robust this method is for detecting both gradual and abrupt changes

  14. Refractive-index changes in lithium niobate crystals by radiation damages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza

    2007-01-01

    For the study in this thesis 3 He 2+ ions with the energy of about 40 MeV were applied. The results of these studies show a timely very stable anisotrope refractive-index change in the range of some 10 -3 . The radiation damages caused by ions cause a decreasement of the ordinary refractive index n o and an increasement of the extra-ordinary refractive index n e . While the absolute values for Δn o and Δn e are nearly equal the birefringence of the material (n e -n o ) smaller. The generated refractive-index change is dose dependent and the curve Δn has at increasing dose a strongly nonlinear slope with a characteristic stage at the radiation dose of about 2 x 10 20 ions/m 2

  15. Discordance Between Body Mass Index (BMI) and a Novel Body Composition Change Index (BCCI) as Outcome Measures in Weight Change Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Stephen D; Kaats, Gilbert R; Preuss, Harry G

    2018-01-01

    A general assumption is that the body mass index (BMI) reflects changes in fat mass (FM). However, it fails to distinguish the type of weight that is lost or gained-fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM). The BMI treats both changes the same although they have opposite health consequences. The objective of this study was to propose a more precise measure, a body composition change index (BCCI), which distinguishes between changes in FM and FFM, and this study compares it with using the BMI as an outcome measure. Data were obtained from 3,870 subjects who had completed dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) total body scans at baseline and end-of-study when participating in a variety of weight-loss interventions. Since height remained constant in this adult cohort, changes in the BMI corresponded with scale weight changes (r = 0.994), allowing BMI changes to be converted to "lbs." to match the statistic used for calculation of the BCCI. The BCCI is calculated by scoring increases in FFM (lbs.) and decreases in FM (lbs.) as positive outcomes and scoring decreases in FFM and increases in FM as negative outcomes. The BCCI is the net sum of these calculations. Differences between scale weight changes and BCCI values were subsequently compared to obtain "discordance scores." Discordance scores ranged from 0.0 lbs. to >30.0 lbs. with a mean absolute value of between the two measures of 7.79 lbs. (99% confidence interval: 7.49-8.10, p BCCI and the BMI to evaluate the efficacy of weight loss interventions. If assessing changes in body composition is a treatment goal, use of the BMI could result in significantly erroneous conclusions.

  16. Patient state index and cerebral blood flow changes during shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buget, Mehmet Ilke; Atalar, Ata Can; Edipoglu, Ipek Saadet; Sungur, Zerrin; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Karadeniz, Meltem; Saka, Esra; Kucukay, Suleyman; Senturk, Mert N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study were to demonstrate the possible hemodynamic changes and cerebral blood flow alterations in patients who were positioned from supine to beach chair position; and to detect if the position change causes any cortical activity alteration as measured by the 4-channeled electroencephalography monitor. 35 patients were included. Before the induction, mean arterial pressure and patient state index values were recorded (T0). After the intubation, doppler-ultrasonography of the patients' internal carotid and vertebral arteries were evaluated to acquire cerebral blood flow values from the formula. In supine position, mean arterial pressure, patient state index and cerebral blood flow values were recorded (T1) and the patient was positioned to beach chair position. After 5min all measurements were repeated (T2). Measurements of patient state index and mean arterial pressure were repeated after 20 (T3), and 40 (T4)min. There was a significant decrease between T0 and T1 in heart rate (80.5±11.6 vs. 75.9±14.4beats/min), MAP (105.8±21.9 vs. 78.9±18.4mmHg) and PSI (88.5±8.3 vs. 30.3±9.7) (all pstate index values (T1-T4) showed no significant change; however, comparing only T1 and T2 resulted in a statically significant decrease in patient state index. There was a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow after beach chair position. Beach chair position was associated with a decrease in cerebral blood flow and patient state index values. Patient state index was affected by the gravitational change of the cerebral blood flow; however, both factors were not directly correlated to each other. Moreover, the decrease in patient state index value was transient and returned to normal values within 20min. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  17. [Patient state index and cerebral blood flow changes during shoulder arthroscopy in beach chair position].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buget, Mehmet Ilke; Atalar, Ata Can; Edipoglu, Ipek Saadet; Sungur, Zerrin; Sivrikoz, Nukhet; Karadeniz, Meltem; Saka, Esra; Kucukay, Suleyman; Senturk, Mert N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study were to demonstrate the possible hemodynamic changes and cerebral blood flow alterations in patients who were positioned from supine to beach chair position; and to detect if the position change causes any cortical activity alteration as measured by the 4-channeled electroencephalography monitor. 35 patients were included. Before the induction, mean arterial pressure and patient state index values were recorded (T0). After the intubation, doppler-ultrasonography of the patients' internal carotid and vertebral arteries were evaluated to acquire cerebral blood flow values from the formula. In supine position, mean arterial pressure, patient state index and cerebral blood flow values were recorded (T1) and the patient was positioned to beach chair position. After 5min all measurements were repeated (T2). Measurements of patient state index and mean arterial pressure were repeated after 20 (T3), and 40 (T4)min. There was a significant decrease between T0 and T1 in heart rate (80.5±11.6 vs. 75.9±14.4beats/min), MAP (105.8±21.9 vs. 78.9±18.4mmHg) and PSI (88.5±8.3 vs. 30.3±9.7) (all pstate index values (T1-T4) showed no significant change; however, comparing only T1 and T2 resulted in a statically significant decrease in patient state index. There was a significant decrease in cerebral blood flow after beach chair position. Beach chair position was associated with a decrease in cerebral blood flow and patient state index values. Patient state index was affected by the gravitational change of the cerebral blood flow; however, both factors were not directly correlated to each other. Moreover, the decrease in patient state index value was transient and returned to normal values within 20min. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. a Framework of Change Detection Based on Combined Morphologica Features and Multi-Index Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Zhang, S.; Yang, D.

    2017-09-01

    Remote sensing images are particularly well suited for analysis of land cover change. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of changing land cover using satellite imagery. Morphological features and a multi-index are used to extract typical objects from the imagery, including vegetation, water, bare land, buildings, and roads. Our method, based on connected domains, is different from traditional methods; it uses image segmentation to extract morphological features, while the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), the differential water index (NDWI) are used to extract vegetation and water, and a fragmentation index is used to the correct extraction results of water. HSV transformation and threshold segmentation extract and remove the effects of shadows on extraction results. Change detection is performed on these results. One of the advantages of the proposed framework is that semantic information is extracted automatically using low-level morphological features and indexes. Another advantage is that the proposed method detects specific types of change without any training samples. A test on ZY-3 images demonstrates that our framework has a promising capability to detect change.

  19. A FRAMEWORK OF CHANGE DETECTION BASED ON COMBINED MORPHOLOGICA FEATURES AND MULTI-INDEX CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing images are particularly well suited for analysis of land cover change. In this paper, we present a new framework for detection of changing land cover using satellite imagery. Morphological features and a multi-index are used to extract typical objects from the imagery, including vegetation, water, bare land, buildings, and roads. Our method, based on connected domains, is different from traditional methods; it uses image segmentation to extract morphological features, while the enhanced vegetation index (EVI, the differential water index (NDWI are used to extract vegetation and water, and a fragmentation index is used to the correct extraction results of water. HSV transformation and threshold segmentation extract and remove the effects of shadows on extraction results. Change detection is performed on these results. One of the advantages of the proposed framework is that semantic information is extracted automatically using low-level morphological features and indexes. Another advantage is that the proposed method detects specific types of change without any training samples. A test on ZY-3 images demonstrates that our framework has a promising capability to detect change.

  20. Exploring energy efficiency in several European countries. An attribution analysis of the Divisia structural change index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a new attribution analysis approach to study structural change index. • Based on LMDI method, we decompose changes in AEI in the EU in 1995–2010. • Mild AEI drop as a result of structural change, particularly in Eastern economies. • Transport, hotels and restaurants: positive contributors, specifically in Western EU. • Strategies should be focused on Industry: the most influential sector in reducing AEI. - Abstract: This paper aims at exploring the influence that the changes in sectoral composition in most EU economies have had on aggregate energy intensity. We rely on the so-called Logarithmic Mean Divisia Index (LMDI) method, implemented within a multiplicative energy intensity approach. Then, based on the Index Decomposition Analysis (IDA), we present, develop and apply a new methodology that enables the exploration of the contribution of each sector to the percent change in the structural factors index. Our findings show: (a) a greater importance of the intensity factor over the structural one, (b) a positive influence of structural change in some ex-communist countries, and (c) a strong, negative contribution of the industrial sector (including construction) to changes in aggregate energy intensity in most European economies, particularly in the Western ones. In short, adaptation to more efficient techniques, innovation, R and D, and substitution for higher quality energies, seem to be the action lines to follow, although in former communist countries these strategies should be accompanied by other policies aiming at accelerating the transition processes

  1. Standard error of measurement of 5 health utility indexes across the range of health for use in estimating reliability and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; Chen, Han-Yang; Kaplan, Robert M; Feeny, David; Cherepanov, Dasha; Fryback, Dennis G

    2011-01-01

    Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) indexes are not well characterized. SEM is needed to estimate responsiveness statistics, and is a component of reliability. To estimate the SEM of 5 HRQoL indexes. The National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) was a population-based survey. The Clinical Outcomes and Measurement of Health Study (COMHS) provided repeated measures. A total of 3844 randomly selected adults from the noninstitutionalized population aged 35 to 89 y in the contiguous United States and 265 cataract patients. The SF6-36v2™, QWB-SA, EQ-5D, HUI2, and HUI3 were included. An item-response theory approach captured joint variation in indexes into a composite construct of health (theta). The authors estimated 1) the test-retest standard deviation (SEM-TR) from COMHS, 2) the structural standard deviation (SEM-S) around theta from NHMS, and 3) reliability coefficients. SEM-TR was 0.068 (SF-6D), 0.087 (QWB-SA), 0.093 (EQ-5D), 0.100 (HUI2), and 0.134 (HUI3), whereas SEM-S was 0.071, 0.094, 0.084, 0.074, and 0.117, respectively. These yield reliability coefficients 0.66 (COMHS) and 0.71 (NHMS) for SF-6D, 0.59 and 0.64 for QWB-SA, 0.61 and 0.70 for EQ-5D, 0.64 and 0.80 for HUI2, and 0.75 and 0.77 for HUI3, respectively. The SEM varied across levels of health, especially for HUI2, HUI3, and EQ-5D, and was influenced by ceiling effects. Limitations. Repeated measures were 5 mo apart, and estimated theta contained measurement error. The 2 types of SEM are similar and substantial for all the indexes and vary across health.

  2. Robustness of reliable change indices to variability in Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, T H; Renfroe, J B; Elm, J; Duppstadt-Delambo, A; Hinson, V K

    2016-01-01

    Ability to identify change is crucial for measuring response to interventions and tracking disease progression. Beyond psychometrics, investigations of Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) must consider fluctuating medication, motor, and mental status. One solution is to employ 90% reliable change indices (RCIs) from test manuals to account for account measurement error and practice effects. The current study examined robustness of 90% RCIs for 19 commonly used executive function tests in 14 PD-MCI subjects assigned to the placebo arm of a 10-week randomized controlled trial of atomoxetine in PD-MCI. Using 90% RCIs, the typical participant showed spurious improvement on one measure, and spurious decline on another. Reliability estimates from healthy adults standardization samples and PD-MCI were similar. In contrast to healthy adult samples, practice effects were minimal in this PD-MCI group. Separate 90% RCIs based on the PD-MCI sample did not further reduce error rate. In the present study, application of 90% RCIs based on healthy adults in standardization samples effectively reduced misidentification of change in a sample of PD-MCI. Our findings support continued application of 90% RCIs when using executive function tests to assess change in neurological populations with fluctuating status.

  3. Change of flood risk under climate change based on Discharge Probability Index in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, T.; Yoshimura, K.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2010-12-01

    Water-related disasters under the climate change have recently gained considerable interest, and there have been many studies referring to flood risk at the global scale (e.g. Milly et al., 2002; Hirabayashi et al., 2008). In order to build adaptive capacity, however, regional impact evaluation is needed. We thus focus on the flood risk over Japan in the present study. The output from the Regional Climate Model 20 (RCM20), which was developed by the Meteorological Research Institute, was used. The data was first compared with observed data based on Automated Meteorological Data Acquisition System and ground weather observations, and the model biases were corrected using the ratio and difference of the 20-year mean values. The bias-corrected RCM20 atmospheric data were then forced to run a land surface model and a river routing model (Yoshimura et al., 2007; Ngo-Duc, T. et al. 2007) to simulate river discharge during 1981-2000, 2031-2050, and 2081-2100. Simulated river discharge was converted to Discharge Probability Index (DPI), which was proposed by Yoshimura et al based on a statistical approach. The bias and uncertainty of the models are already taken into account in the concept of DPI, so that DPI serves as a good indicator of flood risk. We estimated the statistical parameters for DPI using the river discharge for 1981-2000 with an assumption that the parameters stay the same in the different climate periods. We then evaluated the occurrence of flood events corresponding to DPI categories in each 20 years and averaged them in 9 regions. The results indicate that low DPI flood events (return period of 2 years) will become more frequent in 2031-2050 and high DPI flood events (return period of 200 years) will become more frequent in 2081-2100 compared with the period of 1981-2000, though average precipitation will become larger during 2031-2050 than during 2081-2100 in most regions. It reflects the increased extreme precipitation during 2081-2100.

  4. Photochromic Polyurethanes Showing a Strong Change of Transparency and Refractive Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Oggioni

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Photochromic polymers have been studied as rewritable systems for optical elements with tunable transparency in the visible and refractive index in the NIR. Six diarylethene monomers have been synthesized to give thin films of photochromic polyurethanes. The absorption properties of the monomers in solution and of the corresponding polymeric films have been evaluated showing that a transparency contrast in the visible spectrum of the order of 10 3 can be obtained by a suitable choice of the chemical structure and illumination wavelength. The change in the refractive index in the NIR have been determined by ellipsometry showing changes larger than 10 − 2 . A trend of this variation with the absorption properties has been also highlighted. Fresnel lenses working on the basis of both a change of the transparency and the refractive index (amplitude and phase have been demonstrated.

  5. The Impact of Climate Change in Rainfall Erosivity Index on Humid Mudstone Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ci-Jian; Lin, Jiun-Chuan

    2017-04-01

    It has been quite often pointed out in many relevant studies that climate change may result in negative impacts on soil erosion. Then, humid mudstone area is highly susceptible to climate change. Taiwan has extreme erosion in badland area, with annual precipitation over 2000 mm/y which is a considerably 3 times higher than other badland areas around the world, and with around 9-13 cm/y in denudation rate. This is the reason why the Erren River, a badland dominated basin has the highest mean sediment yield in the world, over 105 t km2 y. This study aims to know how the climate change would affect soil erosion from the source in the Erren River catchment. Firstly, the data of hourly precipitation from 1992 to 2016 are used to establish the regression between rainfall erosivity index (R, one of component for USLE) and precipitation. Secondly, using the 10 climate change models (provide form IPCC AR5) simulates the changes of monthly precipitation in different scenario from 2017 to 2216, and then over 200 years prediction R values can be use to describe the tendency of soil erosion in the future. The results show that (1) the relationship between rainfall erosion index and precipitation has high correction (>0.85) during 1992-2016. (2) From 2017 to 2216, 7 scenarios show that annual rainfall erosion index will increase over 2-18%. In contrast, the others will decrease over 7-14%. Overall, the variations of annual rainfall erosion index fall in the range of -14 to 18%, but it is important to pay attention to the variation of annual rainfall erosion index in extreme years. These fall in the range of -34 to 239%. This explains the extremity of soil erosion will occur easily in the future. Keywords: Climate Change, Mudstone, Rainfall Erosivity Index, IPCC AR5

  6. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  7. The influence of different error estimates in the detection of postoperative cognitive dysfunction using reliable change indices with correction for practice effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Matthew S; Maruff, Paul; Silbert, Brendan S; Evered, Lis A; Scott, David A

    2007-02-01

    The reliable change index (RCI) expresses change relative to its associated error, and is useful in the identification of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). This paper examines four common RCIs that each account for error in different ways. Three rules incorporate a constant correction for practice effects and are contrasted with the standard RCI that had no correction for practice. These rules are applied to 160 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery who completed neuropsychological assessments preoperatively and 1 week postoperatively using error and reliability data from a comparable healthy nonsurgical control group. The rules all identify POCD in a similar proportion of patients, but the use of the within-subject standard deviation (WSD), expressing the effects of random error, as an error estimate is a theoretically appropriate denominator when a constant error correction, removing the effects of systematic error, is deducted from the numerator in a RCI.

  8. Reliability and Minimum Detectable Change of Temporal-Spatial, Kinematic, and Dynamic Stability Measures during Perturbed Gait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Rábago

    Full Text Available Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1-50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the

  9. Reliability and validity of Persian version of Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index in knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Eftekhar-Sadat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to test the reliability and validity of translated and adapted version of Western Ontario and McMaster (WOMAC questionnaire in Persian language speaking patients with symptomatic osteoarthritis (OA of the knee. Methods: 100 consecutive patients, attended 3 major referral rehabilitation centers at the northwest of Iran, were asked to answer two disease-specific questionnaires WOMAC and knee injury and osteoarthritis outcome score (KOOS. The same patients were readmitted for refilling the same questionnaire 24-48 hours after the first visit. Internal consistency, reliability, and validity were assessed. Results: There were statistically significant correlations between WOMAC and KOOS in case of the pain (P < 0.001 and stiffness (P = 0.004 scores subclass, the sum of difficulty with performing daily activity (DPDA score (P = 0.001 and also the total score (P < 0.001. Internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha for the pain, stiffness, and physical function subscales were 0.96, 0.98, and 0.99, respectively. Internal consistency with Cronbach’s alpha for the total score of WOMAC was 0.99. Conclusion: We found that this Persian version of WOMAC questionnaire is a reliable and valid version for evaluating the knee OA.

  10. A sonographic lesion index for Crohn's disease helps monitor changes in transmural bowel damage during therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Francesca; Stasi, Elisa; Bevivino, Gerolamo; Scarozza, Patrizio; Biancone, Livia; Zuzzi, Sara; Rossi, Carla; Pallone, Francesco; Calabrese, Emma

    2014-12-01

    Therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNF) are effective in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Mucosal healing is a surrogate marker of efficacy, but little is known about the effects of anti-TNF agents on structural damage in the intestine. Small-intestine contrast ultrasonography (SICUS) is a valuable tool for assessing CD lesions. A new sonographic quantitative index (the sonographic lesion index for CD [SLIC]) was developed to quantify changes in CD lesions detected by SICUS. We explored whether the SLIC can be used to monitor transmural bowel damage in CD patients during anti-TNF therapy. We performed a prospective study of 29 patients with ileal or ileocolonic CD treated with anti-TNF agents; patients underwent SICUS before and after scheduled induction and maintenance therapy. To determine whether changes that can be detected by SICUS occur independently of anti-TNF therapy, 7 patients with ileal CD treated with mesalamine were enrolled as controls. A clinical response was defined as steroid-free remission, with CD activity index scores less than 150. We observed significant improvements in SLIC scores and subscores after induction and maintenance therapy with anti-TNFs, compared with before therapy. SLIC scores and subscores and index classes were improved significantly in patients with vs without clinical responses. Controls had no improvements in terms of CD activity index or SLIC scores, or index classes. Sonographic assessment using the quantitative index SLIC can be used to monitor changes in transmural bowel damage during anti-TNF therapy for CD. Copyright © 2014 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Institutional Change and Governance Indexes in Transition Economies: the case of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasquale Tridico

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In the former communist countries, institutional change, i.e. transition towards market economy, is affected not only by introduction of law and formal institutions (change "by design", but also by social norms, old values and habits (informal institutions. I present an empirical paper focusing on transition of the Polish Economy. I used a questionnaire which was administered to a sample of about 1000 Polish firms in order to verify the impact of economic institutions on the "residual productivity". Throughout the questionnaire I built six governance indexes. Then I tested the impact of the governance indexes on the productivity of firms. I observed that the economic performance of the eastern regions of Poland, where governance indexes are worse than western, are poorer than that of the western regions of Poland

  12. Reliability, validity and sensitivity to change of neurogenic bowel dysfunction score in patients with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, D.; Hava, D.; Keskinoglu, P.

    2017-01-01

    cord injury (SCI). The reliability of NBD score was assessed by test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to determine internal consistency. The construct validity was evaluated by exploring correlations between the NBD score and SF-36 scales, patient...... assessment of impact of NBD on quality of life (QoL) and the physician global assessment (PGA). The Global Rating of Change (GRC) scale was used to assess the change of NBD to investigate the sensitivity of the score to change. Results: Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.547. In test-retest reliability...

  13. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  14. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Caron, Hubert N.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of

  15. The Blame Index: Exploring the Change in Social Work Students' Perceptions of Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavega, Elena; Kindle, Peter A.; Peterson, Susan; Schwartz, Charles

    2017-01-01

    This study reports the development of a new Blame Index to determine attributions of the causes of poverty along a single structural-to-individual dimension. A multisite pre-/post-group design tested the degree of change in social work students' (N = 177) perception of poverty as a result of taking a single BSW social policy course or an MSW…

  16. Demonstration of the test-retest reliability and sensitivity of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 as a measure of functional recovery post burn injury: a cross-sectional repeated measures study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryland, Margaret E; Grisbrook, Tiffany L; Wood, Fiona M; Phillips, Michael; Edgar, Dale W

    2016-01-01

    Lower limb burns can significantly delay recovery of function. Measuring lower limb functional outcomes is challenging in the unique burn patient population and necessitates the use of reliable and valid tools. The aims of this study were to examine the test-retest reliability, sensitivity, and internal consistency of Sections 1 and 3 of the Lower Limb Functional Index-10 (LLFI-10) questionnaire for measuring functional ability in patients with lower limb burns over time. Twenty-nine adult patients who had sustained a lower limb burn injury in the previous 12 months completed the test-retest procedure of the study. In addition, the minimal detectable change (MDC) was calculated for Section 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10. Section 1 is focused on the activity limitations experienced by patients with a lower limb disorder whereas Section 3 involves patients indicating their current percentage of pre-injury duties. Section 1 of the LLFI-10 demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.98, 95 % CI 0.96-0.99) whilst Section 3 demonstrated high test-retest reliability (ICC 0.88, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94). MDC scores for Sections 1 and 3 were 1.27 points and 30.22 %, respectively. Internal consistency was demonstrated with a significant negative association (r s  = -0.83) between Sections 1 and 3 of the LLFI-10 (p reliable for measuring functional ability in patients who have sustained lower limb burns in the previous 12 months, and furthermore, Section 1 is sensitive to changes in patient function over time.

  17. Standard error of measurement of five health utility indexes across the range of health for use in estimating reliability and responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palta, Mari; Chen, Han-Yang; Kaplan, Robert M.; Feeny, David; Cherepanov, Dasha; Fryback, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Background Standard errors of measurement (SEMs) of health related quality of life (HRQoL) indexes are not well characterized. SEM is needed to estimate responsiveness statistics and provides guidance on using indexes on the individual and group level. SEM is also a component of reliability. Purpose To estimate SEM of five HRQoL indexes. Design The National Health Measurement Study (NHMS) was a population based telephone survey. The Clinical Outcomes and Measurement of Health Study (COMHS) provided repeated measures 1 and 6 months post cataract surgery. Subjects 3844 randomly selected adults from the non-institutionalized population 35 to 89 years old in the contiguous United States and 265 cataract patients. Measurements The SF6-36v2™, QWB-SA, EQ-5D, HUI2 and HUI3 were included. An item-response theory (IRT) approach captured joint variation in indexes into a composite construct of health (theta). We estimated: (1) the test-retest standard deviation (SEM-TR) from COMHS, (2) the structural standard deviation (SEM-S) around the composite construct from NHMS and (3) corresponding reliability coefficients. Results SEM-TR was 0.068 (SF-6D), 0.087 (QWB-SA), 0.093 (EQ-5D), 0.100 (HUI2) and 0.134 (HUI3), while SEM-S was 0.071, 0.094, 0.084, 0.074 and 0.117, respectively. These translate into reliability coefficients for SF-6D: 0.66 (COMHS) and 0.71 (NHMS), for QWB: 0.59 and 0.64, for EQ-5D: 0.61 and 0.70 for HUI2: 0.64 and 0.80, and for HUI3: 0.75 and 0.77, respectively. The SEM varied considerably across levels of health, especially for HUI2, HUI3 and EQ-5D, and was strongly influenced by ceiling effects. Limitations Repeated measures were five months apart and estimated theta contain measurement error. Conclusions The two types of SEM are similar and substantial for all the indexes, and vary across the range of health. PMID:20935280

  18. Association of Body Mass Index and Body Mass Index Change with Mortality in Incident Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xiong

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although high body mass index (BMI appears to confer a survival advantage in hemodialysis patients, the association of BMI with mortality in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients is uncertain. We enrolled incident CAPD patients and BMI was categorized according to World Health Organization classification for Asian population. BMI at baseline and one year after the initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD treatment was assessed to calculate the BMI change (∆BMI. Patients were split into four categories according quartiles of ∆BMI. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were performed to assess the association of BMI on outcomes. A total of 1263 CAPD patients were included, with a mean age of 47.8 ± 15.0 years, a mean BMI of 21.58 ± 3.13 kg/m2. During a median follow-up of 25.3 months, obesity was associated with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD death (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR 2.01; 95% CI 1.14, 3.54, but not all-cause mortality. Additionally, patients with more BMI decline (>0.80% during the first year after CAPD initiation had an elevated risk for both all-cause (AHR: 2.21, 95% CI 1.23–3.95 and CVD mortality (AHR 2.31, 95% CI 1.11, 4.84, which was independent of baseline BMI values.

  19. The effect of refractive index changes in an intracavity absorption on the laser output power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.; Eskef, M.

    2007-10-01

    A model describing the intra-cavity absorption has been developed. The model allows for a reliable description of the attenuation of laser power as a function of the gas pressure inside the absorption cell, conducting both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the absorbing gas. The model relies on an adequate integration of the additional loss due to the absorption into the rate equations. After that the rate equations are solved under steady state conditions, which is quite reliable for a cw CO 2 laser. The oscillation, clearly observed in case of weak absorption, is described in the framework of an interference model considering the electric field inside the cavity as the interference result of successive phase correlated waves differing from each other in the number of passes made through the cavity. The phase shift is determined by the optical length of the cavity depending on the real part of the refractive index of the gas in the absorption cell. The model has been applied to analyze a large set of attenuation curves obtained in a previous work, in which intra-cavity absorption was measured for the three gases CFC-11, 12, 22 using a tunable cw CO 2 laser at 44 lines of the emission spectrum of the CO 2 molecule distributed on the branches P and R of the two bands at 9.6 μm and 10.6 μm. For mostly all examples, the value of the absorption cross section (imaginary part of the refractive index) has been determined by fitting the model to the experimental data. Furthermore, the value of the linear polarizability (real part of the refractive index) has been calculated from the oscillation period for all examples, in which the attenuation curve exhibits reliable oscillating behavior. The results are in fair agreement with the values of the absorption cross section published in the Hitran data base, as well as with the results obtained from independent absorption measurements performed outside the cavity (Author)

  20. Climate change and marine fisheries: Least developed countries top global index of vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasiak, Robert; Spijkers, Jessica; Tokunaga, Kanae; Pittman, Jeremy; Yagi, Nobuyuki; Österblom, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Future impacts of climate change on marine fisheries have the potential to negatively influence a wide range of socio-economic factors, including food security, livelihoods and public health, and even to reshape development trajectories and spark transboundary conflict. Yet there is considerable variability in the vulnerability of countries around the world to these effects. We calculate a vulnerability index of 147 countries by drawing on the most recent data related to the impacts of climate change on marine fisheries. Building on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change framework for vulnerability, we first construct aggregate indices for exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity using 12 primary variables. Seven out of the ten most vulnerable countries on the resulting index are Small Island Developing States, and the top quartile of the index includes countries located in Africa (17), Asia (7), North America and the Caribbean (4) and Oceania (8). More than 87% of least developed countries are found within the top half of the vulnerability index, while the bottom half includes all but one of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development member states. This is primarily due to the tremendous variation in countries' adaptive capacity, as no such trends are evident from the exposure or sensitivity indices. A negative correlation exists between vulnerability and per capita carbon emissions, and the clustering of states at different levels of development across the vulnerability index suggests growing barriers to meeting global commitments to reducing inequality, promoting human well-being and ensuring sustainable cities and communities. The index provides a useful tool for prioritizing the allocation of climate finance, as well as activities aimed at capacity building and the transfer of marine technology.

  1. The reliability of the ankle-brachial index in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catellier Diane J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A low ankle-brachial index (ABI is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease, stroke, and death. Regression model parameter estimates may be biased due to measurement error when the ABI is included as a predictor in regression models, but may be corrected if the reliability coefficient, R, is known. The R for the ABI computed from DINAMAP™ readings of the ankle and brachial SBP is not known. Methods A total of 119 participants in both the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC study and the NHLBI Family Heart Study (FHS had repeat ABIs taken within 1 year, using a common protocol, automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices, and technician pool. Results The estimated reliability coefficient for the ankle systolic blood pressure (SBP was 0.68 (95% CI: 0.57, 0.77 and for the brachial SBP was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62, 0.83. The reliability for the ABI based on single ankle and arm SBPs was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.70 and the reliability of the ABI computed as the ratio of the average of two ankle SBPs to two arm SBPs was estimated from simulated data as 0.70. Conclusion These reliability estimates may be used to obtain unbiased parameter estimates if the ABI is included in regression models. Our results suggest the need for repeated measures of the ABI in clinical practice, preferably within visits and also over time, before diagnosing peripheral artery disease and before making therapeutic decisions.

  2. Automated indexing of Internet stories for health behavior change: weight loss attitude pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuvinakurike, Ramesh; Velicer, Wayne F; Bickmore, Timothy W

    2014-12-09

    Automated health behavior change interventions show promise, but suffer from high attrition and disuse. The Internet abounds with thousands of personal narrative accounts of health behavior change that could not only provide useful information and motivation for others who are also trying to change, but an endless source of novel, entertaining stories that may keep participants more engaged than messages authored by interventionists. Given a collection of relevant personal health behavior change stories gathered from the Internet, the aim of this study was to develop and evaluate an automated indexing algorithm that could select the best possible story to provide to a user to have the greatest possible impact on their attitudes toward changing a targeted health behavior, in this case weight loss. An indexing algorithm was developed using features informed by theories from behavioral medicine together with text classification and machine learning techniques. The algorithm was trained using a crowdsourced dataset, then evaluated in a 2×2 between-subjects randomized pilot study. One factor compared the effects of participants reading 2 indexed stories vs 2 randomly selected stories, whereas the second factor compared the medium used to tell the stories: text or animated conversational agent. Outcome measures included changes in self-efficacy and decisional balance for weight loss before and after the stories were read. Participants were recruited from a crowdsourcing website (N=103; 53.4%, 55/103 female; mean age 35, SD 10.8 years; 65.0%, 67/103 precontemplation; 19.4%, 20/103 contemplation for weight loss). Participants who read indexed stories exhibited a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy for weight loss compared to the control group (F1,107=5.5, P=.02). There were no significant effects of indexing on change in decisional balance (F1,97=0.05, P=.83) and no significant effects of medium on change in self-efficacy (F1,107=0.04, P=.84) or decisional

  3. Validity and Reliability of the Turkish Version of the Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics by Child (ARINVc) and by Parent (ARINVp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçay Didişen, Nurdan; Yavuz, Betül; Yardimci, Figen; Basbakkal, D Zümrüt

    2018-04-01

    The study was conducted methodologically to adapt the Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics by Child (ARINVc) and Adapted Rhodes Index of Nausea and Vomiting for Pediatrics by Parent (ARINVp) into Turkish. The scales are administered to children who receive chemotherapy and to their parents, respectively. The study sample consisted of 8- to 18-year-old children who were hospitalized in the pediatric oncology and hematology clinics of a university hospital, met the sampling criteria, and agreed to participate in the research. The study data were collected with the Sociodemographic Attributes Information Form, ARINVc, and ARINVp using the face-to-face interview method. The mean ages of the children and their mothers and fathers who participated in the study were 13.26 ± 2.01, 36.33 ± 5.10, and 40.17 ± 4.94 years, respectively. The mean total scores obtained from the ARINVc and ARINVp were 5.43 ± 4.06 and 5.70 ± 3.77, respectively. While Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients of the scales were .85 for the ARINVc and .84 for the ARINVp, the item-total correlation coefficients were between 0.60 and 0.89 for the ARINVc and between 0.66 and 0.85 for the ARINVp ( P < .01). The Turkish versions of ARINVc and ARINVp were determined to be valid and reliable scales.

  4. Potential change in lodgepole pine site index and distribution under climatic change in Alberta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Monserud; Yuqing Yang; Shongming Huang; Nadja Tchebakova

    2008-01-01

    We estimated the impact of global climate change on lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. ex. Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) site productivity in Alberta based on the Alberta Climate Model and the A2 SRES climate change scenario projections from three global circulation models (CGCM2, HADCM3, and ECHAM4). Considerable warming is...

  5. Determination of femtosecond-laser-induced refractive-index changes in an optical fiber from far-field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savolainen, Juha-Matti; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Kristensen, Poul

    2014-01-01

    A new method for direct writing of localized, circularly symmetric refractive-index changes in optical fibers with a femtosecond laser is demonstrated. The refractive-index changes are characterized using a novel approach employing comparison of numerical simulations to the measured far......-field profiles of unmodified and modified fibers. From the analysis, a negative refractive-index change of −0.015 0.005 within a radius of 0.6 0.1 μm is determined....

  6. Facial Angiofibroma Severity Index (FASI): reliability assessment of a new tool developed to measure severity and responsiveness to therapy in tuberous sclerosis-associated facial angiofibroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salido-Vallejo, R; Ruano, J; Garnacho-Saucedo, G; Godoy-Gijón, E; Llorca, D; Gómez-Fernández, C; Moreno-Giménez, J C

    2014-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disorder characterized by the development of multisystem hamartomatous tumours. Topical sirolimus has recently been suggested as a potential treatment for TSC-associated facial angiofibroma (FA). To validate a reproducible scale created for the assessment of clinical severity and treatment response in these patients. We developed a new tool, the Facial Angiofibroma Severity Index (FASI) to evaluate the grade of erythema and the size and extent of FAs. In total, 30 different photographs of patients with TSC were shown to 56 dermatologists at each evaluation. Three evaluations using the same photographs but in a different random order were performed 1 week apart. Test and retest reliability and interobserver reproducibility were determined. There was good agreement between the investigators. Inter-rater reliability showed strong correlations (> 0.98; range 0.97-0.99) with inter-rater correlation coefficients (ICCs) for the FASI. The global estimated kappa coefficient for the degree of intra-rater agreement (test-retest) was 0.94 (range 0.91-0.97). The FASI is a valid and reliable tool for measuring the clinical severity of TSC-associated FAs, which can be applied in clinical practice to evaluate the response to treatment in these patients. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  7. Association of Childhood Body Mass Index and Change in Body Mass Index With First Adult Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line K; Gamborg, Michael; Ängquist, Lars; Truelsen, Thomas C; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Baker, Jennifer L

    2017-11-01

    The incidence of ischemic stroke among young adults is rising and is potentially due to an increase in stroke risk factors occurring at younger ages, such as obesity. To investigate whether childhood body mass index (BMI) and change in BMI are associated with adult ischemic stroke and to assess whether the associations are age dependent or influenced by birth weight. This investigation was a population-based cohort study of schoolchildren born from 1930 to 1987, with follow-up through national health registers from 1977 to 2012 in Denmark. Participants were 307 677 individuals (8899 ischemic stroke cases) with measured weight and height at ages 7 to 13 years. The dates of the analysis were September 1, 2015, to May 27, 2016. Childhood BMI, change in BMI, and birth weight. Ischemic stroke events were divided into early (≤55 years) or late (>55 years) age at diagnosis. The study cohort comprised 307 677 participants (approximately 49% female and 51% male). During the study period, 3529 women and 5370 men experienced an ischemic stroke. At all ages from 7 to 13 years, an above-average BMI z score was positively associated with early ischemic stroke. At age 13 years, a BMI z score of 1 was associated with hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.26 (95% CI, 1.11-1.43) in women and 1.21 (95% CI, 1.10-1.33) in men. No significant associations were found for below-average BMI z scores. Among children with above-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01-1.20) and in men (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.16). Similarly, among children with below-average BMI z scores at age 7 years, a score increase of 0.5 from ages 7 to 13 years was positively associated with early ischemic stroke in women (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23) and in men (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.04-1.18). Adjusting for birth weight minimally affected the associations. Independent of birth weight, above

  8. Changes in cardiac index and blood pressure on positioning children prone for scoliosis surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Z E; Görges, M; Cooke, E; Malherbe, S; Dumont, G A; Ansermino, J M

    2013-07-01

    In this prospective observational study we investigated the changes in cardiac index and mean arterial pressure in children when positioned prone for scoliosis correction surgery. Thirty children (ASA 1-2, aged 13-18 years) undergoing primary, idiopathic scoliosis repair were recruited. The cardiac index and mean arterial blood pressure (median (IQR [range])) were 2.7 (2.3-3.1 [1.4-3.7]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 73 (66-80 [54-91]) mmHg, respectively, at baseline; 2.9 (2.5-3.2 [1.7-4.4]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 73 (63-81 [51-96]) mmHg following a 5-ml.kg(-1) fluid bolus; and 2.5 (2.2-2.7 [1.4-4.8]) l.min(-1).m(-2) and 69 (62-73 [46-85]) mmHg immediately after turning prone. Turning prone resulted in a median reduction in cardiac index of 0.5 l.min(-1).m(-2) (95% CI 0.3-0.7 l.min(-1).m(-2), p=0.001), or 18.5%, with a large degree of inter-subject variability (+10.3% to -40.9%). The changes in mean arterial blood pressure were not significant. Strategies to predict, prevent and treat decreases in cardiac index need to be developed. © 2013 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Dutch version of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defuentes-Merillas, L; Dejong, C A J; Schippers, G M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Readiness to Change Questionnaire (RCQ-D). The subjects were 246 excessive drinkers admitted to an addiction treatment centre and 54 offenders convicted of an alcohol-related crime in The Netherlands. The factor structure of the RCQ-D for the two samples combined was found to be consistent with the three-factor structure established for the original RCQ. The reliability of the items for each scale was found to be satisfactory. Allocated stage of change showed significant differences between the different subsamples. As expected, the scale scores for adjacent stages of change showed significantly higher inter-correlations than the scale scores for non-adjacent stages. Additionally, the negatively formulated items from the pre-contemplation scale were reformulated positively and their internal consistency tested among the offender sample. The positively formulated pre-contemplation items showed a higher alpha value than the negatively formulated items. We therefore suggest that the positively formulated items should replace the negatively formulated ones.

  10. Cognitive outcome and reliable change indices two years following bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Amy E; Arzola, Gladys Marina; Strutt, Adriana M; Simpson, Richard; Jankovic, Joseph; York, Michele K

    2011-06-01

    Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS) is currently the treatment of choice for medication-resistant levodopa-related motor complications in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). While STN-DBS often results in meaningful motor improvements, consensus regarding long-term neuropsychological outcome continues to be debated. We assessed the cognitive outcomes of 19 STN-DBS patients compared to a group of 18 medically-managed PD patients on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery at baseline and two years post-surgery. Patients did not demonstrate changes in global cognitive functioning on screening measures. However, neuropsychological results revealed impairments in nonverbal recall, oral information processing speed, and lexical and semantic fluency in STN-DBS patients compared to PD controls 2 years post-surgery in these preliminary analyses. Additionally, reliable change indices revealed that approximately 50% of STN-DBS patients demonstrated significant declines in nonverbal memory and oral information processing speed compared to 25-30% of PD controls, and 26% of STN-DBS patients declined on lexical fluency compared to 11% of PD patients. Approximately 30% of both groups declined on semantic fluency. The number of STN-DBS patients who converted to dementia 2 years following surgery was not significantly different from the PD participants (32% versus 16%, respectively). Our results suggest that neuropsychological evaluations may identify possible mild cognitive changes following surgery. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Split hand muscle echo intensity index as a reliable imaging marker for differential diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Hung Youl; Park, Jinseok; Kim, Yoo Hwan; Oh, Ki-Wook; Kim, Seung Hyun; Kim, Byung-Jo

    2018-04-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of muscle ultrasound in evaluating dissociated small hand muscle atrophy, termed 'split hand', and its feasibility in the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-four patients with ALS, 18 normal subjects and 9 patients with other neuromuscular disorders were included in this study. The hand muscles were divided into three regions, the median-innervated lateral hand muscle group (ML), the ulnar-innervated lateral hand muscle (UL) and the ulnar-innervated medial hand muscle (UM), and the muscle echo intensity (EI) and compound muscle action potential (CMAP) were measured. We calculated the split hand index (SHI) using muscle EI (SHI mEI ) and CMAP (SHI CMAP ) for comparison among groups. The SHI was derived by dividing muscle EI (or CMAP) measured at the ML and UL by that measured at the UM. The SHI mEI was significantly higher in patients with ALS (51.7±28.3) than in normal controls (29.7±9.9) and disease controls with other neuromuscular disorders (36.5±7.3; Pdifferentiating ALS from other neuromuscular disorders and healthy controls. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Quality of life in oncological patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia: validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory and the Deglutition Handicap Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speyer, Renée; Heijnen, Bas J; Baijens, Laura W; Vrijenhoef, Femke H; Otters, Elsemieke F; Roodenburg, Nel; Bogaardt, Hans C

    2011-12-01

    Quality of life is an important outcome measurement in objectifying the current health status or therapy effects in patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. In this study, the validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Deglutition Handicap Index (DHI) and the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI) have been determined for oncological patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia. At Maastricht University Medical Center, 76 consecutive patients were selected and asked to fill in three questionnaires on quality of life related to oropharyngeal dysphagia (the SWAL-QOL, the MDADI, and the DHI) as well as a simple one-item visual analog Dysphagia Severity Scale. None of the quality-of-life questionnaires showed any floor or ceiling effect. The test-retest reliability of the MDADI and the Dysphagia Severity Scale proved to be good. The test-retest reliability of the DHI could not be determined because of insufficient data, but the intraclass correlation coefficients were rather high. The internal consistency proved to be good. However, confirmatory factor analysis could not distinguish the underlying constructs as defined by the subscales per questionnaire. When assessing criterion validity, both the MDADI and the DHI showed satisfactory associations with the SWAL-QOL (reference or gold standard) after having removed the less relevant subscales of the SWAL-QOL. In conclusion, when assessing the validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the DHI or the MDADI, not all psychometric properties have been adequately met. In general, because of difficulties in the interpretation of study results when using questionnaires lacking sufficient psychometric quality, it is recommended that researchers strive to use questionnaires with the most optimal psychometric properties.

  13. Content Validity Index and Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a New Muscle Strength/Endurance Test Battery for Swedish Soldiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Larsson

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the content validity of commonly used muscle performance tests in military personnel and to investigate the reliability of a proposed test battery. For the content validity investigation, thirty selected tests were those described in the literature and/or commonly used in the Nordic and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO countries. Nine selected experts rated, on a four-point Likert scale, the relevance of these tests in relation to five different work tasks: lifting, carrying equipment on the body or in the hands, climbing, and digging. Thereafter, a content validity index (CVI was calculated for each work task. The result showed excellent CVI (≥0.78 for sixteen tests, which comprised of one or more of the military work tasks. Three of the tests; the functional lower-limb loading test (the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, and back extension, showed excellent content validity for four of the work tasks. For the development of a new muscle strength/endurance test battery, these three tests were further supplemented with two other tests, namely, the chins and side-bridge test. The inter-rater reliability was high (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC2,1 0.99 for all five tests. The intra-rater reliability was good to high (ICC3,1 0.82-0.96 with an acceptable standard error of mean (SEM, except for the side-bridge test (SEM%>15. Thus, the final suggested test battery for a valid and reliable evaluation of soldiers' muscle performance comprised the following four tests; the Ranger test, dead-lift with kettlebells, chins, and back extension test. The criterion-related validity of the test battery should be further evaluated for soldiers exposed to varying physical workload.

  14. Thermal stability and practical applications of UV induced index changes in silica glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathje, Jacob

    2000-01-01

    This thesis represents the partial fulfilment of the requirements for the danish ph.d. degree. I have been involved in both basic research of UV induced refractive index changes in silica glasses and in concrete applications. I have performed work on the thermal stability of UV-induced index...... the asymmetry showed good agreement with the obeserved data. The results were used to make a direction sensitive bend sensor of only one fiber. The sensor has further the advantage that it is insensitve to cross sensitivity from temperature, strin, and other external factors. Finally, an investigation of Nragg...... changes in silica glasses where a new continuous isochronal annealing method was introduced. The method was applied to gratings written in D2-loaded fibers and non-loaded fibers. For the non-loaded fibers the obtained results are in good agreement with what has previously been observed. For the D2-loaded...

  15. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraux, Claire; Le Bohec, Céline; Durant, Joël M; Viblanc, Vincent A; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel; Beaune, David; Park, Young-Hyang; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Stenseth, Nils C; Le Maho, Yvon

    2011-01-13

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 41% [corrected] fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16 percentage points [corrected] lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper

  16. Reliability and validity of the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis Index in Italian patients with osteoarthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, F; Leardini, G; Canesi, B; Mannoni, A; Fioravanti, A; Caporali, R; Lapadula, G; Punzi, L

    2003-08-01

    The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) Osteoarthritis (OA) Index is a tested questionnaire to assess symptoms and physical functional disability in patients with OA of the knee and the hip. We adapted the WOMAC for the Italian language and tested its metric properties in 304 patients with symptomatic OA of the knee. Three hundred and four consecutive patients, attending 29 rheumatologic outpatient clinic in northern, central, and southern Italy, were asked to answer two disease-specific questionnaires (WOMAC and Lequesne algofunctional index) and one generic instrument (Medical Outcomes Study SF-36 Health Survey-MOS SF-36). A sample of 258 patients was readministered the WOMAC 7-10 days after the first visit and the structured interview, which also assessed demographic and other characteristics. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), and construct and discriminant validity using Spearman's correlations, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. All WOMAC subscales (pain, stiffness, and physical function) were internally consistent with Cronbach's coefficient alpha of 0.91, 0.81, and 0.84, respectively. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory with ICCs of 0.86, 0.68, and 0.89, respectively. In comparison with the SF-36, the expected correlations were found when comparing items measuring similar constructs, supporting the concepts of convergent construct validity. Very high correlations were also obtained between WOMAC scores and Lequesne OA algofunctional index. WOMAC physical function, but not WOMAC stiffness and pain subscales, was weakly associated with radiological OA severity (P=0.03). Also, WOMAC pain score was inversely correlated (P=0.01) with years of formal education. Examination of discriminant validity showed that the scores on the WOMAC and SF-36 followed hypothesized patterns: the WOMAC discriminated better among subjects with varying severity of

  17. The impact of Land use Change on Water Pollution Index of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranatasari Dyah Susanti

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Land use change is one of the effects of population growth and increased human activities. Land use change that overlooked the rule of ecosystem sustainability has a propensity to adversely affect the environment, including the decline of water quality. Kali Madiun is a sub-watershed of Bengawan Solo Watershed that allegedly endured the impacts of land use change. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of land use change on the water quality index of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed. Land use change analysis was done by overlay analysis of spatial data including the maps of land use in 2010 and 2015. Samples were the surface water in the upper, middle and lower part of Kali Madiun Sub-Watershed. Water quality analysis was carried out by comparing the results of water quality parameter assessment based on Government Regulation No. 82 of 2001, while water quality index was figured out by an assessment based on the Decree of the Minister of Environment No. 115 of 2003. The results indicated that during the five years observation, there were land use changes in the upper, middle and lower part of Kali Madiun Sub-watershed. Several parameters increased in 2010 to 2015, namely: TDS, BOD, COD, nitrate, detergents, oils and greases. Pollution index shifted from slightly polluted in 2010 into moderately polluted in 2015. We propose a strategy to solve these problems by the involvement of stakeholders and the participation of local community in managing both domestic and industrial wastes. Also, it should be supported by palpable regulations related to land conversion. Furthermore, it is expected that the effort will reduce the potential of pollution and improve the water quality.

  18. Spot market natural gas strategies and reliability dealing with changing industry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Many in the energy industry thought the natural gas buying game had finally settled down to a predictable pattern in the 90's. After a tumultuous decade in the 80's they are ready to turn their attention to new challenges such as electricity wheeling and cogeneration. They were wrong. There is plenty of change left in the natural gas industry for the rest of the century. This growth will dramatically increase the number of options available to Energy Buyers, giving them new flexibility to design programs that meet goals for cost reduction, supply reliability, and administrative effort. However, with new options also come the responsibility for choices. Energy Managers of well designed gas programs will make these choices after careful consideration of the pro's and con's of each option. In short, the effective Buyer will develop a natural gas strategy. This report will begin by reviewing the basic types of change occurring in the industry, and then discuss some of the varied strategy options available to the Energy Buyer

  19. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  20. Femtosecond index change mechanisms and morphology of SiC crystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DesAutels, Logan; Brewer, Christopher; Powers, Peter; Walker, Mark; Tomlin, David; Fratini, Albert; Juhl, Shane; Chen Weibin

    2009-01-01

    Femtosecond lasers have a unique ability of processing bulk transparent materials for various applications such as micromachining, waveguide manufacturing, and photonic bandgap structures just to name a few. These applications depend on the formation of micron or submicron size features that are known to be index modifications to the bulk substrate [H. Guo, H. Jiang, Y. Fang, C. Peng, H. Yang, Y. Li, Q. Gong, J. Opt. A: Pure Appl. Opt. 6 (2004) 787]. To the best of our knowledge the physical understanding of how these index-modified features are formed is still unknown, but many good theories exist such as Petite et al. [G. Petite, P. Daguzan, S. Guizard, P. Martin, in: IEEE Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, vol. 15, IEEE, 1995, pp. 40-44] or Tien et al. [A. Tien, S. Backus, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 (1999) 3883]. In this Letter the question on the physical cause for index changes is investigated by the combined efforts between Wright-Patterson AFB (WPAFB) and the University of Dayton (UD) using numerous imaging equipment such as TEM, AFM, NSOM, Nomarski microscopy, X-ray crystallography, Raman spectroscopy, and even diffraction efficiency experiments. With all the combined imaging equipment this research is able to present valuable data and deduce plausible theories of the physics of the index modification mechanism

  1. A Brazilian Vulnerability Index Towards Natural Disasters and Climatic Change - Flashfloods and Landslides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debortoli, N. S.; Camarinha, P. I., Sr.; Marengo, J. A.; Rodrigues, R.

    2015-12-01

    There are some evidences that hydrological climate extremes events have become more frequent an intense in the last decades due to climatic change. In Brazil, flashfloods and landslides were responsible for 74% of the deaths related to natural disasters in 1991-2010 period. In this sense, climate change could be considered a threat which can further increase these numbers, if actions of adaptation and reducing vulnerability are not taken. To evaluate Brazil's vulnerability hotspots to these disasters, two vulnerability indexes were developed using three sets of variables: (1) climate, with IPCC climate extreme indexes; (2) environmental, including land use, drainage systems, relief map, slope, road density and hydrography variables; (3) socioeconomic, including Gini coefficient, HDI (Human Development Index), housing conditions and poverty-related index. The variables were normalized on a scale between 0 to 1 and related using Map Algebra technique (ArcGIS). As part of the effort to contribute to the elaboration of the Third National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and to contribute to the assessment of impacts on strategic country's issues, simulations at higher resolution were carried out using Eta-20km RCM (Regional Climate Model) nested with two global climate models: HadGEM ES and MIROC 5 (INPE Brazilian National Institute for Space Research). For the baseline period of 1961-1990, the vulnerability indexes were adjusted by an iterative process, which was validated by comparing it to the Brazilian National Disasters Data. The same indexes found at baseline were used to estimate the vulnerability until the end of the XXI century, using the 4.5 and 8.5 IPCC/AR5 RCP (Representative Concentration Pathways) scenarios. The results indicate a large increase in Brazil's vulnerability to landslides mainly in coastal zone, southern states, high lands of southeast states, and along the Amazon River due to climatic

  2. Climate change sensitivity index for Pacific salmon habitat in southeast Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin S Shanley

    Full Text Available Global climate change may become one of the most pressing challenges to Pacific Salmon conservation and management for southeast Alaska in the 21st Century. Predicted hydrologic change associated with climate change will likely challenge the ability of specific stocks to adapt to new flow regimes and resulting shifts in spawning and rearing habitats. Current research suggests egg-to-fry survival may be one of the most important freshwater limiting factors in Pacific Salmon's northern range due to more frequent flooding events predicted to scour eggs from mobile spawning substrates. A watershed-scale hydroclimatic sensitivity index was developed to map this hypothesis with an historical stream gauge station dataset and monthly multiple regression-based discharge models. The relative change from present to future watershed conditions predicted for the spawning and incubation period (September to March was quantified using an ensemble global climate model average (ECHAM5, HadCM3, and CGCM3.1 and three global greenhouse gas emission scenarios (B1, A1B, and A2 projected to the year 2080. The models showed the region's diverse physiography and climatology resulted in a relatively predictable pattern of change: northern mainland and steeper, snow-fed mountainous watersheds exhibited the greatest increases in discharge, an earlier spring melt, and a transition into rain-fed hydrologic patterns. Predicted streamflow increases for all watersheds ranged from approximately 1-fold to 3-fold for the spawning and incubation period, with increased peak flows in the spring and fall. The hydroclimatic sensitivity index was then combined with an index of currently mapped salmon habitat and species diversity to develop a research and conservation priority matrix, highlighting potentially vulnerable to resilient high-value watersheds. The resulting matrix and observed trends are put forth as a framework to prioritize long-term monitoring plans, mitigation

  3. Follow-up of CT-derived airway wall thickness : Correcting for changes in inspiration level improves reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; van Rikxoort, Eva M; Mets, Onno M; Charbonnier, Jean-Paul; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; de Koning, Harry J; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J; van Ginneken, Bram; de Jong, Pim A; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A A

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Airway wall thickness (AWT) is affected by changes in lung volume. This study evaluated whether correcting AWT on computed tomography (CT) for differences in inspiration level improves measurement agreement, reliability, and power to detect changes over time. METHODS: Participants of the

  4. Follow-up of CT-derived airway wall thickness : Correcting for changes in inspiration level improves reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pompe, Esther; van Rikxoort, Eva M.; Mets, Onno M.; Charbonnier, Jean-Paul; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; de Koning, Harry J.; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; van Ginneken, Bram; de Jong, Pim A.; Hoesein, Firdaus A. A. Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Airway wall thickness (AWT) is affected by changes in lung volume. This study evaluated whether correcting AWT on computed tomography (CT) for differences in inspiration level improves measurement agreement, reliability, and power to detect changes over time. Methods: Participants of the

  5. A review of culturally adapted versions of the Oswestry Disability Index: the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Peter J; Nelson-Wong, Erika J; Fischer, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is a self-report-based outcome measure used to quantify the extent of disability related to low back pain (LBP), a substantial contributor to workplace absenteeism. The ODI tool has been adapted for use by patients in several non-English speaking nations. It is unclear, however, if these adapted versions of the ODI are as credible as the original ODI developed for English-speaking nations. The objective of this study was to conduct a review of the literature to identify culturally adapted versions of the ODI and to report on the adaptation process, construct validity, test-retest reliability and internal consistency of these ODIs. Following a pragmatic review process, data were extracted from each study with regard to these four outcomes. While most studies applied adaptation processes in accordance with best-practice guidelines, there were some deviations. However, all studies reported high-quality psychometric properties: group mean construct validity was 0.734 ± 0.094 (indicated via a correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability was 0.937 ± 0.032 (indicated via an intraclass correlation coefficient) and internal consistency was 0.876 ± 0.047 (indicated via Cronbach's alpha). Researchers can be confident when using any of these culturally adapted ODIs, or when comparing and contrasting results between cultures where these versions were employed. Implications for Rehabilitation Low back pain is the second leading cause of disability in the world, behind only cancer. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) has been developed as a self-report outcome measure of low back pain for administration to patients. An understanding of the various cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI is important for more concerted multi-national research efforts. This review examines 16 cross-cultural adaptations of the ODI and should inform the work of health care and rehabilitation professionals.

  6. Reliability and comparative validity of a Diet Quality Index for assessing dietary patterns of preschool-aged children in Sydney, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunaratnam, Kanita; Halaki, Mark; Wen, Li Ming; Baur, Louise A; Flood, Victoria M

    2018-03-01

    To report on the reliability and validity of a Diet Quality Index (DQI) to assess preschoolers dietary patterns using a short food frequency questionnaire (sFFQ) and 3-day food records (3d-FR). Seventy-seven preschool carers/parents completed a telephone interview on preschoolers (2-5-year olds) dietary habits in metropolitan Sydney. Agreement in scores was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC) and paired t-tests for repeated sFFQ-DQI scores and Bland-Altman methods and paired t-tests for sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores. Mean-total sFFQ-DQI ICC scores was high = 0.89, 95% CI (0.81, 0.93). There was weak agreement between sFFQ-DQI and 3d-FR-DQI scores (r = 0.36, p < 0.01). The 3d-FR-DQI scores were positively associated with carbohydrate, folate, ß-carotene, magnesium, calcium, protein, total fat and negatively associated with sugar, starch, niacin, vitamin C, phosphorus, polyunsaturated fat, and monounsaturated fat. The sFFQ-DQI demonstrated good reliability but weak validity. Associations between nutrients and 3d-FR-DQI scores indicate promising usability and warrants further investigation. Further research is needed to establish its validity in accurately scoring children's diet quality using sFFQ compared to 3d-FR before the tool can be implemented for use in population settings.

  7. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahoud, M; Chahine, R; Salameh, P; Sauleau, E A

    2017-06-01

    Our goal is to validate and to verify the reliability of the French and English versions of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) in Lebanese adolescents. A cross-sectional study was implemented. 104 Lebanese students aged between 14 and 19 years participated in the study. The English version of the questionnaire was distributed to English-speaking students and the French version was administered to French-speaking students. A scale (1 to 7 with 1 = very well understood and 7 = not at all) was used to identify the level of the students' understanding of each instruction, question and answer of the ISI. The scale's structural validity was assessed. The factor structure of ISI was evaluated by principal component analysis. The internal consistency of this scale was evaluated by Cronbach's alpha. To assess test-retest reliability the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used. The principal component analysis confirmed the presence of a two-component factor structure in the English version and a three-component factor structure in the French version with eigenvalues > 1. The English version of the ISI had an excellent internal consistency (α = 0.90), while the French version had a good internal consistency (α = 0.70). The ICC presented an excellent agreement in the French version (ICC = 0.914, CI = 0.856-0.949) and a good agreement in the English one (ICC = 0.762, CI = 0.481-890). The Bland-Altman plots of the two versions of the ISI showed that the responses over two weeks' were comparable and very few outliers were detected. The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  8. Informal networks and resilience to climate change impacts: A collective approach to index insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trærup, Sara Lærke Meltofte

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to the understanding of how to proceed with the development of index-insurance in order to reach extended population coverage with the insurance. The approach is applied to an example from a region in Tanzania. One of the main coping strategies that resource-poor households...... networks become insufficient since the majority of risk-sharers will be affected by the shock at the same time. This paper proposes a collective approach to index-insurance in which the members of an informal network will be insured as one insurance taker. The paper raises a conceptual argument...... that targeting households through existing informal networks will remove a number of prevailing barriers to the takeup of insurance and consequently the approach has the potential to increase households’ resilience to climate change impacts. The policy implications of the conclusions are significant since...

  9. Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Mini-Mental State Examination reliable change indices in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecek, Miloslav; Bezdicek, Ondrej; Sulc, Zdenek; Lukavsky, Jiri; Stepankova, Hana

    2017-08-01

    Cognitive tests are used repeatedly to assess the treatment response or progression of cognitive disorders. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a valid screening test for mild cognitive impairment. The aim of our study was to establish 90% reliable change indices (RCI) for the MoCA together with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in cognitively healthy older adults. We analyzed 197 cognitively healthy and functional independent volunteers aged 60-94 years, who met strict inclusion criteria for four consecutive years. The RCI methods by Chelune and Hsu were used. For 1, 2, and 3 years, the 90% RCI for MoCA using Chelune's formula were -4 ≤, ≥4; -4 ≤, ≥4 and -5 ≤, ≥4 points, respectively, and -3 ≤, ≥3 for the MMSE each year. Ninety percent RCI for MoCA using Hsu's formula ranged from -6 to 0, respectively, and +3 to +8 dependent on the baseline MoCA. Our study demonstrated RCI for the MoCA and MMSE in a 3-year time period that can be used for the estimation of cognitive decline or improvement in clinical settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Optimality Index-US (OI-US) to assess maternity care outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Cigdem; Taskin, Lale; Low, Lisa Kane

    2015-12-01

    Although obstetrical interventions are used commonly in Turkey, there is no standardized evidence-based assessment tool to evaluate maternity care outcomes. The Optimality Index-US (OI-US) is an evidence-based tool that was developed for the purpose of measuring aggregate perinatal care processes and outcomes against an optimal or best possible standard. This index has been validated and used in Netherlands, USA and UK until now. The objective of this study was to adapt the OI-US to assess maternity care outcomes in Turkey. Translation and back translation were used to develop the Optimality Index-Turkey (OI-TR) version. To evaluate the content validity of the OI-TR, an expert panel group (n=10) reviewed the items and evidence-based quality of the OI-TR for application in Turkey. Following the content validity process, the OI-TR was used to assess 150 healthy and 150 high-risk pregnant women who gave birth at a high volume, urban maternity hospital in Turkey. The scores between the two groups were compared to assess the discriminant validity of the OI-TR. The percentage of agreement between two raters and the Kappa statistic were calculated to evaluate the reliability. Content validity was established for the OI-TR by an expert group. Discriminant validity was confirmed by comparing the OI scores of healthy pregnant women (mean OI score=77.65%) and those of high-risk pregnant women (mean OI score=78.60%). The percentage of agreement between the two raters was 96.19, and inter-rater agreement was provided for each item in the OI-TR. OI-TR is a valid and reliable tool that can be used to assess maternity care outcomes in Turkey. The results of this study indicate that although the risk statuses of the women differed, the type of care they received was essentially the same, as measured by the OI-TR. Care was not individualised based on risk and for a majority of items was inconsistent with evidence based practice, which is not optimal. Use of the OI-TR will help to

  11. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  12. Evaluation of Changes in Index Properties of Lateritic Soil Stabilized with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agapitus AMADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For soils to be suitable in civil engineering projects, they must meet existing local requirements for index properties in addition to certain strength criteria. Typically, specifications limit these properties to some threshold values which in most cases are project specific. Some lateritic soils in their natural state need some treatment/modification to meet these specification requirements. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the index properties (i.e., particle size distribution, Atterberg limits and compaction characteristics of a residually derived lateritic soil following fly ash application. Lateritic soil – fly ash mixtures with up to 20% fly ash by dry weight of soil were tested and specimens for compaction characteristics were prepared at different compaction states (optimum, dry and wet of optimum moisture content and compacted using British Standard Light (BSL compactive effort. While soil – fly ash mixtures containing up to 15% fly ash classify as CL according to USCS classification system and plotted above A-line in the plasticity chart, it was observed that changes in the gradation characteristics of soil sample treated with 20% fly ash resulted in the alteration of its classification to ML as well as the crossing of the A- line to the silty region. The liquid limit (LL varied from 42.2 to 29.53% representing 70% reduction while the plasticity index (PI of specimen treated with 20% fly ash was 16% lower than that of natural soil. The optimum moisture content (OMC ranged from 17.36% for the natural soil to 18.34% for soil mixtures containing 20% fly ash which yielded dry unit weight of 17.2kN/m3 for the natural soil and 16.1kN/m3 for samples treated with 20% fly ash. From the study, useful data were obtained showing substantial and desirable changes in the properties of lateritic soil as a civil engineering material on application of fly ash.

  13. EVALUATION OF THE ANTIGENICITY AND IMMUNOGENICITY OF Eimeria tenella BY REPRODUCTIVE INDEX AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES OF CECAL COCCIDIOSIS VIRULENT LIVE VACCINE IN BROILER CHICKENS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suprihati, Endang; Yunus, Muchammad

    2018-01-01

    The development of vaccine to control coccidiosis caused by Eimeria tenella ( E. tenella ) in chickens is intensifying because of the increasing threat of drug resistance to anticoccidial agents. It is important, therefore, to develop a reliable standard method for the assessment of vaccine afficacy particularly antigenicity and immunogenicity become crucial. Evaluation of E. tenella antigenicity and immunogenicity to some low doses can be reflected by reproductive index and histopathological changes. The complete random design of research was used in this study. Sixty of two weeks old broilers were divided into four groups and each group composed 15 replications. The group 1 was chicken group without virulent E. tenella oocyst inoculation. The group 2, 3 and group 4 were chicken group inoculated with virulent E. tenella oocyst at doses of 1.0 x 10 2 , 2.0 x 10 2 , 3.0 x 10 2 , respectively. Then all chicken groups were challenged with E. tenella oocyst at doses of 1.0 x 10 3 . Observation of research that represented antigenicity and immunogenicity was clinical sign, reproductive index, histopathological changes. On virulent E. tenella inoculation step, some clinical signs such as appetite, weakness, and diarrhea were very slight on all chicken groups. While on challenge test step, there were no clinical signs of all chicken groups except the group 1. For the reproductive index of virulent E. tenella inoculation step, there were no significantly differences in all chicken groups except the group 1. As reproductive index, the same result pattern was seen for histopathological changes. The low number virulent E. tenella had low reproductive index and few histopathological changes effect that represents a promising strategy to prevent cecal coccidiosis in chickens.

  14. Reliability, validity and minimal detectable change of the Mini-BESTest in Greek participants with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulou, Sofia I; Billis, Evdokia; Gedikoglou, Ingrid A; Michailidou, Christina; Nowicky, Alexander V; Skrinou, Dimitra; Michailidi, Fotini; Chandrinou, Danae; Meligkoni, Margarita

    2018-02-23

    This study aimed to investigate the psychometric characteristics of reliability, validity and ability to detect change of a newly developed balance assessment tool, the Mini-BESTest, in Greek patients with stroke. A prospective, observational design study with test-retest measures was conducted. A convenience sample of 21 Greek patients with chronic stroke (14 male, 7 female; age of 63 ± 16 years) was recruited. Two independent examiners administered the scale, for the inter-rater reliability, twice within 10 days for the test-retest reliability. Bland Altman Analysis for repeated measures assessed the absolute reliability and the Standard Error of Measurement (SEM) and the Minimum Detectable Change at 95% confidence interval (MDC 95% ) were established. The Greek Mini-BESTest (Mini-BESTest GR ) was correlated with the Greek Berg Balance Scale (BBS GR ) for assessing the concurrent validity and with the Timed Up and Go (TUG), the Functional Reach Test (FRT) and the Greek Falls Efficacy Scale-International (FES-I GR ) for the convergent validity. The Mini-BESTestGR demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability (ICC (95%CI) = 0.997 (0.995-0.999, SEM = 0.46) with the scores of two raters within the limits of agreement (mean dif  = -0.143 ± 0.727, p > 0.05) and test-retest reliability (ICC (95%CI) = 0.966 (0.926-0.988), SEM = 1.53). Additionally, the Mini-BESTest GR yielded very strong to moderate correlations with BBS GR (r = 0.924, p reliability and the equally good validity of the Mini-BESTest GR , strongly support its utility in Greek people with chronic stroke. Its ability to identify clinically meaningful changes and falls risk need further investigation.

  15. Extreme storms, sea level rise, and coastal change: implications for infrastructure reliability in the Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anarde, K.; Kameshwar, S.; Irza, N.; Lorenzo-Trueba, J.; Nittrouer, J. A.; Padgett, J.; Bedient, P. B.

    2016-12-01

    Predicting coastal infrastructure reliability during hurricane events is important for risk-based design and disaster planning, such as delineating viable emergency response routes. Previous research has focused on either infrastructure vulnerability to coastal flooding or the impact of changing sea level and landforms on surge dynamics. Here we investigate the combined impact of sea level, morphology, and coastal flooding on the reliability of highway bridges - the only access points between barrier islands and mainland communities - during future extreme storms. We forward model coastal flooding for static projections of geomorphic change using ADCIRC+SWAN. First-order parameters that are adjusted include sea level and elevation. These are varied for each storm simulation to evaluate relative impact on the reliability of bridges surrounding Freeport, TX. Simulated storms include both synthetic and historical events, which are classified by intensity using the storm's integrated kinetic energy, a metric for surge generation potential. Reliability is estimated through probability of failure - given wave and surge loads - and time inundated. Findings include that: 1) bridge reliability scales inversely with surge height, and 2) sea level rise reduces bridge reliability due to a monotonic increase in surge height. The impact of a shifting landscape on bridge reliability is more complex: barrier island rollback can increase or decrease inundation times for storms of different intensity due to changes in wind-setup and back-barrier bay interactions. Initial storm surge readily inundates the coastal landscape during large intensity storms, however the draining of inland bays following storm passage is significantly impeded by the barrier. From a coastal engineering standpoint, we determine that to protect critical infrastructure, efforts now implemented that nourish low-lying barriers may be enhanced by also armoring back-bay coastlines and elevating bridge approach

  16. Análise da confiabilidade e da correlação de dois índices de estimativa da maturação esquelética: índice carpal e índice vertebral Reliability and correlation analysis of two skeletal maturation evaluation indexes: hand-wrist index and cervical vertebrae index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Feres Damian

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a confiabilidade e a correlação de dois índices de estimativa da maturação esquelética. METODOLOGIA: foi utilizada uma amostra de 210 radiografias carpais e telerradiografias laterais, de arquivo, de pacientes de ambos os gêneros, com idade entre 7 e 18 anos. As radiografias carpais foram utilizadas na determinação do Índice de Maturação Carpal (IMC e as telerradiografias laterais na determinação do Índice de Maturação Vertebral (IMV. Cada grupo de radiografias foi examinado e reexaminado por 4 avaliadores, para analisar a confiabilidade de cada índice, e ainda foi realizada a comparação entre os estágios do IMC e do IMV, para avaliar a correlação entre os índices. RESULTADOS: os resultados demonstraram que não houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre os 4 observadores nas avaliações do IMC e do IMV (pAIM: the aim of this study were to evaluate the reliability and correlation of two different skeletal maturation evaluation indexes. METHODS: two hundred and ten hand-wrist and cephalometric radiographs from files of patients with 7- 18 years old were used. The hand-wrist radiographs were used to determine the skeletal maturation index (SMI and the cephalometric radiographs to determine the cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI. Four independent evaluators were asked to examine twice each radiography and to verify the reliability of each index. The stages of SMI and CVMI were compared to evaluate the relationship between them. RESULTS: the results were not statisticaly different among the four evaluators on SMI and CVMI indexes (p<0.00001. The correlation average to SMI was 95% for the first evaluation and 93.5% for the second evaluation. On the CVMI, the correlation average was 84% for the first evaluation and 74% for the second evaluation. The correlation intraoperator did not showed significant difference (p<0.00001 and the average for SMI was 93.5% and for

  17. The effect of change in body mass index on volumetric measures of mammographic density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Vicki; Reeves, Katherine W.; Sturgeon, Susan R.; Reich, Nicholas G.; Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Kerlikowske, Karla; Ma, Lin; Shepherd, John; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Mahmoudzadeh, Amir Pasha; Malkov, Serghei; Sprague, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how changes in body mass index (BMI) relate to changes in mammographic density is necessary to evaluate adjustment for BMI gain/loss in studies of change in density and breast cancer risk. Increase in BMI has been associated with a decrease in percent density, but the effect on change in absolute dense area or volume is unclear. Methods We examined the association between change in BMI and change in volumetric breast density among 24,556 women in the San Francisco Mammography Registry from 2007-2013. Height and weight were self-reported at the time of mammography. Breast density was assessed using single x-ray absorptiometry measurements. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between BMI and dense volume (DV), non-dense volume (NDV) and percent dense volume (PDV) were assessed using multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for demographics, risk factors, and reproductive history. Results In cross-sectional analysis, BMI was positively associated with DV (β=2.95 cm3, 95% CI 2.69, 3.21) and inversely associated with PDV (β=-2.03%, 95% CI -2.09, -1.98). In contrast, increasing BMI was longitudinally associated with a decrease in both DV (β=-1.01 cm3, 95% CI -1.59, -0.42) and PDV (β=-1.17%, 95% CI -1.31, -1.04). These findings were consistent for both pre- and postmenopausal women. Conclusion Our findings support an inverse association between change in BMI and change in PDV. The association between increasing BMI and decreasing DV requires confirmation. Impact Longitudinal studies of PDV and breast cancer risk, or those using PDV as an indicator of breast cancer risk, should evaluate adjustment for change in BMI. PMID:26315554

  18. Increasing urban community empowerment through changing of poverty rate index on the productive zakat impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaenal, M. H.; Astuti, A. D.; Sadariyah, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    We show how changes in poverty measures can be applied into growth of islamic philanthropy distribution via zakat, and we use the methodology to zakat community development (ZCD) program in Bantul during the 2016. The purpose of the present paper is to prove zakat is able to be a solution part for the community empowerment. The result is the number of productive zakat program beneficiaries whose income is below the poverty line (poor category) before the program are 244 people (H = 0.171) and after the program change to 168 (H = 0.118), which means the program has succeeded in reducing the number of poor people by 76 people (5.34 percent). The poverty gap (P1) of beneficiaries of productive zakat program in Bantul also decrease. The gap between poverty line and average income of beneficiaries is Rp 63,763 before the program, while the gap after the program is Rp 56,992. The income gap (I) is also decline from 0.197 to 0.169. Poverty severity of beneficiaries of productive zakat program in Bantul seen by Sen Index (P2) decrease from 0.093 to 0.062, while using Foster-Greer-Thorbecke Index (P3), the poverty severity decrease from 0.010 to 0.004. The analysis revealed the zakat community empowerment was significant economically in suppressing the poverty rate, and possible for reducing inequality and ending poverty in Indonesia.

  19. CMOS image sensor-based immunodetection by refractive-index change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadhasan, Jasmine P; Kim, Sanghyo

    2012-01-01

    A complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor is an intriguing technology for the development of a novel biosensor. Indeed, the CMOS image sensor mechanism concerning the detection of the antigen-antibody (Ag-Ab) interaction at the nanoscale has been ambiguous so far. To understand the mechanism, more extensive research has been necessary to achieve point-of-care diagnostic devices. This research has demonstrated a CMOS image sensor-based analysis of cardiovascular disease markers, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and troponin I, Ag-Ab interactions on indium nanoparticle (InNP) substrates by simple photon count variation. The developed sensor is feasible to detect proteins even at a fg/mL concentration under ordinary room light. Possible mechanisms, such as dielectric constant and refractive-index changes, have been studied and proposed. A dramatic change in the refractive index after protein adsorption on an InNP substrate was observed to be a predominant factor involved in CMOS image sensor-based immunoassay.

  20. Development of a lane change risk index using vehicle trajectory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjin; Oh, Cheol; Moon, Jaepil; Kim, Seongho

    2018-01-01

    Surrogate safety measures (SSMs) have been widely used to evaluate crash potential, which is fundamental for the development of effective safety countermeasures. Unlike existing SSMs, which are mainly focused on the evaluation of longitudinal vehicle maneuvering leading to rear-end crashes, this study proposes a new method for estimating crash risk while a subject vehicle changes lanes, referred to as the lane change risk index (LCRI). A novel feature of the proposed methodology is its incorporation of the amount of exposure time to potential crash and the expected crash severity level by applying a fault tree analysis (FTA) to the evaluation framework. Vehicle interactions between a subject vehicle and adjacent vehicles in the starting lane and the target lane are evaluated in terms of crash potential during lane change. Vehicle trajectory data obtained from a traffic stream, photographed using a drone flown over a freeway segment, is used to investigate the applicability of the proposed methodology. This study compares the characteristics of compulsory and discretionary lane changes observed in a work zone section and a general section of a freeway using the LCRI. It is expected that the outcome of this study will be valuable in evaluating the effectiveness of various traffic operations and control strategies in terms of lane change safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Development of the Italian version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI-I): A cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monticone, Marco; Baiardi, Paola; Ferrari, Silvano; Foti, Calogero; Mugnai, Raffaele; Pillastrini, Paolo; Vanti, Carla; Zanoli, Gustavo

    2009-09-01

    Evaluation of the psychometric properties of a translated, culturally adapted questionnaire. Translating, culturally adapting, and validating the Italian version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI-I), allowing its use in Italian-speaking patients with low back pain inside and outside Italy. Growing attention is devoted to standardized outcome measures to improve interventions for low back pain. A translated form of the ODI in patients with low back pain has never been validated within the Italian population. The ODI-I questionnaire was developed involving forward-backward translation, final review by an expert committee and test of the prefinal version to establish as better as possible proper correspondence with the original English latest version (2.1a). Psychometric testing included factor analysis, reliability by internal consistency (Cronbach alpha) and test-retest repeatability (Intraclass Coefficient Correlation), concurrent validity by comparing the ODI-I to Visual Analogue Scale, (Pearson correlation), and construct validity by comparing the ODI-I to Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire, RMDQ, and to Short Form Health Survey, Short Form Health Survey-36 (Pearson correlation). The authors required a 3-month period before achieving a shared version of the ODI-I. The questionnaire was administered to 126 subjects, showing satisfying acceptability. Factor analysis demonstrated a 1-factor structure (45% of explained variance). The questionnaire showed high internal consistency (alpha = 0.855) and good test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.961). Concurrent validity was confirmed by a high correlation with Visual Analogue Scale (r = 0.73, P < 0.001), Construct validity revealed high correlations with RMDQ (r = 0.819, P < 0.001), and with Short Form Health Survey-36 domains, highly significant with the exception of Mental Health (r = -0.139, P = 0.126). The ODI outcome measure was successfully translated into Italian, showing good factorial structure and

  2. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score in a multireader, longitudinal setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, ea; Østergaard, Mikkel; Kvan, NP

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interreader reliability and the sensitivity to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) system on digital images of the wrist joints of patients with early or establi...

  3. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  4. Reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the lower extremity functional scale in individuals affected by stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijde, Joseph L; White, Fred; Tompkins, James; Dahl, Peder; Hentz, Joseph G; Lebec, Michael T; Cornwall, Mark

    2013-12-01

    To investigate reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change of the Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) in individuals affected by stroke. The secondary objective was to test the validity and sensitivity of a single-item linear analog scale (LAS) of function. Prospective cohort reliability and validation study. A single rehabilitation department in an academic medical center. Forty-three individuals receiving neurorehabilitation for lower extremity dysfunction after stroke were studied. Their ages ranged from 32 to 95 years, with a mean of 70 years; 77% were men. Test-retest reliability was assessed by calculating the classical intraclass correlation coefficient, and the Bland-Altman limits of agreement. Validity was assessed by calculating the Pearson correlation coefficient between the instruments. Sensitivity to change was assessed by comparing baseline scores with end of treatment scores. Measurements were taken at baseline, after 1-3 days, and at 4 and 8 weeks. The LEFS, Short-Form-36 Physical Function Scale, Berg Balance Scale, Six-Minute Walk Test, Five-Meter Walk Test, Timed Up-and-Go test, and the LAS of function were used. The test-retest reliability of the LEFS was found to be excellent (ICC = 0.96). Correlated with the 6 other measures of function studied, the validity of the LEFS was found to be moderate to high (r = 0.40-0.71). Regarding the sensitivity to change, the mean LEFS scores from baseline to study end increased 1.2 SD and for LAS 1.1 SD. LEFS exhibits good reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change in patients with lower extremity impairments secondary to stroke. Therefore, the LEFS can be a clinically efficient outcome measure in the rehabilitation of patients with subacute stroke. The LAS is shown to be a time-saving and reasonable option to track changes in a patient's functional status. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  6. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Bjarke B.; Bliddal, Henning [Department of Reumatology, Copenhagen University Hospital, The Parker Institute, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark); Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F.; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Boesen, Mikael [Copenhagen University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Koebenhavn Oe (Denmark)

    2018-01-15

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation. (orig.)

  7. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F; Trampedach, Charlotte; Rasti, Zoreh; Bliddal, Henning; Boesen, Mikael

    2018-01-01

    To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three readers independently evaluated the standing pMRI for herniation, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, HIZ lesions and facet joint effusion. The evaluation included a semi-quantitative grading of spinal stenosis, foraminal stenosis and spinal nerve root compression. The standing pMRI images were evaluated with full access to supine MRI. In case lower grades or the degenerative findings were not present in the supine images, this was reported separately as position-dependent changes. A subsample of 20 pMRI examinations was reevaluated after two months. The reproducibility was assessed by inter- and intra-reader reliability (kappa statistic) and absolute agreement between readers. Fifty-six patients were included in this study. There was fair-to-substantial inter-reader reliability (κ 0.47 to 0.82) and high absolute agreement (72.3% to 99.1%) for the pMRI findings. The intra-reader assessment showed similar reliability and agreement (κ 0.36 to 0.85; absolute agreement: 62.5% to 98.8%). Positional changes between the supine and standing position showed a fair-to-moderate inter- and intra-reader reliability (κ 0.25 to 0.52; absolute agreement: 97.0% to 99.1). Evaluation of the lumbar spine for degenerative findings by standing pMRI has acceptable reproducibility; however, positional changes from the supine to the standing position as an independent outcome should be interpreted with caution because of lower reliability, which calls for further standardisation.

  8. Implosion lessons from national security, high reliability spacecraft, electronics, and the forces which changed them

    CERN Document Server

    Temple, L Parker

    2012-01-01

    Implosion is a focused study of the history and uses of high-reliability, solid-state electronics, military standards, and space systems that support our national security and defense. This book is unique in combining the interdependent evolution of and interrelationships among military standards, solid-state electronics, and very high-reliability space systems. Starting with a brief description of the physics that enabled the development of the first transistor, Implosion covers the need for standardizing military electronics, which began during World War II and continu

  9. Changes in abdominal obesity in Chilean university students stratified by body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cossio-Bolaños, Marco; Vilchez-Avaca, Catalina; Contreras-Mellado, Victor; Andruske, Cynthia Lee; Gómez-Campos, Rossana

    2016-01-13

    Studies based on Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are generally used to examine the prevalence and tendency of overweight and obesity. These studies help determine the socioeconomic development of a country and improve public health policies. Therefore, the goal of this research was to determine the trend of change in abdominal obesity of Chilean university students according to the Body Mass Index (BMI) measured in intervals of three and six years. For this study, a total of 1598 students of both sexes ranging in age from 18 to 26 from a Chilean university were evaluated. Students were assessed commencing in 2007 (372 males and 315 females), 2010 (250 males and 330 females), and ending in 2013 (153 males and 178 females). During the three transversal assessments, weight, height, and waist circumference were evaluated. BMI was calculated for both sexes. No significant differences were found in age and BMI during the three years evaluated (2007, 2010, and 2013). In 2013, waist circumference (WC) increased significantly (p obese), the university students showed significant increases in WC (Females: p = 0.004; Males: p = 0.035) whereas in 2007 and 2010, the values remained relatively stable. BMI remained constant during 2007, 2010, and 2013. However, the university students of both sexes showed greater risk of abdominal obesity as a result of increased WC in 2013.

  10. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  11. Body mass index, weight change, and survival in non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients in Connecticut women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that obesiy and weight gain may affect the prognosis of several types of cancer. We investigated the impact of body mass index (BMI) as well as pre-and postdiagnosis weight changes on non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) prognosis. A cohort of 573 female incident NHL cases diagnosed during 1996-2000 in Connecticut was followed for a median of 7.8 yr. Self-reported height and weight at 3 time points before and after diagnosis were collected. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using proportional hazard models adjusting for factors believed to be associated with overall survival of NHL. Underweight (BMI treatment were found to have a poorer survival.

  12. A GIS BASED EVALUATION OF LAND USE CHANGES AND ECOLOGICAL CONNECTIVITY INDEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poppy Indrayani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the Makassar region is a significant land use planning and management issue, and has many impacts on the ecological function and structure landscape. With the development and infrastructure initiatives mostly around the urban centers, the urbanization and sprawl would impact the environment and the natural resources. Therefore, environmental management and careful strategic spatial planning in landscape ecological network is crucial when aiming for sustainable development. In this paper, the impacts of land use changes from 1997 to 2012 on the landscape ecological connectivity in the Makassar region were evaluated using Geographic Information System (GIS. The resulted GIS analysis clearly showed that land use changes occurring in the Makassar region have caused profound changes in landscape pattern. The spatial model had a predictive capability allowing the quantitative assessment and comparison of the impacts resulting from different land use on the ecological connectivity index. The results had an effective performance in identifying the vital ecological areas and connectivity prior to development plan in areas.

  13. Study on weathering index for improving the reliability of terrace correlation and chronology. Part 2. Understanding weathering condition of terrace gravel and induction of application requirement for correlation index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Takaomi

    2012-01-01

    Geomorphographic survey of fluvial terraces, geological exploration, borehole drilling and investigation, and analysis of weathering condition of terrace gravels were carried out in Chuetsu area, Niigata prefecture, where a great deal of geomorphostratigraphic and tephrostratigraphic data are available. The results of these surveys and investigations indicate that weathering degree of terrace gravels can be considered as an index of the terrace age, and also provide points to remember for sampling and method of sampling and observation. The effective porosity and the thickness of weathering rind of gravels, which are indexes for weathering degree evaluation, in boring core, increase above the depth of about 5m from the top of the hole. Weathering doesn't reach the deep portion, therefore, investigation and evaluation for the weathering degree of terrace gravels must be carried out on the upper portion. Weathering rind thickness and effective porosity of the gravels are dispersive. Dispersion of the weathering rind thickness can be reduced by confining to andesite, and dispersion of the effective porosity can be reduced by limiting range of gravel size. Reducing dispersion, increase trend with age becomes clear in change of the weathering rind thickness and the effective porosity in many of the studied area. It shows that weathering rind thickness and effective porosity are effective for terrace correlation. Dispersion of data in an outcrop isn't small, but data from neighboring terraces with the same age are not different each other. It indicates that weathering rind thickness and effective porosity can be quantitative indexes for terrace age evaluation. In area where weathering rind is effective for terrace correlation, the rate of the weathering rind formation of andesite gravels is about 0.04mm/1000 years. Therefore, MIS6 terraces and MIS8 terraces can be distinguished each other by means of thickness of the weathering rind. This formation rate falls inside the

  14. Follow-up of CT-derived airway wall thickness: Correcting for changes in inspiration level improves reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pompe, Esther, E-mail: e.pompe@umcutrecht.nl [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rikxoort, Eva M. van [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mets, Onno M. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Charbonnier, Jean-Paul [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin [Institute for Medical Image Computing, Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Koning, Harry J. de [Department of Public Health, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Zanen, Pieter; Lammers, Jan-Willem J. [Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands); Ginneken, Bram van [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Jong, Pim A. de; Mohamed Hoesein, Firdaus A.A. [Department of Radiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    Objectives: Airway wall thickness (AWT) is affected by changes in lung volume. This study evaluated whether correcting AWT on computed tomography (CT) for differences in inspiration level improves measurement agreement, reliability, and power to detect changes over time. Methods: Participants of the Dutch-Belgian lung cancer screening trial who underwent 3-month repeat CT for an indeterminate pulmonary nodule were included. AWT on CT was calculated by the square root of the wall area at a theoretical airway with an internal perimeter of 10 mm (Pi10). The scan with the highest lung volume was labelled as the reference scan and the scan with the lowest lung volume was labelled as the comparison scan. Pi10 derived from the comparison scan was corrected by multiplying it with the ratio of CT lung volume of the comparison scan to CT lung volume on the reference scan. Agreement of uncorrected and corrected Pi10 was studied with the Bland-Altman method, reliability with intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC), and power to detect changes over time was calculated. Results: 315 male participants were included. Limit of agreement and reliability for Pi10 was −0.61 to 0.57 mm (ICC = 0.87), which improved to −0.38 to 0.37 mm (ICC = 0.94) after correction for inspiration level. To detect a 15% change over 3 months, 71 subjects are needed for Pi10 and 26 subjects for Pi10 adjusted for inspiration level. Conclusions: Correcting Pi10 for differences in inspiration level improves reliability, agreement, and power to detect changes over time.

  15. Reliability of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires in adult spinal deformity when administered by telephone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokshan, Steven L; Godzik, Jakub; Dalton, Jonathan; Jaffe, Jennifer; Lenke, Lawrence G; Kelly, Michael P

    2016-09-01

    The non-response rates are as high as 20% to 50% after 5 years of follow-up in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. Minimizing loss to follow-up is essential to protect the quality of data in long-term studies. Phone and internet administration of outcomes instruments has grown in popularity and has been found to not only provide a convenient way of collecting data, but also show improved response rates. The study aimed to examine the reliability of the revised Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22r) and the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaires in ASD patients when administered by telephone. This is a single-center, randomized crossover phone validation of ASD patients. The study included ASD patients presenting to a tertiary spine care center. The outcome measures were ODI and SRS-22r. Forty-nine patients (mean age: 55.7 years) with ASD were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either phone completion of the SRS-22r and ODI followed by in-office completion, or to in-office completion followed by phone completion. An interval of 2 to 4 weeks was placed between administrations of each version. A paired t test was used to assess the difference between the written and phone versions, and intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess homogeneity. Finally, goodness-of-fit testing was used to assess version preference. There was no significant difference between the phone and in-office versions of the SRS-22r (p=.174) or the ODI (p=.320). The intraclass correlation coefficients of the SRS-22r and ODI were 0.91 and 0.86, respectively. Completion over the phone was the most popular option (57% preferred phone, 29% preferred in-office, and 14% had no preference). Phone administration of the SRS-22r and ODI to ASD patients provides a convenient and reliable tool for reducing loss of follow-up data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Shift work, job strain and changes in the body mass index among women: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujishiro, Kaori; Lividoti Hibert, Eileen; Schernhammer, Eva; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2017-06-01

    The effects of job strain and shift work on weight gain have not been studied jointly. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on shift work and weight gain have reported different results. This study examines potential effect modification by job strain on the link between shift work and weight gain, and concurrent and delayed effects of shift work on weight gain. Data came from 52 622 women who participated in the Nurses' Health Study II, a prospective cohort study. Using linear regression, we modelled change in body mass index (BMI) over 4 years as a function of change in job strain, cumulative exposure to rotating night shift previously and during the 4 years (ie, previous and concurrent exposures) and the interaction between job strain and concurrent shift work exposure. Age, race/ethnicity, pregnancy history, baseline BMI, job types and health behaviours at baseline were controlled for. Job strain and rotating shift work, concurrent and previous, all had independent associations with BMI change during the 4-year period. There was no evidence for effect modification by job strain. Concurrent and previous exposures to rotating night shift had different associations with BMI change: an inverted U-shape for concurrent exposure (ranging from 0.01 to 0.14 kg/m 2 increase), a dose-response for previous exposure (-0.02 to 0.09 kg/m 2 ). Job strain and rotating night shift work have independent contributions to weight gain. Reducing job strain and supporting night shift workers are both important intervention goals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Reliability of White Matter Microstructural Changes in HIV Infection: Metaanalysis and Confirmation

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Erin E.; Jaillard, Assia; Renard, Felix; Zeffiro, Thomas A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to measure HIV effects on white matter (WM) microarchitecture. While many have reported reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and increased mean diffusivity (MD) in HIV, quantitative inconsistencies across studies are large. Purpose To evaluate the consistency across studies of HIV effects on DTI measures and then examine DTI reliability in a longitudinal seropositive cohort. Study Selection The meta-analysis included 16 cross-sectional studies reporting FA and 12 studies reporting MD in the corpus callosum. Data Analysis Random effects meta-analysis was used to estimate study standardized mean differences (smd) and heterogeneity. DTI longitudinal reliability was estimated in seropositives studied before, and three and six months after, beginning treatment. Data Synthesis Meta-analysis revealed lower FA (smd −0.43; psmd 0.44; p0.96. Limitation Many studies pooled participants with varying treatments, ages and disease durations. Conclusion HIV effects on WM microstructure exhibited substantial variations that could result from acquisition, processing or cohort selection differences. When acquisition parameters and processing were carefully controlled, the resulting DTI measures did not show high temporal variation. HIV effects on WM microstructure may be age dependent. The high longitudinal reliability of DTI WM microstructure measures make them promising disease activity markers. PMID:28596189

  18. How does the connectivity index change through year in an agricultural catchment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantreul, Vincent; Degré, Aurore

    2017-04-01

    The emerging concept of hydrological connectivity is difficult to quantify. Some indices have been proposed. The most cited is Borselli's one. It gives the advantage to visualize connectivity at watershed scale with very few inputs. But it is not a dynamic index and the resulting map is not time dependent. However, vegetation cover changes through year and possibly affects the connectivity dynamics. The objective of this poster is to show the evolution of the CI during the year looking at a few "strategic" times. Moreover, the study permits to identify a few "key locations" in the watershed, for example permanent disconnections or at the opposite constantly connected fields. The CI was calculated in a 124ha catchment (Hevillers), in the loess belt, in Belgium. Land use is agricultural with mostly cereals, sugar beets and potatoes, little area with wood, road, path or grass strip. Used weighting factor is soil loss ratio. It is between 0 and 1 and translates the protection offered to the soil by the crop. In winter (January), cereals have the most connected fields because of almost bare soils. Cover crops on sugar beets and potatoes fields decrease connectivity, except for one big field not far from the outlet. But rainfalls are generally not so erosive during this period. In spring (March and May), the cereals have a decreasing CI with plants growth covering the soil. On the opposite, sugar beets and potatoes are planted and bare soils in spring involve much higher connectivity index. The effect of grass strip is strong for sugar beet field situated uphill and underlines the importance of such mitigation measures. In summer (July), the whole watershed is much more disconnected and it does not represent the most risky part of the year in terms of erosion. The end of the year is related to harvesting and consequent bare soil in September for potatoes and November for the rest. In conclusion, the IC is an easy tool to estimate connectivity in a watershed. With the

  19. Refractive index modulation of Sb70Te30 phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb 70 Te 30 phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  20. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change of two simplified 3-point balance measures in patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Miau; Huang, Yi-Jing; Huang, Chien-Yu; Lin, Gong-Hong; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Lee, Shih-Chieh; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-10-01

    The 3-point Berg Balance Scale (BBS-3P) and 3-point Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (PASS-3P) were simplified from the BBS and PASS to overcome the complex scoring systems. The BBS-3P and PASS-3P were more feasible in busy clinical practice and showed similarly sound validity and responsiveness to the original measures. However, the reliability of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P is unknown limiting their utility and the interpretability of scores. We aimed to examine the test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P in patients with stroke. Cross-sectional study. The rehabilitation departments of a medical center and a community hospital. A total of 51 chronic stroke patients (64.7% male). Both balance measures were administered twice 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of both the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were examined by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). The MDC and its percentage over the total score (MDC%) of each measure was calculated for examining the random measurement errors. The ICC values of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 0.99 and 0.97, respectively. The MDC% (MDC) of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P were 9.1% (5.1 points) and 8.4% (3.0 points), respectively, indicating that both measures had small and acceptable random measurement errors. Our results showed that both the BBS-3P and the PASS-3P had good test-retest reliability, with small and acceptable random measurement error. These two simplified 3-level balance measures can provide reliable results over time. Our findings support the repeated administration of the BBS-3P and PASS-3P to monitor the balance of patients with stroke. The MDC values can help clinicians and researchers interpret the change scores more precisely.

  1. Refractive-index changes in lithium niobate crystals by radiation damages; Brechungsindexaenderungen in Lithiumniobat-Kristallen durch Strahlenschaeden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani Meymian, Mohammad Reza

    2007-12-18

    For the study in this thesis {sup 3}He{sup 2+} ions with the energy of about 40 MeV were applied. The results of these studies show a timely very stable anisotrope refractive-index change in the range of some 10{sup -3}. The radiation damages caused by ions cause a decreasement of the ordinary refractive index n{sub o} and an increasement of the extra-ordinary refractive index n{sub e}. While the absolute values for {delta}n{sub o} and {delta}n{sub e} are nearly equal the birefringence of the material (n{sub e}-n{sub o}) smaller. The generated refractive-index change is dose dependent and the curve {delta}n has at increasing dose a strongly nonlinear slope with a characteristic stage at the radiation dose of about 2 x 10{sup 20} ions/m{sup 2}.

  2. Changes in Body Mass Index and Stoma Related Problems in the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeps, Raymond; McMullen, Carmit K.; Wendel, Christopher S.; Bulkley, Joanna; Grant, Marcia; Mohler, Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Krouse, Robert S.; Herrinton, Lisa J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Weight gain can cause retraction of an intestinal stoma, possibly resulting in difficulty with wafer and pouch fit, daily care challenges, and discomfort. This cross-sectional study examined the association between body mass index (BMI) and ostomy-related problems among long-term (>5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Materials and Methods CRC survivors from three Kaiser Permanente Regions completed a mailed survey. The response rate for those with an ostomy was 53% (283/529). Questions included stoma-related problems and time to conduct daily ostomy care. Poisson regression evaluated associations between report of problems and change in BMI. Our analysis sample included 235 survivors. Results Sample was 76% ≥65 years of age. Since their surgeries, BMI remained stable in 44% (ST), decreased in 20% (DE), and increased in 35% (IN) of survivors. Compared to ST, male IN (RR 2.15 [1.09–4.25]) and female DE (RR 5.06 [1.26–25.0]) were more likely to spend more than 30 minutes per day on stoma care. IN (vs. ST) were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.51 [1.06–2.17]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 2.32 [1.30–4.14]). Survivors who were obese at time of survey were more likely to report interference with clothing (RR 1.88 [1.38–2.56]) and other stoma-related problems (RR 1.68 [1.07–2.65]). Conclusion A change in BMI is associated with ostomy-related problems among long-term CRC survivors. Equipment and care practices may need to be adapted for changes in abdominal shape. Health care providers should caution that a significant increase or decrease in BMI may cause ostomy-related problems. PMID:24071496

  3. Carbon sequestration index as a determinant for climate change mitigation: Case study of Bintan Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyudi, A.'an J.; Afdal; Prayudha, Bayu; Dharmawan, I. W. E.; Irawan, Andri; Abimanyu, Haznan; Meirinawati, Hanny; Surinati, Dewi; Syukri, Agus F.; Yuliana, Chitra I.; Yuniati, Putri I.

    2018-02-01

    The increase of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) affects the global carbon cycle altering the atmospheric system and initiates the climate changes. There are two ways to mitigate these changes, by maintaining the greenhouse gasses below the carbon budget and by conserving the marine and terrestrial vegetation for carbon sequestration. These two strategies become variable to the carbon sequestration index (CSI) that represents the potential of a region in carbon sequestration, according to its natural capacity. As a study case, we conducted carbon sequestration research in Bintan region (Bintan Island and its surrounding), Riau Archipelago province. This research was aimed to assess the CSI and its possibility for climate change mitigation. We observed carbon sequestration of seagrass meadows and mangrove, greenhouse gas (CO2) emission (correlated to population growth, the increase of vehicles), and CSI. Bintan region has 125,849.9 ha of vegetation area and 14,879.6 ha of terrestrial and marine vegetation area, respectively. Both vegetation areas are able to sequester 0.262 Tg C yr-1 in total and marine vegetation contributes about 77.1%. Total CO2 emission in Bintan region is up to 0.273 Tg C yr-1, produced by transportation, industry and land use sectors. Therefore, CSI of the Bintan region is 0.98, which is above the global average (i.e. 0.58). This value demonstrates that the degree of sequestration is comparable to the total carbon emission. This result suggests that Bintan’s vegetation has high potential for reducing greenhouse gas effects.

  4. The transparency, reliability and utility of tropical rainforest land-use and land-cover change models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Isabel M D; Ahmed, Sadia E; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Land-use and land-cover (LULC) change is one of the largest drivers of biodiversity loss and carbon emissions globally. We use the tropical rainforests of the Amazon, the Congo basin and South-East Asia as a case study to investigate spatial predictive models of LULC change. Current predictions differ in their modelling approaches, are highly variable and often poorly validated. We carried out a quantitative review of 48 modelling methodologies, considering model spatio-temporal scales, inputs, calibration and validation methods. In addition, we requested model outputs from each of the models reviewed and carried out a quantitative assessment of model performance for tropical LULC predictions in the Brazilian Amazon. We highlight existing shortfalls in the discipline and uncover three key points that need addressing to improve the transparency, reliability and utility of tropical LULC change models: (1) a lack of openness with regard to describing and making available the model inputs and model code; (2) the difficulties of conducting appropriate model validations; and (3) the difficulty that users of tropical LULC models face in obtaining the model predictions to help inform their own analyses and policy decisions. We further draw comparisons between tropical LULC change models in the tropics and the modelling approaches and paradigms in other disciplines, and suggest that recent changes in the climate change and species distribution modelling communities may provide a pathway that tropical LULC change modellers may emulate to further improve the discipline. Climate change models have exerted considerable influence over public perceptions of climate change and now impact policy decisions at all political levels. We suggest that tropical LULC change models have an equally high potential to influence public opinion and impact the development of land-use policies based on plausible future scenarios, but, to do that reliably may require further improvements in the

  5. Reliability and Validity of a New Test of Change-of-Direction Speed for Field-Based Sports: the Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Schultz, Adrian B; Callaghan, Samuel J; Jeffriess, Matthew D; Berry, Simon P

    2013-01-01

    Field sport coaches must use reliable and valid tests to assess change-of-direction speed in their athletes. Few tests feature linear sprinting with acute change- of-direction maneuvers. The Change-of-Direction and Acceleration Test (CODAT) was designed to assess field sport change-of-direction speed, and includes a linear 5-meter (m) sprint, 45° and 90° cuts, 3- m sprints to the left and right, and a linear 10-m sprint. This study analyzed the reliability and validity of this test, through comparisons to 20-m sprint (0-5, 0-10, 0-20 m intervals) and Illinois agility run (IAR) performance. Eighteen Australian footballers (age = 23.83 ± 7.04 yrs; height = 1.79 ± 0.06 m; mass = 85.36 ± 13.21 kg) were recruited. Following familiarization, subjects completed the 20-m sprint, CODAT, and IAR in 2 sessions, 48 hours apart. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) assessed relative reliability. Absolute reliability was analyzed through paired samples t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) determining between-session differences. Typical error (TE), coefficient of variation (CV), and differences between the TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC), also assessed absolute reliability and test usefulness. For the validity analysis, Pearson's correlations (p ≤ 0.05) analyzed between-test relationships. Results showed no between-session differences for any test (p = 0.19-0.86). CODAT time averaged ~6 s, and the ICC and CV equaled 0.84 and 3.0%, respectively. The homogeneous sample of Australian footballers meant that the CODAT's TE (0.19 s) exceeded the usual 0.2 x standard deviation (SD) SWC (0.10 s). However, the CODAT is capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC calculated as 0.5 x SD = 0.25 s). There was a near perfect correlation between the CODAT and IAR (r = 0.92), and very large correlations with the 20-m sprint (r = 0.75-0.76), suggesting that the CODAT was a valid change-of-direction speed test. Due to movement specificity, the CODAT has value for field sport

  6. Test-retest reliability and smallest detectable change of the Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, S; Manns, S; Cramp, F; Lewis, R; Clark, E M

    2017-12-01

    The Bristol Impact of Hypermobility (BIoH) questionnaire is a patient-reported outcome measure developed in conjunction with adults with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome (JHS). It has demonstrated strong concurrent validity with the Short Form-36 (SF-36) physical component score but other psychometric properties have yet to be established. This study aimed to determine its test-retest reliability and smallest detectable change (SDC). A test-retest reliability study. Participants were recruited from the Hypermobility Syndromes Association, a patient organisation in the United Kingdom. Recruitment packs were sent to 1080 adults who had given permission to be contacted about research. BIoH and SF-36 questionnaires were administered at baseline and repeated two weeks later. An 11-point global rating of change scale (-5 to +5) was also administered at two weeks. Test-retest analysis and calculation of the SDC was conducted on 'stable' patients (defined as global rating of change -1 to +1). 462 responses were received. 233 patients reported a 'stable' condition and were included in analysis (95% women; mean (SD) age 44.5 (13.9) years; BIoH score 223.6 (54.0)). The BIoH questionnaire demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.923, 95% CI 0.900-0.940). The SDC was 42 points (equivalent to 19% of the mean baseline score). The SF-36 physical and mental component scores demonstrated poorer test-retest reliability and larger SDCs (as a proportion of the mean baseline scores). The results provide further evidence of the potential of the BIoH questionnaire to underpin research and clinical practice for people with JHS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  8. Does Changing Examiner Stations During UK Postgraduate Surgery Objective Structured Clinical Examinations Influence Examination Reliability and Candidates' Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Peter A; Croke, David T; Reed, Malcolm; Smith, Lee; Munro, Euan; Foulkes, John; Arnett, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective structured clinical examinations (OSCE) are widely used for summative assessment in surgery. Despite standardizing these as much as possible, variation, including examiner scoring, can occur which may affect reliability. In study of a high-stakes UK postgraduate surgical OSCE, we investigated whether examiners changing stations once during a long examining day affected marking, reliability, and overall candidates' scores compared with examiners who examined the same scenario all day. An observational study of 18,262 examiner-candidate interactions from the UK Membership of the Royal College of Surgeons examination was carried at 3 Surgical Colleges across the United Kingdom. Scores between examiners were compared using analysis of variance. Examination reliability was assessed with Cronbach's alpha, and the comparative distribution of total candidates' scores for each day was evaluated using t-tests of unit-weighted z scores. A significant difference was found in absolute scores differences awarded in the morning and afternoon sessions between examiners who changed stations at lunchtime and those who did not (p design and examiner experience in surgical OSCEs and beyond. Copyright © 2016 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of surface roughness variation on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers with ambient index change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Han, Young-Geun

    2010-01-01

    The influence of surface roughness on the sensitivity of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index was investigated. In order to obtain D-shaped fibers with different surface roughness, we polished one side of the fibers by using different abrasive grits. The topographies of the surfaces of the polished D-shaped fibers were then observed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The light scattered from the rough surfaces of the D-shaped fibers was measured by using optical microscopy. The effect of an ambient index change on the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers was measured for various values of the surface roughness. The experimental results indicate that variations in the surface roughness have a considerable influence on the sensitivity of the transmission characteristics of D-shaped fibers to changes in the ambient index.

  10. Pulse energy dependence of refractive index change in lithium niobium silicate glass during femtosecond laser direct writing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Poumellec, Bertrand; Brisset, François; Lancry, Matthieu

    2018-03-19

    Femtosecond laser-induced refractive index changes in lithium niobium silicate glass were explored at high repetition rate (300 fs, 500 kHz) by polarized light microscopy, full-wave retardation plate, quantitative birefringence microscopy, and digital holographic microscopy. We found three regimes on energy increase. The first one corresponds to isotropic negative refractive index change (for pulse energy ranging 0.4-0.8 μJ/pulse, 0.6 NA, 5μm/s, 650μm focusing depth in the glass). The second one (0.8-1.2 μJ/pulse) corresponds to birefringence with well-defined slow axis orientation. The third one (above 1.2 μJ/pulse) is related to birefringence direction fluctuation. Interestingly, these regimes are consistent with crystallization ones. In addition, an asymmetric orientational writing effect has been detected on birefringence. These topics extend the possibility of controlling refractive index change in multi-component glasses.

  11. A dysbiosis index to assess microbial changes in fecal samples of dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShawaqfeh, M K; Wajid, B; Minamoto, Y; Markel, M; Lidbury, J A; Steiner, J M; Serpedin, E; Suchodolski, J S

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have identified various bacterial groups that are altered in dogs with chronic inflammatory enteropathies (CE) compared to healthy dogs. The study aim was to use quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays to confirm these findings in a larger number of dogs, and to build a mathematical algorithm to report these microbiota changes as a dysbiosis index (DI). Fecal DNA from 95 healthy dogs and 106 dogs with histologically confirmed CE was analyzed. Samples were grouped into a training set and a validation set. Various mathematical models and combination of qPCR assays were evaluated to find a model with highest discriminatory power. The final qPCR panel consisted of eight bacterial groups: total bacteria, Faecalibacterium, Turicibacter, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus, Blautia, Fusobacterium and Clostridium hiranonis. The qPCR-based DI was built based on the nearest centroid classifier, and reports the degree of dysbiosis in a single numerical value that measures the closeness in the l2 - norm of the test sample to the mean prototype of each class. A negative DI indicates normobiosis, whereas a positive DI indicates dysbiosis. For a threshold of 0, the DI based on the combined dataset achieved 74% sensitivity and 95% specificity to separate healthy and CE dogs. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. SSB taxes and diet quality in US preschoolers: estimated changes in the 2010 Healthy Eating Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, C N; Poti, J M; Ng, S W; Popkin, B M

    2017-04-01

    Taxing sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been proposed as a strategy to combat child obesity. Yet it is unclear how a tax on SSBs might influence the overall quality of diet in preschool children. Thus, we use simulated price increases and the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010) to explore the relationship between SSB taxes and diet quality in preschool children. Price and purchase data from the 2009-2012 Nielsen Homescan Panel and a two-part marginal effects model were used to estimate relative changes in purchases with a 20% increase in the price of SSBs. Demand elasticities were applied to dietary intake data for children ages 2-5 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2009-2010 and 2011-2012) to estimate the impact of a 20% SSB tax on dietary intake and quality (HEI-2010). A 20% increase in the price of SSBs was associated with lower total caloric intake (-28 kcal d -1 , p diet quality as an isolated intervention among US preschool children. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  13. Biliary Cast Syndrome: Hepatic Artery Resistance Index, Pathological Changes, Morphology and Endoscopic Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biliary cast syndrome (BCS was a postoperative complication of orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, and the reason for BSC was considered to relate with ischemic type biliary lesions. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BCS following OLT and the hepatic artery resistance index (HARI, and to observe pathological changes and morphology of biliary casts. Methods: Totally, 18 patients were diagnosed with BCS by cholangiography following OLT using choledochoscope or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. In addition, 36 patients who did not present with BCS in the corresponding period had detectable postoperative HARI on weeks 1, 2, 3 shown by color Doppler flow imaging. The compositions of biliary casts were analyzed by pathological examination and scanning electron microscopy. Results: HARI values of the BCS group were significantly decreased as compared with the non-BCS group on postoperative weeks 2 and 3 (P 1 (OR = 1.300; 1.223; and 1.889, respectively. The OR of HARI 3 was statistically significant (OR = 1.889; 95% confidence interval = 1.166-7.490; P = 0.024. The compositions of biliary casts were different when bile duct stones were present. Furthermore, vascular epithelial cells were found by pathological examination in biliary casts. Conclusions: HARI may possibly serve as an independent risk factor and early predictive factor of BCS. Components and formation of biliary casts and bile duct stones are different.

  14. Analyzing Vegetation Change in an Elephant-Impacted Landscape Using the Moving Standard Deviation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J. Fullman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Northern Botswana is influenced by various socio-ecological drivers of landscape change. The African elephant (Loxodonta africana is one of the leading sources of landscape shifts in this region. Developing the ability to assess elephant impacts on savanna vegetation is important to promote effective management strategies. The Moving Standard Deviation Index (MSDI applies a standard deviation calculation to remote sensing imagery to assess degradation of vegetation. Used previously for assessing impacts of livestock on rangelands, we evaluate the ability of the MSDI to detect elephant-modified vegetation along the Chobe riverfront in Botswana, a heavily elephant-impacted landscape. At broad scales, MSDI values are positively related to elephant utilization. At finer scales, using data from 257 sites along the riverfront, MSDI values show a consistent negative relationship with intensity of elephant utilization. We suggest that these differences are due to varying effects of elephants across scales. Elephant utilization of vegetation may increase heterogeneity across the landscape, but decrease it within heavily used patches, resulting in the observed MSDI pattern of divergent trends at different scales. While significant, the low explanatory power of the relationship between the MSDI and elephant utilization suggests the MSDI may have limited use for regional monitoring of elephant impacts.

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE BANDUNG CHANGES EXCELLENT POTENTIAL THROUGH INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL USING INDEX LE MASNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teti Sofia Yanti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Input-Output Table is arranged to present an overview of the interrelationships and interdependence between units of activity (sector production in the whole economy. Therefore the input-output models are complete and comprehensive analytical tool. The usefulness of input-output tables is an analysis of the economic structure of the national/regional level which covers the structure of production and value-added (GDP of each sector. For the purposes of planning and evaluation of the outcomes of development that is comprehensive both national and smaller scale (district/city, a model for regional development planning approach can use the model input-output analysis. Analysis of Bandung Economic Structure did use Le Masne index, by comparing the coefficients of the technology in 2003 and 2008, of which nearly 50% change. The trade sector has grown very conspicuous than other areas, followed by the services of road transport and air transport services, the development priorities and investment Bandung should be directed to these areas, this is due to these areas can be thrust and be power attraction for the growth of other areas. The areas that experienced the highest decrease was Industrial Chemicals and Goods from Chemistry, followed by Oil and Refinery Industry Textile Industry Except For Garment.

  16. Longitudinal Changes in Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Oxygen Uptake Among Norwegian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have investigated activity levels among adolescents, but no study has examined longitudinal changes in physical activity (PA level, body mass, and oxygen uptake among the same adolescents from the age of 14 to 19 years. The present study examined data from a research project that included a group of randomly selected students (N = 116 with objective measurements of PA (accelerometer data, self-reported PA level, and body mass and oxygen uptake during a 5-year period. The results show a significant decrease in the accelerometer-based PA level over time, from age 14 to 19. At 14 years of age, the minutes of moderate and/or vigorous PA was 66.7 min·day−1, but was less than half, at only 24.4 min·day−1, at 19 years of age. The self-reported activity data show a decrease in girls’ general activity level over time, while boys’ activity level during school breaks decreased strongly during the period: at age 14, 61% of the boys were classified as active, while at age 19, only 11% were physically active. Furthermore, body mass index increased during the period for both genders, while oxygen uptake decreased. Since both BMI and maximal oxygen uptake are important risk factors for future CVD, these findings point toward the importance of maintaining a high activity level during childhood and adolescence, in order to keep fit later in life.

  17. Changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes in patients with hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the changes of thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism in patients with hyperthyroidism. Methods: A total of 216 cases of hyperthyroidism in our hospital from December 2015 to January 2015 were selected as the case group, 216 cases of healthy people selected the same period in our hospital physical examination center as the control group, detected thyroid function, autoantibodies, bone mineral density and bone metabolism indexes of all the studied subjects and compared with each other. Results: In this study, it was found that diastolic blood pressure, BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL-C, VLDL-C, TSH were all significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, systolic blood pressure, LDL-C, GLU, T3, T4, FT3, FT4, HTG, TG-Ab, TPO-Ab in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Right calcaneal speed of sound (SOS in case group was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05, BGP, PTH in case group were significantly higher than the control group (P<0.05. Conclusions: Hyperthyroidism can cause thyroid hormone levels abnormal, abnormal increase autoantibodies, decrease bone density, bone metabolism actively, easy to form osteoporosis, clinical treatment of hyperthyroidism in the same time, should actively prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis

  18. Pump-induced refractive index changes in Tb{sup 3+} doped glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, T.A.; Santos, J.F.M. dos; Auad, Y.M; Nunes, L.A.O. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Astrath, N.G.C; Baesso, M.L. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, PR (Brazil); Catunda, T., E-mail: tomaz@ifsc.usp.br [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    It now well known in laser materials, that a refractive index change appears when the active ions are pumped from ground to excited state due to the polarizability difference between ground and excited states (metastable). In this paper this effect was investigated in Tb{sup 3+} doped glasses: calcium alumino phosphate (CAP), low-silica calcium aluminosilicate (LSCAS) and calcium aluminosilicate (CAS). The measurements were performed using the time resolved Z-scan technique, with an Ar{sup +} laser at 488 nm, close to the resonance of {sup 7}F{sub 6}→{sup 5}D{sub 4} absorption line, where {sup 5}D{sub 4} is a metastable state. We obtained for low-silica calcium aluminosilicate glass Δα{sub p}~10{sup −24} cm{sup 3} which is the highest value ever reported for a RE doped material. - Highlights: • Time resolved Z-scan measurements in 3 different Tb{sup 3+} doped glass. • Very high polarizability difference (Δα{sub p}), typically 1 order of magnitude higher than other rare earth ions. • Observations of higher order nonlinearities, such as-third, fifth and senventh order effects.

  19. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of this study was to examine BMI in a large cohort of long-term CCSs and relate this to the BMI at diagnosis, age, sex, tumor type, treatment, and endocrine defects. All patients treated for childhood cancer at the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 who had survived for at least 5 years were eligible for inclusion. For 893 CCSs with a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, the BMI at the late effects outpatient clinic was compared with the BMI for the general Dutch population. For girls, an increased prevalence of obesity was found. Risk factors for developing a high BMI at follow-up were a younger age and a high BMI at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiotherapy. A significantly increased prevalence of severe underweight was found in all adult subgroups except for females aged 26 to 45 years. An association was found between a low BMI at diagnosis and a low BMI at follow-up. No treatment-related variables could be related to changes in BMI. The BMI at diagnosis is one of the most important predictors for the BMI at follow-up, and this suggests an important genetic or environmental cause. Adult CCSs are at high risk for developing severe underweight at follow-up. Future studies should focus on the causes and clinical consequences of underweight. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  20. Interval Changes in Myocardial Performance Index Predict Outcome in Severe Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, Junaid; Mahmood, Feroze; Tung, Avery; Mueller, Ariel; Brown, Samuel M; Shaefi, Shahzad; O'Connor, Michael; Talmor, Daniel; Shahul, Sajid

    2017-06-01

    Septic cardiomyopathy is a well-described consequence of septic shock and is associated with increased sepsis-related mortality. The myocardial performance index (MPI), a parameter derived from echocardiographic tissue Doppler measurements, allows for a more sensitive assessment of global cardiac function than do traditional metrics for cardiac function. The authors hypothesized that changes in left ventricular MPI in patients with severe sepsis would be associated with a higher 90-day mortality. Prospective, observational study. Intensive care units of a tertiary medical center. The study comprised 47 patients admitted with new diagnoses of severe sepsis or septic shock. All patients underwent transthoracic echocardiograms with assessment of MPI at enrollment and 24 hours later. Hemodynamic data and information on sepsis-related mortality were collected. In the primary analysis, the association between change in MPI from enrollment to 24 hours and sepsis-related 90-day mortality was assessed. Of the 47 patients enrolled, 30 demonstrated an improvement in MPI from 0 to 24 hours ("improved" group), and MPI worsened in the remaining 17 patients ("worsened" group). Despite no significant differences in ejection fraction or severity of illness, the median MPI at enrollment in the "improved" group was higher than baseline values in the "worsened" group (p = 0.005). A worsening MPI over the 24-hour study interval was associated with increased mortality at 90 days (p = 0.04), which remained significant (hazard ratio 3.72; 95% confidence interval 1.12-12.41; p = 0.03) after adjusting for severity of illness (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score), intravenous fluids, and vasopressor use. In patients admitted to the intensive care unit with a diagnosis of severe sepsis or septic shock, a worsening MPI during the first 24 hours after intensive care unit admission was associated with higher 90-day mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. Preparing for climate change regulation : an assessment of the current state of date reliability in the Canadian electrical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuh, C.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provided an overview of current Canadian greenhouse gas (GHG) reporting requirements, predictions about GHG regulations, and the current state of GHGs data reliability in the Canadian electrical industry. The author argued that while potential management strategies are necessary, they are not sufficient to meet Kyoto or similar types of initiatives because they do not provide incentives for reductions, they do not establish accountability, nor do they encourage reliable data. It was predicted that the first climate change regulation will be a sectoral agreement enacted at the federal/provincial level. It was also predicted that future regulations will include a requirement to report GHG emissions in a reliable manner and that regulators will use the data to track performance. The final prediction was that the onus will be on the companies to prove that the data is reliable as regulators will have limited resources to check the data. It was noted that the current state of data is not suitable for analytical testing because of a lack of clear definitions, a lack of industry comparison, inability to compare between companies, inability to compare between different types of power generation, and the inability to compare between years. It was suggested that data reliability could be improved by having the regulators review and monitor the reported data, or by having a third party review and provide assurance on the reported data. It was concluded that there will have to be agreement at the industry level on common measurement and calculation methodology, as well as an agreement on a common scope of reporting. 4 figs

  2. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  3. Projecting the potential evapotranspiration by coupling different formulations and input data reliabilities: The possible uncertainty source for climate change impacts on hydrological regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiguang; Li, Changni; Xing, Wanqiu; Fu, Jianyu

    2017-12-01

    Representing atmospheric evaporating capability for a hypothetical reference surface, potential evapotranspiration (PET) determines the upper limit of actual evapotranspiration and is an important input to hydrological models. Due that present climate models do not give direct estimates of PET when simulating the hydrological response to future climate change, the PET must be estimated first and is subject to the uncertainty on account of many existing formulae and different input data reliabilities. Using four different PET estimation approaches, i.e., the more physically Penman (PN) equation with less reliable input variables, more empirical radiation-based Priestley-Taylor (PT) equation with relatively dependable downscaled data, the most simply temperature-based Hamon (HM) equation with the most reliable downscaled variable, and downscaling PET directly by the statistical downscaling model, this paper investigated the differences of runoff projection caused by the alternative PET methods by a well calibrated abcd monthly hydrological model. Three catchments, i.e., the Luanhe River Basin, the Source Region of the Yellow River and the Ganjiang River Basin, representing a large climatic diversity were chosen as examples to illustrate this issue. The results indicated that although similar monthly patterns of PET over the period 2021-2050 for each catchment were provided by the four methods, the magnitudes of PET were still slightly different, especially for spring and summer months in the Luanhe River Basin and the Source Region of the Yellow River with relatively dry climate feature. The apparent discrepancy in magnitude of change in future runoff and even the diverse change direction for summer months in the Luanhe River Basin and spring months in the Source Region of the Yellow River indicated that the PET method related uncertainty occurred, especially in the Luanhe River Basin and the Source Region of the Yellow River with smaller aridity index. Moreover, the

  4. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  5. Change of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Hua Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and investigate the change state of T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion. Methods: A total of 92 patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion in our hospital from June 2013 to July 2015 were selected as the observation group and 92 women with health delivery history at the same time were selected as the control group,then the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of two groups were detected and compared and the peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were compared too. Results:The peripheral blood T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of observation group and control group all had obvious differences,and those blood indexes levels' differences of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times were obvious too, all P<0.05 and the differences were significant. Conclusions: The T, B lymphocyte subsets and Th1/Th2 indexes of patients with recurrent spontaneous abortion show abnormal state and the differences of detection results of patients with different gestational age at abortion and abortion times are relatively obvious,so those indexes should be monitored and improved intentinonally.

  6. Reliability of a patient survey assessing cost-related changes in health care use among high deductible health plan enrollees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbraith Alison A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent increases in patient cost-sharing for health care have lent increasing importance to monitoring cost-related changes in health care use. Despite the widespread use of survey questions to measure changes in health care use and related behaviors, scant data exists on the reliability of such questions. Methods We administered a cross-sectional survey to a stratified random sample of families in a New England health plan's high deductible health plan (HDHP with ≥ $500 in annualized out-of-pocket expenditures. Enrollees were asked about their knowledge of their plan, information seeking, behavior change associated with having a deductible, experience of delay in care due in part to cost, and hypothetical delay in care due in part to cost. Initial respondents were mailed a follow-up survey within two weeks of each family returning the original survey. We computed several agreement statistics to measure the test-retest reliability for select questions. We also conducted continuity adjusted chi-square, and McNemar tests in both the original and follow-up samples to measure the degree to which our results could be reproduced. Analyses were stratified by self-reported income. Results The test-retest reliability was moderate for the majority of questions (0.41 - 0.60 and the level of test-retest reliability did not differ substantially across each of the broader domains of questions. The observed proportions of respondents with delayed or foregone pediatric, adult, or any family care were similar when comparing the original and follow-up surveys. In the original survey, respondents in the lower-income group were more likely to delay or forego pediatric care, adult care, or any family care. All of the tests comparing income groups in the follow-up survey produced the same result as in the original survey. Conclusions In this population of HDHP beneficiaries, we found that survey questions concerning plan knowledge, information

  7. Reliability enhancement of portal frame structure by finite element synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagiri, S.

    1989-01-01

    The stochastic finite element methods have been applied to the evaluation of structural response and reliability of uncertain structural systems. The structural reliability index of the advanced first-order second moment (AFOSM) method is a candidate of the measure of assessing structural safety and reliability. The reliability index can be evaluated when a baseline design of structures under interest is proposed and the covariance matrix of the probabilistic variables is acquired to represent uncertainties involved in the structure systems. The reliability index thus evaluated is not assured the largest one for the structure. There is left a possibility to enhance the structural reliability for the given covariance matrix by changing the baseline design. From such a viewpoint of structural optimization, some ideas have been proposed to maximize the reliability or to minimize the failure probability of uncertain structural systems. A method of changing the design is proposed to increase the reliability index from its baseline value to another desired value. The reliability index in this paper is calculated mainly by the method of Lagrange multiplier

  8. Reliability of Coulomb stress changes inferred from correlated uncertainties of finite-fault source models

    KAUST Repository

    Woessner, J.; Jonsson, Sigurjon; Sudhaus, H.; Baumann, C.

    2012-01-01

    Static stress transfer is one physical mechanism to explain triggered seismicity. Coseismic stress-change calculations strongly depend on the parameterization of the causative finite-fault source model. These models are uncertain due

  9. Association between dietary phytochemical index and 3-year changes in weight, waist circumference and body adiposity index in adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirmiran Parvin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intakes of phytochemical-rich foods have favorable effects on the prevention of chronic diseases. In this study we assessed the dietary phytochemical index (PI in relation to 3-year change in weight, waist circumference (WC, body adiposity index (BAI among Tehranian adults. Methods This longitudinal study was conducted in the framework of Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, between 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, on 1938 adults, aged 19–70 y. The usual intake of participants was measured at baseline using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and dietary PI was calculated. Anthropometric measures were assessed both at baseline and 3 years later. Multiple regression models were used to estimate mean difference changes in anthropometrics associated with various dietary PI. Results The mean age of participants was 40.4 ± 13.0 y, at baseline, respectively. Mean weight gain was 1.49 ± 5.06 kg (1.65 ± 5.3 kg in men and 1.34 ± 4.9 kg in women during 3-year period. After adjustment for potential confounding variables including age at baseline, sex, BMI, educational levels, smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, dietary intake of carbohydrate, fat and protein, dietary intakes of whole grains in the highest quartile category of PI were inversely associated with 3-year changes in weight and WC (P for trend . Dietary intake of fruits in the highest quartile was also associated with lower weight gain during the study period (P for trend . There was significant inverse association between the highest quartile category of dietary PI with the 3-year changes in weight and BAI (P for trend . Conclusion Higher dietary PI could have favorable effects on prevention of weight gain and reduction of body adiposity in adults.

  10. Change in Body Mass Index Associated With Lowest Mortality in Denmark, 1976-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-05-10

    Research has shown a U-shaped pattern in the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality. Although average BMI has increased over time in most countries, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors may also be decreasing among obese individuals over time. Thus, the BMI associated with lowest all-cause mortality may have changed. To determine whether the BMI value that is associated with the lowest all-cause mortality has increased in the general population over a period of 3 decades. Three cohorts from the same general population enrolled at different times: the Copenhagen City Heart Study in 1976-1978 (n = 13,704) and 1991-1994 (n = 9482) and the Copenhagen General Population Study in 2003-2013 (n = 97,362). All participants were followed up from inclusion in the studies to November 2014, emigration, or death, whichever came first. For observational studies, BMI was modeled using splines and in categories defined by the World Health Organization. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. Main outcome was all-cause mortality and secondary outcomes were cause-specific mortality. The number of deaths during follow-up was 10,624 in the 1976-1978 cohort (78% cumulative mortality; mortality rate [MR], 30/1000 person-years [95%CI, 20-46]), 5025 in the 1991-1994 cohort (53%; MR, 16/1000 person-years [95%CI, 9-30]), and 5580 in the 2003-2013 cohort (6%;MR, 4/1000 person-years [95%CI, 1-10]). Except for cancer mortality, the association of BMI with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other mortality was curvilinear (U-shaped). The BMI associated with the lowest all-cause mortality increased by 3.3 from the 1976-1978 cohort compared with the 2003-2013 cohort. [table: see text] The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality for BMI of 30 or more vs BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 were 1.31 (95%CI, 1.23-1.39;MR, 46/1000 person-years [95%CI, 32-66] vs 28/1000 person-years [95%CI, 18-45]) in the 1976

  11. Automated gray level index measurements reveal only minor cytoarchitectonic changes of Brodmann area 9 in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepest, Ralf; Vogeley, Kai; Viebahn, Bettina; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Honer, William G; Falkai, Peter

    2008-07-15

    Using an automatized gray level index (GLI) method, we recently found cytoarchitectonic abnormalities in schizophrenia in Brodmann area 10 (BA10) [Vogeley, K., Tepest, R., Schneider-Axmann, T., Hutte, H., Zilles, K., Honer, W.G., Falkai, P., 2003. Automated image analysis of disturbed cytoarchitecture in Brodmann area 10 in schizophrenia, Schizophrenia Research 62, 133-140]. As another potential key region involved in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, we have now investigated BA9 in the same sample consisting of 20 schizophrenic cases and 20 controls. The GLI value represents the area-percentage covered by perikarya in measuring fields of microscopic images. BA9 was analyzed with respect to the factors diagnosis and gender for six different compartments approximately corresponding to the neocortical layers. The main result in BA9 was a significant interaction of diagnosis and gender for GLI in layers IV and V on the left side. Subsequent analyses separately performed concerning gender revealed a significant GLI increase in layer V on the left side in male patients compared with controls. However, after an adjustment of error probabilities for multiple testing, differences did not reach significance. No GLI difference was observed in the sample between diagnostic groups for females and between the diagnostic groups in general. Comparisons with our BA10 results suggest that cytoarchitectural changes relevant to schizophrenia appear different in various Brodmann areas. Since increases in GLI were found only in selected layers (V and VI) of BA9, these findings do not support a generalized neuropil reduction across all cortical layers.

  12. The use of adaptable automation: Effects of extended skill lay-off and changes in system reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Juergen; Chavaillaz, Alain

    2017-01-01

    This experiment aimed to examine how skill lay-off and system reliability would affect operator behaviour in a simulated work environment under wide-range and large-choice adaptable automation comprising six different levels. Twenty-four participants were tested twice during a 2-hr testing session, with the second session taking place 8 months after the first. In the middle of the second testing session, system reliability changed. The results showed that after the retention interval trust increased and self-confidence decreased. Complacency was unaffected by the lay-off period. Diagnostic speed slowed down after the retention interval but diagnostic accuracy was maintained. No difference between experimental conditions was found for automation management behaviour (i.e. level of automation chosen and frequency of switching between levels). There were few effects of system reliability. Overall, the findings showed that subjective measures were more sensitive to the impact of skill lay-off than objective behavioural measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Validity and Reliability of 10-Hz Global Positioning System to Assess In-line Movement and Change of Direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T; Clemente, Filipe M; van der Linden, Cornelis M I; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2018-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the validity and reliability of the 10 Hz Johan GPS unit in assessing in-line movement and change of direction. The validity was tested against the criterion measure of 200 m track-and-field (track-and-field athletes, n = 8) and 20 m shuttle run endurance test (female soccer players, n = 20). Intra-unit and inter-unit reliability was tested by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and coefficient of variation (CV), respectively. An analysis of variance examined differences between the GPS measurement and five laps of 200 m at 15 km/h, and t -test examined differences between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test. The difference between the GPS measurement and 200 m distance ranged from -0.13 ± 3.94 m (95% CI -3.42; 3.17) in the first lap to 2.13 ± 2.64 m (95% CI -0.08; 4.33) in the fifth lap. A good intra-unit reliability was observed in 200 m (ICC = 0.833, 95% CI 0.535; 0.962). Inter-unit CV ranged from 1.31% (fifth lap) to 2.20% (third lap). The difference between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test ranged from 0.33 ± 4.16 m (95% CI -10.01; 10.68) in 11.5 km/h to 9.00 ± 5.30 m (95% CI 6.44; 11.56) in 8.0 km/h. A moderate intra-unit reliability was shown in the second and third stage of the 20 m shuttle run endurance test (ICC = 0.718, 95% CI 0.222;0.898) and good reliability in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth (ICC = 0.831, 95% CI -0.229;0.996). Inter-unit CV ranged from 2.08% (11.5 km/h) to 3.92% (8.5 km/h). Based on these findings, it was concluded that the 10 Hz Johan system offers an affordable valid and reliable tool for coaches and fitness trainers to monitor training and performance.

  14. Validity and Reliability of 10-Hz Global Positioning System to Assess In-line Movement and Change of Direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis T. Nikolaidis

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to examine the validity and reliability of the 10 Hz Johan GPS unit in assessing in-line movement and change of direction. The validity was tested against the criterion measure of 200 m track-and-field (track-and-field athletes, n = 8 and 20 m shuttle run endurance test (female soccer players, n = 20. Intra-unit and inter-unit reliability was tested by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC and coefficient of variation (CV, respectively. An analysis of variance examined differences between the GPS measurement and five laps of 200 m at 15 km/h, and t-test examined differences between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test. The difference between the GPS measurement and 200 m distance ranged from −0.13 ± 3.94 m (95% CI −3.42; 3.17 in the first lap to 2.13 ± 2.64 m (95% CI −0.08; 4.33 in the fifth lap. A good intra-unit reliability was observed in 200 m (ICC = 0.833, 95% CI 0.535; 0.962. Inter-unit CV ranged from 1.31% (fifth lap to 2.20% (third lap. The difference between the GPS measurement and 20 m shuttle run endurance test ranged from 0.33 ± 4.16 m (95% CI −10.01; 10.68 in 11.5 km/h to 9.00 ± 5.30 m (95% CI 6.44; 11.56 in 8.0 km/h. A moderate intra-unit reliability was shown in the second and third stage of the 20 m shuttle run endurance test (ICC = 0.718, 95% CI 0.222;0.898 and good reliability in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth (ICC = 0.831, 95% CI −0.229;0.996. Inter-unit CV ranged from 2.08% (11.5 km/h to 3.92% (8.5 km/h. Based on these findings, it was concluded that the 10 Hz Johan system offers an affordable valid and reliable tool for coaches and fitness trainers to monitor training and performance.

  15. Are the Projections of Future Climate Change Reliable in the IPCC Reports?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zongci Zhao

    2011-01-01

    @@ As we know,the projections of future climate change including impacts and strategies in the IPCC Assessment Reports were based on global climate models with scenarios on various human activities.Global climate model simulations provide key inputs for climate change assessments. In this study,the main objective is to analyze if the projections of fu-ture climate change by global climate models are reli-able.Several workshops have been held on this issue,such as the IPCC expert meeting on assessing and combining multi-model climate projections in January of 2010 (presided by the co-chairs of the IPCC WGI and WGII AR5),and the workshop of the combined global climate model group held by NCAR in June of 2010.

  16. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-`a-vis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    index vis-`a-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra ... in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. ... for better disaster management and water resource ..... productivity and irrigation water supply in the con-.

  17. Does changing Fitts’ index of difficulty evoke transitions in movement dynamics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huys Raoul

    2015-12-01

    We conclude that a complete description of Fitts’ law has yet to be achieved and speculate that the pertinence of the index of difficulty in studying the dynamics underlying goal-directed aiming may have to be reconsidered.

  18. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the D2 Test of Attention in Patients with Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Posen; Lu, Wen-Shian; Liu, Chin-Hsuan; Lin, Hung-Yu; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2017-12-08

    The d2 Test of Attention (D2) is a commonly used measure of selective attention for patients with schizophrenia. However, its test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) are unknown in patients with schizophrenia, limiting its utility in both clinical and research settings. The aim of the present study was to examine the test-retest reliability and MDC of the D2 in patients with schizophrenia. A rater administered the D2 on 108 patients with schizophrenia twice at a 1-month interval. Test-retest reliability was determined through the calculation of the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We also carried out Bland-Altman analysis, which included a scatter plot of the differences between test and retest against their mean. Systematic biases were evaluated by use of a paired t-test. The ICCs for the D2 ranged from 0.78 to 0.94. The MDCs (MDC%) of the seven subscores were 102.3 (29.7), 19.4 (85.0), 7.2 (94.6), 21.0 (69.0), 104.0 (33.1), 105.0 (35.8), and 7.8 (47.8), which represented limited-to-acceptable random measurement error. Trends in the Bland-Altman plots of the omissions (E1), commissions (E2), and errors (E) were noted, presenting that the data had heteroscedasticity. According to the results, the D2 had good test-retest reliability, especially in the scores of TN, TN-E, and CP. For the further research, finding a way to improve the administration procedure to reduce random measurement error would be important for the E1, E2, E, and FR subscores. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. CHANGE ON SPEED AIR CHARACTERISTICS THE POWER INDICATOR INDEXES OF PNEUMATIC ENGINE WITHOUT HEATING THE CHARGE DURING THE ADMITTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Voronkov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data on change according to speed characteristics of power indicator indexes of the four cylinder pneumatic engine D/S = 76/66 with a slide-valve air distributor at unchangeable temperature of compressed input air is considered.

  20. impact of climate change on reservoir reliability abstract résumé

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    Research and observations indicate that increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are raising global and regional temperatures, and producing changes in other climate variables that drive the terrestrial hydrological cycle, most notably precipitation and potential evaporation. This paper presents results of a study ...

  1. [Effect of genetic polymorphisms on change in body mass index and obesity status during childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M X; Cheng, H; Zhao, X Y; Wu, L J; Yan, Y K; Mi, J

    2017-07-06

    Objective: The present study aimed to prospectively validate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obesity-related genes were associated with change in body mass index (BMI) and obesity status during childhood. Methods: Based on the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study (BCAMS), which was initiated between April and October in 2004, we conducted a follow-up study among 1 624 children aged 6 to 11 years old with genetic data in December 2010. A total of 777 children (246 obese and 531 non-obese) were reassessed for BMI. Z -score of BMI was used to standardize for age and sex. The changes in BMI Z -score during follow up were calcnlated SNPs were genotyped by quantitative Real-time PCR (rs9939609, rs6499640, rs7138803, rs1805081, rs17782313, rs6265, rs10938397, rs6235, rs29941, rs2844479, rs10913469 and rs4788102). Overweight and obesity were diagnosed by the age-and sex-specific BMI cutoffs recommended by the International Obesity Task Force. A multilocus genetic risk score for BMI was calculated as the simple sum of alleles of all the SNPs associated with BMI. Linear regression models and logistic regression models were performed to assess the associations of change in BMI Z-score and obese status with genotypes (assuming an additive model), respectively. Results: During 6 years of follow-up, 158 previously obese children remained obese as they aged into adolescence, and 88 transiently obese children were not obese during the second survey, 58 children were newly identified obese, and the other 473 children remained their non-obese state. BMI Z-score increased from 1.41±0.05 at baseline to 1.57±0.06 at follow up.The genotypes of the SNPs except rs6499640( P =0.033) and rs6265( P =0.041) were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in each group ( P> 0.05). Each additional copy of the rs9939609 A allele was significantly associated with an increase in BMI Z-score (β=0.205, P= 0.014) during follow up. Per C allele of rs17782313 was associated

  2. Reliability, factor analysis and internal consistency calculation of the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI in French and in English among Lebanese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chahoud

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of our analyses reveal that both English and French versions of the ISI scale have good internal consistency and are reproducible and reliable. Therefore, it can be used to assess the prevalence of insomnia in Lebanese adolescents.

  3. Adapting to a Changing Colorado River: Making Future Water Deliveries More Reliable Through Robust Management Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, D.; Bloom, E.; Fischbach, J. R.; Knopman, D.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation and water management agencies representing the seven Colorado River Basin States initiated the Colorado River Basin Study in January 2010 to evaluate the resiliency of the Colorado River system over the next 50 years and compare different options for ensuring successful management of the river's resources. RAND was asked to join this Basin Study Team in January 2012 to help develop an analytic approach to identify key vulnerabilities in managing the Colorado River basin over the coming decades and to evaluate different options that could reduce this vulnerability. Using a quantitative approach for planning under uncertainty called Robust Decision Making (RDM), the RAND team assisted the Basin Study by: identifying future vulnerable conditions that could lead to imbalances that could cause the basin to be unable to meet its water delivery objectives; developing a computer-based tool to define 'portfolios' of management options reflecting different strategies for reducing basin imbalances; evaluating these portfolios across thousands of future scenarios to determine how much they could improve basin outcomes; and analyzing the results from the system simulations to identify key tradeoffs among the portfolios. This talk will describe RAND's contribution to the Basin Study, focusing on the methodologies used to to identify vulnerabilities for Upper Basin and Lower Basin water supply reliability and to compare portfolios of options. Several key findings emerged from the study. Future Streamflow and Climate Conditions Are Key: - Vulnerable conditions arise in a majority of scenarios where streamflows are lower than historical averages and where drought conditions persist for eight years or more. - Depending where the shortages occur, problems will arise for delivery obligations for the upper river basin and the lower river basin. The lower river basin is vulnerable to a broader range of plausible future conditions. Additional Investments in

  4. Changes in the Oswestry Disability Index that predict improvement after lumbar fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D; Dimar, John R; Crawford, Charles H; Bratcher, Kelly R; Carreon, Leah Y

    2012-11-01

    Clinical studies use both disease-specific and generic health outcomes measures. Disease-specific measures focus on health domains most relevant to the clinical population, while generic measures assess overall health-related quality of life. There is little information about which domains of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) are most important in determining improvement in overall health-related quality of life, as measured by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), after lumbar spinal fusion. The objective of the study is to determine which clinical elements assessed by the ODI most influence improvement of overall health-related quality of life. A single tertiary spine center database was used to identify patients undergoing lumbar fusion for standard degenerative indications. Patients with complete preoperative and 2-year outcomes measures were included. Pearson correlation was used to assess the relationship between improvement in each item of the ODI with improvement in the SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score, as well as achievement of the SF-36 PCS minimum clinically important difference (MCID). Multivariate regression modeling was used to examine which items of the ODI best predicted achievement for the SF-36 PCS MCID. The effect size and standardized response mean were calculated for each of the items of the ODI. A total of 1104 patients met inclusion criteria (674 female and 430 male patients). The mean age at surgery was 57 years. All items of the ODI showed significant correlations with the change in SF-36 PCS score and achievement of MCID for the SF-36 PCS, but only pain intensity, walking, and social life had r values > 0.4 reflecting moderate correlation. These 3 variables were also the dimensions that were independent predictors of the SF-36 PCS, and they were the only dimensions that had effect sizes and standardized response means that were moderate to large. Of the health dimensions measured by the ODI, pain intensity, walking

  5. Effects of Phenytoin Therapy on Bispectral Index and Haemodynamic Changes Following Induction and Tracheal Intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parmod P Bithal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation (LTI increase blood pressure and heart rate (HR. Intensity of these changes is influenced by the anaesthetic depth assessed by the bispectral index (BIS. We determined the effect of phenytoin on anaesthetic depth and its influence on haemodynamics following LTI. Fifty patients of ASA grades I and II on oral phenytoin 200 to 300mg per day for more than one week were compared with 48 control patients. Standard anaesthesia technique was followed. BIS, non invasive mean blood pressure (MBP and HR were recorded 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI. Phenytoin group needed lesser thiopentone for induction, 5 mg (1.1 vs. 4.3 mg (0.7 [p=0.036]. BIS was significantly lower in the phenytoin group vs. the control 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [43.1 (16.0 vs. 48.9 (14.9, p=0.068, 56.3 (16.7 vs. 64.3 (14.4, p=0.013, 59.8 (15.8 vs. 67.5 (12.1, p=0.008, 62.6 (14 vs. 68.9 (11.2, p=0.017, and 64.2 (11.3 vs. 69 (11.7, p=0.033], respectively. MBP was also lower in the phenytoin group 30, 60, 90 and 120 sec after LTI [112.8 mmHg (13.8, vs. 117.9 mmHg (18 p=0.013, 108.6 (12.8 vs. 117.5 (16 p=0.003, 106.1 mmHg (14.1 vs. 113.2 mmHg (14.9, p=0.017, 101.8 mmHg (13.8 vs. 109.5 mmHg (14.1, p=0.007], respectively. HR was lower in phenytoin group at 30 sec. (p=0.027, 60 sec (p=0.219, and again at 120 sec (p=0.022. Oral phenytoin therapy for over a week results in greater anaesthetic depth as observed using BIS, which also attenuated haemodynamic response of LTI.

  6. Ultrasound changes in the relationship between the urethra and bladder neck caused by prolapse repair: feasibility and reliability of measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckett, J; Lautmann, K

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess whether intraoperative transperineal ultrasound can be used to assess changes in the relationship between the urethra and bladder caused by a prolapse repair operation. The reliability of the measurements was also assessed. A total of 25 women having an anterior colporrhaphy operation had pre- and post-repair imaging using a standard bladder volume. There was a statistically significant change (p ≤ 0.04) in the posterior urethrovesical angle (PUA) from 115° (SD 37) before surgery, to 135° (SD 30) after surgery. There was no significant change (p = 0.93) in the anterior urethrovesical angle before 73° (SD 14) after surgery 73° (SD 14). Interclass correlation coefficients showed good reproducibility for all measurements. Ultrasound can be used to measure changes in the relationship of the urethra and bladder produced by anterior colporrhaphy. Clinically, the effect of these changes is to reduce the angulation of the urethra in relation to the bladder.

  7. Applications of Optical Interferometer Techniques for Precision Measurements of Changes in Temperature, Growth and Refractive Index of Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Reddy Bommareddi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical metrology techniques used to measure changes in thickness; temperature and refractive index are surveyed. Optical heterodyne detection principle and its applications for precision measurements of changes in thickness and temperature are discussed. Theoretical formulations are developed to estimate crystal growth rate, surface roughness and laser cooling/heating of solids. Applications of Michelson and Mach-Zehnder interferometers to measure temperature changes in laser heating of solids are described. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used to measure refractive index and concentration variations of solutions in crystal growth experiments. Additionally, fluorescence lifetime sensing and fluorescence ratio method are described for temperature measurement. For all the above techniques, uncertainty calculations are included.

  8. Effect of changes in contractility on the index of myocardial performance in the dysfunctional left ventricle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavine Steven J

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The index of myocardial performance has prognostic power in patients with cardiomyopathy and following myocardial infarction. As the index of myocardial performance has been shown to be preload and afterload dependent, the effect of altering contractility on IMP and its components with left ventricular dysfunction has been incompletely delineated. Methods Chronic left ventricular dysfunction was induced in 10 canines using coronary microsphere embolization. Each dog was instrumented and imaged with 2D echo and Doppler. At the same atrially paced rate, contractility was increased with a dobutamine infusion and then following 4 weeks of oral digoxin. Results With chronic left ventricular dysfunction, a reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (42 ± 3%, p Conclusion Increased inotropy with digoxin and dobutamine reduced the index of myocardial performance in dogs with left ventricular dysfunction. Shortened isovolumic contraction time, increased diastolic filling period, and reduced left ventricular end diastolic pressure with digoxin may provide insight into its efficacy in heart failure.

  9. Five preference-based indexes in cataract and heart failure patients were not equally responsive to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert M; Tally, Steven; Hays, Ron D; Feeny, David; Ganiats, Theodore G; Palta, Mari; Fryback, Dennis G

    2011-05-01

    To compare the responsiveness to clinical change of five widely used preference-based health-related quality-of-life indexes in two longitudinal cohorts. Five generic instruments were simultaneously administered to 376 adults undergoing cataract surgery and 160 adults in heart failure management programs. Patients were assessed at baseline and reevaluated after 1 and 6 months. The measures were the Short Form (SF)-6D (based on responses scored from SF-36v2), Self-Administered Quality of Well-being Scale (QWB-SA), the EuroQol-5D developed by the EuroQol Group, the Health Utilities Indexes Mark 2 (HUI2) and Mark 3 (HUI3). Cataract patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25, and heart failure patients completed the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Responsiveness was estimated by the standardized response mean. For cataract patients, mean changes between baseline and 1-month follow-up for the generic indices ranged from 0.00 (SF-6D) to 0.052 (HUI3) and were statistically significant for all indexes except the SF-6D. For heart failure patients, only the SF-6D showed significant change from baseline to 1 month, whereas only the QWB-SA change was significant between 1 and 6 months. Preference-based methods for measuring health outcomes are not equally responsive to change. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Change in Body Mass Index Associated With Lowest Mortality in Denmark, 1976-2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Gorm B

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Research has shown a U-shaped pattern in the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality. Although average BMI has increased over time in most countries, the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors may also be decreasing among obese individuals over time. Thus, the BMI...... came first. EXPOSURES: For observational studies, BMI was modeled using splines and in categories defined by the World Health Organization. Body mass index was calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Main outcome was all-cause mortality...

  11. Implementation of CDC's School Health Index in 3 Midwest Middle Schools: Motivation for Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine M.; Miller, Michelle; Lohrmann, David; Gregory, Patricia

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI), a guide for completing a coordinated school-based program needs assessment relative to healthy eating, physical activity, a tobacco-free lifestyle, and prevention of other health risk behaviors and conditions, was used to assess current programming at 3…

  12. Qualification Testing Versus Quantitative Reliability Testing of PV - Gaining Confidence in a Rapidly Changing Technology: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Repins, Ingrid L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hacke, Peter L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, Dirk [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kempe, Michael D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Whitfield, Kent [Underwriters Laboratories; Phillips, Nancy [DuPont; Sample, Tony [European Commission; Monokroussos, Christos [TUV Rheinland; Hsi, Edward [Swiss RE; Wohlgemuth, John [PowerMark Corporation; Seidel, Peter [First Solar; Jahn, Ulrike [TUV Rheinland; Tanahashi, Tadanori [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology; Chen, Yingnan [China General Certification Center; Jaeckel, Bengt [Underwriters Laboratories; Yamamichi, Masaaki [RTS Corporation

    2017-10-05

    Continued growth of PV system deployment would be enhanced by quantitative, low-uncertainty predictions of the degradation and failure rates of PV modules and systems. The intended product lifetime (decades) far exceeds the product development cycle (months), limiting our ability to reduce the uncertainty of the predictions for this rapidly changing technology. Yet, business decisions (setting insurance rates, analyzing return on investment, etc.) require quantitative risk assessment. Moving toward more quantitative assessments requires consideration of many factors, including the intended application, consequence of a possible failure, variability in the manufacturing, installation, and operation, as well as uncertainty in the measured acceleration factors, which provide the basis for predictions based on accelerated tests. As the industry matures, it is useful to periodically assess the overall strategy for standards development and prioritization of research to provide a technical basis both for the standards and the analysis related to the application of those. To this end, this paper suggests a tiered approach to creating risk assessments. Recent and planned potential improvements in international standards are also summarized.

  13. Implementation of Design Changes Towards a More Reliable, Hands-off Magnetron Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, A. [Fermilab; Bollinger, D. S. [Fermilab; Karns, P. R. [Fermilab; Tan, C. Y. [Fermilab

    2017-12-07

    As the main H- ion source for the accelerator complex, magnetron ion sources have been used at Fermilab since the 1970’s. At the offline test stand, new R&D is carried out to develop and upgrade the present magnetron-type sources of H- ions of up to 80 mA and 35 keV beam energy in the context of the Proton Improvement Plan. The aim of this plan is to provide high-power proton beams for the experiments at FNAL. In order to reduce the amount of tuning and monitoring of these ion sources, a new electronic system consisting of a current-regulated arc discharge modulator allow the ion source to run at a constant arc current for improved beam output and operation. A solenoid-type gas valve feeds H2 gas into the source precisely and independently of ambient temperature. This summary will cover several studies and design changes that have been tested and will eventually be implemented on the operational magnetron sources at Fermilab. Innovative results for this type of ion source include cathode geometries, solenoid gas valves, current controlled arc pulser, cesium boiler redesign, gas mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and duty factor reduction, with the aim to improve source lifetime, stability, and reducing the amount of tuning needed. In this summary, I will highlight the advances made in ion sources at Fermilab and will outline the directions of the continuing R&D effort.

  14. The OMERACT Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) is reliable and sensitive to change: results from an OMERACT workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøyesen, Pernille; McQueen, Fiona M; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year.......The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year....

  15. Spectral Reflectance and Vegetation Index Changes in Deciduous Forest Foliage Following Tree Removal: Potential for Deforestation Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, D.; Hu, Y.; Li, Z.

    2016-05-01

    It is important to detect and quantify deforestation to guide strategic decisions regarding environment, socioeconomic development, and climate change. In the present study, we conducted a field experiment to examine spectral reflectance and vegetation index changes in poplar and locust tree foliage with different leaf area indices over the course of three sunny days, following tree removal from the canopy. The spectral reflectance of foliage from harvested trees was measured using an ASD FieldSpec Prospectroradiometer; synchronous meteorological data were also obtained. We found that reflectance in short-wave infrared and red-edge reflectance was more time sensitive after tree removal than reflectance in other spectral regions, and that the normalized difference water index (NDWI) and the red-edge chlorophyll index (CIRE) were the preferred indicators of these changes from several indices evaluated. Synthesized meteorological environments were found to influence water and chlorophyll contents after tree removal, and this subsequently changed the spectral canopy reflectance. Our results indicate the potential for such tree removal to be detected with NDWI or CIRE from the second day of a deforestation event.

  16. Two-year changes in anthropometric and motor ability values as talent identification indexes in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Norikazu; Seki, Taigo

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined 2-year changes in anthropometric variables and motor abilities in elite male youth soccer players to identify potential talent identification indexes. This was a cross-sequential study examining two different age groups at two time points. Height, weight, 40-m sprint speed, muscular power (5-step bounding), and change of direction (COD) ability (10 m×5 COD) were measured in 12- and 14-year-old soccer players and repeated after 2 years (at 14 and 16 years of age). Correlations and changes in ranking between the two measurements were determined. Both groups had small ranking changes in height (12-14-year-olds: r=0.80, 14-16-year-olds: r=0.89; ptalent identification index for youth soccer players. On the other hand, muscular power and COD ability is changeable during growth period suggests that these parameters is not useful for talent identification index. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nonlinear intersubband absorption and refractive index changes in square and graded quantum well modulated by temperature and Hydrostatic pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Emine; Sokmen, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the effects of hydrostatic pressure and temperature on the linear and nonlinear intersubband transitions and the refractive index changes in the conduction band of square and graded quantum well (QW) are theoretically calculated within the framework of effective mass approximation. Results obtained show that the energy levels in different QWs and intersubband properties can be modified and controlled by the hydrostatic pressure and temperature. The modulation of the absorption coefficients and the refractive index changes which can be suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infrared optical device applications can be easily obtained by tuning the temperature and the hydrostatic pressure. - Highlights: ► Linear and nonlinear optical processes can be changed by pressure and temperature. ► Magnitude and energy of absorption peaks decrease as pressure increases. ► Refractive index changes in magnitude and energy decrease by increasing pressure. ► Energy differences are dependent on pressure, temperature and QW shapes. ► By increasing pressure we can obtain redshift in the optical transitions. ► For SQW, the absorption spectrum shows blueshift as the temperature increases. ► For GQW, the absorption spectrum shows redshift by temperature.

  18. Competitive electric power markets and grid reliability : something has changed during the past decade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluckiger, K.

    2005-01-01

    This white paper reviewed some of the fundamental changes in the way in which electricity is provided to customers. Previously, electricity was delivered by integrated electric utilities that owned both generation and transmission and directly served their customers. Restructuring altered the rules that govern control, operation, ownership and regulation of the industry. The traditional integrated utility has been disaggregated. Wholesale electricity costs are no longer regulated and prices are now set by supply and demand in a market context. Generation investment decisions are based on future expectations of market performance. It was suggested that transmission should become a facilitator of the competitive market. Inter-ties are an essential part of a competitive market, as a means to import power when needed and to export surplus energy. The role of transmission in facilitating new generation by providing non-discriminatory and efficient transport to the market was discussed. It was noted that the lack of transmission investment is resulting in economic penalties, rising losses and constraints on more economic generators. Transmission congestion is counterproductive to the interests of customers. A move away from regional planning to a recognition of the wider interconnectedness of the system was recommended. The current practice of deferring necessary maintenance as a way to generate short-term profit was examined. It was noted that despite the need for new transmission infrastructure, investment in merchant alternating current projects has been slow to materialize. Other challenges to transmission included the uncertainty of regulatory processes and investment recovery as well as the unpredictability of flow patterns in the bulk power system. It was concluded that competitive generation markets will not work with an inadequate transmission infrastructure. Transmission enables new generation by ensuring non-discriminatory and efficient transport to market

  19. The Reliability and Validity of Toe Grip Strength as an Index of Physical Development in 4- to 5-Year-Old Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takahiro Ikeda[1; Osamu Aoyagi[2

    2015-01-01

    Studies on TGS (toe-grip strength) are currently proliferating as a result of the development of the dynamometer. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the reliability and validity of TGS as a physical function in preschool aged children. The participants were 153 preschoolers. Each participant was measured in terms of his or her TGS and completed a MAT (motor ability test). The reliability of the measurements was investigated via Pearson's r and Cronbach's a through a test-retest method, as well as a Bland-Altman plot. The validity of the TGS value was investigated by measuring the correlation between TGS and each component of the MAT, the principal component analysis, and a two-way layout ANOVA with general linear model (gender and age). All reliability coefficients were more than 0.70. Though all components of the MAT relating to TGS were found to be significant (P 〈 0.05), these correlations were weak. However, TGS was found to be a physical function that relating to the lower limbs and develops with aging. Therefore, TGS was found to be a highly reliable measure of physical function performance in preschoolers.

  20. Light channeling in medium with periodical change in a refractive index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstantinov, O.V.; Shmulevich, I.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that light field localization in regions with an increased value of refractive index occurs during light propagation along layers of a volume phase lattice. The effect is analogous to fast electron channeling in monocrystals. The localization is investigated both numeri. cally and by means of an approximated analytical solution of the wave equation representing the generalization of the Raman-Nut known solution (there is no localization within the framework of the Raman-Nut approximation). The localization is effective only in case when light wave length lambda is considerably lesser than lattice spacing d, namely lambda 1 /2, where u 1 - the amplitude of sine modulation of the refractory index. Existence of strong focusing at a distance f=d/4√u 1 is predicted. Common channeling mode arises at distances exceeding f

  1. Influence of the human reliability in the assessment of the impact on the risk of changes of CLO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martorell, P.; Martorell, S.; Marton, I.; Saiz, M.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment and study of epistemic uncertainties is of special importance in the application of the analysis of probabilistic security to informed decision-making in risk, as points out the guide regulatory 1,174 [1] (Regulatory Guide 1,174, RG1.174). Specifically, the RG 1.177 [2] details of the impact on risk assessment concerning changes in the technical operating specifications (ETF). Based on the framework defined by such regulatory guides, will be assessed the effect of uncertainties epistemic associated with the analysis of human reliability in the context of the limit conditions of operation. As an example of application, will be held a sensitivity study of the time of inoperability Completion Time, the Residual heat removal system. (Author)

  2. Metabolic changes after a hypocaloric, low-glycemic-index diet in obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parillo, M; Licenziati, M R; Vacca, M; De Marco, D; Iannuzzi, A

    2012-07-01

    A low glycemic index (LGI) diet has been proposed as a treatment for obesity in adults; few studies have evaluated LGI diets in obese children. The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of two diets, with similar energy intakes, but different glycemic indexes in a pediatric outpatient setting. A parallel- group, randomized controlled trial was conducted, and 22 obese outpatient children with a body mass index (BMI) Z-score >2 (11 females and 11 males, BMI 28.9±2.9 kg/m²) were included in the study. Patients were randomly allocated to a hypocaloric LGI (GI:60), or to a hypocaloric high glycemic index (HGI) diet (GI:90). The LGI and HGI diets were almost equivalent for macronutrient composition. Anthropometric and biochemical parameters were measured at baseline and after 6 months. In both groups there were significant decreases in BMI, BMI Z-score, blood pressure, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. Only LGI diets produced a significant decrease in waist circumference and homeostasis model assessment. Analysis of variance demonstrated that the BMI Z-score decrease from baseline values was significantly greater after the LGI diet than after the HGI diet [-0.20 (95% confidence interval (CI) -0.29 to -0.10) vs -0.34 (95%CI -0.43 to -0.24)], mean difference between groups -0.14 (95%CI -0.27 to -0.01), pdiet (phypocaloric LGI diet has beneficial metabolic effects in comparison to a hypocaloric HGI diet in obese children.

  3. Increase in sensitivity of sensor units of environment refraction index change based on superficial plasmon resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushenin Yu. V.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer modeling of an angular spectrum superficial plasmon resonance in metal films measurements with device PLAZMON-5 with infra-red radiator are analysed. It is shown that use of an infra-red source of radiation allows to improve sensitivity of sensor device in comparison with source of visible light. On an example of dielectric refraction indexes measurement with PLAZMON-5 device experimental check of theoretical calculations has been carried out.

  4. Utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an online test system designed to monitor changes in cognitive function in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnes, Keith A; Brooker, Helen; Ballard, Clive; McCambridge, Laura; Stenton, Robert; Corbett, Anne

    2017-12-01

    The advent of long-term remotely conducted clinical trials requires assessments which can be administered online. This paper considers the utility, reliability, sensitivity and validity of an internet-based system for measuring changes in cognitive function which is being used in one such trial. The Platform for Research Online to investigate Genetics and Cognition in Ageing is a 10-year longitudinal and entirely remote study launched in November 2015. The CogTrack TM System is being used to monitor changes in important aspects of cognitive function using tests of attention, information processing and episodic memory. On study entry, the participants performed CogTrack TM up to three times over seven days, and these data are evaluated in this paper. During the first six months of the study, 14 531 individuals aged 50 to 94 years enrolled and performed the CogTrack TM System, 8627 of whom completed three test sessions. On the first administration, 99.4% of the study tasks were successfully completed. Repeated testing showed training/familiarisation effects on four of the ten measures which had largely stabilised by the third test session. The factor structure of the various measures was found to be robust. Evaluation of the influence of age identified clinically relevant declines over the age range of the population on one or more measures from all tasks. The results of these analyses identify CogTrack TM to be a practical and valid method to reliably, sensitively, remotely and repeatedly collect cognitive data from large samples of individuals aged 50 and over. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A study examining inter-rater and intrarater reliability of a novel instrument for assessment of psoriasis: the Copenhagen Psoriasis Severity Index.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berth-Jones, J.; Thompson, J.; Papp, K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is a perceived need for a better method for clinical assessment of the severity of psoriasis vulgaris. The most frequently used system is the Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI), which has significant disadvantages, including the requirement for assessment of the percentage of

  6. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Automated Land Cover Change Detection and Mapping from Hidden Parameter Estimates of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) Time-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, S.; Banerjee, A.; Gupta, S. K. S.; Christensen, P. R.; Papandreou-Suppappola, A.

    2017-12-01

    Multitemporal observations acquired frequently by satellites with short revisit periods such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), is an important source for modeling land cover. Due to the inherent seasonality of the land cover, harmonic modeling reveals hidden state parameters characteristic to it, which is used in classifying different land cover types and in detecting changes due to natural or anthropogenic factors. In this work, we use an eight day MODIS composite to create a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time-series of ten years. Improved hidden parameter estimates of the nonlinear harmonic NDVI model are obtained using the Particle Filter (PF), a sequential Monte Carlo estimator. The nonlinear estimation based on PF is shown to improve parameter estimation for different land cover types compared to existing techniques that use the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF), due to linearization of the harmonic model. As these parameters are representative of a given land cover, its applicability in near real-time detection of land cover change is also studied by formulating a metric that captures parameter deviation due to change. The detection methodology is evaluated by considering change as a rare class problem. This approach is shown to detect change with minimum delay. Additionally, the degree of change within the change perimeter is non-uniform. By clustering the deviation in parameters due to change, this spatial variation in change severity is effectively mapped and validated with high spatial resolution change maps of the given regions.

  8. A novel insulin resistance index to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance: the ACT NOW study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Devjit; Cobb, Jeff E; Gall, Walter; Adam, Klaus-Peter; George, Tabitha; Schwenke, Dawn C; Banerji, MaryAnn; Bray, George A; Buchanan, Thomas A; Clement, Stephen C; Henry, Robert R; Kitabchi, Abbas E; Mudaliar, Sunder; Ratner, Robert E; Stentz, Frankie B; Reaven, Peter D; Musi, Nicolas; Ferrannini, Ele; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to test the clinical utility of Quantose M(Q) to monitor changes in insulin sensitivity after pioglitazone therapy in prediabetic subjects. Quantose M(Q) is derived from fasting measurements of insulin, α-hydroxybutyrate, linoleoyl-glycerophosphocholine, and oleate, three nonglucose metabolites shown to correlate with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Participants were 428 of the total of 602 ACT NOW impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) subjects randomized to pioglitazone (45 mg/d) or placebo and followed for 2.4 years. At baseline and study end, fasting plasma metabolites required for determination of Quantose, glycated hemoglobin, and oral glucose tolerance test with frequent plasma insulin and glucose measurements to calculate the Matsuda index of insulin sensitivity were obtained. Pioglitazone treatment lowered IGT conversion to diabetes (hazard ratio = 0.25; 95% confidence interval = 0.13-0.50; P < .0001). Although glycated hemoglobin did not track with insulin sensitivity, Quantose M(Q) increased in pioglitazone-treated subjects (by 1.45 [3.45] mg·min(-1)·kgwbm(-1)) (median [interquartile range]) (P < .001 vs placebo), as did the Matsuda index (by 3.05 [4.77] units; P < .0001). Quantose M(Q) correlated with the Matsuda index at baseline and change in the Matsuda index from baseline (rho, 0.85 and 0.79, respectively; P < .0001) and was progressively higher across closeout glucose tolerance status (diabetes, IGT, normal glucose tolerance). In logistic models including only anthropometric and fasting measurements, Quantose M(Q) outperformed both Matsuda and fasting insulin in predicting incident diabetes. In IGT subjects, Quantose M(Q) parallels changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance with pioglitazone therapy. Due to its strong correlation with improved insulin sensitivity and its ease of use, Quantose M(Q) may serve as a useful clinical test to identify and monitor therapy in insulin-resistant patients.

  9. The pharmacist Aggregate Demand Index to explain changing pharmacist demand over a ten-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Katherine K; Shah, Bijal M; Barnett, Mitchell J

    2010-12-15

    To describe Aggregate Demand Index (ADI) trends from 1999-2010; to compare ADI time trends to concurrent data for US unemployment levels, US entry-level pharmacy graduates, and US retail prescription growth rate; and to determine which variables were significant predictors of ADI. Annual ADI data (dependent variable) were analyzed against annual unemployment rates, annual number of pharmacy graduates, and annual prescription growth rate (independent variables). ADI data trended toward lower demand levels for pharmacists since late 2006, paralleling the US economic downturn. National ADI data were most highly correlated with unemployment (p demand. Predictable increases in future graduates and other factors support revisiting the modeling process as new data accumulate.

  10. Change of trade balance analysis in agricultural and food products with using of index pyramidal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Záboj

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the trade balance in Czech Republic in the field of agricultural and food products. The main goal is to determine the influence of analytical indicators; in this case these are changes of quantity and average unit price of export and import; over the synthetic indicator – change of trade balance. Next step of this analysis is to calculate the portions of change of inputs volume and change of total productivity of inputs over the change of export caused by change of quantity. To fulfill this aim it is suitable to use methods for pyramidal decomposition of indicators – chain substitution, logarithmic and functional methods. These methods are compared and the results are interpreted.

  11. Echoic memory of a single pure tone indexed by change-related brain activity

    OpenAIRE

    Inui, Koji; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamashiro, Koya; Otsuru, Naofumi; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Nishihara, Makoto; Motomura, Eishi; Kida, Tetsuo; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The rapid detection of sensory change is important to survival. The process should relate closely to memory since it requires that the brain separate a new stimulus from an ongoing background or past event. Given that sensory memory monitors current sensory status and works to pick-up changes in real-time, any change detected by this system should evoke a change-related cortical response. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the single presentation of a sound is en...

  12. Interrater Reliability of the Categorization of Late Radiographic Changes After Lung Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faruqi, Salman [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: meredith.giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Raziee, Hamid; Yap, Mei Ling [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); Roberts, Heidi [Department of Radiology, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Le, Lisa W. [Department of Biostatistics, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Brade, Anthony; Cho, John; Sun, Alexander; Bezjak, Andrea; Hope, Andrew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2014-08-01

    Purpose: Radiographic changes after lung stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) have been categorized into 4 groups: modified conventional pattern (A), mass-like fibrosis; (B), scar-like fibrosis (C), and no evidence of increased density (D). The purpose of this study was to assess the interrater reliability of this categorization system in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: Seventy-seven patients were included in this study, all treated with SBRT for early-stage (T1/2) NSCLC at a single institution, with a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Six experienced clinicians familiar with post-SBRT radiographic changes scored the serial posttreatment CT images independently in a blinded fashion. The proportion of patients categorized as A, B, C, or D at each interval was determined. Krippendorff's alpha (KA), Multirater kappa (M-kappa), and Gwet's AC1 (AC1) scores were used to establish interrater reliability. A leave-one-out analysis was performed to demonstrate the variability among raters. Interrater agreement of the first and last 20 patients scored was calculated to explore whether a training effect existed. Results: The number of ratings ranged from 450 at 6 months to 84 at 48 months of follow-up. The proportion of patients in each category was as follows: A, 45%; B, 16%; C, 13%; and D, 26%. KA and M-kappa ranged from 0.17 to 0.34. AC1 measure range was 0.22 to 0.48. KA increased from 0.24 to 0.36 at 12 months with training. The percent agreement for pattern A peaked at 12 month with a 54% chance of having >50% raters in agreement and decreased over time, whereas that for patterns B and C increased over time to a maximum of 20% and 22%, respectively. Conclusion: This post-SBRT radiographic change categorization system has modest interrater agreement, and there is a suggestion of a training effect. Patterns of fibrosis evolve after SBRT and alternative categorization systems should be evaluated.

  13. Microencapsulated Phase Change Materials in Solar-Thermal Conversion Systems: Understanding Geometry-Dependent Heating Efficiency and System Reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhaoliang; Chang, Zhuo; Xu, Guang-Kui; McBride, Fiona; Ho, Alexandra; Zhuola, Zhuola; Michailidis, Marios; Li, Wei; Raval, Rasmita; Akhtar, Riaz; Shchukin, Dmitry

    2017-01-24

    The performance of solar-thermal conversion systems can be improved by incorporation of nanocarbon-stabilized microencapsulated phase change materials (MPCMs). The geometry of MPCMs in the microcapsules plays an important role for improving their heating efficiency and reliability. Yet few efforts have been made to critically examine the formation mechanism of different geometries and their effect on MPCMs-shell interaction. Herein, through changing the cooling rate of original emulsions, we acquire MPCMs within the nanocarbon microcapsules with a hollow structure of MPCMs (h-MPCMs) or solid PCM core particles (s-MPCMs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy reveals that the capsule shell of the h-MPCMs is enriched with nanocarbons and has a greater MPCMs-shell interaction compared to s-MPCMs. This results in the h-MPCMs being more stable and having greater heat diffusivity within and above the phase transition range than the s-MPCMs do. The geometry-dependent heating efficiency and system stability may have important and general implications for the fundamental understanding of microencapsulation and wider breadth of heating generating systems.

  14. A new economic assessment index for the impact of climate change on grain yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjie; Chou, Jieming; Feng, Guolin

    2007-03-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community. This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional “yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)” or “yield impact of weather factor” to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore, the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China, and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  15. A New Economic Assessment Index for the Impact of Climate Change on Grain Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The impact of climate change on agriculture has received wide attention by the scientific community.This paper studies how to assess the grain yield impact of climate change, according to the climate change over a long time period in the future as predicted by a climate system model. The application of the concept of a traditional "yield impact of meteorological factor (YIMF)" or "yield impact of weather factor" to the grain yield assessment of a decadal or even a longer timescale would be suffocated at the outset because the YIMF is for studying the phenomenon on an interannual timescale, and it is difficult to distinguish between the trend caused by climate change and the one resulting from changes in non-climatic factors. Therefore,the concept of the yield impact of climatic change (YICC), which is defined as the difference in the per unit area yields (PUAY) of a grain crop under a changing and an envisaged invariant climate conditions, is presented in this paper to assess the impact of global climate change on grain yields. The climatic factor has been introduced into the renowned economic Cobb-Douglas model, yielding a quantitative assessment method of YICC using real data. The method has been tested using the historical data of Northeast China,and the results show that it has an encouraging application outlook.

  16. Study on weathering index for improving the reliability of terrace correlation and chronology. Based on the observation and analysis of terrace deposit distributed in the Mid Niigata region and others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Takaomi; Hataya, Ryuta

    2009-01-01

    We carried out field survey and laboratory analysis to investigate various weathering indexes in loam and terrace deposit at outcrops of the terraces distributed in Mid-Niigata area and other two areas, which were correlated and chronologized accurately. We also collect and analyze the data of color and hardness of eolian loam, matrix of terrace deposit, thickness of decolorated and/or browning rim of terrace gravels, color and roughness of gravel surface and effective porosity on each terrace. According to result of the analysis, thickness of weathering rind can be an useful index for terrace correlation. Weathering rind is observed frequently in mafic and fine gravels, as a result of statistical survey of occurrence of the patterns of weathering type. According to the result of our field survey, Middle terrace contains few decayed gravels and Higher terrace group, which is older than MIS8 terrace, contains large amounts of decayed gravels. We can distinguish two different age terraces according to ratio of decayed gravel concentration in terrace deposit. Combination of data of thickness of weathering rind of gravel and concentration of decayed gravel in terrace deposit, adequate terrace correlation can be obtained with increased reliability. Difference of weathering degree can be detected by a combination of several indexes that can be observed in outcrops, it is possible to distinguish between different age terraces. Color and hardness of loam, thickness of weathering rind of terrace gravel can be indexes of weathering, these can explain the facts observed in outcrops. (author)

  17. High slope efficiency and high refractive index change in direct-written Yb-doped waveguide lasers with depressed claddings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Guido; Gross, Simon; Fuerbach, Alexander; Lancaster, David G; Withford, Michael J

    2013-07-15

    We report the first Yb:ZBLAN and Yb:IOG10 waveguide lasers fabricated by the fs-laser direct-writing technique. Pulses from a Titanium-Sapphire laser oscillator with 5.1 MHz repetition rate were utilized to generate negative refractive index modifications in both glasses. Multiple modifications were aligned in a depressed cladding geometry to create a waveguide. For Yb:ZBLAN we demonstrate high laser slope efficiency of 84% with a maximum output power of 170 mW. By using Yb:IOG10 a laser performance of 25% slope efficiency and 72 mW output power was achieved and we measured a remarkably high refractive index change exceeding Δn = 2.3 × 10(-2).

  18. [Responses of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to precipitation changes on the grassland of Tibetan Plateau from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi Peng; Zhang, Xian Zhou; He, Yong Tao; Li, Meng; Shi, Pei Li; Zu, Jia Xing; Niu, Ben

    2018-01-01

    Precipitation change is an important factor in the inter-annual variation of grassland growth on the Tibetan Plateau. The total amount, distribution pattern and concentration time are three basic characteristics of precipitation change. The temporal and spatial characteristics of precipitation change were analyzed based on climate data of 145 meteorological stations on the Tibetan Plateau and nearby areas from 2000 to 2015. The total precipitation amount was characterized by annual precipitation, distribution pattern of precipitation during the year was characterized by improved precipitation concentration index (PCI), and precipitation centroid (PC) was defined to indicate the change in precipitation concentrated time. To better illustrate the response of grassland to precipitation change, vegetation growth status was characterized by the maximum value of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI max ). Results indicated that the annual precipitation and PCI had an apparent gradient across the whole plateau and the latest PC occurred in the southern plateau. NDVI max of alpine shrub grassland was significantly correlated with the change of PCI,increased with even distribution of precipitation during growth period, and limited by the total annual precipitation. Alpine meadow did not show significantly correlations with these three indices. The inter-annual variability of NDVI max of steppe was controlled by both PCI and PC. NDVI max of alpine desert grassland was mainly controlled by annual precipitation. In addition to annual total amount of precipitation, the distribution characteristics of precipitation should be further considered when the influence of precipitation change on different types of vegetation on the Qinghai Tibet Plateau was studied.

  19. Thermal properties and reliability of eutectic mixture of stearic acid-acetamide as phase change material for latent heat storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guixiang; Han, Lipeng; Sun, Jinhe; Jia, Yongzhong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The system of stearic acid-acetamide binary mixtures were studied as phase change material. • The eutectic mixtures featured low melting temperatures and high latent heats of fusion for latent heat storage. • Solid-liquid phase diagrams for the system were constructed. • Negligible change in stability after 500 heating/cooling cycles. - Abstract: The thermal properties and reliability of the stearic acid (SA) with acetamide (AC) binary mixture were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The phase diagrams for the SA-AC binary mixture with AC in the metastable and the stable form were constructed. The eutectic system with stable AC is 0.604 mol fraction SA, and displayed a melting temperature (T m ) of 64.55 °C and latent heat of melting (ΔH m ) of 193.87 J·g −1 . The eutectic systems with metastable AC are 0.397 and 0.604 mol fraction SA. The melting temperatures are 62.23 °C and 62.54 °C, and latent heats of fusion are 222.10 J·g −1 and 194.28 J·g −1 , respectively. Following accelerated thermal cycling tests, TG and FT-IR analysis indicate that the eutectic mixture (χ SA = 0.397) with the metastable AC has good cyclic and thermal stability. The results show that the SA-AC eutectic mixture use as phase change material (PCM) possess good prospect for low temperature thermal energy storage (TES) applications.

  20. A nitrogen index to track changes in butterfly species assemblages under nitrogen deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallis de Vries, Michiel; Swaay, van Chris A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The impacts of nitrogen deposition (N) on animal communities are still poorly understood in comparison to plant communities. Long-term monitoring of community changes may contribute to this understanding, complementing experimental studies on underlying mechanisms. Butterflies are particularly

  1. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed; Kremser, Christian; Pallwein, Leo; Aigner, Friedrich; Schocke, Michael; Peschel, Reinhard; Pedross, Florian; Pinggera, Germar-Michael; Wolf, Christian; Alsharkawy, Mostafa A M; Jaschke, Werner; Frauscher, Ferdinand

    2010-10-01

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12h before and 12h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (pESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index or gestational weight change during pregnancy and body mass index of the child at 3 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamnes Køpp, U M; Dahl-Jørgensen, K; Stigum, H; Frost Andersen, L; Næss, Ø; Nystad, W

    2012-10-01

    To estimate the associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or gestational weight change (GWC) during pregnancy and offspring BMI at 3 years of age, while taking several pre-and postnatal factors into account. The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study is a population-based pregnancy cohort study of women recruited from all geographical areas of Norway. The study includes 31 169 women enrolled between 2000 and 2009 through a postal invitation sent to women at 17-18 weeks of gestation. Data collected from 5898 of the fathers were included. MAIN OUTCOME MESURES: Offspring BMI at 3 years was the main outcome measured in this study. Mean maternal pre-pregnancy BMI was 24.0 kg m(-2) (s.d. 4.1), mean GWC in the first 30 weeks of gestation was 9.0 kg (s.d. 4.1) and mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age was 16.1 kg m(-2) (s.d. 1.5). Both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC were positively associated with mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age. Pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC also interacted, and the strength of the interaction between these two factors was strongly associated with the increase in offspring BMI among mothers who gained the most weight during pregnancy and had the highest pre-pregnancy BMI. Our findings show that results could be biased by not including pre-pregnant paternal BMI. This large population-based study showed that both maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and GWC were positively associated with mean offspring BMI at 3 years of age.

  3. Reliability tests and validation tests of the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8) as an index of satisfaction with childbirth-related care among Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsubara, Chieko; Green, Joseph; Astorga, Linda Teresa; Daya, Edgardo L; Jervoso, Honorato C; Gonzaga, Edgardo M; Jimba, Masamine

    2013-12-17

    Satisfaction is an important indicator of the quality of care during childbirth. Previous research found that a good environment at a health facility can increase the number of deliveries at that facility. In contrast, an unsatisfying childbirth experience could cause postpartum mental disorder. Therefore it is important to measure mothers' satisfaction with their childbirth experiences. We tested whether the eight-item Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8) provided useful information about satisfaction with childbirth-related care. The government of the Philippines promotes childbirth at health facilities, so we tested the CSQ-8 in the Philippine cities of Ormoc and Palo. This was a cross-sectional study. We targeted multigravid mothers whose last baby had been delivered at a hospital (without complications) and whose 2nd-to-last baby had been delivered at a hospital or at home (without complications). We developed versions of the CSQ-8 in Cebuano and Waray, which are two of the six major Filipino languages. Reliability tests and validation tests were done with data from 100 Cebuano-speaking mothers and 106 Waray-speaking mothers. Both the Cebuano and Waray versions of the CSQ-8 had high coefficients of internal-consistency reliability (greater than 0.80). Both versions were also unidimensional, which is generally consistent with the English CSQ-8 in a mental-health setting. As hypothesized, the scores for data regarding the second-to-last delivery were higher for mothers who had both their second-to-last and their last delivery in a hospital, than for mothers who had their second-to-last delivery at home and their last delivery in a hospital (Cebuano: p one language. These versions of the CSQ-8 can now be used to assess mothers' satisfaction, so that mothers' opinions can be taken into account in efforts to improve childbirth-related services, which could increase the proportion of deliveries in medical facilities and thus reduce maternal mortality.

  4. Detection of non-absorbing charge dynamics via refractive index change in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Shota; Hata, Hiroaki; Taya, Soichiro; Maeda, Naotaka; Shen, Qing; Toyoda, Taro; Katayama, Kenji

    2013-04-28

    The carrier dynamics in dye-sensitized solar cells was investigated by using the transient grating, in addition to the transient absorption method and transient photocurrent method on the order of microseconds to seconds. The signals for the same sample were obtained under a short-circuit condition to compare the carrier dynamics via refractive index change with the transient photocurrent measurement. Optically silent carrier dynamics by transient absorption have been successfully observed via a refractive index change. The corresponding signal components were originated from the charge dynamics at the solid/liquid interface, especially on the liquid side; rearrangement or diffusion motion of charged redox species occurred when the injected electrons were trapped at the TiO2 surface and when the electron-electrolyte recombination occurred at the interface. The assignments were confirmed from the dependence on the viscosity of the solvent and the presence of 4-tert-butyl pyridine. As the viscosity of the solvent increased, the rearrangement and the motion of the charged redox species were delayed. Since the rearrangement dynamics was changed by the presence of 4-tert-butyl pyridine, it affected not only the TiO2 surface but also the redox species close to the interface.

  5. Echoic memory of a single pure tone indexed by change-related brain activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Koji; Urakawa, Tomokazu; Yamashiro, Koya; Otsuru, Naofumi; Takeshima, Yasuyuki; Nishihara, Makoto; Motomura, Eishi; Kida, Tetsuo; Kakigi, Ryusuke

    2010-10-20

    The rapid detection of sensory change is important to survival. The process should relate closely to memory since it requires that the brain separate a new stimulus from an ongoing background or past event. Given that sensory memory monitors current sensory status and works to pick-up changes in real-time, any change detected by this system should evoke a change-related cortical response. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the single presentation of a sound is enough to elicit a change-related cortical response, and therefore, shape a memory trace enough to separate a subsequent stimulus. Under a paradigm where two pure sounds 300 ms in duration and 800 or 840 Hz in frequency were presented in a specific order at an even probability, cortical responses to each sound were measured with magnetoencephalograms. Sounds were grouped to five events regardless of their frequency, 1D, 2D, and 3D (a sound preceded by one, two, or three different sounds), and 1S and 2S (a sound preceded by one or two same sounds). Whereas activation in the planum temporale did not differ among events, activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) was clearly greater for the different events (1D, 2D, 3D) than the same event (1S and 2S). One presentation of a sound is enough to shape a memory trace for comparison with a subsequent physically different sound and elicits change-related cortical responses in the STG. The STG works as a real-time sensory gate open to a new event.

  6. Echoic memory of a single pure tone indexed by change-related brain activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motomura Eishi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rapid detection of sensory change is important to survival. The process should relate closely to memory since it requires that the brain separate a new stimulus from an ongoing background or past event. Given that sensory memory monitors current sensory status and works to pick-up changes in real-time, any change detected by this system should evoke a change-related cortical response. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether the single presentation of a sound is enough to elicit a change-related cortical response, and therefore, shape a memory trace enough to separate a subsequent stimulus. Results Under a paradigm where two pure sounds 300 ms in duration and 800 or 840 Hz in frequency were presented in a specific order at an even probability, cortical responses to each sound were measured with magnetoencephalograms. Sounds were grouped to five events regardless of their frequency, 1D, 2D, and 3D (a sound preceded by one, two, or three different sounds, and 1S and 2S (a sound preceded by one or two same sounds. Whereas activation in the planum temporale did not differ among events, activation in the superior temporal gyrus (STG was clearly greater for the different events (1D, 2D, 3D than the same event (1S and 2S. Conclusions One presentation of a sound is enough to shape a memory trace for comparison with a subsequent physically different sound and elicits change-related cortical responses in the STG. The STG works as a real-time sensory gate open to a new event.

  7. Study the Soil Quality Changes Indicators Using Nemoro and Integrated Quality Index Models in Some Khuzestan’s Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ramezani

    2016-09-01

    IQITDS - IQIMDS and between NQITDS -NQIMDS. The results show that the NQITDS model can be saved in compire with IQI models. This can decrease the time and costs in this method. But in some regions due to low correlation with Using a set of MDS, which comprise more limited number of soil characteristics You cannot reliably determine soil quality indicators are acceptable and should use the same set of TDS. Also, the results show that the soil was compacted due to heavy traffic, and this has reduced soil quality. The most important limiting factor of quality soil was reduced soil organic matter and porosity and increased bulk density. None of the subjects in the study area are not very stable and unstable. According to the research, increased of cultivation in most soils were clay and silt and decreased sand content. The burning of sugarcane after harvesting, can be to cause reduce organic matter, Finally, reduced the cation exchange capacity related of the soil organic matter and thus increased the bulk density of soil and reduced the soil structural stability. Decreased the electrical conductivity of the saturation extract and sodium adsorption ratio under cultivation and showed increasing trend pH of soil in all the samples. Finally reduced under cultivation soil quality. Nevertheless, we can better manage the effects can be even more improved soil quality grade. Therefore, a special management operations, such as changing the way farming, plowing, residue management, fertilizer use and the presence of organic matter the optimum, Reduce negative environmental effects such as the effect of insecticides and heavy metals... By creating a suitable building could be Prevent the destruction of the building and therefore the distribution of pores. Conclusion: This investigation showed the efficiency of soil quality studies for the evaluation of present conditions of soil in agricultural and natural ecosystems. Therefore, these soils need to special management, such as minimum

  8. Implementation of CDC's School Health Index in 3 midwest middle schools: motivation for change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood-Puzzello, Catherine M; Miller, Michelle; Lohrmann, David; Gregory, Patricia

    2007-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's School Health Index (SHI), a guide for completing a coordinated school-based program needs assessment relative to healthy eating, physical activity, a tobacco-free lifestyle, and prevention of other health risk behaviors and conditions, was used to assess current programming at 3 midwestern middle schools. Employing somewhat different procedures, data were collected from focus groups comprising school administrators, teachers, parents, community members, and students. Participants responded to SHI module questions and provided comments based on their perceptions. Both quantitative and qualitative data were recorded for each module, after which participants answered 3 planning questions intended to guide prioritization of actions to improve policies and programs based on importance, cost, time, commitment, and feasibility. Each school developed recommendations and strategies based on highest priority needs related to community involvement, professional development, health screenings, and health education materials in classrooms. The experience of completing the SHI in 3 different schools provided important insights about the data collection process as well as assessment results that have implications for the design and implementation of prevention programs.

  9. Visual-Haptic Integration: Cue Weights are Varied Appropriately, to Account for Changes in Haptic Reliability Introduced by Using a Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Takahashi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Tools such as pliers systematically change the relationship between an object's size and the hand opening required to grasp it. Previous work suggests the brain takes this into account, integrating visual and haptic size information that refers to the same object, independent of the similarity of the ‘raw’ visual and haptic signals (Takahashi et al., VSS 2009. Variations in tool geometry also affect the reliability (precision of haptic size estimates, however, because they alter the change in hand opening caused by a given change in object size. Here, we examine whether the brain appropriately adjusts the weights given to visual and haptic size signals when tool geometry changes. We first estimated each cue's reliability by measuring size-discrimination thresholds in vision-alone and haptics-alone conditions. We varied haptic reliability using tools with different object-size:hand-opening ratios (1:1, 0.7:1, and 1.4:1. We then measured the weights given to vision and haptics with each tool, using a cue-conflict paradigm. The weight given to haptics varied with tool type in a manner that was well predicted by the single-cue reliabilities (MLE model; Ernst and Banks, 2002. This suggests that the process of visual-haptic integration appropriately accounts for variations in haptic reliability introduced by different tool geometries.

  10. Baseline Levels, and Changes Over Time in Body Mass Index and Fasting Insulin, and Their Relationship to Change in Metabolic Trait Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Lisa M.; Fox, Caroline S.; Wilson, Peter W.F.; Nathan, David M.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; D'Agostino, Ralph B.; Meigs, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Multiple abnormal metabolic traits are found together or “cluster” within individuals more often than is predicted by chance. The individual and combined role of adiposity and insulin resistance (IR) on metabolic trait clustering is uncertain. We tested the hypothesis that change in trait clustering is a function of both baseline level and change in these measures. Methods: In 2616 nondiabetic Framingham Offspring Study participants, body mass index (BMI) and fasting insulin were related to a within-person 7-year change in a trait score of 0–4 Adult Treatment Panel III metabolic syndrome traits (hypertension, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hyperglycemia). Results: At baseline assessment, mean trait score was 1.4 traits, and 7-year mean (SEM) change in trait score was +0.25 (0.02) traits, Pfasting insulin were similarly related to trait score change. In models adjusted for age–sex–baseline cluster score, 7-year change in trait score was significantly related to both a 1-quintile difference in baseline BMI (0.07 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits), and to both a 1-quintile 7-year increase in BMI (0.21 traits) and fasting insulin (0.18 traits). Conclusions: Change in metabolic trait clustering was significantly associated with baseline levels and changes in both BMI and fasting insulin, highlighting the importance of both obesity and IR in the clustering of metabolic traits. PMID:25007010

  11. TyG Index Change Is More Determinant for Forecasting Type 2 Diabetes Onset Than Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, David; Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Martinez, Jose Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The risk of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity appears to be influenced by other metabolic abnormalities, and there is controversy about the harmless condition of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of diabetes and the impact of changes in weight and in triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index), according to the metabolic health and obesity states. We analyzed prospective data of the Vascular Metabolic CUN cohort, a population-based study among a White European population (mean follow-up, 8.9 years). Incident diabetes was assessed in 1923 women and 3016 men with a mean age at baseline of 55.33 ± 13.68 and 53.78 ± 12.98 years old. A Cox proportional-hazard analysis was conducted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of diabetes on metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese, metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). A continuous standardized variable (z-score) was derived to compute the HR for diabetes per 1-SD increment in the body mass index (BMI) and the TyG index. MHO, MUNO, and MUO status were associated with the development of diabetes, HR of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.25–4.07), 3.04 (95% CI: 1.69–5.47), and 4.04 (95% CI: 2.14–7.63), respectively. MUNO individuals had 1.82 greater risk of diabetes compared to MHO subjects (95% CI: 1.04–3.22). The HRs for incident diabetes per 1-SD increment in BMI and TyG indexes were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04–1.44) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.40–1.68). The increase in BMI did not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects, whereas increasing the TyG index significantly affect the risk in all metabolic health categories. Metabolic health is more important determinant for diabetes onset than weight gain. The increase in weight does not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects. PMID:27175686

  12. TyG Index Change Is More Determinant for Forecasting Type 2 Diabetes Onset Than Weight Gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-González, David; Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Martinez, Jose Alfredo

    2016-05-01

    The risk of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity appears to be influenced by other metabolic abnormalities, and there is controversy about the harmless condition of the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) state. The aim of this study is to assess the risk of diabetes and the impact of changes in weight and in triglyceride-glucose index (TyG index), according to the metabolic health and obesity states.We analyzed prospective data of the Vascular Metabolic CUN cohort, a population-based study among a White European population (mean follow-up, 8.9 years). Incident diabetes was assessed in 1923 women and 3016 men with a mean age at baseline of 55.33 ± 13.68 and 53.78 ± 12.98 years old.A Cox proportional-hazard analysis was conducted to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of diabetes on metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese, metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). A continuous standardized variable (z-score) was derived to compute the HR for diabetes per 1-SD increment in the body mass index (BMI) and the TyG index.MHO, MUNO, and MUO status were associated with the development of diabetes, HR of 2.26 (95% CI: 1.25-4.07), 3.04 (95% CI: 1.69-5.47), and 4.04 (95% CI: 2.14-7.63), respectively. MUNO individuals had 1.82 greater risk of diabetes compared to MHO subjects (95% CI: 1.04-3.22). The HRs for incident diabetes per 1-SD increment in BMI and TyG indexes were 1.23 (95% CI: 1.04-1.44) and 1.54 (95% CI: 1.40-1.68). The increase in BMI did not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects, whereas increasing the TyG index significantly affect the risk in all metabolic health categories.Metabolic health is more important determinant for diabetes onset than weight gain. The increase in weight does not raise the risk of developing diabetes among metabolically unhealthy subjects.

  13. Mapping human vulnerability to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: The construction of a municipal vulnerability index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlia Alves Menezes

    Full Text Available Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied-social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible. A Municipal Vulnerability Index was developed, which was used to associate current socio-environmental characteristics of municipalities with climate change scenarios in order to identify those that may be most affected by climate change. The results showed that poor adaptive capacity and poverty had the most influence on current vulnerability of the municipalities of Amazonas with the most vulnerable areas being the southern, northern, and eastern regions of the state. When current vulnerability was related to future climate change projections, the most vulnerable areas were the northern, northeastern, extreme southern, and southwestern regions. From a socio-environmental and climatic point of view, these regions should be a priority for public policy efforts to reduce their vulnerability and prepare them to cope with the adverse aspects of climate change.

  14. Mapping human vulnerability to climate change in the Brazilian Amazon: The construction of a municipal vulnerability index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Júlia Alves; Confalonieri, Ulisses; Madureira, Ana Paula; Duval, Isabela de Brito; Santos, Rhavena Barbosa Dos; Margonari, Carina

    2018-01-01

    Vulnerability, understood as the propensity to be adversely affected, has attained importance in the context of climate change by helping to understand what makes populations and territories predisposed to its impacts. Conditions of vulnerability may vary depending on the characteristics of each territory studied-social, environmental, infrastructural, public policies, among others. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate what makes the municipalities of the state of Amazonas, Brazil, vulnerable to climate change in the context of the largest tropical forest in the world, and which regions of the State are the most susceptible. A Municipal Vulnerability Index was developed, which was used to associate current socio-environmental characteristics of municipalities with climate change scenarios in order to identify those that may be most affected by climate change. The results showed that poor adaptive capacity and poverty had the most influence on current vulnerability of the municipalities of Amazonas with the most vulnerable areas being the southern, northern, and eastern regions of the state. When current vulnerability was related to future climate change projections, the most vulnerable areas were the northern, northeastern, extreme southern, and southwestern regions. From a socio-environmental and climatic point of view, these regions should be a priority for public policy efforts to reduce their vulnerability and prepare them to cope with the adverse aspects of climate change.

  15. Assessment of reliability, validity, responsiveness and minimally important change of the German Hip dysfunction and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS) in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbab, Dariusch; van Ochten, Johannes H M; Schnurr, Christoph; Bouillon, Bertil; König, Dietmar

    2017-12-01

    Patient-reported outcome measures are a critical tool in evaluating the efficacy of orthopedic procedures. The intention of this study was to evaluate reliability, validity, responsiveness and minimally important change of the German version of the Hip dysfunction and osteoarthritis outcome score (HOOS). The German HOOS was investigated in 251 consecutive patients before and 6 months after total hip arthroplasty. All patients completed HOOS, Oxford-Hip Score, Short-Form (SF-36) and numeric scales for pain and disability. Test-retest reliability, internal consistency, floor and ceiling effects, construct validity and minimal important change were analyzed. The German HOOS demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficient values > 0.7. Cronbach´s alpha values demonstrated strong internal consistency. As hypothesized, HOOS subscales strongly correlated with corresponding OHS and SF-36 domains. All subscales showed excellent (effect size/standardized response means > 0.8) responsiveness between preoperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. The HOOS and all subdomains showed higher changes than the minimal detectable change which indicates true changes. The German version of the HOOS demonstrated good psychometric properties. It proved to be valid, reliable and responsive to the changes instrument for use in patients with hip osteoarthritis undergoing total hip replacement.

  16. CHANGING TRENDS IN LIFESTYLE BEHAVIOUR AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BODY MASS INDEX AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Early sleep, early waking up, regular breakfast and light-to-moderate exercise all constitute healthy habits. Balanced diet, regular sleep and adequate physical activity are major factors in the promotion and maintenance of good health in human life. Regrettably these habits are not very frequent among medical students, because of exceptionally tiring schedule, protracted studies and burden of performing well in medical colleges. The study aims to correlate the trends in breakfast habits, mid-day snacking, sleeping habits and physical activity in relation to body mass index among medical students. METHOD This was a single centre cross-sectional questionnaire based study conducted at Jubilee Mission Medical College & Research Institute, Thrissur, Kerala. The target population was 1 st year MBBS students. We collected data from 234 students. The study duration was from August 2014 till September 2015. Convenient sampling was implied for the collection of data. RESULTS Mean age of participants was 20.85 ± 0.9 years, while mean BMI of participants was 24.7 ± 6.31 kg/m2. Average sleep duration was 7.1 hours ± 3.9 hours while average physical activity was 208 min/week ± 92 min/week. We observed that females (63.4% tend to skip breakfast twice more than males (27.9%. Students who had regular breakfast were found to have a lower BMI than those who did not. Moreover, those who took breakfast were found to be more physically active than those who skipped breakfast. CONCLUSION Since it was found that a regular consumption of breakfast, adequate sleep and exercise not only lowers BMI but also makes a person more physically fit. Therefore, it is recommended to start the day with a healthy breakfast having all the essential nutrients.

  17. Body mass index for predicting hyperglycemia and serum lipid changes in Brazilian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Carolina R; Alvarez, Marlene M; Kanaan, Salim; Sichieri, Rosely; Veiga, Gloria V

    2009-02-01

    To determine the best cut-offs of body mass index for identifying alterations of blood lipids and glucose in adolescents. A probabilistic sample including 577 adolescent students aged 12-19 years in 2003 (210 males and 367 females) from state public schools in the city of Niterói, Southeastern Brazil, was studied. The Receiver Operating Characteristic curve was used to identify the best age-adjusted BMI cut-off for predicting high levels of serum total cholesterol (> or =150 mg/dL), LDL-C (> or =100 mg/dL), serum triglycerides (> or =100 mg/dL), plasma glucose (> 100 mg/dL) and low levels of HDL-C (international and two American. The most prevalent metabolic alterations (>50%) were: high total cholesterol and low HDL-C. BMI predicted high levels of triglycerides in males, high LDL-C in females, and high total cholesterol and the occurrence of three or more metabolic alterations in both males and females (areas under the curve range: 0.59 to 0.67), with low sensitivity (57%-66%) and low specificity (58%-66%). The best BMI cut-offs for this sample (20.3 kg/m(2) to 21.0 kg/m(2)) were lower than those proposed in the references studied. Although BMI values lower than the International cut-offs were better predictor of some metabolic abnormalities in Brazilian adolescents, overall BMI is not a good predictor of these abnormalities in this population.

  18. CHANGES OF IMMUNE INDEXES DURING SUBLINGUAL ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH HAY FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gaiduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: evaluation of immunological parameters in course of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy with tree pollen mixture in children with hay fever.Materials and methods: the study included one-hundred patients 5 to 18 years of age with hay fever (pollen rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was administered pre-seasonally for three consecutive years. Cytokinechanges were studied in blood serum and in lavages from nasal cavity. Samples assessed before treatment and after 2nd and 3rd courses SLIT completion.Results: increased serum concentrations of IL-10, IFNγ, and decreased IL-4 contents were revealed in the course of treatment. No significant changes in cytokineconcentrations were detectable in nasal lavages.Conclusions: the changes revealed correspond to a shift of T cell response profile towards Th1 pathway, thus confirming pathogenetic effects of sublingual allergen-specific

  19. Reliability and minimal detectable change of a modified passive neck flexion test in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain and asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Acuyo-Osorio, Mario; Prieto-Aldana, María; La Touche, Roy

    2017-04-01

    The Passive Neck Flexion Test (PNFT) can diagnose meningitis and potential spinal disorders. Little evidence is available concerning the use of a modified version of the PNFT (mPNFT) in patients with chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNSNP). To assess the reliability of the mPNFT in subjects with and without CNSNP. The secondary objective was to assess the differences in the symptoms provoked by the mPNFT between these two populations. We used repeated measures concordance design for the main objective and cross-sectional design for the secondary objective. A total of 30 asymptomatic subjects and 34 patients with CNSNP were recruited. The following measures were recorded: the range of motion at the onset of symptoms (OS-mPNFT), the range of motion at the submaximal pain (SP-mPNFT), and evoked pain intensity on the mPNFT (VAS-mPNFT). Good to excellent reliability was observed for OS-mPNFT and SP-mPNFT in the asymptomatic group (intra-examiner reliability: 0.95-0.97; inter-examiner reliability: 0.86-0.90; intra-examiner test-retest reliability: 0.84-0.87). In the CNSNP group, a good to excellent reliability was obtained for the OS-mPNFT (intra-examiner reliability: 0.89-0.96; inter-examiner reliability: 0.83-0.86; intra-examiner test-retest reliability: 0.83-0.85) and the SP-PNFT (intra-examiner reliability: 0.94-0.98; inter-examiner reliability: 0.80-0.82; intra-examiner test-retest reliability: 0.88-0.91). The CNSNP group showed statistically significant differences in OS-mPNFT (t = 4.92; P reliable tool regardless of the examiner and the time factor. Patients with CNSNP have a decrease range of motion and more pain than asymptomatic subjects in the mPNFT. This exceeds the minimal detectable changes for OS-mPNFT and VAS-mPNFT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Indexes of Land Use Change to Predict Aggregate Stability in a Mollisol and a Vertisol of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, L. E.; Caviglia, O. P.; Wilson, M. G.; Sasal, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    In several areas of South America, the extensive cropping systems in traditional agricultural lands have increase the area cropped with soybean, mainly as a single annual crop. Also nowadays agriculture has a progressive expansion toward more environmentally fragile areas that were traditionally occupied by livestock or native forests. This change of land use may be characterized through different indexes as the length of the growth period or the frequency of a particular crop in the cropping sequence. On the other hand the consequences of land-use changes on soil physical condition may be monitored through the aggregate stability, which is directly related to soil functionality. However, there are different methods for aggregate stability analysis, which may vary in their potential for prediction. The aim of our work was to assess different quantitative indexes of change in the land use on aggregate stability through two methods in two soils differing in the main agents of aggregation. The study was conducted in a Mollisol and a Vertisol from Argentina. Eleven fields (agricultural and crop-pasture rotation) under no-tillage and one natural grassland were selected in each soil type. The fraction of annual time with vegetal cover (as a measure of the intensification in the land use - ISI) and the frequency of a given crop (soybean - SCF; wheat - WCF; and wheat plus maize - CCF) in the cropping sequence over a 6-year period were calculated. Samples were collected at 0-5 and 5-15 cm depths from each soil. The mean weight diameter (MWD) of the soil aggregates where determined by two methods: Le Bissonnais with three pretreatment (fast wetting, slow wetting and stirring after prewetting) and by wet sieving using an instrument similar to the Yoder apparatus. The MWD by wet-sieving was affected by ISI and SCF, but the impact only was recorded in 0-5cm depth of the Mollisol. The MWD by fast and slow wetting and the means of three pretreatments (MWDm) were directly related

  1. Dietary determinants of changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index - a proxy measure of visceral adiposity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Given the recognized health effects of visceral fat, the understanding of how diet can modulate changes in the phenotype "waist circumference for a given body mass index (WC(BMI", a proxy measure of visceral adiposity, is deemed necessary. Hence, the objective of the present study was to assess the association between dietary factors and prospective changes in visceral adiposity as measured by changes in the phenotype WC(BMI.We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on body mass index, and annual change in WC(BMI (DeltaWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between energy, energy density (ED, macronutrients, alcohol, glycemic index (GI, glycemic load (GL, fibre and DeltaWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates. Men and women with higher ED and GI diets showed significant increases in their WC(BMI, compared to those with lower ED and GI [1 kcal/g greater ED predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.09 cm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.13 in men and 0.15 cm (95% CI 0.09 to 0.21 in women; 10 units greater GI predicted a DeltaWC(BMI of 0.07 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.12 in men and 0.06 cm (95% CI 0.03 to 0.10 in women]. Among women, lower fibre intake, higher GL, and higher alcohol consumption also predicted a higher DeltaWC(BMI.Results of this study suggest that a diet with low GI and ED may prevent visceral adiposity, defined as the prospective changes in WC(BMI. Additional effects may be obtained among women of low alcohol, low GL, and high fibre intake.

  2. [Changes in dental caries indexes in school children in an area of Xochimilco, Mexico: 1984-1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irigoyen-Camacho, M E; Molina-Feichero, N; Villanueva-Arriaga, R; García-López, S

    1995-01-01

    To describe the changes in dental caries prevalence and severity, in a group of primary schoolchildren. Two dental caries surveys were carried out, one in 1984 and the other in 1992. The dental caries indices were registered using the World Health Organization's criteria. A group of 6-7 years old schoolchildren living in the East Region of Xochimilco were included in the study. A total of 279 children participated in this study; 153 in 1984 and 126 in 1992. The mean value of the deft index was 5.65 (SD 3.35) in 1984, and the mean value of the deft index was 4.89 (SD 3.7) in 1992. For the permanent dentition the DMFT was 0.51 (SD 1.0) in 1984 and 0.48 (SD 0.82) in 1992. Differences in dental caries indices, between the first and second survey, were significant only for the primary dentition in the six years old group (95% CI 0.36, 2.15). An increase in the proportion of filled teeth was found. However, the treatment needs are still very high (69% for primary teeth and 86% for permanent teeth). The findings from this study seem to indicate little change in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the population in the period of study.

  3. Effect of dextran-induced changes in refractive index and aggregation on optical properties of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xiangqun; Wang, Ruikang K; Elder, James B; Tuchin, Valery V

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate systematically the mechanisms of alterations in the optical properties of whole blood immersed in the biocompatible agent dextran, and to define the optimal concentration of dextrans required for blood optical clearing in order to enhance the capability of light penetration depth for optical imaging applications. In the experiments, dextrans with different molecular weights and various concentrations were employed and investigated by the use of the optical coherence tomography technique. Changes in light attenuation, refractive index and aggregation properties of blood immersed in dextrans were studied. It was concluded from the results that the mechanisms for blood optical clearing are characteristic of the types of dextrans employed, their concentrations and the application stages. Among the substances applied, Dx500 at a concentration at 0.5 g dl -1 gives the best result in improving light penetration depth through the blood. The increase of light transmission at the beginning of the addition of dextrans is mainly attributed to refractive index matching between the scattering centres and the ground matter. Thereafter, the transmission change is probably due to a dextran-induced aggregation-disaggregation effect. Overall, light scattering in the blood could be effectively reduced by the application of dextrans. It represents a promising approach to increasing the imaging depth for in vivo optical imaging of biological tissue, for example optical coherence tomography

  4. Reliability, standard error, and minimum detectable change of clinical pressure pain threshold testing in people with and without acute neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, David M; Macdermid, Joy C; Nielson, Warren; Teasell, Robert W; Chiasson, Marco; Brown, Lauren

    2011-09-01

    Clinical measurement. To evaluate the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability of an accessible digital algometer, and to determine the minimum detectable change in normal healthy individuals and a clinical population with neck pain. Pressure pain threshold testing may be a valuable assessment and prognostic indicator for people with neck pain. To date, most of this research has been completed using algometers that are too resource intensive for routine clinical use. Novice raters (physiotherapy students or clinical physiotherapists) were trained to perform algometry testing over 2 clinically relevant sites: the angle of the upper trapezius and the belly of the tibialis anterior. A convenience sample of normal healthy individuals and a clinical sample of people with neck pain were tested by 2 different raters (all participants) and on 2 different days (healthy participants only). Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement, and minimum detectable change were calculated. A total of 60 healthy volunteers and 40 people with neck pain were recruited. Intrarater reliability was almost perfect (ICC = 0.94-0.97), interrater reliability was substantial to near perfect (ICC = 0.79-0.90), and test-retest reliability was substantial (ICC = 0.76-0.79). Smaller change was detectable in the trapezius compared to the tibialis anterior. This study provides evidence that novice raters can perform digital algometry with adequate reliability for research and clinical use in people with and without neck pain.

  5. Changes of renal blood flow after ESWL: Assessment by ASL MR imaging, contrast enhanced MR imaging, and renal resistive index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abd Ellah, Mohamed, E-mail: dr_m_hamdy2006@hotmail.co [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kremser, Christian, E-mail: christian.kremser@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pallwein, Leo, E-mail: leo.pallwein-prettner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Aigner, Friedrich, E-mail: friedrich.Aigner@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Schocke, Michael, E-mail: michael.schocke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Peschel, Reinhard, E-mail: reinhard.peschel@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pedross, Florian, E-mail: florian.pedross@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Medical Statistics Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pinggera, Germar-Michael, E-mail: germar.pinggera@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Urology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Wolf, Christian, E-mail: christian.wolf@bkh-reutte.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Alsharkawy, Mostafa A.M., E-mail: drmostafamri@yahoo.co [Assiut University, Radiology Dept., Assiut (Egypt); Jaschke, Werner, E-mail: werner.jaschke@i-med.ac.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Frauscher, Ferdinand, E-mail: ferdinand.frauscher@uki.a [Innsbruck Medical University, Radiology Dept., Anich St. 35, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-10-15

    The annual incidence of stone formation is increased in the industrialised world. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy is a non-invasive effective treatment of upper urinary tract stones. This study is aimed to evaluate changes of renal blood flow in patients undergoing extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MR imaging, contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging, and renal resistive index (RI). Thirteen patients with nephrolithiasis were examined using MR imaging and Doppler ultrasound 12 h before and 12 h after ESWL. ASL sequence was done for both kidneys and followed by contrast enhanced MR imaging. In addition RI Doppler ultrasound measurements were performed. A significant increase in RI (p < 0.001) was found in both treated and untreated kidneys. ASL MR imaging also showed significant changes in both kidneys (p < 0.001). Contrast enhanced dynamic MR imaging did not show significant changes in the kidneys. ESWL causes changes in RI and ASL MR imaging, which seem to reflect changes in renal blood flow.

  6. Research blogging: indexing and registering the change in science 2.0.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibele Fausto

    Full Text Available Increasing public interest in science information in a digital and 2.0 science era promotes a dramatically, rapid and deep change in science itself. The emergence and expansion of new technologies and internet-based tools is leading to new means to improve scientific methodology and communication, assessment, promotion and certification. It allows methods of acquisition, manipulation and storage, generating vast quantities of data that can further facilitate the research process. It also improves access to scientific results through information sharing and discussion. Content previously restricted only to specialists is now available to a wider audience. This context requires new management systems to make scientific knowledge more accessible and useable, including new measures to evaluate the reach of scientific information. The new science and research quality measures are strongly related to the new online technologies and services based in social media. Tools such as blogs, social bookmarks and online reference managers, Twitter and others offer alternative, transparent and more comprehensive information about the active interest, usage and reach of scientific publications. Another of these new filters is the Research Blogging platform, which was created in 2007 and now has over 1,230 active blogs, with over 26,960 entries posted about peer-reviewed research on subjects ranging from Anthropology to Zoology. This study takes a closer look at RB, in order to get insights into its contribution to the rapidly changing landscape of scientific communication.

  7. Radii and refractive index changes in γ-irradiated optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, M.; Ferrari, A; Scudieri, F.; Serra, A.

    1979-01-01

    Radiation effects in bulk glasses have received great attention in the last few years. In optical fibers the parameters studied have been the optical attenuation at different wavelengths and the luminescence generated by irradiation. A report is presented on some preliminary experiments showing that sensible changes in both dimensions and refractive indices occur even in the case of simple defect introduction, as it is for γ-rays, and even at relatively low irradiation doses (e.g. 1 Krad). Moreover the effects anneal out at room temperature in a few days. The measurements have been made with an optical interferometric technique in which a comparison is made between an unirradiated reference fiber sample and the irradiated specimen. The fiber examined was a Pb-silicate core/borosilicate clad fiber. (U.K.)

  8. Changes in zooxanthellae density, morphology, and mitotic index in hermatypic corals and anemones exposed to cyanide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, J M; Hayes, R L; Honovich, M; Goreau, T J; Jones, S; Rubec, P J

    2003-05-01

    Sodium cyanide (NaCN) is widely used for the capture of reef fish throughout Southeast Asia and causes extensive fish mortality, but the effect of NaCN on reef corals remains debated. To document the impact of cyanide exposure on corals, the species Acropora millepora, Goniopora sp., Favites abdita, Trachyphyllia geoffrio, Plerogyra sp., Heliofungia actinformis, Euphyllia divisa, and Scarophyton sp., and the sea anemone Aiptasia pallida were exposed to varying concentrations of cyanide for varying time periods. Corals were exposed to 50, 100, 300, and 600 mg/l of cyanide ion (CN(-)) for 1-2 min (in seawater, the CN(-) forms hydrocyanic acid). These concentrations are much lower than those reportedly used by fish collectors. Exposed corals and anemones immediately retracted their tentacles and mesenterial filaments, and discharged copious amounts of mucus containing zooxanthellae. Gel electrophoreses techniques found changes in protein expression in both zooxanthellae and host tissue. Corals and anemones exposed to cyanide showed an immediate increase in mitotic cell division of their zooxenthellae, and a decrease in zooxanthellae density. In contrast, zooxanthellae cell division and density remained constant in controls. Histopathological changes included gastrodermal disruption, mesogleal degradation, and increased mucus in coral tissues. Zooxanthellae showed pigment loss, swelling, and deformation. Mortality occurred at all exposure levels. Exposed specimens experienced an increase in the ratio of gram-negative to gram-positive bacteria on the coral surface. The results demonstrate that exposure cyanide causes mortality to corals and anemones, even when applied at lower levels than that used by fish collectors. Even brief exposure to cyanide caused slow-acting and long-term damage to corals and their zooxanthellae.

  9. Psychometric properties of the Need for Recovery after work scale: test-retest reliability and sensitivity to detect change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Croon, E. M.; Sluiter, J. K.; Frings-Dresen, M. H. W.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monitoring worker health and evaluating occupational healthcare interventions requires sensitive instruments that are reliable over time. The Need for Recovery scale (NFR), which quantifies workers' difficulties in recovering from work related exertions, may be a relevant instrument in

  10. Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Qingjie; Guo Kangxian; Liu Guanghui; Wu Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    Polaron effects on the linear and the nonlinear optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in cylindrical quantum dots with the radial parabolic potential and the z-direction linear potential with applied magnetic field are theoretically investigated. The optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes are presented by using the compact-density-matrix approach and iterative method. Numerical calculations are presented for GaAs/AlGaAs. It is found that taking into account the electron-LO-phonon interaction, not only are the linear, the nonlinear and the total optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes enhanced, but also the total optical absorption coefficients are more sensitive to the incident optical intensity. It is also found that no matter whether the electron-LO-phonon interaction is considered or not, the absorption coefficients and refractive index changes above are strongly dependent on the radial frequency, the magnetic field and the linear potential coefficient.

  11. Grated waveguide-based optical cavities as compact sensors for sub-nanometre cantilever deflections, and small refractive-index changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauppinen, L.J.; Hoekstra, Hugo; Dijkstra, Mindert; de Ridder, R.M.; Krijnen, Gijsbertus J.M.; MacCraith, B; McDonagh, C.

    2008-01-01

    The paper reports on theoretical and experimental results of integrated optical (IO) cavities defined by grated waveguides in $Si_3N_4$ and Si, for the accurate detection of cantilever deflection and bulk index changes.

  12. Fractal dimension as an index of brain cortical changes throughout life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmanti, Elina; Maris, Thomas G

    2007-01-01

    The fractal dimension (FD) of the cerebral cortex was measured in 93 individuals, aged from 3 months to 78 years, with normal brain MRI's in order to compare the convolutions of the cerebral cortex between genders and age groups. Image J, an image processing program, was used to skeletonize cerebral cortex and the box counting method applied. FDs on slices taken from left and right hemispheres were calculated. Our results showed a significant degree of lateralization in the left hemisphere. It appears that basal ganglia development, mainly in the left hemisphere, is heavily dependent upon age until puberty. In addition, both left and right cortex development equally depends on age until puberty, while the corresponding right hemisphere convolutions continue to develop until a later stage. An increased developmental activity appears between the ages of 1 and 15 years, indicating a significant brain remodelling during childhood and adolescence. In infancy, only changes in basal ganglia are observed, while the right hemisphere continues to remodel in adulthood.

  13. Use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index as an Assessment Tool for Reptiles and Amphibians: Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberville, Tracey D.; Andrews, Kimberly M.; Sperry, Jinelle H.; Grosse, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    Climate change threatens biodiversity globally, yet it can be challenging to predict which species may be most vulnerable. Given the scope of the problem, it is imperative to rapidly assess vulnerability and identify actions to decrease risk. Although a variety of tools have been developed to assess climate change vulnerability, few have been evaluated with regard to their suitability for certain taxonomic groups. Due to their ectothermic physiology, low vagility, and strong association with temporary wetlands, reptiles and amphibians may be particularly vulnerable relative to other groups. Here, we evaluate use of the NatureServe Climate Change Vulnerability Index (CCVI) to assess a large suite of herpetofauna from the Sand Hills Ecoregion of the southeastern United States. Although data were frequently lacking for certain variables (e.g., phenological response to climate change, genetic variation), sufficient data were available to evaluate all 117 species. Sensitivity analyses indicated that results were highly dependent on size of assessment area and climate scenario selection. In addition, several ecological traits common in, but relatively unique to, herpetofauna are likely to contribute to their vulnerability and need special consideration during the scoring process. Despite some limitations, the NatureServe CCVI was a useful tool for screening large numbers of reptile and amphibian species. We provide general recommendations as to how the CCVI tool's application to herpetofauna can be improved through more specific guidance to the user regarding how to incorporate unique physiological and behavioral traits into scoring existing sensitivity factors and through modification to the assessment tool itself.

  14. Interannual variability of the normalized difference vegetation index on the Tibetan Plateau and its relationship with climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dingwen; Fan, Guangzhou; Huang, Ronghui; Fang, Zhifang; Liu, Yaqin; Li, Hongquan

    2007-05-01

    The Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, or Tibetan Plateau, is a sensitive region for climate change, where the manifestation of global warming is particularly noticeable. The wide climate variability in this region significantly affects the local land ecosystem and could consequently lead to notable vegetation changes. In this paper, the interannual variations of the plateau vegetation are investigated using a 21-year normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset to quantify the consequences of climate warming for the regional ecosystem and its interactions. The results show that vegetation coverage is best in the eastern and southern plateau regions and deteriorates toward the west and north. On the whole, vegetation activity demonstrates a gradual enhancement in an oscillatory manner during 1982 2002. The temporal variation also exhibits striking regional differences: an increasing trend is most apparent in the west, south, north and southeast, whereas a decreasing trend is present along the southern plateau boundary and in the central-east region. Covariance analysis between the NDVI and surface temperature/precipitation suggests that vegetation change is closely related to climate change. However, the controlling physical processes vary geographically. In the west and east, vegetation variability is found to be driven predominantly by temperature, with the impact of precipitation being of secondary importance. In the central plateau, however, temperature and precipitation factors are equally important in modulating the interannual vegetation variability.

  15. The Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale: Interrater Reliability and Sensitivity to Change in Short-Term Dynamic Psychotherapy and Cognitive Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Svartberg, Martin; Stiles, Tore C.; McCullough, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined interrater reliability and sensitivity to change of the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale (ATOS; McCullough, Larsen, et al., 2003) in short-term dynamic psychotherapy (STDP) and cognitive therapy (CT). The ATOS is a process scale originally developed to assess patients' achievements of treatment objectives in STDP,…

  16. INDEXING AND INDEX FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAKAN SARITAŞ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Proponents of the efficient market hypothesis believe that active portfolio management is largely wasted effort and unlikely to justify the expenses incurred. Therefore, they advocate a passive investment strategy that makes no attempt to outsmart the market. One common strategy for passive management is indexing where a fund is designed to replicate the performance of a broad-based index of stocks and bonds. Traditionally, indexing was used by institutional investors, but today, the use of index funds proliferated among individual investors. Over the years, both international and domestic index funds have disproportionately outperformed the market more than the actively managed funds have.

  17. Obesity, change of body mass index and subsequent physical and mental health functioning: a 12-year follow-up study among ageing employees

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Svärd; Jouni Lahti; Eira Roos; Ossi Rahkonen; Eero Lahelma; Tea Lallukka; Minna Mänty

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. Meth...

  18. Visual-Haptic Integration: Cue Weights are Varied Appropriately, to Account for Changes in Haptic Reliability Introduced by Using a Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Chie Takahashi; Simon J Watt

    2011-01-01

    Tools such as pliers systematically change the relationship between an object's size and the hand opening required to grasp it. Previous work suggests the brain takes this into account, integrating visual and haptic size information that refers to the same object, independent of the similarity of the ‘raw’ visual and haptic signals (Takahashi et al., VSS 2009). Variations in tool geometry also affect the reliability (precision) of haptic size estimates, however, because they alter the change ...

  19. Changes in haemoglobin levels according to changes in body mass index and smoking habits, a 20-year follow-up of a male cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbakken, Tove; Dahl, Inger Marie S.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Langbakk, Bodil; Lochen, Maja-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin level declines with increasing age in cross sectional studies. Little is known about the longitudinal changes of haemoglobin. Because both high or low haemoglobin levels increase mortality and morbidity we examined how changes in lifestyle factors like body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits influence cohort changes in haemoglobin level. In all, 4159 men aged 20-49 years at baseline were examined in 1974 and 1994-1995 in a longitudinal, population-based study from the municipality of Tromso, Northern Norway. Mean haemoglobin was 148 g/l. There was no difference in mean haemoglobin after 20 years in any strata of age. Mean BMI increased 2.1 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of smokers decreased 20.1 percentage points. In a multiple regression analysis increase in BMI was associated with increased haemoglobin change. Smoking cessation lowered mean haemoglobin 1.6 g/l compared to never smokers. Haemoglobin increased 0.8 g/l in smoking quitters whose BMI increased >2.5 kg/m 2 compared to a decrease of 6.7 g/l in weight reducers. There was a positive dose-response relationship between changes in cigarettes smoked per day and change in haemoglobin among consistent smokers. In conclusion, in contrast to cross sectional studies, mean haemoglobin did not change during 20 years ageing of relatively young men. This could be explained by higher BMI and less smoking. The increase in BMI affected haemoglobin change to such an extent that the reduction in haemoglobin due to smoking cessation was counteracted. Prospective studies are needed to address the health implications

  20. The changes of the immunological indexes in the patients with bone metastases treated with 89SrCl2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yong; Fang Na

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the influence of 89 SrCl 2 on the immunological functions in the patients with bone metastases. Methods: Forty-two patients with proved bone metastases were treated with 89 SrCl 2 and according to the final therapeutic efficiency for the metastatic lesions, the patients were divided into efficacious and inefficacious group. Twenty untreated healthy adults served as control group. The T lymphocyte subsets CD 4 + , CD 8 + , CD 4 + /CD 8 + were analyzed before and after 89 SrCl 2 treatment. Results: The immunological indexes were not significantly different between the two patient groups before the therapy of 89 SrCl 2 . The indexes between the controls and patients before and after the therapy were different significantly (P 89 SrCl 2 , 37 (88.10%) patients' immunological functions were improved, 33 patients (78.57%) stated that their pain were effectively relieved, 29 (69.05%) patients' bone metastatic lesions reduced. Conclusions: The immunological functions in the patients with bone metastases were inhibited obviously. Treating with 89 SrCl 2 can improve their immunological functions to a certain extent. The recovery level of the inefficacious patients was lower than that of the efficacious patients. The changes of immunological functions can reflect the therapeutical effectiveness. (authors)

  1. Threshold pump intensity effect on the refractive index changes in InGaN SQD: Internal constitution and size effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat (Morocco); LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); A John Peter [P.G. & Research Department of Physics, Goverment Arts and Science College, Melur 625106, Madurai (India)

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, internal composition and size-dependent threshold pump intensity effects on on-center impurity-related linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index changes are investigated in wurtzite (In,Ga)N/GaN unstrained spherical quantum dot. The calculation is performed within the framework of parabolic band and single band effective-mass approximations using a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan (HFR) method. According to the results obtained, (i) a significant red-shift (blue shift) is obtained as the dot size (potential barrier) increases and (ii) a threshold optical pump intensity depending strongly on the size and the internal composition is obtained which constitutes the limit between two behaviors.

  2. Responsiveness and minimum important change of the Oswestry Disability Index in Italian subjects with symptomatic lumbar spondylolisthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanti, Carla; Ferrari, Silvano; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Berjano, Pedro; Monticone, Marco

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the responsiveness and the minimum important change of the Italian version of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI-I) in subjects with symptomatic specific low back pain associated with lumbar spondylolisthesis (SPL). One hundred and fifty-one patients with symptomatic SPL completed the ODI-I, a 0-100 numerical rating scale (NRS), and performed the prone and supine bridge tests. The global perception of effectiveness was measured with a 7-point Likert scale. Responsiveness was assessed by distribution methods (minimum detectable change [MDC], effect size [ES], standardized response mean [SRM]) and anchor-based methods (ROC curves). The MDC was 4.23, the ES was 0.95 and the SRM was 1.25. ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.76 indicating moderate discriminating capacity. The best cut-off point for the dichotomous outcome was 7.5 (sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 56.7%). . The ODI-I proved to be responsive in detecting changes after conservative treatment in subjects with lumbar SPL. II.

  3. Analyzing driving forces behind changes in energy vulnerability of Spanish electricity generation through a Divisia index-based method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández González, P.; Moreno, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose and develop the LMDI approach to factorize changes in electricity bill vulnerability. • Spanish vulnerability (1995–2011) markedly grew mainly by increasing gas dependence. • Fuel price increase and growing importance of electricity damage energy security. • Energy intensity advances & fuel diversification: insufficient to drive vulnerability. • Main recommendation: enhance internal energy market and common external EU strategy. - Abstract: High energy dependence on fossil raises vulnerability concerns about security of supply and energy cost. This research examines the impact of high dependence of imported fuels for power generation in Spain through the quantification and analysis of the driving forces behind the change in its electricity bill. Following logarithmic mean Divisia indexes approach, we present and perform a new method that enables a complete decomposition of changes in electricity vulnerability into contributions from several drivers. In fact, we identify five predefined factors behind the variations in vulnerability in Spain during the 1998–2011 period: fuel price, average heat rate, fuel dependence, degree of electricity importance and energy intensity. The application of this approach reveals a significant increase in Spanish vulnerability in the last two decades, promoted by increments in fuel price and importance of electricity over the primary energy consumption, but especially by increasing fuel dependence (particularly gas dependence). Therefore, findings mainly advocate for those strategies aimed at reducing Spanish energy dependence. Also those improving thermal efficiency and energy intensity are indicated

  4. Measuring health-related quality of life in patients with mild to moderate eczema and psoriasis: clinical validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of the DLQI. The Cavide Research Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badia, X; Mascaró, J M; Lozano, R

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility, validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of a Spanish version of the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in patients with mild to moderate eczema and psoriasis who were treated with topical corticosteroids. The final study sample comprised 237 patients (48% eczema). Discriminant validity was tested by comparing patients' scores with those of a random sample of the general population (n = 100), and convergent validity by analysing correlations between DLQI scores, measures of clinical severity, and domain scores on the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP). Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested in clinically stable patients (n = 94), and responsiveness in a clinically unstable group (n = 143) initiating treatment with topical corticosteroids. Patient scores were significantly higher than general population scores (4.3 vs. 0. 27, P effect size for the total group of de novo patients = 0.70), though the great majority of changes occurred in items 1 and 2. The NHP Emotional Reactions and Mobility domains were more responsive than some DLQI domains. In clinical trials of treatments for mild to moderate eczema and psoriasis, it is likely that only items 1 and 2 of the DLQI will be needed, and it is probably advisable to include generic instruments alongside the DLQI.

  5. Changes in body mass index and incidence of diabetes: A longitudinal study of Alberta's Tomorrow Project Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Robson, Paula J; Eurich, Dean T; Vena, Jennifer E; Xu, Jian-Yi; Johnson, Jeffrey A

    2018-01-01

    Although obesity is a known risk factor for diabetes, the impact of body mass index (BMI) changes over time, especially BMI reduction, on diabetes development is less than clear. The objective of this study is to characterize the association between BMI changes over time and incidence of diabetes in a cohort of adults in Alberta. From 2000 to 2008, Alberta's Tomorrow Project (ATP) enrolled participants aged 35-69 to a population-based prospective cohort study. BMI was calculated from self-reported height and weight; change in BMI (∆BMI) was calculated as the difference between baseline and follow-up measurements. Diabetes cases were identified using the Canadian National Diabetes Surveillance System algorithm applied to linked administrative data (2000-2015). Multivariable Cox regression was used to examine the association between ∆BMI and incidence of diabetes. In a subset of the ATP cohort (n=19,164), 1168 incident cases of diabetes were identified during 198,853person-years of follow-up. Overall, BMI increase was associated with increased risk and BMI reduction was associated with reduced risk of diabetes. Particularly, compared to minimal BMI change (±5%), moderate (5%-10%) reduction in BMI was associated with 34% (95% CI: 12%-51%) reduction in risk of diabetes in participants with obesity; whereas 10% or greater increase in BMI was associated with an increased risk of diabetes of 64% or more in participants with overweight and obesity; in participants with normal and underweight, BMI changes was not apparently associated with risk of diabetes. Public health programs promoting weight loss, even at a moderate extent, would reduce risk of diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Improvement of the photometric sunspot index and changes of the disk-integrated sunspot contrast with time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, Claus; Pap, Judit M.; Hudson, Hugh S.

    1994-06-01

    The photometric sunspot index (PSI) was developed to study the effects of sunspots on solar irradiance. It is calculated from the sunspot data published in the Solar-Geophysical Data catalog. It has been shown that the former PSI models overestimate the effect of dark sunspots on solar irradiance; furthermore results of direct sunspot photometry indicate that the contrast of spots depends on their area. An improved PSI calculation is presented; it takes into account the area dependence of the contrast and calculates `true' daily means for each observation using the differential rotation of the spots. Moreover, the observations are screened for outliers which improves the homogeneity of the data set substantially, at least for the period after December 1981 when NOAA started to report data from a few instead of one to two stations. A detailed description of the method is provided. The correlation between the newly calculated PSI and total solar irradiance is studied for different phases of the solar cycles 21 and 22 using bi-variate spectral analysis. The results can be used as a `calibration' of PSI in terms of gain, the factor by which PSI has to be multiplied to yield the observed irradiance change. The factor changes with time from about 0.6 in 1980 to 1.1 in 1990. This unexpected result cannot be interpreted by a change of the contrast relative to the quiet Sun (as it is normally defined and determined by direct photometry) but rather as a change of the contrast between the spots and their surrounding as seen in total irradiance (integrated over the solar disk). This may partly be explained by a change in the ratio between the areas of the spots and the surrounding faculae.

  7. Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon; Hjarnbæk, John

    2015-01-01

    Inter-examiner reliability of a standardized Ultra-sonographic method for classification of changes related to supraspinatus tendinopathy – a pilot study Ingwersen KG1, 2, Hjarbaek J3, Eshøj H1, Larsen CM1, 4, Vobbe J5, Juul-Kristensen B1, 6 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics......, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark. 2Physiotherapy Department, Hospital Lillebaelt, Vejle Hospital, Vejle, Denmark 3Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal section, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark 4Health Sciences Research Centre, University College Lillebaelt, Odense Denmark 5...... athletes. For optimizing rehabilitation to the different stages of tendinopathy (1) ultra-sonography (US) may be used. Reliability of such method for RT is lacking. Aims. To develop and test inter-examiner reliability of US for classifying RT. Materials and Methods. A three-phased standardized protocol...

  8. [Assessment of the validity and reliability of the processes of change scale based on the transtheoretical model of vegetable consumption behavior in Japanese male workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushida, Osamu; Murayama, Nobuko

    2012-12-01

    A core construct of the Transtheoretical model is that the processes and stages of change are strongly related to observable behavioral changes. We created the Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior and examined the validity and reliability of this scale. In September 2009, a self-administered questionnaire was administered to male Japanese employees, aged 20-59 years, working at 20 worksites in Niigata City in Japan. The stages of change (precontempration, contemplation, preparation, action, and maintenance stage) were measured using 2 items that assessed participants' current implementation of the target behavior (eating 5 or more servings of vegetables per day) and their readiness to change their habits. The Processes of Change Scale of vegetable consumption behavior comprised 10 items assessing 5 cognitive processes (consciousness raising, emotional arousal, environmental reevaluation, self-reevaluation, and social liberation) and 5 behavioral processes (commitment, rewards, helping relationships, countering, and environment control). Each item was selected from an existing scale. Decisional balance (pros [2 items] and cons [2 items]), and self-efficacy (3 items) were also assessed, because these constructs were considered to be relevant to the processes of change. The internal consistency reliability of the scale was examined using Cronbach's alpha. Its construct validity was examined using a factor analysis of the processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy variables, while its criterion-related validity was determined by assessing the association between the scale scores and the stages of change. The data of 527 (out of 600) participants (mean age, 41.1 years) were analyzed. Results indicated that the Processes of Change Scale had sufficient internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha: cognitive processes=0.722, behavioral processes=0.803). The processes of change were divided into 2 factors: "consciousness raising

  9. Reliability of standing weight-bearing (0.25T) MR imaging findings and positional changes in the lumbar spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke B; Hansen, Philip; Christensen, Anders F

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the reliability and absolute agreement of common degenerative findings in standing positional magnetic resonance imaging (pMRI). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Low back pain patients with and without sciatica were consecutively enrolled to undergo a supine and standing pMRI. Three...

  10. Impact of Climate Change on Natural Snow Reliability, Snowmaking Capacities, and Wind Conditions of Ski Resorts in Northeast Turkey: A Dynamical Downscaling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Cenk Demiroglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many ski resorts worldwide are going through deteriorating snow cover conditions due to anthropogenic warming trends. As the natural and the artificially supported, i.e., technical, snow reliability of ski resorts diminish, the industry approaches a deadlock. For this reason, impact assessment studies have become vital for understanding vulnerability of ski tourism. This study considers three resorts at one of the rapidly emerging ski destinations, Northeast Turkey, for snow reliability analyses. Initially one global circulation model is dynamically downscaled by using the regional climate model RegCM4.4 for 1971–2000 and 2021–2050 periods along the RCP4.5 greenhouse gas concentration pathway. Next, the projected climate outputs are converted into indicators of natural snow reliability, snowmaking capacity, and wind conditions. The results show an overall decline in the frequencies of naturally snow reliable days and snowmaking capacities between the two periods. Despite the decrease, only the lower altitudes of one ski resort would face the risk of losing natural snow reliability and snowmaking could still compensate for forming the base layer before the critical New Year’s week. On the other hand, adverse high wind conditions improve as to reduce the number of lift closure days at all resorts. Overall, this particular region seems to be relatively resilient against climate change.

  11. Changes of body mass index in relation to mortality: results of a cohort of 42,099 adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Klenk

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High Body-Mass-Index (BMI is associated with increased all-cause mortality, but little is known about the effect of short- and long-term BMI change on mortality. The aim of the study was to determine how long-term weight change affects mortality. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Within a population-based prospective cohort of 42,099 Austrian men and women (mean age 43 years with at least three BMI measurements we investigated the relationship of BMI at baseline and two subsequent BMI change intervals of five years each with all-cause mortality using Cox proportional Hazard models. During median follow-up of 12 years 4,119 deaths were identified. The lowest mortalities were found in persons with normal weight or overweight at baseline and stable BMI over 10 years. Weight gain (≥0.10 kg/m(2/year during the first five years was associated with increased mortality in overweight and obese people. For weight gain during both time intervals mortality risk remained significantly increased only in overweight (Hazard Ratio (HR: 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.01; 1.92 and obese women (1.85 (95% confidence interval: 1.18; 2.89. Weight loss (< -0.10 kg/m(2/year increased all-cause mortality in men and women consistently. BMI change over time assessed using accepted World Health Organisation BMI categories showed no increased mortality risk for people who remained in the normal or overweight category for all three measurements. In contrast, HRs for stable obese men and women were 1.57 (95% CI: 1.31; 1.87 and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.25; 1.71 respectively. CONCLUSION: Our findings highlight the importance of weight stability and obesity avoidance in prevention strategy.

  12. Power industry restructuring and eco-efficiency changes: A new slacks-based model in Malmquist–Luenberger Index measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, Behrouz; Munisamy, Susila; Emrouznejad, Ali; Shadman, Foroogh

    2014-01-01

    Measuring variations in efficiency and its extension, eco-efficiency, during a restructuring period in different industries has always been a point of interest for regulators and policy makers. This paper assesses the impacts of restructuring of procurement in the Iranian power industry on the performance of power plants. We introduce a new slacks-based model for Malmquist–Luenberger (ML) Index measurement and apply it to the power plants to calculate the efficiency, eco-efficiency, and technological changes over the 8-year period (2003–2010) of restructuring in the power industry. The results reveal that although the restructuring had different effects on the individual power plants, the overall growth in the eco-efficiency of the sector was mainly due to advances in pure technology. We also assess the correlation between efficiency and eco-efficiency of the power plants, which indicates a close relationship between these two steps, thus lending support to the incorporation of environmental factors in efficiency analysis. - Highlights: • We introduce a new slack-based model incorporating bad outputs to measure eco-efficiency. • Eco-efficiency change of power plants is measured over a restructuring period. • A success to enhance the eco-efficiency is revealed. • A close relationship between efficiency and eco-efficiency is shown

  13. Parasitic infection by larval helminths in Antarctic fishes: pathological changes and impact on the host body condition index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Mario; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Work, Thierry; Cimmaruta, Roberta; Nardi, Valentina; Cipriani, Paolo; Bellisario, Bruno; Nascetti, Giuseppe

    2013-07-22

    We examined pathological changes and relationship between body condition index (BCI) and parasitic infection in 5 species of fish, including 42 icefish Chionodraco hamatus (Channichtyidae), 2 dragonfish Cygnodraco mawsoni (Bathydraconidae), 30 emerald rock cod Trematomus bernacchii, 46 striped rock cod T. hansoni and 9 dusty rock cod T. newnesi (Nototheniidae) from the Ross Sea, Antarctica. All parasites were identified by a combination of morphology and mtDNA cytochrome-oxidase-2 sequence (mtDNA cox2) analysis, except Contracaecum osculatum s.l., for which only the latter was used. Five larval taxa were associated with pathological changes including 2 sibling species (D and E) of the C. osculatum species complex and 3 cestodes including plerocercoids of a diphyllobothridean, and 2 tetraphyllidean forms including cercoids with monolocular and bilocular bothridia. The most heavily infected hosts were C. hamatus and C. mawsoni, with C. hamatus most often infected by C. osculatum sp. D and sp. E and diphyllobothrideans, while C. mawsoni was most often infected with tetraphyllidean forms. Histologically, all fish showed varying severity of chronic inflammation associated with larval forms of helminths. Diphyllobothrideans and C. osculatum spp. were located in gastric muscularis or liver and were associated with necrosis and mild to marked fibrosis. Moderate multifocal rectal mucosal chronic inflammation was associated with attached tetraphyllidean scolices. C. hamatus showed a strong negative correlation between BCI and parasite burden.

  14. Geographic Accessibility Of Food Outlets Not Associated With Body Mass Index Change Among Veterans, 2009-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Wing, Coady; Matthews, Stephen A; Jones, Kelly; Tong, Hao; Powell, Lisa M

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, various levels of government in the United States have adopted or discussed subsidies, tax breaks, zoning laws, and other public policies that promote geographic access to healthy food. However, there is little evidence from large-scale longitudinal or quasi-experimental research to suggest that the local mix of food outlets actually affects body mass index (BMI). We used a longitudinal design to examine whether the proximity of food outlets, by type, was associated with BMI changes between 2009 and 2014 among 1.7 million veterans in 382 metropolitan areas. We found no evidence that either absolute or relative geographic accessibility of supermarkets, fast-food restaurants, or mass merchandisers was associated with changes in an individual's BMI over time. While policies that alter only geographic access to food outlets may promote equitable access to healthy food and improve nutrition, our findings suggest they will do little to combat obesity in adults. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  15. Education policies and health inequalities: evidence from changes in the distribution of Body Mass Index in France, 1981-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etile, Fabrice

    2014-03-01

    This paper contributes to the debate over the effectiveness of education policies in reducing overall health inequalities as compared to public health actions directed at the less-educated. Recentered Influence Function (RIF) regressions are used to decompose the contribution of education to the changing distribution of Body Mass Index (BMI) in France, between 1981 and 2003, into a composition effect (the shift in population education due to a massive educational expansion), and a structure effect (a changing educational gradient in BMI). Educational expansion has reduced overall BMI inequality by 3.4% for women and 2.3% for men. However, the structure effect on its own has produced a 10.9% increase in overall inequality for women, due to a steeper education gradient starting from the second quartile of the distribution. This structure effect on overall inequality is also large (7.6%) for men, albeit insignificant as it remains concentrated in the last decile. Educational expansion policies can thus reduce overall BMI inequalities; but attention must still be paid to the BMI gradient in education even for policies addressing overall rather than socioeconomic health inequalities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The reliability and internal consistency of one-shot and flicker change detection for measuring individual differences in visual working memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pailian, Hrag; Halberda, Justin

    2015-04-01

    We investigated the psychometric properties of the one-shot change detection task for estimating visual working memory (VWM) storage capacity-and also introduced and tested an alternative flicker change detection task for estimating these limits. In three experiments, we found that the one-shot whole-display task returns estimates of VWM storage capacity (K) that are unreliable across set sizes-suggesting that the whole-display task is measuring different things at different set sizes. In two additional experiments, we found that the one-shot single-probe variant shows improvements in the reliability and consistency of K estimates. In another additional experiment, we found that a one-shot whole-display-with-click task (requiring target localization) also showed improvements in reliability and consistency. The latter results suggest that the one-shot task can return reliable and consistent estimates of VWM storage capacity (K), and they highlight the possibility that the requirement to localize the changed target is what engenders this enhancement. Through a final series of four experiments, we introduced and tested an alternative flicker change detection method that also requires the observer to localize the changing target and that generates, from response times, an estimate of VWM storage capacity (K). We found that estimates of K from the flicker task correlated with estimates from the traditional one-shot task and also had high reliability and consistency. We highlight the flicker method's ability to estimate executive functions as well as VWM storage capacity, and discuss the potential for measuring multiple abilities with the one-shot and flicker tasks.

  17. A new index for identifying socioeconomic drought events under climate change over the East River basin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H.; Chen, J.; Wang, K.; Niu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Drought, which means severe water deficiencies, is a complex natural hazard that may have destructive damages on societal properties and lives. Generally, socioeconomic drought occurs when the water resources systems cannot meet the water demands due to a weather-related shortfall in water supply to societies. This paper aims to propose a new index (i.e., socioeconomic drought index (SEDI)) for identifying socioeconomic drought events on different levels (i.e., slight, moderate, severe and extreme) under climate change through considering the gap between water supply and demand. First, the minimum in-stream water requirement (MWR) is determined through comprehensively considering the requirements of water quality, ecology, navigation and water supply. Second, according to the monthly water deficit calculated as the monthly streamflow data minus the MWR, drought month can be identified. Third, according to the cumulative water deficit derived from the monthly water deficit, drought duration (i.e., the number of continuous drought months) can be detected. Fourth, the SEDI of each socioeconomic drought event can be calculated through integrating the impacts of the cumulative water deficit and drought duration. The study area is the East River basin in South China, and the impact of a multi-year reservoir (i.e., the Xinfengjiang Reservoir) on drought is also analyzed. For historical and future drought analysis, it is concluded that the proposed SEDI is feasible to identify socioeconomic drought events. The results show that a number of socioeconomic drought events (including some extreme ones) may occur during 2020-2099, and the appropriate reservoir operation can significantly ease such situation.

  18. Time Course of Changes in Extravascular Lung Water Index, Intracranial and Cerebral Perfusion Pressures in Acute Cerebral Circulatory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Churlyaev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the time course of changes in extravascular lung water index (ELWI and intracranial and cerebral perfusion pressures (ICP and CPP and to determine their possible relationships in acute cerebral circulatory disorders (ACCD. Subject and methods. ELWI, pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI, ICP, CPP, and central hemodynamics were studied by transpulmonary thermodilution and current X-ray studies were conducted in 18 patients on days 1, 3, 5, and 7 of ACCD. Results. Examinations revealed a supratentorial dislocation of the brain in 6 persons; its subtento-rial dislocation was found in 1 case; supra- and subtentorial dislocations were seen in 6. In patients, ELWI and PVPI increased from days 1 and 5, respectively. The high baseline ICP increased over time. CPP remained unchanged. Preserved left ventricular contractility, enhanced myocardial one, a significant direct correlation between ELWI and PVPI, as well as their increase confirmed that the noncardiogenic genesis was responsible for increased ELWI. A direct significant correlation was found between ICP and ELWI, ICP and PVPI. Against this background, acute respiratory distress syndrome developed in 14 patients with pneumonia evolving in its presence in 7 patients. Conclusion. In ACCD, ELWI increases in the first 24 hours of the acute period. One of its causes is, along with others, primary and/or secondary damage to the brainstem structures with elevated ICP and progressive brain dislocation. The determination of ICP, unlike CPP, is crucial in the diagnosis and treatment of primary/secondary brain injuries and in prognosis. Key words: acute cerebral circulatory disorder, extravascular lung fluid, pulmonary vascular permeability, intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, acute respiratory distress syndrome.

  19. Refractive index modulation of Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30} phase-change thin films by multiple femtosecond laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lei, Kai; Wang, Yang, E-mail: ywang@siom.ac.cn; Jiang, Minghui; Wu, Yiqun [Key Laboratory of High Power Laser Materials, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2016-05-07

    In this study, the controllable effective refractive index modulation of Sb{sub 70}Te{sub 30} phase-change thin films between amorphous and crystalline states was achieved experimentally by multiple femtosecond laser pulses. The modulation mechanism was analyzed comprehensively by a spectral ellipsometer measurement, surface morphology observation, and two-temperature model calculations. We numerically demonstrate the application of the optically modulated refractive index of the phase-change thin films in a precisely adjustable color display. These results may provide further insights into ultrafast phase-transition mechanics and are useful in the design of programmable photonic and opto-electrical devices based on phase-change memory materials.

  20. Interrater and Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of the Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest) and Subsystems With Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Hsu, Elizabeth; Smith, Susan S

    2017-01-10

    Falls are a common cause of injuries and hospital admissions in older adults. Balance limitation is a potentially modifiable factor contributing to falls. The Balance Evaluation Systems Test (BESTest), a clinical balance measure, categorizes balance into 6 underlying subsystems. Each of the subsystems is scored individually and summed to obtain a total score. The reliability of the BESTest and its individual subsystems has been reported in patients with various neurological disorders and cancer survivors. However, the reliability and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the BESTest with community-dwelling older adults have not been reported. The purposes of our study were to (1) determine the interrater and test-retest reliability of the BESTest total and subsystem scores; and (2) estimate the MDC of the BESTest and its individual subsystem scores with community-dwelling older adults. We used a prospective cohort methodological design. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 70; aged 70-94 years; mean = 85.0 [5.5] years) were recruited from a senior independent living community. Trained testers (N = 3) administered the BESTest. All participants were tested with the BESTest by the same tester initially and then retested 7 to 14 days later. With 32 of the participants, a second tester concurrently scored the retest for interrater reliability. Testers were blinded to each other's scores. Intraclass correlation coefficients [ICC(2,1)] were used to determine the interrater and test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was also analyzed using method error and the associated coefficients of variation (CVME). MDC was calculated using standard error of measurement. Interrater reliability (N = 32) of the BESTest total score was ICC(2, 1) = 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94-0.99). The ICCs for the individual subsystem scores ranged from 0.85 to 0.94. Test-retest reliability (N = 70) of the BESTest total score was ICC(2,1) = 0.93 (95% CI, 0.89-0.96). ICCs for the

  1. PRES- and orthostatic-induced heart-rate changes as markers of labile hypertension : magnitude and reliability measures.

    OpenAIRE

    Rau, Harald; Furedy, John J.; Elbert, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Split-half and test-retest reliabilities of heart-rate responses to a baroreceptor manipulation and an orthostatic manoeuver were compared between subjects with either normal or elevated blood-pressure. Ten subjects showing elevated resting blood-pressure and 11 normotensive subjects participated in two experimental sessions, each including heart-rate recordings during baroreceptor manipulation and orthostatic challenge. Carotid baroreceptors were manipulated by applying the baroreceptor-spec...

  2. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  3. Analysis of changes in tornadogenesis conditions over Northern Eurasia based on a simple index of atmospheric convective instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernokulsky, A. V.; Kurgansky, M. V.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2017-12-01

    A simple index of convective instability (3D-index) is used for analysis of weather and climate processes that favor to the occurrence of severe convective events including tornadoes. The index is based on information on the surface air temperature and humidity. The prognostic ability of the index to reproduce severe convective events (thunderstorms, showers, tornadoes) is analyzed. It is shown that most tornadoes in North Eurasia are characterized by high values of the 3D-index; furthermore, the 3D-index is significantly correlated with the available convective potential energy. Reanalysis data (for recent decades) and global climate model simulations (for the 21st century) show an increase in the frequency of occurrence of favorable for tornado formation meteorological conditions in the regions of Northern Eurasia. The most significant increase is found on the Black Sea coast and in the south of the Far East.

  4. Relationships among participant international prostate symptom score, benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index changes and global ratings of change in a trial of phytotherapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2013-03-01

    We related changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores with bother measures and global ratings of change in men with lower urinary tract symptoms who were enrolled in a saw palmetto trial. To be eligible for study men were 45 years old or older, and had a peak uroflow of 4 ml per second or greater and an American Urological Association symptom index score of 8 to 24. Participants self-administered the American Urological Association symptom index, International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index and 2 global change questions at baseline, and at 24, 48 and 72 weeks. In 357 participants global ratings of a little better were associated with a mean decrease in American Urological Association symptom index scores from 2.8 to 4.1 points across 3 time points. The analogous range for mean decreases in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index scores was 1.0 to 1.7 points and for the International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item it was 0.5 to 0.8 points. At 72 weeks for the first global change question each change measure discriminated between participants who rated themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 70% to 72% of the time. A multivariate model increased discrimination to 77%. For the second global change question each change measure correctly discriminated ratings of at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 69% to 74% of the time and a multivariate model increased discrimination to 79%. Changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse. Our findings support the practice of powering studies to detect group mean differences in American Urological Association symptom index scores of at least 3 points. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In situ visualizing the evolution of the light-induced refractive index change of Mn:KLTN crystal with digital holographic interferometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinxin Han

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The light-induced refractive index change in Mn:KLTN crystal, illuminated by focused light sheet, is visualized in situ and quantified by digital holographic interferometry. By numerically retrieving a series of sequential phase maps from recording digital holograms, the spatial distribution of the induced refractive index change can be visualized and estimated readily. This technique enables the observation of the temporal evolution of the refractive index change under different recording situations such as writing laser power, applied voltage, and temperature, and the photoconductivity of Mn:KLTN crystal can be calculated as well, the experimental results are in good agreement with the theory. The research results suggest that the presented method is successful and feasible.

  6. Simultaneous quantitative determination of eight index constituents and compatibility changes in Longchai Decoction by UPLC–Q-TOF-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yizhi Zhou

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research was to develop a simple, rapid and sensitive method for simultaneous quantitative determination of salidroside, gardenoside, liquiritin, baicalin, wogonoside, wogonin, saikosaponin A and saikosaponin D in Longchai Decoction by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC–Q-TOF-MS, in order to control the quality of Longchai Decoction and to analyze the changes of chemical components before and after the compatibility of the component herb drugs. The chromatographic separation was performed on the Waters ACQUITY BEH C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.8 μm using the mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% (v/v methanoic acid as mobile phase with a gradient elution program at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min and the column temperature of 30 °C. The eight components of the standards achieved baseline separation. Regression analysis revealed a linear relationship (r2>0.9998 between the contents and the peak areas of the mixed standard substances. The average recovery rates were between 99.72% and 102.13% with RSD values were less than 2.82% (n=5. The obtained results indicated that the content of index components were higher in co-decoction compared to mixed decoction. This method with a good resolution and high precision can be used for the quality control of Longchai Decoction.

  7. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Romaguera

    Full Text Available Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary.To ascertain the association of food groups/items consumption on prospective annual changes in "waist circumference for a given BMI" (WC(BMI, a proxy for abdominal adiposity.We analyzed data from 48,631 men and women from 5 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC study. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at baseline and after a median follow-up time of 5.5 years. WC(BMI was defined as the residuals of waist circumference regressed on BMI, and annual change in WC(BMI (ΔWC(BMI, cm/y was defined as the difference between residuals at follow-up and baseline, divided by follow-up time. The association between food groups/items and ΔWC(BMI was modelled using centre-specific adjusted linear regression, and random-effects meta-analyses to obtain pooled estimates.Higher fruit and dairy products consumption was associated with a lower gain in WC(BMI whereas the consumption of white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks was positively associated with ΔWC(BMI. When these six food groups/items were analyzed in combination using a summary score, those in the highest quartile of the score--indicating a more favourable dietary pattern--showed a ΔWC(BMI of -0.11 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.14 cm/y compared to those in the lowest quartile.A dietary pattern high in fruit and dairy and low in white bread, processed meat, margarine, and soft drinks may help to prevent abdominal fat accumulation.

  8. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors during adolescence: associations with 10-year changes in body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Wall, Melanie; Story, Mary; Standish, Amber R

    2012-01-01

    Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors are common among adolescents and questions exist regarding their long-term effect on weight status. To examine 10-year longitudinal associations between dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors and changes in body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. A diverse population-based sample of middle school and high school adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults) was followed up for 10 years. Participants (N = 1,902) completed surveys in 1998-1999 (Project EAT-I), 2003-2004 (Project EAT-II), and 2008-2009 (Project EAT-III). Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at Time 1 and Time 2 were used to predict 10-year changes in BMI at Time 3, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and Time 1 BMI. Dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 predicted greater BMI increases at Time 3 in males and females, as compared with no use of these behaviors. For example, females using unhealthy weight control behaviors at both Time 1 and Time 2 increased their BMI by 4.63 units as compared with 2.29 units in females not using these behaviors (p meals and reporting eating very little (females and males), use of food substitutes (males), and use of diet pills (females). Findings clearly indicate that dieting and unhealthy weight control behaviors, as reported by adolescents, predict significant weight gain over time. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Lloren, Jan Irene; Mashchak, Andrew; Hill, Martin; Fraser, Gary E

    2017-09-01

    Background: Scientific evidence for the optimal number, timing, and size of meals is lacking. Objective: We investigated the relation between meal frequency and timing and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a relatively healthy North American cohort. Methods: The analysis used data from 50,660 adult members aged ≥30 y of Seventh-day Adventist churches in the United States and Canada (mean ± SD follow-up: 7.42 ± 1.23 y). The number of meals per day, length of overnight fast, consumption of breakfast, and timing of the largest meal were exposure variables. The primary outcome was change in BMI per year. Linear regression analyses (stratified on baseline BMI) were adjusted for important demographic and lifestyle factors. Results: Subjects who ate 1 or 2 meals/d had a reduction in BMI per year (in kg · m -2 · y -1 ) (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.065, -0.004 and -0.029; 95% CI: -0.041, -0.017, respectively) compared with those who ate 3 meals/d. On the other hand, eating >3 meals/d (snacking) was associated with a relative increase in BMI ( P meal at dinner, those who consumed breakfast as the largest meal experienced a significant decrease in BMI (-0.038; 95% CI: -0.048, -0.028), and those who consumed a big lunch experienced a smaller but still significant decrease in BMI than did those who ate their largest meal at dinner. Conclusions: Our results suggest that in relatively healthy adults, eating less frequently, no snacking, consuming breakfast, and eating the largest meal in the morning may be effective methods for preventing long-term weight gain. Eating breakfast and lunch 5-6 h apart and making the overnight fast last 18-19 h may be a useful practical strategy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. The reliability, minimal detectable change and concurrent validity of a gravity-based bubble inclinometer and iphone application for measuring standing lumbar lordosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamh, Paul A; Kolber, Morey

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the reliability, minimal detectable change (MDC90) and concurrent validity of a gravity-based bubble inclinometer (inclinometer) and iPhone® application for measuring standing lumbar lordosis. Two investigators used both an inclinometer and an iPhone® with an inclinometer application to measure lumbar lordosis of 30 asymptomatic participants. ICC models 3,k and 2,k were used for the intrarater and interrater analysis, respectively. Good interrater and intrarater reliability was present for the inclinometer with Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) of 0.90 and 0.85, respectively and the iPhone® application with ICC values of 0.96 and 0.81. The minimal detectable change (MDC90) indicates that a change greater than or equal to 7° and 6° is needed to exceed the threshold of error using the iPhone® and inclinometer, respectively. The concurrent validity between the two instruments was good with a Pearson product-moment coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.86 for both raters. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement identified differences ranging from 9° greater in regards to the iPhone® to 8° less regarding the inclinometer. Both the inclinometer and iPhone® application possess good interrater reliability, intrarater reliability and concurrent validity for measuring standing lumbar lordosis. This investigation provides preliminary evidence to suggest that smart phone applications may offer clinical utility comparable to inclinometry for quantifying standing lumbar lordosis. Clinicians should recognize potential individual differences when using these devices interchangeably.

  11. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  12. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  13. Associations between body mass index, ambulatory blood pressure findings, and changes in cardiac structure: relevance of pulse and nighttime pressures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fedecostante, M.; Spannella, F.; Giulietti, F.; Espinosa, E.; Dessi-Fulgheri, P.; Sarzani, R.

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is central in the management of hypertension. Factors related to BP, such as body mass index (BMI), may differently affect particular aspects of 24-hour ABPM profiles. However, the relevance of BMI, the most used index of adiposity, has been

  14. Correlation of Body Mass Index and Serum Parameters With Ultrasonographic Grade of Fatty Change in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abangah, Ghobad; Yousefi, Atefeh; Asadollahi, Rouhangiz; Veisani, Yousef; Rahimifar, Paria; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease in the western population and expanding disease in the world. Pathological changes in fatty liver are like alcohol liver damage, which can lead to end-stage liver disease. The prevalence of NAFLD in obese or overweight people is higher than general population, and it seems that people with high Body Mass Index (BMI) or abnormality in some laboratory tests are more susceptible for severe fatty liver and high grade of NAFLD in ultrasonography (U.S). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation of BMI and laboratory tests with NAFLD in ultrasonography. During a multi-step process, we selected two-hundred and thirteen cases from four hundred and eighteen patients with NAFLD. Laboratory tests performed included: ALT, AST, FBS, Triglyceride and cholesterol levels, hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C antibody, ceruloplasmin, serum iron, TIBC, transferrin saturation, ferritin, AMA, ANA, ANTI LKM1, serum protein electrophoresis, TSH, anti TTG (IgA). BMI and ultrasonography for 213 patients were performed, and then data was analyzed. These parameters and grades of ultrasonography were compared with the values obtained using one way ANOVA. An ordinal logistic regression model was used to estimate the probability of ultrasonography grade. The Statistical Package for the Social Science program (SPSS, version 16.0) was used for data analysis. Two-hundred and thirteen cases including 140 male and 73 female, were studied. In general, 72.3% of patients were overweight and obese. Post-hoc tests showed that only BMI (P < 0.001) and TG (P < 0.011) among variables had statistically significant associations with ultrasonography grade (USG), and ordinal logistic regression model showed that BMI and AST were the best predictors. Our results suggest that in patients with NAFLD, BMI and TG are most effective factors in severity of fatty liver disease and ultrasonography grade (USG). On the other hand, BMI as a

  15. Macro-level drivers of multidimensional poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: Explaining change in the Human Poverty Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heath Prince

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Poverty is increasingly recognised as a multidimensional phenomenon in the development literature, encompassing not only income, but also a range of factors related to broadening an individual’s freedoms to live a life of their own choosing. Poverty so understood suggests that alternative approaches to poverty measurement reflecting this multidimensionality may point towards alternative policies for poverty alleviation. The imperative to reinforce pro-poor policy development in sub-Saharan Africa with evaluation findings that reflect improvements in well-being, rather than solely improvements in national economies, has become self-evident as, despite decades of market-led development policies, much of the subcontinent remains mired in deprivation. As recognised by the 2014 African Evaluation Association’s biannual conference, fresh thinking and new evaluation metrics are required in order to create policies that more effectively increase well-being. This article explores the factors that may account for changes in one metric of multidimensional poverty in developing countries, the United Nation Development Program’s Human Poverty Index (HPI, and will be primarily concerned with measuring the effects on the HPI of policies and activities that relate to, or are explicitly meant to encourage, economic growth, increased literacy and improved health. The study focuses on the outcomes of a panel data set, created for the purpose of this study, of HPI scores for a set of 47 sub-Saharan countries, between 1990 and 2010, and a range of indicators that the development literature and theory suggest should have an effect on income poverty, asking, what is the relationship between these indicators and multidimensional poverty? A parallel set of models has been developed to measure the response of household consumption expenditure to changes in economic growth and human capabilities indicators. All models are estimated using fixed effects estimators and

  16. Herbarium records are reliable sources of phenological change driven by climate and provide novel insights into species' phenological cueing mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Charles C; Willis, Charles G; Connolly, Bryan; Kelly, Courtland; Ellison, Aaron M

    2015-10-01

    Climate change has resulted in major changes in the phenology of some species but not others. Long-term field observational records provide the best assessment of these changes, but geographic and taxonomic biases limit their utility. Plant specimens in herbaria have been hypothesized to provide a wealth of additional data for studying phenological responses to climatic change. However, no study to our knowledge has comprehensively addressed whether herbarium data are accurate measures of phenological response and thus applicable to addressing such questions. We compared flowering phenology determined from field observations (years 1852-1858, 1875, 1878-1908, 2003-2006, 2011-2013) and herbarium records (1852-2013) of 20 species from New England, United States. Earliest flowering date estimated from herbarium records faithfully reflected field observations of first flowering date and substantially increased the sampling range across climatic conditions. Additionally, although most species demonstrated a response to interannual temperature variation, long-term temporal changes in phenological response were not detectable. Our findings support the use of herbarium records for understanding plant phenological responses to changes in temperature, and also importantly establish a new use of herbarium collections: inferring primary phenological cueing mechanisms of individual species (e.g., temperature, winter chilling, photoperiod). These latter data are lacking from most investigations of phenological change, but are vital for understanding differential responses of individual species to ongoing climate change. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  17. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score in a multireader, longitudinal setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, ea; Østergaard, Mikkel; Kvan, NP

    2005-01-01

    , erosion, and bone marrow edema status and for change scores. RESULTS: Intrareader ICCs were generally very high, both for status scores (median baseline and followup 0.89 and 0.90 for synovitis, 0.91 and 0.90 for erosion, and 0.90 and 0.98 for edema) and for change scores (median 0.80 for synovitis, 0...

  18. Changes in geriatric nutritional risk index and risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events in incident peritoneal dialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Jung Lee

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI is a validated nutritional assessment method, and lower GNRI values are closely associated with adverse clinical outcomes in dialysis patients. This study investigated the impact of changes in GNRI during the first year of dialysis on cardiovascular outcomes in incident peritoneal dialysis (PD patients. Methods: We reviewed medical records in 133 incident PD patients to determine GNRI at the start of PD and after 12 months. Patients were categorized into improved (delta GNRI > 0 and worsening/stationary (delta GNRI ≤ 0 groups. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs. Results: During a mean follow-up of 51.1 months, the primary outcome was observed in 42 patients (31.6%. The baseline GNRI at PD initiation was not significantly associated with MACCEs (log-rank test, P = 0.40. However, the cumulative event-free rate was significantly lower in the worsening or stationary GNRI group than in the improved group (log-rank test, P = 0.004. Multivariate Cox analysis revealed that a worsening or stationary GNRI was independently associated with higher risk for MACCEs (hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.15–5.29; P = 0.02. In subgroup analysis, patients with worsening or stationary GNRI were at significantly greater risk for MACCEs in both the lower (P = 0.04 and higher (P = 0.01 baseline GNRI groups. Conclusion: Baseline GNRI was not associated with MACCEs, but patients with deteriorating or stationary nutritional status were at significantly greater risk for MACCEs, suggesting that serial monitoring of nutritional status is important to stratify cardiovascular risk in incident PD patients.

  19. The Cognitive Change Index as a Measure of Self and Informant Perception of Cognitive Decline: Relation to Neuropsychological Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattanabannakit, Chatchawan; Risacher, Shannon L; Gao, Sujuan; Lane, Kathleen A; Brown, Steven A; McDonald, Brenna C; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Apostolova, Liana G; Saykin, Andrew J; Farlow, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    The perception of cognitive decline by individuals and those who know them well ("informants") has been inconsistently associated with objective cognitive performance, but strongly associated with depressive symptoms. We investigated associations of self-report, informant-report, and discrepancy between self- and informant-report of cognitive decline obtained from the Cognitive Change Index (CCI) with cognitive test performance and self-reported depressive symptoms. 267 participants with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), or mild dementia were included from a cohort study and memory clinic. Association of test performance and self-rated depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, GDS) with CCI scores obtained from subjects (CCI-S), their informants (CCI-I), and discrepancy scores between subjects and informants (CCI-D; CCI-S minus CCI-I) were analyzed using correlation and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. CCI-S and CCI-I scores showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha 0.96 and 0.98, respectively). Higher scores on CCI-S and CCI-I, and lower scores on the CCI-D, were associated with lower performance on various cognitive tests in both univariate and in ANCOVA models adjusted for age, gender, and education. Adjustment for GDS slightly weakened the relationships between CCI and test performance but most remained significant. Self- and informant-report of cognitive decline, as measured by the CCI, show moderately strong relationships with objective test performance independent of age, gender, education, and depressive symptoms. The CCI appears to be a valid cross-sectional measure of self and informant perception of cognitive decline across the continuum of functioning. Studies are needed to address the relationship of CCI scores to longitudinal outcome.

  20. Test-Retest Reliability and Minimal Detectable Change of Randomized Dichotic Digits in Learning-Disabled Children: Implications for Dichotic Listening Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Pourbakht, Akram; Parand, Akram; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2018-03-01

    Evaluation of dichotic listening to digits is a common part of many studies for diagnosis and managing auditory processing disorders in children. Previous researchers have verified test-retest relative reliability of dichotic digits results in normal children and adults. However, detecting intervention-related changes in the ear scores after dichotic listening training requires information regarding trial-to-trial typical variation of individual ear scores that is estimated using indices of absolute reliability. Previous studies have not addressed absolute reliability of dichotic listening results. To compare the results of the Persian randomized dichotic digits test (PRDDT) and its relative and absolute indices of reliability between typical achieving (TA) and learning-disabled (LD) children. A repeated measures observational study. Fifteen LD children were recruited from a previously performed study with age range of 7-12 yr. The control group consisted of 15 TA schoolchildren with age range of 8-11 yr. The Persian randomized dichotic digits test was administered on the children under free recall condition in two test sessions 7-12 days apart. We compared the average of the ear scores and ear advantage between TA and LD children. Relative indices of reliability included Pearson's correlation and intraclass correlation (ICC 2,1 ) coefficients and absolute reliability was evaluated by calculation of standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) using the raw ear scores. The Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that in both groups of children the ear scores of test and retest sessions were strongly and positively (greater than +0.8) correlated. The ear scores showed excellent ICC coefficient of consistency (0.78-0.82) and fair to excellent ICC coefficient of absolute agreement (0.62-0.74) in TA children and excellent ICC coefficients of consistency and absolute agreement in LD children (0.76-0.87). SEM and SEM% of the ear scores in TA

  1. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Junko

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 healthy adult volunteers. Intravenous sedation involved a single administration of 0.06 mg/kg midazolam, or 6 mg/kg/h propofol, administered for 5 minutes and then continuously administered for 25 minutes at 3 mg/kg/h. For nitrous oxide inhalation sedation, 10-30% nitrous oxide was used. Clinical sedation and the BIS were measured in a variety of circumstances. To examine the effects of midazolam on the central nervous system, changes in brain oxygen consumption in visual memory tasks were assessed through observing changes in areas of brain activation using 3T fMRI. With intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS decreased immediately after drug administration, and the BIS at which optimal sedation was clinically determined was about 65. In contrast, no decrease in the BIS was noted with nitrous oxide inhalation sedation. In observing areas of brain activation by fMRI, the oxygen consumption mainly of visual cortices in the occipital lobe increased as a result of stimulation by visual memory tasks. Regardless of the amnestic effect midazolam produced in subjects, it did not suppress activation of the visual cortices in the occipital lobe. In intravenous sedation using midazolam or propofol, the BIS is effective in determining optimal sedation, and appropriate perioperative management can be performed using the BIS. However, in nitrous oxide inhalation sedation it appears that the BIS cannot be used to monitor levels of sedation. Amnestic

  2. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romaguera, Dora; Ängquist, Lars; Du, Huaidong

    2011-01-01

    Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary....

  3. Reliability of nuclear power plants and equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The standard sets the general principles, a list of reliability indexes and demands on their selection. Reliability indexes of nuclear power plants include the simple indexes of fail-safe operation, life and maintainability, and of storage capability. All terms and notions are explained and methods of evaluating the indexes briefly listed - statistical, and calculation experimental. The dates when the standard comes in force in the individual CMEA countries are given. (M.D.)

  4. Validade e confiabilidade do índice de capacidade para o trabalho (ICT em trabalhadores de enfermagem Validity and reliability of the work ability index (WAI in nurses' work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Almeida da Silva Junior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo estima a validade e a confiabilidade do índice de capacidade para o trabalho (ICT em 1.436 trabalhadores de enfermagem de três hospitais públicos do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Foi estimada a validade dimensional, por meio de análise fatorial exploratória e também a validade correlacional, relacionando o ICT com construtos teoricamente relevantes. A confiabilidade foi avaliada pela análise de consistência interna utilizando o coeficiente alfa de Cronbach e ômega de McDonald. A análise fatorial indicou uma estrutura bidimensional, explicando 52,8% da variância acumulada para os componentes principais e 42% para os eixos principais. As hipóteses teóricas da validade de construto foram confirmadas com correlação direta e significativa do ICT com os escores de recompensa, controle e autoavaliação do estado de saúde; correlação inversa e significativa com a escala de necessidade de recuperação após o trabalho, distúrbios psíquicos menores, esforço, excesso de comprometimento e demanda. Concluiu-se que o ICT apresentou propriedades psicométricas adequadas.This article assesses the validity and reliability of the work ability index (WAI for 1,436 nurses in three public hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The study estimated the dimensional validity by means of exploratory factor analysis, as well as correlational validity, relating WAI to theoretically relevant constructs. Reliability was evaluated by internal consistency analysis, using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Factor analysis indicated a two-dimensional structure explaining 52.8% of the accumulated variance for the principal components and 42% for the principal axes. The theoretical hypotheses for the construct's validity were confirmed, with direct and significant correlation between the WAI and the reward, control, and self-rated health scores; an inverse and significant correlation with the scale on need for recovery after work, minor psychological

  5. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  6. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  7. Reliability, Validity, and Minimal Detectable Change of Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Its Short Versions in Older Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min H; Miller, Kara; Smith, Kristin; Fredrickson, Kayle; Shilling, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is primarily a disease of older adults. About 77% of all cancers are diagnosed in persons aged 55 years and older. Cancer and its treatment can cause diverse sequelae impacting body systems underlying balance control. No study has examined the psychometric properties of balance assessment tools in older cancer survivors, presenting a significant challenge in the selection of outcome measures for clinicians treating this fast-growing population. This study aimed to determine the reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change (MDC) of the Balance Evaluation System Test (BESTest), Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Mini-BESTest), and Brief-Balance Evaluation Systems Test (Brief-BESTest) in community-dwelling older cancer survivors. This study was a cross-sectional design. Twenty breast and 8 prostate cancer survivors participated [age (SD) = 68.4 (8.13) years]. The BESTest and Activity-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) Scale were administered during the first session. Scores of Mini-BESTest and Brief-BESTest were extracted on the basis of the scores of BESTest. The BESTest was repeated within 1 to 2 weeks by the same rater to determine the test-retest reliability. For the analysis of the inter-rater reliability, 21 participants were randomly selected to be evaluated by 2 raters. A primary rater administered the test. The 2 raters independently and concurrently scored the performance of the participants. Each rater recorded the ratings separately on the scoring sheet. No discussion among the raters was allowed throughout the testing. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), standard error of measurement, minimal detectable change (MDC), and Bland-Altman plots were calculated. Concurrent validity of these balance tests with the ABC Scale was examined using the Spearman correlation. The BESTest, Mini-BESTest, and Brief-BESTest had high test-retest (ICC = 0.90-0.94) and interrater reliability (ICC = 0.86-0.96), small standard error of measurement (0

  8. The change in lifestyle data during 9 years: the reliability and continuity of baseline health practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetaka, Hanayo; Ohno, Yuko; Morimoto, Kanehisa

    2013-07-01

    To reveal change patterns in self-reported lifestyle data for 9 years, and examine the characteristics of changes by type of lifestyle and ageing. The authors used the lifestyle data of 7,080 male workers aged 20-59 who received checkups for 9 years. The proportions of change patterns during the 9 years were determined in seven health practices; smoking, eating breakfast, sleeping hours, working hours, physical exercise, eating nutritional balanced diets, and mental stress. Among seven health practices, the keep rate of good health practice was highest for the non-smoking (90.8 %), followed by eating breakfast (69.0 %);and the lowest was physical exercise (13.7 %). The keep rate of poor health practice was highest for smoking (73.8 %), followed by non-physical exercise (67.1 %). The lowest rate of multiple changes during 10 years was smoking (7.1 %); the highest was mental stress (68.5 %). As for the life style on smoking and eating breakfast seemed to be stable, using the data obtained at a specific point in time wouldn't much affect the results. On the contrary, for other life styles, they showed poor continuity during 9 years, so it would be necessary to take into consideration the time point of data collection.

  9. Refractive-index change caused by electrons in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films doped with different metals by photodiffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordman, Olli; Nordman, Nina; Pashkevich, Valfrid

    2001-01-01

    The refractive-index change caused by electrons was measured in amorphous AsS and AsSe thin films. Films were coated with different metals. Diffraction gratings were written by electron-beam lithography. The interactions of electrons in films with and without the photodiffusion of overcoated metal were compared. Incoming electrons caused metal atom and ion diffusion in both investigated cases. The metal diffusion was dependent on the metal and it was found to influence the refractive index. In some cases lateral diffusion of the metal was noticed. The conditions for applications were verified. Copyright 2001 Optical Society of America

  10. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  11. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  12. Monitoring changes in economy-wide energy efficiency: From energy-GDP ratio to composite efficiency index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.

    2006-01-01

    Since the 1973 world oil crisis, monitoring trends in energy efficiency at the economy-wide level has been an important component of energy strategy in many countries. To support this effort, various energy efficiency-related indicators have been developed. We examine some classical indicators which are often found in national and international energy studies in the 1970s and 1980s. We then describe the recent developments in using the index decomposition analysis to give an economy-wide composite energy efficiency index based on a bottom-up approach. This composite index is superior to the classical indicators as an economy-wide energy efficiency measure and has lately been adopted by a growing number of countries for national energy efficiency trend monitoring

  13. Extensão bivariada do índice de confiabilidade univariado para avaliação da estabilidade fenotípica Bivariate extension of univariate reliability index for evaluating phenotypic stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzankelly Cunha Arruda de Abreu

    2004-10-01

    bivariate reliability index (Ii of Annicchiarico was wasked out and a second risk index was proposed based on the bivariate probabilities (Prb i; the two indexes proposed has shown good agreement to the results in an example with melon genotypes.

  14. The Effects of Forest Area Changes on Extreme Temperature Indexes between the 1900s and 2010s in Heilongjiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Land use and land cover changes (LUCC are thought to be amongst the most important impacts exerted by humans on climate. However, relatively little research has been carried out so far on the effects of LUCC on extreme climate change other than on regional temperatures and precipitation. In this paper, we apply a regional weather research and forecasting (WRF climate model using LUCC data from Heilongjiang Province, that was collected between the 1900s and 2010s, to explore how changes in forest cover influence extreme temperature indexes. Our selection of extreme high, low, and daily temperature indexes for analysis in this study enables the calculation of a five-year numerical integration trail with changing forest space. Results indicate that the total forested area of Heilongjiang Province decreased by 28% between the 1900s and 2010s. This decrease is most marked in the western, southwestern, and northeastern parts of the province. Our results also reveal a remarkable correlation between change in forested area and extreme high and low temperature indexes. Further analysis enabled us to determine that the key factor explaining increases in extreme high temperature indexes (i.e., calculated using the number of warm days, warm nights, as well as tropical nights, and summer days is decreasing forest area; data also showed that this factor caused a decrease in extreme low temperature indexes (i.e., calculated using the number of cold days and cold nights, as well as frost days, and ice days and an increase in the maximum value of daily minimum temperature. Spatial data demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between forest-to-farmland conversion and extreme temperature indexes throughout most of our study period. Spatial data demonstrated that there is a significant correlation between forest-to-farmland conversion and extreme temperature indexes throughout most of our study period. Positive correlations are also present between

  15. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  16. Reliability of groundwater supply from a coastal aquifer in the context of climate and socio-economic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eley, Malte; Schöniger, Hans Matthias; Gelleszun, Marlene; Wolf, Jens; Schneider, Anke; Wiederhold, Helga; Meon, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Especially coastal areas are vulnerable in case of sea level rise and changing climate conditions. Therefore, the NAWAK study (design of sustainable adaptation strategies for infrastructures in water management under the conditions of climatic and demographic change) started in 2013. It is designed to assess impairments of groundwater availability for a coastal lowland aquifer system in North-West Germany (> 1.000 km2) in the context of climate and socio-economic changes. The research results are focused on the quantification of the groundwater availability for past and future scenarios. Impacts from both climatic and socio-economic changes on the water availability and water balance are assessed by means of hydrologic, hydrogeological and geophysical models and methods, which where developed and adapted by project partners. For the model area there are three fields of work to create the conditions for a density dependent calculation of changings in salt-freshwater budget with the numerical model d3f++ (distributed density-driven Flow). The first is the description of initial conditions in three dimensions, especially for the salt-freshwater boundary. That description is based on airborne electromagnetic data of the underground and a complex processing to identify the differences between salt and freshwater, without anthropogenic and geologic influences. A validation is possible by comparison with groundwater measurements and an online monitoring of specific conductivity. The second is the calculation and measurement of flow conditions to derive the boundary conditions and the groundwater recharge. The groundwater recharge was calculated by using the hydrologic model PANTA RHEI. It is a conceptual model with partly physic-based modules, especially for the soil water processes. The model was calibrated and validated by discharge measurements and groundwater levels. The third step is a detailed information about the spatial discretization and the reconstruction of

  17. Test-retest reliability and four-week changes in cardiopulmonary fitness in stroke patients: evaluation using a robotics-assisted tilt table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saengsuwan, Jittima; Berger, Lucia; Schuster-Amft, Corina; Nef, Tobias; Hunt, Kenneth J

    2016-09-06

    Exercise testing devices for evaluating cardiopulmonary fitness in patients with severe disability after stroke are lacking, but we have adapted a robotics-assisted tilt table (RATT) for cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Using the RATT in a sample of patients after stroke, this study aimed to investigate test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET and to prospectively investigate changes in cardiopulmonary outcomes over a period of four weeks. Stroke patients with all degrees of disability underwent 3 separate CPET sessions: 2 tests at baseline (TB1 and TB2) and 1 test at follow up (TF). TB1 and TB2 were at least 24 h apart. TB2 and TF were 4 weeks apart. A RATT equipped with force sensors in the thigh cuffs, a work rate estimation algorithm and a real-time visual feedback system was used to guide the patients' exercise work rate during CPET. Test-retest reliability and repeatability of CPET variables were analysed using paired t-tests, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), the coefficient of variation (CoV), and Bland and Altman limits of agreement. Changes in cardiopulmonary fitness during four weeks were analysed using paired t-tests. Seventeen sub-acute and chronic stroke patients (age 62.7 ± 10.4 years [mean ± SD]; 8 females) completed the test sessions. The median time post stroke was 350 days. There were 4 severely disabled, 1 moderately disabled and 12 mildly disabled patients. For test-retest, there were no statistically significant differences between TB1 and TB2 for most CPET variables. Peak oxygen uptake, peak heart rate, peak work rate and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) showed good to excellent test-retest reliability (ICC 0.65-0.94). For all CPET variables, CoV was 4.1-14.5 %. The mean difference was close to zero in most of the CPET variables. There were no significant changes in most cardiopulmonary performance parameters during the 4-week period

  18. Three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Li Fu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the three-dimensional speckle tracking imaging assessment of left ventricular change in patient with coronary heart disease and its correlation with serum indexes. Methods: A total of 152 patients first diagnosed with coronary heart disease were the observation group of the study and 117 healthy subjects were the control group. Threedimensional speckle tracking imaging (3D-STI was used to evaluate the left ventricular function parameters of two groups, the serum content of endothelial function indexes and platelet function indexes were detected, and the correlation between left ventricular function parameters under 3D-STI and serum indexes was further analyzed. Results: Absolute values of left ventricular function parameters LVGLS, LVGRS, LVGCS and LVGAS from 3D-STI of observation group were significantly less than those of control group while Ptw and Torsion levels were greater than those of control group; endothelial function indexes vWF, sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and ET-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group while vWF-cp and NO content were significantly lower than those of control group; platelet function indexes CD62P, GMP-140, CD63, sP-selectin, sCD40L and PAC-1 content in serum were significantly higher than those of control group. The levels of left ventricular function parameters from 3D-STI in patients with coronary heart disease were directly correlated with serum indexes. Conclusion: 3D-STI can accurately assess the left ventricular function and the overall disease severity in patients with coronary heart disease, and it is expected to become an effective method for early diagnosis of diseases and guidance of clinical treatment.

  19. "Climate Cost of Cultivation": A New Crop Index Method to Quantify Farmers' Cost of Climate Change Exemplified in Rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Jangle (Nihar); M. Mehra (Mamta); D.M. Dror (David)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe model the impact of agricultural droughts with a new multi-parameter index (using both climatic and non-climatic parameters) and propose a new risk transfer solution for crop insurance, called Climate Cost of Cultivation (CCC). We used 1979/80 to 2012/13 data relevant for wheat in

  20. Enhanced change detection index for disaster response, recovery assessment and monitoring of buildings and critical facilities-A case study for Muzzaffarabad, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alwis Pitts, Dilkushi A.; So, Emily

    2017-12-01

    The availability of Very High Resolution (VHR) optical sensors and a growing image archive that is frequently updated, allows the use of change detection in post-disaster recovery and monitoring for robust and rapid results. The proposed semi-automated GIS object-based method uses readily available pre-disaster GIS data and adds existing knowledge into the processing to enhance change detection. It also allows targeting specific types of changes pertaining to similar man-made objects such as buildings and critical facilities. The change detection method is based on pre/post normalized index, gradient of intensity, texture and edge similarity filters within the object and a set of training data. More emphasis is put on the building edges to capture the structural damage in quantifying change after disaster. Once the change is quantified, based on training data, the method can be used automatically to detect change in order to observe recovery over time in potentially large areas. Analysis over time can also contribute to obtaining a full picture of the recovery and development after disaster, thereby giving managers a better understanding of productive management and recovery practices. The recovery and monitoring can be analyzed using the index in zones extending from to epicentre of disaster or administrative boundaries over time.

  1. Speculation of the Time-Dependent Change of FIB4 Index in Patients with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Miyata, Satoru

    2018-01-01

    To speculate on the time-dependent change of FIB4 index in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and its increase-decrease rate per year, simply and accurately. In all 23 patients with NAFLD with the value of FIB4 index over 1.30 at the peak, the period from the first to each examination date was calculated and this period (years) was regarded as x . Next, the mean value of FIB4 index during the past year to each examination date was regarded as y . In every y , the minimum and the maximum y value were found out. Between x corresponding to this minimum y and x corresponding to this maximum y , the correlation between x and y was analyzed as the main subject. Then, the slope of each correlation was investigated, because it should indicate increase-decrease rate per year. In all 23 patients, the correlations as the main subject were recognized and the mean absolute value of correlation coefficient ( r ) was 0.91 ± 0.08. As for the slope, the mean absolute value was 0.1371 ± 0.1147 (/year). Simply and accurately, the time-dependent change of FIB4 index and its increase-decrease rate per year could be approximately speculated.

  2. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  3. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  4. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  5. Improvement of reliability and speed of phase change memory devices with N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose a nitrogen-incorporated GeBiTe ternary phase of N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9 as a phase change material for reliable PCM (Phase Change Memory with high speed operation. We found that the N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9 film shows the resistance value of 40 kΩ after annealing at 440oC for 10 minutes, which is much higher than the value of 3.4 kΩ in the case of conventional N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0 films. A set operation time of 14 nsec was achieved in the devices due to the increased probability of the nucleation by the addition of the elemental Bi. The long data retention time of 10 years at 85oC on the base of 1% failure was obtained as the result of higher activation energy of 2.52 eV for the crystallization compared to the case of N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0 film, in which the activation energy is 2.1 eV. In addition, a reset current reduction of 27% and longer cycles of endurance as much as 2 order of magnitude compared to the case of N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0 were observed at a set operation time of 14 nsec. Our results show that N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9 is highly promising for use as a phase change material in reliable PCMs with high performance and also in forthcoming storage class memory applications, too.

  6. Improvement of reliability and speed of phase change memory devices with N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, J. H.; Ko, D.-H.; Wu, Z.; Cho, S. L.; Ahn, D.; Ahn, D. H.; Lee, J. M.; Nam, S. W.

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we propose a nitrogen-incorporated GeBiTe ternary phase of N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) as a phase change material for reliable PCM (Phase Change Memory) with high speed operation. We found that the N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) film shows the resistance value of 40 kΩ after annealing at 440oC for 10 minutes, which is much higher than the value of 3.4 kΩ in the case of conventional N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0) films. A set operation time of 14 nsec was achieved in the devices due to the increased probability of the nucleation by the addition of the elemental Bi. The long data retention time of 10 years at 85oC on the base of 1% failure was obtained as the result of higher activation energy of 2.52 eV for the crystallization compared to the case of N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0) film, in which the activation energy is 2.1 eV. In addition, a reset current reduction of 27% and longer cycles of endurance as much as 2 order of magnitude compared to the case of N7.0(Ge22.0Sb22.0Te56.0) were observed at a set operation time of 14 nsec. Our results show that N7.9(Ge46.9Bi7.2Te45.9) is highly promising for use as a phase change material in reliable PCMs with high performance and also in forthcoming storage class memory applications, too.

  7. Absorption coefficient and refractive index changes of a quantum ring in the presence of spin-orbit couplings: Temperature and Zeeman effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.

    2017-10-01

    Effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions on the optical absorption coefficients (AC) and refractive index (RI) changes of a GaAs quantum ring are investigated in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI). To this end, the finite difference method (FDM) is used in order to numerically calculate the energy eigenvalues and eigenstates of the system while the compact density matrix approach is hired to calculate the optical properties. It is shown that application of magnetic field, temperature as well as the geometrical size in the presence of spin-orbit interactions, alter the electronic structure and consequently influence the linear and third-order nonlinear optical absorption coefficients as well as the refractive index changes of the system. Results show an obvious blue shift in optical curves with enhancing external magnetic field and temperature while the increment of dimensions result in red shift.

  8. Exciton-related nonlinear optical absorption and refractive index change in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, Guillermo L. [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, Miguel E., E-mail: memora@uaem.mx [Fisica Teorica y Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria de Antioquia, A.A. 7516 Medellin (Colombia); Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Duque, Carlos A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2013-01-15

    In this work the variations of the exciton-related optical absorption and the change of the refractive index in a GaAs-(Ga,Al)As double quantum well as functions of the geometric parameters of the heterostructure are investigated. The variational method is applied within the framework of the parabolic band and effective mass approximations, in order to obtain the 1s-like exciton energy spectrum. The outcome for the related optical coefficients shows a quenched and redshifted light absorption as a result of the increment in the inner barrier and right-hand well widths, with the possibility of an enhancement of the excitonic contribution to the relative change in the refractive index.

  9. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE My Youssef, Rabat (Morocco); Jorio, Anouar [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar El Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco)

    2014-10-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity.

  10. Relaxation time and impurity effects on linear and nonlinear refractive index changes in (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Ghazi, Haddou; Jorio, Anouar

    2014-01-01

    By means of a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm and Hartree–Fock–Roothaan method, the changes in linear, third-order nonlinear and total refractive index associated with intra-conduction band transition are investigated with and without shallow-donor impurity in wurtzite (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical quantum dot. For both cases with and without impurity, the calculation is performed within the framework of single band effective-mass and parabolic band approximations. Impurity's position and relaxation time effects are investigated. It is found that the modulation of the refractive index changes, suitable for good performance optical modulators and various infra-red optical device applications can be easily obtained by tailoring the relaxation time and the position of the impurity

  11. Changes to the bispectral index and regional cerebral blood flow in a sedative state, caused by midazolam administration

    OpenAIRE

    池田, 淳子; イケダ, ジュンコ; Junko, IKEDA

    2006-01-01

    Psychosedation, as used in the field of dentistry, is intended to provide trouble-free dental care while maintaining a proper level of sedation. One drug used in psychosedation is midazolam, which is known to have a strong amnestic effect. In the current research, I sought to clarify whether the bispectral index (BIS) using EEC analysis can be used for assessment of optimal sedation in psychosedation, and what effects midazolam has on the cerebrum's mechanism of memory. The subjects were 17 h...

  12. Effects of Initial Body Mass Index and Weight Change on All-Cause Mortality: A 10-Year Cohort Study in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Susan; Pi, Sunmi; Hwang, Jinseub; Kang, Jae-Heon; Kwon, Jin-Won

    2018-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of baseline body mass index (BMI) and its changes over 4 years on all-cause mortality in Korean population. We analyzed 351 735 participants whose BMI was measured in both 2002/2003 and 2006/2007. Mortality was assessed until 2013. Multivariate hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were estimated. Underweight and severe obesity with BMI >30 kg/m 2 were significantly associated with higher mortality. Similarly, >5% decrease or >10% increase of BMI for 4 years was associated with the increased risk of death. Comparing the results between baseline BMI and BMI change, the BMI change showed more stable associations with mortality than the baseline BMI in subgroup analysis such as nonsmokers and healthy participants. This study suggests that BMI change could be a useful health indicator along with obesity level by BMI. In addition, maintaining a healthy weight is needed for longevity, but rapid weight change should be carefully monitored.

  13. The Reaction of the WIG Stock Market Index to Changes in the Interest Rates on Bank Deposits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Przekota

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Determination of the relationship between the money market and capital market is particularly important from the point of view of taking a decision on the location of investment capital. It may help to forecast future states. This study seeks to determine the relationship of the interest rate on deposits in zloty with the WIG stock index and the volume of turnover on the Warsaw Stock Exchange. Analysis of correlation and VAR models are used. Analysis of long-term correlation indicates a negative relationship between the interest rate on deposits in banks and the value of the WIG stock-index. However, this may be spurious. The dependence between these variables may be more complex and should rather be seen as short term. It seems that in general the impact of an increase in interest rates on the value of the WIG index is negative in the short term, just as in the long term. In addition, in the short term these variables can move in the same direction. The results obtained in the research are consistent with results obtained for other national markets. This applies in particular to the relatively weak, negative correlation described above. (original abstract

  14. Safety and Reliability — Challenges for Change and Progress: IRPA’s Engagement in the System of Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.

    2015-01-01

    Energy, environment and climate are seen by the public as essential elements for a secure, affordable and socially acceptable future. Whereas the climate is seen in a more distance, the impact of energy and environment is highly present in the daily life today and tomorrow. Particularly evident is the lively debate on nuclear energy, and also on other nuclear applications which show clear benefits for society, e.g., in the medical application. The use of ionizing radiation in industry, medicine and research is increasing remarkably throughout the world and is involving more and more complex systems. We are now facing a situation which offers challenges in radiation protection in a wide range of applications. Many factors influence this situation such as the growing globalisation, which is escalating the importance of economic cross linking, the global proliferation of new and more complex technologies, as well as living in a changing society which poses new challenges for the implementation of an effective protection system. Also the System of Protection with the three fundamental radiation protection principles justification, optimization and application of dose limits as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has become more and more complex and its’ effective implementation needs an increasing governmental and professional attention. A clear understanding of radiation risks is an increasingly emerging concern. Today, people are more concerned on the same level of risk even with low level of risk! Particularly the lessons to be learned after the Fukushima accident have demonstrated the necessity to review the system of protection and taking into account that an alignment on today’s societal conditions is essential. The practicability of the system of protection depends not only on its’ scientific stringency but also on the extent to which it is in line with accepted ethical values in society as well as with given

  15. Relationships of storm-time changes in thermospheric mass density with solar wind/IMF parameters and ring current index of Sym-H

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yunliang; Ma, S. Y.; Xiong, Chao; Luehr, Hermann

    The total air mass densities at about 500 km altitude are derived using super-STAR accelerom-eter measurements onboard GRACE satellites for 25 great magnetic storms with minimum Dst less than 100 nT during 2002 to 2006 years. Taking NRLMSISE-00 model-predicted densities without active ap index input as a reference baseline of quiet-time mass density, the storm-time changes in upper thermospheric mass densities are obtained by subtraction for all the storm events and sorted into different grids of latitude by local time sector. The relationships of the storm-time density changes with various interplanetary parameters and magnetospheric ring current index of Sym-H are statistically investigated. The parameters include Akasofu energy coupling function, the merging electric field Em, the magnitude of IMF component in the GSM y-z plane etc. as calculated from OMNI data at 1 AU. It is found that the storm-time changes in the upper thermospheric mass density have the best linear correlation with the Sym-H index in general, showing nearly zero time delay at low-latitudes and a little time ahead at high-latitudes for most cases. Unexpectedly, the magnitude of IMF component in the y-z plane, Byz, shows correlation with storm-time mass density changes better and closer than Akasofu function and even Em. And, the mass density changes lag behind Byz about 1-4 hours for most cases at low-latitudes. The correlations considered above are local time dependent, showing the lowest at dusk sectors. For the largest superstorm of November 2003, the changes in mass density are correlated very closely with Byz, Em, and Sym-H index, showing correlation coefficients averaged over all latitudes in noon sector as high as 0.93, 0.91 and 0.90 separately. The physical factors controlling the lag times between the mass density changes at mid-low-latitudes and the interplanetary parameter variations are also analyzed. The results in this study may pro-vide useful suggestions for establishing

  16. Single-leg lateral, horizontal, and vertical jump assessment: reliability, interrelationships, and ability to predict sprint and change-of-direction performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Cesar; McMaster, Travis; Cronin, John; Mohammad, Nur Ikhwan; Rogers, Cailyn; Deklerk, Melissa

    2009-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the reliability of unilateral vertical, horizontal, and lateral countermovement jump assessments, the interrelationship between these tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint (10 m) and change-of-direction (COD) performance for 80 men and women physical education students. Jump performance was assessed on a contact mat and sprint, and COD performances were assessed using timing lights. With regard to the reliability statistics, the largest coefficient of variation (CV) was observed for the vertical jump (CV = 6.7-7.2%) of both genders, whereas the sprint and COD assessments had smallest variability (CV = 0.8 to 2.8%). All intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were greater than 0.85, except for the men's COD assessment with the alternate leg. The shared variance between the single-leg vertical, horizontal, and lateral jumps for men and women was less than 50%, indicating that the jumps are relatively independent of one another and represent different leg strength/power qualities. The ability of the jumps to predict sprint and COD performance was limited (R2 < 43%). It would seem that the ability to change direction with 1 leg is relatively independent of a COD with the other leg, especially in the women (R < 30%) of this study. However, if 1 jump assessment were selected to predict sprint and COD performance in a test battery, the single-leg horizontal countermovement jump would seem the logical choice, given the results of this study. Many of the findings in this study have interesting diagnostic and training implications for the strength and conditioning coach.

  17. An index of financial safety of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Jia

    2015-04-01

    indexes rose, which indicates the external environment improved so did China’s financial safety status; from 2012 to 2013 indexes declined because due to the rapid development of banks’ financial products and trust products, banks’ off-balance-sheet assets and liquidity risks increased. The changes of financial safety indexes are generally identical with those of China’s financial safety status.Research limitations/implications: In the empirical analysis part, this article tries to selective 24 indicators synthetic index of China's financial security, but due to some of the indicators data acquisition is relatively difficult, can only Selective 10 of 25 indicators and gather the annual data of 10 indicators from 2003 to 2013 to synthetic index. The information of eliminated indicators cannot be reflected in the index. Index change also does not reflect of the risk from these indicators. In order to make up for the above limitations, this paper is mainly to introduce and analysis our latest financial institutions business trends associated with these eliminated indicators to get the conclusions more reliable.Originality/value: The aim of this research is to estimate financial safety of China with the application of the index of financial safety of a country using the annual data of 2003-2013. Through synthetic index of financial security measure the risks of China's financial system, provide the basis for the government macro financial policy. The Originality of the paper is mainly manifested in incorporating factors which have made important impacts on China’s financial safety in recent years, but have not been taken into consideration in the existing studies into the newly constructed financial safety index system. For example, some factors that cannot be controlled easily might have huge hidden risk hazards. To be more specific, factors such as off-balance-sheet business, interbank business and shadow banking might trigger liquidity risks. In this way, the

  18. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  19. Reliability of change in lumbar MRI findings over time in patients with and without disc prosthesis - comparing two different image evaluation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Linda; Espeland, Ansgar; Gjertsen, Oeivind; Hellum, Christian; Neckelmann, Gesche; Johnsen, Lars G.; Eide, Geir E.

    2012-01-01

    To assess the reliability of change in lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings evaluated retrospectively by direct comparison of images and by non-comparison. Pre-treatment and 2-year follow-up MRI was performed in 126 patients randomized to disc prosthesis surgery or non-surgical treatment. Two experienced radiologists independently evaluated progress and regress for Modic changes, disc findings, and facet arthropathy (FA) at L3/L4, L4/L5, and L5/S1, both by non-comparison and by comparison of initial and follow-up images. FA was evaluated at all levels, and other findings at non-operated levels. We calculated prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) values for interobserver agreement. The impact of an adjacent prosthesis (which causes artefacts) and image evaluation method on PABAK was assessed using generalized estimating equations. Image comparison indicated good interobserver agreement on progress and regress (PABAK 0.63-1.00) for Modic changes, posterior high-intensity zone, disc height, and disc contour at L3-S1 and for nucleus pulposus signal and FA at L3/L4; and moderate interobserver agreement (PABAK 0.46-0.59) on decreasing nucleus signal and increasing FA at L4-S1. Image comparison indicated lower (but fair) interobserver agreement (PABAK 0.29) only for increasing FA at L5/S1 in patients with prosthesis in L4/L5 and/or L5/S1. An adjacent prosthesis had no overall impact on PABAK values (p ≥ 0.22). Comparison yielded higher PABAK values than non-comparison (p < 0.001). Regarding changes in lumbar MRI findings over time, comparison of images can provide moderate or good interobserver agreement, and better agreement than non-comparison. An adjacent prosthesis may not reduce agreement on change for most findings. (orig.)

  20. Acculturation and changes in body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafica, Reimund; Angosta, Alona D

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine whether level of acculturation is a predictor of body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio in Filipino Americans with hypertension in the United States. The Filipino Americans (N = 108) were recruited from a primary care clinic in the United States. Two instruments were used to collect and operationalize the variables, specifically: (1) Socioeconomic/Demographic Questionnaire and (2) A Short Acculturation Scale for Filipino Americans. Descriptive statistics and partial least squares were used to calculate the results. The partial least square path model identified acculturation as a predictor of body mass index, wait circumference, and waist-hip ratio among Filipino Americans. The positive path coefficient (β = 0.384) was statistically significant (t = 5.92, P stress the importance of the degree of acculturation when developing culturally appropriate lifestyle and health promotion interventions among immigrant patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in hepatic perfusion index determined by Tc-99m pertechnetate first pass scintigraphy in acute viral hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    Computerized sequential radionuclide angiography was used to analyze the first pass kinetics of peripherally injected bolus of Tc-99m-pertechnetate. The relative arterial/total hepatic blood flow, the Hepatic Perfusion Index (HPI%), was determined in normal subjects while 20 cases of Acute Viral Hepatitis (AVH) were studied serially. In addition, biochemical blood analysis as also carried out. The mean value of HPI in first study of all patients was 61.23% in comparison to 31.12% of control group. The patients were divided into three groups, based upon the duration elapsed between the onset of symptoms and the first study. HPI was found significantly high in first study of each group as compared to controls. In first group there was no significant correlation of mean HPI with other biochemical parameters. In second and third groups, significant correlation were observed between the mean HPI and serum bilirubin, serum alanine trans-aminase with mean HPI in the third group. The serum proteins correlated negatively with HPI in second group. This technique offers a simple, rapid, non-invasive and quantitative method to determine a new index which mostly behaves like other biochemical parameter and can be used to follow the course of acute viral hepatitis. (author)

  2. Obesity, change of body mass index and subsequent physical and mental health functioning: a 12-year follow-up study among ageing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svärd, Anna; Lahti, Jouni; Roos, Eira; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Mänty, Minna

    2017-09-26

    Studies suggest an association between weight change and subsequent poor physical health functioning, whereas the association with mental health functioning is inconsistent. We aimed to examine whether obesity and change of body mass index among normal weight, overweight and obese women and men associate with changes in physical and mental health functioning. The Helsinki Health Study cohort includes Finnish municipal employees aged 40 to 60 in 2000-02 (phase 1, response rate 67%). Phase 2 mail survey (response rate 82%) took place in 2007 and phase 3 in 2012 (response rate 76%). This study included 5668 participants (82% women). Seven weight change categories were formed based on body mass index (BMI) (phase 1) and weight change (BMI change ≥5%) (phase 1-2). The Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) measured physical and mental health functioning. The change in health functioning (phase 1-3) score was examined with repeated measures analyses. Covariates were age, sociodemographic factors, health behaviours, and somatic ill-health. Weight gain was common among women (34%) and men (25%). Weight-gaining normal weight (-1.3 points), overweight (-1.3 points) and obese (-3.6 points) women showed a greater decline in physical component summary scores than weight-maintaining normal weight women. Among weight-maintainers, only obese (-1.8 points) women showed a greater decline than weight-maintaining normal weight women. The associations were similar, but statistically non-significant for obese men. No statistically significant differences in the change in mental health functioning occurred. Preventing weight gain likely helps maintaining good physical health functioning and work ability.

  3. Changes in the total Oswestry Index and its ten items in females and males pre- and post-surgery for lumbar disc herniation: a 1-year follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautiainen, Hannu; Järvenpää, Salme; Arkela-Kautiainen, Marja; Ylinen, Jari

    2006-01-01

    To study the characteristics and changes in the total Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and in its ten component items in female and male patients pre- and post-surgery for lumbar disc herniation. Ninety-eight patients [mean (SD) age 43 (13), 61% males] undergoing lumbar disc herniation surgery were selected for this clinical 12-month follow-up. Subjective disability and back and leg pain were assessed by ODI version 1.0 and the visual analog scale. Pre-operatively females had a significantly higher mean (SD) total ODI [59(3)] than males [51(2)] (P = 0.030). Females were more disabled in the walking, sex life, social life and travelling items of the ODI compared to males. The total Oswestry decreased by 38 (95% CI − 44 to − 31) in females and by 34 (− 39 to − 30) in males at the 1-year follow-up. Most of the improvement (88% in females and 80% in males) occurred during the first 6 weeks; thereafter the changes were minor. In males the changes were greatest in pain, social life and travelling and in females in walking, social life and travelling. Internal consistency value of ODI was 0.88 (95% CI 0.82–0.91). Item analysis of the ODI showed that all the items except pain had high corrected item correlation. As recovery following lumbar disc surgery occurred to a great extent during the first 6 weeks, the early post-operative outcome appears to be quite a reliable indicator of the overall post-operative outcome over the 1-year follow-up. The ODI proved to capture a wide range of disability in these lumbar disc surgery patients, thereby supporting the future use of the index. The “pain intensity” component, which collects data on the use of painkillers in version 1.0 of the ODI did not support the item structure of the index in this study. The use of ODI version 2.0 might remove this problem. PMID:16912888

  4. [Age-related changes Kernogan`s index of venous vessels hollow and parenchymatous organs at stages of a postnatal ontogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel', V V; Efremova, V P

    2016-01-01

    Kernogan`s index determination of hollow and parenchymatous organs' venous vessels was conducted on 80 men corpses of the three age groups. Average age of the investigated men corpses of the mature period is 27,8±4,2 years, elderly - 67,8±3,7 years, senile - 81,9±4,5 years. The age variability transformation of venous vessels bandwidth of lungs, kidneys, heart, stomach and ileum were obligate. It was revealed that the Kernogan`s index of venous vessels changes can be equally detected at different age periods. While, with the obsolence, there is a gradual indicator's decline, which is mostly discerned in parenchymatous organs, while for the hollow organs transformations are less essentic.

  5. Reliability of individual doses relating to the epidemiological studies on nuclear industry workers in Japan (1). Historical changes on definition of radiation dose, historical changes on technical standards of measurement and radiation workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numakunai, Takao; Ishiguro, Hideharu; Kawada, Yasushi; Minami, Kentaro; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko.

    1997-01-01

    Records of radiation workers collected in the Research Organization for Information of Science and Technology, concerning individual doses from 1957 to 1992 were used for epidemiological studies for obtaining the scientific information of the effect of low dose radiation. Since many changes were made on definition of radiation dose, dosimetry technology and so on during such a long time period, reliability of recorded individual doses and of their measurement should be evaluated for validation, which is the purpose of this paper. Followings were discussed and validation was made. Historical changes on standards for radiation protection: ICRP Recommendation and ICRU Report, and changes of law concerning radiation dose in Japan and of dose standards. Changes on dosimetry for radiation protection: ICRP Recommendation and working place dosimetry, trends of investigations for introduction of measured practical doses, ICRU sphere as a receptor, and introduction of measured practical doses. Characteristics of radiation field and radiation exposure: Radiation source and characteristics of radiation field; Research and development organizations for atomic power, atomic power plants, facilities for nuclear fuel, Classification of radiation works and characteristics of the exposure; BWR, PWR, GCR. Changes on the standards of individual dosemeter and on its use: method to use individual dosemeter and its installation, measurement of individual dose and Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS); Standard of the film badge for X and gamma rays, Standard of the film badge for neutron, Standard for thermoluminescence dosemeter, and changes on selection of the major apparatus and on its use. (K.H.)

  6. Relations of mood with body mass index changes in severely obese women enrolled in a supported physical activity treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J

    2008-01-01

    It has been suggested that physical activity may affect weight reduction outcomes through associated improvements in mood. Relations of physical activity, mood, and weight change are not well understood in persons classified as severely obese (BMI > or = 40 kg/m(2)), however. This research tested these relationships in women with severe obesity. 57 women with a mean BMI of 43.8 kg/m(2) were enrolled in a cognitive-behavioral exercise support treatment with group-based nutrition information. Measurement of depression, tension, overall mood, and BMI was taken at baseline and month 6, and exercise session attendance was recorded. The treatment was associated with significant improvements in depression, tension and total mood disturbance scores as well as in BMI over 6 months. Changes in mood scores that were more positive were correlated with a greater reduction in BMI. Mean attendance in the prescribed 3 session/week exercise regimen was 46.0%, and attendance was significantly correlated with changes in tension and total mood disturbance scores, and approached significance with changes in depression scores. Findings suggested significant relations of mood and weight change as well as of physical activity and mood in severely obese women associated with a treatment of moderate physical activity. With extensions of this research, weight loss theory and treatment may benefit. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Changes of Chlorophyll Index (SPAD, Relative Water Content, Electrolyte Leakage and Seed Yield in Spring Safflower Genotypes under Irrigation Termination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.E. Moosavifar

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of irrigation termination and genotype on chlorophyll index (SPAD, relative water content, electrolyte leakage and seed yield in spring safflower, an experiment was conducted, in a spilt plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with four replications at Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, the University of Birjand, during 2008. Irrigation regimes (full irrigation (whole season irrigation, irrigation until grain filling, flowering and heading-bud and genotypes (Mahali Isfahan (a local variety, Isfahan28 and IL111 were arranged in main and subplots, respectively. Results showed chlorophyll content, relative water content, cell membrane stability and seed yield were influenced by irrigation termination. Provided that with terminating irrigation at an earlier stage, an increase in electrolyte leakage and reduction in relative water content and seed yield was observed in plants. There were negative relations between electrolyte leakage from plants leaf cells and seed yield. Plants which experienced irrigation termination in an earlier growth stage, suffered more damage to their cell membranes, leading to depression of their production potential. Based on the results, Mahali Isfahan and Isfahan28 can be introduced as drought resistant genotypes, because of their lower electrolyte leakage and higher relative water content. But, in general, Mahali Isfahan had the highest seed yield due to its nativeness and high adaptation to arid conditions southern of Khorasan, and therefore this genotype suggests for planting in the region.

  8. Some issues related to polarized radiative transfer in a multilayer medium with a changing index of refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, R D M

    2012-01-01

    A couple of issues raised in a recent work on Fresnel boundary and interface conditions for polarized radiative transfer are discussed. The first issue concerns a normalization that has to be performed on the transmission matrix relating the transmitted and incident Stokes vectors at a smooth interface between different materials. It was found that the normalization step is not performed in a correct way in many existing works and so the effects of the two most frequent discrepancies encountered in these works are evaluated for a simple model of an atmosphere-water system. The second issue has to do with a choice of the sign of the parallel component of the amplitude coefficient of reflection R l when constructing the reflection matrix that relates the reflected and incident Stokes vectors at a smooth interface. A computational approach based on the limit to the case with constant index of refraction is used to determine the appropriate sign of R l for polarized radiative transfer calculations in multilayers with different indices of refraction.

  9. Comparative study on the change in index of refraction in ion-exchange interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glasses containing calcium, strontium, barium and titanium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livshits, V.Ya.; Marchuk, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    Different ability to ion exchange from the salts of lithium-sodium-silicate glass melt containing calcium (or strontium, or barium) and titanium oxides in addition has been shown. CaO, SrO and BaO have negative effect, but TiO 2 -positive one on the fullness of ion exchange of lithium-sodium and on the rate of interdiffusion in alkali-silicate glass. The value of change in index of refraction of glass with TiO 2 is twice higher than glass with calcium oxide (or strontium, or barium) as the fourth component

  10. Leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and pigment indexes of Eugenia uniflora L. in response to changes in light intensity and soil flooding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Marcelo S; Schaffer, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The interactive effects of changing light intensity and soil flooding on the photosynthetic performance of Eugenia uniflora L. (Myrtaceae) seedlings in containers were examined. Two hypotheses were tested: (i) the photosynthetic apparatus of shade-adapted leaves can be rapidly acclimated to high light after transfer from shade to full sun, and (ii) photosynthetic acclimation to changing light intensity may be influenced by soil flooding. Seedlings cultivated in a shade house (40% of full sun, approximately 12 mol m(-)(2) day(-)(1)) for 6 months were transferred to full sun (20-40 mol m(-2) day(-1)) or shade (30% of full sun, approximately 8 mol m(-2) day(-1)) and subjected to soil flooding for 23 days or not flooded. Chlorophyll content index (CCI), chlorophyll fluorescence, leaf weight per area (LWA), photosynthetic light-response curves and leaf reflectance indexes were measured during soil flooding and after plants were unflooded. The CCI values increased throughout the experiment in leaves of shaded plants and decreased in leaves of plants transferred to full sun. There were no significant interactions between light intensity and flooding treatments for most of the variables analyzed, with the exception of Fv/Fm 22 days after plants were flooded and 5 days after flooded plants were unflooded. The light environment significantly affected LWA, and light environment and soil flooding significantly affected the light-saturated gross CO(2) assimilation rate expressed on area and dry weight bases (A(max-area) and A(max-wt), respectively), stomatal conductance of water vapor (g(ssat)) and intrinsic water use efficiency (A/g(s)). Five days after flooded plants were unflooded, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the scaled photochemical reflectance index (sPRI) were significantly higher in shade than in sun leaves. Thirty days after transferring plants from the shade house to the light treatment, LWA was 30% higher in sun than in shade leaves, and A

  11. Seasonal change in body fat of the Hyrax Procavia capensis (Pallas, 1766 using a body fat ranking index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Fourie

    1985-11-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the body fat content of the hyrax Procavia capensis were used as an indicator of physiological condition. Body fat rankings for the different sexes showed seasonal variations related to physiologically stressful periods (rutting, gestation and lactation. The subjective body fat rankings were correlated significantly with total body fat.

  12. An international comparison of productivity change in the textile and clothing industry: a bootstrapped Malmquist index approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapelko, M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Firms in the textile and clothing industry operate in competitive international markets characterized by the liberalized trade after the removal of multi-fiber agreement quotas in 2005, and have to address rapid changes in consumer preferences and production technology. Hence, improving

  13. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Fitchett, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a rapidly growing international sector and relies intrinsically on an amenable climate to attract visitors. Climate change is likely to influence the locations preferred by tourists and the time of year of peak travel. This study investigates the effect of climate change on the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) for Iran. The paper first calculates the monthly TCI for 40 cities across Iran for each year from 1961 to 2010. Changes in the TCI over the study period for each of the cities are then explored. Increases in TCI are observed for at least one station in each month, whilst for some months no decreases occurred. For October, the maximum of 45% of stations demonstrated significant changes in TCI, whilst for December only 10% of stations demonstrated change. The stations Kashan, Orumiyeh, Shahrekord, Tabriz, Torbat-e-Heidarieh and Zahedan experienced significant increases in TCI for over 6 months. The beginning of the change in TCI is calculated to have occurred from 1970 to 1980 for all stations. Given the economic dependence on oil exports, the development of sustainable tourism in Iran is of importance. This critically requires the identification of locations most suitable for tourism, now and in the future, to guide strategic investment.

  14. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  15. Daytime changes of skin biophysical characteristics: A study of hydration, transepidermal water loss, ph, sebum, elasticity, erythema, and color index on middle eastern skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Firooz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m. on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92 and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025, between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001 and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48 and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001. Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day.

  16. Seasonal changes in the gonadossomatic index, allometric condition factor and sex ratio of an auchenipterid catfish from eastern Amazonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Magalhães da Silva Freitas

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the seasonal pattern of the gonadosomatic index (GSI, condition factor (K, and sex ratio in the catfish Auchenipterichthys longimanus (Siluriformes: Auchenipteridae as an approach to identify its reproductive period. A total of 589 A. longimanus specimens (251 males and 338 females were captured in the rivers of the Caxiuanã National Forest, in the Brazilian state of Pará, between July, 2008 and July, 2009. Among the male specimens, 171 were classified as adults and 80 as juveniles, while there were 249 adults and 89 juvenile females. Using a sinusoidal equation, analysis of the GSI revealed a reproductive asynchrony between the genders, with males attaining their highest GSI values in January, while females peaked in March. For males, the sinusoidal regression for GSI values was significant only when used the complete data set (P=0.001, wears no trend was identified for bimonthly means (P=0.136. For females, by contrast, significant values were obtained for both the complete data set (P=0.012 and bimonthly GSI means (P=0.026. For the condition factor, the sinusoidal equation returned significant seasonal variation in both raw data (P=0.02 and with mean values (P=0.00 for males, but only with raw data for females (P=0.04, which appears to reflect variation in the energy budget between genders. With regard to the sex ratio, more reproductive females were captured than males in January and March, 2009, which suggests a pattern of segregation related to the reproductive process. These parameters are fundamental to the assessment, protection, and management of natural fish stocks, as well as providing guidelines for the development of conservation strategies.

  17. The Oxford Questionnaire on the Emotional Side-effects of Antidepressants (OQuESA): development, validity, reliability and sensitivity to change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jonathan; Cole, Victoria; Doll, Helen; Goodwin, Guy M

    2012-09-01

    Some patients with major depression report a restricted range of emotions that may appear to arise as a side-effect of treatment with antidepressants. It is uncertain whether this phenomenon, sometimes called emotional blunting, represents residual symptoms of depression or side-effects of antidepressant treatment. There is currently no adequate instrument to measure this phenomenon. A draft questionnaire was developed from patient-derived qualitative data, refined using cognitive interviewing, and administered on three occasions to patients taking antidepressants. Statistical methods including factor analysis were used to reduce the size of the draft questionnaire, and to assess the performance of the resulting Oxford Questionnaire on the Emotional Side-effects of Antidepressants (OQuESA). 207 patients completed the OQuESA on at least one occasion. Their BDI-II scores and self-reported emotional blunting were spread across the possible range. The factor analysis resulted in four dimensions: 'not caring', 'emotional detachment', 'reduction in positive emotions', and 'general reduction in emotions'. The OQuESA appears to be acceptable, valid, and reliable, with sensitivity to change. The OQuESA offers promise as an effective self-report measure of the symptoms of emotional blunting in patients with depression. It can be used as a clinical tool, to facilitate the identification of patients with the syndrome of emotional blunting. It should also be used in research studies, to advance our understanding of the nature, causes and treatment of this phenomenon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Walkability Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Walkability Index dataset characterizes every Census 2010 block group in the U.S. based on its relative walkability. Walkability depends upon characteristics of the built environment that influence the likelihood of walking being used as a mode of travel. The Walkability Index is based on the EPA's previous data product, the Smart Location Database (SLD). Block group data from the SLD was the only input into the Walkability Index, and consisted of four variables from the SLD weighted in a formula to create the new Walkability Index. This dataset shares the SLD's block group boundary definitions from Census 2010. The methodology describing the process of creating the Walkability Index can be found in the documents located at ftp://newftp.epa.gov/EPADataCommons/OP/WalkabilityIndex.zip. You can also learn more about the Smart Location Database at https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/OP/Smart_Location_DB_v02b.zip.

  19. Identification of Changing Lower Limb Neuromuscular Activation in Parkinson’s Disease during Treadmill Gait with and without Levodopa Using a Nonlinear Analysis Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Pourmoghaddam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of electromyographic (EMG data is a cornerstone of research related to motor control in Parkinson’s disease. Nonlinear EMG analysis tools have shown to be valuable, but analysis is often complex and interpretation of the data may be difficult. A previously introduced algorithm (SYNERGOS that provides a single index value based on simultaneous multiple muscle activations (MMA has been shown to be effective in detecting changes in EMG activation due to modifications of walking speeds in healthy adults. In this study, we investigated if SYNERGOS detects MMA changes associated with both different walking speeds and levodopa intake. Nine male Parkinsonian patients walked on a treadmill with increasing speed while on or off medication. We collected EMG data and computed SYNERGOS indices and employed a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model to the values. SYNERGOS was sensitive to neuromuscular modifications due to both alterations of gait speed and intake of levodopa. We believe that the current experiment provides evidence for the potential value of SYNERGOS as a nonlinear tool in clinical settings, by providing a single value index of MMA. This could help clinicians to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and treatments in Parkinson’s disease in a simple manner.

  20. Absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for a double δ-doped GaAs MIGFET-like structure: Electric and magnetic field effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Orozco, J. C.; Rodríguez-Magdaleno, K. A.; Suárez-López, J. R.; Duque, C. A.; Restrepo, R. L.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we present theoretical results for the electronic structure as well as for the absorption coefficient and relative refractive index change for an asymmetric double δ-doped like confining potential in the active region of a Multiple Independent Gate Field Effect Transistor (MIGFET) system. We model the potential profile as a double δ-doped like potential profile between two Schottky (parabolic) potential barriers that are just the main characteristics of the MIGFET configuration. We investigate the effect of external electromagnetic fields in this kind of quantum structures, in particular we applied a homogeneous constant electric field in the growth direction z as well as a homogeneous constant magnetic field in the x-direction. In general we conclude that by applying electromagnetic fields we can modulate the resonant peaks of the absorption coefficient as well as their energy position. Also with such probes it is possible to control the nodes and amplitude of the relative refractive index changes related to resonant intersubband optical transitions.

  1. The Association of Unintentional Changes in Weight, Body Composition, and Homeostasis Model Assessment Index with Glycemic Progression in Non-Diabetic Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jung Rhee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWe performed a retrospective longitudinal study on the effects of changes in weight, body composition, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA indices on glycemic progression in subjects without diabetes during a four-year follow-up period in a community cohort without intentional intervention.MethodsFrom 28,440 non-diabetic subjects who participated in a medical check-up program in 2004, data on anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained after four years in 2008. Body composition analyses were performed with a bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Skeletal muscle index (SMI, % was calculated with lean mass/weight×100. Subjects were divided into three groups according to weight change status in four years: weight loss (≤-5.0%, stable weight (-5.0 to 5.0%, weight gain (≥5.0%. Progressors were defined as the subjects who progressed to impaired fasting glucose or diabetes.ResultsProgressors showed worse baseline metabolic profiles compared with non-progressors. In logistic regression analyses, the increase in changes of HOMA-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR in four years presented higher odds ratios for glycemic progression compared with other changes during that period. Among the components of body composition, a change in waist-hip ratio was the strongest predictor, and SMI change in four years was a significant negative predictor for glycemic progression. Changes in HOMA β-cell function in four years was a negative predictor for glycemic progression.ConclusionIncreased interval changes in HOMA-IR, weight gain and waist-hip ratio was associated with glycemic progression during a four-year period without intentional intervention in non-diabetic Korean subjects.

  2. Is the change in body mass index among children newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity at transition from pediatric to adult care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyanga, Taru; Sellers, Elizabeth Ac; Wicklow, Brandy A; Doupe, Malcolm; Fransoo, Randall

    2016-12-01

    Insulin therapy is lifesaving treatment for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Its initiation maybe associated with significant weight gain because of change from a catabolic to an anabolic state. Excessive weight-gain increases the risk of obesity and is associated with chronic disease. To examine if change in body mass index (BMI) among children in the 6 months after diagnosis with type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with long-term obesity. This was a population-based retrospective study of 377 children (aged 2-18 yr) with type 1 diabetes. Measured heights and weights were used to calculate BMI z-scores based on Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cut-points. Generalized Linear Models using BMI group, and age group at diagnosis; postdiagnosis weight change; and sex were applied to assess associations between postdiagnosis weight change and BMI z-score at transition to adult care. Mean BMI z-score increased from 0.28 at diagnosis, to 0.53 at 6 months and 0.66 at transition to adult care. Change in BMI z-scores differed by initial BMI group and magnitude of postdiagnosis weight change. Younger children (11 yr) had higher (p = 0.004) BMI z-scores at diagnosis but not at last visit (p = 0.1) than older (≥11 yr) children at diagnosis. BMI z-score at diagnosis, postdiagnosis weight change, female sex, and longer duration with TID were associated with higher BMI z-score at time of transition. BMI z-score at diagnosis was the strongest predictor of BMI z-score at time of transition to adult care, however; its effect was mediated by magnitude of weight change 6 months after diagnosis, sex, and age group at diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Characterizing ecosystem response to water supply changes inferred from GRACE drought severity index and surface soil moisture anomalies from ESA CCI and SMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M.; Velicogna, I.; Kimball, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change such as more frequent heatwaves and drought is threatening our food security and ecosystem by reducing water supply to vegetation. Characterizing vegetation response to water supply changes is not only important for evaluating and mitigating climatic change impacts on ecosystem functions and services, but also to determine the feedback mechanisms that ecosystem response may generate on the climate itself. However, such characterization is not well-known at the global scale partly because large scale observations of underground water supply changes are limited. Satellite observations of soil moisture (SM) datasets such as from Soil Moisture Active and Passive (SMAP) and European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative (ESA CCI) do not penetrate more than a few centimeters and do not capture the entire root-zone. Here we employ a newly developed Drought Severity Index from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE-DSI) to complement SM observations by informing total water supply changes in the entire terrestrial hydrological cycle. We use MODIS vegetation indices as proxies for vegetation growth and investigate their seasonal and interannual variability in relation to GRACE-DSI. We find that total water supply constrains vegetation growth across the entire continental US. Water constraint begins at an earlier date of year and lasts for a longer period in the lower latitude than in the higher latitude. We also find that water constraint occurs at different phenological stages depending on vegetation type. For instance, water constrain forest growth during reproductive period in eastern US but constrain shrub land growth during green-up in Arizona (Fig. 1). In western United States, eastern Australia and the horn of Africa, we find that vegetation growth changes closely follows GRACE-DSI but can have 16-day to one-month delay with respect to SM anomalies from SMAP and ESA CCI. This suggests that in these regions, vegetation is sensitive to water

  4. Preliminary approach on early post mortem stress and quality indexes changes in large size bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ugolini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus is very appreciated on Japan and USA market for the preparation of sushi and sahimi. The market price of the fresh product can vary from 8 to 33 Euro/kg (gate farm/producers prices according to size, shape, fat level, meat colour, consistency and freshness (absence of “hyake”, all parameters strictly connected to feeding quality and quantity, rearing and killing stress factors and refrigeration times and conditions after death. Excessive levels of stress during the slaughtering can affect meat quality, contributing to significantly decrease of tuna’s price. The present trial was carried out to evaluate the possible harvesting/slaughtering stress effect on reared bluefin tuna meat quality, starting from the examination of the most important stress and quality parameters changes during the early post mortem period.

  5. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  6. A new CT-score as index of hemodynamic changes in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Maria Barbara; Giannotta, Marica; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Cefarelli, Mariano; Martìn Suàrez, Sofia; Gotti, Enrico; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Zompatori, Maurizio; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the relationship between radiological and hemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We introduced a new CT-score to evaluate hemodynamic changes, only employing CT-pulmonary angiography (CTPA). 145 patients affected by CTEPH underwent hemodynamic and CTPA evaluation. Among these 145 patients, 69 underwent pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and performed a CTPA evaluation even after surgery. Hemodynamic assessment considered the values of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), obtained through right heart catheterization (RHC). Radiological evaluation included CTPA signs of pulmonary hypertension. A highly significant statistical correlation was observed between the new CT-score and both mPAP and PVR (p < 0.000) in the whole sample and also in the subgroup who underwent PEA. In addition, mPAP and PVR showed an important association with the severity of mosaic perfusion (p < 0.000). mPAP also correlated with main pulmonary artery diameter (p < 0.01); a significant association was found in both between PVR and tricuspid regurgitation(p < 0.000) and with PVR and presence of unilateral or bilateral pulmonary thromboembolic occlusion (p < 0.05). Our results confirm the diagnostic role of CTPA in evaluating patients with CTEPH and in addition open a new horizon in assessing hemodynamic changes in patients with CTEPH, only employing a CTPA, especially when RHC is contraindicated or not possible.

  7. Relationships between Participants' International Prostate Symptom Score and BPH Impact Index Changes and Global Ratings of Change in a Trial of Phytotherapy for Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J.; Cantor, Alan; Roehrborn, Claus G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To relate changes in AUA Symptom Index (AUASI) scores with bother measures and global ratings of change among men with lower urinary tract symptoms enrolled in a trial of saw palmetto. Materials and Methods To be eligible, men were ≥45 years old, had ajpeak uroflow ≥4 ml/sec, and an AUASI score ≥ 8 and ≤ 24. Participants self-administered the AUASI, IPSS quality of life item (IPSS QoL), BPH Impact Index (BII) and two global change questions at baseline and 24, 48, and 72 weeks. Results Among 357 participants, global ratings of “a little better” were associated with mean decreases in AUASI scores from 2.8 to 4.1 points, across three time points. The analogous range for mean decreases in BII scores was 1.0 to 1.7 points, and for the IPSS QoL item 0.5 to 0.8 points. At 72 weeks, for the first global change question, each change measure could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better versus unchanged or worse 70-72% of the time. A multivariable model increased discrimination to 77%. For the second global change question, each change measure correctly discriminated ratings of at least a little better versus unchanged or worse 69-74% of the time, and a multivariable model increased discrimination to 79%. Conclusions Changes in AUASI scores could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better versus unchanged or worse. Our findings support the practice of powering studies to detect group mean differences in AUASI scores of at least 3 points. PMID:23017510

  8. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  9. The association between change in body mass index and upper aerodigestive tract cancers in the ARCAGE project: multicenter case-control study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Park, Sungshim Lani

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies reported an inverse relationship betw