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Sample records for reliable bioartificial liver

  1. Interfacing biomembrane mimetic polymer surfaces with living cells - Surface modification for reliable bioartificial liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Yasuhiko; Takami, Utae; Sawada, Shin-ichi; Akiyoshi, Kazunari

    2008-01-01

    hepatocytes and has great potential for producing reliable bioartificial liver (BAL) devices

  2. Artificial and bioartificial support systems for liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, J P; Gluud, L L; Als-Nielsen, B

    2004-01-01

    Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems may 'bridge' patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure to liver transplantation or recovery.......Artificial and bioartificial liver support systems may 'bridge' patients with acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure to liver transplantation or recovery....

  3. Advances in bioartificial liver assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer, J F

    2001-11-01

    Rapid advances in development of bioartificial liver assist devices (BLADs) are exciting clinical interest in the application of BLAD technology for support of patients with acute liver failure. Four devices (Circe Biomedical HepatAssist, Vitagen ELAD, Gerlach BELS, and Excorp Medical BLSS) that rely on hepatocytes cultured in hollow-fiber membrane technology are currently in various stages of clinical evaluation. Several alternative approaches for culture and perfusion of hepatocytes have been evaluated in preclinical, large animal models of liver failure, or at a laboratory scale. Engineering design issues with respect to xenotransplantation, BLAD perfusion, hepatocyte functionality and culture maintenance, and ultimate distribution of a BLAD to a clinical site are delineated.

  4. Improving lives through a bioartificial liver support system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, K

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This poster covers the development of a technology towards a novel bioartificial liver support system (BALSS) that is capable of providing liver functions, in patients with acute liver failure, while housed outside the body (extra corporeal...

  5. Phase I clinical trial with the AMC-bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhove, M. P.; Di Florio, E.; Scuderi, V.; Mancini, A.; Belli, A.; Bracco, A.; Dauri, M.; Tisone, G.; Di Nicuolo, G.; Amoroso, P.; Spadari, A.; Lombardi, G.; Hoekstra, R.; Calise, F.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2002-01-01

    Recently a bio-artificial liver (BAL) system has been developed at the Academic Medical Center (AMC) of Amsterdam to bridge patients with acute liver failure (ALF) to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). After successful testing of the AMC-BAL in rodents and pigs with ALF, a phase I study in ALF

  6. Bridging a patient with acute liver failure to liver transplantation by the AMC-bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; di Florio, Ernesto; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Mancini, Antonio; Belli, Antonello; Bracco, Adele; Scala, Daniela; Scala, Simona; Zeuli, Laura; Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; Amoroso, Pietro; Calise, Fulvio; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a phase I clinical trial has been started in Italy to bridge patients with acute liver failure (ALF) to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) by the AMC-bioartificial liver (AMC-BAL). The AMC-BAL is charged with 10 X 109 viable primary porcine hepatocytes isolated from a specified

  7. Three-Dimensional Culture of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Hepatic Endoderm and Its Role in Bioartificial Liver Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver carries out a range of functions essential for bodily homeostasis. The impairment of liver functions has serious implications and is responsible for high rates of patient morbidity and mortality. Presently, liver transplantation remains the only effective treatment, but donor availability is a major limitation. Therefore, artificial and bioartificial liver devices have been developed to bridge patients to liver transplantation. Existing support devices improve hepatic encephalopathy to a certain extent; however their usage is associated with side effects. The major hindrance in the development of bioartificial liver devices and cellular therapies is the limited availability of human hepatocytes. Moreover, primary hepatocytes are difficult to maintain and lose hepatic identity and function over time even with sophisticated tissue culture media. To overcome this limitation, renewable cell sources are being explored. Human embryonic stem cells are one such cellular resource and have been shown to generate a reliable and reproducible supply of human hepatic endoderm. Therefore, the use of human embryonic stem cell-derived hepatic endoderm in combination with tissue engineering has the potential to pave the way for the development of novel bioartificial liver devices and predictive drug toxicity assays.

  8. Bioartificial liver and liver transplantation: new modalities for the treatment of liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DING Yitao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The main features of liver failure are extensive necrosis of hepatocytes, rapid disease progression, and poor prognosis, and at present, there are no effective drugs and methods for the treatment of liver failure. This article summarizes four treatment methods for liver failure, i.e., medical treatment, cell transplantation, liver transplantation, and artificial liver support therapy, and elaborates on the existing treatment methods. The current medical treatment regimen should be optimized; cell transplantation has not been used in clinical practice; liver transplantation is the most effective method, but it is limited by donor liver shortage and high costs; artificial liver can effectively remove toxic substances in human body. Therefore, this article puts forward artificial liver as a transition for liver transplantation; artificial liver can buy time for liver regeneration or liver transplantation and prolong patients′ survival time and thus has a promising future. The new treatment modality of bioartificial liver combined with liver transplantation may bring good news to patients with liver failure.

  9. Proliferative human cell sources applied as biocomponent in bioartificial livers: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Geert A. A.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Bioartificial livers (BALs) are urgently needed to bridge severe liver failure patients to liver transplantation or liver regeneration. When based on primary hepatocytes, their efficacy has been shown in animal experiments and their safety was confirmed in clinical trials. However, a

  10. Liver Progenitor Cell Line HepaRG Differentiated in a Bioartificial Liver Effectively Supplies Liver Support to Rats with Acute Liver Failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibourg, Geert A. A.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; van der Hoeven, Tessa V.; Maas, Martinus A. W.; Ruiter, An F. C.; Lamers, Wouter H.; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2012-01-01

    A major roadblock to the application of bioartificial livers is the need for a human liver cell line that displays a high and broad level of hepatic functionality. The human bipotent liver progenitor cell line HepaRG is a promising candidate in this respect, for its potential to differentiate into

  11. No evidence of in vitro and in vivo porcine endogenous retrovirus infection after plasmapheresis through the AMC-bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Nicuolo, Giuseppe; van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; Beld, Marcel G. H. M.; Amoroso, Pietro; Battisti, Sonia; Starace, Maria; di Florio, Ernesto; Scuderi, Vincenzo; Scala, Simona; Bracco, Adele; Mancini, Antonio; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Calise, Fulvio

    2005-01-01

    Background: Currently a number of bioartificial livers (BAL) based on porcine liver cells have been developed as a treatment to bridge acute liver failure patients to orthotopic liver transplantation or liver regeneration. These xenotransplantation related treatments hold the risk of infection of

  12. Bioartificial liver assist devices in support of patients with liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patzer II, John F; Lopez, Roberto C; Zhu, Yue; Wang, Zi-Fa; Mazariegos, George V; Fung, John J

    2002-02-01

    Bioartificial liver assist devices (BALs) offer an opportunity for critical care physicians and transplant surgeons to stabilize patients prior to orthotopic liver transplantation. Such devices may also act as a bridge to transplant, providing liver support to patients awaiting transplant, or as support for patients post living-related donor transplant. Four BAL devices that rely on hepatocytes cultured in hollow fiber membrane cartridges (Circe Biomedical HepatAssist(r), Vitagen ELADTM, Gerlach BELS, and Excorp Medical BLSS) are currently in various stages of clinical evaluation. Comparison of the four devices shows that several unique approaches based upon the same overall system architecture are possible. Preliminary results of the Excorp Medical BLSS Phase I safety evaluation at the University of Pittsburgh, after treating four patients (F, 41, acetominophen-induced, two support periods; M, 50, Wilson's disease, one support period; F, 53, acute alcoholic hepatitis, two support periods; F, 24, chemotherapy-induced, one support period, are presented. All patients presented with hypoglycemia and transient hypotension at the start of extracorporeal perfusion. Hypoglycemia was treated by IV dextrose and the transient hypotension responded positively to IV fluid bolus. Heparin anticoagulation was used only in the second patient. No serious or adverse events were noted in the four patients. Moderate Biochemical response to support was noted in all patients. More complete characterization of the safety of the BLSS requires completion of the Phase I safety evaluation.

  13. Preliminary investigation of hybrid bioartificial liver support system in treatment of HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YOU Shaoli

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo construct a hybrid bioartificial liver support system and to investigate its safety and efficacy in patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF. MethodsA hollow fiber bioreactor was constructed using cultured HepG2 cells transfected with human augmenter of liver regeneration gene. Patients with HBV-related ACLF who were hospitalized in our hospital from May 2009 to August 2011 were randomly divided into treatment group (n=10 and control group (n=10. The treatment group was treated using the hybrid bioartificial liver support system, while the control group was treated with conventional plasma exchange. Comparison of means between the two groups was made by independent-samples t test, and comparison of variables before and after treatment was made by paired t test. ResultsOf the 10 patients in treatment group, 7 had improvement in clinical symptoms and were discharged, 1 died of hepatic encephalopathy, 1 died of hepatorenal syndrome, and 1 died of liver failure after discharge. Of the 10 patients in control group, 5 survived, 1 underwent liver transplantation, and 4 died of liver failure. Before treatment, the treatment group and control group had model for end-stage liver disease (MELD scores of 24.26±2.54 and 24.71±2.79, respectively, without significant difference between the two groups (t=1.971, P=0.064. The treatment group had MELD scores of 21.71±2.92, 22.10±4.46, and 19.90±5.43 after 3 days, 1 week, and 4 weeks, respectively, of treatment. At the end of one-year follow-up, the mean serum alpha-fetoprotein levels were 14.24 ng/ml in treatment group and 11.32 ng/ml in control group, and no space-occupying lesions in the liver were found through abdominal ultrasound. ConclusionThe constructed hybrid bioartificial liver support system is effective and safe in the treatment of HBV-related ACLF.

  14. Heat and mass transfer during the cryopreservation of a bioartificial liver device: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Saravana K; Coger, Robin N

    2005-01-01

    Bioartificial liver devices (BALs) have proven to be an effective bridge to transplantation for cases of acute liver failure. Enabling the long-term storage of these devices using a method such as cryopreservation will ensure their easy off the shelf availability. To date, cryopreservation of liver cells has been attempted for both single cells and sandwich cultures. This study presents the potential of using computational modeling to help develop a cryopreservation protocol for storing the three dimensional BAL: Hepatassist. The focus is upon determining the thermal and concentration profiles as the BAL is cooled from 37 degrees C-100 degrees C, and is completed in two steps: a cryoprotectant loading step and a phase change step. The results indicate that, for the loading step, mass transfer controls the duration of the protocol, whereas for the phase change step, when mass transfer is assumed negligible, the latent heat released during freezing is the control factor. The cryoprotocol that is ultimately proposed considers time, cooling rate, and the temperature gradients that the cellular space is exposed to during cooling. To our knowledge, this study is the first reported effort toward designing an effective protocol for the cryopreservation of a three-dimensional BAL device.

  15. A preliminary study for constructing a bioartificial liver device with induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwamuro Masaya

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bioartificial liver systems, designed to support patients with liver failure, are composed of bioreactors and functional hepatocytes. Immunological rejection of the embedded hepatocytes by the host immune system is a serious concern that crucially degrades the performance of the device. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are considered a desirable source for bioartificial liver systems, because patient-derived iPS cells are free from immunological rejection. The purpose of this paper was to test the feasibility of a bioartificial liver system with iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells. Methods Mouse iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells by a multi-step differentiation protocol via embryoid bodies and definitive endoderm. Differentiation of iPS cells was evaluated by morphology, PCR assay, and functional assays. iPS cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells were cultured in a bioreactor module with a pore size of 0.2 μm for 7 days. The amount of albumin secreted into the circulating medium was analyzed by ELISA. Additionally, after a 7-day culture in a bioreactor module, cells were observed by a scanning electron microscope. Results At the final stage of the differentiation program, iPS cells changed their morphology to a polygonal shape with two nucleoli and enriched cytoplasmic granules. Transmission electron microscope analysis revealed their polygonal shape, glycogen deposition in the cytoplasm, microvilli on their surfaces, and a duct-like arrangement. PCR analysis showed increased expression of albumin mRNA over the course of the differentiation program. Albumin and urea production was also observed. iPS-Heps culture in bioreactor modules showed the accumulation of albumin in the medium for up to 7 days. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the attachment of cell clusters to the hollow fibers of the module. These results indicated that iPS cells were differentiated into hepatocyte-like cells after culture

  16. Three-dimensional numerical modeling and computational fluid dynamics simulations to analyze and improve oxygen availability in the AMC bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mareels, Guy; Poyck, Paul P. C.; Eloot, Sunny; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Verdonck, Pascal R.

    2006-01-01

    A numerical model to investigate fluid flow and oxygen (O(2)) transport and consumption in the AMC-Bioartificial Liver (AMC-BAL) was developed and applied to two representative micro models of the AMC-BAL with two different gas capillary patterns, each combined with two proposed hepatocyte

  17. Significantly improved survival time in pigs with complete liver ischemia treated with a novel bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flendrig, L. M.; Calise, F.; Di Florio, E.; Mancini, A.; Ceriello, A.; Santaniello, W.; Mezza, E.; Sicoli, F.; Belleza, G.; Bracco, A.; Cozzolino, S.; Scala, D.; Mazzone, M.; Fattore, M.; Gonzales, E.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate treatment efficacy and safety of a scaled-up version of our porcine hepatocytes based BAL system in pigs with complete liver ischemia (LIS). Thirty-one pigs underwent total devascularization of the liver (LIS) by termino-lateral porta-caval shunts and sutures around

  18. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A. A.; Hakvoort, Theodorus B. M.; Hendriks, Erik J.; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M.; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on

  19. Commercially available media for flushing extracorporeal bioartificial liver systems prior to connection to the patient's circulation: an in vitro comparative study in two and three dimensional porcine hepatocyte cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flendrig, L. M.; Sommeijer, D.; Ladiges, N. C.; te Velde, A. A.; Maas, M. A.; Jörning, G. G.; Daalhuisen, J.; Chamuleau, R. A.

    1998-01-01

    Extracorporeal bioartificial liver (BAL) systems based on hepatocytes need to be flushed before clinical application, as hepatocyte culture media are not approved for medical use. Commercially available 0.9% NaCl solution and hemofiltration solution (both supplemented with 10% human albumin) were

  20. Cells for bioartificial liver devices: the human hepatoma-derived cell line C3A produces urea but does not detoxify ammonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavri-Damelin, Demetra; Damelin, Leonard H; Eaton, Simon; Rees, Myrddin; Selden, Clare; Hodgson, Humphrey J F

    2008-02-15

    Extrahepatic bioartificial liver devices should provide an intact urea cycle to detoxify ammonia. The C3A cell line, a subclone of the hepatoma-derived HepG2 cell line, is currently used in this context as it produces urea, and this has been assumed to be reflective of ammonia detoxification via a functional urea cycle. However, based on our previous findings of perturbed urea-cycle function in the non-urea producing HepG2 cell line, we hypothesized that the urea produced by C3A cells was via a urea cycle-independent mechanism, namely, due to arginase II activity, and therefore would not detoxify ammonia. Urea was quantified using (15)N-ammonium chloride metabolic labelling with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Gene expression was determined by real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR, protein expression by western blotting, and functional activities with radiolabelling enzyme assays. Arginase inhibition studies used N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine. Urea was detected in C3A conditioned medium; however, (15)N-ammonium chloride-labelling indicated that (15)N-ammonia was not incorporated into (15)N-labelled urea. Further, gene expression of two urea cycle genes, ornithine transcarbamylase and arginase I, were completely absent. In contrast, arginase II mRNA and protein was expressed at high levels in C3A cells and was inhibited by N(omega)-hydroxy-nor-L-arginine, which prevented urea production, thereby indicating a urea cycle-independent pathway. The urea cycle is non-functional in C3A cells, and their urea production is solely due to the presence of arginase II, which therefore cannot provide ammonia detoxification in a bioartificial liver system. This emphasizes the continued requirement for developing a component capable of a full repertoire of liver function. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Toward angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds with type I collagen and adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Geun; Bak, Seon Young; Nahm, Ji Hae; Lee, Sang Woo; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapies for liver disease are being studied by many researchers worldwide, but scientific evidence to demonstrate the endocrinologic effects of implanted cells is insufficient, and it is unknown whether implanted cells can function as liver cells. Achieving angiogenesis, arguably the most important characteristic of the liver, is known to be quite difficult, and no practical attempts have been made to achieve this outcome. We carried out this study to observe the possibility of angiogenesis of implanted bio-artificial liver using scaffolds. This study used adipose tissue-derived stem cells that were collected from adult patients with liver diseases with conditions similar to the liver parenchyma. Specifically, microfilaments were used to create an artificial membrane and maintain the structure of an artificial organ. After scratching the stomach surface of severe combined immunocompromised (SCID) mice (n=4), artificial scaffolds with adipose tissue-derived stem cells and type I collagen were implanted. Expression levels of angiogenesis markers including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CD34, and CD105 were immunohistochemically assessed after 30 days. Grossly, the artificial scaffolds showed adhesion to the stomach and surrounding organs; however, there was no evidence of angiogenesis within the scaffolds; and VEGF, CD34, and CD105 expressions were not detected after 30 days. Although implantation of cells into artificial scaffolds did not facilitate angiogenesis, the artificial scaffolds made with type I collagen helped maintain implanted cells, and surrounding tissue reactions were rare. Our findings indicate that type I collagen artificial scaffolds can be considered as a possible implantable biomaterial.

  2. Nanostructured self-assembling peptides as a defined extracellular matrix for long-term functional maintenance of primary hepatocytes in a bioartificial liver modular device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Shibashish Giri,1 Ulf-Dietrich Braumann,2,3 Priya Giri,1,3 Ali Acikgöz,1,4 Patrick Scheibe,3,5 Karen Nieber,6 Augustinus Bader1 1Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ, 2Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology (IMISE, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 3Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics (IZBI, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 4Klinikum St Georg, Leipzig, Germany; 5Translational Center for Regenerative Medicine (TRM Leipzig, 6Department of Pharmacology for Natural Sciences, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany Abstract: Much effort has been directed towards the optimization of the capture of in vivo hepatocytes from their microenvironment. Some methods of capture include an ex vivo cellular model in a bioreactor based liver module, a micropatterned module, a microfluidic 3D chip, coated plates, and other innovative approaches for the functional maintenance of primary hepatocytes. However, none of the above methods meet US Food and Drug Administration (FDA guidelines, which recommend and encourage that the duration of a toxicity assay of a drug should be a minimum of 14 days, to a maximum of 90 days for a general toxicity assay. Existing innovative reports have used undefined extracellular matrices like matrigel, rigid collagen, or serum supplementations, which are often problematic, unacceptable in preclinical and clinical applications, and can even interfere with experimental outcomes. We have overcome these challenges by using integrated nanostructured self-assembling peptides and a special combination of growth factors and cytokines to establish a proof of concept to mimic the in vivo hepatocyte microenvironment pattern in vitro for predicting the in vivo drug hepatotoxicity in a scalable bioartificial liver module. Hepatocyte functionality (albumin, urea was measured at days 10, 30, 60, and 90 and we

  3. Effect of membranes on oxygen transfer rate and consumption within a newly developed three-compartment bioartificial liver device: Advanced experimental and theoretical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal-Alnaqbi, Ali; Mourad, Abdel-Hamid I; Yousef, Basem F

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model is developed to predict oxygen transfer in the fiber-in-fiber (FIF) bioartificial liver device. The model parameters are taken from the constructed and tested FIF modules. We extended the Krogh cylinder model by including one more zone for oxygen transfer. Cellular oxygen uptake was based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The effect of varying a number of important model parameters is investigated, including (1) oxygen partial pressure at the inlet, (2) the hydraulic permeability of compartment B (cell region), (3) the hydraulic permeability of the inner membrane, and (4) the oxygen diffusivity of the outer membrane. The mathematical model is validated by comparing its output against the experimentally acquired values of an oxygen transfer rate and the hydrostatic pressure drop. Three governing simultaneous linear differential equations are derived to predict and validate the experimental measurements, e.g., the flow rate and the hydrostatic pressure drop. The model output simulated the experimental measurements to a high degree of accuracy. The model predictions show that the cells in the annulus can be oxygenated well even at high cell density or at a low level of gas phase PG if the value of the oxygen diffusion coefficient Dm is 16 × 10(-5) . The mathematical model also shows that the performance of the FIF improves by increasing the permeability of polypropylene membrane (inner fiber). Moreover, the model predicted that 60% of plasma has access to the cells in the annulus within the first 10% of the FIF bioreactor axial length for a specific polypropylene membrane permeability and can reach 95% within the first 30% of its axial length. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. BioArtificial polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szałata, Kamila; Gumi, Tania

    2017-07-01

    Nowadays, the polymer science has impact in practically all life areas. Countless benefits coming from the usage of materials with high mechanical and chemical resistance, variety of functionalities and potentiality of modification drive to the development of new application fields. Novel approaches of combining these synthetic substances with biomolecules lead to obtain multifunctional hybrid conjugates which merge the bioactivity of natural component with outstanding properties of artificial polymer. Over the decades, an immense progress in bioartificial composites domain allowed to reach a high level of knowledge in terms of natural-like systems engineering, leading to diverse strategies of biomolecule immobilization. Together with different available options, including covalent and noncovalent attachment, come various challenges, related mainly with maintaining the biological activity of fixed molecules. Even though the amount of applications that achieve commercial status is still not substantial, and is expanding continuously in the disciplines like "smart materials," biosensors, delivery systems, nanoreactors and many others. A huge number of remarkable developments reported in the literature present a potential of bioartificial conjugates as a fabrics with highly controllable structure and multiple functionalities, serving as a powerful nanotechnological tool. This novel approach brings closer biologists, chemists and engineers, who sharing their effort and complementing the knowledge can revolutionize the field of bioartificial polymer science.

  5. Selecting Cells for Bioartificial Liver Devices and the Importance of a 3D Culture Environment: A Functional Comparison between the HepaRG and C3A Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wenum, Martien; Adam, Aziza A A; Hakvoort, Theodorus B M; Hendriks, Erik J; Shevchenko, Valery; van Gulik, Thomas M; Chamuleau, Robert A F M; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first clinical trials on Bioartificial Livers (BALs) loaded with a proliferative human hepatocyte cell source have started. There are two cell lines that are currently in an advanced state of BAL development; HepaRG and HepG2/C3A. In this study we aimed to compare both cell lines on applicability in BALs and to identify possible strategies for further improvement. We tested both cell lines in monolayer- and BAL cultures on growth characteristics, hepatic differentiation, nitrogen-, carbohydrate-, amino acid- and xenobiotic metabolism. Interestingly, both cell lines adapted the hepatocyte phenotype more closely when cultured in BALs; e.g. monolayer cultures produced lactate, while BAL cultures showed diminished lactate production (C3A) or conversion to elimination (HepaRG), and urea cycle activity increased upon BAL culturing in both cell lines. HepaRG-BALs outperformed C3A-BALs on xenobiotic metabolism, ammonia elimination and lactate elimination, while protein synthesis was comparable. In BAL cultures of both cell lines ammonia elimination correlated positively with glutamine production and glutamate consumption, suggesting ammonia elimination was mainly driven by the balance between glutaminase and glutamine synthetase activity. Both cell lines lacked significant urea cycle activity and both required multiple culture weeks before reaching optimal differentiation in BALs. In conclusion, culturing in BALs enhanced hepatic functionality of both cell lines and from these, the HepaRG cells are the most promising proliferative cell source for BAL application.

  6. Immortalization of Human Fetal Hepatocyte by Ectopic Expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Human Papilloma Virus (E7) and Simian Virus 40 Large T (SV40 T) Antigen Towards Bioartificial Liver Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2014-09-01

    Generation of genetically stable and non-tumoric immortalization cell line from primary cells would be enormously useful for research and therapeutic purposes, but progress towards this goal has so far been limited. It is now universal acceptance that immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes based on recent advances of telomerase biology and oncogene, lead to unlimited population doubling could be the possible source for bioartificial liver device. Immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes cell line by ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), human papilloma virus gene (E7) and simian virus 40 large T (SV40 T) antigens is main goal of present study. We used an inducible system containing human telomerase and E7, both of which are cloned into responder constructs controlled by doxycycline transactivator. We characterized the immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells by analysis of green fluorescent cells (GFP) positive cells using flow cytometry (FACs) cell sorting and morphology, proliferative rate and antigen expression by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to we analysized lactate formation, glucose consumption, albumin secretion and urea production of immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells. After 25 attempts for transfection of adult primary hepatocytes by human telomerase and E7 to immortalize them, none of the transfection systems resulted in the production of a stable, proliferating cell line. Although the transfection efficiency was more than 70% on the first day, the vast majority of the transfected hepatocytes lost their signal within the first 5-7 days. The remaining transfected hepatocytes persisted for 2-4 weeks and divided one or two times without forming a clone. After 10 attempts of transfection human fetal hepatocytes using the same transfection system, we obtained one stable human fetal hepatocytes cell line which was able albumin secretion urea production and glucose consumption. We established a

  7. Design of a bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareta, Rajesh A; Farney, Alan C; Opara, Emmanuel C

    2013-01-01

    Summary Islet transplantation has been shown to be a viable treatment option for patients afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles to routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets in hydrogels for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this review article, we will discuss the need for bioartificial pancreas, provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process, and review the status of the technology in clinical development. We will also critically review the various factors that need to be taken into consideration in order to achieve the ultimate goal of routine clinical application. PMID:23652283

  8. Progress and challenges of the bioartificial pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Patrick T. J.; Shah, Dishant K.; Garcia, Jacob A.; Bae, Chae Yun; Lim, Dong-Jin; Huiszoon, Ryan C.; Alexander, Grant C.; Jun, Ho-Wook

    2016-11-01

    Pancreatic islet transplantation has been validated as a treatment for type 1 diabetes since it maintains consistent and sustained type 1 diabetes reversal. However, one of the major challenges in pancreatic islet transplantation is the body's natural immune response to the implanted islets. Immunosuppressive drug treatment is the most popular immunomodulatory approach for islet graft survival. However, administration of immunosuppressive drugs gives rise to negative side effects, and long-term effects are not clearly understood. A bioartificial pancreas is a therapeutic approach to enable pancreatic islet transplantation without or with minimal immune suppression. The bioartificial pancreas encapsulates the pancreatic islets in a semi-permeable environment which protects islets from the body's immune responses, while allowing the permeation of insulin, oxygen, nutrients, and waste. Many groups have developed various types of the bioartificial pancreas and tested their efficacy in animal models. However, the clinical application of the bioartificial pancreas still requires further investigation. In this review, we discuss several types of bioartificial pancreases and address their advantages and limitations. We also discuss recent advances in bioartificial pancreas applications with microfluidic or micropatterning technology.

  9. Biotechnological challenges of bioartificial kidney engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, J; Fedecostante, M; Wilmer, M J; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2014-11-15

    With the world-wide increase of patients with renal failure, the development of functional renal replacement therapies have gained significant interest and novel technologies are rapidly evolving. Currently used renal replacement therapies insufficiently remove accumulating waste products, resulting in the uremic syndrome. A more preferred treatment option is kidney transplantation, but the shortage of donor organs and the increasing number of patients waiting for a transplant warrant the development of novel technologies. The bioartificial kidney (BAK) is such promising biotechnological approach to replace essential renal functions together with the active secretion of waste products. The development of the BAK requires a multidisciplinary approach and evolves at the intersection of regenerative medicine and renal replacement therapy. Here we provide a concise review embracing a compact historical overview of bioartificial kidney development and highlighting the current state-of-the-art, including implementation of living-membranes and the relevance of extracellular matrices. We focus further on the choice of relevant renal epithelial cell lines versus the use of stem cells and co-cultures that need to be implemented in a suitable device. Moreover, the future of the BAK in regenerative nephrology is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a wearable bioartificial kidney using the Bioartificial Renal Epithelial Cell System (BRECS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kimberly A; Westover, Angela J; Rojas-Pena, Alvaro; Buffington, Deborah A; Pino, Christopher J; Smith, Peter L; Humes, H David

    2017-11-01

    Cell therapy for the treatment of renal failure in the acute setting has proved successful, with therapeutic impact, yet development of a sustainable, portable bioartificial kidney for treatment of chronic renal failure has yet to be realized. Challenges in maintaining an anticoagulated blood circuit, the typical platform for solute clearance and support of the biological components, have posed a major hurdle in advancement of this technology. This group has developed a Bioartificial Renal Epithelial Cell System (BRECS) capable of differentiated renal cell function while sustained by body fluids other than blood. To evaluate this device for potential use in end-stage renal disease, a large animal model was established that exploits peritoneal dialysis fluid for support of the biological device and delivery of cell therapy while providing uraemic control. Anephric sheep received a continuous flow peritoneal dialysis (CFPD) circuit that included a BRECS. Sheep were treated with BRECS containing 1 × 10 8 renal epithelial cells or acellular sham devices for up to 7 days. The BRECS cell viability and activity were maintained with extracorporeal peritoneal fluid circulation. A systemic immunological effect of BRECS therapy was observed as cell-treated sheep retained neutrophil oxidative activity better than sham-treated animals. This model demonstrates that use of the BRECS within a CFPD circuit embodies a feasible approach to a sustainable and effective wearable bioartificial kidney. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver P?t? that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tch?rzewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protoco...

  12. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers. PMID:25927478

  13. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Mike; Harrison, Dawn; Richardson, Ian; Tchórzewska, Monika

    2015-04-28

    This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v) acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log₁₀ CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers.

  14. A Method for the Preparation of Chicken Liver Pâté that Reliably Destroys Campylobacters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Hutchison

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study devised a protocol for the manufacture of commercial quantities of chicken liver pâté that reliably destroyed campylobacters. A literature search identified 40 pâté manufacture recipes. Recipes stages with a potential to be antimicrobial were assembled to form a new protocol that included washing with organic acid, freeze-thaw and flambé in alcohol. Naturally-contaminated, high-risk livers were obtained from clearance flocks at slaughter and the effect of each stage of the protocol on Campylobacter populations was determined. Organic acid washing changed the color of the liver surfaces. However, there were no significant differences between liver surface color changes when a range of concentrations of lactic acid and ethanoic acid washes were compared by reflective spectrophotometry. A 5% (w/v acid wash reduced numbers of indigenous campylobacters by around 1.5 log10 CFU/g for both acids. The use of a Bain Marie was found to more reproducibly apply heat compared with pan-frying. Antimicrobial recipe stages reduced the numbers of campylobacters, but not significantly if thermal processing was ineffective. Cooking to 63°C was confirmed to be a critical control point for campylobacters cooked in a Bain Marie. Organoleptic and sensory assessment of pâté determined an overall preference for pâté made from frozen livers.

  15. Microencapsulation of Pancreatic Islets for Use in a Bioartificial Pancreas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opara, Emmanuel C.; McQuilling, John P.; Farney, Alan C.

    2013-01-01

    Islet transplantation is the most exciting treatment option for individuals afflicted with Type 1 diabetes. However, the severe shortage of human pancreas and the need to use risky immunosuppressive drugs to prevent transplant rejection remain two major obstacles for the routine use of islet transplantation in diabetic patients. Successful development of a bioartificial pancreas using the approach of microencapsulation with perm-selective coating of islets with biopolymers for graft immunoisolation holds tremendous promise for diabetic patients because it has great potential to overcome these two barriers. In this chapter, we provide a detailed description of the microencapsulation process. PMID:23494435

  16. Synthetic and Bio-Artificial Tactile Sensing: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Carrozza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the state of the art of artificial tactile sensing, with a particular focus on bio-hybrid and fully-biological approaches. To this aim, the study of physiology of the human sense of touch and of the coding mechanisms of tactile information is a significant starting point, which is briefly explored in this review. Then, the progress towards the development of an artificial sense of touch are investigated. Artificial tactile sensing is analysed with respect to the possible approaches to fabricate the outer interface layer: synthetic skin versus bio-artificial skin. With particular respect to the synthetic skin approach, a brief overview is provided on various technologies and transduction principles that can be integrated beneath the skin layer. Then, the main focus moves to approaches characterized by the use of bio-artificial skin as an outer layer of the artificial sensory system. Within this design solution for the skin, bio-hybrid and fully-biological tactile sensing systems are thoroughly presented: while significant results have been reported for the development of tissue engineered skins, the development of mechanotransduction units and their integration is a recent trend that is still lagging behind, therefore requiring research efforts and investments. In the last part of the paper, application domains and perspectives of the reviewed tactile sensing technologies are discussed.

  17. Development of Bioartificial Myocardium Using Stem Cells and Nanobiotechnology Templates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Chachques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell-based regenerative therapy is undergoing experimental and clinical trials in cardiology, in order to limit the consequences of decreased contractile function and compliance of damaged ventricles following myocardial infarction. Over 1000 patients have been treated worldwide with cell-based procedures for myocardial regeneration. Cellular cardiomyoplasty seems to reduce the size and fibrosis of infarct scars, limit adverse postischemic remodelling, and improve diastolic function. The development of a bioartificial myocardium is a new challenge; in this approach, tissue-engineered procedures are associated with cell therapy. Organ decellularization for bioscaffolds fabrication is a new investigated concept. Nanomaterials are emerging as the main candidates to ensure the achievement of a proper instructive cellular niche with good drug release/administration properties. Investigating the electrophysiological properties of bioartificial myocardium is the challenging objective of future research, associating a multielectrode network to provide electrical stimulation could improve the coupling of grafted cells and scaffolds with host cardiomyocytes. In summary, until now stem cell transplantation has not achieved clear hemodynamic benefits for myocardial diseases. Supported by relevant scientific background, the development of myocardial tissue engineering may constitute a new avenue and hope for the treatment of myocardial diseases.

  18. Synthetic biology routes to bio-artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaikin, Alexey; Saka, Yasushi; Romano, M. Carmen; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V.; Kanakov, Oleg; Laptyeva, Tetyana

    2016-01-01

    The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular ‘teachers’ and ‘students’ is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance. In addition to designed SGNs, we also consider the option to establish conditions in which a population of SGNs can evolve diversity in order to better contend with complex input data. Finally, we compare recent ethical concerns in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and the future challenges raised by bio-artificial intelligence (BI). PMID:27903825

  19. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  20. The bioartificial pancreas (BAP): Biological, chemical and engineering challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovacci, Veronica; Ricotti, Leonardo; Menciassi, Arianna; Dario, Paolo

    2016-01-15

    The bioartificial pancreas (BAP) represents a viable solution for the treatment of type 1 diabetes (T1D). By encapsulating pancreatic cells in a semipermeable membrane to allow nutrient, insulin and glucose exchange, the side effects produced by islets and whole organ transplantation-related immunosuppressive therapy can be circumvented. Several factors, mainly related to materials properties, capsule morphology and biological environment, play a key role in optimizing BAP systems. The BAP is an extremely complex delivery system for insulin. Despite considerable efforts, in some instances meeting with limited degree of success, a BAP capable of restoring physiological pancreas functions without the need for immunosuppressive drugs and of controlling blood glucose levels especially in large animal models and a few clinical trials, does not exist. The state of the art in terms of materials, fabrication techniques and cell sources, as well as the current status of commercial devices and clinical trials, are described in this overview from an interdisciplinary viewpoint. In addition, challenges to the creation of effective BAP systems are highlighted including future perspectives in terms of component integration from both a biological and an engineering viewpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A bioartificial kidney device with polarized secretion of immune modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevtchik, N V; Mihajlovic, M; Fedecostante, M; Bolhuis-Versteeg, L; Sastre Toraño, J; Masereeuw, R; Stamatialis, D

    2018-05-15

    The accumulation of protein-bound toxins in dialyzed patients is strongly associated with their high morbidity and mortality. The bioartificial kidney device (BAK), containing proximal tubule epithelial cells (PTEC) seeded on functionalized synthetic hollow fiber membranes (HFM), may be a powerful solution for the active removal of those metabolites. In an earlier study, we developed an upscaled BAK containing conditionally immortalized human PTEC (ciPTEC) with functional organic cationic transporter 2 (OCT2). Here, we first extended this development to a BAK device having cells with the organic anionic transporter 1 (OAT1), capable of removing anionic uremic wastes. We confirmed the quality of the ciPTEC monolayer by confocal microscopy and paracellular inulin-FITC leakage, as well as, by the active transport of anionic toxin, indoxyl sulfate (IS). Furthermore, we assessed the immune-safety of our system by measuring the production of relevant cytokines by the cells after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Upon LPS treatment, we observed a polarized secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the cells: 10-fold higher in the extraluminal space, corresponding to the urine compartment, as compared to the intraluminal space, corresponding to the blood compartment. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to show this favorable cell polarization in a BAK upscaled device. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Ingeniería tisular y miocardio bioartificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Chachques

    2011-07-01

    La investigación y desarrollo de un miocardio bioartificial tiene gran interés clínico. La estrategia es el uso de biomateriales para desarrollar una microatmósfera que proporcione a las células endógenas y exógenas un ambiente óptimo para la reparación de tejidos. Los conocimientos adquiridos en el desarrollo de biomateriales aportan las bases para desarrollar matrices 3D que ofrecen el ambiente idóneo para la liberación de células y genes que dirijan las células terapéuticas hacia el fenotipo funcional. La descelularización de órganos para construir nuevas matrices es un nuevo concepto de investigación, desarrollado gracias al desarrollo de nanomateriales que aseguran un nicho celular apropiado para la diferenciación celular y la terapia génica o farmacológica.

  3. Synthetic biology routes to bio-artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesbeth, Darren N; Zaikin, Alexey; Saka, Yasushi; Romano, M Carmen; Giuraniuc, Claudiu V; Kanakov, Oleg; Laptyeva, Tetyana

    2016-11-30

    The design of synthetic gene networks (SGNs) has advanced to the extent that novel genetic circuits are now being tested for their ability to recapitulate archetypal learning behaviours first defined in the fields of machine and animal learning. Here, we discuss the biological implementation of a perceptron algorithm for linear classification of input data. An expansion of this biological design that encompasses cellular 'teachers' and 'students' is also examined. We also discuss implementation of Pavlovian associative learning using SGNs and present an example of such a scheme and in silico simulation of its performance. In addition to designed SGNs, we also consider the option to establish conditions in which a population of SGNs can evolve diversity in order to better contend with complex input data. Finally, we compare recent ethical concerns in the field of artificial intelligence (AI) and the future challenges raised by bio-artificial intelligence (BI). © 2016 The Author(s). This is an open access article published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society and distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CC BY).

  4. Test-retest reliability of diffusion tensor imaging of the liver at 3.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girometti, Rossano; Maieron, Marta; Lissandrello, Giovanni; Bazzocchi, Massimo; Zuiani, Chiara

    2015-06-01

    This study was done to evaluate test-retest reliability of liver diffusion tensor imaging (LDTI). Ten healthy volunteers (median age 23 years) underwent two LDTI scans on a 3.0 T magnet during two imaging sessions separated by 2 weeks (session-1/-2, respectively). Fifteen gradient directions and b values of 0-1,000 s/mm(2) were used. Two radiologists in consensus assessed liver apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fraction of anisotropy (FA) values on ADC and FA maps at four reference levels, namely: right upper level (RUL), right lower level (RLL), left upper level (LUL) and left lower level (LLL). We then assessed (a) whether ADC and FA values overlapped when measured on different levels within the same imaging session or between different imaging sessions; (b) the degree of variability on an intra-session and inter-session basis, respectively, using the coefficient of variation (CV). In sessions 1 and 2, the ADC/FA values were significantly larger in the left liver lobe (LUL/LLL) compared to right liver lobe (RUL/RLL) (p < 0.05/6). Intra-session CVs were 9.51 % (session 1) and 9.73 % (session 2) for ADC, and 12.93 % (session 1) and 11.82 % (session 2) for FA, respectively. When comparing RUL, RLL, LUL and LLL on an inter-session basis, CVs were 6.52, 8.20, 6.52 and 11.06 % for ADC, and 15.42, 15.80, 15.42 and 6.80 % for FA, respectively. LDTI provides consistent and repeatable measurements. However, since larger left lobe ADC/FA values can be attributed to artefacts, right lobe values should be considered the most reliable measurements of water diffusivity within the liver.

  5. Inter- and intra-operator reliability and repeatability of shear wave elastography in the liver: a study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, John M; Milot, Laurent; Parry, Craig; Williams, Ross; Burns, Peter N

    2013-06-01

    This study assessed the reproducibility of shear wave elastography (SWE) in the liver of healthy volunteers. Intra- and inter-operator reliability and repeatability were quantified in three different liver segments in a sample of 15 subjects, scanned during four independent sessions (two scans on day 1, two scans 1 wk later) by two operators. A total of 1440 measurements were made. Reproducibility was assessed using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and a repeated measures analysis of variance. The shear wave speed was measured and used to estimate Young's modulus using the Supersonics Imagine Aixplorer. The median Young's modulus measured through the inter-costal space was 5.55 ± 0.74 kPa. The intra-operator reliability was better for same-day evaluations (ICC = 0.91) than the inter-operator reliability (ICC = 0.78). Intra-observer agreement decreased when scans were repeated on a different day. Inter-session repeatability was between 3.3% and 9.9% for intra-day repeated scans, compared with to 6.5%-12% for inter-day repeated scans. No significant difference was observed in subjects with a body mass index greater or less than 25 kg/m(2). Copyright © 2013 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardino, M.E.; Sones, P.J. Jr.; Barton Price, R.; Berkman, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluation of the liver for focal lesions is extremely important because the liver is one of the most common sites for metastatic disease. Most patients with metastatic deposits to the liver have a survival rate of about 6 months. Thus, metastatic disease to the liver has an extremely grave prognosis. In the past patients with hepatic lesions had no therapeutic recourse. However, with recent aggressive surgical advances (such as partial hepatectomies) and hepatic artery embolization, survival of patients with hepatic metastases has increased. Thus it is important for noninvasive imaging not only to detect lesions early in their course, but also to give their true hepatic involvement and the extent of the neoplastic process elsewhere in the body. Recent advances in imaging have been rapidly changing over the past 5 years. These changes have been more rapid in computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound than in radionuclide imaging. Thus, the question addressed in this chapter is: What is the relationship of hepatic ultrasound to the other current diagnostic modalities in detecting metastatic liver disease and other focal liver lesions? Also, what is its possible future relationship to nuclear magnetic resonance?

  7. Factors influencing reliability of liver stiffness measurements using transient elastography (M-probe)—Monocentric experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2013-08-15

    Aim: To retrospectively assess the feasibility of transient elastography (TE) and the factors associated with failed and unreliable liver stiffness measurements (LSMs), in patients with chronic liver diseases. Material and methods: Our retrospective study included 8218 consecutive adult patients with suspected chronic liver diseases. In each patient, LSMs were performed with a FibroScan{sup ®} device (Echosens, France), with the M probe. Failure of TE measurements was defined if no valid measurement was obtained after at least 10 shots and unreliable if fewer than 10 valid shots were obtained, success rate (SR) <60% and/or interquartile range interval/median value (IQR/Med) ≥30%. Results: From the 8218 patients, failed and unreliable LSMs were observed in 29.2% of cases. In univariant analysis, the following risk factors were associated with failed and unreliable measurements: age over 50 years (OR 2.04; 95%CI 1.84–2.26), female gender (OR 1.32; 95%CI 1.20–1.45), BMI > 27.7 kg/m{sup 2} (OR 2.89, 95%CI 2.62–3.19), weight > 77 kg (OR 2.17; 95%CI 1.97–2.40) and height < 162 cm (OR 1.26; 95%CI 1.14–1.40). In multivariate analysis all the factors mentioned above were independently associated with the risk of failed and unreliable measurements. If all the negative predictive factors were present (woman, older than 50 years, with BMI > 27.7 kg/m{sup 2}, heavier than 77 kg and shorter than 162 cm), the rate of failed and unreliable measurements was 58.5%. In obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m{sup 2}), the rate of failed and unreliable measurements was 49.5%. Conclusion: Failed and unreliable LSMs were observed in 29.1% of patients. Female gender, older age, higher BMI, higher weight and smaller height were significantly associated with failed and unreliable LSMs.

  8. Design of bioartificial pancreas with functional micro/nano-based encapsulation of islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepsutlu, Burcu; Nazli, Caner; Bal, Tugba; Kizilel, Seda

    2014-01-01

    Type I diabetes mellitus (TIDM), a devastating health issue in all over the world, has been treated by successful transplantation of insulin secreting pancreatic islets. However, serious limitations such as the requirement of immunosuppressive drugs for recipient patients, side effects as a result of long-term use of drugs, and reduced functionality of islets at the transplantation site remain. Bioartificial pancreas that includes islets encapsulated within semi-permeable membrane has been considered as a promising approach to address these requirements. Many studies have focused on micro or nanobased islet immunoisolation systems and tested the efficacy of encapsulated islets using in vitro and in vivo platforms. In this review, we address current progress and obstacles for the development of a bioartificial pancreas using micro/nanobased systems for encapsulation of islets.

  9. Hepatic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in a Perfused 3D Porous Polymer Scaffold for Liver Tissue Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemmingsen, Mette; Muhammad, Haseena Bashir; Mohanty, Soumyaranjan

    A huge shortage of liver organs for transplantation has motivated the research field of tissue engineering to develop bioartificial liver tissue and even a whole liver. The goal of NanoBio4Trans is to create a vascularized bioartificial liver tissue, initially as a liver-support system. Due...... to limitations of primary hepatocytes regarding availability and maintenance of functionality, stem cells and especially human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPS cells) are an attractive cell source for liver tissue engineering. The aim of this part of NanoBio4Trans is to optimize culture and hepatic...... differentiation of hIPS-derived definitive endoderm (DE) cells in a 3D porous polymer scaffold built-in a perfusable bioreactor. The use of a microfluidic bioreactor array enables the culture of 16 independent tissues in one experimental run and thereby an optimization study to be performed....

  10. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignee, Andre; Jedrejczyk, Maciej; Schuessler, Gudrun; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2010-01-01

    Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignee, Andre [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: andre.ignee@gmx.de; Jedrejczyk, Maciej [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 2nd Division of Medical Faculty, Medical University, Ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: mjedrzejczyk@interia.pl; Schuessler, Gudrun [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: gudrunschuessler@gmx.de; Jakubowski, Wieslaw [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 2nd Division of Medical Faculty, Medical University, Ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ewajbmd@go2.pl; Dietrich, Christoph F. [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Patients and methods: Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60 s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. Results: The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10 cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6 cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. Discussion: (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4 cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6 cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves.

  12. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignee, Andre; Jedrejczyk, Maciej; Schuessler, Gudrun; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Patients and methods: Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60 s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. Results: The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10 cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6 cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. Discussion: (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4 cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6 cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves.

  13. Bio-artificial pleura using an autologous dermal fibroblast sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanzaki, Masato; Takagi, Ryo; Washio, Kaoru; Kokubo, Mami; Yamato, Masayuki

    2017-10-01

    Air leaks (ALs) are observed after pulmonary resections, and without proper treatment, can produce severe complications. AL prevention is a critical objective for managing patients after pulmonary resection. This study applied autologous dermal fibroblast sheets (DFS) to close ALs. For sealing ALs in a 44-year-old male human patient with multiple bullae, a 5 × 15-mm section of skin was surgically excised. From this skin specimen, primary dermal fibroblasts were isolated and cultured for 4 weeks to produce DFSs that were harvested after a 10-day culture. ALs were completely sealed using surgical placement of these autologous DFSs. DFS were found to be a durable long-term AL sealant, exhibiting requisite flexibility, elasticity, durability, biocompatibility, and usability, resulting reliable AL closure. DFS should prove to be an extremely useful tissue-engineered pleura substitute.

  14. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  15. Hotspots in clinical management of severe liver diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYU Jiayu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe liver diseases such as liver failure and acute decompensated cirrhosis have critical conditions and high mortality rates, and the prognosis of such patients is closely associated with early warning, timely dynamic assessment, and comprehensive and effective therapy. The patients require a series of effective clinical management measures for elimination of causative factors, organ support, and prevention and treatment of complications. Medical treatment-artificial liver-liver transplantation is an important modality for severe liver diseases. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, stem cell therapy, and bioartificial liver have a promising future, while there are still controversies over non-selective β-blocker. This article reviews the hotspots in the clinical management of severe liver diseases.

  16. Liver Development, Regeneration, and Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet W. C. Kung

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of putative liver stem cells has brought closer the previously separate fields of liver development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Significant overlaps in the regulation of these processes are now being described. For example, studies in embryonic liver development have already provided the basis for directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells. As a result, the understanding of the cell biology of proliferation and differentiation in the liver has been improved. This knowledge can be used to improve the function of hepatocyte-like cells for drug testing, bioartificial livers, and transplantation. In parallel, the mechanisms regulating cancer cell biology are now clearer, providing fertile soil for novel therapeutic approaches. Recognition of the relationships between development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and the increasing evidence for the role of stem cells in all of these areas, has sparked fresh enthusiasm in understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms and has led to new targeted therapies for liver cirrhosis and primary liver cancers.

  17. Factors associated with the impossibility to obtain reliable liver stiffness measurements by means of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography—Analysis of a cohort of 1031 subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Sirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Danila, Mirela, E-mail: mireladanila@gmail.com; Jurchis, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Tascau, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com

    2014-02-15

    Introduction: Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography is a non-invasive technique for liver fibrosis assessment. Aim: To assess the feasibility of ARFI elastography in a large cohort of subjects and to identify factors associated with impossibility to obtain reliable liver stiffness (LS) measurements by means of this technique. Methods: Our retrospective study included 1031 adult subjects with or without chronic liver disease. In each subject LS was assessed by means of ARFI elastography. Failure of ARFI measurements was defined if no valid measurement was obtained after at least 10 shots and unreliable in the following situations: fewer than 10 valid shots; or median value of 10 valid measurements with a success rate (SR) < 60% and/or an interquartile range interval (IQR) ≥ 30%. Results: Failure of LS measurements by means of ARFI was observed in 4 subjects (0.3%), unreliable measurements in 66 subjects (6.4%), so reliable measurements were obtained in 961 subjects (93.3%). In univariant analysis, the following risk factors were associated with failed and unreliable measurements: age over 58 years (OR = 0.49; 95% CI 0.30–0.80, p = 0.005), male gender (OR = 0.58; 95% CI 0.34–0.94, p = 0.04), BMI > 27.7 kg/m{sup 2} (OR = 0.23, 95% CI 0.13–0.41, p < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis all the factors mentioned above were independently associated with the risk of failed and unreliable measurements. Conclusions: Reliable LS measurements by means of ARFI elastography were obtained in 93.3% of cases. Older age, higher BMI and male gender were associated with the risk of failed and unreliable measurements, but their influence is limited as compared with Transient Elastography.

  18. En bloc prefabrication of vascularized bioartificial bone grafts in sheep and complete workflow for custom-made transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokemüller, H; Jehn, P; Spalthoff, S; Essig, H; Tavassol, F; Schumann, P; Andreae, A; Nolte, I; Jagodzinski, M; Gellrich, N-C

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to determine, in a new experimental model, whether complex bioartificial monoblocs of relevant size and stability can be prefabricated in a defined three-dimensional design, in which the latissimus dorsi muscle serves as a natural bioreactor and the thoracodorsal vessel tree is prepared for axial construct perfusion. Eighteen sheep were included in the study, with six animals in each of three experimental groups. Vitalization of the β-tricalcium phosphate-based constructs was performed by direct application of unmodified osteogenic material from the iliac crest (group A), in vivo application of nucleated cell concentrate (NCC) from bone marrow aspirate (group B), and in vitro cultivation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) in a perfusion bioreactor system (group C). The contours of the constructs were designed digitally and transferred onto the bioartificial bone grafts using a titanium cage, which was bent over a stereolithographic model of the defined subvolume intraoperatively. At the end of the prefabrication process, only the axial vascularized constructs of group A demonstrated vital bone formation with considerable stability. In groups B and C, the applied techniques were not able to induce ectopic bone formation. The presented computer-assisted workflow allows the prefabrication of custom-made bioartificial transplants. Copyright © 2013 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Liver regenerative medicine: advances and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A

    2012-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the standard care for many end-stage liver diseases. However, donor organs are scarce and some people succumb to liver failure before a donor is found. Liver regenerative medicine is a special interdisciplinary field of medicine focused on the development of new therapies incorporating stem cells, gene therapy and engineered tissues in order to repair or replace the damaged organ. In this review we consider the emerging progress achieved in the hepatic regenerative medicine within the last decade. The review starts with the characterization of liver organogenesis, fetal and adult stem/progenitor cells. Then, applications of primary hepatocytes, embryonic and adult (mesenchymal, hematopoietic and induced pluripotent) stem cells in cell therapy of liver diseases are considered. Current advances and challenges in producing mature hepatocytes from stem/progenitor cells are discussed. A section about hepatic tissue engineering includes consideration of synthetic and natural biomaterials in engineering scaffolds, strategies and achievements in the development of 3D bioactive matrices and 3D hepatocyte cultures, liver microengineering, generating bioartificial liver and prospects for fabrication of the bioengineered liver. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Simple Glucose Metabolism Parameters may Reliably Predict Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzo, Everton; Jimenez, Laísa Simakawa; Gestic, Martinho Antonio; Utrini, Murillo Pimentel; Chaim, Fábio Henrique Mendonça; Chaim, Felipe David Mendonça; Pareja, José Carlos; Chaim, Elinton Adami

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the correlation between features of NAFLD among individuals with morbid obesity and the surrogate IR markers homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), product of triglycerides and glucose (TyG), and triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein ratio (TG/HDL-c). A cross-sectional study, which enrolled 89 individuals who consecutively underwent bariatric surgery from February through December 2015, was conducted. NAFLD was assessed through histological examination of liver biopsies and correlated with the values of HOMA, TyG, and TG/HDL-c and their respective cutoff points for insulin resistance (IR). xThe prevalence of liver steatosis was 68.5%; the affected individuals presented significantly higher fasting glucose levels (p diabetes mellitus (T2DM) (p < 0.001). Fibrosis occurred in 66.3% of the individuals and was significantly associated with higher levels of HbA1c (p < 0.05) and a higher prevalence of T2DM (p < 0.05). Steatohepatitis was present in 64% of the individuals and was significantly associated with older age (p < 0.05), higher levels of fasting glucose (p < 0.05), and a higher prevalence of T2DM (p < 0.001). After Bonferroni's adjustment, T2DM was significantly correlated with fibrosis (p < 0.01) and steatohepatitis (p < 0.001) and older age was significantly correlated with fibrosis (p < 0.05). T2DM was the only variable independently associated with fibrosis and steatohepatitis (p < 0.05 in both cases). T2DM was a significant predictor of NAFLD features among individuals undergoing bariatric surgery; higher Hb A1c was correlated with fibrosis. T2DM was independently associated with fibrosis and steatohepatitis. HOMA, TyG, and TG/HDL-c ratio did not present significant associations with NAFLD.

  1. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  2. Endothelial progenitors encapsulated in bioartificial niches are insulated from systemic cytotoxicity and are angiogenesis competent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, B B; Ghaly, T; Brudnicki, P; Yasuda, K; Rajdev, M; Bank, M; Mares, J; Hatzopoulos, A K; Goligorsky, M S

    2010-07-01

    Intrinsic stem cells (SC) participate in tissue remodeling and regeneration in various diseases and following toxic insults. Failure of tissue regeneration is in part attributed to lack of SC protection from toxic stress of noxious stimuli, thus prompting intense research efforts to develop strategies for SC protection and functional preservation for in vivo delivery. One strategy is creation of artificial SC niches in an attempt to mimic the requirements of endogenous SC niches by generating scaffolds with properties of extracellular matrix. Here, we investigated the use of hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels as an artificial SC niche and examined regenerative capabilities of encapsulated embryonic endothelial progenitor cells (eEPC) in three different in vivo models. Hydrogel-encapsulated eEPC demonstrated improved resistance to toxic insult (adriamycin) in vitro, thus prompting in vivo studies. Implantation of HA hydrogels containing eEPC to mice with adriamycin nephropathy or renal ischemia resulted in eEPC mobilization to injured kidneys (and to a lesser extent to the spleen) and improvement of renal function, which was equal or superior to adoptively transferred EPC by intravenous infusion. In mice with hindlimb ischemia, EPC encapsulated in HA hydrogels dramatically accelerated the recovery of collateral circulation with the efficacy superior to intravenous infusion of EPC. In conclusion, HA hydrogels protect eEPC against adriamycin cytotoxicity and implantation of eEPC encapsulated in HA hydrogels supports renal regeneration in ischemic and cytotoxic (adriamycin) nephropathy and neovascularization of ischemic hindlimb, thus establishing their functional competence and superior capabilities to deliver stem cells stored in and released from this bioartificial niche.

  3. The Use of Fibrous, Supramolecular Membranes and Human Tubular Cells for Renal Epithelial Tissue Engineering : Towards a Suitable Membrane for a Bioartificial Kidney

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, Patricia Y. W.; Boomker, Jasper M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, Ali; Smedts, Frank M. M.; Harmsen, Martin C.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We

  4. The use of fibrous, supramolecular membranes and human tubular cells for renal epithelial tissue engineering: towards a suitable membrane for a bioartificial kidney,

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dankers, P.Y.W.; Boomker, J.M.; Huizinga-van der Vlag, A.; Smedts, F.M.M.; Harmsen, M.C.; Luyn, van M.J.A.

    2010-01-01

    A bioartificial kidney, which is composed of a membrane cartridge with renal epithelial cells, can substitute important kidney functions in patients with renal failure. A particular challenge is the maintenance of monolayer integrity and specialized renal epithelial cell functions ex vivo. We

  5. Optimization of perfluorocarbon emulsion properties for enhancing oxygen mass transfer in a bio-artificial liver support system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, FS

    2004-07-29

    Full Text Available : With increase in the dispersed phase volume fraction (phi(p)) both the oxygen holding capacity and the viscosity increases. These issues are addressed here using simplified mass transfer models, amenable to analytical solution, for both gas-sparged and membrane...

  6. Liver transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic transplant; Transplant - liver; Orthotopic liver transplant; Liver failure - liver transplant; Cirrhosis - liver transplant ... The donated liver may be from: A donor who has recently died and has not had liver injury. This type of ...

  7. Gene- and cell-based bio-artificial pacemaker: what basic and translational lessons have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, R A

    2012-06-01

    Normal rhythms originate in the sino-atrial node, a specialized cardiac tissue consisting of only a few thousands of nodal pacemaker cells. Malfunction of pacemaker cells due to diseases or aging leads to rhythm generation disorders (for example, bradycardias and sick-sinus syndrome (SSS)), which often necessitate the implantation of electronic pacemakers. Although effective, electronic devices are associated with such shortcomings as limited battery life, permanent implantation of leads, lead dislodging, the lack of autonomic responses and so on. Here, various gene- and cell-based approaches, with a particular emphasis placed on the use of pluripotent stem cells and the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated-encoded pacemaker gene family, that have been pursued in the past decade to reconstruct bio-artificial pacemakers as alternatives will be discussed in relation to the basic biological insights and translational regenerative potential.

  8. A bioartificial environment for kidney epithelial cells based on a supramolecular polymer basement membrane mimic and an organotypical culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, Björne B; Bogaerts, Iven L J; van Almen, Geert C; Dankers, Patricia Y W

    2017-06-01

    Renal applications in healthcare, such as renal replacement therapies and nephrotoxicity tests, could potentially benefit from bioartificial kidney membranes with fully differentiated and functional human tubular epithelial cells. A replacement of the natural environment of these cells is required to maintain and study cell functionality cell differentiation in vitro. Our approach was based on synthetic supramolecular biomaterials to mimic the natural basement membrane (BM) on which these cells grow and a bioreactor to provide the desired organotypical culture parameters. The BM mimics were constructed from ureidopyrimidinone (UPy)-functionalized polymer and bioactive peptides by electrospinning. The resultant membranes were shown to have a hierarchical fibrous BM-like structure consisting of self-assembled nanofibres within the electrospun microfibres. Human kidney-2 (HK-2) epithelial cells were cultured on the BM mimics under organotypical conditions in a custom-built bioreactor. The bioreactor facilitated in situ monitoring and functionality testing of the cultures. Cell viability and the integrity of the epithelial cell barrier were demonstrated inside the bioreactor by microscopy and transmembrane leakage of fluorescently labelled inulin, respectively. Furthermore, HK-2 cells maintained a polarized cell layer and showed modulation of both gene expression of membrane transporter proteins and metabolic activity of brush border enzymes when subjected to a continuous flow of culture medium inside the new bioreactor for 21 days. These results demonstrated that both the culture and study of renal epithelial cells was facilitated by the bioartificial in vitro environment that is formed by synthetic supramolecular BM mimics in our custom-built bioreactor. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Characterization of genetically engineered mouse hepatoma cells with inducible liver functions by overexpression of liver-enriched transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideaki; Tonello, Jane Marie; Sambuichi, Takanori; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Ito, Akira; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2018-01-01

    New cell sources for the research and therapy of organ failure could significantly alleviate the shortage of donor livers that are available to patients who suffer from liver disease. Liver carcinoma derived cells, or hepatoma cells, are the ideal cells for developing bioartificial liver systems. Such cancerous liver cells are easy to prepare in large quantities and can be maintained over long periods under standard culture conditions, unlike primary hepatocytes. However, hepatoma cells possess only a fraction of the functions of primary hepatocytes. In a previous study, by transducing cells with liver-enriched transcription factors that could be inducibly overexpressed-hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)1α, HNF1β, HNF3β [FOXA2], HNF4α, HNF6, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP)α, C/EBPβ and C/EBPγ-we created mouse hepatoma cells with high liver-specific gene expression called the Hepa/8F5 cell line. In the present study, we performed functional and genetic analyses to characterize the Hepa/8F5 cell line. Further, in three-dimensional cultures, the function of these cells improved significantly compared to parental cells. Ultimately, these cells might become a new resource that can be used in basic and applied hepatic research. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  11. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  12. An in vitro model of the glomerular capillary wall using electrospun collagen nanofibres in a bioartificial composite basement membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadie C Slater

    Full Text Available The filtering unit of the kidney, the glomerulus, contains capillaries whose walls function as a biological sieve, the glomerular filtration barrier. This comprises layers of two specialised cells, glomerular endothelial cells (GEnC and podocytes, separated by a basement membrane. Glomerular filtration barrier function, and dysfunction in disease, remains incompletely understood, partly due to difficulties in studying the relevant cell types in vitro. We have addressed this by generation of unique conditionally immortalised human GEnC and podocytes. However, because the glomerular filtration barrier functions as a whole, it is necessary to develop three dimensional co-culture models to maximise the benefit of the availability of these cells. Here we have developed the first two tri-layer models of the glomerular capillary wall. The first is based on tissue culture inserts and provides evidence of cell-cell interaction via soluble mediators. In the second model the synthetic support of the tissue culture insert is replaced with a novel composite bioartificial membrane. This consists of a nanofibre membrane containing collagen I, electrospun directly onto a micro-photoelectroformed fine nickel supporting mesh. GEnC and podocytes grew in monolayers on either side of the insert support or the novel membrane to form a tri-layer model recapitulating the human glomerular capillary in vitro. These models will advance the study of both the physiology of normal glomerular filtration and of its disruption in glomerular disease.

  13. The impact of extracellular matrix coatings on the performance of human renal cells applied in bioartificial kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huishi; Tasnim, Farah; Ying, Jackie Y; Zink, Daniele

    2009-05-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) coatings have been used to improve cell performance in bioartificial kidneys (BAKs). However, their effects on primary human renal proximal tubule cells (HPTCs), which is the most important cell type with regard to clinical applications, have not been tested systematically. Also, the effects of ECM coatings on cell performance during extended time periods have not been addressed. Studying such effects is important for the development of long-term applications. Herein we analyzed for the first time systematically the effects of ECM coatings on proliferation and differentiation of human renal cells and we addressed, in particular, formation and long-term maintenance of differentiated epithelia. Our study focused on HPTCs. ECM coatings were tested alone or in combination with the growth factor bone morphogenetic protein-7 and other additives. The best results were obtained with ECMs consisting of the basal lamina components, laminin or collagen IV, and differentiated epithelia could be maintained up to three weeks on these ECMs. These results provide for the first time clear evidence which kinds of ECM coatings are most appropriate for BAKs. The results also showed that alpha-SMA-expressing myofibroblasts played a key role in the final disruption of differentiated epithelia. This suggests that epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-related processes might be the major obstacle in long-term applications and such processes should be carefully addressed in future BAK-related research.

  14. Construction of bioartificial renal tubule assist device in vitro and its function of transporting sodium and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xinggang; Chen, Jianghua; He, Qiang; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Wei

    2009-08-01

    To explore a new way of constructing bioartificial renal tubule assist device (RAD) in vitro and its function of transporting sodium (Na(+)) and glucose and to evaluate the application of atomic force microscope in the RAD construction, rat renal tubular epithelial cell line NRK-52E was cultured in vitro, seeded onto the outer surfaces of hollow fibers in a bioreactor, and then cultured for two weeks to construct RAD. Bioreactor hollow fibers without NRK-52E cells were used as control. The morphologies of attached cells were observed with scanning electron microscope, and the junctions of cells and polysulfone membrane were observed with atomic force microscope. Transportation of Na(+) and glucose was measured. Oubaine and phlorizin were used to inhibit the transporting property. The results showed that NRK-52E cells and polysulfone membrane were closely linked, as observed under atomic force microscope. After exposure to oubaine and phlorizin, transporting rates of Na(+) and glucose were decreased significantly in the RAD group as compared with that in the control group (Pconstructed successfully in vitro, and it is able to selectively transport Na(+) and glucose.

  15. Establishing the framework to support bioartificial heart fabrication using fibrin-based three-dimensional artificial heart muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Matthew; Mohamed, Mohamed; Tao, Ze-Wei; Gutierrez, Laura; Birla, Ravi

    2015-02-01

    Only 3000 heart transplants are performed in the USA every year, leaving some 30 000-70 000 Americans without proper care. Current treatment modalities for heart failure have saved many lives yet still do not correct the underlying problems of congestive heart failure. Tissue engineering represents a potential field of study wherein a combination of cells, scaffolds, and/or bioreactors can be utilized to create constructs to mimic, replace, and/or repair defective tissue. The focus of this study was to generate a bioartificial heart (BAH) model using artificial heart muscle (AHM), composed of fibrin gel and neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, and a decellularized scaffold, formed by subjecting an adult rat heart to a series of decellularization solutions. By suturing the AHM around the outside of the decellularized heart and culturing while suspended in media, we were able to retain functional cardiac cells on the scaffold as evinced by visible contractility. Observed contractility rate was correlated with biopotential measurements to confirm essential functionality of cardiac constructs. Cross-sections of the BAH show successful decellularization of the scaffold and contiguous cell-rich AHM around the perimeter of the heart. Copyright © 2014 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Induced formation and maturation of acetylcholine receptor clusters in a defined 3D bio-artificial muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Shansky, Janet; Vandenburgh, Herman

    2013-12-01

    Dysfunction of the neuromuscular junction is involved in a wide range of muscular diseases. The development of neuromuscular junction through which skeletal muscle is innervated requires the functional modulation of acetylcholine receptor (AchR) clustering on myofibers. However, studies on AchR clustering in vitro are mostly done on monolayer muscle cell culture, which lacks a three-dimensional (3D) structure, a prominent limitation of the two-dimensional (2D) system. To enable a better understanding on the structure-function correlation underlying skeletal muscle innervation, a muscle system with a well-defined geometry mimicking the in vivo muscular setting is needed. Here, we report a 3D bio-artificial muscle (BAM) bioengineered from green fluorescent protein-transduced C3H murine myoblasts as a novel in vitro tissue-based model for muscle innervation studies. Our cell biological and molecular analysis showed that this BAM is structurally similar to in vivo muscle tissue and can reach the perinatal differentiation stage, higher than does 2D culture. Effective clustering and morphological maturation of AchRs on BAMs induced by agrin and laminin indicate the functional activity and plasticity of this BAM system toward innervation. Taken together, our results show that the BAM provides a favorable 3D environment that at least partially recapitulates real physiological skeletal muscle with regard to innervation. With a convenience of fabrication and manipulation, this 3D in vitro system offers a novel model for studying mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle innervation and testing therapeutic strategies for relevant nervous and muscular diseases.

  17. The complementarity of the technical tools of tissue engineering and the concepts of artificial organs for the design of functional bioartificial tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Moreno, Angel; Ikonomou, Laertis; Mayer, Joerg; Honda, Hiroyuki; Novellino, Antonio; Pizarro, Camilo; Nicodemou-Lena, Eleni; Rodergas, Silvia; Pintor, Jesus

    2008-09-01

    Although tissue engineering uses powerful biological tools, it still has a weak conceptual foundation, which is restricted at the cell level. The design criteria at the cell level are not directly related with the tissue functions, and consequently, such functions cannot be implemented in bioartificial tissues with the currently used methods. On the contrary, the field of artificial organs focuses on the function of the artificial organs that are treated in the design as integral entities, instead of the optimization of the artificial organ components. The field of artificial organs has already developed and tested methodologies that are based on system concepts and mathematical-computational methods that connect the component properties with the desired global organ function. Such methodologies are needed in tissue engineering for the design of bioartificial tissues with tissue functions. Under the framework of biomedical engineering, artificial organs and tissue engineering do not present competitive approaches, but are rather complementary and should therefore design a common future for the benefit of patients.

  18. Potential and Challenges of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells in Liver Diseases Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Yu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Tens of millions of patients are affected by liver disease worldwide. Many of these patients can benefit from cell therapy involving living metabolically active cells, either by treatment of their liver disease, or by prevention of their disease phenotype. Cell therapies, including hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial liver (BAL devices, have been proposed as therapeutic alternatives to the shortage of transplantable livers. Both BAL and hepatocyte transplantation are cellular therapies that avoid use of a whole liver. Hepatocytes are also widely used in drug screening and liver disease modelling. However, the demand for human hepatocytes, heavily outweighs their availability by conventional means. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs technology brings together the potential benefits of embryonic stem cells (ESCs (i.e., self-renewal, pluripotency and addresses the major ethical and scientific concerns of ESCs: embryo destruction and immune-incompatibility. It has been shown that hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs can be generated from iPSCs. Furthermore, human iPSCs (hiPSCs can provide an unlimited source of human hepatocytes and hold great promise for applications in regenerative medicine, drug screening and liver diseases modelling. Despite steady progress, there are still several major obstacles that need to be overcome before iPSCs will reach the bedside. This review will focus on the current state of efforts to derive hiPSCs for potential use in modelling and treatment of liver disease.

  19. Differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cell under flow conditions to mature hepatocytes for liver tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starokozhko, Viktoriia; Hemmingsen, Mette; Larsen, Layla

    2018-01-01

    Hepatic differentiation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) under flow conditions in a 3D scaffold is expected to be a major step forward for construction of bioartificial livers. The aims of this study were to induce hepatic differentiation of hiPSCs under perfusion conditions...... and to perform functional comparisons with fresh human precision-cut liver slices (hPCLS), an excellent benchmark for the human liver in vivo. The majority of the mRNA expression of CYP isoenzymes and transporters and the tested CYP activities, Phase II metabolism, and albumin, urea, and bile acid synthesis...... in the hiPSC-derived cells reached values that overlap those of hPCLS, which indicates a higher degree of hepatic differentiation than observed until now. Differentiation under flow compared with static conditions had a strong inducing effect on Phase II metabolism and suppressed AFP expression but resulted...

  20. A structured proteomic approach identifies 14-3-3Sigma as a novel and reliable protein biomarker in panel based differential diagnostics of liver tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Henning; Pütter, Carolin; Megger, Dominik A; Bracht, Thilo; Weber, Frank; Hoffmann, Andreas-C; Bertram, Stefanie; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Hagemann, Sascha; Eisenacher, Martin; Scherag, André; Schlaak, Jörg F; Canbay, Ali; Meyer, Helmut E; Sitek, Barbara; Baba, Hideo A

    2015-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major lethal cancer worldwide. Despite sophisticated diagnostic algorithms, the differential diagnosis of small liver nodules still is difficult. While imaging techniques have advanced, adjuvant protein-biomarkers as glypican3 (GPC3), glutamine-synthetase (GS) and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP70) have enhanced diagnostic accuracy. The aim was to further detect useful protein-biomarkers of HCC with a structured systematic approach using differential proteome techniques, bring the results to practical application and compare the diagnostic accuracy of the candidates with the established biomarkers. After label-free and gel-based proteomics (n=18 HCC/corresponding non-tumorous liver tissue (NTLT)) biomarker candidates were tested for diagnostic accuracy in immunohistochemical analyses (n=14 HCC/NTLT). Suitable candidates were further tested for consistency in comparison to known protein-biomarkers in HCC (n=78), hepatocellular adenoma (n=25; HCA), focal nodular hyperplasia (n=28; FNH) and cirrhosis (n=28). Of all protein-biomarkers, 14-3-3Sigma (14-3-3S) exhibited the most pronounced up-regulation (58.8×) in proteomics and superior diagnostic accuracy (73.0%) in the differentiation of HCC from non-tumorous hepatocytes also compared to established biomarkers as GPC3 (64.7%) and GS (45.4%). 14-3-3S was part of the best diagnostic three-biomarker panel (GPC3, HSP70, 14-3-3S) for the differentiation of HCC and HCA which is of most important significance. Exclusion of GS and inclusion of 14-3-3S in the panel (>1 marker positive) resulted in a profound increase in specificity (+44.0%) and accuracy (+11.0%) while sensitivity remained stable (96.0%). 14-3-3S is an interesting protein biomarker with the potential to further improve the accuracy of differential diagnostic process of hepatocellular tumors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Medical Proteomics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  2. Liver Hemangioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver hemangioma Overview A liver hemangioma (he-man-jee-O-muh) is a noncancerous (benign) mass in the liver. A liver hemangioma is made up of a tangle of blood vessels. Other terms for a liver hemangioma are hepatic hemangioma and cavernous hemangioma. Most ...

  3. Liver biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopsy - liver; Percutaneous biopsy ... the biopsy needle to be inserted into the liver. This is often done by using ultrasound. The ... the chance of damage to the lung or liver. The needle is removed quickly. Pressure will be ...

  4. Liver Immunology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Gao, Bin; Gershwin, M. Eric

    2014-01-01

    The liver is the largest organ in the body and is generally regarded by non-immunologists as not having lymphoid function. However, such is far from accurate. This review highlights the importance of the liver as a lymphoid organ. Firstly, we discuss experimental data surrounding the role of liver as a lymphoid organ. The liver facilitates a tolerance rather than immunoreactivity, which protects the host from antigenic overload of dietary components and drugs derived from the gut and is also instrumental to fetal immune tolerance. Loss of liver tolerance leads to autoaggressive phenomena which if are not controlled by regulatory lymphoid populations may lead to the induction of autoimmune liver diseases. Liver-related lymphoid subpopulations also act as critical antigen-presenting cells. The study of the immunological properties of liver and delineation of the microenvironment of the intrahepatic milieu in normal and diseased livers provides a platform to understand the hierarchy of a series of detrimental events which lead to immune-mediated destruction of the liver and the rejection of liver allografts. The majority of emphasis within this review will be on the normal mononuclear cell composition of the liver. However, within this context, we will discus select, but not all, immune mediated liver disease and attempt to place these data in the context of human autoimmunity. PMID:23720323

  5. Clearing of toxic substances: are there differences between the available liver support devices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krisper, Peter; Stadlbauer, Vanessa; Stauber, Rudolf E

    2011-09-01

    Toxins accumulating in liver failure split into water solved (e.g. ammonia) and albumin bound substances (e.g. bilirubin). Because the latter cannot be removed by conventional haemodialysis, special liver support systems have been developed. The majority of data concerning elimination efficiency exist for the cell-free devices Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) and Prometheus, as they have been commercially available in Europe since many years. Overall, Prometheus provides higher clearances for most liver toxins, especially if they are tightly albumin bound. However, for bile acids and cytokines no such differences could be found. Single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD) can be assumed to be equally effective as MARS. None of the bioartificial liver support systems being developed is on the market today and published clearance data are scarce. In general, clearance efficiency for albumin bound substances is relatively low in all systems currently available. Besides optimizing biocompatibility and selectivity, future technologies should also focus on improved detoxification efficiency of liver support devices. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Liver spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin changes - liver spots; Senile or solar lentigines; Skin spots - aging; Age spots ... Liver spots are changes in skin color that occur in older skin. The coloring may be due to aging, exposure to the sun ...

  7. Liver Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. There are many kinds of liver diseases: Diseases caused by viruses, such as hepatitis ...

  8. Liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000205.htm Liver disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The term "liver disease" applies to many conditions that stop the ...

  9. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Hepatic Differentiation of Adult Somatic Stem Cells and Extraembryonic Stem Cells for Treating End Stage Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenxia Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The shortage of liver donors is a major handicap that prevents most patients from receiving liver transplantation and places them on a waiting list for donated liver tissue. Then, primary hepatocyte transplantation and bioartificial livers have emerged as two alternative treatments for these often fatal diseases. However, another problem has emerged. Functional hepatocytes for liver regeneration are in short supply, and they will dedifferentiate immediately in vitro after they are isolated from liver tissue. Alternative stem-cell-based therapeutic strategies, including hepatic stem cells (HSCs, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, are more promising, and more attention has been devoted to these approaches because of the high potency and proliferation ability of the cells. This review will focus on the general characteristics and the progress in hepatic differentiation of adult somatic stem cells and extraembryonic stem cells in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of end stage liver diseases. The hepatic differentiation of stem cells would offer an ideal and promising source for cell therapy and tissue engineering for treating liver diseases.

  11. The Role of Liver Biopsy in the Management of Patients with Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence Wong

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of liver biopsy in the diagnosis and management of liver disease is a controversial issue even among hepatologists. Although most causes of elevated liver enzymes can be determined, or at least suspected, on the basis of a careful history and laboratory tests, histological assessment remains the gold standard for most liver diseases. Histological evaluation can either confirm or refute clinical diagnoses and can provide information about the severity and stage of disease. Occasionally, the liver biopsy also provides an additional diagnosis. The spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease accounts for a substantial proportion of cases of chronically elevated liver enzymes and can be reliably diagnosed only by liver biopsy. Prognostic information can be obtained in patients with this disorder, as well as in those with alcoholic liver disease and viral hepatitis, and liver biopsy can be used as a guide to their management.

  12. Fatty Liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippone, A.; Digiovandomenico, V.; Digiovandomenico, E.; Genovesi, N.; Bonomo, L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience with the combined use of US and CT in the study of diffuse and subtotal fatty infiltration of the liver. An apparent disagreement was initially found between the two examinations in the study of fatty infiltration. Fifty-five patients were studied with US and CT of the upper abdomen, as suggested by clinics. US showed normal liver echogenicity in 30 patients and diffuse increased echogenicity (bright liver) in 25 cases. In 5 patients with bright liver, US demonstrated a solitary hypoechoic area, appearing as a 'skip area', in the quadrate lobe. In 2 patients with bright liver, the hypoechoic area was seen in the right lobe and exhibited no typical US features of 'Skip area'. Bright liver was quantified by measuring CT density of both liver and spleen. The relative attenuation values of spleen and liver were compared on plain and enhanced CT scans. In 5 cases with a hypoechoic area in the right lobe, CT findings were suggestive of hemangioma. A good correlation was found between broght liver and CT attenuation values, which decrease with increasing fat content of the liver. Moreover, CT attenuation values confirmed US findings in the study of typical 'skip area', by demonstrating normal density - which suggests that CT can characterize normal tissue in atypical 'skip area'

  13. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  14. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  15. Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and ridding your body of toxic substances. Liver disease can be inherited (genetic) or caused by a variety of factors that damage the ... that you can't stay still. Causes Liver disease has many ... or semen, contaminated food or water, or close contact with a person who is ...

  16. Liver scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateno, Yukio

    1996-01-01

    Liver scintigraphy can be classified into 3 major categories according to the properties of the radiopharmaceuticals used, i.e., methods using radiopharmaceuticals which are (1) incorporated by hepatocytes, (2) taken up by reticulo endothelial cells, and (3) distributed in the blood pool of the liver. Of these three categories, the liver scintigraphy of the present research falls into category 2. Radiopharmaceuticals which are taken up by endothelial cells include 198 Au colloids and 99m Tc-labelled colloids. Liver scintigraphy takes advantage of the property by which colloidal microparticles are phagocytosed by Kupffer cells, and reflect the distribution of endothelial cells and the intensity of their phagocytic capacity. This examination is indicated in the following situations: (i) when you suspect a localized intrahepatic lesion (tumour, abscess, cyst, etc.), (ii) when you want to follow the course of therapy of a localized lesion, (iii) when you suspect liver cirrhosis, (iv) when you want to know the severity of liver cirrhosis or hepatitis, (v) when there is hepatomegaly and you want to determine the morphology of the liver, (vi) differential diagnosis of upper abdominal masses, and (vii) when there are abnormalities of the right diaphragm and you want to know their relation to the liver

  17. Liver regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chamuleau, R. A.; Bosman, D. K.

    1988-01-01

    Despite great advances in analysing hemodynamic, morphological and biochemical changes during the process of liver regeneration, the exact (patho)physiological mechanism is still unknown. A short survey of literature is given of the kinetics of liver regeneration and the significance of different

  18. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  19. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  20. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  1. [Liver transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Maurizio; Mirante, Vincenzo Giorgio; Rapaccini, Gian Ludovico; Gasbarrini, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Liver transplantation represents the first choice treatment for patients with fulminant acute hepatitis and for patients with chronic liver disease and advanced functional failure. Patients in the waiting list for liver transplantation are classified according to the severity of their clinical conditions (evaluated using staging systems mostly based on hematochemical parameters related to liver function). This classification, together with the blood group and the body size compatibility, remains the main criterion for organ allocation. The main indications for liver transplantation are cirrhosis (mainly HCV-, HBV- and alcohol-related) and hepatocellular carcinoma emerging in cirrhosis in adult patients, biliary atresia and some inborn errors of metabolism in pediatric patients. In adults the overall 5-year survival ranges between 60 and 70%, in both American and European series. Even better results have been reported for pediatric patients: in fact, the 5-year survival rate for children ranges between 70 and 80% in the main published series. In this study we evaluated the main medical problems correlated with liver transplantation such as immunosuppressive treatment, acute and chronic rejection, infectious complications, the recurrence of the liver disease leading to transplantation, and cardiovascular and metabolic complications.

  2. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  3. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  4. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  5. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  6. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  7. Enlarged Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of liver damage. Medicinal herbs. Certain herbs, including comfrey, ma huang and mistletoe, can increase your risk ... herbs to avoid include germander, chaparral, senna, mistletoe, comfrey, ma huang, valerian root, kava, celandine and green ...

  8. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  9. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  10. Efficacy of liver parenchymal enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume ratio on Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI for estimation of liver function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoneyama, Tomohide; Fukukura, Yoshihiko; Kamimura, Kiyohisa; Takumi, Koji; Umanodan, Aya; Nakajo, Masayuki [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Radiology, Kagoshima City (Japan); Ueno, Shinichi [Kagoshima University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Department of Surgical Oncology and Digestive Surgery, Kagoshima City (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    We aimed to develop and assess the efficacy of a liver function index that combines liver enhancement and liver volume to standard liver volume (LV/SLV) ratio on gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI. In all, 111 patients underwent a Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI, including T1 mapping, before and 20 min after Gd-EOB-DTPA administration. We calculated the following Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices: relative enhancement of the liver, corrected enhancement of the liver-to-spleen ratio, LSC{sub N}20, increase rate of the liver-to-muscle ratio, reduction rate of T1 relaxation time of the liver, ΔR1 of the liver and K{sub Hep}; the indices were multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio. We calculated the correlations between an indocyanine green (ICG) clearance and the Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio, by using Pearson correlation analysis. There were significant correlations between all Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices and ICG clearance (r = -0.354 to -0.574, P < 0.001). All Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices multiplied by the LV/SLV ratio (r = -0.394 to -0.700, P < 0.001) were more strongly correlated with the ICG clearance than those without multiplication by the LV/SLV ratio. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI-based liver function indices that combine liver enhancement and the LV/SLV ratio may more reliably estimate liver function. (orig.)

  11. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  12. Attachment evaluation of embryonic stem cells on a pau-coated non-woven fabric: a potential source for bioartificial assist devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Soto Gutiérrez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Las células embrionicas han sido estudiadas recientemente como un recurso atractivo para la construcción de órganos artificiales. La proliferación y subsiguiente diferenciación de las células embrionicas dentro de los mismos dispositivos artificiales deben ser consideras. Recientemente, hemos desarrollado un hígado bioartificial usando una tela sintética con fibras huecas recubiertas con un poliaminouretano, el cual facilita la atracción celular dentro del dispositivo hepático. En esta ocasión hemos evaluado la capacidad de atracción celular de las células embrionicas y de cuerpos embrionicos así como la funcionalidad de hepatocitos derivados de células embrionicas de raton en la fibra sintetica. Para diferenciar un gran numero de hepatocitos derivados de las celulas embrionicas, nosotros formamos cuerpos embrionicos y los expusimos al factor 2 de creciemiento de los fibrobastos y a la forma sintetica del factor de crecimiento de los hepatocitos asi como dimetilsulfoxido y dexametasona. La adherencia celular y morfología sobre la fibra sintetica fue evaluada regularmente usando microscopio electronico (SEM. Para evaluar la diferenciación celular examinamos la expresión del gen de la albúmina. Para probar la función de los hepatocitos derivados in Vitro, nosotros evaluamos la capacidad de metabolizar amonio y lidocaina, encontramos que las células cultivadas sobre la fibra sintética expresan y secretan mayores cantidades de albúmina y metabolizan significativamente mejor que los controles. En este trabajo de investigación hemos demostrado que existe una adecuada atracción de las células embrionicas de ratón cultivadas sobre la fibra sintética y que también son capaces de diferenciarse en hepatocitos funcionales. Por esta razón, el cultivo y subsiguiente diferenciación de las células embrionicas sobre la fibra sintética podría ser útil en el desarrollo de biosoportes para la construcción de hígados bio

  13. Nutrition and Liver Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Alan A

    2017-01-01

    Good clinical practice is based on a secure and accurate diagnosis. Poor nutrition is frequently associated with disorders of the liver, and a specific nutrition diagnosis is needed for providing best care and experiencing successful outcome. There is opportunity for better-structured approaches to making secure and consistent nutritional diagnoses in patients with liver disease. Nutrition is the set of integrated processes by which cells, tissues, organs and the whole body acquire the energy and nutrients to retain normal structure and perform the required functions. At the level of the whole body, this is achieved through dietary supply and the capacity of the body to transform the substrates and cofactors necessary for metabolism. All of these domains (diet, metabolic capacity, activity of the microbiome, body composition and the level of demand for energy and nutrients) are influenced by levels of physical activity and can vary according to physiological and pathological disease states. The liver plays a central role in establishing and maintaining these regulated processes. Its capacity to achieve and maintain these functional capabilities is established during one's early life. When these capabilities are exceeded and the ability to maintain the milieu interieur is compromised, ill-health supervenes. Stress tests that assess flow through gateway pathways can be used to determine the maximal capacity and functional reserve for critical functions. The inability of the liver to reliably integrate body lipid metabolism and the accumulation of abnormal lipid are obvious manifestations of impaired regulation both in situations of weight loss, for example, the fatty liver of severe malnutrition, and in situations of energy excess, as in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The use of stable isotopic probes and the more recent definition of the variability in the metabolome in different nutritional and pathological states indicate the great potential for clinical tools

  14. Liver collagen in cirrhosis correlates with portal hypertension and liver dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kåre; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Vassiliadis, Efstathios

    2014-01-01

    livers. In 20 of the livers, CPA was measured in more than one tissue sample. CPA showed significant correlations with HVPG and with various surrogate markers of hepatic dysfunction including albumin, bilirubin, INR, MELD score and Child-Pugh score. CPA reliably discriminated HVPG ≥10 mmHg, termed...

  15. Amoebic liver

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lymphadenopathy were noted. The right-sided pleural effusion with relaxation atelectasis was also con- firmed (Fig. 4). The diagnosis of pos- sible amoebic liver abscess complicat- ed by rupture to the gallbladder was made at that stage. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage was done and approximately 300 ml of pus was.

  16. Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel KidsHealth / For Parents / Blood Test: Hepatic (Liver) ... kidneys ) is working. What Is a Hepatic (Liver) Function Panel? A liver function panel is a blood ...

  17. American Liver Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cirrhosis Clinical Trials Galactosemia Gilbert Syndrome Hemochromatosis Hepatic Encephalopathy Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatocellular Carcinoma Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency(LALD) Intrahepatic Cholestasis of Pregnancy (ICP) Liver Biopsy Liver Cancer Liver Cysts Liver Function Tests ...

  18. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  19. Fatty infiltration of the liver: evaluation by proton spectroscopic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiken, J.P.; Lee, J.K.; Dixon, W.T.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of proton spectroscopic imaging in evaluating fatty infiltration of the liver was investigated in 35 subjects (12 healthy volunteers and 23 patients with fatty livers). With this modified spin-echo technique, fatty liver could be separated from normal liver both visually and quantitatively. On the opposed image, normal liver had an intermediate signal intensity, greater than that of muscle, whereas fatty liver had a lower signal intensity, equal to or less than that of muscle. In normal livers, the lipid signal fraction was less than 10%, while in fatty livers it was greater than 10% and usually exceeded 20%. With this technique, nonuniform fatty infiltration of the liver can be differentiated from hepatic metastases, and the technique may prove useful in the differentiation of some hepatic disorders

  20. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  1. Liver transplant for cholestatic liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion, Andres F; Bhamidimarri, Kalyan Ram

    2013-05-01

    Cholestatic liver diseases include a group of diverse disorders with different epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical course, and prognosis. Despite significant advances in the clinical care of patients with cholestatic liver diseases, liver transplant (LT) remains the only definitive therapy for end-stage liver disease, regardless of the underlying cause. As per the United Network for Organ Sharing database, the rate of cadaveric LT for cholestatic liver disease was 18% in 1991, 10% in 2000, and 7.8% in 2008. This review summarizes the available evidence on various common and rare cholestatic liver diseases, disease-specific issues, and pertinent aspects of LT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fatty Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    What is fatty liver disease? Your liver is the largest organ inside your body. It helps your body digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Fatty liver disease is a condition in which fat builds ...

  3. Pyogenic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver abscess; Bacterial liver abscess ... There are many possible causes of liver abscesses, including: Abdominal infection, such as appendicitis , diverticulitis , or a perforated bowel Infection in the blood Infection of the bile draining tubes ...

  4. Are the imaging findings used to assess the portal triad reliable to perform living-donor liver transplant?; Os achados de imagem para avaliacao da triade portal sao confiaveis para realizacao do transplante hepatico com doador vivo?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dazzi, Francisco Leoncio; Ribeiro Junior, Marcelo Augusto Fontenelle; Mancero, Jorge Marcelo Padilla; Gonzalez, Adriano Miziara; D' Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto Carneiro, E-mail: franciscodazzi@hotmail.com [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Cirurgia Geral e Transplante; Leao-Filho, Hilton Muniz [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem; Silva, Adavio de Oliveira e [Hospital Beneficencia Portuguesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Departamento de Gastroenterologia e Hepatologia

    2013-07-01

    Background: a crucial aspect of living-donor liver transplant is the risk imposed to the donor due to a procedure performed in a healthy individual that can lead to a high postoperative morbidity rate Aim: To correlate the pre- and intraoperative hepatic imaging findings of living adult donors. Methods: From 2003 to 2008 the medical charts of 66 donors were revised; in that, 42 were males (64%) and 24 females (36%), mean age of 30±8 years. The preoperative anatomy was analyzed by magnetic resonance cholangiography to study the bile ducts and by computed tomography angiography to evaluate the hepatic artery and portal vein. Normalcy criteria were established according to previously published studies. Results: Anatomic variations of the bile ducts were found in 59.1% of donors, of the artery hepatic in 31.8% and of the portal vein in 30.3% of the cases during the preoperative period. The magnetic resonance cholangiography findings were in agreement in 44 (66.6%) of donors and in disagreement in 22 (33.3%). With regards to hepatic artery, in all donors the findings of the imaging examination were in agreement with those of the intraoperative period. As to the portal vein, the computed tomography findings were in agreement in 59 (89.4%) donors and in disagreement in seven (10.6%). Conclusions: the bile duct anatomic variations are frequent, and the magnetic resonance cholangiography showed moderate accuracy (70%) in reproducing the surgical findings; the computed tomography reproduced the intraoperative findings of the hepatic artery in 100% of donors, and of the portal vein in 89.4% of the cases, thus demonstrating high accuracy (89%). (author)

  5. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  6. Amebic liver abscess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatic amebiasis; Extraintestinal amebiasis; Abscess - amebic liver ... Amebic liver abscess is caused by Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite causes amebiasis , an intestinal infection that is also called ...

  7. Enhancement of liver regeneration and liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, P.B.

    2017-01-01

    Liver regeneration allows surgical resection of up to 75% of the liver and enables curative treatment potential for patients with primary or secondary hepatic malignancies. Liver surgery is associated with substantial risks, reflected by considerable morbidity and mortality rates. Optimization of

  8. [Methods for enzymatic determination of triglycerides in liver homogenates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhn, H; Gartzke, J; Burck, D

    1987-10-01

    An enzymatic method is described for the determination of triacylglycerols in liver homogenate. In contrast to usual methods, higher reliability and selectivity are achieved by omitting the extraction step.

  9. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  10. Role of liver progenitors in liver regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Jan; Manka, Paul; Syn, Wing-Kin; Dollé, Laurent; van Grunsven, Leo A; Canbay, Ali

    2015-02-01

    During massive liver injury and hepatocyte loss, the intrinsic regenerative capacity of the liver by replication of resident hepatocytes is overwhelmed. Treatment of this condition depends on the cause of liver injury, though in many cases liver transplantation (LT) remains the only curative option. LT for end stage chronic and acute liver diseases is hampered by shortage of donor organs and requires immunosuppression. Hepatocyte transplantation is limited by yet unresolved technical difficulties. Since currently no treatment is available to facilitate liver regeneration directly, therapies involving the use of resident liver stem or progenitor cells (LPCs) or non-liver stem cells are coming to fore. LPCs are quiescent in the healthy liver, but may be activated under conditions where the regenerative capacity of mature hepatocytes is severely impaired. Non-liver stem cells include embryonic stem cells (ES cells) and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In the first section, we aim to provide an overview of the role of putative cytokines, growth factors, mitogens and hormones in regulating LPC response and briefly discuss the prognostic value of the LPC response in clinical practice. In the latter section, we will highlight the role of other (non-liver) stem cells in transplantation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of ES cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS), as well as MSCs.

  11. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used as a source of vitamin A ... called macular degeneration. Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed healing of wounds, ...

  12. Liver Cell Culture Devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andria, B.; Bracco, A.; Cirino, G.; Chamuleau, R. A. F. M.

    2010-01-01

    In the last 15 years many different liver cell culture devices, consisting of functional liver cells and artificial materials, have been developed. They have been devised for numerous different applications, such as temporary organ replacement (a bridge to liver transplantation or native liver

  13. Human precision-cut liver slices as a model to test antifibrotic drugs in the early onset of liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westra, Inge M.; Mutsaers, Henricus A. M.; Luangmonkong, Theerut; Hadi, Mackenzie; Oosterhuis, Dorenda; de Jong, Koert P.; Groothuis, Geny M. M.; Olinga, Peter

    Liver fibrosis is the progressive accumulation of connective tissue ultimately resulting in loss of organ function. Currently, no effective antifibrotics are available due to a lack of reliable human models. Here we investigated the fibrotic process in human precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) and

  14. Therapeutic targets in liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallowfield, Jonathan A

    2011-05-01

    Detailed analysis of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate liver fibrosis has provided a framework for therapeutic approaches to prevent, slow down, or even reverse fibrosis and cirrhosis. A pivotal event in the development of liver fibrosis is the activation of quiescent hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) to scar-forming myofibroblast-like cells. Consequently, HSCs and the factors that regulate HSC activation, proliferation, and function represent important antifibrotic targets. Drugs currently licensed in the US and Europe for other indications target HSC-related components of the fibrotic cascade. Their deployment in the near future looks likely. Ultimately, treatment strategies for liver fibrosis may vary on an individual basis according to etiology, risk of fibrosis progression, and the prevailing pathogenic milieu, meaning that a multiagent approach could be required. The field continues to develop rapidly and starts to identify exciting potential targets in proof-of-concept preclinical studies. Despite this, no antifibrotics are currently licensed for use in humans. With epidemiological predictions for the future prevalence of viral, obesity-related, and alcohol-related cirrhosis painting an increasingly gloomy picture, and a shortfall in donors for liver transplantation, the clinical urgency for new therapies is high. There is growing interest from stakeholders keen to exploit the market potential for antifibrotics. However, the design of future trials for agents in the developmental pipeline will depend on strategies that enable equal patient stratification, techniques to reliably monitor changes in fibrosis over time, and the definition of clinically meaningful end points.

  15. Liver transplantation for Wilson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Andreea M; Medici, Valentina

    2012-01-27

    The aim of this paper is to review the current status of liver transplantation (LT) for Wilson disease (WD), focusing on indications and controversies, especially in patients with neuropsychiatric disease, and on identification of acute liver failure (ALF) cases related to WD. LT remains the treatment of choice for patients with ALF, as initial presentation of WD or when anti-copper agents are stopped, and for patients with chronic liver disease progressed to cirrhosis, unresponsive to chelating medications or not timely treated with copper chelating agents. The indication for LT in WD remains highly debated in patients with progressive neurological deterioration and failure to improve with appropriate medical treatment. In case of Wilsonian ALF, early identification is key as mortality is 100% without emergency LT. As many of the copper metabolism parameters are believed to be less reliable in ALF, simple biochemical tests have been proposed for diagnosis of acute WD with good sensitivity and specificity. LT corrects copper metabolism and complications resulting from WD with excellent 1 and 5 year survival. Living related liver transplantation represents an alternative to deceased donor LT with excellent long-term survival, without disease recurrence. Future options may include hepatocyte transplantation and gene therapy. Although both of these have shown promising results in animal models of WD, prospective human studies are much needed to demonstrate their long-term beneficial effects and their potential to replace the need for medical therapy and LT in patients with WD.

  16. Non-invasive Markers of Liver Fibrosis: Adjuncts or Alternatives to Liver Biopsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Jun L.; Pavlides, Michael; Moolla, Ahmad; Ryan, John D.

    2016-01-01

    Liver fibrosis reflects sustained liver injury often from multiple, simultaneous factors. Whilst the presence of mild fibrosis on biopsy can be a reassuring finding, the identification of advanced fibrosis is critical to the management of patients with chronic liver disease. This necessity has lead to a reliance on liver biopsy which itself is an imperfect test and poorly accepted by patients. The development of robust tools to non-invasively assess liver fibrosis has dramatically enhanced clinical decision making in patients with chronic liver disease, allowing a rapid and informed judgment of disease stage and prognosis. Should a liver biopsy be required, the appropriateness is clearer and the diagnostic yield is greater with the use of these adjuncts. While a number of non-invasive liver fibrosis markers are now used in routine practice, a steady stream of innovative approaches exists. With improvement in the reliability, reproducibility and feasibility of these markers, their potential role in disease management is increasing. Moreover, their adoption into clinical trials as outcome measures reflects their validity and dynamic nature. This review will summarize and appraise the current and novel non-invasive markers of liver fibrosis, both blood and imaging based, and look at their prospective application in everyday clinical care. PMID:27378924

  17. ESGAR consensus statement on liver MR imaging and clinical use of liver-specific contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, E.; Boraschi, P.; Bartolozzi, C. [University of Pisa, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Pisa (Italy); Bali, M.A.; Matos, C. [Hopital Erasme, MRI Clinics, Department of Radiology, Bruxelles (Belgium); Ba-Ssalamah, A. [The General Hospital of the Medical University of Vienna, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Brancatelli, G. [University of Palermo, Department of Radiology, Palermo (Italy); Alves, F.C. [University Hospital of Coimbra, Medical Imaging Department and Faculty of Medicine, Coimbra (Portugal); Grazioli, L. [Spedali Civili di Brescia, Department of Radiology, Brescia (Italy); Helmberger, T. [Academic Teaching Hospital of the Technical University, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Bogenhausen, Munich (Germany); Lee, J.M. [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Division of Abdominal Imaging, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Manfredi, R. [University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy); Marti-Bonmati, L. [Hospital Universitario y Politecnico La Fe, Area Clinica de Imagen Medica, Valencia (Spain); Merkle, E.M. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland); Op De Beeck, B. [Antwerp University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Schima, W. [KH Goettlicher Heiland, Krankenhaus der Barmherzigen Schwestern and Sankt Josef-Krankenhaus, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Skehan, S. [St Vincent' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Vilgrain, V. [Assistance Publique-Hopitaux de Paris, APHP, Hopital Beaujon, Radiology Department, Clichy, Paris (France); Zech, C. [Universitaetsspital Basel, Abteilungsleiter Interventionelle Radiologie, Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Basel (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    To develop a consensus and provide updated recommendations on liver MR imaging and the clinical use of liver-specific contrast agents. The European Society of Gastrointestinal and Abdominal Radiology (ESGAR) formed a multinational European panel of experts, selected on the basis of a literature review and their leadership in the field of liver MR imaging. A modified Delphi process was adopted to draft a list of statements. Descriptive and Cronbach's statistics were used to rate levels of agreement and internal reliability of the consensus. Three Delphi rounds were conducted and 76 statements composed on MR technique (n = 17), clinical application of liver-specific contrast agents in benign, focal liver lesions (n = 7), malignant liver lesions in non-cirrhotic (n = 9) and in cirrhotic patients (n = 18), diffuse and vascular liver diseases (n = 12), and bile ducts (n = 13). The overall mean score of agreement was 4.84 (SD ±0.17). Full consensus was reached in 22 % of all statements in all working groups, with no full consensus reached on diffuse and vascular diseases. The consensus provided updated recommendations on the methodology, and clinical indications, of MRI with liver specific contrast agents in the study of liver diseases. (orig.)

  18. Immune mediated liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capac...

  19. Percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa N

    1999-10-01

    Hydatic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic disease and an important public health problem in some countries of the world. The results of surgical treatment are associated with a high rate of mortality, morbidity, postoperative recurrence and a long period of hospital stay and the medical treatment results are still controversial. Although the percutaneous aspiration and treatment of liver hydatid cysts were considered to be contraindicated due to risks of anaphylactic shock and dissemination of clear-crystal fluid into the abdomen, several reports of successful percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts have been published in the literature. Today, percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts is the most effective and reliable treatment procedure in the selected cases. In this review, indications, contraindications, method and techniques, healing criteria, complications, results and importance of the percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts are discussed.

  20. Percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhan, Okan; Oezmen, Mustafa N.

    1999-01-01

    Hydatic disease caused by Echinococcus granulosus is an endemic disease and an important public health problem in some countries of the world. The results of surgical treatment are associated with a high rate of mortality, morbidity, postoperative recurrence and a long period of hospital stay and the medical treatment results are still controversial. Although the percutaneous aspiration and treatment of liver hydatid cysts were considered to be contraindicated due to risks of anaphylactic shock and dissemination of clear-crystal fluid into the abdomen, several reports of successful percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts have been published in the literature. Today, percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts is the most effective and reliable treatment procedure in the selected cases. In this review, indications, contraindications, method and techniques, healing criteria, complications, results and importance of the percutaneous treatment of liver hydatid cysts are discussed

  1. Liver scintigraphic features associated with alcoholism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drum, D.E.; Beard, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relationships between scintigraphic features and clinical alcoholism were studied by review of 2406 liver scintiphotos. Two distinct patterns were significantly associated with alcoholism: heterogeneous distribution of radiocolloid in the liver, and jointly increased uptake of tracer by the spleen and vertebral bone marrow. A total of 13 overall patterns were found to distinguish, with considerable reliability, alcoholics from all other patients. This finding reflects the frequency with which alcohol abuse is associated with hepatic dysfunction in hospital patients. These observations indicate an important role for the nuclear medicine physician in detection of alcoholism among patients referred for liver-spleen imaging, and they form a basis for comparison with the diagnostic efficacy of other methods of evaluating diffuse liver diseases

  2. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  3. Generation and characterization of rat liver stem cell lines and their engraftment in a rat model of liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Ewart W.; Rasmussen, Shauna; Blokzijl, Francis; Huch, Meritxell; Gehart, Helmuth; Toonen, Pim; Begthel, Harry; Clevers, Hans; Geurts, Aron M.; Cuppen, Edwin

    2016-01-01

    The rat is an important model for liver regeneration. However, there is no in vitro culture system that can capture the massive proliferation that can be observed after partial hepatectomy in rats. We here describe the generation of rat liver stem cell lines. Rat liver stem cells, which grow as cystic organoids, were characterized by high expression of the stem cell marker Lgr5, by the expression of liver progenitor and duct markers, and by low expression of hepatocyte markers, oval cell markers, and stellate cell markers. Prolonged cultures of rat liver organoids depended on high levels of WNT-signalling and the inhibition of BMP-signaling. Upon transplantation of clonal lines to a Fah−/− Il2rg−/− rat model of liver failure, the rat liver stem cells engrafted into the host liver where they differentiated into areas with FAH and Albumin positive hepatocytes. Rat liver stem cell lines hold potential as consistent reliable cell sources for pharmacological, toxicological or metabolic studies. In addition, rat liver stem cell lines may contribute to the development of regenerative medicine in liver disease. To our knowledge, the here described liver stem cell lines represent the first organoid culture system in the rat. PMID:26915950

  4. Liver scanning in diffuse liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, P.; Atefie, K.; Scherak, O.; Wolf, A.; Hoefer, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of liver scans performed with sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid in 169 patients suffering from diffuse liver diseases and in 48 normal controls were evaluated. The patients with reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis, fatty liver and fibrosis of the liver show only minimal deviations from the scintigraphic pattern. On the contrary, highly increased colloid uptake in the spleen is found in cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis, whilst the intrahepatic distribution of the colloid is approximately normal. In cases of liver cirrhosis, increased colloid uptake is found in the left lobe of the liver as well as in the spleen and in the bone marrow. Either normal findings or cirrhosis-like changes of the colloid distribution are observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  5. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  6. Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound for Non-tumor Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Maruyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS is a simple, safe and reliable technique for the clinical management of patients with various liver diseases. Although the major target of the technique may be focal hepatic lesions, it is also effective for the diagnosis of non-tumor liver diseases, such as grading hepatic fibrosis, characterization of chronic liver diseases and diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis. This review article aimed to overview the recent application of CEUS in the assessment of non-tumor liver diseases. Keywords: Cirrhosis, contrast agent, fibrosis, idiopathic portal hypertension, microbubble, portal vein thrombosis, ultrasound.

  7. Liver disease in pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noel M Lee; Carla W Brady

    2009-01-01

    Liver diseases in pregnancy may be categorized into liver disorders that occur only in the setting of pregnancy and liver diseases that occur coincidentally with pregnancy. Hyperemesis gravidarum, preeclampsia/eclampsia, syndrome of hemolysis, elevated liver tests and low platelets (HELLP), acute fatty liver of pregnancy, and intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy are pregnancy-specific disorders that may cause elevations in liver tests and hepatic dysfunction. Chronic liver diseases, including cholestatic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson disease, and viral hepatitis may also be seen in pregnancy. Management of liver disease in pregnancy requires collaboration between obstetricians and gastroenterologists/hepatologists. Treatment of pregnancy-specific liver disorders usually involves delivery of the fetus and supportive care, whereas management of chronic liver disease in pregnancy is directed toward optimizing control of the liver disorder. Cirrhosis in the setting of pregnancy is less commonly observed but offers unique challenges for patients and practitioners. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of liver diseases seen in pregnancy.

  8. Current approach to liver traumas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptanoglu, Levent; Kurt, Necmi; Sikar, Hasan Ediz

    2017-03-01

    out of 300). A multidisciplinary approach to the management of hepatic injuries has evolved over the last few decades, but the basic principles of trauma continue to be observed. Diagnostic and therapeutic endeavors are chosen based mainly on the stability of the patient. Stable patients with reliable examinations and available resources can be managed nonoperatively. Unstable patients require surgery. Our current approach to liver traumas is non operative technique, if possible. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Diagnosing Liver Disease – Liver ...

  10. Diet - liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteins normally help the body repair tissue. They also prevent fatty buildup and damage to the liver cells. In people with badly damaged livers, proteins are not properly processed. Waste products may build up and affect the brain. Dietary ...

  11. Liver Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest food, store energy, and remove poisons. Liver function tests are blood tests that check to see ... as hepatitis and cirrhosis. You may have liver function tests as part of a regular checkup. Or ...

  12. Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be increased in women because their digestive system may be less able to process alcohol, thus increasing the amount of alcohol reaching the liver. Genetic makeup Genetic makeup is thought to be involved because alcoholic liver disease often ...

  13. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Autoimmune diseases of the liver Hepatitis B or hepatitis C virus infection Inflammation of the liver that is long-term (chronic) Iron overload in the body ( hemochromatosis ) People with hepatitis B or C are at high risk of ...

  14. Autoimmune liver disease panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liver disease test panel - autoimmune ... Autoimmune disorders are a possible cause of liver disease. The most common of these diseases are autoimmune hepatitis and primary biliary cholangitis (formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis). This group of tests ...

  15. Liver transplantation in polycystic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krohn, Paul S; Hillingsø, Jens; Kirkegaard, Preben

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is a rare, hereditary, benign disorder. Hepatic failure is uncommon and symptoms are caused by mass effects leading to abdominal distension and pain. Liver transplantation (LTX) offers fully curative treatment, but there is still some controversy about...... whether it is a relevant modality considering the absence of liver failure, relative organ shortage, perioperative risks and lifelong immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to review our experience of LTX for PLD and to compare the survival with the overall survival of patients who underwent LTX...... from 1992 to 2005. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of the journals of 440 patients, who underwent 506 LTXs between 1992 and 2005, showed that 14 patients underwent LTX for PLD. All patients had normal liver function. Three were receiving haemodialysis and thus underwent combined liver...

  16. Immune mediated liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojing; Ning, Qin

    2014-01-01

    Liver failure is a clinical syndrome of various etiologies, manifesting as jaundice, encephalopathy, coagulopathy and circulatory dysfunction, which result in subsequent multiorgan failure. Clinically, liver failure is classified into four categories: acute, subacute, acute-on-chronic and chronic liver failure. Massive hepatocyte death is considered to be the core event in the development of liver failure, which occurs when the extent of hepatocyte death is beyond the liver regenerative capacity. Direct damage and immune-mediated liver injury are two major factors involved in this process. Increasing evidence has suggested the essential role of immune-mediated liver injury in the pathogenesis of liver failure. Here, we review the evolved concepts concerning the mechanisms of immune-mediated liver injury in liver failure from human and animal studies. Both innate and adaptive immunity, especially the interaction of various immune cells and molecules as well as death receptor signaling system are discussed. In addition, we highlight the concept of "immune coagulation", which has been shown to be related to the disease progression and liver injury exacerbation in HBV related acute-on-chronic liver failure.

  17. Liver Tumors (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Liver Tumors KidsHealth / For Parents / Liver Tumors What's in this article? Types of Tumors ... Cancerous) Tumors Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping Print The liver is the body's largest solid organ. Lying next ...

  18. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  19. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  20. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  1. Hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, Jose Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; Joao, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araujo Lima, E-mail: ecamic@uol.com.br [Hospital Universitario Onofre Lopes (HUOL/UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Clinica Gastrocentro e Ambulatorios de Cirurgia do Aparelho Digestivo e de Cirurgia Hepatobiliopancreatica

    2017-09-01

    Background: The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. Aim: To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. Method: This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Results: Eighty eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p< 0.001), personal history of cancer (p=0.020), presence of >3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. Conclusion: It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine amino transaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. (author)

  2. Liver and gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Liver is often a site of a variety of diseases. A palpable liver during a routine clinical examination is an important finding and requires further investigations. The availability of non-invasive liver imaging procedures using nuclear, ultrasound, CT (and now MRI) techniques have immensely enhanced diagnostic accuracy in liver diseases. In this Chapter, a detailed description of routinely practised nuclear medicine procedures related to liver is given. Brief reference is also made to other imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography, only for the purposes of comparison. Most of the information is based on our own clinical experience of past 30 years

  3. Liver and gastrointestinal tract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, M A

    1993-12-31

    Liver is often a site of a variety of diseases. A palpable liver during a routine clinical examination is an important finding and requires further investigations. The availability of non-invasive liver imaging procedures using nuclear, ultrasound, CT (and now MRI) techniques have immensely enhanced diagnostic accuracy in liver diseases. In this Chapter, a detailed description of routinely practised nuclear medicine procedures related to liver is given. Brief reference is also made to other imaging techniques, particularly ultrasonography, only for the purposes of comparison. Most of the information is based on our own clinical experience of past 30 years 12 figs, 4 tabs

  4. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF AMOEBIC LIVER ABSCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagesh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS To study the role of ultrasonography in the diagnosis, followup, resolution and percutaneous interventions of amoebic liver abscesses. METHODOLOGY 25 patients with 38 amoebic liver abscesses were included in this study. The diagnostic criteria being compatible history, tender and enlarged liver, radiological and ultrasound findings and response to metronidazole therapy. Confirmed cases of amoebic liver abscesses were followed up by ultrasonography till complete resolution. RESULTS The highest incidence of age was seen between 3 rd and 5 th decades (84% with a male sex incidence of 92%, disease preponderance in people belonging to low socioeconomic group and a high incidence among alcoholics. The radiological findings were: Elevation of right dome of diaphragm (56%, restricted diaphragmatic movements (88%, right basal lung changes (48%, right pleural effusion (12%, and indistinct hazy diaphragmatic contour (40%. The ultrasonographic findings were: 87% of the abscesses were located in right lobe, 11% in left lobe and 2% in both lobes. Among the 25 patients, 76% showed solitary and 24% showed multiple abscesses. Of the 38 amoebic abscesses, 79% were hypoechoic, 13% were hyperechoic and 8% were anechoic. 11 patients were subjected for ultrasound-guided aspiration. CONCLUSION Ultrasound is a safe, reliable and non-invasive imaging modality for the diagnosis, followup and percutaneous interventions of amoebic liver abscesses. The sonographic resolution time of amoebic liver abscesses varies from 28 to 286 days.

  5. Coffee and Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhawan, Manav; Anand, Anil C

    2016-03-01

    Coffee is the most popular beverage in the world. Consumption of coffee has been shown to benefit health in general, and liver health in particular. This article reviews the effects of coffee intake on development and progression of liver disease due to various causes. We also describe the putative mechanisms by which coffee exerts the protective effect. The clinical evidence of benefit of coffee consumption in Hepatitis B and C, as well as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, has also been presented. Coffee consumption is associated with improvement in liver enzymes (ALT, AST, and GGTP), especially in individuals with risk for liver disease. Coffee intake more than 2 cups per day in patients with preexisting liver disease has been shown to be associated with lower incidence of fibrosis and cirrhosis, lower hepatocellular carcinoma rates, as well as decreased mortality.

  6. Living Donor Liver Transplantation for Acute Liver Failure : Comparing Guidelines on the Prediction of Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Umeda, Yuzo; Takaki, Akinobu; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Takagi, Kosei; Yasunaka, Tetsuya; Okada, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Takahito; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-10-01

    Determining the indications for and timing of liver transplantation (LT) for acute liver failure (ALF) is essential. The King's College Hospital (KCH) guidelines and Japanese guidelines are used to predict the need for LT and the outcomes in ALF. These guidelines' accuracy when applied to ALF in different regional and etiological backgrounds may differ. Here we compared the accuracy of new (2010) Japanese guidelines that use a simple scoring system with the 1996 Japanese guidelines and the KCH criteria for living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We retrospectively analyzed 24 adult ALF patients (18 acute type, 6 sub-acute type) who underwent LDLT in 1998-2009 at our institution. We assessed the accuracies of the 3 guidelines' criteria for ALF. The overall 1-year survival rate was 87.5%. The new and previous Japanese guidelines were superior to the KCH criteria for accurately predicting LT for acute-type ALF (72% vs. 17%). The new Japanese guidelines could identify 13 acute-type ALF patients for LT, based on the timing of encephalopathy onset. Using the previous Japanese guidelines, although the same 13 acute-type ALF patients (72%) had indications for LT, only 4 patients were indicated at the 1st step, and it took an additional 5 days to decide the indication at the 2nd step in the other 9 cases. Our findings showed that the new Japanese guidelines can predict the indications for LT and provide a reliable alternative to the previous Japanese and KCH guidelines.

  7. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  8. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  9. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  10. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  11. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  12. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  13. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  14. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  15. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  16. FY1995 establishment of extracellular matrix engineering by the combination of genetic engineering and polymer engineering and the application to super-bioartifical liver; 1995 nendo idenshi kogaku to kobunshi kogaku wo yugoshita atarashii saibogai matrix kogaku no sosei to super bio jinko zoki kaihatsu eno tenkai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    Cellular and tissue engineering for bioartificial organs need lots of information about extra-cellular matrices and cytokines network which play important roles for the regulation of cellular function. In order to develop high performance artificial livers, we made establishment of extracellular matrix (ECM) engineering by the combination of genetic engineering and polymer engineering. We designed a superglycoprotein-like polymer (PVLA) as a specific model ligand to asialoglycoprotein receptors (ASGP-R) on hepatocytes. Hepatocytes morphology was remarkably affected by PVLA concentration for coating on polystyrene dishes. In addition, hepatic functions such as differentiation and proliferation were closely related with cell morphology. Especially, round hepatocytes on the polystyrene surface coated with high concentration of PVLA were found to reconstruct 3D liver-like tissue stimulated by EGF. It turned out that the adsorptive states of PVLA polymeric micells can switch the function of EGF to be motogenic or mitogenic. The mechanisms of 3D-tissue formation on two types of substrata mediated by ASGP-R were examined. The proliferation and cell death (apoptosis) in hepatitis of hepatocytes were also examined in the viewpoint of cytokine network such as TNF - {alpha} and interferon-{gamma}. The highly efficient gene-transfection into hepatocytes was also successfully made using PVLA as ECM for cell attachment. As one of the trials to clarify liver cells society formation the mechanism of the final differentiation of kupffer cells and the role of HGF in embryonic construction of liver were successfully examined. (NEDO)

  17. MR and magnetisation transfer imaging in cirrhotic and fatty livers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanen, A.; Komu, M.; Leino, R.; Toikkanen, S.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether low-field MR fat/water separation and magnetisation transfer (MT) techniques are useful in studying the livers of patients with parenchymal liver diseases in vivo. Material and Methods: MR and MT imaging of the liver in 33 patients (14 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 15 with alcohol-induced liver disease, and 4 with fatty liver) was performed by means of the fat/water separation technique at 0.1 T. The relaxation time T1 and the MT contrast (MTC) parameter of liver and spleen tissue were measured, and the relative proton density fat content N(%) and MTC of the liver were calculated from the separate fat and water images. The value of N(%) was also compared with the percentage of fatty hepatocytes at histology. Results: The relaxation rate R1 of liver measured from the magnitude image, and the difference in the value of MTC measured form the water image compared with the one measured from the fat and water magnitude image, both depended linearly on the value of N(%). The value of N(%) correlated significantly with the percentage of the fatty hepatocytes. In in vivo fatty tissue, fat infiltration increased both the observed relaxation rate R1 and the measured magnetisation ratio (the steady state magnetisation M s divided by the equilibrium magnetisation M o , M s /M o ) and consequently decreased the MT efficiency measured in a magnitude MR image. The amount of liver fibrosis did not correlate with the value of MTC measured after fat separation. Conclusion: Our results in studying fatty livers with MR imaging and the MT method show that the fat/water separation gives more reliable parametric results. Characterisation of liver cirrhosis by means of the MTC parameter is not reliable, even after fat separation. (orig.)

  18. Diagnosis of fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saitoh, Shuichi; Nagamine, Takeaki; Takagi, Hitoshi

    1988-01-01

    Diagnostic values of various ultrasonographic findings were evaluated from fatty infiltration ratio calculated by liver specimens in 42 patients. The ratio of the CT number of liver to those of spleen were also compared with fatty infiltration ratio in 11 patients. Fatty bandless sign one plus (perirenal bright echo between the liver and the right kidney is masked partially) or more and the fatty score 3 (it is calculated by several ultrasonographic findings) and the less than 0.90 of the ratio of CT number of liver to those of spleen were useful for diagnosis of fatty liver, the sensitivity was 100%, 87.5%, 85.7% and the accuracy was 78.1%, 81.8%, 81.8% respectively. It was considered that these criteria were suitable in screening study of fatty liver. (author)

  19. [Liver and sport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watelet, J

    2008-11-01

    The liver is a vital organ and plays a central role in energy exchange, protein synthesis as well as the elimination of waste products from the body. Acute and chronic injury may disturb a variety of liver functions to different degrees. Over the last three decades, the effects of physical activity and competitive sport on the liver have been described by various investigators. These include viral hepatitis and drug-induced liver disorders. Herein, we review acute and chronic liver diseases potentially caused by sport. Team physicians, trainers and others, responsible for the health of athletes, should be familiar with the risk factors, clinical features, and consequences of liver diseases that occur in sports.

  20. Robotic liver surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Universe

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgery is an evolving technology that has been successfully applied to a number of surgical specialties, but its use in liver surgery has so far been limited. In this review article we discuss the challenges of minimally invasive liver surgery, the pros and cons of robotics, the evolution of medical robots, and the potentials in applying this technology to liver surgery. The current data in the literature are also presented. PMID:25392840

  1. Adipokines in Liver Cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechler, Christa; Haberl, Elisabeth M; Rein-Fischboeck, Lisa; Aslanidis, Charalampos

    2017-06-29

    Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients. Adipokines are proteins released from adipose tissue and modulate hepatic fibrogenesis. These proteins affect various biological processes that are involved in liver function, including angiogenesis, vasodilation, inflammation and deposition of extracellular matrix proteins. The best studied adipokines are adiponectin and leptin. Adiponectin protects against hepatic inflammation and fibrogenesis, and leptin functions as a profibrogenic factor. These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. Consequently, circulating levels of these proteins have been analyzed to identify associations with parameters of hepatic function, portal hypertension and its associated complications in patients with liver cirrhosis. This review article briefly addresses the role of adipokines in hepatitis and liver fibrosis. Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. Some studies measured these proteins in systemic, hepatic and portal vein blood or after TIPS to specify the tissues contributing to circulating levels of these proteins and the effect of portal hypertension, respectively.

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patrick-Melin, A J; Kalinski, M I; Kelly, K R

    2009-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a rapidly emerging chronic liver disease and is reported to affect up to 70-80% of overweight and obese individuals. NAFLD represents a spectrum of liver diseases that range from simple hepatic steatosis, to a more severe and treatment resistant stage...... that features steatosis plus inflammation, termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may in turn progress to hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and sub-acute liver failure. Thus, NAFLD and its subsequent complications create a significant health burden, and currently there is no effective treatment strategy...

  3. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  4. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  5. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  6. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  7. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  8. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, P. L.; Chamuleau, R. A.; van Leeuwen, D. J.; Schipper, H. G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; van der Heyde, M. N.

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single-photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99mTc-colloid as tracer. The method was

  9. A simple method to approximate liver size on cross-sectional images using living liver models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, D.; Mueller, M.A.; Karlo, C.; Fornaro, J.; Marincek, B.; Frauenfelder, T.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether a simple. diameter-based formula applicable to cross-sectional images can be used to calculate the total liver volume. Materials and methods: On 119 cross-sectional examinations (62 computed tomography and 57 magnetic resonance imaging) a simple, formula-based method to approximate the liver volume was evaluated. The total liver volume was approximated measuring the largest craniocaudal (cc), ventrodorsal (vd), and coronal (cor) diameters by two readers and implementing the equation: Vol estimated =ccxvdxcorx0.31. Inter-rater reliability, agreement, and correlation between liver volume calculation and virtual liver volumetry were analysed. Results: No significant disagreement between the two readers was found. The formula correlated significantly with the volumetric data (r > 0.85, p < 0.0001). In 81% of cases the error of the approximated volume was <10% and in 92% of cases <15% compared to the volumetric data. Conclusion: Total liver volume can be accurately estimated on cross-sectional images using a simple, diameter-based equation.

  10. Auxiliary partial liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.B. Reuvers (Cornelis Bastiaan)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis studies on auxiliary partial liver transplantation in the dog and the pig are reported. The motive to perform this study was the fact that patients with acute hepatic failure or end-stage chronic liver disease are often considered to form too great a risk for successful

  11. Liver Disease and IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The gallbladder is a sac attached below the liver to the common bile duct. Gallstones form when bile (the liquid stored in ... a stone may have passed down the common bile duct to the area where it joins the ... of the liver. Chronic (long term) hepatitis can be from inflammation ...

  12. Polyploidization of liver cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celton-Morizur, Séverine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms usually contain a diploid complement of chromosomes. However, there are a number of exceptions. Organisms containing an increase in DNA content by whole number multiples of the entire set of chromosomes are defined as polyploid. Cells that contain more than two sets of chromosomes were first observed in plants about a century ago and it is now recognized that polyploidy cells form in many eukaryotes under a wide variety of circumstance. Although it is less common in mammals, some tissues, including the liver, show a high percentage of polyploid cells. Thus, during postnatal growth, the liver parenchyma undergoes dramatic changes characterized by gradual polyploidization during which hepatocytes of several ploidy classes emerge as a result of modified cell-division cycles. This process generates the successive appearance of tetraploid and octoploid cell classes with one or two nuclei (mononucleated or binucleated). Liver cells polyploidy is generally considered to indicate terminal differentiation and senescence and to lead both to the progressive loss of cell pluripotency and a markedly decreased replication capacity. In adults, liver polyploidization is differentially regulated upon loss of liver mass and liver damage. Interestingly, partial hepatectomy induces marked cell proliferation followed by an increase in liver ploidy. In contrast, during hepatocarcinoma (HCC), growth shifts to a nonpolyploidizing pattern and expansion of the diploid hepatocytes population is observed in neoplastic nodules. Here we review the current state of understanding about how polyploidization is regulated during normal and pathological liver growth and detail by which mechanisms hepatocytes become polyploid.

  13. Prolactin and liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.C. Bauer (Alexander)

    1982-01-01

    textabstractCirrhosis of the liver is associated with profound endocrinological disturbances. Until recently it was thought that these disturbances were caused mainly by ineffective elimination of hormones by the diseased liver. It is now known that the pathogenesis of disturbed hormonal function in

  14. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernal, William; Lee, William M; Wendon, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Over the last three decades acute liver failure (ALF) has been transformed from a rare and poorly understood condition with a near universally fatal outcome, to one with a well characterized phenotype and disease course. Complex critical care protocols are now applied and emergency liver...

  15. Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Basics Adult Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Liver Disease and Adult Vaccination Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... critical for people with health conditions such as liver disease. If you have chronic liver disease, talk ...

  16. Liver cancer oncogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches....... Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer...... development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could...

  17. Depression and Liver Transplant Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, William; Welle, Nicole; Sutley, Kristen; Thurber, Steven

    Patients who underwent liver transplantation and experienced clinical depression have heretofore evinced lower survival rates when compared to nondepressed counterparts. To investigate the hypothesis that transplant patients who seek and obtain medical treatment for depression would circumvent the prior reduced survival findings. A total of 765 patients with liver transplants were scrutinized for complications following transplantation. Further, 104 patients experienced posttransplant depression as manifested by diagnosis and treatment by medical personnel. Survival analyses were conducted comparing hazard and survival curves for these selected individuals and the remainder of transplant patients. Contrary to prior data and consistent with the aforementioned hypothesis, median survival durations, survival curves, and hazard functions (controlling for age and prolonged posttransplant survival for the depressed patients were better. The improved survival for the depressed patients may simply be related to an amelioration of depressed symptoms via antidepressant medications. However, this interpretation would only be congruent with reduced hazard, not elevated survival, beyond the norm (median) for other transplant participants. Assuming the reliability and generalization of our findings, perhaps a reasonable and compelling interpretation is that combined with the effectiveness of antidepressant medications, the seeking and receiving treatment for depression is a type of proxy measure of a more global pattern of adherence to recommended posttransplant medical regimens. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  19. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  20. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  1. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  2. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  3. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  4. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  5. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  6. Cytokines and Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Tilg

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Cytokines are pleiotropic peptides produced by virtually every nucleated cell in the body. In most tissues, including the liver, constitutive production of cytokines is absent or minimal. There is increasing evidence that several cytokines mediate hepatic inflammation, apoptosis and necrosis of liver cells, cholestasis and fibrosis. Interestingly, the same mediators also mediate the regeneration of liver tissue after injury. Among the various cytokines, the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a has emerged as a key factor in various aspects of liver disease, such as cachexia and/or cholestasis. Thus, antagonism of TNF-a and other injury-related cytokines in liver diseases merits evaluation as a treatment of these diseases. However, because the same cytokines are also necessary for the regeneration of the tissue after the liver has been injured, inhibition of these mediators might impair hepatic recovery. The near future will bring the exiting clinical challenge of testing new anticytokine strategies in various liver diseases.

  7. Elastin in the Liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Kanta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A characteristic feature of liver cirrhosis is the accumulation of large amounts of connective tissue with the prevailing content of type I collagen. Elastin is a minor connective tissue component in normal liver but it is actively synthesized by hepatic stellate cells and portal fibroblasts in diseased liver. The accumulation of elastic fibers in later stages of liver fibrosis may contribute to the decreasing reversibility of the disease with advancing time. Elastin is formed by polymerization of tropoelastin monomers. It is an amorphous protein highly resistant to the action of proteases that forms the core of elastic fibers. Microfibrils surrounding the core are composed of fibrillins that bind a number of proteins involved in fiber formation. They include microfibril-associated glycoproteins (MAGPs, microfibrillar-associated proteins (MFAPs and fibulins. Lysyl oxidase (LOX and lysyl oxidase-like proteins (LOXLs are responsible for tropoelastin cross-linking and polymerization. TGF-β complexes attached to microfibrils release this cytokine and influence the behavior of the cells in the neighborhood. The role of TGF-β as the main profibrotic cytokine in the liver is well-known and the release of the cytokines of TGF-β superfamily from their storage in elastic fibers may affect the course of fibrosis. Elastic fibres are often studied in the tissues where they provide elasticity and resilience but their role is no longer viewed as purely mechanical. Tropoelastin, elastin polymer and elastin peptides resulting from partial elastin degradation influence fibroblastic and inflammatory cells as well as angiogenesis. A similar role may be performed by elastin in the liver. This article reviews the results of the research of liver elastic fibers on the backgound of the present knowledge of elastin biochemistry and physiology. The regulation of liver elastin synthesis and degradation may be important for the outcome of liver fibrosis.

  8. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  9. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  10. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  11. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  12. A wandering liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brandon W.; Figarola, Maria S.; Standley, Todd B.

    2010-01-01

    A wandering liver has been described throughout modern medical literature as a rare entity. During the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported associated with colonic volvulus. We report a 17-year-old with a hypermobile liver seen on multiple radiographs and CT. The intraoperative findings demonstrated the liver in its normal anatomic position. We suggest that this entity is more common than thought, and the rise in incidence is likely secondary to increased utilization of pre-operative imaging of patients with colonic obstruction. Increased suspicion might result in further increased incidence of this exceedingly rare entity. (orig.)

  13. A wandering liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, Brandon W.; Figarola, Maria S.; Standley, Todd B. [University of South Alabama, Department of Radiology, Mobile, AL (United States)

    2010-08-15

    A wandering liver has been described throughout modern medical literature as a rare entity. During the last few years, an increasing number of cases have been reported associated with colonic volvulus. We report a 17-year-old with a hypermobile liver seen on multiple radiographs and CT. The intraoperative findings demonstrated the liver in its normal anatomic position. We suggest that this entity is more common than thought, and the rise in incidence is likely secondary to increased utilization of pre-operative imaging of patients with colonic obstruction. Increased suspicion might result in further increased incidence of this exceedingly rare entity. (orig.)

  14. Circulating extracellular vesicles with specific proteome and liver microRNAs are potential biomarkers for liver injury in experimental fatty liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Povero

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in both adult and children. Currently there are no reliable methods to determine disease severity, monitor disease progression, or efficacy of therapy, other than an invasive liver biopsy.Choline Deficient L-Amino Acid (CDAA and high fat diets were used as physiologically relevant mouse models of NAFLD. Circulating extracellular vesicles were isolated, fully characterized by proteomics and molecular analyses and compared to control groups. Liver-related microRNAs were isolated from purified extracellular vesicles and liver specimens.We observed statistically significant differences in the level of extracellular vesicles (EVs in liver and blood between two control groups and NAFLD animals. Time-course studies showed that EV levels increase early during disease development and reflect changes in liver histolopathology. EV levels correlated with hepatocyte cell death (r2 = 0.64, p<0.05, fibrosis (r2 = 0.66, p<0.05 and pathological angiogenesis (r2 = 0.71, p<0.05. Extensive characterization of blood EVs identified both microparticles (MPs and exosomes (EXO present in blood of NAFLD animals. Proteomic analysis of blood EVs detected various differentially expressed proteins in NAFLD versus control animals. Moreover, unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified a signature that allowed for discrimination between NAFLD and controls. Finally, the liver appears to be an important source of circulating EVs in NAFLD animals as evidenced by the enrichment in blood with miR-122 and 192--two microRNAs previously described in chronic liver diseases, coupled with a corresponding decrease in expression of these microRNAs in the liver.These findings suggest a potential for using specific circulating EVs as sensitive and specific biomarkers for the noninvasive diagnosis and monitoring of NAFLD.

  15. 25 Ways to Love Your Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Function Tests Clinical Trials Liver Transplant FAQs Medical Terminology Diseases of the Liver Alagille Syndrome Alcohol-Related ... the Liver The Progression of Liver Disease FAQs Medical Terminology HOW YOU CAN HELP Sponsorship Ways to Give ...

  16. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  17. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  18. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  20. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  1. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now The Progression of Liver ...

  2. Benign Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legacy Society Make Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give While You Shop Contact Us Donate Now Benign Liver Tumors Back ...

  3. Acute Liver Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can cause acute liver failure. It is an industrial chemical found in refrigerants and solvents for waxes, varnishes ... measures when spraying insecticides, fungicides, paint and other toxic chemicals. Follow product instructions carefully. Watch what gets on ...

  4. Liver Aspiration Cytology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-02

    Nov 2, 1974 ... S.A. MEDICAL. JOURNAL .... be the result of either an anatomical obstruction in the biliary system or of ... contour of these droplets indicates their canalicular origin. ..... terminology for cytological changes in the liver has not.

  5. [Diabetes in liver cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Compeán, Diego; Jáquez-Quintana, Joel O; González-González, José A; Lavalle-González, Fernando J; Villarreal-Pérez, Jesús Z; Maldonado-Garza, Hector J

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overt diabetes mellitus (DM) in liver cirrhosis is about 30%. However, DM or impaired glucose tolerance can be observed in 90% after an oral glucose tolerance test in patients with normal fasting plasma glucose. Type 2 DM may produce cirrhosis, whereas DM may be a complication of cirrhosis. The latter is known as «hepatogenous diabetes». Overt and subclinical DM is associated with liver complications and death in cirrhotic patients. Treating diabetes is difficult in cirrhotic patients because of the metabolic impairments due to liver disease and because the most appropriate pharmacologic treatment has not been defined. It is also unknown if glycemic control with hypoglycemic agents has any impact on the course of the liver disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  6. Progression of Liver Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... If cirrhosis is not treated, the liver will fail and will not be able to work well ... Gifts of Stock Donate Your Car Personal Fundraising Partnership & Support Share Your Story Spread the Word Give ...

  7. Liver Transplant: Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Transplant: Nutrition Viral Hepatitis Menu Menu Viral Hepatitis Viral Hepatitis Home For Veterans and the Public Veterans and the Public Home Hepatitis A Hepatitis B Hepatitis C Hepatitis C Home Getting ...

  8. Alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FF, ed. Ferri's Clinical Advisor 2018 . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:59-60. Carithers RL, McClain C. Alcoholic ... Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease . 10th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 86. Haines EJ, Oyama LC. ...

  9. Periodontal disease and liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Lea Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    and liver cirrhosis and to identify opportunities and directions for future research in this area. METHODS: A systematic review of English articles in the PubMed, EMBASE, and Scopus databases was conducted using search terms including 'liver cirrhosis', 'end-stage liver disease', 'liver diseases', 'oral...

  10. Antioxidant supplements for liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjelakovic, Goran; Gluud, Lise Lotte; Nikolova, Dimitrinka

    2011-01-01

    Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal.......Several liver diseases have been associated with oxidative stress. Accordingly, antioxidants have been suggested as potential therapeutics for various liver diseases. The evidence supporting these suggestions is equivocal....

  11. Mice with humanized liver endothelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    el Filali, E.

    2014-01-01

    The only curative treatment option for a large proportion of patients suffering from a liver disorder is liver transplantation. The use of ex vivo genetically modified autologous liver cells instead of whole liver transplantation could overcome the problem of donor scarcity. Even though clinical

  12. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  13. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  14. Pitfalls in liver imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itai, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Localized, abnormal attenuation/intensity areas on unenhanced and/or enhanced study of CT/MR imaging do not necessarily correspond to tumors themselves or real tumor size. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of liver tumor are described dividing into enhanced study (vascular variants, vascular abnormalities, hyperplastic nodules, around the tumor, and miscellaneous) and unenhanced study (fatty change, focal spared area of diffuse fatty liver, and miscellaneous). (orig.)

  15. Pitfalls in liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itai, Yuji; Saida, Yukihisa

    2002-01-01

    Localized, abnormal attenuation/intensity areas on unenhanced and/or enhanced study of CT/MR imaging do not necessarily correspond to tumors themselves or real tumor size. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of liver tumor are described dividing into enhanced study (vascular variants, vascular abnormalities, hyperplastic nodules, around the tumor, and miscellaneous) and unenhanced study (fatty change, focal spared area of diffuse fatty liver, and miscellaneous). (orig.)

  16. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  17. Autoimmune liver disease 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Paolo; Granito, Alessandro; Pappas, Georgios; Muratori, Luigi; Lenzi, Marco; Bianchi, Francesco B

    2008-01-01

    Autoimmune liver disease (ALD) includes a spectrum of diseases which comprises both cholestatic and hepatitic forms: autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and the so called "overlap" syndromes where hepatitic and cholestatic damage coexists. All these diseases are characterized by an extremely high heterogeneity of presentation, varying from asymptomatic, acute (as in a subset of AIH) or chronic (with aspecific symptoms such as fatigue and myalgia in AIH or fatigue and pruritus in PBC and PSC). The detection and characterization of non organ specific autoantibodies plays a major role in the diagnostic approach of autoimmune liver disease; anti nuclear reactivities (ANA) and anti smooth muscle antibodies (SMA) mark type 1 AIH, liver kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) and liver cytosol type 1 (LC1) are the serological markers of type 2 AIH; antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are associated with PBC, while no specific marker is found in PSC, since anticytoplasmic neutrophil antibodies with perinuclear pattern (atypical p-ANCA or p-ANNA) are also detected in a substantial proportion of type 1 AIH cases. Treatment options rely on immunosoppressive therapy (steroids and azathioprine) in AIH and on ursodeoxycholic acid in cholestatic conditions; in all these diseases liver transplantation remains the only therapeutical approach for the end stage of liver disease.

  18. Gaming the Liver Transplant Market

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Snyder

    2010-01-01

    The liver transplant waiting list is designed to allocate livers to the sickest patients first. Before March 1, 2002, livers were allocated to patients based on objective clinical indicators and subjective factors. In particular, a center placing a prospective transplant recipient in the intensive care unit (ICU) leads to a higher position on the liver transplant waiting list. After March 1, 2002, a policy reform mandated that priority on the liver transplant waiting list no longer be influen...

  19. Perioperative management of liver surgery-review on pathophysiology of liver disease and liver failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, Lukas; Eschertzhuber, Stephan; Tiefenthaler, Werner

    2018-01-01

    An increasing number of patients present for liver surgery. Given the complex pathophysiological changes in chronic liver disease (CLD), it is pivotal to understand the fundamentals of chronic and acute liver failure. This review will give an overview on related organ dysfunction as well as recommendations for perioperative management and treatment of liver failure-related symptoms.

  20. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease : an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, Rene; Porte, Robert J.; Fikatas, Panagiotis; Becker, Thomas; Kirkegaard, Preben; Metselaar, Herold J.; Drenth, Joost P. H.

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR)

  1. Diagnostic imaging in liver transplantation. Preoperative evaluation and postoperative complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, T.; Ruehm, S.G.

    2005-01-01

    Complimentary to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is increasingly considered a therapeutic option in the therapy of end-stage liver disease. Accurate pre- and postoperative imaging is crucial for the transplantation success and represents an established part of the current evaluation algorithms. This article summarizes the most important requirements and the current imaging standards. Preoperative imaging is important for exclusion of transplantation contraindications in the recipient and for reliable assessment of anatomical variants in the donor. The main purpose of postoperative imaging is the early detection and characterization of complications. In both instances, multislice CT currently represents the most versatile and reliable imaging modality, still superior to MRI. For postoperative follow-up, the imaging modality of first choice is still bedside ultrasound; however, unclear findings usually need to be further assessed by CT. (orig.) [de

  2. HYPERVASCULAR LIVER LESIONS IN RADIOLOGICALLY NORMAL LIVER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amico, Enio Campos; Alves, José Roberto; Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra de; Salviano, Fellipe Alexandre Macena; João, Samir Assi; Liguori, Adriano de Araújo Lima

    2017-01-01

    The hypervascular liver lesions represent a diagnostic challenge. To identify risk factors for cancer in patients with non-hemangiomatous hypervascular hepatic lesions in radiologically normal liver. This prospective study included patients with hypervascular liver lesions in radiologically normal liver. The diagnosis was made by biopsy or was presumed on the basis of radiologic stability in follow-up period of one year. Cirrhosis or patients with typical imaging characteristics of haemangioma were excluded. Eighty-eight patients were included. The average age was 42.4. The lesions were unique and were between 2-5 cm in size in most cases. Liver biopsy was performed in approximately 1/3 of cases. The lesions were benign or most likely benign in 81.8%, while cancer was diagnosed in 12.5% of cases. Univariate analysis showed that age >45 years (p3 nodules (p=0.003) and elevated alkaline phosphatase (p=0.013) were significant risk factors for cancer. It is safe to observe hypervascular liver lesions in normal liver in patients up to 45 years, normal alanine aminotransaminase, up to three nodules and no personal history of cancer. Lesion biopsies are safe in patients with atypical lesions and define the treatment to be established for most of these patients. As lesões hepáticas hipervasculares representam um desafio diagnóstico. Identificar fatores de risco para câncer em pacientes portadores de lesão hepática hipervascular não-hemangiomatosa em fígado radiologicamente normal. Estudo prospectivo que incluiu pacientes com lesões hepáticas hipervasculares em que o diagnóstico final foi obtido por exame anatomopatológico ou, presumido a partir de seguimento mínimo de um ano. Diagnóstico prévio de cirrose ou radiológico de hemangioma foram considerados critérios de exclusão. Oitenta e oito pacientes foram incluídos. A relação mulher/homem foi de 5,3/1. A idade média foi de 42,4 anos. Na maior parte das vezes as lesões hepáticas foram únicas e com

  3. Computational Modeling in Liver Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Christ

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The need for extended liver resection is increasing due to the growing incidence of liver tumors in aging societies. Individualized surgical planning is the key for identifying the optimal resection strategy and to minimize the risk of postoperative liver failure and tumor recurrence. Current computational tools provide virtual planning of liver resection by taking into account the spatial relationship between the tumor and the hepatic vascular trees, as well as the size of the future liver remnant. However, size and function of the liver are not necessarily equivalent. Hence, determining the future liver volume might misestimate the future liver function, especially in cases of hepatic comorbidities such as hepatic steatosis. A systems medicine approach could be applied, including biological, medical, and surgical aspects, by integrating all available anatomical and functional information of the individual patient. Such an approach holds promise for better prediction of postoperative liver function and hence improved risk assessment. This review provides an overview of mathematical models related to the liver and its function and explores their potential relevance for computational liver surgery. We first summarize key facts of hepatic anatomy, physiology, and pathology relevant for hepatic surgery, followed by a description of the computational tools currently used in liver surgical planning. Then we present selected state-of-the-art computational liver models potentially useful to support liver surgery. Finally, we discuss the main challenges that will need to be addressed when developing advanced computational planning tools in the context of liver surgery.

  4. Clinical evaluation of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) as a marker of liver tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, S

    1984-03-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB) as a marker of liver tumors, in conjection with the liver scintigram. Of 30 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 22 (73.3%) showed significantly higher TBG concentrations. Eight patients (26.7%) showed normal TBG concentrations. In the case of 27 our of 30 patients with definite liver tumors, defects were apparent on the scintigrams. But seven of them had normal TBG concentrations in spite of the defects on the scintigrams. Out of 33 postoperative patients with liver metastasis, 28 (84%) had a raised TBG concentration. Only five (15.2%) had a normal TBG level. In 31 patients (93.9%) out of 33 with liver metastasis, a definite diagnosis was made on the basis of the liver scintigram. In 28 (90.3%) of these 31 people, the TBG concentration was higher than normal. Among 63 patients with liver tumors, both primary and metastatic, the test sensitivity for liver tumors was 92.1% (58/63) based on the accuracy of the liver scintigram. It was 79.4% (50/63) based on the TBG measurement. Why TBG increases to such an extent in spite of the euthyroid state remains unexplained. But it may be concluded that elevated TBG with positive liver scintigram furnishes a sensitive, fairly reliable, nonspecific tumor marker to determine liver tumors, especially in the case of liver metastasis.

  5. Clinical evaluation of thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG) as a marker of liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terui, S.

    1984-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB) as a marker of liver tumors, in conjection with the liver scintigram. Of 30 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC), 22 (73.3%) showed significantly higher TBG concentrations. Eight patients (26.7%) showed normal TBG concentrations. In the case of 27 our of 30 patients with definite liver tumors, defects were apparent on the scintigrams. But seven of them had normal TBG concentrations in spite of the defects on the scintigrams. Out of 33 postoperative patients with liver metastasis, 28 (84%) had a raised TBG concentration. Only five (15.2%) had a normal TBG level. In 31 patients (93.9%) out of 33 with liver metastasis, a definite diagnosis was made on the basis of the liver scintigram. In 28 (90.3%) of these 31 people, the TBG concentration was higher than normal. Among 63 patients with liver tumors, both primary and metastatic, the test sensitivity for liver tumors was 92.1% (58/63) based on the accuracy of the liver scintigram. It was 79.4% (50/63) based on the TBG measurement. Why TBG increases to such an extent in spite of the euthyroid state remains unexplained. But it may be concluded that elevated TBG with positive liver scintigram furnishes a sensitive, fairly reliable, nonspecific tumor marker to determine liver tumors, especially in the case of liver metastasis. (orig.)

  6. Quantitative characterization of fatty liver disease using x-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Wafaa B.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2013-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dynamic condition in which fat abnormally accumulates within the hepatocytes. It is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and carcinoma. The fat content in liver biopsies determines its validity for liver transplantation. Transplantation of livers with severe NAFLD is associated with a high risk of primary non-function. Moreover, NAFLD is recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection. Unfortunately, there is a lack in a precise, reliable and reproducible method for quantification of NAFLD. This work suggests a method for the quantification of NAFLD. The method is based on the fact that fatty liver tissue would have a characteristic x-ray scattering profile with a relatively intense fat peak at a momentum transfer value of 1.1 nm-1 compared to a soft tissue peak at 1.6 nm-1. The fat content in normal and fatty liver is plotted against three profile characterization parameters (ratio of peak intensities, ratio of area under peaks and ratio of area under fat peak to total profile area) for measured and Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles. Results show a high linear dependence (R2>0.9) of the characterization parameters on the liver fat content with a reported high correlation coefficient (>0.9) between measured and simulated data. These results indicate that the current method probably offers reliable quantification of fatty liver disease.

  7. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  8. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  9. CT quantitative diagnosis in fatty liver: a clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Wen; Qian Linxue; Zhao Jixue; Ma Daqing; Feng Jie; Hu Zhihai

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To establish the CT criteria of quantitative diagnosis for liver steatosis by means of studying the CT features of fatty liver cases proven histologically. Methods: Twenty-eight cases of fatty liver were underwent non-enhanced CT scan, and the attenuation of liver parenchyma was measured. To differentiate the degree of fatty liver, the mean CT value and the relative density of hepatic vessels were observed. The quantitative diagnosis was made according to the CT number threshold and the criteria of relative density of hepatic vessels, respectively. Results: Among the 28 cases, there were 17 cases of mild steatosis with mean CT number of 46 HU (32-65 HU), 7 cases of middle degree fatty liver with mean CT number of 28 HU (15-38 HU), and 4 cases of sever fatty liver with mean CT number of 0.2 HU (-7-11 HU). For the relative density of hepatic vessels, 16 of the 17 cases of mild fatty liver had a appearance of hepatic vessels immersion and 1 mild case had reverse hepatic vessels display, 6 of 7 middle degree cases had reverse hepatic vessels display with 1 case having the appearance of hepatic vessels immersion, and all the 4 case of sever steatosis had the appearance of reverse hepatic vessels display with sharp contrast between vessels and the liver parenchyma. The accuracy of quantitative diagnosis was 65.9% and 93.1% by means of criteria of CT number threshold and relative density of hepatic vessels, respectively (x 2 = 7.153, P < 0.01). Conclusion: The criteria of relative density of hepatic vessels is more reliable than that of CT number threshold in quantitative diagnosis of fatty liver

  10. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  11. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  12. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  13. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  14. in Human Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoru Fujimoto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling pathways are strictly coordinated by several mechanisms to regulate adequate innate immune responses. Recent lines of evidence indicate that the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS family proteins, originally identified as negative-feedback regulators in cytokine signaling, are involved in the regulation of TLR-mediated immune responses. SOCS1, a member of SOCS family, is strongly induced upon TLR stimulation. Cells lacking SOCS1 are hyperresponsive to TLR stimulation. Thus, SOCS1 is an important regulator for both cytokine and TLR-induced responses. As an immune organ, the liver contains various types of immune cells such as T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, and Kupffer cells and is continuously challenged with gut-derived bacterial and dietary antigens. SOCS1 may be implicated in pathophysiology of the liver. The studies using SOCS1-deficient mice revealed that endogenous SOCS1 is critical for the prevention of liver diseases such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and cancers. Recent studies on humans suggest that SOCS1 is involved in the development of various liver disorders in humans. Thus, SOCS1 and other SOCS proteins are potential targets for the therapy of human liver diseases.

  15. Encephalopathy and liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavarria, Laia; Cordoba, Juan

    2013-06-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) candidates experience frequently episodic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy. In addition, these patients can exhibit neurological comorbidities that contribute to cognitive impairment in the pre-transplant period. Assessment of the respective contribution of hepatic encephalopathy or comorbidities in the cognitive manifestations is critical to estimate the neurological benefits of restoring liver function. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy are useful to assess the impact of liver failure or comorbidities. This assessment is critical to decide liver transplant in difficult cases. In the early postoperative period, LT is commonly complicated by a confusional syndrome. The possible role of persisting hepatic encephalopathy in its development has not been clearly established. The origin is usually considered multifactorial and relates to complications following LT, such as infections, rejection, primary liver dysfunction, immunosuppressors, etc.… The diagnosis and treatment is based in the recognition of comorbidities and optimal care of metabolic disturbances. Several studies have demonstrated recovery of cognitive function after LT in patients that have exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. However, some deficits may persist specifically among patients with persistent HE. Other factors present before LT that contribute to a worse neuropsychological outcome after LT are diabetes mellitus and alcohol consumption. Long-term after LT, cognitive function may worsen in relation to vascular risk factors.

  16. Computed tomography of the liver and the biliary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brall, B.

    1982-01-01

    The goal of this work was on the basis of bioptic controls to test the diagnostic strength of computed tomographic examinations which were carried out between 1976 and 1978 using a slow scanner (2,5 min.) relating to localized and diffuse liver diseases and diseases of the biliary tract. With the presentation at the same time of scintigraphic and/or sonographic findings, these were also bioptically controlled and the diagnostic strengths of all three non-invasive examination methods were compared. With localized liver diseases (n=323) CT had a specificity of 85%, a sensitivity of 81% and an accuracy of 84%. The total correct diagnoses by diffuse liver diseases (n=265) was 65%. In the differential diagnostis of icterus CT had a specificity of 100%, a sensitivity of 77%, and an accuracy of 83%. In the diagnosis of gall stones (n=19) CT only had a mediocre diagnostic strength. CT, liver scintigraphy and sonography in the case of localized liver diseases agreed roughly in reference to sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. CT proved itself to be superior to the other non-invasive procedures in the number of correct type diagnoses. CT and sonography were superior in diffuse liver diseases (n=173). The study showed the high diagnostic strength of CT with regard to the detection or exclusion of localized liver diseases and their type-diagnostic classification and the high reliability of the method with regard to the differential diagnosis of icterus. (orig./TRV) [de

  17. Liver biopsy in liver patients with coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, P.; Gronbaek, H.; Clausen, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    The risk of severe bleeding after liver biopsy is estimated to be 1:12,000 in patients with near normal coagulation (INR 60 billion /l). Beyond these limits, the risk is higher, but still uncertain. The Danish guidelines require INR > 1.5, platelet count ... and normal APTT. In some instances the risk of not knowing the histology is so high that a biopsy is considered even with a more disturbed coagulation. Vitamin K, freshly frozen plasma and recombinant activated factor VII may reduce the risk of bleeding in specific situations, but no firm recommendations can...

  18. Segmentation of liver tumors on CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescia, D.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is dedicated to 3D segmentation of liver tumors in CT images. This is a task of great clinical interest since it allows physicians benefiting from reproducible and reliable methods for segmenting such lesions. Accurate segmentation would indeed help them during the evaluation of the lesions, the choice of treatment and treatment planning. Such a complex segmentation task should cope with three main scientific challenges: (i) the highly variable shape of the structures being sought, (ii) their similarity of appearance compared with their surrounding medium and finally (iii) the low signal to noise ratio being observed in these images. This problem is addressed in a clinical context through a two step approach, consisting of the segmentation of the entire liver envelope, before segmenting the tumors which are present within the envelope. We begin by proposing an atlas-based approach for computing pathological liver envelopes. Initially images are pre-processed to compute the envelopes that wrap around binary masks in an attempt to obtain liver envelopes from estimated segmentation of healthy liver parenchyma. A new statistical atlas is then introduced and used to segmentation through its diffeomorphic registration to the new image. This segmentation is achieved through the combination of image matching costs as well as spatial and appearance prior using a multi-scale approach with MRF. The second step of our approach is dedicated to lesions segmentation contained within the envelopes using a combination of machine learning techniques and graph based methods. First, an appropriate feature space is considered that involves texture descriptors being determined through filtering using various scales and orientations. Then, state of the art machine learning techniques are used to determine the most relevant features, as well as the hyper plane that separates the feature space of tumoral voxels to the ones corresponding to healthy tissues. Segmentation is then

  19. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  20. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  1. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  2. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  3. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  4. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  5. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  6. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  7. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  8. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  9. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  10. Liver biopsy under hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P C; Stenn, P G

    1992-09-01

    Two patients underwent outpatient percutaneous liver biopsy under hypnosis without complications. One patient had severe anxiety about the procedure because of a previous adverse experience with liver biopsy and the other had a history of severe allergy to local anesthesia. Both patients had undergone a session of hypnosis at least once prior to the biopsy. One received no local anesthetic and the other received 1% lidocaine as a local anesthetic. Both patients were completely cooperative during the procedure with the required respiratory maneuvers. Both patients stated that they were aware of the procedure under hypnosis but described no pain and would be most willing to have the procedure done under hypnosis in the future. Hypnosis can be a useful method of preparing carefully selected patients for percutaneous liver biopsy.

  11. MANAGEMENT OF LIVER TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dova Subba

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM To estimate the incidence of Liver Trauma injuries and grade their severity of injury. To assess the factors responsible for morbidity and mortality after Liver Trauma. To study the postoperative complications and the management of Liver Trauma. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present prospective study was conducted on 100 patients who were admitted to Department of General Surgery for treatment who were managed operatively or non-operatively for abdominal trauma and having liver injury forms the material of the study. This study was conducted over a span of 24 months from June 2013 to November 2015. RESULTS Maximum number of patients are in the age group of 21-30 years (46%. 85% patients (85/100 are males and 15% of patients (15/100 are females. Lapse time of injury and admission varied from 25 minutes to 66 hours and 30 minutes. 75 % of the patients (75/100 presented within 24 hours after injury. Death rate of patients who reached hospital after 24 hours of injury was higher than the patients who reached hospital within 24 hours of injury. 28% of patients (28/100 had associated bony injuries, out of which 5% of patients (5/100 expired due to primary haemorrhage of fractured femur. More than one segment was injured in many patients. Segment V is involved commonly making 55% (55/100 of patients. Next common segment involved is segment VII, making 39% (39/100. CONCLUSION Mechanism of injury is the important factor which is responsible for morbidity in liver injury. Nonoperative management proved to be safe and effective and often has been used to treat patients with liver trauma.

  12. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  13. Liver and spleen scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devries, D.F.

    1988-01-01

    Since the introduction of liver and spleen scintigraphy in the early 1950s, it has undergone considerable changes, the most notable being technetium 99m sulfur colloid, the gamma camera, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). What is the role f liver-spleen scintigraphy in this high-technology society? This chapter attempts to address this question by looking at the radiopharmaceuticals, the technique, and most importantly, the application of scintigraphy to the diagnosis of focal and diffuse hepatic and splenic disease

  14. Atlas of liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    This atlas is an outcome of an IAEA co-ordinated research programme. In addition to Japan, nine other Asian countries participated in the project and 293 liver scintigrams (116 from Japanese institutions and 177 from seven Asian countries) were evaluated by physicians from the participating Asian countries. The computer analysis of the scan findings of the individual physicians was carried out and individual scores have been separately tabulated for: (a) scan abnormality; (b) space occupying lesions; (c) cirrhosis and (d) diffuse liver diseases like hepatitis. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Management of liver trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M Alghamdi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last 30 years, the management of liver injury has evolved significantly. The advancement of imaging studies has played an important role in the conservative approach for management. A shift from operative to nonoperative management for most hemodynamically stable patients with hepatic injury has been prompted by speed and sensitivity of diagnostic imaging and by advances in critical care monitoring. In this review article, the up-to-date recommendation on the management approach of liver trauma will be discussed.

  16. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  17. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  18. Biotechnological challenges of bioartificial kidney engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Jitske; Fedecostante, M; Wilmer, M J; van den Heuvel, L P; Hoenderop, J G; Masereeuw, R

    2014-01-01

    With the world-wide increase of patients with renal failure, the development of functional renal replacement therapies have gained significant interest and novel technologies are rapidly evolving. Currently used renal replacement therapies insufficiently remove accumulating waste products, resulting

  19. The application of 99Tcm-phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianhua; Li Xiaoping; Li Chaolong; He Xu; Lin Zhiqi; Zhu Weibing

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To affirm the application value of 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy in pig auxiliary liver transplantation. Methods: The graft was transplanted in the right subhepatic space of recipient to establish pig auxiliary liver transplantation model. The artery blood supplies were the very same in all grafts and the portal vein (PV) blood flows were differently controlled by trussing the host PV at the site neared host liver. According to the constriction degree, PV blood supplies were divided into three groups including A (constricted by 1/3), B (constricted by 1/2) and C(not constricted). The blood flows of the graft liver and the host liver were measured by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy and livers functions were estimated after auxiliary liver transplantation. Contrasted with its histological findings the reflection of graft survival with 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy was investigated. Results: It was detected by 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy that the blood flows were almost equilibrated and abundant in grafts and host liver' in group A, and were abundant in grafts of group B and host livers of group C and were significantly decreased in host livers of group B and grafts of group C. Histological work-up demonstrated that the liver was not atrophic while the blood flow was abundant and the liver was atrophic while the blood flow was decreased. Conclusion: 99 Tc m -phytate scintigraphy could accurately reflect the survival and function of grafts and host livers after auxiliary liver transplantation and it is a reliable technique which can be used to estimate the survival and function of the grafts and host livers

  20. Quantitative Assessment of Liver Fat with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Scott B.; Cruite, Irene; Hamilton, Gavin; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis is characterized by abnormal and excessive accumulation of lipids within hepatocytes. It is an important feature of diffuse liver disease, and the histological hallmark of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Other conditions associated with steatosis include alcoholic liver disease, viral hepatitis, HIV and genetic lipodystrophies, cystic fibrosis liver disease, and hepatotoxicity from various therapeutic agents. Liver biopsy, the current clinical gold standard for assessment of liver fat, is invasive and has sampling errors, and is not optimal for screening, monitoring, clinical decision making, or well-suited for many types of research studies. Non-invasive methods that accurately and objectively quantify liver fat are needed. Ultrasound (US) and computed tomography (CT) can be used to assess liver fat but have limited accuracy as well as other limitations. Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques can decompose the liver signal into its fat and water signal components and therefore assess liver fat more directly than CT or US. Most magnetic resonance (MR) techniques measure the signal fat-fraction (the fraction of the liver MR signal attributable to liver fat), which may be confounded by numerous technical and biological factors and may not reliably reflect fat content. By addressing the factors that confound the signal fat-fraction, advanced MR techniques measure the proton density fat-fraction (the fraction of the liver proton density attributable to liver fat), which is a fundamental tissue property and a direct measure of liver fat content. These advanced techniques show promise for accurate fat quantification and are likely to be commercially available soon. PMID:22025886

  1. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Wilson Disease Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease & NASH View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a condition in which fat ...

  2. Radiofrequency Ablation of Liver Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have had a surgical procedure in which the liver bile duct has been connected to a loop of bowel are at much greater risk of developing a liver abscess after ablation. Women should always inform their ...

  3. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy !

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Liver Hypertension: Treatment in Infancy ! Liver Disease > Heart. No good non-invasive method. Repeated measurements problematic. Drug efficacy 50% at best. No predictors of response. We Need YOU !!

  4. Three cases of liver abscess

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeyama, Toyoaki; Imamoto, Shoichiro; Hirai, Kenji; Nagasaki, Yoshikazu; Abe, Hirohiko

    1980-01-01

    Three patients with liver abscess were presented with special reference to the diagnostic evaluation of computed tomography (CT). CT findings were specific for liver abscess and valuable for its correct diagnosis and accurately defined the extent of involvement. (author)

  5. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fede, Giuseppe; Germani, Giacomo; Gluud, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any beneficial effects in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  6. [Liver diseases in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruguera, Miguel

    2014-11-01

    Liver diseases in the elderly have aroused less interest than diseases of other organs, since the liver plays a limited role in aging. There are no specific liver diseases of old age, but age-related anatomical and functional modifications of the liver cause changes in the frequency and clinical behavior of some liver diseases compared with those in younger patients. This review discusses the most important features of liver function in the healthy elderly population, as well as the features of the most prevalent liver diseases in this age group, especially the diagnostic approach to the most common liver problems in the elderly: asymptomatic elevation of serum transaminases and jaundice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.E.M. van der Pool (Anne)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractColorectal cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide and ranks second in cancer-related deaths in many parts of the Western world. Once in the lymph or blood vessels, colorectal cancer can quickly spread and the liver is known to be a favourable site for metastases. The

  8. Polyploidization in liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentric, Géraldine; Desdouets, Chantal

    2014-02-01

    Polyploidy (alias whole genome amplification) refers to organisms containing more than two basic sets of chromosomes. Polyploidy was first observed in plants more than a century ago, and it is known that such processes occur in many eukaryotes under a variety of circumstances. In mammals, the development of polyploid cells can contribute to tissue differentiation and, therefore, possibly a gain of function; alternately, it can be associated with development of disease, such as cancer. Polyploidy can occur because of cell fusion or abnormal cell division (endoreplication, mitotic slippage, or cytokinesis failure). Polyploidy is a common characteristic of the mammalian liver. Polyploidization occurs mainly during liver development, but also in adults with increasing age or because of cellular stress (eg, surgical resection, toxic exposure, or viral infections). This review will explore the mechanisms that lead to the development of polyploid cells, our current state of understanding of how polyploidization is regulated during liver growth, and its consequence on liver function. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Coffee and liver health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisco, Filomena; Lembo, Vincenzo; Mazzone, Giovanna; Camera, Silvia; Caporaso, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Coffee is one of the most widely used beverages in the world. It includes a wide array of components that can have potential implications for health. Several epidemiological studies associate coffee consumption with a reduced incidence of various chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. Over the past 20 years, an increasing number of epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated the positive effects of coffee on chronic liver diseases. Coffee consumption has been inversely associated with the activity of liver enzymes in subjects at risk, including heavy drinkers. Coffee favours an improvement in hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, and a reduction in cirrhosis and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanisms of action through which it exerts its beneficial effects are not fully understood. Experimental studies show that coffee consumption reduces fat accumulation and collagen deposition in the liver and promotes antioxidant capacity through an increase in glutathione as well as modulation of the gene and protein expression of several inflammatory mediators. Animal and in vitro studies indicate that cafestol and kahweol, 2 diterpens, can operate by modulating multiple enzymes involved in the detoxification process of carcinogens causing hepatocellular carcinoma. It is unclear whether the benefits are significant enough to "treat" patients with chronic liver disease. While we await clarification, moderate daily unsweetened coffee use is a reasonable adjuvant to therapy for these patients.

  10. Cystoadenocarcinoma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukemura, J.; Cunha, J.E.M. da; Bacchella, T.; Herman, P.; Cerri, G.G.; Machado, M.C.C.; Pinotti, H.W.; Magalhaes, A.

    1987-01-01

    One case of an old woman is related, wuth a tumor in the right side of abdomen. The patient was submitted to ultrasography computerized tomography, demostrating hepatic and renal cystrand areas of wild mass in the liver. Adenocarcinoma was demostrated by anotmopathologic examination. (author) [pt

  11. Angiomyolipoma of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, T.; Nakamura, H.; Hori, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Mitani, T.; Kozuka, T.; Kimura, Y.; Monden, M.; Wakasa, K.; Sakurai, M.

    1993-01-01

    Angiomyolipoma, a rare benign liver tumor, was observed in a 50-year-old woman examined with US, CT, MR imaging and angiography. Dynamic studies using CT and MR imaging were valuable in differentiating the disease from hepatocellular carcinoma with fat deposits. (orig.)

  12. Angiogenesis in liver fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adlia, Amirah

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis emerges in parallel with liver fibrosis, but it is still unclear whether angiogenesis is a defense mechanism of the body in response to fibrosis, or whether it aggravates the fibrotic condition. In this thesis, Amirah Adlia applied different approaches to elucidate the role of

  13. Calcium signaling in liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspers, Lawrence D; Thomas, Andrew P

    2005-01-01

    In hepatocytes, hormones linked to the formation of the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) evoke transient increases or spikes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]i), that increase in frequency with the agonist concentration. These oscillatory Ca2+ signals are thought to transmit the information encoded in the extracellular stimulus to down-stream Ca2+-sensitive metabolic processes. We have utilized both confocal and wide field fluorescence microscopy techniques to study the InsP3-dependent signaling pathway at the cellular and subcellular levels in the intact perfused liver. Typically InsP3-dependent [Ca2+]i spikes manifest as Ca2+ waves that propagate throughout the entire cytoplasm and nucleus, and in the intact liver these [Ca2+]i increases are conveyed through gap junctions to encompass entire lobular units. The translobular movement of Ca2+ provides a means to coordinate the function of metabolic zones of the lobule and thus, liver function. In this article, we describe the characteristics of agonist-evoked [Ca2+]i signals in the liver and discuss possible mechanisms to explain the propagation of intercellular Ca2+ waves in the intact organ.

  14. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  15. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  16. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  17. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  18. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  19. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  20. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  1. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  2. Propylthiouracil for alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rambaldi, A; Gluud, C

    2002-01-01

    Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease.......Alcohol is the most common cause of liver disease in the Western world today. Randomised clinical trials have addressed the question whether propylthiouracil has any efficacy in patients with alcoholic liver disease....

  3. [Robot-assisted liver resection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aselmann, H; Möller, T; Kersebaum, J-N; Egberts, J H; Croner, R; Brunner, M; Grützmann, R; Becker, T

    2017-06-01

    Robotic liver resection can overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic liver surgery; therefore, it is a promising tool to increase the proportion of minimally invasive liver resections. The present article gives an overview of the current literature. Furthermore, the results of a nationwide survey on robotic liver surgery among hospitals in Germany with a DaVinci system used in general visceral surgery and the perioperative results of two German robotic centers are presented.

  4. Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function after partial hepatectomy in patients with liver tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, P.L.M.; Chamuleau, R.A.F.; Leeuwen, D.J. van; Schippor, H.G.; Busemann-Sokole, E.; Heyde, M.N. van der

    1990-01-01

    Liver regeneration and restoration of liver function were studied in six patients who underwent partial hepatectomy with removal of 30-70% of the liver. Liver volume and liver regeneration were studied by single photon computed tomography (SPECT), using 99m Tc-colloid as tracer. The method was assessed in 11 patients by comparing the pre- and post-operative volume measurement with the volume of the resected liver mass. Liver function was determined by measuring the galactose elimination capacity and the caffeine clearance. After a postoperative follow-up period of 50 days, the liver had regenerated maximally to a volume of 75 ± 2% of the preoperative liver mass. Maximal restoration of liver function was achieved 120 days after operation and amounted to 75 ± 10% for the caffeine clearance and to 100 ± 25% for the galactose elimination capacity. This study shows that SPECT is a useful method for assessing liver regeneration in patients after partial hepatectomy. The study furthermore shows that caffeine clearance correlates well with total liver volume, whereas the galactose elimination capacity overestimates total liver volume after partial hepatectomy. 22 refs

  5. Stages of Adult Primary Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Adult Primary Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version Treatment ... are different types of treatment for patients with adult primary liver cancer. Different types of treatments are ...

  6. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  7. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  8. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  9. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  10. Pediatric obesity and the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, B.G.P.

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent complication of obesity. In some of those with NAFLD, the fat accumulation in the liver will cause inflammation and fibrosis and can ultimately cause liver failure. In addition, in adults it has been established that NAFLD increases the risk of

  11. [Local treatment of liver tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, T.K.; Skjoldbye, Bjørn Ole

    2008-01-01

    Local treatment of non-resectable liver tumors is common. This brief review describes the local treatment techniques used in Denmark. The techniques are evaluated according to the evidence in literature. The primary local treatment is Radiofrequency Ablation of both primary liver tumors and liver...

  12. Improved transvenous liver biopsy needle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Matzen, P; Christoffersen, P

    1979-01-01

    A modified type of the standard transvenous cholangiography biopsy needle is described. The modified tranvenous liver biopsy needle caused only minimal artefactual changes of the liver biopsy specimens. The new type of biopsy needle is a modified Menghini needle. The conventional Menghini needle...... should be avoided for transvenous catheter biopsies because of risk of leaving catheter fragments in the liver....

  13. Benign focal liver lesions: discrimination from malignant mimickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alobaidi, Mohammad; Shirkhoda, Ali

    2004-01-01

    Focal lesions of the liver often have various imaging characteristics which may be interpreted as either benign or malignant. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology of these liver lesions may lead to characteristic imaging manifestations, which direct the radiologist to the diagnosis. Benign lesions include congenital hepatic cyst, autosomal dominant polycystic disease, hemangioma, focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH), hepatic adenoma, inflammatory pseudotumor, peliosis hepatis, focal fatty infiltration, hamartoma, and infectious processes such as hepatic abscess, echinococcal cyst, and candidiasis. Characteristic imaging features, clinical symptoms, and treatment/prognosis will be discussed. Emphasis will be placed on key reliable features of each disease to develop a method of discriminating these lesions from other benign and malignant disorders.

  14. Radioligand assay for biotin in liver tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettenmaier, R.

    1979-01-01

    A radioligand assay for biotin in liver tissue is described. 3 H-biotin is used as tracer and avidin as binder. The biotin-loaded avidin is separated from free biotin on dextran-coated charcoal, which leaves the avidin-biotin complex in the supernatant liquid. Thus, the avidin-biotin complex can easily be utilized for determination of the radioactivity. Calibration with known additions of biotin in the range 0.25-8.0 ng per assay sample yields a linear logit-log plot. The biotin is extracted from liver tissues by enzymatic proteolysis with papain. This treatment is optimized to liberate the bound forms of the vitamin. Microbiological parallel assays with Lactobacillus plantarum were in good agreement with the radioligand assay giving a regression coefficient of 0.974(n=44). The coefficient of variation was found to be 4.2% in the range 500-1200 ng of biotin per g of liver tissue (n=46). The method is simple and reliable and allows the simultaneous analysis of a considerable number of samples. (Auth.)

  15. Value of liver scan in the follow-up study of patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cedermark, B.J.; Schultz, S.S.; Bakshi, S.; Parthasarathy, K.L.; Mittelman, A.; Evans, J.T.

    1977-01-01

    Seventy consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon and rectum had a liver scan followed by surgical exploration of the liver. Preoperatively, blood chemistry studies were done in addition to palpation of the abdomen. Surgical findings were correlated to results of the liver scans, function tests and palpation of the liver. The overall concordance of liver scans with surgical findings was 78 percent. Thirty percent had false-positive results and 15 percent, false-negative results. The correlation of the liver scan with surgical findings was improved with increasing extent of metastases. When less than 25 percent of the liver was replaced by tumor, there was a random correlation of scan to surgical findings. By combining liver scans and liver function tests, metastases could be predicted with increased reliability only in patients who had severe metastatic disease of the liver. It is strongly recommended that patients with liver scans suggestive of metastatic disease and with most liver function tests within normal limits undergo exploration to establish the diagnosis. Exploratory laparotomy seems to be the only way to avoid chemotherapeutic treatment of patients with false-positive scans and still allow detection and treatment of metastases to the liver to occur at earlier stages

  16. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  17. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  18. Liver manifestations of cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akata, Deniz; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    Chronic liver disease is one of the major complications of cystic fibrosis (CF). Significant liver disease is seen in 13-25% of children with CF. Improved life expectancy and prolonged follow-up have favored better characterization of the hepatic manifestations of CF and allowed direct observation of an increasing number of liver-related events. Liver disease typically develops in the first decade of life, with the incidence dropping rapidly after the age of 10 years. The wide spectrum of liver disease ranging from asymptomatic gallbladder abnormalities to biliary cirrhosis will be reviewed in this article

  19. Quantitative characterization of fatty liver disease using x-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsharkawy, Wafaa B.; Elshemey, Wael M.

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a dynamic condition in which fat abnormally accumulates within the hepatocytes. It is believed to be a marker of risk of later chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and carcinoma. The fat content in liver biopsies determines its validity for liver transplantation. Transplantation of livers with severe NAFLD is associated with a high risk of primary non-function. Moreover, NAFLD is recognized as a clinically important feature that influences patient morbidity and mortality after hepatic resection. Unfortunately, there is a lack in a precise, reliable and reproducible method for quantification of NAFLD. This work suggests a method for the quantification of NAFLD. The method is based on the fact that fatty liver tissue would have a characteristic x-ray scattering profile with a relatively intense fat peak at a momentum transfer value of 1.1 nm −1 compared to a soft tissue peak at 1.6 nm −1 . The fat content in normal and fatty liver is plotted against three profile characterization parameters (ratio of peak intensities, ratio of area under peaks and ratio of area under fat peak to total profile area) for measured and Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles. Results show a high linear dependence (R 2 >0.9) of the characterization parameters on the liver fat content with a reported high correlation coefficient (>0.9) between measured and simulated data. These results indicate that the current method probably offers reliable quantification of fatty liver disease. - Highlights: • A method for the quantification of NAFLD is suggested. • Fatty liver tissue has characteristic x-ray scattering profile. • Profile characterization parameters show differences between normal and fatty liver. • Monte Carlo simulated x-ray scattering profiles are compared to measured

  20. Autoimmune paediatric liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieli-Vergani, Giorgina; Vergani, Diego

    2008-06-07

    Liver disorders with a likely autoimmune pathogenesis in childhood include autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis (ASC), and de novo AIH after liver transplantation. AIH is divided into two subtypes according to seropositivity for smooth muscle and/or antinuclear antibody (SMA/ANA, type 1) or liver kidney microsomal antibody (LKM1, type 2). There is a female predominance in both. LKM1 positive patients tend to present more acutely, at a younger age, and commonly have partial IgA deficiency, while duration of symptoms before diagnosis, clinical signs, family history of autoimmunity, presence of associated autoimmune disorders, response to treatment, and long-term prognosis are similar in both groups. The most common type of paediatric sclerosing cholangitis is ASC. The clinical, biochemical, immunological, and histological presentation of ASC is often indistinguishable from that of AIH type 1. In both, there are high IgG, non-organ specific autoantibodies, and interface hepatitis. Diagnosis is made by cholangiography. Children with ASC respond to immunosuppression satisfactorily and similarly to AIH in respect to remission and relapse rates, times to normalization of biochemical parameters, and decreased inflammatory activity on follow up liver biopsies. However, the cholangiopathy can progress. There may be evolution from AIH to ASC over the years, despite treatment. De novo AIH after liver transplantation affects patients not transplanted for autoimmune disorders and is strikingly reminiscent of classical AIH, including elevated titres of serum antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia, and histological findings of interface hepatitis, bridging fibrosis, and collapse. Like classical AIH, it responds to treatment with prednisolone and azathioprine. De novo AIH post liver transplantation may derive from interference by calcineurin inhibitors with the intrathymic physiological mechanisms of T-cell maturation and selection. Whether this condition is a

  1. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  2. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  3. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  4. State-of-the-art imaging of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis: A comprehensive review of current applications and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Huber

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: MR elastography (MRE appears to be the most reliable method for grading liver fibrosis, although the CT fibrosis score derived from the combination of caudate-to-right-lobe ratio and the diameters of the liver veins significantly correlates with the stage of fibrosis.

  5. Polycystic Liver Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linda, Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations. The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile

  6. Polycystic Liver Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linda, Nguyen, E-mail: nguyenli@einstein.edu [5501 Old York Road, Philadelphia, PA 19141 (United States)

    2016-03-25

    A 77-year-old African American male presented with intermittent abdominal pain for one week. He denied nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fevers, anorexia, or weight loss. He denied a family history of liver disease, recent travel, or history of intravenous drug abuse. His vital signs were normal. Labs revealed total bilirubin of 1.5 mg/dl, hypoalbuminaemia 3.0 gm/dl and prolonged prothrombin time of 14.8 sec. Computed Tomography of the abdomen and pelvis with contrast showed multiple hepatic cysts with the largest cyst occupying the right abdomen, measuring 20.6 cm (Panel A and). This cyst had predominantly fluid attenuation, but also contained several septations. The patient underwent laparoscopic fenestration of the large hepatic cyst with hepatic cyst wall biopsy. Pathology revealed blood without malignant cells. The patient tolerated the procedure well with improvement of his abdominal pain and normalization of his liver function tests and coagulation profile.

  7. Fatty Liver Index and Lipid Accumulation Product Can Predict Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects without Fatty Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lung Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fatty liver index (FLI and lipid accumulation product (LAP are indexes originally designed to assess the risk of fatty liver and cardiovascular disease, respectively. Both indexes have been proven to be reliable markers of subsequent metabolic syndrome; however, their ability to predict metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease has not been clarified. Methods. We enrolled consecutive subjects who received health check-up services at Taipei Veterans General Hospital from 2002 to 2009. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography. The ability of the FLI and LAP to predict metabolic syndrome was assessed by analyzing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC curve. Results. Male sex was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome, and the LAP and FLI were better than other variables to predict metabolic syndrome among the 29,797 subjects. Both indexes were also better than other variables to detect metabolic syndrome in subjects without fatty liver disease (AUROC: 0.871 and 0.879, resp., and the predictive power was greater among women. Conclusion. Metabolic syndrome increases the cardiovascular disease risk. The FLI and LAP could be used to recognize the syndrome in both subjects with and without fatty liver disease who require lifestyle modifications and counseling.

  8. Benefit of FOLFOX to unresectable liver metastases secondary from colorectal carcinoma in an oncologic emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Maki; Yasuda, Hideki; Koda, Keiji; Yamazaki, Masato; Tezuka, Tohru; Takenoue, Tomohiro; Kosugi, Chihiro; Higuchi, Ryota; Yamamoto, Shiho; Watayo, Yoshihisa; Yagawa, Yohsuke; Suzuki, Masato

    2007-09-01

    Liver metastasis is an important prognostic factor in colorectal cancer. The efficacy of resection of metastatic lesions in liver metastasis of colorectal cancer is also widely recognized. However, studies on treatment methods of unresectable cases have not been sufficient and obtaining complete remission (CR) for liver metastasis is rare with chemotherapy. Selection of reliable chemotherapy for unresectable liver metastasis is an urgent necessity. The usefulness of oxaliplatin, 5-flurouracil and leucovorin combination therapy (FOLFOX) has recently been reported, but CR of liver metastasis is rare. The current status and new therapeutic significance of FOLFOX therapy are discussed based on the literature of colorectal cancer chemotherapy to date, and the clinical experience in which we obtained CR for liver metastasis is reported. The patient had stage IV rectal cancer, perforative peritonitis, pelvic abscess and simultaneous multiple liver metastasis. The patient underwent an emergency operation using the Hartmann's procedure. Liver metastasis is considered to be a prognostic factor and FOLFOX was selected as the postoperative chemotherapy, CR of the liver metastasis was obtained. FOLFOX was suggested to have new clinical significance in oncologic emergencies against unresectable liver metastasis in colorectal cancer and should serve as adjuvant chemotherapy that will contribute to improvement of treatment results.

  9. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  10. Osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezai, Shu-ichi; Ishizawa, Suguru; Yoshino, Katsumasa

    1987-01-01

    In order to investigate the osteodystrophy in liver cirrhosis, 21 liver cirrhotic patients having no malignancy and normal renal function were examined by 99m Tc Methylene Diphosphonate (MDP) bone scintigraphy. The cirrhotic subjects consisted of 14 males and 7 females. Their age was 31 - 80, average 55.7 years. The causes of their cirrhotic damage were 1 primary biliary cirrhosis, 9 alcoholic, 2 HB viral and 9 cryptogenic. The contents of their illness showed 9 cases in A, 4 in B and 8 in C of Child's classification. Abnormal hot spot(s) on bone in the cirrhotics could be observed very frequently in 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy (47.6 %; 10/21 cases). Those spots were seen more frequently in female and advanced stage of cirrhosis. The number of spot(s) increased also in advanced liver cirrhosis. Serum Ca, P and PTH were in normal range. All of three vitamin D 3 fractions decreased and especially 1,25 (OH) 2 D 3 was depressed more in scinti-positive cases. Metacarpal bone X-p with an alumimum step wedge as a reference was analyzed by a microdensitometry (MD) method (Inoue T et al) and the pattern of osteopathy (i.e. porosis, malacia and poromalacia) was examined according to Sumi Y et al. MD method was not known yet if there was any definite correlation with bone scintigraphy and the osteopathic pattern belonged to border categories. In conclusion, more attension on hepatic osteodystrophy will be significantly necessary due to the fact that it has been found very frequently in liver cirrhosis. 99m Tc MDP bone scintigraphy is a good means for detection of the hepatic osteodystrophy. (author)

  11. Excellent survival after liver transplantation for isolated polycystic liver disease: an European Liver Transplant Registry study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Keimpema, Loes; Nevens, Frederik; Adam, René

    2011-01-01

    Patients with end-stage isolated polycystic liver disease (PCLD) suffer from incapacitating symptoms because of very large liver volumes. Liver transplantation (LT) is the only curative option. This study assesses the feasibility of LT in PCLD. We used the European Liver Transplant Registry (ELTR......) database to extract demographics and outcomes of 58 PCLD patients. We used Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for survival rates. Severe abdominal pain (75%) was the most prominent symptom, while portal hypertension (35%) was the most common complication in PCLD. The explantation of the polycystic liver...

  12. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  13. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  14. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  15. Management of liver trauma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Badger, S A

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Blunt and penetrating liver trauma is common and often presents major diagnostic and management problems. METHODS: A literature review was undertaken to determine the current consensus on investigation and management strategies. RESULTS: The liver is the most frequently injured organ following abdominal trauma. Immediate assessment with ultrasound has replaced diagnostic peritoneal lavage in the resuscitation room, but computerised tomography remains the gold standard investigation. Nonoperative management is preferred in stable patients but laparotomy is indicated in unstable patients. Damage control techniques such as perihepatic packing, hepatotomy plus direct suture, and resectional debridement are recommended. Major complex surgical procedures such as anatomical resection or atriocaval shunting are now thought to be redundant in the emergency setting. Packing is also recommended for the inexperienced surgeon to allow control and stabilisation prior to transfer to a tertiary centre. Interventional radiological techniques are becoming more widely used, particularly in patients who are being managed nonoperatively or have been stabilised by perihepatic packing. CONCLUSIONS: Management of liver injuries has evolved significantly throughout the last two decades. In the absence of other abdominal injuries, operative management can usually be avoided. Patients with more complex injuries or subsequent complications should be transferred to a specialist centre to optimise final outcome.

  16. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  17. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  18. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  19. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  20. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  1. THE DIAGNOSIS OF LIVER ALLOGRAFT ACUTE REJECTION IN LIVER BIOPSIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Shkalova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We performed histological examination of 80 liver allograft biopsies, the diagnosis of acute rejection was proved in 34 cases. Histological changes in liver biopsies in different grades of acute rejection were estimated according to Banff classification 1995, 1997 and were compared with current literature data. The article deals with the question of morphological value of grading acute rejection on early and late, also we analyze changes in treat- ment tactics after morphological verification of liver allograft acute rejection. 

  2. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  3. Sonographic biometry of liver size among Igbo school age children of South east, Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, Charles Ugwoke; Agwu, Kenneth Kalu; Ezeasor, Daniel Nwagbo; Aronu, Ann Ebele

    2013-01-01

    Background: The endemic diseases in the locality which are associated with changes in liver size necessitate sonographic biometry of this organ. Objectives: To establish by ultrasonography the normal limits and variations of the liver size according to age, sex, height, weight, body surface area and body mass index among school age children. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, hospital based study done at university of Nigeria medical center, Nsukka between January 2011 and June 2011. Participants included 947 apparently healthy subjects comprising 496 boys and 451 girls aged 6–17 years. The intra- and inter rater reliability of sonographic measurement of the liver size was determined. The sonographic examination was performed on Shenzhen DP-1100 machine with 3.5 MHz convex transducer. The longitudinal dimension of the liver was obtained in the midclavicular plane with the subject in deep inspiration. The weight and height of the subjects were obtained with the participants wearing light weight street clothes without shoes. Results: Measurement of liver length was reliable within and between sonographers. The mean of the liver length was 116.3 ± 10.6 mm. Dimension of the liver was not statistically different in boys and girls (p > 0.05). Height correlated best with the liver dimension followed by age, body surface area, weight, body mass index, and sex. The percentile curves, normal limits and prediction model of the liver dimension were defined according to height of the subjects. Conclusion: Determination of pathologic changes in the size of the liver necessitates knowing the normal ranges of dimension for the liver especially with respect to height in this population

  4. Experimental models of liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Sara Crespo; Cogliati, Bruno; Willebrords, Joost; Maes, Michaël; Colle, Isabelle; van den Bossche, Bert; de Oliveira, Claudia Pinto Marques Souza; Andraus, Wellington; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Leclercq, Isabelle; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a wound healing response to insults and as such affects the entire world population. In industrialized countries, the main causes of liver fibrosis include alcohol abuse, chronic hepatitis virus infection and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. A central event in liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells, which is triggered by a plethora of signaling pathways. Liver fibrosis can progress into more severe stages, known as cirrhosis, when liver acini are substituted by nodules, and further to hepatocellular carcinoma. Considerable efforts are currently devoted to liver fibrosis research, not only with the goal of further elucidating the molecular mechanisms that drive this disease, but equally in view of establishing effective diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. The present paper provides a state-of-the-art overview of in vivo and in vitro models used in the field of experimental liver fibrosis research.

  5. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  6. Ethnic Disparities in Liver Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Kemmer, Nyingi

    2011-01-01

    End-stage liver disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among ethnic minorities. In the United States, ethnic minorities comprise approximately 30% of all adult liver transplantations performed annually. Several studies have suggested that ethnic populations differ with respect to access and outcomes in the pre- and post-transplantation setting. This paper will review the existing literature on ethnic variations in the adult liver transplantation population.

  7. Abacavir-induced liver toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Diletta Pezzani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abacavir-induced liver toxicity is a rare event almost exclusively occurring in HLA B*5701-positive patients. Herein, we report one case of abnormal liver function tests occurring in a young HLA B*5701-negative woman on a stable nevirapine-based regimen with no history of liver problems or alcohol abuse after switching to abacavir from tenofovir. We also investigated the reasons for abacavir discontinuation in a cohort of patients treated with abacavir-lamivudine-nevirapine.

  8. Liver scintigraphy of fulminant hepatitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Nagara; Ishihara, Takashi; Mori, Toru

    1980-01-01

    The liver scintigraphies of five patients with fulminant hepatitis were examined. Scintiphotos using sup(99m)Tc-phytate were taken within two weeks after the onset. Scintiphotos of 12 normal subjects, 11 cases with acute hepatitis, 17 cases with liver cirrhosis were served as control. Their scintiphotos showed reduction of the size, well-maintained uptake, mostly homogenous RI distribution, and no left lobe enlargement, which could differentiate them from the chronic liver dysfunction. In one of the cases chronological changes in liver scintigraphy were observed. The size of the liver was reduced progressively until the 16th day and re-enlarged at the 30th day and thereafter. Three indices [S/W, (R + L)/W, and L/R] were calculated. S: area of liver, R or L: longitudinal length of the right or left lobe, W: body width. Relative size of the liver expressed by S/W or (R + L)/W showed significant reduction in fulminant hepatitis compared with acute hepatitis. However, they were not different significantly from those of normal subjects. Except for liver cirrhosis, L/R (left lobe swelling index) did not show significant differences among fulminant hepatitis, normal subjects, and acute hepatitis. These indices were also useful in follow-up study of the liver scintigraphy. The liver scintigraphy in the early phase of fulminant hepatitis seems to reflect the degree of massive hepatic necrosis. It is also useful to differentiate chronic hepatic failure. Apparant reduction in scintigraphical liver size seems to suggest poor prognosis, however, it should also kept in mind that the size of the liver in this condition might change quite rapidly and greatly. (author)

  9. Liver Disease in the Alcoholic

    OpenAIRE

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    1986-01-01

    The problem of liver damage in alcoholic patients is widespread. This review discusses hepatic damage on the basis of a histologic classification of increasing severity. In the early stages, or with compensated cirrhosis, clinical and laboratory findings may not accurately reflect hepatic involvement. Furthermore, there exists a group of alcoholic patients in whom liver disease may be caused by factors other than alcohol. Nevertheless, in most patients with liver disease, certain biochemical ...

  10. Mathematical reliability an expository perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer

    2004-01-01

    In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...

  11. Fibropolycystic liver disease in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veigel, Myka Call; Prescott-Focht, Julia; Zinati, Reza; Rodriguez, Michael G.; Shao, Lei; Moore, Charlotte A.W.; Lowe, Lisa H.

    2009-01-01

    Fibropolycystic liver diseases are a group of associated congenital disorders that present most often in childhood. These disorders include congenital hepatic fibrosis, biliary hamartomas, autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease, choledochal cysts and Caroli disease. We present a discussion and illustrations of the embryology, genetics, anatomy, pathology, imaging approach and key imaging features that distinguish fibropolycystic liver disease in children. The pathogenesis of these disorders is believed to be abnormal development of the embryonic ductal plates, which ultimately form the liver and biliary systems. An understanding of the abnormal embryogenesis helps to explain the characteristic imaging features of these disorders. (orig.)

  12. The heart and the liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Dümcke, Christine Winkler; Krag, Aleksander

    2009-01-01

    Cardiac failure affects the liver and liver dysfunction affects the heart. Chronic and acute heart failure can lead to cardiac cirrhosis and cardiogenic ischemic hepatitis. These conditions may impair liver function and treatment should be directed towards the primary heart disease and seek...... against the heart failure. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion and liver transplantation affect cardiac function in portal hypertensive patients and cause stress to the cirrhotic heart, with a risk of perioperative heart failure. The risk and prevalence of coronary artery disease...

  13. Parenteral Nutrition in Liver Resection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Chiarla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Albeit a very large number of experiments have assessed the impact of various substrates on liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy, a limited number of clinical studies have evaluated artificial nutrition in liver resection patients. This is a peculiar topic because many patients do not need artificial nutrition, while several patients need it because of malnutrition and/or prolonged inability to feeding caused by complications. The optimal nutritional regimen to support liver regeneration, within other postoperative problems or complications, is not yet exactly defined. This short review addresses relevant aspects and potential developments in the issue of postoperative parenteral nutrition after liver resection.

  14. Of plants and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider Horst

    2009-01-01

    Behind the political statements made about the transformer event at the Kruemmel nuclear power station (KKK) in the summer of 2009 there are fundamental issues of atomic law. Pursuant to Articles 20 and 28 of its Basic Law, Germany is a state in which the rule of law applies. Consequently, the aspects of atomic law associated with the incident merit a closer look, all the more so as the items concerned have been known for many years. Important aspects in the debate about the Kruemmel nuclear power plant are the fact that the transformer is considered part of the nuclear power station under atomic law and thus a ''plant'' subject to surveillance by the nuclear regulatory agencies, on the one hand, and the reliability under atomic law of the operator and the executive personnel responsible, on the other hand. Both ''plant'' and ''reliability'' are terms focusing on nuclear safety. Hence the question to what extent safety was affected in the Kruemmel incident. The classification of the event as 0 = no or only a very slight safety impact on the INES scale (INES = International Nuclear Event Scale) should not be used to put aside the safety issue once and for all. Points of fact and their technical significance must be considered prior to any legal assessment. Legal assessments and regulations are associated with facts and circumstances. Any legal examination is based on the facts as determined and elucidated. Any other procedure would be tantamount to an inadmissible legal advance conviction. Now, what is the position of political statements, i.e. political assessments and political responsibility? If everything is done the correct way, they come at the end, after exploration of the facts and evaluation under applicable law. Sometimes things are handled differently, with consequences which are not very helpful. In the light of the provisions about the rule of law as laid down in the Basic Law, the new federal government should be made to observe the proper sequence of

  15. [Recent developments in biopsy diagnosis of early and undefined liver tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longerich, T; Schirmacher, P

    2009-01-01

    Biopsy diagnosis of early and highly differentiated liver tumors is difficult and complex. Modern pathology has met this challenge by several different means; elaborate morphological algorithms and novel immunohistological markers support the differential diagnosis of highly differentiated HCC and a new, predictive molecular pathological and histological classification of liver cell adenoma was developed. By these new diagnostic tools together with the so-called 'matrix diagnosis' a reliable diagnostic classification is now feasible in the vast majority of these difficult cases.

  16. When Your Child Needs a Liver Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure is biliary atresia . This happens when the liver's bile ducts (tubes that carry bile out of the liver) ... the sick liver and put in the donated liver. Blood vessels and bile ducts from the new liver will be attached to ...

  17. MARS treatment in posthepatectomy liver failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kerkhove, Maarten-Paul; de Jong, Koert P.; Rijken, Arjen M.; de Pont, Anne-Cornélie J. M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2003-01-01

    Posthepatactomy liver failure (PHLF) is a dramatic complication following extensive liver resection or liver resection in a compromised liver, leading to death in 80% of cases. Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS) is able to extract water and protein bound toxins out of the blood in liver

  18. Multinomial-exponential reliability function: a software reliability model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz de Bustamante, Amalio; Saiz de Bustamante, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    The multinomial-exponential reliability function (MERF) was developed during a detailed study of the software failure/correction processes. Later on MERF was approximated by a much simpler exponential reliability function (EARF), which keeps most of MERF mathematical properties, so the two functions together makes up a single reliability model. The reliability model MERF/EARF considers the software failure process as a non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP), and the repair (correction) process, a multinomial distribution. The model supposes that both processes are statistically independent. The paper discusses the model's theoretical basis, its mathematical properties and its application to software reliability. Nevertheless it is foreseen model applications to inspection and maintenance of physical systems. The paper includes a complete numerical example of the model application to a software reliability analysis

  19. Quality assurance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normand, J.; Charon, M.

    1975-01-01

    Concern for obtaining high-quality products which will function properly when required to do so is nothing new - it is one manifestation of a conscientious attitude to work. However, the complexity and cost of equipment and the consequences of even temporary immobilization are such that it has become necessary to make special arrangements for obtaining high-quality products and examining what one has obtained. Each unit within an enterprise must examine its own work or arrange for it to be examined; a unit whose specific task is quality assurance is responsible for overall checking, but does not relieve other units of their responsibility. Quality assurance is a form of mutual assistance within an enterprise, designed to remove the causes of faults as far as possible. It begins very early in a project and continues through the ordering stage, construction, start-up trials and operation. Quality and hence reliability are the direct result of what is done at all stages of a project. They depend on constant attention to detail, for even a minor piece of poor workmanship can, in the case of an essential item of equipment, give rise to serious operational difficulties

  20. The impact of longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring on liver function in short bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinshagen, K; Zahn, K; Buch, C von; Zoeller, M; Hagl, C I; Ali, M; Waag, K-L

    2008-08-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a functional or anatomic loss of major parts of the small bowel leading to severe malnutrition. The limiting factor for the survival of these patients remains parenteral nutrition-related liver damage leading to end-stage liver failure. Longitudinal intestinal lengthening and tailoring (LILT) has been proven to enhance peristalsis, to decrease bacterial overgrowth and to extend the mucosal contact time for the absorption of nutrients. The aim of this study was to show the impact of LILT on the development of parenteral nutrition-related liver damage. A cohort of 55 patients with short bowel syndrome managed with LILT in our institution between 1987 and 2007 was retrospectively reviewed. LILT was performed at a mean age of 24 months (range 4 - 150 months). Mean follow-up time was 83.76 months (range 5 - 240 months). We obtained reliable data from 31 patients with regard to liver enzymes and function parameters in blood samples before LILT and at the present time. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients prior to LILT. Liver enzymes ALAT (mean 121 U/l), ASAT (mean 166 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 2.49 mg/dl) were elevated preoperatively in 27/31 children. After the lengthening procedure, ALAT (mean 50 U/l), ASAT (mean 63 U/l) and bilirubin (mean 1.059 mg/dl) normalized except in 5 of 8 patients who could not be weaned from parenteral nutrition after LILT. Liver function parameters such as the international normal ratio (INR) were slightly elevated in 5/31 patients. Albumin was generally low, probably due to parenteral nutrition. Liver biopsy was performed in 14 patients preoperatively, showing 4 patients with low-grade, 6 patients with intermediate and 4 patients with high-grade fibrosis. End-stage liver disease with cirrhosis was an exclusion criterion for LILT. All patients with liver fibrosis showed a normalization of liver enzymes when they were weaned from parenteral nutrition. But patients with higher grade liver fibrosis tend to develop

  1. A prospective comparative assessment of the accuracy of the FibroScan in evaluating liver steatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Jang, Jae Young; Jeong, Soung Won; Lee, Sae Hwan; Kim, Sang Gyune; Cha, Sang-Woo; Kim, Young Seok; Cho, Young Deok; Kim, Hong Soo; Kim, Boo Sung; Jin, So Young; Park, Suyeon

    2017-01-01

    Background/aims Recent studies have demonstrated the utility of the FibroScan® device in diagnosing liver steatosis, but its usefulness has not been thoroughly appraised. We investigated the usefulness of the controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) in detecting and quantifying liver steatosis. Methods A prospective analysis was applied to 79 chronic liver disease patients who underwent a liver biopsy, a FibroScan investigation, ultrasonography, and hepatic steatosis index (HSI). The presence and degree of steatosis as measured by the FibroScan device, ultrasonography and HSI were compared with the results for the liver biopsy tissue. Results There was substantial concordance between the liver biopsy results and the CAP as evaluated by the kappa (κ) index test for detecting liver steatosis (κCAP = 0.77, Phepatic steatosis was 247 dB/m, which produced sensitivity and specificity values of 91.9% and 85.7%, respectively, as well as a positive predictive value of 85.0% and a negative predictive value of 92.3%. Conclusion The CAP produces results that are highly concordant with those of a liver biopsy in detecting steatosis. Therefore, the CAP is a noninvasive and reliable tool for evaluating liver steatosis, even in the early stages. PMID:28813448

  2. Liver fat: a relevant target for dietary intervention? Summary of a Unilever workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Harry P F; Schrauwen, Patrick; Verhoef, Petra; Byrne, Christopher D; Mela, David J; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Risérus, Ulf; Rosendaal, Frits R; Schrauwen-Hinderling, Vera

    2017-01-01

    Currently it is estimated that about 1 billion people globally have non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a condition in which liver fat exceeds 5 % of liver weight in the absence of significant alcohol intake. Due to the central role of the liver in metabolism, the prevalence of NAFLD is increasing in parallel with the prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance and other risk factors of metabolic diseases. However, the contribution of liver fat to the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and CVD, relative to other ectopic fat depots and to other risk markers, is unclear. Various studies have suggested that the accumulation of liver fat can be reduced or prevented via dietary changes. However, the amount of liver fat reduction that would be physiologically relevant, and the timeframes and dose-effect relationships for achieving this through different diet-based approaches, are unclear. Also, it is still uncertain whether the changes in liver fat per se or the associated metabolic changes are relevant. Furthermore, the methods available to measure liver fat, or even individual fatty acids, differ in sensitivity and reliability. The present report summarises key messages of presentations from different experts and related discussions from a workshop intended to capture current views and research gaps relating to the points above.

  3. Scintigraphic assessment of liver function in patients requiring liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cieślak, K.P.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis addresses various aspects of assessment of liver function using a quantitative liver function test, 99mTc-mebrofenin hepatobiliary scintigraphy (HBS). HBS enables direct measurement of at least one of the liver’s true processes with minimal external interference and offers the

  4. Split-liver transplantation : An underused resource in liver transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogiers, Xavier; Sieders, Egbert

    2008-01-01

    Split-liver transplantation is an efficient tool to increase the number of liver grafts available for transplantation. More than 15 years after its introduction only the classical splitting technique has reached broad application. Consequently children are benefiting most from this possibility.

  5. Reliability of Oronasal Fistula Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitzman, Thomas J; Allori, Alexander C; Matic, Damir B; Beals, Stephen P; Fisher, David M; Samson, Thomas D; Marcus, Jeffrey R; Tse, Raymond W

    2018-01-01

    Objective Oronasal fistula is an important complication of cleft palate repair that is frequently used to evaluate surgical quality, yet reliability of fistula classification has never been examined. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability of oronasal fistula classification both within individual surgeons and between multiple surgeons. Design Using intraoral photographs of children with repaired cleft palate, surgeons rated the location of palatal fistulae using the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System. Intrarater and interrater reliability scores were calculated for each region of the palate. Participants Eight cleft surgeons rated photographs obtained from 29 children. Results Within individual surgeons reliability for each region of the Pittsburgh classification ranged from moderate to almost perfect (κ = .60-.96). By contrast, reliability between surgeons was lower, ranging from fair to substantial (κ = .23-.70). Between-surgeon reliability was lowest for the junction of the soft and hard palates (κ = .23). Within-surgeon and between-surgeon reliability were almost perfect for the more general classification of fistula in the secondary palate (κ = .95 and κ = .83, respectively). Conclusions This is the first reliability study of fistula classification. We show that the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System is reliable when used by an individual surgeon, but less reliable when used among multiple surgeons. Comparisons of fistula occurrence among surgeons may be subject to less bias if they use the more general classification of "presence or absence of fistula of the secondary palate" rather than the Pittsburgh Fistula Classification System.

  6. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Management: Dietary and Lifestyle Modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vi; George, Jacob

    2015-08-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a spectrum of abnormalities that can range from bland liver fat (steatosis), to hepatic inflammation and liver injury (steatohepatitis). It is estimated that NAFLD will become the principal cause of liver disease in Western nations and the leading indication for liver transplantation. Advancements in disease recognition and management are therefore paramount. Although the development of new, reliable drug therapies is vital, lifestyle interventions remain the most effective treatment modality. In addition to weight loss as a primary measure of treatment success, there is growing recognition that other endpoints, including the prevention or delay of diabetes onset, reduced cardiovascular events, prevention of cancer, and improved overall mortality, are equally important outcomes that can be independently modified by lifestyle change. Moreover, NAFLD is inextricably part of a complex, systemic disease process that is linked with deeply entrenched maladaptive lifestyle behaviors. Thus, a holistic, multidisciplinary, and individualized approach to disease management will be the key to achieving any realistic population-level change. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Dependent systems reliability estimation by structural reliability approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of system reliability by classical system reliability methods generally assumes that the components are statistically independent, thus limiting its applicability in many practical situations. A method is proposed for estimation of the system reliability with dependent components, where...... the leading failure mechanism(s) is described by physics of failure model(s). The proposed method is based on structural reliability techniques and accounts for both statistical and failure effect correlations. It is assumed that failure of any component is due to increasing damage (fatigue phenomena...... identification. Application of the proposed method can be found in many real world systems....

  8. Antifibrinolytics in liver surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalpa Makwana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperfibrinolysis, a known complication of liver surgery and orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT, plays a significant role in blood loss. This fact justifies the use of antifibrinolytic drugs during these procedures. Two groups of drug namely lysine analogues [epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA and tranexamic acid (TA] and serine-protease-inhibitors (aprotinin are frequently used for this purpose. But uniform data or guidelines on the type of antifibrinolytic drugs to be used, their indications and correct dose, is still insufficient. Antifibrinolytics behave like a double-edged sword. On one hand, there are benefits of less transfusion requirements but on the other hand there is potential complication like thromboembolism, which has been reported in several studies. We performed a systematic search in PubMed and Cochrane Library, and we included studies wherein antifibrinolytic drugs (EACA, TA, or aprotinin were compared with each other or with controls/placebo. We analysed factors like intraoperative red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma requirements, the perioperative incidence of hepatic artery thrombosis, venous thromboembolic events and mortality. Among the three drugs, EACA is least studied. Use of extensively studied drug like aprotinin has been restricted because of its side effects. Haemostatic effect of aprotinin and tranexamic acid has been comparable. However, proper patient selection and individualized treatment for each of them is required. Purpose of this review is to study various clinical trials on antifibrinolytic drugs and address the related issues like benefits claimed and associated potential complications.

  9. Infantile hemangioendothelioma of liver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yoon, Chong Hyun; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Choi, Choong Gon [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    Radiologic findings of hemangioendothelioma of the liver were retrospectively analyzed in twelve infants. The radiological examinations included were sonography in 12 patients, computed tomography (CT) in six, magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in five, and angiography in two. Four patients were diagnosed pathologically, two by angiography, five by follow-up sonography, and one by clinical presentation with sonography. The common radiologic findings of the hemangioendothelioma were well circumscribed heterogeneous echogenic mass (75%) on sonography, peripheral massive enhancement (67%) on CT, bright high signal intensity on T2-weighted MR image (100%), and homogenous or peripheral enhancement (75%) on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1-weighted MR image. Dilated proximal aorta and enlarged draining hepatic veins on angiography and other studies were also important findings. The follow-up sonography demonstrated the involution of lesions with some calcification in four patients and complete resolution in one. The authors believe that these findings in an infant under the age of 6 months strongly suggest the diagnosis of hemangioendothelioma of the liver, and follow-up sonography should be done.

  10. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  11. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  12. Reliability of reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Aho-Mantila, I.

    1986-05-01

    This report is the final technical report of the fracture mechanics part of the Reliability of Reactor Materials Programme, which was carried out at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) through the years 1981 to 1983. Research and development work was carried out in five major areas, viz. statistical treatment and modelling of cleavage fracture, crack arrest, ductile fracture, instrumented impact testing as well as comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics. In the area of cleavage fracture the critical variables affecting the fracture of steels are considered in the frames of a statistical model, so called WST-model. Comparison of fracture toughness values predicted by the model and corresponding experimental values shows excellent agreement for a variety of microstructures. different posibilities for using the model are discussed. The development work in the area of crack arrest testing was concentrated in the crack starter properties, test arrangement and computer control. A computerized elastic-plastic fracture testing method with a variety of test specimen geometries in a large temperature range was developed for a routine stage. Ductile fracture characteristics of reactor pressure vessel steel A533B and comparable weld material are given. The features of a new, patented instrumented impact tester are described. Experimental and theoretical comparisons between the new and conventional testers indicated clearly the improvements achieved with the new tester. A comparison of numerical and experimental elastic-plastic fracture mechanics capabilities at VTT was carried out. The comparison consisted of two-dimensional linear elastic as well as elastic-plastic finite element analysis of four specimen geometries and equivalent experimental tests. (author)

  13. Field reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elm, T.

    1984-02-01

    This report investigates, through several examples from the field, the reliability of electronic units in a broader sense. That is, it treats not just random parts failure, but also inadequate reliability design and (externally and internally) induced failures. The report is not meant to be merely an indication of the state of the art for the reliability prediction methods we know, but also as a contribution to the investigation of man-machine interplay in the operation and repair of electronic equipment. The report firmly links electronics reliability to safety and risk analyses approaches with a broader, system oriented view of reliability prediction and with postfailure stress analysis. It is intended to reveal, in a qualitative manner, the existence of symptom and cause patterns. It provides a background for further investigations to identify the detailed mechanisms of the faults and the remedical actions and precautions for achieving cost effective reliability. (author)

  14. Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...

  15. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  16. Reliability of Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dâmaso, Antônio; Rosa, Nelson; Maciel, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) consist of hundreds or thousands of sensor nodes with limited processing, storage, and battery capabilities. There are several strategies to reduce the power consumption of WSN nodes (by increasing the network lifetime) and increase the reliability of the network (by improving the WSN Quality of Service). However, there is an inherent conflict between power consumption and reliability: an increase in reliability usually leads to an increase in power consumption. For example, routing algorithms can send the same packet though different paths (multipath strategy), which it is important for reliability, but they significantly increase the WSN power consumption. In this context, this paper proposes a model for evaluating the reliability of WSNs considering the battery level as a key factor. Moreover, this model is based on routing algorithms used by WSNs. In order to evaluate the proposed models, three scenarios were considered to show the impact of the power consumption on the reliability of WSNs. PMID:25157553

  17. Automated diagnosis of focal liver lesions using bidirectional empirical mode decomposition features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, U Rajendra; Koh, Joel En Wei; Hagiwara, Yuki; Tan, Jen Hong; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Vijayananthan, Anushya; Yaakup, Nur Adura; Abdullah, Basri Johan Jeet; Bin Mohd Fabell, Mohd Kamil; Yeong, Chai Hong

    2018-03-01

    Liver is the heaviest internal organ of the human body and performs many vital functions. Prolonged cirrhosis and fatty liver disease may lead to the formation of benign or malignant lesions in this organ, and an early and reliable evaluation of these conditions can improve treatment outcomes. Ultrasound imaging is a safe, non-invasive, and cost-effective way of diagnosing liver lesions. However, this technique has limited performance in determining the nature of the lesions. This study initiates a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system to aid radiologists in an objective and more reliable interpretation of ultrasound images of liver lesions. In this work, we have employed radon transform and bi-directional empirical mode decomposition (BEMD) to extract features from the focal liver lesions. After which, the extracted features were subjected to particle swarm optimization (PSO) technique for the selection of a set of optimized features for classification. Our automated CAD system can differentiate normal, malignant, and benign liver lesions using machine learning algorithms. It was trained using 78 normal, 26 benign and 36 malignant focal lesions of the liver. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of lesion classification were 92.95%, 90.80%, and 97.44%, respectively. The proposed CAD system is fully automatic as no segmentation of region-of-interest (ROI) is required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Epidemiology Of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А.Г. Мартынова

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the main factors of chronic liver disease is alcohol. The level of alcoholic liver disease incidence and cirrhosis mortality has increased considerably in the recent years in many countries. The risk of development and disease progression are determined by the effect of endogenous and exogenous factors: "drinking mode", female gender, heredity and genetic predisposition, obesity, concomitant viral hepatitis

  19. Hydroxycut-induced Liver Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Jan-Feb 2014 | Vol 4 ... supplements can be responsible for documented or undocumented adverse drug effects. The ... Keywords: Hydroxycut, Liver toxicity, Nutritional supplements ... Caffeine anhydrous: 200 mg* ... series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss.

  20. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taourel, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)], E-mail: p-taourel@chu-montpellier.fr; Vernhet, H. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Arnaud de Villeneuve, Montpellier (France); Suau, A.; Granier, C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France); Lopez, F.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, Nimes (France); Aufort, S. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, Montpellier (France)

    2007-10-15

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications.

  1. Vascular emergencies in liver trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taourel, P.; Vernhet, H.; Suau, A.; Granier, C.; Lopez, F.M.; Aufort, S.

    2007-01-01

    The use of CT in the diagnosis and management of liver trauma is responsible for the shift from routine surgical versus non-surgical treatment in the management of traumatic liver injuries, even when they are of high grade. The main cause of compli cation and of death in liver trauma is related to vascular injury. The goal of this review focussed on the vascular complications of liver trauma is to describe the elementary lesions shown by CT in liver trauma including laceration, parenchymal hematoma and contusions, partial devascularisation, subcapsular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, active bleeding, pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery, bile leak, and periportal oedema, to illustrate the possible pitfalls in CT diagnosis of liver trauma and to underline the key-points which may absolutely be present in a CT report of liver trauma. Then we will remind the grading system based on the CT features and we will analyze the interest and limitations of such grading systems. Last we will discuss the diagnostic strategy at the early phase in patients with suspected liver trauma according to their clinical conditions and underline the conditions of arterial embolization, and then we will discuss the diagnosis strategy at the delayed phase according to the suspected complications

  2. The value of service reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Benezech , Vincent; Coulombel , Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    International audience; This paper studies the impact of service frequency and reliability on the choice of departure time and the travel cost of transit users. When the user has (α, β, γ) scheduling preferences, we show that the optimal head start decreases with service reliability, as expected. It does not necessarily decrease with service frequency, however. We derive the value of service headway (VoSH) and the value of service reliability (VoSR), which measure the marginal effect on the e...

  3. Distribution-Independent Reliable Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Kanade, Varun; Thaler, Justin

    2014-01-01

    We study several questions in the reliable agnostic learning framework of Kalai et al. (2009), which captures learning tasks in which one type of error is costlier than others. A positive reliable classifier is one that makes no false positive errors. The goal in the positive reliable agnostic framework is to output a hypothesis with the following properties: (i) its false positive error rate is at most $\\epsilon$, (ii) its false negative error rate is at most $\\epsilon$ more than that of the...

  4. RTE - 2015 Reliability Report. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This report includes a number of results from previous years so that year-to-year comparisons can be drawn and long-term trends analysed. The 2015 report underlines the major factors that have impacted on the reliability of the electrical power system, without focusing exclusively on Significant System Events (ESS). It describes various factors which contribute to present and future reliability and the numerous actions implemented by RTE to ensure reliability today and in the future, as well as the ways in which the various parties involved in the electrical power system interact across the whole European interconnected network

  5. Radiation-induced liver damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcial, V.A.; Santiago-Delpin, E.A.; Lanaro, A.E.; Castro-Vita, H.; Arroyo, G.; Moscol, J.A.; Gomez, C.; Velazquez, J.; Prado, K.

    1977-01-01

    Due to the recent increase in the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer with or without chemotherapy, the risk of liver radiation damage has become a significant concern for the radiotherapist when the treated tumour is located in the upper abdomen or lower thorax. Clinically evident radiation liver damage may result in significant mortality, but at times patients recover without sequelae. The dose of 3000 rads in 3 weeks to the entire liver with 5 fractions per week of 200 rads each, seems to be tolerated well clinically by adult humans. Lower doses may lead to damage when used in children, when chemotherapy is added, as in recent hepatectomy cases, and in the presence of pre-existent liver damage. Reduced fractionation may lead to increased damage. Increased fractionation, limitation of the dose delivered to the entire liver, and restriction of the high dose irradiation volume may afford protection. With the aim of studying the problems of hepatic radiation injury in humans, a project of liver irradiation in the dog is being conducted. Mongrel dogs are being conditioned, submitted to pre-irradiation studies (haemogram, blood chemistry, liver scan and biopsy), irradiated under conditions resembling human cancer therapy, and submitted to post-irradiation evaluation of the liver. Twenty-two dogs have been entered in the study but only four qualify for the evaluation of all the study parameters. It has been found that dogs are susceptible to liver irradiation damage similar to humans. The initial mortality has been high mainly due to non-radiation factors which are being kept under control at the present phase of the study. After the initial experiences, the study will involve variations in total dose and fractionation, and the addition of anticoagulant therapy for possible prevention of radiation liver injury. (author)

  6. The Histopathologic Reliability of Tissue Taken from Cadavers within the Gross Anatomy Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Guenevere; Newman, William P., III; McGoey, Robin; Donthamsetty, Supriya; Karpinski, Aryn C.; Green, Jeffrey

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the histopathologic reliability of embalmed cadaveric tissue taken from the gross anatomy laboratory. Tissue samples from hearts, livers, lungs, and kidneys were collected after the medical students' dissection course was completed. All of the cadavers were embalmed in a formalin-based fixative solution.…

  7. Liver and water metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallot, P.

    1959-01-01

    The causes for the disturbance of hydro-electrolytic equilibrium observed in cirrhosis patients are far from clear. Studies on the static distribution of liquid in the organism and also on anomalies in the distribution of deuterium oxide and tritiated water provide no direct explanation of the nature of the water retaining mechanism. At the period when the illness is established, endocrine factors and electrolytic perturbations contribute to maintaining or increasing oliguresis, but they cannot be held solely responsible in the initial stages of evolution. An explanation of the ascites should therefore be looked for in a non-functioning of the polygonal or Kupffer cells. The hypothesis of an insufficient rejection of water outside the lymph spaces of the liver during cirrhosis is put forward, but the experimental demonstration of such a phenomenon proves very difficult. (author) [fr

  8. Hypertension and liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Møller, Søren

    2004-01-01

    to increased arterial blood pressure. Subjects with established arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin......Arterial hypertension is a common disorder with a frequency of 10% to 15% in subjects in the 40- to 60-year age group. Yet most reports find the prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis) much lower. In this review, we consider the alterations in systemic...... hemodynamics in cirrhosis. The most characteristic findings in cirrhotic patients are vasodilatation with low systemic vascular resistance, increased cardiac output, high arterial compliance, secondary activation of counterregulatory systems (sympathetic nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system...

  9. Liver Transplantation for Alcoholic Liver Disease and Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burra, Patrizia; Zanetto, Alberto; Germani, Giacomo

    2018-02-09

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the main important causes of cancer-related death and its mortality is increasingly worldwide. In Europe, alcohol abuse accounts for approximately half of all liver cancer cases and it will become the leading cause of hepatocellular carcinoma in the next future with the sharp decline of chronic viral hepatitis. The pathophysiology of alcohol-induced carcinogenesis involves acetaldehyde catabolism, oxidative stress and chronic liver inflammation. Genetic background plays also a significant role and specific patterns of gene mutations in alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma have been characterized. Survival is higher in patients who undergo specific surveillance programmes than in patients who do not. However, patients with alcohol cirrhosis present a significantly greater risk of liver decompensation than those with cirrhosis due to other aetiologies. Furthermore, the adherence to screening program can be suboptimal. Liver transplant for patients with Milan-in hepatocellular carcinoma represents the best possible treatment in case of tumour recurrence/progression despite loco-regional or surgical treatments. Long-term result after liver transplantation for alcohol related liver disease is good. However, cardiovascular disease and de novo malignancies can significantly hamper patients' survival and should be carefully considered by transplant team. In this review, we have focused on the evolution of alcohol-related hepatocellular carcinoma epidemiology and risk factors as well as on liver transplantation in alcoholic patients with and without hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Adelaine; Ortiz-Neira, Clara L.; Abou Reslan, Walid; Kaura, Deepak; Sharon, Raphael; Anderson, Ronald; Pinto-Rojas, Alfredo

    2006-01-01

    Liver involvement in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) typically presents with hepatomegaly and other signs of liver dysfunction. We present an 11-month-old child having only minimally elevated liver enzymes as an indication of liver involvement. Using sonography as the initial diagnostic tool followed by MRI, LCH of the liver was revealed. A review of sonographic, CT, MRI and MR cholangiopancreatography findings in liver LCH is presented. We recommend that physicians consider sonography and MRI screening for liver involvement in patients with newly diagnosed LCH, as periportal involvement may be present with little or no liver function abnormality present, as in this patient. (orig.)

  11. Correlation with liver scintigram, reticuloendothelial function test, plasma endotoxin level and liver function tests in chronic liver diseases. Multivariate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmoto, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Ideguchi, Seiji and others

    1989-02-01

    Liver scintigrams with Tc-99m phytate were reviewed in a total of 64 consecutive patients, comprising 28 with chronic hepatitis and 36 with liver cirrhosis. Reticuloendothelial (RES) function, plasma endotoxin (Et) levels and findings of general liver function tests were used as reference parameters to determine the diagnostic ability of liver scintigraphy. Multivariate analyses revealed that liver scintigrams had a strong correlation with RES function and Et levels in terms of morphology of the liver and hepatic and bone marrow Tc-99m uptake. General liver function tests revealed gamma globulin to be correlated with hepatic uptake and the degree of splenogemaly on liver scintigrams; and ICG levels at 15 min to be correlated with bone marrow and splenic uptake. Accuracy of liver scintigraphy was 73% for chronic hepatitis, which was inferior to general liver function tests (83%). When both modalities were combined, diangostic accuracy increased to 95%. Liver scintigraphy seems to be useful as a complementary approach. (Namekawa, K).

  12. Reliability in automotive ethernet networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....

  13. Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...

  14. Reliability of wind turbine subassemblies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinato, F.; Tavner, P.J.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Koutoulakos, E.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the reliability of more than 6000 modern onshore wind turbines and their subassemblies in Denmark and Germany over 11 years and particularly changes in reliability of generators, gearboxes and converters in a subset of 650 turbines in Schleswig Holstein, Germany. We first start

  15. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.

  16. Testing the validity of a receptor kinetic model via TcNGA functional imaging of liver transplant recipients. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadalnik, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The author had accomplished the expertise for I-125-HSA plasma volume, galactose clearance for determination of hepatic plasma flow as well as finalizing the kinetic model. They have just completed modifying the microscale Scatchard assay for greater precision of receptor measurement using only 5--10 mg of liver tissue. In addition, he determined during the past year that the most practical method and clinically reasonable measurement of liver volume was to measure the transplanted liver in vivo using Tc-NGA images in the anterior, posterior, and right lateral projections, using the method of Rollo and DeLand. Direct measurement of liver weight obtained during transplant operation was not reliable due to variability of fluid retention in the donor liver secondary to ischemia, preservation fluid, etc., which thereby did not reflect an accurate liver weight which is needed in the kinetic analysis comparison, i.e., V h (hepatic plasma volume)

  17. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  18. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  19. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrig, L. [ed.

    1993-12-01

    This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.

  20. Arrhythmia risk in liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioana Mozos

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between the functioning of the heart andthe liver have been described, with heart diseasesaffecting the liver, liver diseases affecting the heart,and conditions that simultaneously affect both. Theheart is one of the most adversely affected organs inpatients with liver cirrhosis. For example, arrhythmiasand electrocardiographic changes are observed inpatients with liver cirrhosis. The risk for arrhythmia isinfluenced by factors such as cirrhotic cardiomyopathy,cardiac ion channel remodeling, electrolyte imbalances,impaired autonomic function, hepatorenal syndrome, metabolic abnormalities, advanced age, inflammatory syndrome, stressful events, impaired drug metabolism and comorbidities. Close monitoring of cirrhotic patients is needed for arrhythmias, particularly when QT intervalprolonging drugs are given, or if electrolyte imbalances or hepatorenal syndrome appear. Arrhythmia risk may persist after liver transplantation due to possible QT interval prolongation, persistence of the parasympathetic impairment, post-transplant reperfusion and chronic immunosuppression, as well as consideration of the fact that the transplant itself is a stressful event for the cardiovascular system. The aims of the present article were to provide a review of the most important data regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and biomarkers of arrhythmia risk in patients with liver cirrhosis, to elucidate the association with long-term outcome, and to propose future research directions.

  1. Digital quantification of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections: description of a new method by Photoshop software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahab, Gamal M; Kheriza, Mohamed M; El-Beltagi, Hussien M; Fouda, Abdel-Motaal M; El-Din, Osama A Sharaf

    2004-01-01

    The precise quantification of fibrous tissue in liver biopsy sections is extremely important in the classification, diagnosis and grading of chronic liver disease, as well as in evaluating the response to antifibrotic therapy. Because the recently described methods of digital image analysis of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections have major flaws, including the use of out-dated techniques in image processing, inadequate precision and inability to detect and quantify perisinusoidal fibrosis, we developed a new technique in computerized image analysis of liver biopsy sections based on Adobe Photoshop software. We prepared an experimental model of liver fibrosis involving treatment of rats with oral CCl4 for 6 weeks. After staining liver sections with Masson's trichrome, a series of computer operations were performed including (i) reconstitution of seamless widefield images from a number of acquired fields of liver sections; (ii) image size and solution adjustment; (iii) color correction; (iv) digital selection of a specified color range representing all fibrous tissue in the image and; (v) extraction and calculation. This technique is fully computerized with no manual interference at any step, and thus could be very reliable for objectively quantifying any pattern of fibrosis in liver biopsy sections and in assessing the response to antifibrotic therapy. It could also be a valuable tool in the precise assessment of antifibrotic therapy to other tissue regardless of the pattern of tissue or fibrosis.

  2. [Jaundice and pathological liver values].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenbach, Hans-Rudolf

    2013-06-05

    Jaundice corresponds to elevated bilirubin- levels, whereat one has to distinguish between direct and indirect serum-bilirubin. In the present Mini Review causes and differential diagnosis of jaundice are outlined. Ultrasound-diagnostic plays a major role in identifying intrahepatic or extrahepatic jaundice. Attention is given to the differential diagnosis of elevated liver enzymes in presence of jaundice, pointing out the distinction between hepatocellular and cholestatic parameters as well as the differentiation in acute or chronic increase. Moreover, the consequences of liver enzyme elevations including further diagnostic procedures, are highlighted. Finally, possibilities and limitations of modern diagnostic tests for liver fibrosis are briefly overviewed.

  3. Dr. Liver: A preoperative planning system of liver graft volumetry for living donor liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaopeng; Yang, Jae Do; Yu, Hee Chul; Choi, Younggeun; Yang, Kwangho; Lee, Tae Beom; Hwang, Hong Pil; Ahn, Sungwoo; You, Heecheon

    2018-05-01

    Manual tracing of the right and left liver lobes from computed tomography (CT) images for graft volumetry in preoperative surgery planning of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) is common at most medical centers. This study aims to develop an automatic system with advanced image processing algorithms and user-friendly interfaces for liver graft volumetry and evaluate its accuracy and efficiency in comparison with a manual tracing method. The proposed system provides a sequential procedure consisting of (1) liver segmentation, (2) blood vessel segmentation, and (3) virtual liver resection for liver graft volumetry. Automatic segmentation algorithms using histogram analysis, hybrid level-set methods, and a customized region growing method were developed. User-friendly interfaces such as sequential and hierarchical user menus, context-sensitive on-screen hotkey menus, and real-time sound and visual feedback were implemented. Blood vessels were excluded from the liver for accurate liver graft volumetry. A large sphere-based interactive method was developed for dividing the liver into left and right lobes with a customized cutting plane. The proposed system was evaluated using 50 CT datasets in terms of graft weight estimation accuracy and task completion time through comparison to the manual tracing method. The accuracy of liver graft weight estimation was assessed by absolute difference (AD) and percentage of AD (%AD) between preoperatively estimated graft weight and intraoperatively measured graft weight. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of liver graft weight estimation were assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using ten cases randomly selected. The proposed system showed significantly higher accuracy and efficiency in liver graft weight estimation (AD = 21.0 ± 18.4 g; %AD = 3.1% ± 2.8%; percentage of %AD > 10% = none; task completion time = 7.3 ± 1.4 min) than the manual tracing method (AD = 70

  4. 18 CFR 39.5 - Reliability Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reliability Standards... RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.5 Reliability Standards. (a) The Electric Reliability Organization shall file each Reliability Standard or modification to a Reliability Standard that it proposes to be made effective under...

  5. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-22

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  6. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) Reliability Coordinators

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — ERC is an international regulatory authority that works to improve the reliability of the bulk power system in North America. NERC works with many different regional...

  7. Current Strategies for Quantitating Fibrosis in Liver Biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present mini-review updated the progress in methodologies based on using liver biopsy. Data Sources: Articles for study of liver fibrosis, liver biopsy or fibrosis assessment published on high impact peer review journals from 1980 to 2014. Study Selection: Key articles were selected mainly according to their levels of relevance to this topic and citations. Results: With the recently mounting progress in chronic liver disease therapeutics, comes by a pressing need for precise, accurate, and dynamic assessment of hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in individual patients. Histopathological information is recognized as the most valuable data for fibrosis assessment. Conventional histology categorical systems describe the changes of fibrosis patterns in liver tissue; but the simplified ordinal digits assigned by these systems cannot reflect the fibrosis dynamics with sufficient precision and reproducibility. Morphometric assessment by computer assist digital image analysis, such as collagen proportionate area (CPA, detects change of fibrosis amount in tissue section in a continuous variable, and has shown its independent diagnostic value for assessment of advanced or late-stage of fibrosis. Due to its evident sensitivity to sampling variances, morphometric measurement is feasible to be taken as a reliable statistical parameter for the study of a large cohort. Combining state-of-art imaging technology and fundamental principle in Tissue Engineering, structure-based quantitation was recently initiated with a novel proof-of-concept tool, qFibrosis. qFibrosis showed not only the superior performance to CPA in accurately and reproducibly differentiating adjacent stages of fibrosis, but also the possibility for facilitating analysis of fibrotic regression and cirrhosis sub-staging. Conclusions: With input from multidisciplinary innovation, liver biopsy assessment as a new "gold standard" is anticipated to substantially support the accelerated

  8. Calculating system reliability with SRFYDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morzinski, Jerome [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Anderson - Cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Klamann, Richard M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    SRFYDO is a process for estimating reliability of complex systems. Using information from all applicable sources, including full-system (flight) data, component test data, and expert (engineering) judgment, SRFYDO produces reliability estimates and predictions. It is appropriate for series systems with possibly several versions of the system which share some common components. It models reliability as a function of age and up to 2 other lifecycle (usage) covariates. Initial output from its Exploratory Data Analysis mode consists of plots and numerical summaries so that the user can check data entry and model assumptions, and help determine a final form for the system model. The System Reliability mode runs a complete reliability calculation using Bayesian methodology. This mode produces results that estimate reliability at the component, sub-system, and system level. The results include estimates of uncertainty, and can predict reliability at some not-too-distant time in the future. This paper presents an overview of the underlying statistical model for the analysis, discusses model assumptions, and demonstrates usage of SRFYDO.

  9. 78 FR 41339 - Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ...] Electric Reliability Organization Proposal To Retire Requirements in Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal... Reliability Standards identified by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the Commission-certified Electric Reliability Organization. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kevin Ryan (Legal Information...

  10. New Approaches to Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...

  11. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  12. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  13. Aerospace reliability applied to biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.; Vargo, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    An analysis is presented that indicates that the reliability and quality assurance methodology selected by NASA to minimize failures in aerospace equipment can be applied directly to biomedical devices to improve hospital equipment reliability. The Space Electric Rocket Test project is used as an example of NASA application of reliability and quality assurance (R&QA) methods. By analogy a comparison is made to show how these same methods can be used in the development of transducers, instrumentation, and complex systems for use in medicine.

  14. Integrating reliability analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmuson, D.M.

    1980-10-01

    This report describes the Interactive Reliability Analysis Project and demonstrates the advantages of using computer-aided design systems (CADS) in reliability analysis. Common cause failure problems require presentations of systems, analysis of fault trees, and evaluation of solutions to these. Results have to be communicated between the reliability analyst and the system designer. Using a computer-aided design system saves time and money in the analysis of design. Computer-aided design systems lend themselves to cable routing, valve and switch lists, pipe routing, and other component studies. At EG and G Idaho, Inc., the Applicon CADS is being applied to the study of water reactor safety systems

  15. Probabilistic liver atlas construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dura, Esther; Domingo, Juan; Ayala, Guillermo; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Goceri, E

    2017-01-13

    Anatomical atlases are 3D volumes or shapes representing an organ or structure of the human body. They contain either the prototypical shape of the object of interest together with other shapes representing its statistical variations (statistical atlas) or a probability map of belonging to the object (probabilistic atlas). Probabilistic atlases are mostly built with simple estimations only involving the data at each spatial location. A new method for probabilistic atlas construction that uses a generalized linear model is proposed. This method aims to improve the estimation of the probability to be covered by the liver. Furthermore, all methods to build an atlas involve previous coregistration of the sample of shapes available. The influence of the geometrical transformation adopted for registration in the quality of the final atlas has not been sufficiently investigated. The ability of an atlas to adapt to a new case is one of the most important quality criteria that should be taken into account. The presented experiments show that some methods for atlas construction are severely affected by the previous coregistration step. We show the good performance of the new approach. Furthermore, results suggest that extremely flexible registration methods are not always beneficial, since they can reduce the variability of the atlas and hence its ability to give sensible values of probability when used as an aid in segmentation of new cases.

  16. Radiology of liver circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermine, C.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book proposes that careful evaluation of the arterioportogram is the cornerstone in assessing portal flow obstruction, being the most consistent of all observations including liver histology, portal venous pressure, size and number of portosystemic collaterals, and wedged hepatic venous pressure. Very brief chapters cover normal hepatic circulation and angiographic methods. Contrast volumes and flow rates for celiac, hepatic, and superior mesenteric injection are given, with the timing for venous phase radiographs. In the main body of the text, portal obstruction is divided very simply into presinusoidal (all proximal causes) and postsinusoidal (all distal causes, including Budd-Chiari). Changes are discussed regarding the splenic artery and spleen; hepatic artery and its branches; portal flow rate and direction; and arterioportal shunting and portosystemic collateral circulation in minimal, moderate, severe, and very severe portal obstruction and in recognizable entities such as prehepatic portal and hepatic venous obstructions. The major emphasis in this section is the recognition and understanding of flow changes by which level and severity of obstruction are assessed (not simply the anatomy of portosystemic collateral venous flow). Excellent final chapters discuss the question of portal hypertension without obstruction, and the contribution of arterioportography to the treatment of portal hypertension, again with an emphasis on hemodynamics before and after shunt surgery. There is a fascinating final chapter on segmental intrahepatic obstruction without portal hypertension that explains much of the unusual contrast enhancement sometimes seen in CT scanning of hepatic mass lesions

  17. Drug-induced liver injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-02

    Jun 2, 2011 ... liver failure in the developed world and a prominent aetiological factor ... most drugs is not known and several epidemiological studies have had major ... eosinophilia, are also pointers towards the cause of the injury and are.

  18. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  19. Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Physician Directory HBV Meeting What Is Hepatitis B? What Is Hepatitis B? The ABCs of Viral Hepatitis Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B Hepatitis Delta Coinfection Hepatitis C Coinfection HIV/AIDS ...

  20. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    Literature on liver morphology in untreated obesity reveals varying prevalences of various pathological findings. The purpose of this literature study was to summarize and evaluate the published observations and to discuss discrepant findings. A complete search was aimed at utilizing bibliographic...... methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  1. Kava Linked to Liver Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of these countries to remove kava from the market. Although liver damage appears to be rare, the ... are marketed to men, women, children, and the elderly. Advice to Consumers Safety is a concern for ...

  2. Smoking and risk of liver cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Marie Kamstrup; Flensborg-Madsen, Trine; Eliasen, Marie

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol is the most acknowledged risk factor for liver cirrhosis. Smoking is rarely considered to be a cause of liver cirrhosis even though a few studies have suggested the opposite. The aim of this study was to assess the independent effect of smoking on alcoholic liver cirrhosis and liver...

  3. Computed tomography after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuy, D.E.; Costello, P.

    1992-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is commonly performed at many institutions around the world. The care of these critically ill patients has heavily relied upon cross-sectional imaging, specifically CT. CT is of enormous benefit in the postoperative management of the various complications which is common in this group of patients. This article reviews the role of CT and its respective strengths and weaknesses, in the adult liver transplant recipient. (orig.) [de

  4. Ventilatory strategy during liver transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Niemann, Mads

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) may be reduced by hyperventilation in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation surgery (LTx). Conversely, the brain may be subjected to hyperperfusion during reperfusion of the grafted liver. We investig......, this retrospective analysis suggests that attention to maintain a targeted EtCO2 would result in a more stable ScO2 during the operation....

  5. Serum markers of liver fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veidal, Sanne Skovgård; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine; Tougas, Gervais

    2010-01-01

    -epitopes, may be targeted for novel biochemical marker development in fibrosis. We used the recently proposed BIPED system (Burden of disease, Investigative, Prognostic, Efficacy and Diagnostic) to characterise present serological markers. METHODS: Pubmed was search for keywords; Liver fibrosis, neo......, a systematic use of the neo-epitope approach, i.e. the quantification of peptide epitopes generated from enzymatic cleavage of proteins during extracellular remodeling, may prove productive in the quest to find new markers of liver fibrosis....

  6. Alcoholic Liver Disease and Malnutrition

    OpenAIRE

    McClain, Craig J.; Barve, Shirish S.; Barve, Ashutosh; Marsano, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition, both protein energy malnutrition (PEM) and deficiencies in individual nutrients, is a frequent complication of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Severity of malnutrition correlates with severity of ALD. Malnutrition also occurs in patients with cirrhosis due to etiologies other than alcohol. The mechanisms for malnutrition are multifactorial, and malnutrition frequently worsens in the hospital due to fasting for procedures and metabolic complications of liver disease, such as hepat...

  7. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.

    1987-01-01

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  8. Drug-induced liver injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mille Bækdal; Ytting, Henriette; Skalshøi Kjær, Mette

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The idiosyncratic subtype of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a rare reaction to medical treatment that in severe cases can lead to acute liver failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation and outcome of DILI and to identify potential predictive factors...... that DILI may be severe and run a fatal course, and that bilirubin and INR levels may predict poor outcome....

  9. Energy Metabolism in the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Liangyou

    2014-01-01

    The liver is an essential metabolic organ, and its metabolic activity is tightly controlled by insulin and other metabolic hormones. Glucose is metabolized into pyruvate through glycolysis in the cytoplasm, and pyruvate is completely oxidized to generate ATP through the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. In the fed state, glycolytic products are used to synthesize fatty acids through de novo lipogenesis. Long-chain fatty acids are incorporated into triacylglycerol, phospholipids, and cholesterol esters in hepatocytes, and these complex lipids are stored in lipid droplets and membrane structures, or secreted into the circulation as VLDL particles. In the fasted state, the liver secretes glucose through both breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis) and de novo glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis). During pronged fasting, hepatic gluconeogenesis is the primary source of endogenous glucose production. Fasting also promotes lipolysis in adipose tissue to release nonesterified fatty acids which are converted into ketone bodies in the liver though mitochondrial β oxidation and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies provide a metabolic fuel for extrahepatic tissues. Liver metabolic processes are tightly regulated by neuronal and hormonal systems. The sympathetic system stimulates, whereas the parasympathetic system suppresses, hepatic gluconeogenesis. Insulin stimulates glycolysis and lipogenesis, but suppresses gluconeogenesis; glucagon counteracts insulin action. Numerous transcription factors and coactivators, including CREB, FOXO1, ChREBP, SREBP, PGC-1α, and CRTC2, control the expression of the enzymes which catalyze the rate-limiting steps of liver metabolic processes, thus controlling liver energy metabolism. Aberrant energy metabolism in the liver promotes insulin resistance, diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). PMID:24692138

  10. Multimodality postoperative imaging of liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, Giulia A.; Pedrosa, Ivan; Kruskal, Jonathan B.; Raptopoulos, Vassilios

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplantation is the only effective and definitive treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. The shortage of cadaveric livers has lead to the increasing use of split-liver transplantation and living-donor liver transplantation, but the expansion of the donor pool has increased the risk for postoperative vascular and biliary complications. Early recognition of the imaging appearances of the various postoperative complications of liver transplantation is crucial for both graft and patient survival. This review describes the imaging findings of normal and abnormal transplanted liver parenchyma and of vascular and biliary post-transplantation complications. (orig.)

  11. Autoimmune liver disease and therapy in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matjaž Homan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune hepatitis is a chronic immune-mediated disease of the liver. In childhood, autoimmune liver disorders include autoimmune hepatitis type I and II, autoimmune sclerosing cholangitis, Coombs-positive giant cell hepatitis, and de novo autoimmune hepatitis after liver transplantation. Autoimmune liver disease has a more aggressive course in children, especially autoimmune hepatitis type II. Standard therapy is a combination of corticosteroids and azathioprine. Around 80 % of children with autoimmune liver disease show a rapid response to combination therapy. The non-responders are treated with more potent drugs, otherwise autoimmune disease progresses to cirrhosis of the liver and the child needs liver transplantation as rescue therapy.

  12. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshtrakh, M. I. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Division of Applied Biophysics, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University - UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Prokopenko, P. G. [Russian State Medical University, Faculty of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Malakheeva, L. I. [Simbio Holding, Science Consultation Department (Russian Federation)

    2004-12-15

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  13. Comparative Study of Human Liver Ferritin and Chicken Liver by Moessbauer Spectroscopy. Preliminary Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshtrakh, M. I.; Milder, O. B.; Semionkin, V. A.; Prokopenko, P. G.; Malakheeva, L. I.

    2004-01-01

    A comparative study of normal human liver ferritin and livers from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease was made by Moessbauer spectroscopy. Small differences of quadrupole splitting and isomer shift were found for human liver ferritin and chicken liver. Moessbauer parameters for liver from normal chicken and chicken with Marek disease were the same.

  14. The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The role of IL6 in liver cancer linked to metabolic liver disease. Liver cancer is highly fatal, it has very few treatment options, and it is one of the few cancers whose incidence is rising worldwide. One poorly understood risk factor for liver cancer is obesity/metabolic disease (such as diabetes and fatty liver disease).

  15. Metabonomics Research Progress on Liver Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Mengqian; Zhu, Ying; Cong, Qingwei; Wu, Chunyan

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics as the new omics technique develops after genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics and has rapid development at present. Liver diseases are worldwide public health problems. In China, chronic hepatitis B and its secondary diseases are the common liver diseases. They can be diagnosed by the combination of history, virology, liver function, and medical imaging. However, some patients seldom have relevant physical examination, so the diagnosis may be delayed. Many other liver diseases, such as drug-induced liver injury (DILI), alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and autoimmune liver diseases, still do not have definite diagnostic markers; the diagnosis consists of history, medical imaging, and the relevant score. As a result, the clinical work becomes very complex. So it has broad prospects to explore the specific and sensitive biomarkers of liver diseases with metabolomics. In this paper, there are several summaries which are related to the current research progress and application of metabolomics on biomarkers of liver diseases.

  16. Pediatric Liver Transplantation: Our Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basturk, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Aygen; Sayar, Ersin; Dinçhan, Ayhan; Aliosmanoğlu, İbrahim; Erbiş, Halil; Aydınlı, Bülent; Artan, Reha

    2016-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate our liver transplant pediatric patients and to report our experience in the complications and the long-term follow-up results. Patients between the ages of 0 and 18 years, who had liver transplantation in the organ transplantation center of our university hospital between 1997 and 2016, were included in the study. The age, sex, indications for the liver transplantation, complications after the transplantation, and long-term follow-up findings were retrospectively evaluated. The obtained results were analyzed with statistical methods. In our organ transplantation center, 62 pediatric liver transplantations were carried out since 1997. The mean age of our patients was 7.3 years (6.5 months-17 years). The 4 most common reasons for liver transplantation were: Wilson's disease (n=10; 16.3%), biliary atresia (n=9; 14.5%), progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis (n=8; 12.9%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (n=7; 11.3%). The mortality rate after transplantation was 19.6% (12 of the total 62 patients). The observed acute and chronic rejection rates were 34% and 4.9%, respectively. Thrombosis (9.6%) was observed in the hepatic artery (4.8%) and portal vein (4.8%). Bile leakage and biliary stricture rates were 31% and 11%, respectively. 1-year and 5-year survival rates of our patients were 87% and 84%, respectively. The morbidity and mortality rates in our organ transplantation center, regarding pediatric liver transplantations, are consistent with the literature.

  17. Nutritional Therapy in Liver Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hammad

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein-energy malnourishment is commonly encountered in patients with end-stage liver disease who undergo liver transplantation. Malnutrition may further increase morbidity, mortality and costs in the post-transplantation setting. The importance of carefully assessing the nutritional status during the work-up of patients who are candidates for liver replacement is widely recognized. The metabolic abnormalities induced by liver failure render the conventional assessment of nutritional status to be challenging. Preoperative loss of skeletal muscle mass, namely, sarcopenia, has a significant detrimental impact on post-transplant outcomes. It is essential to provide sufficient nutritional support during all phases of liver transplantation. Oral nutrition is preferred, but tube enteral nutrition may be required to provide the needed energy intake. Herein, the latest currently employed perioperative nutritional interventions in liver transplant recipients are thoroughly illustrated including synbiotics, micronutrients, branched-chain amino acid supplementation, immunonutrition formulas, fluid and electrolyte balance, the offering of nocturnal meals, dietary counselling, exercise and rehabilitation.

  18. HEMOSTATIC DISORDERS IN LIVER DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Minov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The liver is an essential player in the pathway of coagulation in both primary and secondary hemostasis as it is the site of synthesis of all coagulation factors and their inhibitors. Liver diseases are associated with complex changes in coagulation and the delicate balance between pro and antithrombotic factors is preserved but reset to a lower level. There is growing evidence that portal and hepatic vein thrombosis is cause of disease progression in cirrhotic patients and worsens hemostatic abnormalities. These hemostatic abnormalities do not always lead to spontaneous bleeding, which may be triggered only by additional factors, such as infections. Usually therapy for coagulation disorders in liver disease is needed only during bleeding or before invasive procedures. In patients with end stage liver disease liver transplantation is the only treatment available, which can restore normal hemostasis, and correct genetic clotting defects. During liver transplantation hemorrhage may occur due to the pre-existing hypocoagulable state, the collateral circulation caused by portal hypertension and increased fibrinolysis. 

  19. Respiratory analysis of coupled mitochondria in cryopreserved liver biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes García-Roche

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to develop a cryopreservation method of small liver biopsies for in situ mitochondrial function assessment. Herein we describe a detailed protocol for tissue collection, cryopreservation, high-resolution respirometry using complex I and II substrates, calculation and interpretation of respiratory parameters. Liver biopsies from cow and rat were sequentially frozen in a medium containing dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant and stored for up to 3 months at −80 °C. Oxygen consumption rate studies of fresh and cryopreserved samples revealed that most respiratory parameters remained unchanged. Additionally, outer mitochondrial membrane integrity was assessed adding cytochrome c, proving that our cryopreservation method does not harm mitochondrial structure. In sum, we present a reliable way to cryopreserve small liver biopsies without affecting mitochondrial function. Our protocol will enable the transport and storage of samples, extending and facilitating mitochondrial function analysis of liver biopsies. Keywords: Cryopreservation, Mitochondria, Biopsy, Oxygen consumption rate, High-resolution respirometry, Mitochondrial function

  20. Reliability analysis of shutdown system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, C. Senthil; John Arul, A.; Pal Singh, Om; Suryaprakasa Rao, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the results of reliability analysis of Shutdown System (SDS) of Indian Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. Reliability analysis carried out using Fault Tree Analysis predicts a value of 3.5 x 10 -8 /de for failure of shutdown function in case of global faults and 4.4 x 10 -8 /de for local faults. Based on 20 de/y, the frequency of shutdown function failure is 0.7 x 10 -6 /ry, which meets the reliability target, set by the Indian Atomic Energy Regulatory Board. The reliability is limited by Common Cause Failure (CCF) of actuation part of SDS and to a lesser extent CCF of electronic components. The failure frequency of individual systems is -3 /ry, which also meets the safety criteria. Uncertainty analysis indicates a maximum error factor of 5 for the top event unavailability

  1. Measures of differences in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doksum, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    Measures of differences in reliability of two systems are considered in the scale model, location-scale model, and a nonparametric model. In each model, estimates and confidence intervals are given and some of their properties discussed

  2. Transportation reliability and trip satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Travel delays and associated costs have become a major problem in Michigan over the : past several decades as congestion has continued to increase, creating significant negative : impacts on travel reliability on many roadways throughout the State. T...

  3. Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...

  4. Reliability issues at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Gillies, James D

    2002-01-01

    The Lectures on reliability issues at the LHC will be focused on five main Modules on five days. Module 1: Basic Elements in Reliability Engineering Some basic terms, definitions and methods, from components up to the system and the plant, common cause failures and human factor issues. Module 2: Interrelations of Reliability & Safety (R&S) Reliability and risk informed approach, living models, risk monitoring. Module 3: The ideal R&S Process for Large Scale Systems From R&S goals via the implementation into the system to the proof of the compliance. Module 4: Some Applications of R&S on LHC Master logic, anatomy of risk, cause - consequence diagram, decomposition and aggregation of the system. Module 5: Lessons learned from R&S Application in various Technologies Success stories, pitfalls, constrains in data and methods, limitations per se, experienced in aviation, space, process, nuclear, offshore and transport systems and plants. The Lectures will reflect in summary the compromise in...

  5. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen Ringi, M

    1995-05-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person`s state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs.

  6. On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soerensen Ringi, M.

    1995-01-01

    The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person's state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs

  7. As reliable as the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, J. A. P.

    2017-11-01

    Fortunately there is almost nothing as reliable as the sun which can consequently be utilized as a very reliable source of spacecraft power. In order to harvest this power, the solar panels have to be pointed towards the sun as accurately and reliably as possible. To this extend, sunsensors are available on almost every satellite to support vital sun-pointing capability throughout the mission, even in the deployment and save mode phases of the satellites life. Given the criticality of the application one would expect that after more than 50 years of sun sensor utilisation, such sensors would be fully matured and optimised. In actual fact though, the majority of sunsensors employed are still coarse sunsensors which have a proven extreme reliability but present major issues regarding albedo sensitivity and pointing accuracy.

  8. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  9. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  10. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  11. Innovations in power systems reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.

  12. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  13. Reliability and Maintainability (RAM) Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Packard, Michael H. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The theme of this manual is failure physics-the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low-cost reliable products. In a broader sense the manual should do more. It should underscore the urgent need CI for mature attitudes toward reliability. Five of the chapters were originally presented as a classroom course to over 1000 Martin Marietta engineers and technicians. Another four chapters and three appendixes have been added, We begin with a view of reliability from the years 1940 to 2000. Chapter 2 starts the training material with a review of mathematics and a description of what elements contribute to product failures. The remaining chapters elucidate basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures.

  14. Development of reliable pavement models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The current report proposes a framework for estimating the reliability of a given pavement structure as analyzed by : the Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design Guide (MEPDG). The methodology proposes using a previously fit : response surface, in plac...

  15. Cost analysis of reliability investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.

    1981-01-01

    Taking Epsteins testing theory as a basis, premisses are formulated for the selection of cost-optimized reliability inspection plans. Using an example, the expected testing costs and inspection time periods of various inspection plan types, standardized on the basis of the exponential distribution, are compared. It can be shown that sequential reliability tests usually involve lower costs than failure or time-fixed tests. The most 'costly' test is to be expected with the inspection plan type NOt. (orig.) [de

  16. Nonparametric predictive inference in reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coolen, F.P.A.; Coolen-Schrijner, P.; Yan, K.J.

    2002-01-01

    We introduce a recently developed statistical approach, called nonparametric predictive inference (NPI), to reliability. Bounds for the survival function for a future observation are presented. We illustrate how NPI can deal with right-censored data, and discuss aspects of competing risks. We present possible applications of NPI for Bernoulli data, and we briefly outline applications of NPI for replacement decisions. The emphasis is on introduction and illustration of NPI in reliability contexts, detailed mathematical justifications are presented elsewhere

  17. Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steve Suhring

    2003-05-01

    Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.

  18. Power peaking nuclear reliability factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, H.A.; Pegram, J.W.; Mays, C.W.; Romano, J.J.; Woods, J.J.; Warren, H.D.

    1977-11-01

    The Calculational Nuclear Reliability Factor (CNRF) assigned to the limiting power density calculated in reactor design has been determined. The CNRF is presented as a function of the relative power density of the fuel assembly and its radial local. In addition, the Measurement Nuclear Reliability Factor (MNRF) for the measured peak hot pellet power in the core has been evaluated. This MNRF is also presented as a function of the relative power density and radial local within the fuel assembly

  19. Travel Time Reliability in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Martchouk, Maria; Mannering, Fred L.; Singh, Lakhwinder

    2010-01-01

    Travel time and travel time reliability are important performance measures for assessing traffic condition and extent of congestion on a roadway. This study first uses a floating car technique to assess travel time and travel time reliability on a number of Indiana highways. Then the study goes on to describe the use of Bluetooth technology to collect real travel time data on a freeway and applies it to obtain two weeks of data on Interstate 69 in Indianapolis. An autoregressive model, estima...

  20. Transmission reliability faces future challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaty, W.

    1993-01-01

    The recently published Washington International Energy Group's 1993 Electric Utility Outlook states that nearly one-third (31 percent) of U.S. utility executives expect reliability to decrease in the near future. Electric power system stability is crucial to reliability. Stability analysis determines whether a system will stay intact under normal operating conditions, during minor disturbances such as load fluctuations, and during major disturbances when one or more parts of the system fails. All system elements contribute to reliability or the lack of it. However, this report centers on the transmission segment of the electric system. The North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) says the transmission systems as planned will be adequate over the next 10 years. However, delays in building new lines and increasing demands for transmission services are serious concerns. Reliability concerns exist in the Mid-Continent Area Power Pool and the Mid-America Interconnected Network regions where transmission facilities have not been allowed to be constructed as planned. Portions of the transmission systems in other regions are loaded at or near their limits. NERC further states that utilities must be allowed to complete planned generation and transmission as scheduled. A reliable supply of electricity also depends on adhering to established operating criteria. Factors that could complicate operations include: More interchange schedules resulting from increased transmission services. Increased line loadings in portions of the transmission systems. Proliferation of non-utility generators

  1. MEMS reliability: coming of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael R.

    2008-02-01

    In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.

  2. Fuel reliability experience in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kekkonen, L.

    2015-01-01

    Four nuclear reactors have operated in Finland now for 35-38 years. The two VVER-440 units at Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant are operated by Fortum and two BWR’s in Olkiluoto are operated by Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO). The fuel reliability experience of the four reactors operating currently in Finland has been very good and the fuel failure rates have been very low. Systematic inspection of spent fuel assemblies, and especially all failed assemblies, is a good practice that is employed in Finland in order to improve fuel reliability and operational safety. Investigation of the root cause of fuel failures is important in developing ways to prevent similar failures in the future. The operational and fuel reliability experience at the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant has been reported also earlier in the international seminars on WWER Fuel Performance, Modelling and Experimental Support. In this paper the information on fuel reliability experience at Loviisa NPP is updated and also a short summary of the fuel reliability experience at Olkiluoto NPP is given. Keywords: VVER-440, fuel reliability, operational experience, poolside inspections, fuel failure identification. (author)

  3. Reliability issues : a Canadian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konow, H.

    2004-01-01

    A Canadian perspective of power reliability issues was presented. Reliability depends on adequacy of supply and a framework for standards. The challenges facing the electric power industry include new demand, plant replacement and exports. It is expected that demand will by 670 TWh by 2020, with 205 TWh coming from new plants. Canada will require an investment of $150 billion to meet this demand and the need is comparable in the United States. As trade grows, the challenge becomes a continental issue and investment in the bi-national transmission grid will be essential. The 5 point plan of the Canadian Electricity Association is to: (1) establish an investment climate to ensure future electricity supply, (2) move government and industry towards smart and effective regulation, (3) work to ensure a sustainable future for the next generation, (4) foster innovation and accelerate skills development, and (5) build on the strengths of an integrated North American system to maximize opportunity for Canadians. The CEA's 7 measures that enhance North American reliability were listed with emphasis on its support for a self-governing international organization for developing and enforcing mandatory reliability standards. CEA also supports the creation of a binational Electric Reliability Organization (ERO) to identify and solve reliability issues in the context of a bi-national grid. tabs., figs

  4. Computerized tomography in diffuse diseases of the liver. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmberger, H.; Vogel, U.; Bautz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Computerized tomography is a first-line method of imaging to confirm diffuse disorders of the liver suggested by preliminary clinical and biochemical findings. If the disease is caused by an obstructed vessel, this is reliably detected. For most types of thesaurismosis as well as hepatic steatosis and cirrhosis of the liver approaches to quantitative determinations of the spread of disease have been described in theory but so far failed to show great merits in practice. The transition from hepatic fibrosis to cirrhosis as the final developmental stage common to all those disorders has typical features on computerized tomography. This explains why the use of this method in diffuse hepatic disease offers particular advantages as regards the detection of complications occurring at an advanced stage ot the diagnosis of changes developing into malignancies. (orig.) [de

  5. Serum glucose and liver glycogen in gamma irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlersova, E.; Ahlers, I.; Molcanova, A.

    1988-01-01

    Overnight fasted male rats of Wistar strain were irradiated with single whole-body doses of 4.78-7.17-9.57 and 14.35 Gy of gamma rays. After decapitation at intervals 1-28 d (4.78 and 7.17 Gy), 1-7 d (9.57 Gy) and 1-3 d (14.35 Gy) glucose concentration in serum and glycogen concentration in liver of irradiated and non-irradiated animals were determined. The higher was radiation dose the more expressive extent and depth of changes (hyperglycemia, accumulation of glycogen) occured. Blood glucose and liver glycogen may serve as a reliable and dose-dependent biological indicators of metabolic changes in irradiated rats. (author)

  6. CT features of liver abscesses caused by the fasciola hepatica infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Dong; Li Peng; Sun Hua; Wang Zhihua; She Bo

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study CT features of liver abscesses caused by the fasciola hepatica infection, and discuss its pathologic basis. Methods: CT images of 15 Patients were collected. All patients underwent both unenhanced and biphasic enhanced CT scanning, then its CT performances were analyzed. Results: round and nodular lesions were observed in 15 cases, branching and stripping lesions like dilated bile duct in 9 cases. The density of lesions was inhomogeneous, and the lesions were multifocal and multiform. The liver abscesses caused by the fasciola hepatica infection had no 'rim sign' or 'target' sign, Liver abscesses were less than 3.0 cm in diameter, and the dilation of the bile duct were not observed. Conclusion: Liver abscessed caused by the fasciola hepatica infection have characteristic CT features. Combined with clinical examination and laboratory test, the reliability of diagnosis will be considerably increased. (authors)

  7. Model and methods to assess hepatic function from indocyanine green fluorescence dynamical measurements of liver tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audebert, Chloe; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E

    2018-03-30

    The indocyanine green (ICG) clearance, presented as plasma disappearance rate is, presently, a reliable method to estimate the hepatic "function". However, this technique is not instantaneously available and thus cannot been used intra-operatively (during liver surgery). Near-infrared spectroscopy enables to assess hepatic ICG concentration over time in the liver tissue. This article proposes to extract more information from the liver intensity dynamics by interpreting it through a dedicated pharmacokinetics model. In order to account for the different exchanges between the liver tissues, the proposed model includes three compartments for the liver model (sinusoids, hepatocytes and bile canaliculi). The model output dependency to parameters is studied with sensitivity analysis and solving an inverse problem on synthetic data. The estimation of model parameters is then performed with in-vivo measurements in rabbits (El-Desoky et al. 1999). Parameters for different liver states are estimated, and their link with liver function is investigated. A non-linear (Michaelis-Menten type) excretion rate from the hepatocytes to the bile canaliculi was necessary to reproduce the measurements for different liver conditions. In case of bile duct ligation, the model suggests that this rate is reduced, and that the ICG is stored in the hepatocytes. Moreover, the level of ICG remains high in the blood following the ligation of the bile duct. The percentage of retention of indocyanine green in blood, which is a common test for hepatic function estimation, is also investigated with the model. The impact of bile duct ligation and reduced liver inflow on the percentage of ICG retention in blood is studied. The estimation of the pharmacokinetics model parameters may lead to an evaluation of different liver functions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliability analysis techniques in power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    An overview of reliability analysis techniques is presented as applied to power plant design. The key terms, power plant performance, reliability, availability and maintainability are defined. Reliability modeling, methods of analysis and component reliability data are briefly reviewed. Application of reliability analysis techniques from a design engineering approach to improving power plant productivity is discussed. (author)

  9. Complete Plasmodium falciparum liver-stage development in liver-chimeric mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Ashley M.; Mikolajczak, Sebastian A.; Wilson, Elizabeth M.; Grompe, Markus; Kaushansky, Alexis; Camargo, Nelly; Bial, John; Ploss, Alexander; Kappe, Stefan H.I.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most lethal form of human malaria, replicates in the host liver during the initial stage of infection. However, in vivo malaria liver-stage (LS) studies in humans are virtually impossible, and in vitro models of LS development do not reconstitute relevant parasite growth conditions. To overcome these obstacles, we have adopted a robust mouse model for the study of P. falciparum LS in vivo: the immunocompromised and fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase–deficient mouse (Fah–/–, Rag2–/–, Il2rg–/–, termed the FRG mouse) engrafted with human hepatocytes (FRG huHep). FRG huHep mice supported vigorous, quantifiable P. falciparum LS development that culminated in complete maturation of LS at approximately 7 days after infection, providing a relevant model for LS development in humans. The infections allowed observations of previously unknown expression of proteins in LS, including P. falciparum translocon of exported proteins 150 (PTEX150) and exported protein-2 (EXP-2), components of a known parasite protein export machinery. LS schizonts exhibited exoerythrocytic merozoite formation and merosome release. Furthermore, FRG mice backcrossed to the NOD background and repopulated with huHeps and human red blood cells supported reproducible transition from LS infection to blood-stage infection. Thus, these mice constitute reliable models to study human LS directly in vivo and demonstrate utility for studies of LS–to–blood-stage transition of a human malaria parasite. PMID:22996664

  10. Reliability analysis under epistemic uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannapaneni, Saideep; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a probabilistic framework to include both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty within model-based reliability estimation of engineering systems for individual limit states. Epistemic uncertainty is considered due to both data and model sources. Sparse point and/or interval data regarding the input random variables leads to uncertainty regarding their distribution types, distribution parameters, and correlations; this statistical uncertainty is included in the reliability analysis through a combination of likelihood-based representation, Bayesian hypothesis testing, and Bayesian model averaging techniques. Model errors, which include numerical solution errors and model form errors, are quantified through Gaussian process models and included in the reliability analysis. The probability integral transform is used to develop an auxiliary variable approach that facilitates a single-level representation of both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. This strategy results in an efficient single-loop implementation of Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) and FORM/SORM techniques for reliability estimation under both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. Two engineering examples are used to demonstrate the proposed methodology. - Highlights: • Epistemic uncertainty due to data and model included in reliability analysis. • A novel FORM-based approach proposed to include aleatory and epistemic uncertainty. • A single-loop Monte Carlo approach proposed to include both types of uncertainties. • Two engineering examples used for illustration.

  11. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  12. Investigation on liver fast metabolism with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Schmitt, W.G.H.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the density of normal and diffusely diseased liver parenchyma show a significant difference only in fatty liver. A linear relationship between the fat content and physical density has been demonstrated. Computed tomographic densitometry of liver tissue correlates well with physical in vitro measurements of fat content and is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. Other types of liver diseases cannot be differentiated by densitometry, Lipolisis in fatty liver in chronic alcoholism alcohol withdrawal has been investigated. It has been found that a rate of decrease of the fatty degeneration of the liver equals to 1 percent/day. Fatty degeneration of the liver in acute pancreatitis and other diseases have been also investigated. CT densitometry of the liver should be considered as a useful routine clinical method to determine the fat content of liver. (author)

  13. Investigation on liver fast metabolism with CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebener, K.H.; Schmitt, W.G.H. (Heidelberg Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Pathologisches Inst.)

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the density of normal and diffusely diseased liver parenchyma show a significant difference only in fatty liver. A linear relationship between the fat content and physical density has been demonstrated. Computed tomographic densitometry of liver tissue correlates well with physical in vitro measurements of fat content and is sufficiently accurate for clinical use. Other types of liver diseases cannot be differentiated by densitometry, Lipolisis in fatty liver in chronic alcoholism alcohol withdrawal has been investigated. It has been found that a rate of decrease of the fatty degeneration of the liver equals to 1 percent/day. Fatty degeneration of the liver in acute pancreatitis and other diseases have been also investigated. CT densitometry of the liver should be considered as a useful routine clinical method to determine the fat content of liver.

  14. Clinical investigation of fatty liver by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Katsumoto; Takayama, Tetsuo; Sano, Hiroshi; Katada, Naoyuki; Takeichi, Masayuki

    1984-01-01

    CT findings of 56 cases of diffuse fatty infiltration comfirmed by liver biopsy were investigated and compared with those of chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis. We found that the diagnosis of severe fatty infiltration (fatty liver) can be specifically possible when the ratios of CT values of liver to those of spleen are less than 0.85 and it is reasonable criterion for diagnosis of fatty liver by CT. This criterion was satisfied by 197 studies (2.9%), 169 cases with fatty liver (diffuse: 141 cases, focal: 28 cases) of 6800 CT studies of liver. Obesity, diabetes and alcohol abuse were main causative factors in both diffuse and focal fatty liver. The percentage of cases showing no abnormal results in blood chemistry tests was great compared with the previous report based on liver biopsy. The changes of CT values of liver faithfully reflected the improvement of each causal factor and reciprocal changes were observed between diffuse and focal fatty liver in repeated CT examination. So, CT is useful in estimating the effect of treatment as well as in diagnosis of fatty liver. Focal fatty liver is temporary manifestation during the proscess of development or improvement of fatty liver. (author)

  15. Evaluating the Significance of Viscoelasticity in Diagnosing Early-Stage Liver Fibrosis with Transient Elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxin; Zhai, Fei; Cheng, Jun; He, Qiong; Luo, Jianwen; Yang, Xueping; Shao, Jinhua; Xing, Huichun

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography quantifies the propagation of a mechanically generated shear wave within a soft tissue, which can be used to characterize the elasticity and viscosity parameters of the tissue. The aim of our study was to combine numerical simulation and clinical assessment to define a viscoelastic index of liver tissue to improve the quality of early diagnosis of liver fibrosis. This is clinically relevant, as early fibrosis is reversible. We developed an idealized two-dimensional axisymmetric finite element model of the liver to evaluate the effects of different viscoelastic values on the propagation characteristics of the shear wave. The diagnostic value of the identified viscoelastic index was verified against the clinical data of 99 patients who had undergone biopsy and routine blood tests for staging of liver disease resulting from chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver stiffness measurement (LSM) and the shear wave attenuation fitting coefficient (AFC) were calculated from the ultrasound data obtained by performing transient elastography. Receiver operating curve analysis was used to evaluate the reliability and diagnostic accuracy of LSM and AFC. Compared to LSM, the AFC provided a higher diagnostic accuracy to differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis, namely F1 and F2 stages, with an overall specificity of 81.48%, sensitivity of 83.33% and diagnostic accuracy of 81.82%. AFC was influenced by the level of LSM, ALT. However, there are no correlation between AFC and Age, BMI, TBIL or DBIL. Quantification of the viscoelasticity of liver tissue provides reliable measurement to identify and differentiate early stages of liver fibrosis.

  16. Hemostatic abnormalities in liver cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendal YALÇIN

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 44 patients with liver cirrhosis were investigated for hemostatic parameters. Patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatorenal syndrome and cholestatic liver diseases were excluded. Patients were classified by Child-Pugh criterion and according to this 4 patients were in Class A, 20 in Class B and 20 in C. Regarding to these results, it was aimed to investigate the haematological disturbances in liver cirrhotic patients.In the result there was a correlation between activated partial thromboplastin time, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, haptoglobin and Child-Pugh classification. Besides there was no correlation between prothrombin time, factor 8 and 9, protein C and S, anti-thrombin 3, fibrinogen, fibrin degradation products, serum iron binding capacity, hemoglobin, leukocyte, mean corpuscular volume and Child-Pugh classification.There were significant difference, in terms of AST, ferritin, haptoglobulin, sex and presence of ascites between groups (p0.05. In the summary, we have found correlation between hemostatic abnormalities and disease activity and clinical prognosis in patients with liver cirrhosis which is important in the management of these patients. This is also important for identification of liver transplant candidiates earlier.

  17. Recent advances in liver imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutter, D; Soler, L; Marescaux, J

    2010-10-01

    Liver surgery remains a difficult challenge in which preoperative data analysis and strategy definition may play a significant role in the success of the procedure. Medical image processing led to a major improvement of patient care by guiding the surgical gesture. From this initial data, new technologies of virtual reality and augmented reality can increase the potential of such images. The 3D modeling of the liver of patients from their CT scan or MRI thus allows an improved surgical planning. Simulation allows the procedure to be simulated preoperatively and offers the opportunity to train the surgical gesture before carrying it out. These three preoperative steps can be used intraoperatively thanks to the development of augmented reality, which consists of superimposing the preoperative 3D modeling of the patient onto the real intraoperative view of the patient and his/her organs. Augmented reality provides surgeons with a transparent view of the patient. This facilitated the intraoperative identification of the vascular anatomy and the control of the segmental arteries and veins in liver surgery, thus preventing intraoperative bleeding. It can also offer guidance due to the virtual improvement of their real surgical tools, which are tracked in real-time during the procedure. During the surgical procedure, augmented reality, therefore, offers surgeons a transparent view of their patient, which will lead to the automation of the most complex maneuvers. The new ways of processing and analyzing liver images have dramatically changed the approach to liver surgery.

  18. A microscale human liver platform that supports the hepatic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian; Galstian, Ani; Shan, Jing; Logan, David J; Carpenter, Anne E; Thomas, David; Sim, B Kim Lee; Mota, Maria M; Hoffman, Stephen L; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2013-07-17

    The Plasmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, targeting the liver stage has been difficult. Undoubtedly, a major barrier has been the lack of robust, reliable, and reproducible in vitro liver-stage cultures. Here, we establish the liver stages for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in a microscale human liver platform composed of cryopreserved, micropatterned human primary hepatocytes surrounded by supportive stromal cells. Using this system, we have successfully recapitulated the full liver stage of P. falciparum, including the release of infected merozoites and infection of overlaid erythrocytes, as well as the establishment of small forms in late liver stages of P. vivax. Finally, we validate the potential of this platform as a tool for medium-throughput antimalarial drug screening and vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Motion – All Patients with NASH Need to Have a Liver Biopsy: Arguments for the Motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayant A Talwalkar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously regarded as an obscure disorder, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH has recently emerged as an important chronic liver disease. NASH is within a spectrum of disorders characterized by excessive accumulation of fat in the liver, including simple hepatic steatosis (fatty liver, inflammation and necrosis (steatohepatitis, and fibrosis. Collectively, the disorders are called nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Estimates of the prevalence of these individual conditions are suspect because liver biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis and is not generally performed. Although these conditions have traditionally been thought of as diseases of obese women, and are frequently associated with diabetes mellitus and hypertriglyceridemia, they have also been identified in lean men. Insulin resistance appears to be a common factor. These conditions are difficult to distinguish from each other clinically, and no biochemical or radiological test reliably establishes the diagnosis. A ratio of serum aspartate to alanine aminotransferase levels of less than one can distinguish NAFLD from alcoholic liver disease, but this is a nonspecific finding. Fatty infiltration imparts a diffuse echogenicity to the liver at ultrasonography, but this test cannot easily distinguish fat from fibrous tissue or identify cases of NASH. Only histological examination can establish the diagnosis of NASH, grade its severity, determine the prognosis and guide treatment.

  20. Reliability and continuous regeneration model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pavlisková

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The failure-free function of an object is very important for the service. This leads to the interest in the determination of the object reliability and failure intensity. The reliability of an element is defined by the theory of probability.The element durability T is a continuous random variate with the probability density f. The failure intensity (tλ is a very important reliability characteristics of the element. Often it is an increasing function, which corresponds to the element ageing. We disposed of the data about a belt conveyor failures recorded during the period of 90 months. The given ses behaves according to the normal distribution. By using a mathematical analysis and matematical statistics, we found the failure intensity function (tλ. The function (tλ increases almost linearly.

  1. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  2. Structural Optimization with Reliability Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1986-01-01

    During the last 25 years considerable progress has been made in the fields of structural optimization and structural reliability theory. In classical deterministic structural optimization all variables are assumed to be deterministic. Due to the unpredictability of loads and strengths of actual......]. In this paper we consider only structures which can be modelled as systems of elasto-plastic elements, e.g. frame and truss structures. In section 2 a method to evaluate the reliability of such structural systems is presented. Based on a probabilistic point of view a modern structural optimization problem...... is formulated in section 3. The formulation is a natural extension of the commonly used formulations in determinstic structural optimization. The mathematical form of the optimization problem is briefly discussed. In section 4 two new optimization procedures especially designed for the reliability...

  3. Reliability assessment of Wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...

  4. Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik

    Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...... to one third of the total cost of energy. Reduction of Operation & Maintenance costs will result in significant cost savings and result in cheaper electricity production. Operation & Maintenance processes mainly involve actions related to replacements or repair. Identifying the right times when...

  5. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  6. Reliable computation from contextual correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestereich, André L.; Galvão, Ernesto F.

    2017-12-01

    An operational approach to the study of computation based on correlations considers black boxes with one-bit inputs and outputs, controlled by a limited classical computer capable only of performing sums modulo-two. In this setting, it was shown that noncontextual correlations do not provide any extra computational power, while contextual correlations were found to be necessary for the deterministic evaluation of nonlinear Boolean functions. Here we investigate the requirements for reliable computation in this setting; that is, the evaluation of any Boolean function with success probability bounded away from 1 /2 . We show that bipartite CHSH quantum correlations suffice for reliable computation. We also prove that an arbitrarily small violation of a multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger noncontextuality inequality also suffices for reliable computation.

  7. Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbynek Martinek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.

  8. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography of the liver. Can fat deposition in the liver affect the measurement of liver stiffness?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motosugi, Utaroh; Ichikawa, Tomoaki; Araki, Tsutomu; Niitsuma, Yoshibumi

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) results between livers with and without fat deposition. We studied 200 consecutive healthy individuals who underwent health checkups at our institution. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the echogenicity of the liver on ultrasonography (US) and the liver-spleen attenuation ratio index (LSR) on computed tomography: normal liver group (n=121, no evidence of bright liver on US and LSR >1); fatty liver group (n=46, bright liver on US and LSR 5 days a week (n=18) were excluded from the analysis. The velocities measured by ARFI in the normal and fatty liver groups were compared using the two one-sided test. The mean (SD) velocity measured in the normal and fatty liver groups were 1.03 (0.12) m/s and 1.02 (0.12) m/s, respectively. The ARFI results of the fatty liver group were similar to those of the normal liver group (P<0.0001). This study suggested that fat deposition in the liver does not affect the liver stiffness measurement determined by ARFI. (author)

  9. Product reliability and the reliability of its emanating operational processes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonnemans, P.J.M.; Geudens, W.H.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of proper reliability management in business operations today, facing increasing demands on essential business drivers such as time to market, quality and financial profit. In this paper a general method is described of how to achieve product quality in a highly

  10. Power Electronics Packaging Reliability | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packaging Reliability Power Electronics Packaging Reliability A photo of a piece of power electronics laboratory equipment. NREL power electronics packaging reliability research investigates the electronics packaging around a semiconductor switching device determines the electrical, thermal, and

  11. CT of liver steatosis after subtotal pancreatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, C; Andren-Sandberg, A [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery

    1991-01-01

    The liver attenuation of 50 patients operated with a subtotal pancreatectomy for pancreatic and duodenal tumors was evaluated with CT. Of 18 patients surviving more than 18 months after surgery, 7 developed a markedly reduced liver attenuation indicating liver steatosis. No patient became diabetic or showed evidence of malnutrition after surgery. No correlation between the liver attenuation values and the patients' liver function test was noted. The steatosis was reversible in 4 of the 7 patients. The pathophysiological cause of the steatosis remains unknown. Partial pancreatectomy should be included among the reasons listed for liver steatosis. (orig.).

  12. CT of liver steatosis after subtotal pancreatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundstedt, C.; Andren-Sandberg, A. (Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Surgery)

    1991-01-01

    The liver attenuation of 50 patients operated with a subtotal pancreatectomy for pancreatic and duodenal tumors was evaluated with CT. Of 18 patients surviving more than 18 months after surgery, 7 developed a markedly reduced liver attenuation indicating liver steatosis. No patient became diabetic or showed evidence of malnutrition after surgery. No correlation between the liver attenuation values and the patients' liver function test was noted. The steatosis was reversible in 4 of the 7 patients. The pathophysiological cause of the steatosis remains unknown. Partial pancreatectomy should be included among the reasons listed for liver steatosis. (orig.).

  13. CT of liver steatosis after subtotal pancreatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundstedt, C.; Andren-Sandberg, A.; Lund Univ.

    1991-01-01

    The liver attenuation of 50 patients operated with a subtotal pancreatectomy for pancreatic and duodenal tumors was evaluated with CT. Of 18 patients surviving more than 18 months after surgery, 7 developed a markedly reduced liver attenuation indicating liver steatosis. No patient became diabetic or showed evidence of malnutrition after surgery. No correlation between the liver attenuation values and the patients' liver function test was noted. The steatosis was reversible in 4 of the 7 patients. The pathophysiological cause of the steatosis remains unknown. Partial pancreatectomy should be included among the reasons listed for liver steatosis. (orig.)

  14. Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.

    This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....

  15. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  16. The problem of software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, G.M.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art in safety and reliability assessment of the software of industrial computer systems is reviewed and likely progress over the next few years is identified and compared with the perceived needs of the user. Some of the current projects contributing to the development of new techniques for assessing software reliability are described. One is the software test and evaluation method which looked at the faults within and between two manufacturers specifications, faults in the codes and inconsistencies between the codes and specifications. The results are given. (author)

  17. Safety and reliability in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    This volume contains the papers presented at the ESRA Pre-Launching Meeting. The meeting was attended by about eighty European reliability and safety experts from industry, research organizations and universities. This meeting was dealing with the following subjects: the historical perspective of safety and reliability in Europe and to the aims of ESRA. Status and Trends in Research and Development; Codes, Standards and Regulations; Academic and Technical Training. National and international Organizations. Twenty six papers have been analyzed and abstracted for inclusion in the data base

  18. Photovoltaic power system reliability considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes an example of how modern engineering and safety techniques can be used to assure the reliable and safe operation of photovoltaic power systems. This particular application was for a solar cell power system demonstration project in Tangaye, Upper Volta, Africa. The techniques involve a definition of the power system natural and operating environment, use of design criteria and analysis techniques, an awareness of potential problems via the inherent reliability and FMEA methods, and use of a fail-safe and planned spare parts engineering philosophy.

  19. Reliability in the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs

  20. FRELIB, Failure Reliability Index Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkinson, D.B.; Oestergaard, C.

    1984-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: Calculation of the reliability index given the failure boundary. A linearization point (design point) is found on the failure boundary for a stationary reliability index (min) and a stationary failure probability density function along the failure boundary, provided that the basic variables are normally distributed. 2 - Method of solution: Iteration along the failure boundary which must be specified - together with its partial derivatives with respect to the basic variables - by the user in a subroutine FSUR. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: No distribution information included (first-order-second-moment-method). 20 basic variables (could be extended)