WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliability-based condition assessment

  1. Methodology for reliability based condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Y.; Ellingwood, B.

    1993-08-01

    Structures in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that cause their strength to decrease over an extended period of service. A major concern in evaluating the continued service for such structures is to ensure that in their current condition they are able to withstand future extreme load events during the intended service life with a level of reliability sufficient for public safety. This report describes a methodology to facilitate quantitative assessments of current and future structural reliability and performance of structures in nuclear power plants. This methodology takes into account the nature of past and future loads, and randomness in strength and in degradation resulting from environmental factors. An adaptive Monte Carlo simulation procedure is used to evaluate time-dependent system reliability. The time-dependent reliability is sensitive to the time-varying load characteristics and to the choice of initial strength and strength degradation models but not to correlation in component strengths within a system. Inspection/maintenance strategies are identified that minimize the expected future costs of keeping the failure probability of a structure at or below an established target failure probability during its anticipated service period

  2. Reliability-based condition assessment of steel containment and liners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.; Bhattacharya, B.; Zheng, R.

    1996-11-01

    Steel containments and liners in nuclear power plants may be exposed to aggressive environments that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease during the plant service life. Among the factors recognized as having the potential to cause structural deterioration are uniform, pitting or crevice corrosion; fatigue, including crack initiation and propagation to fracture; elevated temperature; and irradiation. The evaluation of steel containments and liners for continued service must provide assurance that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during the service period with a level of reliability that is sufficient for public safety. Rational methodologies to provide such assurances can be developed using modern structural reliability analysis principles that take uncertainties in loading, strength, and degradation resulting from environmental factors into account. The research described in this report is in support of the Steel Containments and Liners Program being conducted for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The research demonstrates the feasibility of using reliability analysis as a tool for performing condition assessments and service life predictions of steel containments and liners. Mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in steel due to aggressive environmental factors are identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis are summarized. The analysis of steel containment fragility is described, and simple illustrations of the impact on reliability of structural degradation are provided. The role of nondestructive evaluation in time-dependent reliability analysis, both in terms of defect detection and sizing, is examined. A Markov model provides a tool for accounting for time-dependent changes in damage condition of a structural component or system. 151 refs

  3. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khelif, Rabia; Chateauneuf, Alaa; Chaoui, Kamel

    2007-01-01

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature

  4. Reliability-based assessment of polyethylene pipe creep lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelif, Rabia [LaMI-UBP and IFMA, Campus de Clermont-Fd, Les Cezeaux, BP 265, 63175 Aubiere Cedex (France); LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: rabia.khelif@ifma.fr; Chateauneuf, Alaa [LGC-University Blaise Pascal, Campus des Cezeaux, BP 206, 63174 Aubiere Cedex (France)], E-mail: alaa.chateauneuf@polytech.univ-bpclermont.fr; Chaoui, Kamel [LR3MI, Departement de Genie Mecanique, Universite Badji Mokhtar, BP 12, Annaba 23000 (Algeria)], E-mail: chaoui@univ-annaba.org

    2007-12-15

    Lifetime management of underground pipelines is mandatory for safe hydrocarbon transmission and distribution systems. The use of high-density polyethylene tubes subjected to internal pressure, external loading and environmental variations requires a reliability study in order to define the service limits and the optimal operating conditions. In service, the time-dependent phenomena, especially creep, take place during the pipe lifetime, leading to significant strength reduction. In this work, the reliability-based assessment of pipe lifetime models is carried out, in order to propose a probabilistic methodology for lifetime model selection and to determine the pipe safety levels as well as the most important parameters for pipeline reliability. This study is enhanced by parametric analysis on pipe configuration, gas pressure and operating temperature.

  5. Reliability-Based Performance Assessment of Damaged Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    37OR.A 2 AceI 2 oce 3 3C7R Main Deck Plan View at 9.906 metre STAA T~SIc ACCa IC 111 tI RO MAO ’ 2 0004 M 3O m 3 STORES) me 3 1 002~s STOR1 PfIS PlnVIS...Vol. 15, pp.7 4 -9 3 . Kaplan , M. Benatar, M., Bentson, J., Achtarides, T.A. (1984). "Analysis and assessment of major uncertainties associated with

  6. Reliability-based assessment of deteriorating ship structures operating in multiple sea loading climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moan, Torgeir [Centre for Ships and Ocean Structures, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)], E-mail: tormo@marin.ntnu.no; Ayala-Uraga, Efren [Department of Marine Technology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Marine Technology Centre, Tyholt, N 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2008-03-15

    A reliability-based model for assessment of deteriorating ships subjected to multiple environmental conditions is established. Deterioration due to combined crack growth and corrosion in structural components of a ship hull is accounted for based on a fracture mechanics formulation. The model enables to take into account the corrosion-induced increased crack growth rate in two ways: (1) the increased stress range produced by the plate thinning (wastage) effect and (2) corrosion fatigue itself. Sensitivity studies are carried out to evaluate the effect of inspection updating on a production ship subjected to two different climate conditions. The hazard rate concept is adopted as a measure of reliability and emphasized throughout the different case studies.

  7. Reliability-based failure cause assessment of collapsed bridge during construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyun-Ho; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Choi, Il-Yoon; Cho, Hyo-Nam; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2006-01-01

    Until now, in many forensic reports, the failure cause assessments are usually carried out by a deterministic approach so far. However, it may be possible for the forensic investigation to lead to unreasonable results far from the real collapse scenario, because the deterministic approach does not systematically take into account any information on the uncertainties involved in the failures of structures. Reliability-based failure cause assessment (reliability-based forensic engineering) methodology is developed which can incorporate the uncertainties involved in structural failures and structures, and to apply them to the collapsed bridge in order to identify the most critical failure scenario and find the cause that triggered the bridge collapse. Moreover, to save the time and cost of evaluation, an algorithm of automated event tree analysis (ETA) is proposed and possible to automatically calculate the failure probabilities of the failure events and the occurrence probabilities of failure scenarios. Also, for reliability analysis, uncertainties are estimated more reasonably by using the Bayesian approach based on the experimental laboratory testing data in the forensic report. For the applicability, the proposed approach is applied to the Hang-ju Grand Bridge, which collapsed during construction, and compared with deterministic approach

  8. Development of reliability-based design and assessment standards for onshore gas transmission pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Joe; Rothwell, Brian [TransCanada PipeLines Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Nessim, Maher; Zhou, Wenxing [C-FER Technologies, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    Onshore pipelines have traditionally been designed with a deterministic stress based methodology. The changing operating environment has however imposed many challenges to the pipeline industry, including heightened public awareness of risk, more challenging natural hazards and increased economic competitiveness. To meet the societal expectation of pipeline safety and enhance the competitiveness of the pipeline industry, significant efforts have been spent for the development of reliability-based design and assessment (RBDA) methodology. This paper will briefly review the technology development in the RBDA area and the focus will be on the progresses in the past years in standard development within the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and the Canadian Standard Association (CSA) organizations. (author)

  9. Reliability-based assessment of deteriorating ship-shaped offshore structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala-Uraga, Efren

    2009-11-15

    components rises accordingly. Therefore, it is indispensable for FPSO operators to assess the safety of existing vessels with proper consideration of the uncertainties involved. The aim of this dissertation is to discuss the safety assessment of an existing shipshaped offshore structure subjected to deterioration, where the interaction among different deteriorating phenomena such as fatigue, corrosion and fracture, are explicitly accounted for in a systematic and consistent manner. The format of this thesis report consists of an extended summary intended to emphasize the main contributions achieved and the relevant issues dealt with during this research work, which resulted in the production of three articles that have already been published, annexed at the end of the report. The first article, referred to as Article 1 throughout this report, was published in the International Journal of Fatigue (2007). This article deals with the treatment of uncertainties related to the fatigue crack growth of surface cracks on plated connections and compares different reliability-based limit state formulations including a bi-linear crack growth law that is recommended by the British Standard BS-7910 (1999). Calibration of the bi-linear fracture mechanics formulation is performed with respect to design SN curves considering the parameters with largest uncertainties. The second article, Article 2, published in Reliability Engineering and System Safety (2008) describes a procedure based on reliability techniques to assess the safety level on a welded connection of an aging FPSO with respect fatigue failure, taking into account in the crack growth estimation the effect of the vessel being exposed to various climate conditions throughout the service life. This means that the fatigue damage accumulated under previous operational conditions of the vessel, e.g. as tanker before conversion, is explicitly accounted for in the failure function. Thus, the uncertainties are also explicitly considered

  10. Reliability-based assessment of flow assurance of hot waxy crude pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinjun, Zhang; Wenke, Zhang; Jianlin, Ding; Bo, Yu [China University of Petroleum - Beijing (CUPB), Beijing (China)

    2009-07-01

    Waxy crude is characterized by its high pour point. Pipeline blockage may occur after prolonged shutdown of a pipeline due to crude oil gelation. Another flow assurance problem is the instable operation at a flow rate below the lowest allowable operation flow rate which is dependent on heat transfer of the pipeline and the viscosity vs. temperature relation of the crude pumped. Besides, for pipelines with thick wax deposition layer, massive depletion of wax deposit in some cases such as pipeline restart at high expelling pressure may also result in blockage of the pipeline, and the pig may be jammed during pigging as a result of thick wax deposition. Conventionally, assessment of these risks has been made by using the deterministic approach. However, many related physical quantities are subject to uncertainty and contribute to reliability of flow assurance. Therefore, the probabilistic approach is suggested and a framework of reliability based assessment of flow assurance of waxy crude pipelines is proposed in this paper. Discussions are also made on the limit state functions and target safety level. In the future study, development of an efficient and robust stochastic-numerical method is crucial. (author)

  11. Reliability Assessment and Reliability-Based Inspection and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramírez, José G. Rangel; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic methodologies represent an important tool to identify the suitable strategy to inspect and deal with the deterioration in structures such as offshore wind turbines (OWT). Reliability based methods such as Risk Based Inspection (RBI) planning may represent a proper methodology to opt...

  12. On the use of NDT Data for Reliability-Based Assessment of Existing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address the possibilities of using non-destructive testing (NDT) data for updating information and obtaining adequate characterization of the reliability level of existing timber structures and, also, for assessing the evolution in time of performance...... of these structures when exposed to deterioration. By improving the knowledge upon the mechanical properties of timber, better and more substantiated decisions after a reliability safety assessment are aimed at. Bayesian methods are used to update the mechanical properties of timber and reliability assessment......, and information of NDT is also used to calibrate these models. The proposed approach is used for reliability assessment of different structural timber systems. Reliability of the structural system is assessed regarding the failure consequences of individual elements defined as key elements which were determined...

  13. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidi, K.

    2005-10-01

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  14. Reliability-based service life assessment of concrete structures in nuclear power plants: optimum inspection and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.

    1995-01-01

    Research is being conducted to address aging management of safety-related reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Documentation is being prepared to identify potential structural safety issues and to recommend criteria for use in evaluating reinforced concrete structures for continued service. Time-dependent reliability analysis provides the framework and quantitative tools for the condition assessment. The role of in-service inspection and repair in ensuring continued reliability in-service is examined. (author). 19 refs., 4 figs

  15. Reliability-based optimization of engineering structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical basis for reliability-based structural optimization within the framework of Bayesian statistical decision theory is briefly described. Reliability-based cost benefit problems are formulated and exemplitied with structural optimization. The basic reliability-based optimization...... problems are generalized to the following extensions: interactive optimization, inspection and repair costs, systematic reconstruction, re-assessment of existing structures. Illustrative examples are presented including a simple introductory example, a decision problem related to bridge re...

  16. National Coastal Condition Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    The NCCA is a collaborative, statistical survey of the nation's coastal waters and the Great Lakes. It is one of four national surveys that EPA and its partners conduct to assess the condition and health of the nation's water resources.

  17. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  18. Reliability Based Ship Structural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...

  19. Reliability-Based Optimization in Structural Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1994-01-01

    In this paper reliability-based optimization problems in structural engineering are formulated on the basis of the classical decision theory. Several formulations are presented: Reliability-based optimal design of structural systems with component or systems reliability constraints, reliability...

  20. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — During the summer of 2010, state and EPA crews conducted field sampling for the fifth National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). The assessment is in the data...

  1. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...... of the structure, thus, being possible to evaluate reliability based in time dependent factors, as well to categorize that structure in terms of robustness. For exemplification of the underlined concepts, three different types of structures are studied....

  2. Assessing the planet's condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R

    1990-01-01

    The destruction of the environment has accelerated since the Earth Day of 1970, the world's population has increased by another 1.6 billion, and over 500 million acres of forest have been lost. Carbon dioxide levels, greenhouse gases, and chlorofluorocarbons have increased in the atmosphere with evidence that global warming has started. The ozone hole has appeared, acid rain has destroyed forests, air pollution in major northern hemisphere cities has worsened, and species are disappearing, while toxic chemicals have been dumped indiscriminately. World grain production has fallen while population has increased. In Europe 14 countries have stabilized their population, and Japan, France, and Finland are on the way to zero growth. Reduction of high fertility in 1/2 could halt the deterioration of living conditions. Japan and China achieved this within a decade. Energy efficiency has to be attained; US cars still consume too much gas. Solar energy with photovoltaic cells to provide power, fuel alcohol from plants, and solar thermal power plants have potential. Semiarid regions, such as northern Africa, could become major producers of solar energy. Various measures are mandatory to cut down on waste: to recycle paper bags, to use standardized glasses for beverages, and to utilize scrap metal in electric arc steel furnaces. Reforestation is also on the agenda, as major deforestation has occurred in the Brazilian Amazon region, in India, and in Europe because of acid rain. Australia's national plan envisions planting 1 billion trees, and the US project is of similar magnitude during the 1990s. Only the US has succeeded in erosion control and topsoil stabilization when it converted erodible cropland into grassland or woodland during 1986-90.

  3. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  4. Contribution to a quantitative assessment model for reliability-based metrics of electronic and programmable safety-related functions; Contribution a un modele d'evaluation quantitative des performances fiabilistes de fonctions electroniques et programmables dediees a la securite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidi, K

    2005-10-15

    The use of fault-tolerant EP architectures has induced growing constraints, whose influence on reliability-based performance metrics is no more negligible. To face up the growing influence of simultaneous failure, this thesis proposes, for safety-related functions, a new-trend assessment method of reliability, based on a better taking into account of time-aspect. This report introduces the concept of information and uses it to interpret the failure modes of safety-related function as the direct result of the initiation and propagation of erroneous information until the actuator-level. The main idea is to distinguish the apparition and disappearance of erroneous states, which could be defined as intrinsically dependent of HW-characteristic and maintenance policies, and their possible activation, constrained through architectural choices, leading to the failure of safety-related function. This approach is based on a low level on deterministic SED models of the architecture and use non homogeneous Markov chains to depict the time-evolution of probabilities of errors. (author)

  5. Optimal, Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2002-01-01

    Reliability based code calibration is considered in this paper. It is described how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to the partial safety factors and characteristic values. The code calibration problem is presented in a decision theoretical form and it is discussed how...... of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  6. Reliability - Based Performance Assessment of Damaged Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

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  7. Reliability Based Calibration of Fatigue Design Guidelines for Ship Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folsø, Rasmus; Otto, S.; Parmentier, G.

    2002-01-01

    A simple reliability based framework is applied to calibrate a new set of fatigue design guidelines. This new guideline considers two different approaches for the assessment of both loads, stresses and local stress raising effects, and partial safety factors must be given for any combination...

  8. Reliability-Based Optimization of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Tarp-Johansen, N.J.

    2004-01-01

    Reliability-based optimization of the main tower and monopile foundation of an offshore wind turbine is considered. Different formulations are considered of the objective function including benefits and building and failure costs of the wind turbine. Also different reconstruction policies in case...

  9. Reliability Based Optimization of Fire Protection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    fire protection (PFP) of firewalls and structural members. The paper is partly based on research performed within the EU supported research project B/E-4359 "Optimized Fire Safety of Offshore Structures" and partly on research supported by the Danish Technical Research Council (see Thoft-Christensen [1......]). Special emphasis is put on the optimization software developed within the project.......It is well known that fire is one of the major risks of serious damage or total loss of several types of structures such as nuclear installations, buildings, offshore platforms/topsides etc. This paper presents a methodology and software for reliability based optimization of the layout of passive...

  10. Interactive Reliability-Based Optimal Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Siemaszko, A.

    1994-01-01

    Interactive design/optimization of large, complex structural systems is considered. The objective function is assumed to model the expected costs. The constraints are reliability-based and/or related to deterministic code requirements. Solution of this optimization problem is divided in four main...... tasks, namely finite element analyses, sensitivity analyses, reliability analyses and application of an optimization algorithm. In the paper it is shown how these four tasks can be linked effectively and how existing information on design variables, Lagrange multipliers and the Hessian matrix can...

  11. Reliability-based sensitivity of mechanical components with arbitrary distribution parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yi Min; Yang, Zhou; Wen, Bang Chun; He, Xiang Dong; Liu, Qiaoling

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based sensitivity method for mechanical components with arbitrary distribution parameters. Techniques from the perturbation method, the Edgeworth series, the reliability-based design theory, and the sensitivity analysis approach were employed directly to calculate the reliability-based sensitivity of mechanical components on the condition that the first four moments of the original random variables are known. The reliability-based sensitivity information of the mechanical components can be accurately and quickly obtained using a practical computer program. The effects of the design parameters on the reliability of mechanical components were studied. The method presented in this paper provides the theoretic basis for the reliability-based design of mechanical components

  12. Wind conditions and resource assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib

    2012-01-01

    The development of wind power as a competitive energy source requires resource assessment of increasing accuracy and detail (including not only the long-term ‘raw’ wind resource, but also turbulence, shear, and extremes), and in areas of increasing complexity. This in turn requires the use of the...

  13. Reliability Based Optimization of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1987-01-01

    The optimization problem to design structural systems such that the reliability is satisfactory during the whole lifetime of the structure is considered in this paper. Some of the quantities modelling the loads and the strength of the structure are modelled as random variables. The reliability...... is estimated using first. order reliability methods ( FORM ). The design problem is formulated as the optimization problem to minimize a given cost function such that the reliability of the single elements satisfies given requirements or such that the systems reliability satisfies a given requirement....... For these optimization problems it is described how a sensitivity analysis can be performed. Next, new optimization procedures to solve the optimization problems are presented. Two of these procedures solve the system reliability based optimization problem sequentially using quasi-analytical derivatives. Finally...

  14. Reliability-based performance simulation for optimized pavement maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Le, Thanh-Son

    2011-01-01

    Roadway pavement maintenance is essential for driver safety and highway infrastructure efficiency. However, regular preventive maintenance and rehabilitation (M and R) activities are extremely costly. Unfortunately, the funds available for the M and R of highway pavement are often given lower priority compared to other national development policies, therefore, available funds must be allocated wisely. Maintenance strategies are typically implemented by optimizing only the cost whilst the reliability of facility performance is neglected. This study proposes a novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique to evaluate the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy based on non-dominant solutions. Moreover, a probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. A numerical example of a highway pavement project is illustrated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MOPSO algorithms. The analytical results show that the proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans. - Highlights: →A novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. → Evaluation of the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy. → A probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. → The proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans.

  15. Reliability-based performance simulation for optimized pavement maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng, E-mail: jschou@mail.ntust.edu.tw [Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), 43 Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Le, Thanh-Son [Department of Construction Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology (Taiwan Tech), 43 Sec. 4, Keelung Rd., Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Roadway pavement maintenance is essential for driver safety and highway infrastructure efficiency. However, regular preventive maintenance and rehabilitation (M and R) activities are extremely costly. Unfortunately, the funds available for the M and R of highway pavement are often given lower priority compared to other national development policies, therefore, available funds must be allocated wisely. Maintenance strategies are typically implemented by optimizing only the cost whilst the reliability of facility performance is neglected. This study proposes a novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO) technique to evaluate the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy based on non-dominant solutions. Moreover, a probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. A numerical example of a highway pavement project is illustrated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed MOPSO algorithms. The analytical results show that the proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans. - Highlights: > A novel algorithm using multi-objective particle swarm optimization technique. > Evaluation of the cost-reliability tradeoff in a flexible maintenance strategy. > A probabilistic model for regression parameters is employed to assess reliability-based performance. > The proposed approach can help decision makers to optimize roadway maintenance plans.

  16. Reliability-Based Robustness Analysis for a Croatian Sports Hall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Čizmar, Dean; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a probabilistic approach for structural robustness assessment for a timber structure built a few years ago. The robustness analysis is based on a structural reliability based framework for robustness and a simplified mechanical system modelling of a timber truss system....... A complex timber structure with a large number of failure modes is modelled with only a few dominant failure modes. First, a component based robustness analysis is performed based on the reliability indices of the remaining elements after the removal of selected critical elements. The robustness...... is expressed and evaluated by a robustness index. Next, the robustness is assessed using system reliability indices where the probabilistic failure model is modelled by a series system of parallel systems....

  17. Interactive Reliability-Based Optimization of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus

    In order to introduce the basic concepts within the field of reliability-based structural optimization problems, this chapter is devoted to a brief outline of the basic theories. Therefore, this chapter is of a more formal nature and used as a basis for the remaining parts of the thesis. In section...... 2.2 a general non-linear optimization problem and corresponding terminology are presented whereupon optimality conditions and the standard form of an iterative optimization algorithm are outlined. Subsequently, the special properties and characteristics concerning structural optimization problems...... are treated in section 2.3. With respect to the reliability evalutation, the basic theory behind a reliability analysis and estimation of probability of failure by the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) and the iterative Rackwitz-Fiessler (RF) algorithm are considered in section 2.5 in which...

  18. Reliability-based design of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Reliability-based design of wind turbine blades requires identification of the important failure modes/limit states along with stochastic models for the uncertainties and methods for estimating the reliability. In the present paper it is described how reliability-based design can be applied to wi...

  19. Bridge Condition Assessment Using D Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Bridge condition assessment is a complex problem influenced by many factors. The uncertain environment increases more its complexity. Due to the uncertainty in the process of assessment, one of the key problems is the representation of assessment results. Though there exists many methods that can deal with uncertain information, however, they have more or less deficiencies. In this paper, a new representation of uncertain information, called D numbers, is presented. It extends the Dempster-Shafer theory. By using D numbers, a new method is developed for the bridge condition assessment. Compared to these existing methods, the proposed method is simpler and more effective. An illustrative case is given to show the effectiveness of the new method. PMID:24696639

  20. Reliability Based Management of Marine Fouling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Hansen, Peter Friis

    1999-01-01

    The present paper describes the results of a recent study on the application of methods from structural reliability to optimise management of marine fouling on jacket type structures.In particular the study addresses effects on the structural response by assessment and quantification of uncertain......The present paper describes the results of a recent study on the application of methods from structural reliability to optimise management of marine fouling on jacket type structures.In particular the study addresses effects on the structural response by assessment and quantification...... of uncertainties of a set of parameters. These are the seasonal variation of marine fouling parameters, the wave loading (taking into account the seasonal variation in sea-state statistics), and the effects of spatial variations and seasonal effects of marine fouling parameters. Comparison of design values...

  1. Reliability-based design and planning of inspection and monitoring of offshore wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dominguez, Sergio Marquez

    When the wind is blowing fiercely, wind turbines must resist. Wind turbines have to withstand the rough environmental conditions in the most reliable manner and start to produce renewable energy when the wind becomes friendly again. Never give up ‘wind turbine’ face the winds and be proud of cont...... of probability and statistics for application in structural reliability-based risk inspections....

  2. Reliability-Based Optimization of Series Systems of Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1993-01-01

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. In particular, systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are treated. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Optimization problems with series systems of parallel systems...... optimization of series systems of parallel systems, but it is also efficient in reliability-based optimization of series systems in general....

  3. Enhancing product robustness in reliability-based design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, Xiaotian; Pan, Rong; Du, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Different types of uncertainties need to be addressed in a product design optimization process. In this paper, the uncertainties in both product design variables and environmental noise variables are considered. The reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is integrated with robust product design (RPD) to concurrently reduce the production cost and the long-term operation cost, including quality loss, in the process of product design. This problem leads to a multi-objective optimization with probabilistic constraints. In addition, the model uncertainties associated with a surrogate model that is derived from numerical computation methods, such as finite element analysis, is addressed. A hierarchical experimental design approach, augmented by a sequential sampling strategy, is proposed to construct the response surface of product performance function for finding optimal design solutions. The proposed method is demonstrated through an engineering example. - Highlights: • A unifying framework for integrating RBDO and RPD is proposed. • Implicit product performance function is considered. • The design problem is solved by sequential optimization and reliability assessment. • A sequential sampling technique is developed for improving design optimization. • The comparison with traditional RBDO is provided

  4. Assessment of deep geological environment condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Dae Seok; Han, Kyung Won; Joen, Kwan Sik

    2003-05-01

    The main tasks of geoscientific study in the 2nd stage was characterized focusing mainly on a near-field condition of deep geologic environment, and aimed to generate the geologic input data for a Korean reference disposal system for high level radioactive wastes and to establish site characterization methodology, including neotectonic features, fracture systems and mechanical properties of plutonic rocks, and hydrogeochemical characteristics. The preliminary assessment of neotectonics in the Korean peninsula was performed on the basis of seismicity recorded, Quarternary faults investigated, uplift characteristics studied on limited areas, distribution of the major regional faults and their characteristics. The local fracture system was studied in detail from the data obtained from deep boreholes in granitic terrain. Through this deep drilling project, the geometrical and hydraulic properties of different fracture sets are statistically analysed on a block scale. The mechanical properties of intact rocks were evaluated from the core samples by laboratory testing and the in-situ stress conditions were estimated by a hydro fracturing test in the boreholes. The hydrogeochemical conditions in the deep boreholes were characterized based on hydrochemical composition and isotopic signatures and were attempted to assess the interrelation with a major fracture system. The residence time of deep groundwater was estimated by C-14 dating. For the travel time of groundwater between the boreholes, the methodology and equipment for tracer test were established

  5. GEOGLAM Crop Monitor Assessment Tool: Developing Monthly Crop Condition Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Becker Reshef, I.; Barker, B.; Humber, M. L.; Nordling, J.; Justice, C. O.; Deshayes, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring initiative (GEOGLAM) to improve existing agricultural information through a network of international partnerships, data sharing, and operational research. This presentation will discuss the Crop Monitor component of GEOGLAM, which provides the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) with an international, multi-source, and transparent consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions likely to impact global production. This activity covers the four primary crop types (wheat, maize, rice, and soybean) within the main agricultural producing regions of the AMIS countries. These assessments have been produced operationally since September 2013 and are published in the AMIS Market Monitor Bulletin. The Crop Monitor reports provide cartographic and textual summaries of crop conditions as of the 28th of each month, according to crop type. This presentation will focus on the building of international networks, data collection, and data dissemination.

  6. Peat drainage conditions assessment in Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggio, Laura; Artz, Rebekka; Donaldson-Selby, Gillian; Aitkenhead, Matt; Donnelly, David; Gimona, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    Large areas of Scotland are covered in peat, providing an important sink of carbon but also a notable source of emission where peatlands are not in good condition. However, despite data from designated sites that peat degradation is common, a detailed spatial assessment of the condition of most peatlands across the whole of Scotland is missing. An assessment of peatland drainage was carried out at >600 random sampling locations with an expert-based estimation of presence or absence of drainage ditches within a 500 metre block using 25 cm resolution aerial imagery. The resulting dataset was modelled using a scorpan-kriging approach, in particular using Generalised Additive Models for the description of the trend. Remote sensing images from different sensors (i.e. MODIS, Landsat and Sentinel 1 and 2) were used. In particular we used indices describing vegetation greenness (Enhanced Vegetation Index), water availability (Normalised Water Difference index), Land Surface Temperature and vegetation productivity. When considering MODIS indices we used time series and phenological summaries. The model provides also uncertainty of the estimations. The derived dataset can then be used in the decision making process for the selection of sites for restoration, emissions estimation and accounting.

  7. Reliability-based Assessment of Fatigue Life for Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    The reliability level for bridges is discussed based on a comparison of the reliability levels proposed and used by e.g. JCSS, ISO, NKB and Eurocodes. The influence of reserve capacity by which failure of a specific detail does not lead to structural collapse is investigated. The results show...

  8. Re-assessing reliability based on survived loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweckendiek, T.

    2011-01-01

    The reliability of flood defenses is often dictated by large uncertainties in the hydraulic loading and the structural resistance. Additional information decreases uncertainty, however, acquiring it is often costly. One source of information, even though in many cases readily available, is hardly

  9. Guidelines for Interactive Reliability-Based Structural Optimization using Quasi-Newton Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    increase of the condition number and preserve positive definiteness without discarding previously obtained information. All proposed modifications are also valid for non-interactive optimization problems. Heuristic rules from various optimization problems concerning when and how to impose interactions......Guidelines for interactive reliability-based structural optimization problems are outlined in terms of modifications of standard quasi-Newton algorithms. The proposed modifications minimize the condition number of the approximate Hessian matrix in each iteration, restrict the relative and absolute...

  10. Reliability-Based Optimization of Series Systems of Parallel Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, I.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Reliability-based design of structural systems is considered. Especially systems where the reliability model is a series system of parallel systems are analysed. A sensitivity analysis for this class of problems is presented. Direct and sequential optimization procedures to solve the optimization...

  11. Planning of operation & maintenance using risk and reliability based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Florian, Mihai; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    Operation and maintenance (OM) of offshore wind turbines contributes with a substantial part of the total levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The objective of this paper is to present an application of risk- and reliability-based methods for planning of OM. The theoretical basis is presented...

  12. Point Lepreau refurbishment: plant condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, P.J.; Soulard, M.R.; David, F.; Clefton, G.; Weeks, R.

    2001-01-01

    New Brunswick Power (NB Power) has initiated a study into the refurbishment of the Point Lepreau Generating Station, with the objective to extend plant operation another 25 to 30 years. The end product of this study will be a business case that compares the costs of refurbishing Point Lepreau with costs of alternate means of generation. The Project Execution Plan and business case are being developed by an integrated team of AECL, NB Power and subcontractor staff under the project management of AECL. The refurbishment scope will include replacement of the pressure tubes, calandria tubes and part of the feeder piping. Planning of these replacements is part of the refurbishment study work. Planning is also underway for the environmental, safety and licensing issues that would need to be addressed to ensure future operation of the unit. In addition to these studies, a systematic review of the plant has been carried out to determine what other equipment refurbishment or replacement will be required due to ageing or obsolescence of plant equipment. This Plant Condition Assessment (PCA) follows a highly structured approach to ensure consistency. This paper presents an overview of the engineering process and the main findings from the work. (author)

  13. Review of Reliability-Based Design Optimization Approach and Its Integration with Bayesian Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangnan

    2018-03-01

    A lot of uncertain factors lie in practical engineering, such as external load environment, material property, geometrical shape, initial condition, boundary condition, etc. Reliability method measures the structural safety condition and determine the optimal design parameter combination based on the probabilistic theory. Reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is the most commonly used approach to minimize the structural cost or other performance under uncertainty variables which combines the reliability theory and optimization. However, it cannot handle the various incomplete information. The Bayesian approach is utilized to incorporate this kind of incomplete information in its uncertainty quantification. In this paper, the RBDO approach and its integration with Bayesian method are introduced.

  14. Reliability-based trajectory optimization using nonintrusive polynomial chaos for Mars entry mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuechen; Li, Haiyang

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents the reliability-based sequential optimization (RBSO) method to settle the trajectory optimization problem with parametric uncertainties in entry dynamics for Mars entry mission. First, the deterministic entry trajectory optimization model is reviewed, and then the reliability-based optimization model is formulated. In addition, the modified sequential optimization method, in which the nonintrusive polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) method and the most probable point (MPP) searching method are employed, is proposed to solve the reliability-based optimization problem efficiently. The nonintrusive PCE method contributes to the transformation between the stochastic optimization (SO) and the deterministic optimization (DO) and to the approximation of trajectory solution efficiently. The MPP method, which is used for assessing the reliability of constraints satisfaction only up to the necessary level, is employed to further improve the computational efficiency. The cycle including SO, reliability assessment and constraints update is repeated in the RBSO until the reliability requirements of constraints satisfaction are satisfied. Finally, the RBSO is compared with the traditional DO and the traditional sequential optimization based on Monte Carlo (MC) simulation in a specific Mars entry mission to demonstrate the effectiveness and the efficiency of the proposed method.

  15. Ozark-Ouachita Highlands Assessment: Aquatic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forest Service U.S. Department of Agriculture

    1999-01-01

    This publication provides citizens, private and public organizations, scientists, and others with information about the aquatic conditions in or near national forests in the Ozark-Ouachita Highlands: the Mark Twain in Missouri, the Ouachita in Arkansas and Oklahoma, and the Ozark-St. Francis National Forests in Arkansas. This report includes water quality analyses,...

  16. Developing safety performance functions incorporating reliability-based risk measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shewkar El-Bassiouni; Sayed, Tarek

    2011-11-01

    Current geometric design guides provide deterministic standards where the safety margin of the design output is generally unknown and there is little knowledge of the safety implications of deviating from these standards. Several studies have advocated probabilistic geometric design where reliability analysis can be used to account for the uncertainty in the design parameters and to provide a risk measure of the implication of deviation from design standards. However, there is currently no link between measures of design reliability and the quantification of safety using collision frequency. The analysis presented in this paper attempts to bridge this gap by incorporating a reliability-based quantitative risk measure such as the probability of non-compliance (P(nc)) in safety performance functions (SPFs). Establishing this link will allow admitting reliability-based design into traditional benefit-cost analysis and should lead to a wider application of the reliability technique in road design. The present application is concerned with the design of horizontal curves, where the limit state function is defined in terms of the available (supply) and stopping (demand) sight distances. A comprehensive collision and geometric design database of two-lane rural highways is used to investigate the effect of the probability of non-compliance on safety. The reliability analysis was carried out using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM). Two Negative Binomial (NB) SPFs were developed to compare models with and without the reliability-based risk measures. It was found that models incorporating the P(nc) provided a better fit to the data set than the traditional (without risk) NB SPFs for total, injury and fatality (I+F) and property damage only (PDO) collisions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2014-01-01

    More and more wave energy converter (WEC) concepts are reaching prototype level. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structural and maintenance (inspection) costs......, as well as on the harvested power from the waves. The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output, but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize the structural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem...

  18. Reliability-Based Inspection Planning for Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1993-01-01

    A general model for reliability-based optimal inspection and repair strategies for structural systems is described. The total expected costs in the design lifetime is minimized with the number of inspections, the inspection times and efforts as decision variables. The equivalence of this model...... with a preposterior analysis from statistical decision theory is discussed. It is described how information obtained by an inspection can be used in a repair decision. Stochastic models for inspection, measurement and repair actions are presented. The general model is applied for inspection and repair planning...

  19. Dose assessment under incidental and accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebschmann, W.G.

    1988-01-01

    Dose assessment for the licesing process of a nuclear power plant covers the routine release of radioactive substances into the atmosphere as well as releases due to incidents. Source terms for these incidents are evaluated by the detailed incident analysis of the plant. The types of incidents to be covered are determined in the FRG by the ''Stoerfall-Leitlinien'' of the Ministry of the Interior. The calculation of dose equivalents in the environment of the plant differs from the calculation of doses due to routine releases, as incidents are single events occuring at undeterminate time, and the results must be conservative. Some details are being described. During the operation of the plant it is essential to measure not only the radioactivity release rates but also the necessary meteorological parameters for the instantaneous determination of the atmospheric dispersion in case of incidental or accidental releases of radioactivity. This instantaneous assessment assists in taking measurements of ground contamination and in deciding about countermeasures for the protection of plant personnell and population. (author) [pt

  20. NNP-LANL Utilities - Condition Assessment and Project Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Grant Lorenz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-11-21

    This report is a presentation on LANL Utilities & Transportation Asset Management; Utility Assets Overview; Condition Assessment; Utilities Project Nominations & Ranking; and Utilities Project Execution.

  1. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  2. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  3. Perceptual attraction in tool use: evidence for a reliability-based weighting mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debats, Nienke B; Ernst, Marc O; Heuer, Herbert

    2017-04-01

    Humans are well able to operate tools whereby their hand movement is linked, via a kinematic transformation, to a spatially distant object moving in a separate plane of motion. An everyday example is controlling a cursor on a computer monitor. Despite these separate reference frames, the perceived positions of the hand and the object were found to be biased toward each other. We propose that this perceptual attraction is based on the principles by which the brain integrates redundant sensory information of single objects or events, known as optimal multisensory integration. That is, 1 ) sensory information about the hand and the tool are weighted according to their relative reliability (i.e., inverse variances), and 2 ) the unisensory reliabilities sum up in the integrated estimate. We assessed whether perceptual attraction is consistent with optimal multisensory integration model predictions. We used a cursor-control tool-use task in which we manipulated the relative reliability of the unisensory hand and cursor position estimates. The perceptual biases shifted according to these relative reliabilities, with an additional bias due to contextual factors that were present in experiment 1 but not in experiment 2 The biased position judgments' variances were, however, systematically larger than the predicted optimal variances. Our findings suggest that the perceptual attraction in tool use results from a reliability-based weighting mechanism similar to optimal multisensory integration, but that certain boundary conditions for optimality might not be satisfied. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Kinematic tool use is associated with a perceptual attraction between the spatially separated hand and the effective part of the tool. We provide a formal account for this phenomenon, thereby showing that the process behind it is similar to optimal integration of sensory information relating to single objects. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, Halil; Togan, Vedat; Vrouwenvelder, Ton

    2009-01-01

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  5. Generic Reliability-Based Inspection Planning for Fatigue Sensitive Details

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Straub, Daniel; Faber, Michael Havbro

    2005-01-01

    of fatigue sensitive details in fixed offshore steel jacket platforms and FPSO ship structures. Inspection and maintenance activities are planned such that code based requirements to the safety of personnel and environment for the considered structure are fulfilled and at the same time such that the overall......The generic approach for planning of in-service NDT inspections is extended to cover the case where the fatigue load is modified during the design lifetime of the structure. Generic reliability-based inspection planning has been developed as a practical approach to perform inspection planning...... expected costs for design, inspections, repairs and failures are minimized. The method is based on the assumption of “no-finds” of cracks during inspections. Each fatigue sensitive detail is categorized according to their type of details (SN curves), FDF values, RSR values, inspection, repair and failure...

  6. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeniz, Halil [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.karadeniz@tudelft.nl; Togan, Vedat [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Vrouwenvelder, Ton [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  7. Integrated Reliability-Based Optimal Design of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1987-01-01

    In conventional optimal design of structural systems the weight or the initial cost of the structure is usually used as objective function. Further, the constraints require that the stresses and/or strains at some critical points have to be less than some given values. Finally, all variables......-based optimal design is discussed. Next, an optimal inspection and repair strategy for existing structural systems is presented. An optimization problem is formulated , where the objective is to minimize the expected total future cost of inspection and repair subject to the constraint that the reliability...... value. The reliability can be measured from an element and/or a systems point of view. A number of methods to solve reliability-based optimization problems has been suggested, see e.g. Frangopol [I]. Murotsu et al. (2], Thoft-Christensen & Sørensen (3] and Sørensen (4). For structures where...

  8. Reliability-Based Structural Optimization of Wave Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ambühl

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available More and more wave energy converter (WEC concepts are reaching prototypelevel. Once the prototype level is reached, the next step in order to further decrease thelevelized cost of energy (LCOE is optimizing the overall system with a focus on structuraland maintenance (inspection costs, as well as on the harvested power from the waves.The target of a fully-developed WEC technology is not maximizing its power output,but minimizing the resulting LCOE. This paper presents a methodology to optimize thestructural design of WECs based on a reliability-based optimization problem and the intentto maximize the investor’s benefits by maximizing the difference between income (e.g., fromselling electricity and the expected expenses (e.g., structural building costs or failure costs.Furthermore, different development levels, like prototype or commercial devices, may havedifferent main objectives and will be located at different locations, as well as receive varioussubsidies. These points should be accounted for when performing structural optimizationsof WECs. An illustrative example on the gravity-based foundation of the Wavestar deviceis performed showing how structural design can be optimized taking target reliability levelsand different structural failure modes due to extreme loads into account.

  9. Reliability Based Geometric Design of Horizontal Circular Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-06-01

    Geometric design of horizontal circular curve primarily involves with radius of the curve and stopping sight distance at the curve section. Minimum radius is decided based on lateral thrust exerted on the vehicles and the minimum stopping sight distance is provided to maintain the safety in longitudinal direction of vehicles. Available sight distance at site can be regulated by changing the radius and middle ordinate at the curve section. Both radius and sight distance depend on design speed. Speed of vehicles at any road section is a variable parameter and therefore, normally the 98th percentile speed is taken as the design speed. This work presents a probabilistic approach for evaluating stopping sight distance, considering the variability of all input parameters of sight distance. It is observed that the 98th percentile sight distance value is much lower than the sight distance corresponding to 98th percentile speed. The distribution of sight distance parameter is also studied and found to follow a lognormal distribution. Finally, the reliability based design charts are presented for both plain and hill regions, and considering the effect of lateral thrust.

  10. Reliability Based Geometric Design of Horizontal Circular Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajbongshi, Pabitra; Kalita, Kuldeep

    2018-03-01

    Geometric design of horizontal circular curve primarily involves with radius of the curve and stopping sight distance at the curve section. Minimum radius is decided based on lateral thrust exerted on the vehicles and the minimum stopping sight distance is provided to maintain the safety in longitudinal direction of vehicles. Available sight distance at site can be regulated by changing the radius and middle ordinate at the curve section. Both radius and sight distance depend on design speed. Speed of vehicles at any road section is a variable parameter and therefore, normally the 98th percentile speed is taken as the design speed. This work presents a probabilistic approach for evaluating stopping sight distance, considering the variability of all input parameters of sight distance. It is observed that the 98th percentile sight distance value is much lower than the sight distance corresponding to 98th percentile speed. The distribution of sight distance parameter is also studied and found to follow a lognormal distribution. Finally, the reliability based design charts are presented for both plain and hill regions, and considering the effect of lateral thrust.

  11. Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing transportation and road conditions in niger state, nigeria using geoinformatics, with focus on impact of climate ... Also the impacts of climate change on transportation were highlighted. ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  12. (AJST) AN ASSESSMENT OF THE SOIL-CONDITIONING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT:- This study assesses the soil conditioning capacity of tree gums based on the level of resistance to ... enable their destruction by microorganism and (2) minimize soil loss .... and moulded into a cylindrical core using a small plastic.

  13. 24 CFR 902.30 - Financial condition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... financial condition of a PHA for the purpose of evaluating whether it has sufficient financial resources and... is decent, safe, sanitary and in good repair. (b) Financial reporting standards. A PHA's financial... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Financial condition assessment. 902...

  14. Reliability-based inspection of prestressed concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, M.D.

    1996-03-01

    A study was undertaken to develop a reliability-based approach to the planning of inspection programs for prestressed concrete containment structures. The main function of the prestressing system is to ensure the leak integrity of the containment by maintaining a compressive state of stress under the tensile forces which arise in a hypothesized loss of coolant accident. Prestressing force losses (due to creep and shrinkage, stress relaxation or tendon corrosion) can lead to tensile stresses under accident pressure, resulting in loss of containment leak integrity due to concrete cracking and tensile yielding of the non-prestressed reinforcement. Therefore, the evaluation of prestressing inspection programs was based on their effectiveness in maintaining an acceptable reliability level with respect to a limit state representing yeilding of non-prestressed reinforcement. An annual target reliability of 10 -4 was used for this limit state. As specified in CSA-N287.7, the evaluation of prestressing systems for containment structures is based on the results of lift-off tests to determine the prestressing force. For unbonded systems the tests are carried out on a randomly selected sample from each tendon group in the structure. For bonded systems, the test is carried out on an unbonded test beam that matches the section geometry and material properties of the containment structure. It was found that flexural testing is useful in updating the probability of concrete cracking under accident pressure. For unbonded systems, the analysis indicated that the sample size recommended by the CSA Standard (4% of the tendon population) is adequate. The CSA recommendation for a five year inspection interval is conservative unless severe degradation of the prestressing system, characterized by a high prestressing loss rate (>3%) and a large coefficient of variation of the measured prestressing force (>15%), is observed

  15. Condition assessment of over 250 turbine and generator rotors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCann, D.R.; Jhansale, H.R.

    1990-01-01

    Results of condition assessment studies on 259 turbine and generator rotors following bore inspections are presented. The rotors were manufactured by Allis-Chalmers, General Electric and Westinghouse. Methodologies and criteria used for nondestructive inspections, condition assessment and life extension procedures are described. Several trends are observed and some interesting conclusions offered. Essentially about 9.3% of the rotors evaluated required life extensions via overbore/bottlebore to remove harmful flaws, and/or revised cold start procedures to reduce thermal stresses. None of the rotors was condemned. Based on these studies, it is concluded that all rotors from units larger than 10 MW should be periodically inspected and their condition assessed on a case by case basis for continued reliable service

  16. A Reliability-Based Determination of Economic Life of Marine power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atua, K.

    1999-01-01

    The reliability-based life approach is utilized. Selective failure modes of marine power plants are used for illustration. A case study of the Egyptian Commercial Fleet owned by the Public Sector Company was analyzed and used to establish a demonstration of the expected economic life based on local operating and maintenance conditions. The data acquired is analyzed and failure trend is derived for each failure mode. Probabilistic techniques are used to randomly generate numbers and times of occurrence of different failure modes. The reliability analysis is performed on the life span expected by the manufacture to predict the total number of failures, dependent failures, and cost of failures. Total expenditure due to random failure and cost of scheduled maintenance together with the annual income are utilized (using the time value of money) to determine the economic life of the plant. Conclusions are derived and recommendations for the enhancement of this work in the future are made

  17. Condition Assessment for Wastewater Pipes: Method for Assessing Cracking and Surface Damage of Concrete Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Hauge, Petter

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the Master Thesis has been to provide an improved method for condition assessment, which will give a better correlation between Condition class and actual Condition of concrete pipes with cracking and/or surface damages. Additionally improvement of the characterization of cracking (SR) and surface (KO) damages was a sub goal.Based on the findings described in my Thesis and my Specialization Project (Hauge 2012), I recommend that the Norwegian condition assessment method based...

  18. Reliability-based design optimization using a generalized subset simulation method and posterior approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuan-Zhuo; Li, Hong-Shuang; Yao, Wei-Xing

    2018-05-01

    The evaluation of the probabilistic constraints in reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) problems has always been significant and challenging work, which strongly affects the performance of RBDO methods. This article deals with RBDO problems using a recently developed generalized subset simulation (GSS) method and a posterior approximation approach. The posterior approximation approach is used to transform all the probabilistic constraints into ordinary constraints as in deterministic optimization. The assessment of multiple failure probabilities required by the posterior approximation approach is achieved by GSS in a single run at all supporting points, which are selected by a proper experimental design scheme combining Sobol' sequences and Bucher's design. Sequentially, the transformed deterministic design optimization problem can be solved by optimization algorithms, for example, the sequential quadratic programming method. Three optimization problems are used to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  19. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS OF EMPLOYEES OF BROADCASTING CENTER].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A V; Brusentsova, A V; Sokhoshko, I A; Rostikov, V P

    2015-01-01

    Hygienic assessment of working conditions of employees of the Omsk Regional Broadcasting Centre was performed on data of the analysis of materials of certification of workplaces. There were examined materials concerning 65 core profile workplaces, where 130 persons, including 35 women work. There was determined health risk for personnel in dependence on working conditions. The staff was noted to be exposed to the adverse impact of the following factors: chemical, physical (noise, general and local vibration, non-ionizing radiation, microclimate, lighting), severity and intensity ofwork. Class working conditions for 13,5% of workplaces on noise, 35.4% on non-ionizing radiation was assessed as a harmful of the first degree. Lightness indices at 78.5% of the workplaces did not meet the requirements of sanitary norms. At 7.7% of the workplaces levels of hardness of labor were assessed as harmful. The impact of such factors as biological, infrasound, ultrasound, ionizing radiation, aerosols with mainly fibrogenic action, was absent, their assessment was not carried out. Working conditions at 83.1% of workplaces were characterized as hazardous, including at 52.3% of the workplaces where there was established hazard class 3.1, at 30.7% of workplaces--Class 3.2. Among all the factors of occupational environment the largest contribution into the overall assessment of working conditions was made by the lightness factor (50.9%) and non-ionizing radiation (20.6%). The most harmful working conditions have been identified for workplaces of the operator of masthead antenna, engineer of radiocommunications, broadcasting and television, electromechanician of television (radiocommunication), (broadcasting), car driver.

  20. Structural condition assessment of in-service wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Brian K. Brashaw; Xiping Wang

    2006-01-01

    Wood is used extensively for both interior and exterior applications in the construction of a variety of structures (residential, agricultural, commercial, government, religious). The deterioration of an in-service wood member may result from a variety of causes during the life of a structure. It is important, therefore, to periodically assess the condition of wood...

  1. Modeling current climate conditions for forest pest risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank H. Koch; John W. Coulston

    2010-01-01

    Current information on broad-scale climatic conditions is essential for assessing potential distribution of forest pests. At present, sophisticated spatial interpolation approaches such as the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) are used to create high-resolution climatic data sets. Unfortunately, these data sets are based on 30-year...

  2. PROBABILITY SURVEYS , CONDITIONAL PROBABILITIES AND ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    We show that probability-based environmental resource monitoring programs, such as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, and conditional probability analysis can serve as a basis for estimating ecological risk over ...

  3. Assessment of senior pupils’ physical fitness considering physical condition indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R. Bodnar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Consideration of physical condition indicators in assessment pupils’ physical fitness permits to differentiate training and health restoration processes at physical culture lessons. Purpose: to substantiate criteria for pupils’ physical fitness assessment, considering their physical condition indicators. Material: in the research 10-11 form pupils (n=406; 211boys and 195 girls participated. After physical fitness testing by requirement of acting programs we carried out diagnostic of pupils’ psycho-emotional state. Results: by results of physical; fitness we observed substantial deviation from universal law of normal distribution. It was found that physical condition indicators of most pupils are beyond normal. It was also determined that the most informative indicators are body length, chest circumference and body relative mass. We substantiated that it is necessary to consider physical condition indicators, when determining physical fitness level. We also substantiated and worked out differentiated normative for assessment pupils’ physical fitness. Conclusions: testing without consideration physical condition indicators does not facilitate pupils’ motivation for further physical self-perfection. Such testing results in high situational anxiety and unfavorable psycho-emotional state of pupils.

  4. On Reliability Based Optimal Design of Concrete Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In recent years important progress has been made in assessment of the lifetime behaviour of concrete bridges. Due to the large uncertainties related to the loading and the deterioration of such bridges, an assessment based on stochastic modelling of the significant parameters seems to be only...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Principles of Reliability-Based... the design level of safety and reliability of the equipment; (2) To restore safety and reliability to...

  6. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C. [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A. [Statoil (Norway)

    1998-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  7. Methodology for quantitative assessment of technical condition in industrial systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbach, C [Marintek AS (Norway); Soerli, A [Statoil (Norway)

    1999-12-31

    As part of the Eureka project Ageing Management a methodology has been developed to assess the technical condition of industrial systems. The first part of the presentation argues for the use of technical condition parameters in the context of maintenance strategies. Thereafter the term `technical condition` is defined more thoroughly as it is used within the project. It is claimed that the technical condition of a system - such as a feed water system of a nuclear power plant, or a water injection system on an oil platform - may be determined by aggregating the condition of its smaller components using a hierarchic approach. The hierarchy has to be defined in co-operation with experienced personnel and reflects the impact of degradation of elements on a lower level to nodes higher in the hierarchy. The impact is divided into five categories with respect to safety, environment, availability, costs and man-hours. To determine the technical condition of the bottom elements of the hierarchy, available data is used from both an on-line condition monitoring system and maintenance history. The second part of the presentation introduces the prototype software tool TeCoMan which utilises the theory and applies it to installations of the participating companies. First results and gained experiences with the method and tool are discussed. (orig.)

  8. Condition-based Human Reliability Assessment for digitalized control room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H. G.; Jang, S. C.; Eom, H. S.; Ha, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    In safety-critical systems, the generation failure of an actuation signal is caused by the concurrent failures of the automated systems and an operator action. These two sources of safety signals are complicatedly correlated. The failures of sensors or automated systems will cause a lack of necessary information for a human operator and result in error-forcing contexts such as the loss of corresponding alarms and indications. In the conventional analysis, the Human Error Probabilities (HEP) are estimated based on the assumption of 'normal condition of indications and alarms'. In order to construct a more realistic signal-generation failure model, we have to consider more complicated conditions in a more realistic manner. In this study, we performed two kinds of investigation for addressing this issue. We performed the analytic calculations for estimating the effect of sensors failures on the system unavailability and plant risk. For the single-parameter safety signals, the analysis result reveals that the quantification of the HEP should be performed by focusing on the 'no alarm from the automatic system and corresponding indications unavailable' situation. This study also proposes a Condition-Based Human Reliability Assessment (CBHRA) method in order to address these complicated conditions in a practical way. We apply the CBHRA method to the manual actuation of the safety features such as a reactor trip and auxiliary feedwater actuation in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants. In the case of conventional single HEP method, it is very hard to consider the multiple HE conditions. The merit of CBHRA is clearly shown in the application to the AFAS generation where no dominating HE condition exits. In this case, even if the HE conditions are carefully investigated, the single HEP method cannot accommodate the multiple conditions in a fault tree. On the other hand, the application result of the reactor trip in SLOCA shows that if there is a dominating condition, the use

  9. Assessment of the condition of a consumer market: interactive research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasiya Yevgenyevna Sudakova

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Results of an assessment of a condition of the consumer market are presented in the article on the basis of official statistics data. At the heart of an assessment, the method of the indicative analysis lies. The technique includes five modules: quality of consumer goods, works, services; food security, nonfood safety; safety of services; security of participants of the consumer market. Also results of interactive Internet research of the condition of the ultimate consumer are presented in the article, by means of the carried out research. Interactive research is presented by 3 blocks: the general block (allows to make the respondent’s portrait; the special block (allows to estimate the changes in price, quality and the range of consumer goods and services; the additional block (allows respondents to leave comments. On the basis of the conducted research, it is possible to draw a conclusion that the assessment of the state received on the basis of methodical tools, shows positive dynamics, nevertheless, the condition of the consumer market remains unsatisfactory that also is confirmed by results of interactive research. The recommendations, allowing to lower the rise in prices and increase the quality of consumer goods and services are presented in the article

  10. ASSESSMENT OF CABLE AGING USING CONDITION MONITORING TECHNIQUES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROVE, E.; LOFARO, R.; SOO, P.; VILLARAN, M.; HSU, F.

    2000-01-01

    Electric cables in nuclear power plants suffer degradation during service as a result of the thermal and radiation environments in which they are installed. Instrumentation and control cables are one type of cable that provide an important role in reactor safety. Should the polymeric cable insulation material become embrittled and cracked during service, or during a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) and when steam and high radiation conditions are anticipated, failure could occur and prevent the cables from fulfilling their intended safety function(s). A research program is being conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to evaluate condition monitoring (CM) techniques for estimating the amount of cable degradation experienced during in-plant service. The objectives of this program are to assess the ability of the cables to perform under a simulated LOCA without losing their ability to function effectively, and to identify CM techniques which may be used to determine the effective lifetime of cables. The cable insulation materials tested include ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE). Accelerated aging (thermal and radiation) to the equivalent of 40 years of service was performed, followed by exposure to simulated LOCA conditions. The effectiveness of chemical, electrical, and mechanical condition monitoring techniques are being evaluated. Results indicate that several of these methods can detect changes in material parameters with increasing age. However, each has its limitations, and a combination of methods may provide an effective means for trending cable degradation in order to assess the remaining life of cables

  11. Crown condition assessment at the CONECOFOR Permanent Monitoring Plots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renzo NIBBI

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A detailed crown condition assessment is currently being carried out at the CONECOFOR (CONtrollo ECOsistemi FORestali, Control of Forest Ecosystems plots. The assessment began in 1996, and during the first two years (1996 and 1997 an assessment form based on previous regional experience was used; in 1998 the new official EU form was adopted. The resulting loss of comparability means that only a few indices can be used in the temporal series 1996-1999. Much effort was devoted to Quality Assurance (QA procedures. The QA program is structured as follows: (i specific field manuals have been adopted and are continuously updated; (ii a national training and intercalibration course (NT&IC is undertaken yearly before beginning the assessment campaign;( iii field checks are carried out yearly on a large number of plots. The results of the QA program have shown that for several indices the quality objectives were not reached, but the quality of the data is improving with time. To express the change in crown conditions in each area, a complex index (CCI = Crown Condition Index was adopted. This index is the result of the sum of the relativized values of all the common indices used during the four years. The following parameters were used: transparency, ramification type, leaf colour alteration extension, leaf damage extension, alteration of leaf distension extension. The range within which the CCI fluctuates was evaluated taking into account all the observations carried out at a given plot throughout the years. The number of cases over a given threshold (outliers was calculated for each year. The threshold for outliers was calculated as the median value plus 2 times the range of the interquartile value. All individual cases exceeding this value are considered outliers. The results are presented for all the areas in which the data set is complete for the four years. The yearly fluctuations are discussed and related to possible causes.

  12. Bridge condition assessment based on long-term strain monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, LiMin; Sun, Shouwang

    2011-04-01

    In consideration of the important role that bridges play as transportation infrastructures, their safety, durability and serviceability have always been deeply concerned. Structural Health Monitoring Systems (SHMS) have been installed to many long-span bridges to provide bridge engineers with the information needed in making rational decisions for maintenance. However, SHMS also confronted bridge engineers with the challenge of efficient use of monitoring data. Thus, methodologies which are robust to random disturbance and sensitive to damage become a subject on which many researches in structural condition assessment concentrate. In this study, an innovative probabilistic approach for condition assessment of bridge structures was proposed on the basis of long-term strain monitoring on steel girder of a cable-stayed bridge. First, the methodology of damage detection in the vicinity of monitoring point using strain-based indices was investigated. Then, the composition of strain response of bridge under operational loads was analyzed. Thirdly, the influence of temperature and wind on strains was eliminated and thus strain fluctuation under vehicle loads is obtained. Finally, damage evolution assessment was carried out based on the statistical characteristics of rain-flow cycles derived from the strain fluctuation under vehicle loads. The research conducted indicates that the methodology proposed is qualified for structural condition assessment so far as the following respects are concerned: (a) capability of revealing structural deterioration; (b) immunity to the influence of environmental variation; (c) adaptability to the random characteristic exhibited by long-term monitoring data. Further examination of the applicability of the proposed methodology in aging bridge may provide a more convincing validation.

  13. Assessment of bioclimatic conditions within the area of Szczecin agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Nidzgorska-Lencewicz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to characterise the bioclimatic conditions in the city of Szczecin, particularly the recognition of the frequency of occurrence of the conditions unfavourable to humans. The analysis is based on the hourly values of particular meteorological elements and pollutant concentrations in the period 2005?2010 taken at the three measuring stations located in various settlement structures in Szczecin metropolitan area. The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI was used to assess heat stress of human organism and the assessment of thermal sensation was based on the Effective Temperature index (ET. It was established that on a yearly basis the most favourable biothermal conditions are observed in the centre of the city and in its southern districts ? categories no thermal stress (UTCI and thermal comfort (ET are most frequently recorded there. However, in the northern parts of the city the most common class of thermal stress (UTCI is moderate cold stress and thermal sensation category (ET cool and cold. Among the situations which thermal stress, the conditions connected with discomfort related to cold rather than heat are more frequent. Throughout the year, the strong cold stress (UTCI < 13 ° C and sensations (ET related to cold stress occurred in 12.5% and 25% of time respectively, whereas thermal discomfort related to strong heat stress with UTCI values over 32 ° C and ET thermal sensations hot and very hot were observed incomparably less frequently ? 0.3% and 3.7% respectively. However, heat-related discomfort is more frequently observed in the city centre, and cold-related discomfort is most frequently experienced by residents of the outskirts of the city, particularly its northern parts. The statistically strongest relationships were observed between biothermal sensation and ozone (O3 and particulate matter PM2.5 immissions. During the analysed period, the most unfavourable bioclimatic conditions occurred predominantly in

  14. Evaluating how variants of floristic quality assessment indicate wetland condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutcher, Thomas E; Forrester, Graham E

    2018-03-28

    Biological indicators are useful tools for the assessment of ecosystem condition. Multi-metric and multi-taxa indicators may respond to a broader range of disturbances than simpler indicators, but their complexity can make them difficult to interpret, which is critical to indicator utility for ecosystem management. Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) is an example of a biological assessment approach that has been widely tested for indicating freshwater wetland condition, but less attention has been given to clarifying the factors controlling its response. FQA quantifies the aggregate of vascular plant species tolerance to habitat degradation (conservatism), and model variants have incorporated species richness, abundance, and indigenity (native or non-native). To assess bias, we tested FQA variants in open-canopy freshwater wetlands against three independent reference measures, using practical vegetation sampling methods. FQA variants incorporating species richness did not correlate with our reference measures and were influenced by wetland size and hydrogeomorphic class. In contrast, FQA variants lacking measures of species richness responded linearly to reference measures quantifying individual and aggregate stresses, suggesting a broad response to cumulative degradation. FQA variants incorporating non-native species, and a variant additionally incorporating relative species abundance, improved performance over using only native species. We relate our empirical findings to ecological theory to clarify the functional properties and implications of the FQA variants. Our analysis indicates that (1) aggregate conservatism reliably declines with increased disturbance; (2) species richness has varying relationships with disturbance and increases with site area, confounding FQA response; and (3) non-native species signal human disturbance. We propose that incorporating species abundance can improve FQA site-level relevance with little extra sampling effort. Using our

  15. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Pereira Neves

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline, feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger, with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets.

  16. Reliability-Based Optimal Design for Very Large Floating Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shu-hua(张淑华); FUJIKUBO Masahiko

    2003-01-01

    Costs and losses induced by possible future extreme environmental conditions and difficulties in repairing post-yielding damage strongly suggest the need for proper consideration in design rather than just life loss prevention. This can be addressed through the development of design methodology that balances the initial cost of the very large floating structure (VLFS) against the expected potential losses resulting from future extreme wave-induced structural damage. Here, the development of a methodology for determining optimal, cost-effective design will be presented and applied to a VLFS located in the Tokyo bay. Optimal design criteria are determined based on the total expected life-cycle cost and acceptable damage probability and curvature of the structure, and a set of sizes of the structure are obtained. The methodology and applications require expressions of the initial cost and the expected life-cycle damage cost as functions of the optimal design variables. This study includes the methodology, total life-cycle cost function, structural damage modeling, and reliability analysis.

  17. Reliability-based design code calibration for concrete containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, B.K.; Cho, H.N.; Chang, S.P.

    1991-01-01

    In this study, a load combination criteria for design and a probability-based reliability analysis were proposed on the basis of a FEM-based random vibration analysis. The limit state model defined for the study is a serviceability limit state of the crack failure that causes the emission of radioactive materials, and the results are compared with the case of strength limit state. More accurate reliability analyses under various dynamic loads such as earthquake loads were made possible by incorporating the FEM and random vibration theory, which is different from the conventional reliability analysis method. The uncertainties in loads and resistance available in Korea and the references were adapted to the situation of Korea, and especially in case of earthquake, the design earthquake was assessed based on the available data for the probabilistic description of earthquake ground acceleration in the Korea peninsula. The SAP V-2 is used for a three-dimensional finite element analysis of concrete containment structure, and the reliability analysis is carried out by modifying HRAS reliability analysis program for this study. (orig./GL)

  18. Bridge Condition Assessment based on Vibration Responses of Passenger Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Ayaho; Yabe, Akito

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of assessing the condition of existing short- and medium-span reinforced/prestressed concrete bridges based on vibration monitoring data obtained from a public bus. This paper not only describes details of a prototype monitoring system that uses information technology and sensors capable of providing more accurate knowledge of bridge performance than conventional ways but also shows a few specific examples of bridge condition assessment based on vehicle vibrations measured by using an in-service public bus equipped with vibration measurement instrumentation. This paper also describes a sensitivity analysis of deteriorating bridges based on simulation of the acceleration response of buses conducted by the 'substructure method' employing a finite element model to verify the above bridge performance results. The main conclusions obtained in this study can be summarized as follows: (1) Because the vibration responses of passenger vehicles, such as buses, have a good linear relationship with the vibration responses of the target bridges, the proposed system can be used as a practical monitoring system for bridge condition assessment. (2) The results of sensitivity analysis performed by the substructure method show that bus vibration responses are useful for evaluating target bridge performance. (3) The proposed method was applied to a network of real bridges in a local area to evaluate its effectiveness. The results indicate that the proposed method can be used to prioritize the repair/strengthening works of existing bridges based on various vibration information in order to help bridge administrators establish rational maintenance strategies.

  19. The machines maintenance conditions assessment in the plastic industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Borkowski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose, methodology, main findings, the originality of the subject area (research, way of using. The main research analysis purpose is a presentation, an assessment and an interpretation of the research findings on the machines maintenance conditions in the plastic industry. The research analysis was carried out with applying Technology ABC method and TPM coefficients calculations connected with Techno pak machine components maintenance. The research was carried out in the chosen manufacturing enterprise of the plastic industry. Research findings interpretation results have been introduced in the analyzed enterprise in the form of the manufacturing processes improvement.

  20. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited. PMID:28150808

  1. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-02

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called "Staying" that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  2. The evolution of conditional moral assessment in indirect reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tatsuya; Okada, Isamu; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-02-01

    Indirect reciprocity is a major mechanism in the maintenance of cooperation among unrelated individuals. Indirect reciprocity leads to conditional cooperation according to social norms that discriminate the good (those who deserve to be rewarded with help) and the bad (those who should be punished by refusal of help). Despite intensive research, however, there is no definitive consensus on what social norms best promote cooperation through indirect reciprocity, and it remains unclear even how those who refuse to help the bad should be assessed. Here, we propose a new simple norm called “Staying” that prescribes abstaining from assessment. Under the Staying norm, the image of the person who makes the decision to give help stays the same as in the last assessment if the person on the receiving end has a bad image. In this case, the choice about whether or not to give help to the potential receiver does not affect the image of the potential giver. We analyze the Staying norm in terms of evolutionary game theory and demonstrate that Staying is most effective in establishing cooperation compared to the prevailing social norms, which rely on constant monitoring and unconditional assessment. The application of Staying suggests that the strict application of moral judgment is limited.

  3. Cache Management of Big Data in Equipment Condition Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data platform for equipment condition assessment is built for comprehensive analysis. The platform has various application demands. According to its response time, its application can be divided into offline, interactive and real-time types. For real-time application, its data processing efficiency is important. In general, data cache is one of the most efficient ways to improve query time. However, big data caching is different from the traditional data caching. In the paper we propose a distributed cache management framework of big data for equipment condition assessment. It consists of three parts: cache structure, cache replacement algorithm and cache placement algorithm. Cache structure is the basis of the latter two algorithms. Based on the framework and algorithms, we make full use of the characteristics of just accessing some valuable data during a period of time, and put relevant data on the neighborhood nodes, which largely reduce network transmission cost. We also validate the performance of our proposed approaches through extensive experiments. It demonstrates that the proposed cache replacement algorithm and cache management framework has higher hit rate or lower query time than LRU algorithm and round-robin algorithm.

  4. Assessment of Alaska reindeer populations and range conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Swanson

    1992-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations of reindeer (Rangifer tarandus have fluctated greatly since their introduction to Alaska in 1891. In the 1930s, reported numbers exceeded 600 000. Presently, 38 000 reindeer graze 6.2 million ha of rangeland and woodland in Western Alaska (from 66°54'N to 52°07'N latitude. Condition of winter range producing fruticose lichens (Cladina rangiferina, Cladina arbuscula, Cladina stellaris, Cetraria cucullata, Cetraria islandica is of major concern. Monitoring programs have been established for vegetation, fire, reindeer and wildlife. Reindeer have overgrazed lichen resources on some Bering Sea Islands. Wildfires have had the greatest impact on lichen range depletion on the mainland. Overgrazing has been a problem in localized areas. Moose (Alces alces and muskox (Ovibos moschatus rarely contribute to major lichen depletion. 60-80% of the mainland and 5-30% of most island winter lichen ranges are presently estimated to be in good to excellent ecological condition. Procedures for assessing condition of the lichen ranges are being further refined.

  5. Reliability based impact localization in composite panels using Bayesian updating and the Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Llewellyn; Sharif Khodaei, Zahra; Aliabadi, M. H.

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a reliability based impact detection strategy for a sensorized composite structure is proposed. Impacts are localized using Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) with recorded guided waves due to impacts used as inputs. To account for variability in the recorded data under operational conditions, Bayesian updating and Kalman filter techniques are applied to improve the reliability of the detection algorithm. The possibility of having one or more faulty sensors is considered, and a decision fusion algorithm based on sub-networks of sensors is proposed to improve the application of the methodology to real structures. A strategy for reliably categorizing impacts into high energy impacts, which are probable to cause damage in the structure (true impacts), and low energy non-damaging impacts (false impacts), has also been proposed to reduce the false alarm rate. The proposed strategy involves employing classification ANNs with different features extracted from captured signals used as inputs. The proposed methodologies are validated by experimental results on a quasi-isotropic composite coupon impacted with a range of impact energies.

  6. International Global Crop Condition Assessments in the framework of GEOGLAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker-Reshef, I.; Justice, C. O.; Vermote, E.; Whitcraft, A. K.; Claverie, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (partnership of governments and international organizations) developed the Global Agricultural Monitoring (GEOGLAM) initiative in response to the growing calls for improved agricultural information. The goal of GEOGLAM is to strengthen the international community's capacity to produce and disseminate relevant, timely and accurate forecasts of agricultural production at national, regional and global scales through the use of Earth observations. This initiative is designed to build on existing agricultural monitoring initiatives at national, regional and global levels and to enhance and strengthen them through international networking, operationally focused research, and data/method sharing. GEOGLAM was adopted by the G20 as part of the action plan on food price volatility and agriculture and is being implemented through building on the extensive GEO Agricultural Community of Practice (CoP) that was initiated in 2007 and includes key national and international agencies, organizations, and universities involved in agricultural monitoring. One of the early GEOGLAM activities is to provide harmonized global crop outlooks that offer timely qualitative consensus information on crop status and prospects. This activity is being developed in response to a request from the G-20 Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS) and is implemented within the global monitoring systems component of GEOGLAM. The goal is to develop a transparent, international, multi-source, consensus assessment of crop growing conditions, status, and agro-climatic conditions, likely to impact global production. These assessments are focused on the four primary crop types (corn, wheat, soy and rice) within the main agricultural producing regions of the world. The GEOGLAM approach is to bring together international experts from global, regional and national monitoring systems that can share and discuss information from a variety of independent complementary sources in

  7. Improved Reliability-Based Optimization with Support Vector Machines and Its Application in Aircraft Wing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new reliability-based design optimization (RBDO method based on support vector machines (SVM and the Most Probable Point (MPP is proposed in this work. SVM is used to create a surrogate model of the limit-state function at the MPP with the gradient information in the reliability analysis. This guarantees that the surrogate model not only passes through the MPP but also is tangent to the limit-state function at the MPP. Then, importance sampling (IS is used to calculate the probability of failure based on the surrogate model. This treatment significantly improves the accuracy of reliability analysis. For RBDO, the Sequential Optimization and Reliability Assessment (SORA is employed as well, which decouples deterministic optimization from the reliability analysis. The improved SVM-based reliability analysis is used to amend the error from linear approximation for limit-state function in SORA. A mathematical example and a simplified aircraft wing design demonstrate that the improved SVM-based reliability analysis is more accurate than FORM and needs less training points than the Monte Carlo simulation and that the proposed optimization strategy is efficient.

  8. Reliability-Based Topology Optimization Using Stochastic Response Surface Method with Sparse Grid Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical framework is developed which integrates the reliability concept into topology optimization to solve reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO problems under uncertainty. Two typical methodologies have been presented and implemented, including the performance measure approach (PMA and the sequential optimization and reliability assessment (SORA. To enhance the computational efficiency of reliability analysis, stochastic response surface method (SRSM is applied to approximate the true limit state function with respect to the normalized random variables, combined with the reasonable design of experiments generated by sparse grid design, which was proven to be an effective and special discretization technique. The uncertainties such as material property and external loads are considered on three numerical examples: a cantilever beam, a loaded knee structure, and a heat conduction problem. Monte-Carlo simulations are also performed to verify the accuracy of the failure probabilities computed by the proposed approach. Based on the results, it is demonstrated that application of SRSM with SGD can produce an efficient reliability analysis in RBTO which enables a more reliable design than that obtained by DTO. It is also found that, under identical accuracy, SORA is superior to PMA in view of computational efficiency.

  9. Time-dependent reliability analysis and condition assessment of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Structures generally play a passive role in assurance of safety in nuclear plant operation, but are important if the plant is to withstand the effect of extreme environmental or abnormal events. Relative to mechanical and electrical components, structural systems and components would be difficult and costly to replace. While the performance of steel or reinforced concrete structures in service generally has been very good, their strengths may deteriorate during an extended service life as a result of changes brought on by an aggressive environment, excessive loading, or accidental loading. Quantitative tools for condition assessment of aging structures can be developed using time-dependent structural reliability analysis methods. Such methods provide a framework for addressing the uncertainties attendant to aging in the decision process

  10. Assessment of redox conditions based on fracture mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tullborg, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    The frequency and distribution of fracture minerals like calcite, Fe-oxides/hydroxides, and sulphides can be used in performance assessment since their presence reflects the redox processes that are active or have been active in the fractures. The advantage in using fracture minerals is that they undoubtedly represent conditions prior to disturbances caused by drilling or tunnel excavations. In addition, they give a continuous record from the surface to great depth. On the other hand the disadvantage is that the fracture mineral distribution is a result of both past and present processes such that the mineral distribution alone can not discriminate between old and recent processes. Nevertheless it is suggested that the fracture mineral distribution provides important information about the redox capacity in the fracture system. (author)

  11. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantoni, P.F. [Institutt for energiteknikk (Norway); Nordlund, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    2006-04-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report describes a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, which is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry. This method resulted in the development of a system called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. LIRA is composed of a signal generator, a signal analyser and a simulator that can be used to simulate several failure/degradation scenarios and assess the accuracy and sensitivity of the LIRA system. Chapter 5 of this report describes an complementary approach based on positron measurement techniques, used widely in defect physics due to the high sensitivity to micro defects, in particular open volume defects. This report describes in details these methodologies, the results of field experiments and the proposed future work. (au)

  12. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, P.F.; Nordlund, A.

    2006-04-01

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report describes a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, which is based on Frequency Domain Reflectometry. This method resulted in the development of a system called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. LIRA is composed of a signal generator, a signal analyser and a simulator that can be used to simulate several failure/degradation scenarios and assess the accuracy and sensitivity of the LIRA system. Chapter 5 of this report describes an complementary approach based on positron measurement techniques, used widely in defect physics due to the high sensitivity to micro defects, in particular open volume defects. This report describes in details these methodologies, the results of field experiments and the proposed future work. (au)

  13. Residential roof condition assessment system using deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fan; Kerekes, John P.; Xu, Zhuoyi; Wang, Yandong

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of high resolution (HR) and ultra high resolution (UHR) airborne remote sensing imagery is enabling humans to move beyond traditional land cover analysis applications to the detailed characterization of surface objects. A residential roof condition assessment method using techniques from deep learning is presented. The proposed method operates on individual roofs and divides the task into two stages: (1) roof segmentation, followed by (2) condition classification of the segmented roof regions. As the first step in this process, a self-tuning method is proposed to segment the images into small homogeneous areas. The segmentation is initialized with simple linear iterative clustering followed by deep learned feature extraction and region merging, with the optimal result selected by an unsupervised index, Q. After the segmentation, a pretrained residual network is fine-tuned on the augmented roof segments using a proposed k-pixel extension technique for classification. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated on both HR and UHR imagery collected by EagleView over different study sites. The proposed algorithm has yielded promising results and has outperformed traditional machine learning methods using hand-crafted features.

  14. Terrestrial laser scanning-based bridge structural condition assessment : InTrans project reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Objective, accurate, and fast assessment of a bridges structural condition is critical to the timely assessment of safety risks. : Current practices for bridge condition assessment rely on visual observations and manual interpretation of reports a...

  15. HOUSING CONDITIONS IN KANO, NIGERIA: A QUALITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF ADEQUACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulqadir BELLO

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to assess the qualitative adequacy of housing in Nigeria. However, most of these studies focus either on slums or on public housing projects. There are very few empirical studies that examine and compare the qualitative adequacy of housing belonging to different population groups and from different neighborhoods in a city. The purpose of this study is to assess the housing quality in the (entire city of Kano, Nigeria and to examine the disparities in housing adequacy across the city based on four factors: neighborhood density level, location of the neighborhood relative to the old city wall, monthly household income and ownership type and status. We found that, although bad by western standards, the condition of dwellings in Kano is better than in other Nigerian cities (based on information from previous studies, even when we consider only the high-density neighborhoods. Another major conclusion of this paper is that the four indicators mentioned earlier can be used as predictors for the quality of housing in a particular neighborhood.

  16. Bearing Condition Recognition and Degradation Assessment under Varying Running Conditions Using NPE and SOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manifold learning methods have been widely used in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis. However, the results reported in these studies focus on the machine faults under stable loading and rotational speeds, which cannot interpret the practical machine running. Rotating machine is always running under variable speeds and loading, which makes the vibration signal more complicated. To address such concern, the NPE (neighborhood preserving embedding is applied for bearing fault classification. Compared with other algorithms (PCA, LPP, LDA, and ISOP, the NPE performs well in feature extraction. Since the traditional time domain signal denoising is time consuming and memory consuming, we denoise the signal features directly in feature space. Furthermore, NPE and SOM (self-organizing map are combined to assess the bearing degradation performance. Simulation and experiment results validate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. METAL STRUCTURES SURVIVABILITY ASSESSMENT WHEN SIMULATING SERVICE CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Gibalenko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The research is aimed at improving the quality and reliability of measures of primary and secondary protection of metal structures at manufacturing companies, to prolong the service life of cyclically loaded structures of production facilities taking into account the corrosion level of danger. Methodology. Authors proposed to use the principles of process approach for statement and realization of management problems of operational service life in corrosion environments. The principles of ensuring reliability on the level of corrosion danger include justification of stages sequence for survivability assessment of a structural metalwork based on the strategy of DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control: definitions, measurements, analysis, improvement and monitoring of measures of primary and secondary corrosion protection. Findings. Providing control measures from corrosion according to the criterion of corrosion danger allows providing requirements of reliability of structural metalwork based on calculated provisions of the limiting conditions method and solving the problems of management in technological safety during the expected service life of structural objects. Originality. The developed strategy of maintenance of the industrial facilities on an actual state includes the process approach to resource management by creation of system for the account and the functional controlling, risk analysis and regulation of technological safety in production facilities of the enterprises. Realization of the principles of process approach to management of technological safety at the object level is directed to perfecting of tools and methods of anticorrosive protection, extension of a resource taking into account indexes of survivability (, and justification of program measures to ensure the reliability of enterprises(PER. Practical value. On the basis of process approach to quality and reliability management, generalizations of the

  18. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  19. Reliability-Based Design and Planning of Inspection and Monitoring of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquez-Dominguez, Sergio

    Maintaining and developing a sustainable wind industry is the main motivation of this PhD thesis entitled “Reliability-based design and planning of inspection and monitoring of offshore wind turbines”. In this thesis, statistical methods and probability theory are important mathematical tools used...... and offshore wind turbine foundations with the aim of improving the design, decreasing structural costs and increasing benefits. Recently, wind energy technology has started to adopt risk and reliability based inspection planning (RBI) as a methodology based on Bayesian decision theories together...

  20. Permanent deformation and deflection relationship from pavement condition assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabricio Leiva-Villacorta

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of permanent deformation in flexible pavements has been a research topic for several decades. Currently there are models included in the structural design of pavements that can predict this type of failure. However, the variables required for the prediction of this distress are complex or difficult to obtain in the field, making its application in pavement evaluation also difficult. Measurement of the deflection of pavement structures by means of non-destructive testing is a technique used to assess the condition of the pavement. This research study seeks to correlate data from deflections of the pavement surface with probable permanent deformation in time. In addition, prediction of the remaining life of the pavement structure using a specified criterion is also analyzed. In order to accomplish these objectives, data acquired from 4 different full scale accelerated pavement test tracks was used to develop a permanent deformation model as a function of deflection, load repetitions and pavement layer thickness. The developed model considered a time series model that incorporates an Auto-regressive parameter of order 1. The proposed model presents an advantage over currently available models because it reduces the required parameters to predict the permanent deformation and/or remaining life in the structure and because these variables can be easily found and updated in a pavement management system. Keywords: HVS, Permanent deformation, Deflections, APT, Time series, Instrumentation

  1. Reliability-based inspection planning of 20MW offshore wind turbine jacket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a risk and reliability based inspection planning framework (RBI) for the InnWind 20MW reference wind turbine jacket sub-structure. A detailed fracture mechanics based fatigue crack growth model is developed and used as basis to derive optimal inspection plans...

  2. Reliability Based Optimal Design of Vertical Breakwaters Modelled as a Series System Failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiani, E.; Burcharth, H. F.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Reliability based design of monolithic vertical breakwaters is considered. Probabilistic models of important failure modes such as sliding and rupture failure in the rubble mound and the subsoil are described. Characterisation of the relevant stochastic parameters are presented, and relevant design...... variables are identified and an optimal system reliability formulation is presented. An illustrative example is given....

  3. Reliability-based design methods to determine the extreme response distribution of offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.W.; Bussel, van G.J.W.; Kuik, van G.A.M.; Vugts, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    In this article a reliability-based approach to determine the extreme response distribution of offshore wind turbines is presented. Based on hindcast data, the statistical description of the offshore environment is formulated. The contour lines of different return periods can be determined.

  4. Building condition assessment: a performance evaluation tool towards sustainable asset management

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Abbott, GR

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available of consistent condition assessments is generally underrated and seldom fully utilised. Condition assessments should be the basis for management and maintenance decisions in the built environment towards sustainable construction. Subsequent to the 1995 National...

  5. 42 CFR 494.80 - Condition: Patient assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Evaluation of the patient's abilities, interests, preferences, and goals, including the desired level of... referral to vocational and physical rehabilitation services. (b) Standard: Frequency of assessment for...

  6. Failure assessment of pressure vessels under yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.P.; Darlaston, B.J.L.; Townley, C.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper summarizes the work carried out to establish the behavior of structures containing defects and outlines a failure assessment route which can be used to assess the integrity of a structure containing a defect. The basis for this failure assessment route is the two-criteria approach of Dowling and Townley, which can be applied to structures containing defects irrespective of whether they are in the linear elastic fracture mechanics regime, the fully plastic regime, or in an intermediate regime. The extension of this concept to include crack growth by stable tearing is dealt with in the paper

  7. Assessment of slip factor models at off-design condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sung Ho; Baek, Je Hyun

    2000-01-01

    Slip factor is defined as an empirical factor being multiplied to theoretical energy transfer for the estimation of real work input of a centrifugal compressor. Researchers have tried to develop a simple empirical model, for a century, to predict a slip factor. However most these models were developed on the condition of design point assuming inviscid flow. So these models often fail to predict a correct slip factor at off-design condition. In this study, we summarized various slip factor models and compared these models with experimental and numerical data at off-design condition. As a result of this study, Wiesner's and Paeng and Chung's models are applicable for radial impeller, but all the models are not suitable for backswept impeller. Finally, the essential avenues for future study is discussed

  8. Development of reliability-based load and resistance factor design methods for piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyub, Bilal M.; Hill, Ralph S. III; Balkey, Kenneth R.

    2003-01-01

    Current American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) nuclear codes and standards rely primarily on deterministic and mechanistic approaches to design. The American Institute of Steel Construction and the American Concrete Institute, among other organizations, have incorporated probabilistic methodologies into their design codes. ASME nuclear codes and standards could benefit from developing a probabilistic, reliability-based, design methodology. This paper provides a plan to develop the technical basis for reliability-based, load and resistance factor design of ASME Section III, Class 2/3 piping for primary loading, i.e., pressure, deadweight and seismic. The plan provides a proof of concept in that LRFD can be used in the design of piping, and could achieve consistent reliability levels. Also, the results from future projects in this area could form the basis for code cases, and additional research for piping secondary loads. (author)

  9. A G-function-based reliability-based design methodology applied to a cam roller system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W.; Sui, P.; Wu, Y.T.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional reliability-based design optimization methods treats the reliability function as an ordinary function and applies existing mathematical programming techniques to solve the design problem. As a result, the conventional approach requires nested loops with respect to g-function, and is very time consuming. A new reliability-based design method is proposed in this paper that deals with the g-function directly instead of the reliability function. This approach has the potential of significantly reducing the number of calls for g-function calculations since it requires only one full reliability analysis in a design iteration. A cam roller system in a typical high pressure fuel injection diesel engine is designed using both the proposed and the conventional approach. The proposed method is much more efficient for this application

  10. Atmospheric conditions important for the assessment of population exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidic, S.

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric distribution of a pollutant can be predicted using numerical weather prediction models and atmospheric dispersion models. The first provides prediction on the evaluation of the meteorological fields for specified time period and the second uses this information to determine the evolution of the dispersing cloud in time and space. There is a number of conditions and features that limit the performance of both models, as they contain a degree of parametrisation that may be a source of error. This paper discusses influential parameters and conditions.(author)

  11. Inverse Reliability Task: Artificial Neural Networks and Reliability-Based Optimization Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Lehký , David; Slowik , Ondřej; Novák , Drahomír

    2014-01-01

    Part 7: Genetic Algorithms; International audience; The paper presents two alternative approaches to solve inverse reliability task – to determine the design parameters to achieve desired target reliabilities. The first approach is based on utilization of artificial neural networks and small-sample simulation Latin hypercube sampling. The second approach considers inverse reliability task as reliability-based optimization task using double-loop method and also small-sample simulation. Efficie...

  12. Reliability Based assessment of buildings under earthquakes due to gas extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenbergen, R.D.J.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the northern part of the Netherlands over de last decades shallow earthquakes are induced due to large scale gas extraction from the Groningen gas field. Earthquakes occur due to the compaction of the reservoir rock, which leads to subsidence at surface and strain build-up in the reservoir rock

  13. Reliability Assessment and Reliability-Based Inspection and Maintenance of Offshore Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramirez, José Rangel

    actions are the most relevant and effective means of control of deterioration. The risk-based inspection planning methodology, based on Bayesian decision theory, represents an important tool to identify the suitable strategy to inspect and control the deterioration in structures such as offshore wind...... performance during the life cycle. The deterioration processes, such as fatigue and corrosion, are typically affecting offshore structural systems. This damage decreases the system performance and increases the risk of failure, thus not fulfilling the established safety criteria. Inspection and maintenance...... to their offshore location, no pollution risks and low human risks since they are unmanned. This allows the allocation of lower reliability level compared to e.g. oil & gas installations. With the incursion to water depths between 20 and 50 meters, the use of jacket and tripod structures represents a feasible...

  14. Reliability-based approaches for safety margin assessment in the French nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardillon, E.; Barthelet, B.; Meister, E.; Cambefort, P.; Hornet, P.; Le Delliou, P.

    2003-01-01

    The prevention of the fast fracture damage of the mechanical equipment important for the safety of nuclear islands of the French PWR relies on deterministic rules. These rules include flaw acceptance criteria involving safety factors applied to characteristic values (implicit margins) of the physical variables. The sets of safety factors that are currently under application in the industrial analyses with the agreement of the Safety Authority, are distributed across the two main physical parameters and have partly been based on a semi-probabilistic approach. After presenting the generic probabilistic pro-codification approach this paper shows its application to the evaluation of the performances of the existing regulatory flaw acceptance criteria. This application can be carried out in a realistic manner or in a more simplified one. These two approaches are applied to representative mechanical components. Their results are consistent. (author)

  15. A fracture mechanics and reliability based method to assess non-destructive testings for pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Hideo; Hisada, Toshiaki

    1979-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation has not been made on the effects of carrying out preservice and in-service nondestructive tests for securing the soundness, safety and maintainability of pressure vessels, spending large expenses and labor. Especially the problems concerning the time and interval of in-service inspections lack the reasonable, quantitative evaluation method. In this paper, the problems of pressure vessels are treated by having developed the analysis method based on reliability technology and probability theory. The growth of surface cracks in pressure vessels was estimated, using the results of previous studies. The effects of nondestructive inspection on the defects in pressure vessels were evaluated, and the influences of many factors, such as plate thickness, stress, the accuracy of inspection and so on, on the effects of inspection, and the method of evaluating the inspections at unequal intervals were investigated. The analysis of reliability taking in-service inspection into consideration, the evaluation of in-service inspection and other affecting factors through the typical examples of analysis, and the review concerning the time of inspection are described. The method of analyzing the reliability of pressure vessels, considering the growth of defects and preservice and in-service nondestructive tests, was able to be systematized so as to be practically usable. (Kako, I.)

  16. A laboratory assessment of various treatment conditions affecting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conditions affecting the ammoniation of wheat straw by urea. 1. The effect of temperature, moisture level ... levels of 250 and 375 g/kg wheat straw and treatment periods of 0;. 1; 2; 4; 6 and 8 weeks. Dependent variables .... chloride solution containing 5 mg phenyl mercury acetate per litre. In vitro organic matter digestibility ...

  17. The grazing index method of range condition assessment | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the difficulty of examining succession theory in the Karoo, it is suggested the ecological index method (EIM), be replaced by the grazing index method (GIM), through the introduction of grazing index values (GIV) for Karoo plant species. The GIM may provide more acceptable range condition scores and more ...

  18. Correction factors for assessing immersion suits under harsh conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Jonathan; Tikuisis, Peter; Ré, António Simões; Barwood, Martin; Tipton, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many immersion suit standards require testing of thermal protective properties in calm, circulating water while these suits are typically used in harsher environments where they often underperform. Yet it can be expensive and logistically challenging to test immersion suits in realistic conditions. The goal of this work was to develop a set of correction factors that would allow suits to be tested in calm water yet ensure they will offer sufficient protection in harsher conditions. Two immersion studies, one dry and the other with 500 mL of water within the suit, were conducted in wind and waves to measure the change in suit insulation. In both studies, wind and waves resulted in a significantly lower immersed insulation value compared to calm water. The minimum required thermal insulation for maintaining heat balance can be calculated for a given mean skin temperature, metabolic heat production, and water temperature. Combining the physiological limits of sustainable cold water immersion and actual suit insulation, correction factors can be deduced for harsh conditions compared to calm. The minimum in-situ suit insulation to maintain thermal balance is 1.553-0.0624·TW + 0.00018·TW(2) for a dry calm condition. Multiplicative correction factors to the above equation are 1.37, 1.25, and 1.72 for wind + waves, 500 mL suit wetness, and both combined, respectively. Calm water certification tests of suit insulation should meet or exceed the minimum in-situ requirements to maintain thermal balance, and correction factors should be applied for a more realistic determination of minimum insulation for harsh conditions. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Pain assessment strategies in patients with musculoskeletal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carotti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Valid and reliable assessment of pain is fundamental for both clinical trials and effective pain management. The nature of pain makes objective measurement impossible. Chronic musculoskeletal pain assessment and its impact on physical, emotional and social functions require multidimensional qualitative tools and healthrelated quality of life instruments. The recommendations concerning outcome measurements for pain trials are useful for making routine assessments that should include an evaluation of pain, fatigue, disturbed sleep, physical functioning, emotional functioning, patient global ratings of satisfaction, and quality of life. Despite the growing availability of instruments and theoretical publications related to measuring the various aspects of chronic pain, there is still little agreement and no unified approach has been devised. There is, therefore, still a considerable need for the development of a core set of measurement tools and response criteria, as well as for the development and refinement of the related instruments, standardized assessor training, the cross-cultural adaptation of health status questionnaires, electronic data capture, and the introduction of valid, reliable and responsive standardized quantitative measurement procedures into routine clinical care. This article reviews a selection of the instruments used to assess chronic musculoskeletal pain, including validated newly developed and well-established screening instruments, and discusses their advantages and limitations.

  20. [Assessment of periodontal condition of kidney patients in hemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Cláudia Régia Dias de; Libério, Silvana Amado; Guerra, Rosane Nassar Meireles; Monteiro, Silvio; Silveira, Ericka Janine Dantas da; Pereira, Antonio Luiz Amaral

    2005-01-01

    Thirty patients undergoing hemodialysis were evaluated for their periodontal condition through plaque, calculus and gingival indexes; PSR and IgA present in the saliva were also appraised in order to determine the periodontal condition of patients presenting chronic kidney disease. Results obtained demonstrated that in the studied group the plaque, calculus and gingival indexes were high. With regard to these patients' requirement to undergo periodontal treatment, most patients submitted to hemodialysis needed better oral hygiene, in addition to supra and sub gingival scraping and topic application of fluor (code 2). As to the IgA amount present in the saliva, only three patients showed a low density. Patients presenting chronic kidney disease disclosed a tendency for greater bacterial plaque concentration, high formation of dental calculus suggesting the need for periodontal treatment comprising supra and sub gingival scraping.

  1. Wire system aging assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantoni, P.F.

    2007-04-01

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. Condition Monitoring (CM) of installed wire systems is an important part of any aging program, both during the first 40 years of the qualified life and even more in anticipation of the license renewal for a nuclear power plant. This report contains some test results of a method for wire system condition monitoring, developed at the Halden Reactor Project, called LIRA (LIne Resonance Analysis), which can be used on-line to detect any local or global changes in the cable electrical parameters as a consequence of insulation faults or degradation. (au)

  2. Comparison of methods used in European countries to assess buildings' condition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; De Brito, J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of methods used in European countries to assess buildings’ condition. The following methods were compared: a Portuguese method to assess buildings condition, an English housing health and safety rating system, a French method to assess buildings that may be

  3. Russian practice of RPV integrity assessment under PTS conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piminov, V.; Dragunov, Yu.; Kostyrkin, S.; Akbachev, I.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper the approach used by Gidopress (main designer of Russian WWER reactors) for RPV integrity assessment is presented. Recently performed calculations for RPVs of Novoronezh NPP, units 3 and 4, are used as an example of practical application of this approach. The calculations have been performed on the base of Russian regulatory requirements, at the same time the recommendations of IAEA Guidelines for PTS assessment was also taken into account. The scope of the work includes: Analysis of real state of NPP systems and PTS selection; analysis of material behavior including results of templets investigation; thermal hydraulic calculations; structural analyses for the leading transients; development of supplementary measures to reduce the risk of RPV fracture. 5 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  4. Wire system ageing assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekelund, M; Gedde, U.W.; Fantoni, P.F.

    2011-05-01

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. In this report 3 techniques for cable global ageing assessment were tested and evaluated. The EAB technique is a destructive, local technique that is often used as a reference for other methods. The indenter is a local, in-situ mechanical technique that is currently quite often used in NPPs. LIRA is an electrical method, full line, in-situ. LIRA correlated quite well with EAB and both tend to flatten when the ageing time reaches 40 years. The only cable type that was difficult to assess for all the 3 methods was the medium type in air environment. These tests considered only thermal ageing, up to 50 years and should be completed by considering also gamma irradiation ageing. (Author)

  5. Wire system ageing assessment and condition monitoring (WASCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekelund, M; Gedde, U.W. (Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). Fibre and Polymer Technology, School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Stockholm (Sweden)); Fantoni, P.F. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-05-15

    Nuclear facilities rely on electrical wire systems to perform a variety of functions for successful operation. Many of these functions directly support the safe operation of the facility; therefore, the continued reliability of wire systems, even as they age, is critical. In this report 3 techniques for cable global ageing assessment were tested and evaluated. The EAB technique is a destructive, local technique that is often used as a reference for other methods. The indenter is a local, in-situ mechanical technique that is currently quite often used in NPPs. LIRA is an electrical method, full line, in-situ. LIRA correlated quite well with EAB and both tend to flatten when the ageing time reaches 40 years. The only cable type that was difficult to assess for all the 3 methods was the medium type in air environment. These tests considered only thermal ageing, up to 50 years and should be completed by considering also gamma irradiation ageing. (Author)

  6. Russian practice of RPV integrity assessment under PTS conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piminov, V; Dragunov, Yu; Kostyrkin, S; Akbachev, I

    1997-09-01

    In this paper the approach used by Gidopress (main designer of Russian WWER reactors) for RPV integrity assessment is presented. Recently performed calculations for RPVs of Novoronezh NPP, units 3 and 4, are used as an example of practical application of this approach. The calculations have been performed on the base of Russian regulatory requirements, at the same time the recommendations of IAEA Guidelines for PTS assessment was also taken into account. The scope of the work includes: Analysis of real state of NPP systems and PTS selection; analysis of material behavior including results of templets investigation; thermal hydraulic calculations; structural analyses for the leading transients; development of supplementary measures to reduce the risk of RPV fracture. 5 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab.

  7. Assessment of WWER fuel condition in design basis accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibilashvili, Yu.; Sokolov, N.; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L.; Vlasov, Yu.; Nechaeva, O.; Salatov, A.

    1994-01-01

    The fuel behaviour in design basis accidents is assessed by means of the verified code RAPTA-5. The code uses a set of high temperature physico-chemical properties of the fuel components as determined for commercially produced materials, fuel rod simulators and fuel rod bundles. The WWER fuel criteria available in Russia for design basis accidents do not generally differ from the similar criteria adopted for PWR's. 12 figs., 11 refs

  8. Assessment of WWER fuel condition in design basis accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibilashvili, Yu; Sokolov, N; Andreeva-Andrievskaya, L; Vlasov, Yu; Nechaeva, O; Salatov, A [Vsesoyuznyj Nauchno-Issledovatel` skij Inst. Neorganicheskikh Materialov, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    The fuel behaviour in design basis accidents is assessed by means of the verified code RAPTA-5. The code uses a set of high temperature physico-chemical properties of the fuel components as determined for commercially produced materials, fuel rod simulators and fuel rod bundles. The WWER fuel criteria available in Russia for design basis accidents do not generally differ from the similar criteria adopted for PWR`s. 12 figs., 11 refs.

  9. Assessing Stream Ecosystem Condition in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, John M.; Kaufmann, Philip R.; Herlihy, Alan T.; Paulsen, Steven G.

    2009-09-01

    When the U.S. Congress passed the Federal Water Pollution Control Act in 1972, later amended by the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1977, it tasked the newly created U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with the states, with periodically assessing the quality of U.S. waters and reporting on progress toward meeting the goals of the CWA. In subsequent decades, reviews by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations consistently have found available water quality data and reporting to be inadequate to evaluate the nation's progress [Shapiro et al., 2008]. In response to these concerns, in 1989 EPA's Office of Research and Development initiated the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) to develop and demonstrate scientific tools to monitor the status of, and trends in, U.S. aquatic resources and environmental stressors affecting them. Recent EPA-led efforts involve monitoring wadeable perennial streams (streams or rivers shallow enough to be wadeable during seasonal low flows), which make up an estimated 90% of the total length of all perennial flowing waters in the United States [EPA, 2006]. Selected results from the first national survey of these streams, the national Wadeable Streams Assessment (WSA) [EPA, 2006; Paulsen et al., 2008], illustrate how such surveys can provide critical information to guide management of this important resource. Nonmonitoring applications of data from the WSA and earlier regional surveys show the wide-ranging applicability of these rich data sets.

  10. Demonstration and Evaluation of State-of-the-Art Wastewater Collection Systems Condition Assessment Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reliable information on pipe condition is needed to accurately estimate the remaining service life of wastewater collection system assets. Although inspections with conventional closed-circuit television (CCTV) have been the mainstay of pipeline condition assessment for decades,...

  11. Assessing the Financial Condition of Provider-Sponsored Health Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the performance of health plans sponsored by provider organizations, with respect to plans generating strong positive cash flow relative to plans generating weaker cash flow. A secondary aim was to assess their capital adequacy. The study identified 24 provider-sponsored health plans (PSHPs) with an average positive cash flow margin from 2011 through 2013 at or above the top 75th percentile, defined as "strong cash flow PSHPs:" This group was compared with 72 PSHPs below the 75th percentile, defined as "weak cash flow PSHPs:" Atlantic Information Services Directory of Health Plans was used to identify the PSHPs. Financial ratios were computed from 2013 National Association of Insurance Commissioners Financial Filings. The study conducted a t test mean comparison between strong and weak cash flow PSHPs across an array of financial performance and capital adequacy measures. In 2013, the strong cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin ratio of 6.6%. Weak cash flow PSHPs averaged a cash-flow margin of -0.4%. The net worth capital position of both groups was more than 4.5 times authorized capital. The operational analysis shows that strong cash-flow margin PSHPs are managing their medical costs to achieve this position. Although their medical loss ratio increased by almost 300 basis points from 2011 to 2013, it was still statistically significantly lower than the weaker cash flow PSHP group (P<.001). In terms of capital adequacy, both strong and weak cash-flow margin PSHP groups possessed sufficient capital to ensure the viability of these plans.

  12. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Map, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal monitoring program with rigorous quality assurance protocols and standardized sampling...

  13. Evolving inspection technologies for reliable condition assessment of components and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldev Raj

    1994-01-01

    Condition assessment of components and plants are being done regularly in many an industry. The methodologies adopted are being continuously refined. However, each of these methodologies are being applied in isolation, without realizing the synergistic advantage we derive when a global approach is taken for condition assessment. Developments in a variety of fields, that have a definite bearing on the reliability of condition assessment, are not applied (or even thought that they could be applied) together. The possible impact of evolving technologies in enhancing the efficiency of condition assessment of components and plants are discussed. (author). 11 refs

  14. Condition Assessment of Kevlar Composite Materials Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, Glenn; Brooks, Thomas; Saulsberry, Regor

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation includes the following main concepts. Goal: To evaluate Raman spectroscopy as a potential NDE tool for the detection of stress rupture in Kevlar. Objective: Test a series of strand samples that have been aged under various conditions and evaluate differences and trends in the Raman response. Hypothesis: Reduction in strength associated with stress rupture may manifest from changes in the polymer at a molecular level. If so, than these changes may effect the vibrational characteristics of the material, and consequently the Raman spectra produced from the material. Problem Statement: Kevlar composite over-wrapped pressure vessels (COPVs) on the space shuttles are greater than 25 years old. Stress rupture phenomena is not well understood for COPVs. Other COPVs are planned for hydrogen-fueled vehicles using Carbon composite material. Raman spectroscopy is being explored as an non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique to predict the onset of stress rupture in Kevlar composite materials. Test aged Kevlar strands to discover trends in the Raman response. Strength reduction in Kevlar polymer will manifest itself on the Raman spectra. Conclusions: Raman spectroscopy has shown relative changes in the intensity and FWHM of the 1613 cm(exp -1) peak. Reduction in relative intensity for creep, fleet leader, and SIM specimens compared to the virgin strands. Increase in FWHM has been observed for the creep and fleet leader specimens compared to the virgin strands. Changes in the Raman spectra may result from redistributing loads within the material due to the disruption of hydrogen bonding between crystallites or defects in the crystallites from aging the Kevlar strands. Peak shifting has not been observed to date. Analysis is ongoing. Stress measurements may provide a tool in the short term.

  15. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  16. Reliability-based optimization of maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaurepaire, P.; Valdebenito, M.A.; Schuëller, G.I.; Jensen, H.A.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the optimization of the maintenance scheduling of mechanical components under fatigue loading. The cracks of damaged structures may be detected during non-destructive inspection and subsequently repaired. Fatigue crack initiation and growth show inherent variability, and as well the outcome of inspection activities. The problem is addressed under the framework of reliability based optimization. The initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks are efficiently modeled using cohesive zone elements. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a numerical example, which involves a plate with two holes subject to alternating stress. PMID:23564979

  17. Real-time Continuous Assessment Method for Mental and Physiological Condition using Heart Rate Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Yutaka; Yokoyama, Kiyoko; Ishii, Naohiro

    It is necessary to monitor the daily health condition for preventing stress syndrome. In this study, it was proposed the method assessing the mental and physiological condition, such as the work stress or the relaxation, using heart rate variability at real time and continuously. The instantanuous heart rate (HR), and the ratio of the number of extreme points (NEP) and the number of heart beats were calculated for assessing mental and physiological condition. In this method, 20 beats heart rate were used to calculate these indexes. These were calculated in one beat interval. Three conditions, which are sitting rest, performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie, were assessed using our proposed algorithm. The assessment accuracies were 71.9% and 55.8%, when performing mental arithmetic and watching relaxation movie respectively. In this method, the mental and physiological condition was assessed using only 20 regressive heart beats, so this method is considered as the real time assessment method.

  18. An improved fuzzy synthetic condition assessment of a wind turbine generator system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Hu, Y. G.; Yang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an improved fuzzy synthetic model that is based on a real-time condition assessment method of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system (WTGS) to improve the operational reliability and optimize the maintenance strategy. First, a condition assessment framework is proposed...... by analyzing the monitoring data of the WTGS. An improved fuzzy synthetic condition assessment method is then proposed that utilizes the concepts of deterioration degree, dynamic limited values and variable weight calculations of the assessment indices. Finally, by using on-line monitoring data of an actual...... 850 kW WTGS, real-time condition assessments are performed that utilize the proposed fuzzy synthetic method; the model’s effectiveness is also compared to a traditional fuzzy assessment method in which constant limited values and constant weights are adopted. The results show that the condition...

  19. Existing condition assessment of radiation environment quality in dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiaang; Li Fusheng; Chen Yingmin; Zhu Jianguo; Lu Feng; Song Gang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the radiactivity levels of Jinan dwellings and the indoor environment quality. Methods: Using the self made Measurement Cups of Indoor Environmental Radioactivity Evaluation (MCIERE) (ZL 200620082698.7) to measure the gamma ray dose rate, 222 Rn activity concentration, 220 Rn activity concentration and EECTn. Results: The geometric mean of 222 Rn activity concentrations that showed a clear lognoxmal distribution tendency in 411 rooms of Jinan was 45 Bq ·m -3 , the range which was from 18 to 203 Bq·m -3 . The geometric mean of 220 Rn activity concentration that was also nearly lognormal distribution in 203 rooms of Jinan was 16 Bq·m -3 and the range of the activity coneentratons was from 1 to 167 Bq· m -3 . The geometric mean of EECT, that was nearly lognormal distribution in 204 rooms of Jinan was 1.082 Bq ·m -3 , the range was from 0.015 to 10.230 Bq·m -3 . The arithmetic mean of the gamma ray dose rate that was nearly Gaussian distribution in 412 rooms of Jinan was 0.106 μSv·h -1 , the concentration range from 0.041 to 0.167 μSv·h -1 . Conclusion: The internal irradiation annual effective dose caused by 222 Rn and its progeny, 220 Rn and its progeny and of Jinan inhabitant was 1.189 mSv, the external irradiation annual effective close caused by the gamma ray from the ground and buildings was 0.743 mSv. The mean total annual effective dose was 2.187 mSv and the highest annual effective dose level was above 5 mSv. (authors)

  20. Assessment of carotenoids in pumpkins after different home cooking conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Jaeger de Carvalho

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoids have antioxidant activity, but few are converted by the body into retinol, the active form of vitamin A. Among the 600 carotenoids with pro-vitamin A activity, the most common are α- and β-carotene. These carotenoids are susceptible to degradation (e.g., isomerization and oxidation during cooking. The aim of this study was to assess the total carotenoid, α- and β-carotene, and 9 and 13-Z- β-carotene isomer contents in C. moschata after different cooking processes. The raw pumpkin samples contained 236.10, 172.20, 39.95, 3.64 and 0.8610 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-cis-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked in boiling water contained 258.50, 184.80, 43.97, 6.80, and 0.77 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The steamed samples contained 280.77, 202.00, 47.09, 8.23, and 1.247 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoids, β-carotene, α-carotene,13-Z-β-carotene, and 9-Z-β-carotene, respectively. The samples cooked with added sugar contained 259.90, 168.80, 45.68, 8.31, and 2.03 µg.g- 1 of total carotenoid, β-carotene, α-carotene, 13-Z- β-carotene, and 9-Z- β-carotene, respectively. These results are promising considering that E- β-carotene has 100% pro-vitamin A activity. The total carotenoid and carotenoid isomers increased after the cooking methods, most likely as a result of a higher availability induced by the cooking processes.

  1. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham Gyum [Ansan College, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Wha Sun [College of Medicine, Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground.

  2. Assessment of radiological technologist health condition by Todai health index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ham Gyum; Kim, Wha Sun

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the general health status of radiological technologists by using Todai Health Index(THI) that has been employed as a standard health assessment tool for a specific group. The subjects in this study were 800 radiological technologists who were working in clinics, hospitals and university hospitals in and around Seoul and in some provincial cities. A survey was conducted directly or by mail in June and July, 2001. And the response rate was 68%. Using THI, the following findings were acquired: 1. By gender, both male and female radiological technologists complained about multiple subjective symptom(I) the most, And the women made more significant complaint of eight items including irregular life. 2. By age group, the radiological technologists whose age ranged from 20 to 24 got higher marks in most of the items, including multiple subjective symptom(I) and symptoms related to eyes and skin. 3. For career, those who had worked for a year or less or for one to five years got higher marks in most of the items. 4. Concerning marital status, the unmarried people complained about many items more, and the married people's symptom was more associated with live scale(L). 5. By the type of medical institution, the radiological technologists in the university hospitals got higher marks in two items including aggressiveness(F), but those in the clinics complained about the others more. 6. Regarding a place of service, there were little differences between the radiological technologists in basement and on the ground

  3. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... accepted accounting principles (GAAP)-based financial information. This notice updates and clarifies the... Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... under the financial condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice...

  4. 42 CFR 486.348 - Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Coverage: Organ Procurement Organizations Organ Procurement Organization Process Performance Measures § 486.348 Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement (QAPI). The OPO must develop, implement... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Quality assessment and performance...

  5. Study on Feasibility of Applying Function Approximation Moment Method to Achieve Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huh, Jae Sung; Kwak, Byung Man

    2011-01-01

    Robust optimization or reliability-based design optimization are some of the methodologies that are employed to take into account the uncertainties of a system at the design stage. For applying such methodologies to solve industrial problems, accurate and efficient methods for estimating statistical moments and failure probability are required, and further, the results of sensitivity analysis, which is needed for searching direction during the optimization process, should also be accurate. The aim of this study is to employ the function approximation moment method into the sensitivity analysis formulation, which is expressed as an integral form, to verify the accuracy of the sensitivity results, and to solve a typical problem of reliability-based design optimization. These results are compared with those of other moment methods, and the feasibility of the function approximation moment method is verified. The sensitivity analysis formula with integral form is the efficient formulation for evaluating sensitivity because any additional function calculation is not needed provided the failure probability or statistical moments are calculated

  6. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  7. Accounting for Proof Test Data in a Reliability Based Design Optimization Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventor, Gerharad; Scotti, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the use of proof (or acceptance) test data during the reliability based design optimization of structural components. It is assumed that every component will be proof tested and that the component will only enter into service if it passes the proof test. The goal is to reduce the component weight, while maintaining high reliability, by exploiting the proof test results during the design process. The proposed procedure results in the simultaneous design of the structural component and the proof test itself and provides the designer with direct control over the probability of failing the proof test. The procedure is illustrated using two analytical example problems and the results indicate that significant weight savings are possible when exploiting the proof test results during the design process.

  8. Efficient approach for reliability-based optimization based on weighted importance sampling approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Xiukai; Lu, Zhenzhou

    2014-01-01

    An efficient methodology is presented to perform the reliability-based optimization (RBO). It is based on an efficient weighted approach for constructing an approximation of the failure probability as an explicit function of the design variables which is referred to as the ‘failure probability function (FPF)’. It expresses the FPF as a weighted sum of sample values obtained in the simulation-based reliability analysis. The required computational effort for decoupling in each iteration is just single reliability analysis. After the approximation of the FPF is established, the target RBO problem can be decoupled into a deterministic one. Meanwhile, the proposed weighted approach is combined with a decoupling approach and a sequential approximate optimization framework. Engineering examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the presented methodology

  9. Reliability-based optimization of an active vibration controller using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraygord Afshari, Sajad; Pourtakdoust, Seid H.

    2017-04-01

    Many modern industrialized systems such as aircrafts, rotating turbines, satellite booms, etc. cannot perform their desired tasks accurately if their uninhibited structural vibrations are not controlled properly. Structural health monitoring and online reliability calculations are emerging new means to handle system imposed uncertainties. As stochastic forcing are unavoidable, in most engineering systems, it is often needed to take them into the account for the control design process. In this research, smart material technology is utilized for structural health monitoring and control in order to keep the system in a reliable performance range. In this regard, a reliability-based cost function is assigned for both controller gain optimization as well as sensor placement. The proposed scheme is implemented and verified for a wing section. Comparison of results for the frequency responses is considered to show potential applicability of the presented technique.

  10. Reliability-Based Calibration of Load Duration Factors for Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Svensson, Staffan; Stang, Birgitte Friis Dela

    2005-01-01

    John Dalsgaard Sørensen, Staffan Svensson, Birgitte Dela Stang : Reliability-Based Calibration of Load Duration Factors for Timber Structures     Abstract :   The load bearing capacity of timber structures decrease with time depending on the type of load and timber. Based on representative limit...... states and stochastic models for timber structures, load duration factors are calibrated using probabilistic methods. Load duration e.ects are estimated on basis of simulation of realizations of wind, snow and imposed loads in accordance with the load models in the Danish structural codes. Three damage...... accumulation models are considered, namely Gerhards model, Barrett and Foschi _ s model and Foschi and Yao _ s model. The parameters in these models are .tted by the Maximum Likelihood Method using data relevant for Danish structural timber and the statistical uncertainty is quanti .ed. The reliability...

  11. Reliability-Based Robust Design Optimization of Structures Considering Uncertainty in Design Variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujuan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the structural design optimization to cover both the reliability and robustness under uncertainty in design variables. The main objective is to improve the efficiency of the optimization process. To address this problem, a hybrid reliability-based robust design optimization (RRDO method is proposed. Prior to the design optimization, the Sobol sensitivity analysis is used for selecting key design variables and providing response variance as well, resulting in significantly reduced computational complexity. The single-loop algorithm is employed to guarantee the structural reliability, allowing fast optimization process. In the case of robust design, the weighting factor balances the response performance and variance with respect to the uncertainty in design variables. The main contribution of this paper is that the proposed method applies the RRDO strategy with the usage of global approximation and the Sobol sensitivity analysis, leading to the reduced computational cost. A structural example is given to illustrate the performance of the proposed method.

  12. Link reliability based hybrid routing for tactical mobile ad hoc network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Xiaochuan; Wei Gang; Wu Keping; Wang Gang; Jia Shilou

    2008-01-01

    Tactical mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of mobile nodes forming a temporary network,without the aid of pre-established network infrastructure. The routing protocol has a crucial impact on the networkperformance in battlefields. Link reliability based hybrid routing (LRHR) is proposed, which is a novel hybrid routing protocol, for tactical MANET. Contrary to the traditional single path routing strategy, multiple paths are established between a pair of source-destination nodes. In the hybrid routing strategy, the rate of topological change provides a natural mechanism for switching dynamically between table-driven and on-demand routing. The simulation results indicate that the performances of the protocol in packet delivery ratio, routing overhead, and average end-to-end delay are better than the conventional routing protocol.

  13. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is not known how general practitioners (GPs) perceive the concept of self-care and how they assess self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions. As a part of the strategy to improve the care of people living with chronic conditions, disease management programs...... in Denmark require GPs and other health care workers to assess and support patients' self-care ability. The aim of the present study was to explore GPs' perceptions and assessment of self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty following a given treatment. Methods...

  14. Using alternative biological information in stock assessment: condition-corrected natural mortality of Eastern Baltic cod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casini, Michele; Eero, Margit; Carlshamre, Sofia

    2016-01-01

    ) assumed in the analytical stock assessment model. The results in terms of Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB), Fishing mortality (F) and Recruitment (R) in the final year from the stock assessment using M values adjusted for low condition were up to 40% different compared with the assessment assuming a constant......The inclusion of biological and ecological aspects in the assessment of fish population status is one of the bases for an ecosystem-based fisheries management. During the past two decades the Eastern Baltic cod has experienced a drastic reduction in growth and body condition that may have affected...

  15. A rating tool to assess the condition of South African infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, K

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2006 the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE), in partnership with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), released the first ever “report card” assessment rating of the condition of engineering infrastructure...

  16. National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) Sampling Areas Polygons, Hawaiian Islands Shoreline, 2015, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This is a polygon feature dataset with areas along the shoreline of the Hawaiian islands. The National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA) is a national coastal...

  17. CCTV Data Management for Effective Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The project objectives are: Research current state of condition assessment technology for wastewater collection systems; Evaluate performance and cost of innovative and advanced infrastructure monitoring technologies; Identify and evaluate innovative CCTV technologies; and Prepar...

  18. Use of Braun-Blanquet for the assessment of veld condition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method shows promise for application in the grassland biome for the assessment of veld condition and the estimation of grazing capacity. Keywords: botany; braun-blanquet; ea land type; ecological index method; grassland; grazing capacity; orange free state; south africa; technique; vegetation surveys; veld condition; ...

  19. DESIGN OF WATER-COOLED PACKAGED AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS BASED ON RELIABILITY ASSESSMENT

    OpenAIRE

    関口, 圭輔; 中尾, 正喜; 藁谷, 至誠; 植草, 常雄; 羽山, 広文

    2007-01-01

    Water-cooled packaged air-conditioning systems are reevaluated in terms of alleviating the heat island phenomenon in cities and effectively utilizing building rooftops. Up to now, such reliability assessment has been insufficient, and this has limited the use of this kind of air-conditioning system in the information and communications sectors that demand a high reliability. This work has led to the development of a model for evaluating the reliability of water-cooled package air-conditioning...

  20. National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey of the Nation's Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Wetland Condition Assessment 2011: A Collaborative Survey presents the results of an unprecedented assessment of the nation’s wetlands. This report is part of the National Aquatic Resource Surveys, a series of statistically based surveys designed to provide the publi...

  1. Recommended parameters for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Fang Dong; Sun Chengzhi; Xiao Naihong

    2003-01-01

    A set of models and default parameters are recommended for effect assessment of radioactive airborne effluents under normal condition of nuclear facilities in order to standardize the environmental effect assessment of nuclear facilities, and to simplify the observation and investigation in early phase. The paper introduces the input data and default parameters used in the model

  2. Assessment of technical condition of concrete pavement by the example of district road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, M.; Nita, P.; Żebrowski, W.; Wolka, P.

    2018-05-01

    The article presents the comprehensive assessment of concrete pavement condition. Analyses included the district road located in the swietokrzyskie province, used for 11 years. Comparative analyses were conducted twice. The first analysis was carried out after 9 years of pavement operation, in 2015. In order to assess the extent of pavement degradation, the tests were repeated in 2017. Within the scope of field research, the traffic intensity within the analysed road section was determined. Visual assessment of pavement condition was conducted, according to the guidelines included in SOSN-B. Visual assessment can be extended by ground-penetrating radar measurements which allow to provide comprehensive assessment of the occurred structure changes within its entire thickness and length. The assessment included also performance parameters, i.e. pavement regularity, surface roughness and texture. Extension of test results by the assessment of changes in internal structure of concrete composite and structure observations by means of Scanning Electron Microscope allow for the assessment of parameters of internal structure of hardened concrete. Supplementing the observations of internal structure by means of computed tomography scan provides comprehensive information of possible discontinuities and composite structure. According to the analysis of the obtained results, conclusions concerning the analysed pavement condition were reached. It was determined that the pavement is distinguished by high performance parameters, its condition is good and it does not require any repairs. Maintenance treatment was suggested in order to extend the period of proper operation of the analysed pavement.

  3. Towards quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes: Insights from Australian marine protected areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addison, Prue F E; Flander, Louisa B; Cook, Carly N

    2017-08-01

    Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence. Despite the benefits of increased transparency and repeatability of evaluations, quantitative condition assessments are rarely used in PAME. To understand why, we interviewed practitioners from all Australian marine protected area (MPA) networks, which have access to long-term biological monitoring data and are developing or conducting PAME evaluations. Our research revealed that there is a desire within management agencies to implement quantitative condition assessment of biodiversity outcomes in Australian MPAs. However, practitioners report many challenges in transitioning from undertaking qualitative to quantitative condition assessments of biodiversity outcomes, which are hampering progress. Challenges include a lack of agency capacity (staff numbers and money), knowledge gaps, and diminishing public and political support for PAs. We point to opportunities to target strategies that will assist agencies overcome these challenges, including new decision support tools, approaches to better finance conservation efforts, and to promote more management relevant science. While a single solution is unlikely to achieve full evidence-based conservation, we suggest ways for agencies to target strategies and advance PAME evaluations toward best practice. Copyright

  4. [Nursing students assessment in simulated conditions : in search of meaning and ethics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homerin, Marie-Pierre; Roumanet, Marie-Cécile

    2014-10-01

    A thought about the assessment in simulated conditions is at the origin of this research-action conducted at the Institute of Nursing Education of Chambery, France. Indeed, the differences in the assessment procedures between units that require this kind of validation and the disappointing rate of success at the examinations in simulated situations have led the trainers to raise the following question : « How can these assessments be meaningful and consistent with the goal of training (help to become autonomous and reflexive practitioners) » ?This issue was addressed with concepts such as socioconstructivism, simulation in health, assessment and ethical principles. The change of practices has been the application of the principles of ?educative? assessment according to G. Nunziatti which strongly involves the students in the assessment?s process.In order to estimate the impact of these changes of practices, an unidentified online survey was offered to all students who benefited from this kind of assessment. The results between two classes of students having had different evaluation procedures have also been compared.The objectives were, after the implementation of this new kind of evaluation, to assess the students? satisfaction, to compare the failure rate at the tests in simulated conditions and to verify the compliance with the ethical principles.This study has shown the students? satisfaction about these new forms of assessment in simulated conditions, an increased success rate in the tests and the applicability of the ethical principles with this way of proceeding. However, the principles of justice and non-maleficence are difficult to implement. Nevertheless, this critical thinking on the procedures of assessment in simulated conditions has helped to change the practices and the assessment design by the teachers.

  5. Application of reliability based design concepts to transmission line structure foundations. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Rojas-Gonzalez, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The application of reliability based design (RBD) methods to transmission line structure foundations has developed somewhat more slowly than that for the other structural components in line systems. In a previous paper, a procedure was proposed for the design of transmission line structures foundations using a probability based load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. This procedure involved the determination of a foundation strength factor, φ F , which was used as a multiplier of the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the LRFD equation. Statistical analyses of results from full-scale load tests were used to obtain φ F values applicable to various nominal design strength equations and for drilled shafts subjected to uplift loads. These results clearly illustrated the significant economic benefits of conducting more detailed subsurface investigations for the design of transmission line structure foundations. A design example was also presented. In this paper the proposed procedure is extended to laterally load drilled shafts

  6. Reliability-based design optimization via high order response surface method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hong Shuang

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the computational effort of reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), the response surface method (RSM) has been widely used to evaluate reliability constraints. We propose an efficient methodology for solving RBDO problems based on an improved high order response surface method (HORSM) that takes advantage of an efficient sampling method, Hermite polynomials and uncertainty contribution concept to construct a high order response surface function with cross terms for reliability analysis. The sampling method generates supporting points from Gauss-Hermite quadrature points, which can be used to approximate response surface function without cross terms, to identify the highest order of each random variable and to determine the significant variables connected with point estimate method. The cross terms between two significant random variables are added to the response surface function to improve the approximation accuracy. Integrating the nested strategy, the improved HORSM is explored in solving RBDO problems. Additionally, a sampling based reliability sensitivity analysis method is employed to reduce the computational effort further when design variables are distributional parameters of input random variables. The proposed methodology is applied on two test problems to validate its accuracy and efficiency. The proposed methodology is more efficient than first order reliability method based RBDO and Monte Carlo simulation based RBDO, and enables the use of RBDO as a practical design tool.

  7. Assessment of the State of the Art of Flight Control Technologies as Applicable to Adverse Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveley, Mary s.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Leone, Karen M.; Kurtoglu, Tolga; Withrow, Colleen A.

    2010-01-01

    Literature from academia, industry, and other Government agencies was surveyed to assess the state of the art in current Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) aircraft technologies. Over 100 papers from 25 conferences from the time period 2004 to 2009 were reviewed. An assessment of the general state of the art in adaptive flight control is summarized first, followed by an assessment of the state of the art as applicable to 13 identified adverse conditions. Specific areas addressed in the general assessment include flight control when compensating for damage or reduced performance, retrofit software upgrades to flight controllers, flight control through engine response, and finally test and validation of new adaptive controllers. The state-of-the-art assessment applicable to the adverse conditions include technologies not specifically related to flight control, but may serve as inputs to a future flight control algorithm. This study illustrates existing gaps and opportunities for additional research by the NASA IRAC Project

  8. VISUAL AND ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT OF CONDITION STATUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CONCEPTION IN DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Čengić

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of energy reserves in the organism made through evaluation of body condition, basically represents the nutritional status of animal, valued by deposited adipose tissue, when body frame and weight have secondary importance. At the farm of high producing Holstein-Friesian cows with tie stall housing and average milk yield of 7000 liters, we followed the relation between the evaluation of body score condition and the conception rate. Total of 29 Holstein-Frisean cows were included in the study, aged between the first and fifth lactation. Cows were assessed on the basis of three major body areas examination (loin, pin bones and tail head. The evaluation was performed visually and ultrasonically by measuring backfat. Assessment of body condition and backfat measuring were performed at the same day as arteficial insemination. The cows were later divided into two experimental groups, pregnant and non-pregnant. The success rate of conception was 34.5%. The results of ultrasound backfat measurements were compatible with the visual assessment of body condition. As such, it represents a simple and objective method. Body condition score for both groups averaged 2.75. The average thickness of backfat was 16 mm in the group of pregnant cows, and 16.8 mm in the group of non-pregnant cows. Energy status of cows in this research seems to have had no significant effect on the conception rate. Key words: cow, body condition, backfat, ultrasonography, conception

  9. Review of Physicochemical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janvier Sylvestre N’cho

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A power transformer outage has a dramatic financial consequence not only for electric power systems utilities but also for interconnected customers. The service reliability of this important asset largely depends upon the condition of the oil-paper insulation. Therefore, by keeping the qualities of oil-paper insulation system in pristine condition, the maintenance planners can reduce the decline rate of internal faults. Accurate diagnostic methods for analyzing the condition of transformers are therefore essential. Currently, there are various electrical and physicochemical diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. This paper is aimed at the description, analysis and interpretation of modern physicochemical diagnostics techniques for assessing insulation condition in aged transformers. Since fields and laboratory experiences have shown that transformer oil contains about 70% of diagnostic information, the physicochemical analyses of oil samples can therefore be extremely useful in monitoring the condition of power transformers.

  10. VISUAL AND ULTRASONIC ASSESSMENT OF CONDITION STATUS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO CONCEPTION IN DAIRY COWS

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Čengić; Nazif Varatanović; Tarik Mutevelić; Amel Ćutuk; Nasir Sinanović; Ana Šljuka; Meho Halilović

    2013-01-01

    Assessment of energy reserves in the organism made through evaluation of body condition, basically represents the nutritional status of animal, valued by deposited adipose tissue, when body frame and weight have secondary importance. At the farm of high producing Holstein-Friesian cows with tie stall housing and average milk yield of 7000 liters, we followed the relation between the evaluation of body score condition and the conception rate. Total of 29 Holstein...

  11. Comments on ''Use of conditional simulation in nuclear waste site performance assessment'' by Carol Gotway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses Carol Gotway's paper, ''The Use of Conditional Simulation in Nuclear Waste Site Performance Assessment.'' The paper centers on the use of conditional simulation and the use of geostatistical methods to simulate an entire field of values for subsequent use in a complex computer model. The issues of sampling designs for geostatistics, semivariogram estimation and anisotropy, turning bands method for random field generation, and estimation of the comulative distribution function are brought out

  12. Assessment of Equipment Capability to Perform Reliably under Severe Accident Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The experience from the last 40 years has shown that severe accidents can subject electrical and instrumentation and control (I&C) equipment to environmental conditions exceeding the equipment’s original design basis assumptions. Severe accident conditions can then cause rapid degradation or damage to various degrees up to complete failure of such equipment. This publication provides the technical basis to consider when assessing the capability of electrical and I&C equipment to perform reliably during a severe accident. It provides examples of calculation tools to determine the environmental parameters as well as examples and methods that Member States can apply to assess equipment reliability.

  13. New strategies in the assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, Laura; Fabbri, Stefania; Fava, Giovanni A; Sonino, Nicoletta

    2007-12-01

    In this article, we examine research that may lead to a better assessment of psychological factors affecting medical conditions. We performed a review of the psychosomatic literature using both Medline and manual searches. We selected papers that were judged to be relevant to new strategies of assessment, with particular reference to the use of the Diagnostic Criteria for Psychosomatic Research. We assessed 8 areas concerned with the assessment of psychological factors in the setting of medical disease: hypochondriasis, disease phobia, persistent somatization, conversion symptoms, illness denial, demoralization, irritable mood, and Type A behavior. A new subclassification of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed. [DSM-V]; not yet published) category of psychological factors affecting physical conditions appears to be feasible and may provide the clinician with better tools for identifying psychological distress.

  14. Reliability-Based Planning of Inspection, Operation and Maintenance for Offshore Oil & Gas Structures and Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    Reliability-based cost-optimal planning of inspection, maintenance and operation has many applications. In this paper applications for planning of inspections for oil & gas jacket structures and of operation and maintenance of offshore wind turbines are described and illustrated by examples....

  15. Research on Condition Assessment Method of Transmission Tower Under the Action of Strong Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ren-mou; An, Li-qiang; Zhang, Rong-lun; Wu, Jiong; Liang, Ya-feng

    2018-03-01

    Transmission towers are often subjected to the external damage of severe weather like strong wind and so on, which may cause the collapse due to the yield and fracture of the tower material. Aiming this issue, an assessment method was proposed in this paper to assess the operation condition of transmission towers under strong wind. With a reasonable assess index system established firstly, then the internal force of the tower material was solved and its stability was determined through the mechanical analysis of the transmission tower finite element model. Meanwhile, the condition risk level of the tower was finally determined by considering the difference among the influences of other factors like corrosion and loose of members, slope on the transmission tower through the analytic hierarchy process. The assessment method was applied to assess the wind-induced collapse of towers in 110kV Bao Yi II line in Wenchang City, Hainan Province, of which the result proves the method can assess the condition of transmission tower under strong wind and of guiding significance for improving the windproof capability of transmission towers.

  16. Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited, 2010 asset condition assessment audit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotho, K.; Wang, F. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-15

    Toronto Hydro-Electric System Limited (THESL) has long been devoted to the enhancement of its asset management program. In 2006, Kinectrics Incorporated (Kinectrics) performed a full asset condition assessment (ACA) for important distribution assets. Subsequently, THESL made efforts to follow the recommendations given by the 2006 ACA and to enhance the quality of its asset condition data. THESL also created an application that measures the health indices of assets based on current and best available inspection data. In 2009, THESL performed a new ACA with this health index calculator. Kinectrics was requested to evaluate the improvement achieved by THESL between 2006 and 2009, and to compare the results obtained from the two ACA performed. An examination of the changes and ACA results between 2009 and 2010 has been conducted by Kinectrics. The Kinectrics findings were reported into the 2010 asset condition assessment audit report. The Health Index (HI) formulation and the results obtained between 2009 and 2010 were examined for twenty-one asset categories. The health index formulation including condition parameters, condition parameter weights and condition criteria, the granularity within the asset category, the percentage of the population presenting sufficient condition data and the health index classification distribution were compared for each one of the asset categories between 2009 and 2010. This report provides recommendations to facilitate future improvements.

  17. Environmental condition assessment of US military installations using GIS based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are

  18. Terrestrial condition assessment for national forests of the USDA Forest Service in the continental US

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Cleland; Keith Reynolds; Robert Vaughan; Barbara Schrader; Harbin Li; Larry Laing

    2017-01-01

    The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA) evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs) to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS) lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of natural resource disciplines, developed a logic...

  19. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis, 1993-1994 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M; Beeman, John W; VanderKooi, Scott P [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1999-02-01

    The assessment of smolt condition for travel time analysis (ASCTTA) project provided information on the level of smoltification in Columbia River hatchery and wild salmonid stocks to the Fish Passage Center (FPC), for the primary purpose of in-river management of flows.

  20. Neurological condition assessed with the Hempel examination and cognition and behaviour at 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schendelaar, Pamela; Seggers, Jorien; Heineman, Maas Jan; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    Aim: To investigate associations between neurological condition, assessed with the Hempel examination, in terms of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) and neurological optimality, and cognition and behaviour at 4 years. Study design: Cross-sectional analyses within a prospective, assessor-blinded

  1. Assessing Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    George H. Mitri; Mireille G. Jazi; David McWethy

    2015-01-01

    The increasing occurrence and extent of large-scale wildfires in the Mediterranean have been linked to extended periods of warm and dry weather. We set out to assess Lebanon's wildfire potential in association with current and future climatic conditions. The Keetch-Byram Drought Index (KBDI) was the primary climate variable used in our evaluation of climate/fire...

  2. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  3. Acoustic Signal Processing for Pipe Condition Assessment (WaterRF Report 4360)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unique to prestressed concrete cylinder pipe (PCCP), individual wire breaks create an excitation in the pipe wall that may vary in response to the remaining compression of the pipe core. This project was designed to improve acoustic signal processing for pipe condition assessment...

  4. Condition Assessment of Ferrous Water Transmission and Distribution Systems State of Technology Review Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This White Paper was developed to serve as the basis for discussion at a Technology Forum on Condition Assessment of Water Transmission and Distribution Systems that was held on September 9 and 10, 2008, at Edison, NJ. It was distributed to the Forum participants for review in a...

  5. 42 CFR 494.110 - Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... facility must maintain and demonstrate evidence of its quality improvement and performance improvement... RENAL DISEASE FACILITIES Patient Care § 494.110 Condition: Quality assessment and performance improvement. The dialysis facility must develop, implement, maintain, and evaluate an effective, data-driven...

  6. Assessment of flora condition and transformation extent at the Degelen mountain massif

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleubaev, B.A.; Sejsebaev, A.T.; Sultanova, B.M.; Dzhanin, B.T.

    2000-01-01

    The article describes current condition of vegetation at the Degelen mountain massif and assessment of vegetation disturbance in areas of underground nuclear testing. It also presents results of studying flora transformation, species and cinotic composition, structural and spatial distribution within the Degelen technical site. (author)

  7. The effect of a discrete signal on context conditioning: Assessment by preference and freezing tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maes, J.H.R.; LoLordo, V.M.

    1996-01-01

    Four experiments with rats assessed conditioning to contextual cues after the delivery of footshocks that were either signaled by a discrete stimulus or unsignaled. Two different tests were used. The first was a context preference test in which subjects were allowed to move freely in a brightly lit,

  8. Smart City Research : Contextual Conditions, Governance Models, and Public Value Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, Albert J.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon; Bolívar, Manuel Pedro Rodríguez

    2016-01-01

    There are three issues that are crucial to advancing our academic understanding of smart cities: (1) contextual conditions, (2) governance models, and (3) the assessment of public value. A brief review of recent literature and the analysis of the included papers provide support for the assumption

  9. Probabilistic assessment of the Juragua NPP response under Station Blackout conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valhuerdi Debesa, C.; Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Assessment of the NPP response under SBO (station Blackout) conditions is a current safety issue of special interest, In the case of Juragua NPP, the safety assessment related to this topic is very important, taking into account the peculiarities of the Cuban Electro energetic System: small and long island, without possibilities of conexion beyond its borders and under the incidence of tropical phenomena In this papers a preliminary evaluation is presented of the potential incidence of Station Blackout conditions for Juragua NPP. the importance of this sort of events for the safety of the plant is evaluated, the factors which condition it are identified and measures for its prevention or recovering the normal situation if such an event takes place are proposed

  10. [Assessment of psychological conditions for the use of firearms in law enforcement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilardell Molas, Jordi; Martí Agustí, Gabriel; Solé i Sanosa, M Angels

    2014-03-01

    To handle firearms safely, an individual needs to be in sound psychological conditions. This point is especially relevant in law enforcement, given that this group is likely to experience situations where there is a reasonably severe risk to life, physical integrity and that of third parties. These conditions cause high levels of stress and become a significant source of psychological strain. The assessment of these psychological conditions in law enforcement must stay ahead of this strain and should act preventively, establishing surveillance that is the product of a consensus between the needs of professionals and organizations. This evaluation should be conducted by technical specialists who understand and know the occupational reality of these professionals. A good assessment methodology starts with the need to discover the basic areas that need exploring, the ideal procedure for assessing these issues and the criteria that determine the aptitude (or lack thereof) for handling firearms. Once these goals have been established, we can be assured that the assessment will follow a set of principles that will give it homogeneity, effectiveness and efficiency. This type of assessment will help accomplish the mission that these security professionals are entrusted to by law, which is to protect the free exercise of rights and freedoms and ensure citizen safety. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Homoud, Mohammad S.; Abdou, Adel A.; Budaiwi, Ismail M. [Architectural Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-06-15

    In harsh climatic regions, buildings require air-conditioning in order to provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort. In many situations buildings are over cooled or the HVAC system is kept running for a much longer time than needed. In some other situations thermal comfort is not achieved due to improper operation practices coupled with poor maintenance and even lack it, and consequently inefficient air-conditioning systems. Mosques represent one type of building that is characterized by their unique intermittent operating schedule determined by prayer times, which vary continuously according to the local solar time. This paper presents the results of a study designed to monitor energy use and thermal comfort conditions of a number of mosques in a hot-humid climate so that both energy efficiency and the quality of thermal comfort conditions especially during occupancy periods in such intermittently operated buildings can be assessed accurately. (author)

  13. Condition Assessment of Metal Oxide Surge Arrester Based on Multi-Layer SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khodsuz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the indicators for surge arrester condition assessment based on the leakage current analysis. Maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the resistive leakage current, maximum amplitude of third harmonic of the resistive leakage current and maximum amplitude of fundamental harmonic of the capacitive leakage current were used as indicators for surge arrester condition monitoring. Also, the effects of operating voltage fluctuation, third harmonic of voltage, overvoltage and surge arrester aging on these indicators were studied. Then, obtained data are applied to the multi-layer support vector machine for recognizing of surge arrester conditions. Obtained results show that introduced indicators have the high ability for evaluation of surge arrester conditions.

  14. Remote monitoring as a tool in condition assessment of a highway bridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantele, Elia A.; Votsis, Renos A.; Onoufriou, Toula; Milis, Marios; Kareklas, George

    2016-08-01

    The deterioration of civil infrastructure and their subsequent maintenance is a significant problem for the responsible managing authorities. The ideal scenario is to detect deterioration and/or structural problems at early stages so that the maintenance cost is kept low and the safety of the infrastructure remains undisputed. The current inspection regimes implemented mostly via visual inspection are planned at specific intervals but are not always executed on time due to shortcomings in expert personnel and finance. However the introduction of technological advances in the assessment of infrastructures provides the tools to alleviate this problem. This study describes the assessment of a highway RC bridge's structural condition using remote structural health monitoring. A monitoring plan is implemented focusing on strain measurements; as strain is a parameter influenced by the environmental conditions supplementary data are provided from temperature and wind sensors. The data are acquired using wired sensors (deployed at specific locations) which are connected to a wireless sensor unit installed at the bridge. This WSN application enables the transmission of the raw data from the field to the office for processing and evaluation. The processed data are then used to assess the condition of the bridge. This case study, which is part of an undergoing RPF research project, illustrates that remote monitoring can alleviate the problem of missing structural inspections. Additionally, shows its potential to be the main part of a fully automated smart procedure of obtaining structural data, processed them and trigger an alarm when certain undesirable conditions are met.

  15. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  16. A Modelling Framework to Assess the Effect of Pressures on River Abiotic Habitat Conditions and Biota.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochem Kail

    Full Text Available River biota are affected by global reach-scale pressures, but most approaches for predicting biota of rivers focus on river reach or segment scale processes and habitats. Moreover, these approaches do not consider long-term morphological changes that affect habitat conditions. In this study, a modelling framework was further developed and tested to assess the effect of pressures at different spatial scales on reach-scale habitat conditions and biota. Ecohydrological and 1D hydrodynamic models were used to predict discharge and water quality at the catchment scale and the resulting water level at the downstream end of a study reach. Long-term reach morphology was modelled using empirical regime equations, meander migration and 2D morphodynamic models. The respective flow and substrate conditions in the study reach were predicted using a 2D hydrodynamic model, and the suitability of these habitats was assessed with novel habitat models. In addition, dispersal models for fish and macroinvertebrates were developed to assess the re-colonization potential and to finally compare habitat suitability and the availability/ability of species to colonize these habitats. Applicability was tested and model performance was assessed by comparing observed and predicted conditions in the lowland Treene River in northern Germany. Technically, it was possible to link the different models, but future applications would benefit from the development of open source software for all modelling steps to enable fully automated model runs. Future research needs concern the physical modelling of long-term morphodynamics, feedback of biota (e.g., macrophytes on abiotic habitat conditions, species interactions, and empirical data on the hydraulic habitat suitability and dispersal abilities of macroinvertebrates. The modelling framework is flexible and allows for including additional models and investigating different research and management questions, e.g., in climate impact

  17. Digital image color analysis compared to direct dental CIE colorimeter assessment under different ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, Michael; Attin, Rengin; Jung, Klaus; Brunner, Edgar; Kubein-Meesenburg, Dietmar; Attin, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the concordance and repeatability of two in vivo methods for dental color assessment and to clarify the influence of different ambient light conditions and subject's head position on the assessed color variables. Color assessments were performed by two examiners on 16 arbitrarily selected subjects under two different, standardized conditions of illumination and at two different standardized head angulations. CIE (L*a*b*) data for upper and lower central incisors were recorded in two different ways: (1) by an intra-oral contact dental colorimeter and (2) by processing digital images for performing color calculation using Adobe Photoshop software. The influence of the different ambient conditions on both methods, as well as the concordance of measurements was analyzed statistically using several mixed linear models. Ambient light as a single factor had no significant influence on maxillary L*, a* and b* values, but it did have an effect on mandible assessments. Head angulation variation resulted in significant L* value differences using the photo method. The operator had a significant influence on values a* and b* for the photo method and on a* values for the colorimeter method. In fully lit ambient condition, the operator had a significant influence on the segregated L*, a*, and b* values. With dimmed lights, head angulation became significant, but not the operator. Evaluation of segregated L* values was error prone in both methods. Comparing both methods, deltaE values did not exceed 2.85 units, indicating that color differences between methods and recorded under varying ambient conditions were well below the sensitivity of the naked eye.

  18. Assessment of the relationship between physical working conditions and different levels of work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attarchi, Mirsaeed; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Abdi, Alireza; Mirzamohammadi, Elham; Seyedmehdi, Seyed Mohammad; Rahimpour, Farzaneh; Fazlalizadeh, Maryam; Mohammadi, Saber

    2014-04-20

    Early leaving of workplace by work forces is one of the fundamental problems worldwide. Maintenance and enhancement of employees work ability are important for raising productivity. This study investigated the relationship between work ability index and physical working conditions and was carried out in 2013 on 641 workers at a manufacturing plant in Tehran. Work ability was assessed by the questionnaire of work ability index and the participants were classified into four work ability groups of poor, moderate, good, and excellent. Physical working conditions were evaluated by the MUSIC-Norrtalje questionnaire and the participants were classified into two groups with proper and poor physical working conditions. The mean score of work ability questionnaire was 42.40; and 2.5% (16 persons), 9.2% (59 persons), 38.2% (245 persons), and 50.1% (321 persons) of the participants were in poor, moderate, good, and excellent work ability groups, respectively. The mean score of physical working conditions questionnaire was 20.06. The results of logistic regression analysis showed that even after adjusting the confounding variables, a significant correlation existed between work ability and physical working conditions (p working conditions such as awkward postures, repetitive movements, load lifting, exposure to whole body vibration and so on with work ability. Therefore it seems that enhancement of the quality of physical working conditions may increase work ability.

  19. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch

    2017-01-01

    in Denmark require GPs and other health care workers to assess and support patients' self-care ability. The aim of the present study was to explore GPs' perceptions and assessment of self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty following a given treatment. METHODS...... text condensation. RESULTS: Most GPs in our study had a health-related perception of self-care, but some had a broader perception encompassing the situational context of the patient's life. The GPs' assessments of patients' self-care ability were based on information from the ongoing and often long...... and do not consider whether a relationship with the patient is established. If GPs' perceptions and assessments of self-care ability are not included in chronic disease management models, there is a risk that they vill be insufficiently implemented in general practice....

  20. Assessment and manifestation of central sensitisation across different chronic pain conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt-Nielsen, L; Morlion, B; Perrot, S; Dahan, A; Dickenson, A; Kress, H G; Wells, C; Bouhassira, D; Mohr Drewes, A

    2018-02-01

    Different neuroplastic processes can occur along the nociceptive pathways and may be important in the transition from acute to chronic pain and for diagnosis and development of optimal management strategies. The neuroplastic processes may result in gain (sensitisation) or loss (desensitisation) of function in relation to the incoming nociceptive signals. Such processes play important roles in chronic pain, and although the clinical manifestations differ across condition processes, they share some common mechanistic features. The fundamental understanding and quantitative assessment of particularly some of the central sensitisation mechanisms can be translated from preclinical studies into the clinic. The clinical perspectives are implementation of such novel information into diagnostics, mechanistic phenotyping, prevention, personalised treatment, and drug development. The aims of this paper are to introduce and discuss (1) some common fundamental central pain mechanisms, (2) how they may translate into the clinical signs and symptoms across different chronic pain conditions, (3) how to evaluate gain and loss of function using quantitative pain assessment tools, and (4) the implications for optimising prevention and management of pain. The chronic pain conditions selected for the paper are neuropathic pain in general, musculoskeletal pain (chronic low back pain and osteoarthritic pain in particular), and visceral pain (irritable bowel syndrome in particular). The translational mechanisms addressed are local and widespread sensitisation, central summation, and descending pain modulation. Central sensitisation is an important manifestation involved in many different chronic pain conditions. Central sensitisation can be different to assess and evaluate as the manifestations vary from pain condition to pain condition. Understanding central sensitisation may promote better profiling and diagnosis of pain patients and development of new regimes for mechanism based

  1. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  2. Current Conditions Risk Assessment for the 300-FF-5 Groundwater Operable Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, Terri B.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Napier, Bruce A.; Peterson, Robert E.; Becker, James M.

    2007-11-01

    This report updates a baseline risk assessment for the 300 Area prepared in 1994. The update includes consideration of changes in contaminants of interest and in the environment that have occurred during the period of interim remedial action, i.e., 1996 to the present, as well as the sub-regions, for which no initial risk assessments have been conducted. In 1996, a record of decision (ROD) stipulated interim remedial action for groundwater affected by releases from 300 Area sources, as follows: (a) continued monitoring of groundwater that is contaminated above health-based levels to ensure that concentrations continue to decrease, and (b) institutional controls to ensure that groundwater use is restricted to prevent unacceptable exposure to groundwater contamination. In 2000, the groundwater beneath the two outlying sub-regions was added to the operable unit. In 2001, the first 5-year review of the ROD found that the interim remedy and remedial action objectives were still appropriate, although the review called for additional characterization activities. This report includes a current conditions baseline ecological and human health risk assessment using maximum concentrations in the environmental media of the 300-FF-5 Operable Unit and downstream conditions at the City of Richland, Washington. The scope for this assessment includes only current measured environmental concentrations and current use scenarios. Future environmental concentrations and future land uses are not considered in this assessment.

  3. Reliability-Based Design Optimization of Trusses with Linked-Discrete Design Variables using the Improved Firefly Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Okasha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for conducting a Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO of truss structures with linked-discrete design variables is proposed. The sections of the truss members are selected from the AISC standard tables and thus the design variables that represent the properties of each section are linked. Latin hypercube sampling is used in the evaluation of the structural reliability. The improved firefly algorithm is used for the optimization solution process. It was found that in order to use the improved firefly algorithm for efficiently solving problems of reliability-based design optimization with linked-discrete design variables; it needs to be modified as proposed in this paper to accelerate its convergence.

  4. Using water quality to assess ecological condition in the St. Marys River and Huron-Erie Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    The St. Marys River and Huron-Erie-Corridor were assessed by EPA for the first time in 2014-2016 as part of the National Coastal Condition Assessment (NCCA). NCCA uses a probabilistic survey design to allow unbiased assessment of ecological condition across the entire Great Lakes...

  5. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  6. Crop Condition Assessment with Adjusted NDVI Using the Uncropped Arable Land Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Zhang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop condition assessment in the early growing stage is essential for crop monitoring and crop yield prediction. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI-based method is employed to evaluate crop condition by inter-annual comparisons of both spatial variability (using NDVI images and seasonal dynamics (based on crop condition profiles. Since this type of method will generate false information if there are changes in crop rotation, cropping area or crop phenology, information on cropped/uncropped arable land is integrated to improve the accuracy of crop condition monitoring. The study proposes a new method to retrieve adjusted NDVI for cropped arable land during the growing season of winter crops by integrating 16-day composite Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS reflectance data at 250-m resolution with a cropped and uncropped arable land map derived from the multi-temporal China Environmental Satellite (Huan Jing Satellite charge-coupled device (HJ-1 CCD images at 30-m resolution. Using the land map’s data on cropped and uncropped arable land, a pixel-based uncropped arable land ratio (UALR at 250-m resolution was generated. Next, the UALR-adjusted NDVI was produced by assuming that the MODIS reflectance value for each pixel is a linear mixed signal composed of the proportional reflectance of cropped and uncropped arable land. When UALR-adjusted NDVI data are used for crop condition assessment, results are expected to be more accurate, because: (i pixels with only uncropped arable land are not included in the assessment; and (ii the adjusted NDVI corrects for interannual variation in cropping area. On the provincial level, crop growing profiles based on the two kinds of NDVI data illustrate the difference between the regular and the adjusted NDVI, with the difference depending on the total area of uncropped arable land in the region. The results suggested that the proposed method can be used to improve the assessment of

  7. Condition Assessment of a 2,500-Year-Old Mummy Coffin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Turker Dundar

    2012-01-01

    This work was conducted to assess the condition of a 2,500-year-old mummy coffin. The coffin, part of a collection of funerary objects at the Nelson–Atkins Museum of Art in St. Louis, Missouri, is made of wood obtained from a sycamore fig tree, Ficus sycomorus. Visual and acoustic-based nondestructive testing techniques were used to inspect the...

  8. Traffic conflict assessment for non-lane-based movements of motorcycles under congested conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Xuan Nguyen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Traffic conflict under congested conditions is one of the main safety issues of motorcycle traffic in developing countries. Unlike cars, motorcycles often display non-lane-based movements such as swerving or oblique following of a lead vehicle when traffic becomes congested. Very few studies have quantitatively evaluated the effects of such non-lane-based movements on traffic conflict. Therefore, in this study we aim to develop an integrated model to assess the traffic conflict of motorcycles under congested conditions. The proposed model includes a concept of safety space to describe the non-lane-based movements unique to motorcycles, new features developed for traffic conflict assessment such as parameters of acceleration and deceleration, and the conditions for choosing a lead vehicle. Calibration data were extracted from video clips taken at two road segments in Ho Chi Minh City. A simulation based on the model was developed to verify the dynamic non-lane-based movements of motorcycles. Subsequently, the assessment of traffic conflict was validated by calculating the probability of sudden braking at each time interval according to the change in the density of motorcycle flow. Our findings underscore the fact that higher flow density may lead to conflicts associated with a greater probability of sudden breaking. Three types of motorcycle traffic conflicts were confirmed, and the proportions of each type were calculated and discussed.

  9. Expert Assessment of Conditions for Accredited Quality Management System Functioning in Testing Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mytych, Joanna; Ligarski, Mariusz J.

    2018-03-01

    The quality management systems compliant with the ISO 9001:2009 have been thoroughly researched and described in detail in the world literature. The accredited management systems used in the testing laboratories and compliant with the ISO/IEC 17025:2005 have been mainly described in terms of the system design and implementation. They have also been investigated from the analytical point of view. Unfortunately, a low number of studies concerned the management system functioning in the accredited testing laboratories. The aim of following study was to assess the management system functioning in the accredited testing laboratories in Poland. On 8 October 2015, 1,213 accredited testing laboratories were present in Poland. They investigated various scientific areas and substances/objects. There are more and more such laboratories that have various problems and different long-term experience when it comes to the implementation, maintenance and improvement of the management systems. The article describes the results of the conducted expert assessment (survey) carried out to examine the conditions for the functioning of a management system in an accredited laboratory. It also focuses on the characteristics of the accredited research laboratories in Poland. The authors discuss the selection of the external and internal conditions that may affect the accredited management system. They show how the experts assessing the selected conditions were chosen. The survey results are also presented.

  10. Assessing the health condition profile in the freshwater fish Astyanax aeneus in Champoton River, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo-Jiménez, Patricia; Sedeño-Díaz, Jacinto Elías; López-López, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    The use of biomarkers for monitoring aquatic environmental quality has gained considerable interest worldwide. The effects of the environmental conditions of Río Champotón, México, in the hotspot of Mesoamerica, were assessed in Astyanax aeneus, a native fish of the tropics of southwestern México. Pollution from agrochemical residues is a major problem in Río Champotón. Three study sites along the freshwater portion of the river were monitored in April, July, and November 2007 and February 2008. This study includes a water quality index, a set of biomarkers (hepatic glycogen levels and lipid peroxidation in liver, gills, and muscle) to assess the integrated biomarker response, and population bioindicators (gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices and Fulton's condition factor). Although the water quality index suggested low level of contamination in the Río Champotón, biomarkers indicated that A. aeneus is exposed to stressors that impair biological responses. The integrated biomarker response showed stress periods with higher biomarker response and recovery periods with decreasing biomarker values. The somatic indices did not indicate severe effects at the population level. This study illustrates the usefulness of lipid peroxidation evaluation in the assessment of aquatic health conditions and corroborates the suitability of A. aeneus as a sentinel species.

  11. Assessing changes in a patient's condition - Perspectives of intensive care nurses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else

    2017-01-01

    Aim To explore the phenomenon of assessing changes in patients' conditions in intensive care units from the perspectives of experienced intensive care nurses. Background Providing safe care for patients in intensive care units requires an awareness and perception of the signs that indicate changes...... in a patient's condition. Nurses in intensive care units play an essential role in preventing the deterioration of a patient's condition and in improving patient outcomes. Design and methods This hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted close observations and in-depth interviews with 11 intensive care...... nurses. The nurses' experience ranged from 7 to 28 years in the intensive care unit. Data were collected at two intensive care units in two Norwegian university hospitals. The analysis was performed using the reflective methods of van Manen. Findings An overarching theme of ‘sensitive situational...

  12. Assessment of Dust Emission and Working Conditions in the Bamboo and Wooden Furniture Industries in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess the dust emission and working conditions in the bamboo and rubberwood furniture manufacturing industries in Malaysia. The emission of wood dust arising from these industries was measured in each main work station in the mills. Meanwhile, a questionnaire-based survey was conducted among 5900 workers in 45 companies to obtain information on the occupational accidents that occurred in the mills. The data were collected, compiled, and analyzed using the SPSS package. The highest dust emission from the sanding operation resulted in respiratory ailments among workers. The occurrence of injuries particularly to the hand, wrist, fingers and forearm was due to the prevailing working conditions, safety climate and workers characteristics. The dust exposure levels and working conditions were much more severe in the bamboo furniture manufacturing industry. As a result, a review of existing of dust exposure levels in the woodworking industry is warranted.

  13. Model Development for Risk Assessment of Driving on Freeway under Rainy Weather Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Cai

    Full Text Available Rainy weather conditions could result in significantly negative impacts on driving on freeways. However, due to lack of enough historical data and monitoring facilities, many regions are not able to establish reliable risk assessment models to identify such impacts. Given the situation, this paper provides an alternative solution where the procedure of risk assessment is developed based on drivers' subjective questionnaire and its performance is validated by using actual crash data. First, an ordered logit model was developed, based on questionnaire data collected from Freeway G15 in China, to estimate the relationship between drivers' perceived risk and factors, including vehicle type, rain intensity, traffic volume, and location. Then, weighted driving risk for different conditions was obtained by the model, and further divided into four levels of early warning (specified by colors using a rank order cluster analysis. After that, a risk matrix was established to determine which warning color should be disseminated to drivers, given a specific condition. Finally, to validate the proposed procedure, actual crash data from Freeway G15 were compared with the safety prediction based on the risk matrix. The results show that the risk matrix obtained in the study is able to predict driving risk consistent with actual safety implications, under rainy weather conditions.

  14. Implementation of condition-dependent probabilistic risk assessment using surveillance data on passive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, Radoslaw; Denning, Richard; Aldemir, Tunc; Zhang, Jinsuo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Condition-dependent probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). • Time-dependent characterization of plant-specific risk. • Containment bypass involving in secondary system piping and SCC in SG tubes. - Abstract: A great deal of surveillance data are collected for a nuclear power plant that reflect the changing condition of the plant as it ages. Although surveillance data are used to determine failure probabilities of active components for the plant’s probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and to indicate the need for maintenance activities, they are not used in a structured manner to characterize the evolving risk of the plant. The present study explores the feasibility of using a condition-dependent PRA framework that takes a first principles approach to modeling the progression of degradation mechanisms to characterize evolving risk, periodically adapting the model to account for surveillance results. A case study is described involving a potential containment bypass accident sequence due to the progression of flow-accelerated corrosion in secondary system piping and stress corrosion cracking of steam generator tubes. In this sequence, a steam line break accompanied by failure to close of a main steam isolation valve results in depressurization of the steam generator and induces the rupture of one or more faulted steam generator tubes. The case study indicates that a condition-dependent PRA framework might be capable of providing early identification of degradation mechanisms important to plant risk.

  15. Assessment of hypervapotron heat sink performance using CFD under DEMO relevant first wall conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domalapally, Phani, E-mail: p_kumar.domalapally@cvrez.cz

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Performance of Hypervapotron heat sink was tested for First wall limiter application. • Two different materials were tested Eurofer 97 and CuCrZr at PWR conditions. • Simulations were performed to see the effect of the different inlet conditions and materials on the maximum temperature. • It was found that CuCrZr heat sink performance is far better than Eurofer heat sink at the same operating conditions. - Abstract: Among the proposed First Wall (FW) cooling concepts for European Demonstration Fusion Power Plant (DEMO), water cooled FW is one of the options. The heat flux load distribution on the FW of the DEMO reactor is not yet precisely defined. But if the heat loads on the FW are extrapolated from ITER conditions, the numbers are quite high and have to be handled none the less. The design of the FW itself is challenging as the thermal conductivity ratio of heat sink materials in ITER (CuCrZr) and in DEMO (Eurofer 97) is ∼10–12 and the operating conditions are of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) in DEMO instead of 70 °C and 4 MPa as in ITER. This paper analyzes the performance of Hypervapotron (HV) heat sink for FW limiter application under DEMO conditions. Where different materials, temperatures, heat fluxes and velocities are considered to predict the performance of the HV, to establish its limits in handling the heat loads before reaching the upper limits from temperature point of view. In order to assess the performance, numerical simulations are performed using commercial CFD code, which was previously validated in predicting the thermal hydraulic performance of HV geometry. Based on the results the potential usage of HV heat sink for DEMO will be assessed.

  16. Ventilatory function assessment in safety pharmacology: Optimization of rodent studies using normocapnic or hypercapnic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goineau, Sonia; Rompion, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Picard, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Although the whole body plethysmography for unrestrained animals is the most widely used method to assess the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology, non-appropriate experimental conditions may mask deleterious side effects of some substances. If stimulant or bronchodilatory effects can be easily evidenced in rodents under standard experimental conditions, i.e. normal air breathing and diurnal phase, drug-induced respiratory depression remains more difficult to detect. This study was aimed at comparing the responsiveness of Wistar rats, Duncan Hartley guinea-pigs or BALB/c mice to the respiratory properties of theophylline (50 or 100 mg/kg p.o.) or morphine (30 mg/kg i.p.) under varying conditions (100% air versus 5% CO 2 -enriched air, light versus dark day phase), in order to select the most appropriate experimental conditions to each species for safety airway investigations. Our results showed that under normocapnia the ventilatory depressant effects of morphine can be easily evidenced in mice, slightly observed in guinea-pigs and not detected in rats in any day phase. Slight hypercapnic conditions enhanced the responsiveness of rats to morphine but not that of guinea-pigs and importantly they did not blunt the airway responsiveness of rats to the stimulation and bronchodilation evoked by theophylline, the most widely used reference agent in safety pharmacology studies. In conclusion, hypercapnic conditions associated with the non-invasive whole body plethysmography should be considered for optimizing the assessment of both the ventilatory depressant potential of morphine-like substances or the respiratory stimulant effects of new drugs in the rat, the most extensively used species in rodent safety and toxicological investigations.

  17. Validation of the Danish version of the Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions questionnaire (PACIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokolowski, Ineta; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen; Vedsted, Peter

    Objective: To evaluate the level of chronic care patients must be involved. The Danish version of the 20-item Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions PACIC questionnaire consisting of 5 scales and an overall summary score measuring patient reported assessment of structured chronic care ...... the same questionnaire is constructed and applied to different countries with diverse cultural backgrounds and health care systems. It is decisive, that translated questionnaires are validated in country they are used.......Objective: To evaluate the level of chronic care patients must be involved. The Danish version of the 20-item Patient Assessment of Care for Chronic Conditions PACIC questionnaire consisting of 5 scales and an overall summary score measuring patient reported assessment of structured chronic care...... interitem correlation), item-rest correlations. Model fit from confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results: We present the psychometric properties of the questionnaire and the first results evaluating chronic care in Danish people with diabetes. Conclusions: The complexity of validation is greater when...

  18. Brief assessments and screening for geriatric conditions in older primary care patients: a pragmatic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seematter-Bagnoud, Laurence; Büla, Christophe

    2018-01-01

    This paper discusses the rationale behind performing a brief geriatric assessment as a first step in the management of older patients in primary care practice. While geriatric conditions are considered by older patients and health professionals as particularly relevant for health and well-being, they remain too often overlooked due to many patient- and physician-related factors. These include time constraints and lack of specific training to undertake comprehensive geriatric assessment. This article discusses the epidemiologic rationale for screening functional, cognitive, affective, hearing and visual impairments, and nutritional status as well as fall risk and social status. It proposes using brief screening tests in primary care practice to identify patients who may need further comprehensive geriatric assessment or specific interventions.

  19. Analysis of the possibilities of using EEG in assessing pilots’ psychophysical condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta GALANT

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An excessive load on an operator’s cognitive system can cause deterioration in perceptual abilities, decreased reaction time and increased probability of making an incorrect decision, which in turn can lead to a dangerous situation. Researching the cognitive load of an operator can therefore contribute to safer transportation. While there are many methods used in the study of cognitive load, they can be classified as either subjective assessments or objective assessments. This paper presents an analysis of the possibilities of using electroencephalography in assessing the psychophysical condition of the pilot. The investigation was conducted in the Simulation Research Laboratory in the Institute of Combustion Engines and Transport at Poznan University of Technology.

  20. The Role of Condition-Specific Preference-Based Measures in Health Technology Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowen, Donna; Brazier, John; Ara, Roberta; Azzabi Zouraq, Ismail

    2017-12-01

    A condition-specific preference-based measure (CSPBM) is a measure of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) that is specific to a certain condition or disease and that can be used to obtain the quality adjustment weight of the quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) for use in economic models. This article provides an overview of the role and the development of CSPBMs, and presents a description of existing CSPBMs in the literature. The article also provides an overview of the psychometric properties of CSPBMs in comparison with generic preference-based measures (generic PBMs), and considers the advantages and disadvantages of CSPBMs in comparison with generic PBMs. CSPBMs typically include dimensions that are important for that condition but may not be important across all patient groups. There are a large number of CSPBMs across a wide range of conditions, and these vary from covering a wide range of dimensions to more symptomatic or uni-dimensional measures. Psychometric evidence is limited but suggests that CSPBMs offer an advantage in more accurate measurement of milder health states. The mean change and standard deviation can differ for CSPBMs and generic PBMs, and this may impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. CSPBMs have a useful role in HTA where a generic PBM is not appropriate, sensitive or responsive. However, due to issues of comparability across different patient groups and interventions, their usage in health technology assessment is often limited to conditions where it is inappropriate to use a generic PBM or sensitivity analyses.

  1. Major methodological constraints to the assessment of environmental status based on the condition of benthic communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, João Paulo; Pinto, Vanessa; Sá, Erica; Silva, Gilda; Azeda, Carla; Pereira, Tadeu; Quintella, Bernardo; Raposo de Almeida, Pedro; Lino Costa, José; José Costa, Maria; Chainho, Paula

    2014-05-01

    The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) was published in 2008 and requires Member States to take the necessary measures to achieve or maintain good environmental status in aquatic ecosystems by the year of 2020. The MSFD indicates 11 qualitative descriptors for environmental status assessment, including seafloor integrity, using the condition of the benthic community as an assessment indicator. Member States will have to define monitoring programs for each of the MSFD descriptors based on those indicators in order to understand which areas are in a Good Environmental Status and what measures need to be implemented to improve the status of areas that fail to achieve that major objective. Coastal and offshore marine waters are not frequently monitored in Portugal and assessment tools have only been developed very recently with the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The lack of historical data and knowledge on the constraints of benthic indicators in coastal areas requires the development of specific studies addressing this issue. The major objective of the current study was to develop and test and experimental design to assess impacts of offshore projects. The experimental design consisted on the seasonal and interannual assessment of benthic invertebrate communities in the area of future implementation of the structures (impact) and two potential control areas 2 km from the impact area. Seasonal benthic samples were collected at nine random locations within the impact and control areas in two consecutive years. Metrics included in the Portuguese benthic assessment tool (P-BAT) were calculated since this multimetric tool was proposed for the assessment of the ecological status in Portuguese coastal areas under the WFD. Results indicated a high taxonomic richness in this coastal area and no significant differences were found between impact and control areas, indicating the feasibility of establishing adequate control areas in marine

  2. Hydraulic and Condition Assessment of Existing Sewerage Network: A Case Study of an Educational Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourabh, Nishant; Timbadiya, P. V.

    2018-04-01

    The hydraulic simulation of the existing sewerage network provides various information about critical points to assess the deteriorating condition and help in rehabilitation of existing network and future expansion. In the present study, hydraulic and condition assessment of existing network of educational Institute (i.e. Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology-Surat, Gujarat, India), having an area of 100 ha and ground levels in range of 5.0-9.0 m above mean sea level, has been carried out using sewage flow simulation for existing and future scenarios analysis using SewerGEMS v8i. The paper describes the features of 4.79 km long sewerage network of institute followed by network model simulation for aforesaid scenarios and recommendations on improvement of the existing network for future use. The total sewer loads for present and future scenarios are 1.67 million litres per day (MLD) and 3.62 MLD, considering the peak factor of 3 on the basis of population. The hydraulic simulation of the existing scenario indicated depth by diameter (d/D) ratio in the range of 0.02-0.48 and velocity range of 0.08-0.53 m/s for existing network for present scenario. For the future scenario, the existing network is needed to be modified and it was found that total of 11 conduits (length: 464.8 m) should be replaced to the next higher diameter available, i.e., 350 mm for utilization of existing network for future scenario. The present study provides the methodology for condition assessment of existing network and its utilization as per guidelines provided by Central Public Health and Environmental Engineering Organization, 2013. The methodology presented in this paper can be used by municipal/public health engineer for the assessment of existing sewerage network for its serviceability and improvement in future.

  3. Retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions as predictors of prospectively assessed sickness absence and disability pension among older workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Hansen, Åse Marie; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Poulsen, Otto Melchior; Clausen, Thomas; Rugulies, Reiner; Møller, Anne; Andersen, Lars L

    2018-01-17

    The aim was to explore the association between retrospectively assessed psychosocial working conditions during working life and prospectively assessed risk of sickness absence and disability pension among older workers. The prospective risk of register-based long-term sickness absence (LTSA) and disability pension was estimated from exposure to 12 different psychosocial work characteristics during working life among 5076 older workers from the CAMB cohort (Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank). Analyses were censored for competing events and adjusted for age, gender, physical work environment, lifestyle, education, and prior LTSA. LTSA was predicted by high levels of cognitive demands (HR 1.31 (95% CI 1.10-1.56)), high levels of emotional demands (HR 1.26 (95% CI 1.07-1.48)), low levels of influence at work (HR 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64)), and high levels of role conflicts (HR 1.34 (95% CI 1.09-1.65)). Disability pension was predicted by low levels of influence at work (HR 2.73 (95% CI 1.49-5.00)) and low levels of recognition from management (HR 2.04 (95% CI 1.14-3.67)). This exploratory study found that retrospectively assessed high cognitive demands, high and medium emotional demands, low influence at work, low recognition from management, medium role clarity, and high role conflicts predicted LTSA and/or disability pension.

  4. RECREATION MONITORING OF RESOURCE CONDITIONS IN THE KRONOTSKY STATE NATURAL BIOSPHERE PRESERVE (KAMCHATKA: AN INITIAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zavadskaya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes assessment and monitoring program which has been designed and initiated for monitoring recreational impacts in some wildernesses areas of Kamchatka. The framework of the recreational assessment was tested through its application in a case study conducted during the summer 2008 in the Kronotsky State Natural Biosphere Preserve (the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. The overall objective of the case study was to assess the existing campsite and trail recreation impacts and to establish a network of key sites for the subsequent long-term impact monitoring. The detailed assessment of different components of natural complexes of the Kronotsky State Natural Preserve and the obtained maps of their ecological conditions showed that some sites had been highly disturbed. The results of these works have given rise to a concern that the intensive use of these areas would make an unacceptable impact on the nature. Findings of our initial work corroborate the importance of founding wilderness management programs on knowledge about the trail and campsite impacts and emphasize the necessity of adopting the recreational assessment and monitoring framework to the practice of decision-making.

  5. Monitoring and Assessment of Military Installation Land Condition under Training Disturbance Using Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Santosh

    Various military training activities are conducted in more than 11.3 million hectares of land (> 5,500 training sites) in the United States (U.S.). These training activities directly and indirectly degrade the land. Land degradation can impede continuous military training. In order to sustain long term training missions and Army combat readiness, the environmental conditions of the military installations need to be carefully monitored and assessed. Furthermore, the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA) and the U.S. Army Regulation 200-2 require the DoD to minimize the environmental impacts of training and document the environmental consequences of their actions. To achieve these objectives, the Department of Army initiated an Integrated Training Area Management (ITAM) program to manage training lands through assessing their environmental requirements and establishing policies and procedures to achieve optimum, sustainable use of training lands. One of the programs under ITAM, Range and Training Land Assessment (RTLA) was established to collect field-based data for monitoring installation's environmental condition. Due to high cost and inefficiencies involved in the collection of field data, the RTLA program was stopped in several military installations. Therefore, there has been a strong need to develop an efficient and low cost remote sensing based methodology for assessing and monitoring land conditions of military installations. It is also important to make a long-term assessment of installation land condition for understanding cumulative impacts of continuous military training activities. Additionally, it is unclear that compared to non-military land condition, to what extent military training activities have led to the degradation of land condition for military installations. The first paper of this dissertation developed a soil erosion relevant and image derived cover factor (ICF) based on linear spectral mixture (LSM) analysis to assess and

  6. Severe Pulmonary Toxicity After Myeloablative Conditioning Using Total Body Irradiation: An Assessment of Risk Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, Chris R.; Horwitz, Mitchell E.; Chino, Junzo P.; Craciunescu, Oana; Steffey, Beverly; Folz, Rodney J.; Chao, Nelson J.; Rizzieri, David A.; Marks, Lawrence B.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To assess factors associated with severe pulmonary toxicity after myeloablative conditioning using total body irradiation (TBI) followed by allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Methods and Materials: A total of 101 adult patients who underwent TBI-based myeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies at Duke University between 1998 and 2008 were reviewed. TBI was combined with high-dose cyclophosphamide, melphalan, fludarabine, or etoposide, depending on the underlying disease. Acute pulmonary toxicity, occurring within 90 days of transplantation, was scored using Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. Actuarial overall survival and the cumulative incidence of acute pulmonary toxicity were calculated via the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using a log-rank test. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to assess factors independently associated with acute severe pulmonary toxicity. Results: The 90-day actuarial risk of developing severe (Grade 3-5) pulmonary toxicity was 33%. Actuarial survival at 90 days was 49% in patients with severe pulmonary toxicity vs. 94% in patients without (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of prior chemotherapy regimens was the only factor independently associated with development of severe pulmonary toxicity (odds ratio, 2.7 per regimen). Conclusions: Severe acute pulmonary toxicity is prevalent after TBI-based myeloablative conditioning regimens, occurring in approximately 33% of patients. The number of prior chemotherapy regimens appears to be an important risk factor.

  7. Condition assessment of the Los Alamos National Laboratory radioactive liquid waste collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgemon, G.L.; Moss, W.D.; Worland, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive liquid waste collection system (RLWCS) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANE) is a site-wide double-encased piping system installed in 1982 that allows radioactive liquid waste (RLW) producing facilities to gravity drain their waste to the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) through a system of underground high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes and vaults. The RLWCS stretches approximately four miles and typically receives approximately 10,000 gallons of RLW per day for treatment at the RLWTF. Uncertainty of the current condition of the RLWCS was recently identified as a potential risk to the future continued availability of the RLW treatment function. A condition assessment was performed in April 2004 to evaluate the risks and estimate the remaining useful life of the existing RLWCS. Several representative and 'worst-case' RLWCS primary piping sections and their associated inspection vaults were selected for direct visual assessment, remote borescopic examination, and in-situ durometer testing. This field investigation combined with an RLWCS materials compatibility review showed that the primary piping of the RLWCS is in relatively good condition, with only a few noteworthy areas of degradation.

  8. Fuzzy Based Decision Support System for Condition Assessment and Rating of Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Voggu; Sasmal, Saptarshi; Karusala, Ramanjaneyulu

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a knowledge based decision support system has been developed to efficiently handle the issues such as distress diagnosis, assessment of damages and condition rating of existing bridges towards developing an exclusive and robust Bridge Management System (BMS) for sustainable bridges. The Knowledge Based Expert System (KBES) diagnoses the distresses and finds the cause of distress in the bridge by processing the data which are heuristic and combined with site inspection results, laboratory test results etc. The coupling of symbolic and numeric type of data has been successfully implemented in the expert system to strengthen its decision making process. Finally, the condition rating of the bridge is carried out using the assessment results obtained from the KBES and the information received from the bridge inspector. A systematic procedure has been developed using fuzzy mathematics for condition rating of bridges by combining the fuzzy weighted average and resolution identity technique. The proposed methodologies and the decision support system will facilitate in developing a robust and exclusive BMS for a network of bridges across the country and allow the bridge engineers and decision makers to carry out maintenance of bridges in a rational and systematic way.

  9. Assessment of a PML Boundary Condition for Simulating an MRI Radio Frequency Coil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsuo Duan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational methods such as the finite difference time domain (FDTD play an important role in simulating radiofrequency (RF coils used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. The choice of absorbing boundary conditions affects the final outcome of such studies. We have used FDTD to assess the Berenger's perfectly matched layer (PML as an absorbing boundary condition for computation of the resonance patterns and electromagnetic fields of RF coils. We first experimentally constructed a high-pass birdcage head coil, measured its resonance pattern, and used it to acquire proton (1H phantom MRI images. We then computed the resonance pattern and B1 field of the coil using FDTD with a PML as an absorbing boundary condition. We assessed the accuracy and efficiency of PML by adjusting the parameters of the PML and comparing the calculated results with measured ones. The optimal PML parameters that produce accurate (comparable to the experimental findings FDTD calculations are then provided for the birdcage head coil operating at 127.72 MHz, the Larmor frequency of 1H at 3 Tesla (T.

  10. Life cycle management, design review, and condition assessment of feedwater heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gammage, D.; Idvorian, N. [Babcock & Wilcox Canada Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    OPEX from both the Nuclear and Fossil Power Generation Industries shows that Feedwater Heaters (FWHs) are subject to several degradation mechanisms and that this degradation commonly leads to replacement of these vessels in order to ensure reliable, efficient operation of the plants. Loss of feedwater heating will impact plant thermal performance. In response to inspection results showing on-going degradation as well as other factors, B&W Canada completed a project in conjunction with a US PWR utility to review the design, condition, and Life Cycle Management of their FWHs. This project involved a multi-disciplinary approach in order to consider all aspects of the FWHs in order to provide insight into the Life Cycle Management Plan (LCMP) so that the FWHs can be operated reliably into the future and so that adequate inspections can be conducted in order to produce a detailed condition assessment. The utility was interested in evaluating their FWH LCMP to determine if it was adequate in its requirements to enable reliable, leak-free operation of their FWH equipment. As inputs to this evaluation, it was required that B&W Canada evaluate both confirmed and plausible degradation mechanisms. They also required that the thermal hydraulic and functional design be evaluated for their particular FWHs. It was important to also incorporate industry OPEX in order to provide proper trending information for tube plugging. Out of this evaluation there were several findings and recommendations that could be used to update the utilities’ LCMP as it was apparent that the current version may not be truly reflective of the current condition of the equipment or of current industry OPEX of such FWHs. Several recommendations came from this evaluation, the most significant were: • Performing thermal/hydraulic, FIV (flow-induced vibration), and tube/shell interaction calculations to determine how the FWHs operate and how their performance can change over time as a function of tube

  11. Life cycle management, design review, and condition assessment of feedwater heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammage, D.; Idvorian, N.

    2012-01-01

    OPEX from both the Nuclear and Fossil Power Generation Industries shows that Feedwater Heaters (FWHs) are subject to several degradation mechanisms and that this degradation commonly leads to replacement of these vessels in order to ensure reliable, efficient operation of the plants. Loss of feedwater heating will impact plant thermal performance. In response to inspection results showing on-going degradation as well as other factors, B&W Canada completed a project in conjunction with a US PWR utility to review the design, condition, and Life Cycle Management of their FWHs. This project involved a multi-disciplinary approach in order to consider all aspects of the FWHs in order to provide insight into the Life Cycle Management Plan (LCMP) so that the FWHs can be operated reliably into the future and so that adequate inspections can be conducted in order to produce a detailed condition assessment. The utility was interested in evaluating their FWH LCMP to determine if it was adequate in its requirements to enable reliable, leak-free operation of their FWH equipment. As inputs to this evaluation, it was required that B&W Canada evaluate both confirmed and plausible degradation mechanisms. They also required that the thermal hydraulic and functional design be evaluated for their particular FWHs. It was important to also incorporate industry OPEX in order to provide proper trending information for tube plugging. Out of this evaluation there were several findings and recommendations that could be used to update the utilities’ LCMP as it was apparent that the current version may not be truly reflective of the current condition of the equipment or of current industry OPEX of such FWHs. Several recommendations came from this evaluation, the most significant were: • Performing thermal/hydraulic, FIV (flow-induced vibration), and tube/shell interaction calculations to determine how the FWHs operate and how their performance can change over time as a function of tube

  12. Reliability data update using condition monitoring and prognostics in probabilistic safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeonmin Kim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA has had a significant role in quantitative decision-making by finding design and operational vulnerabilities and evaluating cost-benefit in improving such weak points. In particular, it has been widely used as the core methodology for risk-informed applications (RIAs. Even though the nature of PSA seeks realistic results, there are still “conservative” aspects. One of the sources for the conservatism is the assumptions of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Surveillance, diagnosis, and prognosis (SDP, utilizing massive databases and information technology, is worth highlighting in terms of its capability for alleviating the conservatism in conventional PSA. This article provides enabling techniques to solidify a method to provide time- and condition-dependent risks by integrating a conventional PSA model with condition monitoring and prognostics techniques. We will discuss how to integrate the results with frequency of initiating events (IEs and probability of basic events (BEs. Two illustrative examples will be introduced: (1 how the failure probability of a passive system can be evaluated under different plant conditions and (2 how the IE frequency for a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR can be updated in terms of operating time. We expect that the proposed model can take a role of annunciator to show the variation of core damage frequency (CDF depending on operational conditions.

  13. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10μg RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  14. Assessment of CHF characteristics at subcooled conditions for the CANDU CANFLEX bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onder, E.N.; Leung, L.K.H.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis has been performed to assess the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) characteristics for the CANFLEX bundle at subcooled conditions. CHF characteristics for CANDU bundles have been established from experiments using full-scale bundle simulators. These experiments covered flow conditions of interest to normal operation and postulated loss-of-flow and small break loss-of-coolant accidents. Experimental CHF values obtained from these experiments were applied to develop correlations for analyses of regional overpower protection and safety trips. These correlations are applicable to the saturated region in the reference uncrept channel and the slightly subcooled region in postulated high-creep channels. Expanding the CHF data to subcooled conditions facilitates the evaluation of the margin to dryout at upstream bundle locations, even though dryout occurrences are not anticipated there. In view of the lack of experimental data, the ASSERT-PV subchannel code has been applied to establish CHF values at low qualities and high subcoolings (thermodynamic qualities corresponding to -25%). These CHF values have been applied to extend the CHF correlation to the highly subcooled conditions. (author)

  15. Reliability data update using condition monitoring and prognostics in probabilistic safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyeon Min; Lee, Sang Hwan; Park, Jun Seok; Kim, Hyung Dae; Chang, Yoon Suk; Heo, Gyun Young [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    Probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) has had a significant role in quantitative decision making by finding design and operational vulnerabilities and evaluating cost-benefit in improving such weak points. In particular, it has been widely used as the core methodology for risk-informed applications (RIAs). Even though the nature of PSA seeks realistic results, there are still 'conservative' aspects. One of the sources for the conservatism is the assumptions of safety analysis and the estimation of failure frequency. Surveillance, diagnosis, and prognosis (SDP), utilizing massive databases and information technology, is worth highlighting in terms of its capability for alleviating the conservatism in conventional PSA. This article provides enabling techniques to solidify a method to provide time and condition-dependent risks by integrating a conventional PSA model with condition monitoring and prognostics techniques. We will discuss how to integrate the results with frequency of initiating events (IEs) and probability of basic events (BEs). Two illustrative examples will be introduced: (1) how the failure probability of a passive system can be evaluated under different plant conditions and (2) how the IE frequency for a steam generator tube rupture (SGTR) can be updated in terms of operating time. We expect that the proposed model can take a role of annunciator to show the variation of core damage frequency (CDF) depending on operational conditions.

  16. Assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project, 1987-1997 Project Review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M.; Hans, Karen M.; Beeman, John W. [US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA

    1997-12-01

    The assessment of Smolt Condition for Travel Time Analysis Project (Bonneville Power Administration Project 87-401) monitored attributes of salmonid smolt physiology in the Columbia and Snake River basins from 1987 to 1997, under the Northwest Power Planning Council Fish and Wildlife Program, in cooperation with the Smolt Monitoring Program of the Fish Passage Center. The primary goal of the project was to investigate the physiological development of juvenile salmonids related to migration rates. The assumption was made that the level of smolt development, interacting with environmental factos such as flow, would be reflected in travel times. The Fish Passage Center applied the physiological measurements of smolt condition to Water Budget management, to regulate flows so as to decrease travel time and increase survival.

  17. Electrical-Based Diagnostic Techniques for Assessing Insulation Condition in Aged Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issouf Fofana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The condition of the internal cellulosic paper and oil insulation are of concern for the performance of power transformers. Over the years, a number of methods have been developed to diagnose and monitor the degradation/aging of the transformer internal insulation system. Some of this degradation/aging can be assessed from electrical responses. Currently there are a variety of electrical-based diagnostic techniques available for insulation condition monitoring of power transformers. In most cases, the electrical signals being monitored are due to mechanical or electric changes caused by physical changes in resistivity, inductance or capacitance, moisture, contamination or aging by-products in the insulation. This paper presents a description of commonly used and modern electrical-based diagnostic techniques along with their interpretation schemes.

  18. A new condition for assessing the clinical efficiency of a diagnostic test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokhari, Ehsan; Hubert, Lawrence

    2015-09-01

    When prediction using a diagnostic test outperforms simple prediction using base rates, the test is said to be "clinically efficient," a term first introduced into the literature by Meehl and Rosen (1955) in Psychological Bulletin. This article provides three equivalent conditions for determining the clinical efficiency of a diagnostic test: (a) Meehl-Rosen (Meehl & Rosen, 1955); (b) Dawes (Dawes, 1962); and (c) the Bokhari-Hubert condition, introduced here for the first time. Clinical efficiency is then generalized to situations where misclassification costs are considered unequal (for example, false negatives are more costly than false positives). As an illustration, the clinical efficiency of an actuarial device for predicting violent and dangerous behavior is examined that was developed as part of the MacArthur Violence Risk Assessment Study. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Rock Strength Anisotropy in High Stress Conditions: A Case Study for Application to Shaft Stability Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Julian Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Although rock strength anisotropy is a well-known phenomenon in rock mechanics, its impact on geotechnical design is often ignored or underestimated. This paper explores the concept of anisotropy in a high stress environment using an improved unified constitutive model (IUCM, which can account for more complex failure mechanisms. The IUCM is used to better understand the typical responses of anisotropic rocks to underground mining. This study applies the IUCM to a proposed rock shaft located in high stress/anisotropic conditions. Results suggest that the effect of rock strength anisotropy must be taken into consideration when assessing the rock mass response to mining in high stress and anisotropic rock conditions.

  20. Assessment of Periodontal and Hygiene Conditions of Removable Partial Dentures in Individuals With Clefts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Lúcia Pompéia Fraga; Catalani, Danilo Tomazzini; Garcia de Oliveira, Pedro César; Soares, Simone; Tunes, Fábio Sanches Magalhães; Neppelenbroek, Karin Hermana

    2016-11-01

      To assess hygiene conditions in removable partial dentures (RPDs) and to compare the periodontal status between abutment and nonabutment teeth in clefts patients.   Cross-sectional.   Tertiary referral hospital.   Forty-five patients of both genders, aged 20 to 75 years, who were upper RPD wearers for at least 2 years, with cleft lip, alveolus, and/or palate who attended follow-up appointments between 2010 and 2012.   The clinical periodontal parameters assessed on abutment teeth (experimental group) and nonabutment teeth (control group) were probing depth, clinical attachment level (CAL), plaque index, and gingival index (GI). The RPDs were evaluated under the following parameters: hygiene conditions and type of clasp on abutment. Both groups were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn's statistical test. Statistical significance was set at P < .05.   One hundred sixty-six abutment teeth and 168 nonabutment teeth were evaluated in 45 patients. A statistically significant difference was found between the groups for the CAL parameter (P = .03). With regard to the prostheses' hygiene conditions through the Tarbet index parameter, of the 186 quadrants evaluated, 143 scored 2 and 3. Ackers' clasps were the most frequent clasps (n = 111). A statistically significant difference was found for the GI parameter (P = .03).   It was possible to conclude, in this cross-sectional study, that in general terms, the use of RPDs did not interfere in the periodontal conditions of abutment teeth; however, most prostheses presented poor hygiene and high quantity of dental plaque.

  1. Intercomparison of chemical mechanisms for air quality policy formulation and assessment under North American conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derwent, Richard

    2017-07-01

    The intercomparison of seven chemical mechanisms for their suitability for air quality policy formulation and assessment is described. Box modeling techniques were employed using 44 sets of background environmental conditions covering North America to constrain the chemical development of the longer lived species. The selected mechanisms were modified to enable an unbiased assessment of the adequacy of the parameterizations of photochemical ozone production from volatile organic compound (VOC) oxidation in the presence of NO x . Photochemical ozone production rates responded differently to 30% NO x and VOC reductions with the different mechanisms, despite the striking similarities between the base-case ozone production rates. The 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs also produced changes in OH. The responses in OH to 30% reductions in NO x and VOCs appeared to be more sensitive to mechanism choice, compared with the responses in the photochemical ozone production rates. Although 30% NO x reductions generally led to decreases in OH, 30% reductions in VOCs led to increases in OH, irrespective of mechanism choice and background environmental conditions. The different mechanisms therefore gave different OH responses to NO x and VOC reductions and so would give different responses in terms of changes in the fate and behavior of air toxics, acidification and eutrophication, and fine particle formation compared with others, in response to ozone control strategies. Policymakers need to understand that there are likely to be inherent differences in the responses to ozone control strategies between different mechanisms, depending on background environmental conditions and the extents of NO x and VOC reductions under consideration. The purpose of this paper is to compare predicted ozone responses to NO x and VOC reductions with seven chemical mechanisms under North American conditions. The good agreement found between the tested mechanisms should provide some support for their

  2. Modularising ontology and designing inference patterns to personalise health condition assessment: the case of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojic, Aleksandra; Terkaj, Walter; Contini, Giorgia; Sacco, Marco

    2016-05-04

    The public health initiatives for obesity prevention are increasingly exploiting the advantages of smart technologies that can register various kinds of data related to physical, physiological, and behavioural conditions. Since individual features and habits vary among people, the design of appropriate intervention strategies for motivating changes in behavioural patterns towards a healthy lifestyle requires the interpretation and integration of collected information, while considering individual profiles in a personalised manner. The ontology-based modelling is recognised as a promising approach in facing the interoperability and integration of heterogeneous information related to characterisation of personal profiles. The presented ontology captures individual profiles across several obesity-related knowledge-domains structured into dedicated modules in order to support inference about health condition, physical features, behavioural habits associated with a person, and relevant changes over time. The modularisation strategy is designed to facilitate ontology development, maintenance, and reuse. The domain-specific modules formalised in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) integrate the domain-specific sets of rules formalised in the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). The inference rules follow a modelling pattern designed to support personalised assessment of health condition as age- and gender-specific. The test cases exemplify a personalised assessment of the obesity-related health conditions for the population of teenagers. The paper addresses several issues concerning the modelling of normative concepts related to obesity and depicts how the public health concern impacts classification of teenagers according to their phenotypes. The modelling choices regarding the ontology-structure are explained in the context of the modelling goal to integrate multiple knowledge-domains and support reasoning about the individual changes over time. The presented modularisation

  3. Assessment of Wind Turbine for Site-Specific Conditions using Probabilistic Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heras, Enrique Gómez de las; Gutiérrez, Roberto; Azagra, Elena

    2013-01-01

    turbines, helping to the decision making during the site assessment phase of wind farm designs. First, the design equation for the failure mode of interest is defined, where the loads associated to the site-specific wind conditions are compared with the design limits of the structural component. A limit...... be very dependent on the site. The uncertainties on the wind properties depend on issues like the available wind data, the quality of the measurement sensors, the type of terrain or the accuracy of the engineering models for horizontal and vertical spatial extrapolation. An example is included showing two...

  4. Assessing and managing body condition score for the prevention of metabolic disease in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, John R; Kay, Jane K; Friggens, Nic C; Loor, Juan J; Berry, Donagh P

    2013-07-01

    Body condition score (BCS) is an assessment of a cow's body fat (and muscle) reserves, with low values reflecting emaciation and high values equating to obesity. The intercalving profile of BCS is a mirror image of the milk lactation profile. The BCS at which a cow calves, her nadir BCS, and the amount of BCS lost after calving are associated with milk production, reproduction, and health. Genetics, peripartum nutrition, and management are factors that likely interact with BCS to determine the risk of health disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Accounting of media conditions in the Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Metals on Aquatic Ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Payet, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    Impact from metals play a major role in all Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) studies. Nevertheless, LCIA methods are typically not adapted for such compounds ignoring problems of speciation and bioavailability. Current uncertainty on metal toxicity estimates are on average twice as high...... of the influence of media condition on the toxicity : Partial Least Square projection to latent Structure Regression (PLSR) was carried out to estimate the relative variable importance and linear regression was used to, identify the relation between media parameters the response of Daphnia magna....

  6. Assessment of importance of elements for systems that condition depends on the sequence of elements failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povyakalo, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper proposes new general formulas for calculation of indices of elements importance for systems whose condition depends on sequence of elements failures. These systems have been called as systems with memory of failures (M-systems). Techniques existing for assessment of importance of elements are based on the Bool's models of system reliability, for which it is significant to suggest, that in every period of time system state depends only on a combination of states of elements at that very moment of time. These systems have been called as combinational systems (C-systems). Reliability of M-systems at any moment of operating time is a functional having distributions of elements time before failure as its arguments. Bool's models and methods of assessment of element importance, based on these models, are not appropriate for these systems. Pereguda and Povyakalo proposed the new techniques for assessment of elements importance for PO-SS systems that includes Protection Object (PO) and Safety System (PO). PO-SS system is an example of M-system. That technique is used at this paper as a basis for more general consideration. It has been shown that technique proposed for assessment of elements importance for M-systems has well-known Birnbaum's method as its particular case. Also the system with double protection is considered as an example

  7. Assessment of microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyu Jong; Lee, Byun-Woo; Kang, Je Yong; Lee, Dong Yun; Jang, Soo Won; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge on microclimate conditions under artificial shades in a ginseng field would facilitate climate-aware management of ginseng production. Weather data were measured under the shade and outside the shade at two fields located in Gochang-gun and Jeongeup-si, Korea, in 2011 and 2012 seasons to assess temperature and humidity conditions under the shade. An empirical approach was developed and validated for the estimation of leaf wetness duration (LWD) using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. Air temperature and relative humidity were similar between under the shade and outside the shade. For example, temperature conditions favorable for ginseng growth, e.g., between 8°C and 27°C, occurred slightly less frequently in hours during night times under the shade (91%) than outside (92%). Humidity conditions favorable for development of a foliar disease, e.g., relative humidity > 70%, occurred slightly more frequently under the shade (84%) than outside (82%). Effectiveness of correction schemes to an empirical LWD model differed by rainfall conditions for the estimation of LWD under the shade using weather measurements outside the shade as inputs to the model. During dew eligible days, a correction scheme to an empirical LWD model was slightly effective (10%) in reducing estimation errors under the shade. However, another correction approach during rainfall eligible days reduced errors of LWD estimation by 17%. Weather measurements outside the shade and LWD estimates derived from these measurements would be useful as inputs for decision support systems to predict ginseng growth and disease development.

  8. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagger, Josephine A., E-mail: j.hagger@exeter.ac.u [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Galloway, Tamara S. [School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Prince of Wales Road, Exeter, Devon EX4 4PS (United Kingdom); Langston, William J. [Marine Biological Association, Citadel Hill, Plymouth PL1 2PB, Devon (United Kingdom); Jones, Malcolm B. [School of Biological Sciences, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA, Devon (United Kingdom)

    2009-07-15

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  9. Assessing the Implicit Achievement Motive: Effects of Input- Condition, Administration And Picture -Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Gruber

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Implicit measurements are sensitive for influences of experimenter and situation. An assessment using computers could therefore avert those negative effects, if there is an adequate translation to computer (Blankenship, 2010. We split the implicit achievement motive into the two components hope of success (HS and fear of failure (FF and investigated the effects of input condition (handwritten vs. keyboard, administration (online vs. computer vs. human experimenter and picture-position for each of these two components. Therefore 140 undergraduates were randomly assigned to 18 experimental groupsof a counterbalance within-between-design and assessed with the Thematic-Apperception-Test (TAT; Heckhausen, 1963. The outcome is that handwriting increases the HS-score, whereby FF- score did not differ in typed and handwritten answers. People instructed by human experimenter show higher FF and lower HS compared tocomputer based tested people in the labor and online There is no statistical significant interaction effectof administration and input condition. There is either no position effect for any of these motive-components. The TAT seems to be more robust than commonly thought.

  10. Preliminary Geophysical Survey for Assessing the Geotechnical Conditions and Geohazards at Huaca de La Luna, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, G. J.; Lopez, S.; Ebinger, C. J.; Pando, M. A.; Lambert, C.; Morales, R.; Uceda, S.; Perucchio, R.; Castaneda, B.; Aguilar, R.

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents results of near surface geophysical tests to help assess the geotechnical conditions of the archaeological complex of Huaca de la Luna located near the coastal city of Trujillo, Peru. This area of Peru has experienced damaging earthquakes and tsunamis in historic time. The huaca complex is a massive adobe temple progressively built by the Moche civilization from 100 AD to 650 AD. The geophysical tests carried out included Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), magnetic gradiometer, and Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) to help assess geotechnical conditions such as buried cavities and hallways, thickness and elastic properties of sand sediments, and the depth to the underlying granitic bedrock. The tests were performed to help with the investigation of structural damage observed along a massive adobe wall (north façade) which has shown signs of distress including fissures, settlements, and other damage. The geophysical results together with detailed Lidar surveying are being used as part of this investigation and highlight the usefulness of these non-destructive techniques for archaeological and historical sites.

  11. Development of a multimetric index for integrated assessment of salt marsh ecosystem condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Jessica L.; Neckles, Hilary A.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Rocks, Erika N.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Grace, James B.; Skidds, Dennis; Stevens, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Tools for assessing and communicating salt marsh condition are essential to guide decisions aimed at maintaining or restoring ecosystem integrity and services. Multimetric indices (MMIs) are increasingly used to provide integrated assessments of ecosystem condition. We employed a theory-based approach that considers the multivariate relationship of metrics with human disturbance to construct a salt marsh MMI for five National Parks in the northeastern USA. We quantified the degree of human disturbance for each marsh using the first principal component score from a principal components analysis of physical, chemical, and land use stressors. We then applied a metric selection algorithm to different combinations of about 45 vegetation and nekton metrics (e.g., species abundance, species richness, and ecological and functional classifications) derived from multi-year monitoring data. While MMIs derived from nekton or vegetation metrics alone were strongly correlated with human disturbance (r values from −0.80 to −0.93), an MMI derived from both vegetation and nekton metrics yielded an exceptionally strong correlation with disturbance (r = −0.96). Individual MMIs included from one to five metrics. The metric-assembly algorithm yielded parsimonious MMIs that exhibit the greatest possible correlations with disturbance in a way that is objective, efficient, and reproducible.

  12. Application of biomarkers to assess the condition of European Marine Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagger, Josephine A.; Galloway, Tamara S.; Langston, William J.; Jones, Malcolm B.

    2009-01-01

    A series of European Marine Sites has been designated as Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) in England. The aim of this study was to develop a practical methodology to assess the condition of SACs by applying a suite of biomarkers. Biomarkers were applied to the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and the shore crab Carcinus maenas from the Fal and Helford SAC (Cornwall). Individual biomarkers provided useful diagnostic information on the activity of certain classes of contaminants and an integrated Biomarker Response Index (BRI) was used to achieve a more holistic understanding of the condition of the SAC. The BRI indicated that the general health of both organisms was impacted in the upper part of the SAC (Fal Estuary) which correlated well with known chemical hotspots and sources of contamination. The BRI allows a pragmatic way to prioritise SAC sites that may require further investigative studies. - A suite of biomarkers was successfully used to create a Biomarker Response Index to assess the health of aquatic organisms from European Marine Sites.

  13. Assessing the social sustainability contribution of an infrastructure project under conditions of uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra, Leonardo A.; Yepes, Víctor; Pellicer, Eugenio

    2017-01-01

    Assessing the viability of a public infrastructure includes economic, technical and environmental aspects; however, on many occasions, the social aspects are not always adequately considered. This article proposes a procedure to estimate the social sustainability of infrastructure projects under conditions of uncertainty, based on a multicriteria deterministic method. The variability of the method inputs is contributed by the decision-makers. Uncertain inputs are treated through uniform and beta PERT distributions. The Monte Carlo method is used to propagate uncertainty in the method. A case study of a road infrastructure improvement in El Salvador is used to illustrate this treatment. The main results determine the variability of the short and long-term social improvement indices by infrastructure and the probability of the position in the prioritization of the alternatives. The proposed mechanism improves the reliability of the decision making early in infrastructure projects, taking their social contribution into account. The results can complement environmental and economic sustainability assessments. - Highlights: •Estimate the social sustainability of infrastructure projects under conditions of uncertainty •The method uses multicriteria and Monte Carlo techniques and beta PERT distributions •Determines variability of the short and long term social improvement •Determines probability in the prioritization of alternatives •Improves reliability of decision making considering the social contribution

  14. OMARC: An online multimedia application for training health care providers in the assessment of respiratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meruvia-Pastor, Oscar; Patra, Pranjal; Andres, Karen; Twomey, Creina; Peña-Castillo, Lourdes

    2016-05-01

    OMARC, a multimedia application designed to support the training of health care providers for the identification of common lung sounds heard in a patient's thorax as part of a health assessment, is described and its positive contribution to user learning is assessed. The main goal of OMARC is to effectively help health-care students become familiar with lung sounds as part of the assessment of respiratory conditions. In addition, the application must be easy to use and accessible to students and practitioners over the internet. OMARC was developed using an online platform to facilitate access to users in remote locations. OMARC's unique contribution as an educational software tool is that it presents a narrative about normal and abnormal lung sounds using interactive multimedia and sample case studies designed by professional health-care providers and educators. Its interface consists of two distinct components: a sounds glossary and a rich multimedia interface which presents clinical case studies and provides access to lung sounds placed on a model of a human torso. OMARC's contents can be extended through the addition of sounds and case studies designed by health-care educators and professionals. To validate OMARC and determine its efficacy in improving learning and capture user perceptions about it, we performed a pilot study with ten nursing students. Participants' performance was measured through an evaluation of their ability to identify several normal and adventitious/abnormal sounds prior and after exposure to OMARC. Results indicate that participants are able to better identify different lung sounds, going from an average of 63% (S.D. 18.3%) in the pre-test evaluation to an average of 90% (S.D. of 11.5%) after practising with OMARC. Furthermore, participants indicated in a user satisfaction questionnaire that they found the application helpful, easy to use and that they would recommend it to other persons in their field. OMARC is an online multimedia

  15. Key risk indicators for accident assessment conditioned on pre-crash vehicle trajectory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X; Wong, Y D; Li, M Z F; Chai, C

    2018-08-01

    Accident events are generally unexpected and occur rarely. Pre-accident risk assessment by surrogate indicators is an effective way to identify risk levels and thus boost accident prediction. Herein, the concept of Key Risk Indicator (KRI) is proposed, which assesses risk exposures using hybrid indicators. Seven metrics are shortlisted as the basic indicators in KRI, with evaluation in terms of risk behaviour, risk avoidance, and risk margin. A typical real-world chain-collision accident and its antecedent (pre-crash) road traffic movements are retrieved from surveillance video footage, and a grid remapping method is proposed for data extraction and coordinates transformation. To investigate the feasibility of each indicator in risk assessment, a temporal-spatial case-control is designed. By comparison, Time Integrated Time-to-collision (TIT) performs better in identifying pre-accident risk conditions; while Crash Potential Index (CPI) is helpful in further picking out the severest ones (the near-accident). Based on TIT and CPI, the expressions of KRIs are developed, which enable us to evaluate risk severity with three levels, as well as the likelihood. KRI-based risk assessment also reveals predictive insights about a potential accident, including at-risk vehicles, locations and time. Furthermore, straightforward thresholds are defined flexibly in KRIs, since the impact of different threshold values is found not to be very critical. For better validation, another independent real-world accident sample is examined, and the two results are in close agreement. Hierarchical indicators such as KRIs offer new insights about pre-accident risk exposures, which is helpful for accident assessment and prediction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Some aspects of the reliability-based design of reactor containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schueller, G.I.

    1975-01-01

    It is generally recognized that the load which a structure is likely to experience during its design life as well as its resistance are to be represented by random variables. A rational design procedure for reactor containment structures can therefore only be carried out within a probabilistic framework. Internal load conditions caused by system failure such as loss-of-coolant accident, pressure loads etc., and external load conditions caused for instance by impact due to aircraft crashes, external pressure waves and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods, hurricanes are described by extreme value distributions of the Fisher-Tippett types. Statistical and physical arguments are given to support their application. The occurrence of these rare events with respect to time is modeled by a Poisson process. The yield strength of the containment structure for both steel (liner) and reinforced concrete shells is also modeled by extreme value distributions (of the smallest values). The failure criterion considered here is that of collapse determined by plastic yieldline formation. A failure mechanism as considered here describes a particular regime of plastic line formation. The probability of failure of a structure under a single load application of load types likely to occur during the design life of the structure is to be determined by integrating over all possible mechanisms. Finally Freudenthal's reliability function is utilized to combine the information derived above so that a containment design for given design lifes and reliabilities is possible. (orig.) [de

  17. PRISM: a novel research tool to assess the prevalence of pseudobulbar affect symptoms across neurological conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Rix Brooks

    Full Text Available Pseudobulbar affect (PBA is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA.Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ≥20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer's disease (AD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, multiple sclerosis (MS, Parkinson's disease (PD, stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI. Patients (or their caregivers completed the Center for Neurologic Study-Lability Scale (CNS-LS and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient's quality of life (QOL. Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS-LS score ≥13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded.PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n = 1944; 36.7% had a CNS-LS score ≥13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse in patients with CNS-LS ≥13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test. A greater percentage of patients with CNS-LS ≥13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test.Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS-LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic

  18. Reliability-based Calibration of Partial Safety Factors for Wave Energy Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambühl, Simon; Kramer, Morten Mejlhede; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2015-01-01

    of partial safety factors for design of welded details for wave energy converter applications is presented in this paper using probabilistic methods. The paper presents an example with focus on the Wavestar device. SN curves and Rainflow counting are used to model fatigue without considering inspections....... The influence of inspections is modelled using a fracture mechanics approach, which is calibrated by the SN curve approach. Furthermore, the paper assesses the influence of the inspection quality. The results show that with multiple inspections during the lifetime of the device and by applying a good inspection...

  19. Present and future assessment of growing degree days over selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The determination of heat requirements in the first developing phases of plants has been expressed as Growing Degree Days (GDD). The current study focuses on three selected study areas in Greece that are characterised by different climatic conditions due to their location and aims to assess the future variation and spatial distribution of Growing Degree Days (GDD) and how these can affect the main cultivations in the study areas. Future temperature data were obtained and analysed by the ENSEMBLES project. The analysis was performed for the future periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100 with the A1B and B1 scenarios. Spatial distribution was performed using a combination of dynamical and statistical downscaling technique through ArcGIS 10.2.1. The results indicated that for all the future periods and scenarios, the GDD are expected to increase. Furthermore, the increase in the Sperchios River basin will be the highest, followed by the Ardas and the Geropotamos River basins. Moreover, the cultivation period will be shifted from April-October to April-September which will have social, economical and environmental benefits. Additionally, the spatial distribution indicated that in the upcoming years the existing cultivations can find favourable conditions and can be expanded in mountainous areas as well. On the other hand, due to the rough topography that exists in the study areas, the wide expansion of the existing cultivations into higher altitudes is unaffordable. Nevertheless, new more profitable cultivations can be introduced which can find propitious conditions in terms of GDD.

  20. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CONDITIONS AND HEALTH OF EMPLOYEES OF THE "SIBERIAN LIFT CO., LTD."].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodkin, V P; Usatov, A N

    2015-01-01

    There was carried out a hygienic assessment of the working conditions and health of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". When studying occupational factors on workplaces intensity, the temperature radiation, natural and artificial lighting, and also the content of chemicals they were revealed to fail to answer to the hygienic specifications. It is established that in 82% of employees the class of working conditions was detected as admissible (2) and in 18%--harmful (3.1 and 3.2). Results of the performed periodic medical examination of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd.". It is testified that 6.14% out of them are persistently unfit of the work with harmful and (or) dangerous substances and occupational factors also. 4.68% of employees demand an additional examination. 11,70% of workers need for out-patient examination and treatment. Sanatorium treatment is required for 1 (0.29%) the person. 4,68% of employees of the "Siberian Lift Co., Ltd." need dispensary supervision. There are suggested measures for the improvement of working conditions and health of the employees.

  1. [HYGIENIC ASSESSMENT OFWORKING ENVIRONMENT FOR REPAIRERS OF RAILWAY ROLLING STOCK IN PLANT CONDITIONS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeikina, N A; Kurenkova, G V

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive hygienic assessment of working environment for main occupational groups Railway Car Repair Plant in factory conditions shows that workers are exposed to the impact of factors of chemical nature in concentrations exceeding maximum allowable (lead, manganese, alkali caustic, sulphuric and nitric acids, chromium trioxide, silicon-containing dust, white corundum, diiron trioxide, silicate-organic dust, wood and carbon dusts), the high level of noise, the local vibration, insufficient levels of artificial lighting. The manual work is used, that determines the high severity of the labor process in the most of workers. There was identified the inconsistency of quality and quantitative estimation of the work conditions on chemical factor at implementation of various types of control: certification of workplaces on work conditions, productions and state control. There was given an a priori evaluation of the occupational risk in the three main workshops, there were detected 13 occupations with mild (moderate) risk, 9 occupations with average (significant) risk, 6 professions with high (intolerable) risk category and 1 occupation--with very high (intolerable) risk category. Low indices of occupational diseases according to official statistics were establishedfail to be consistent with a high probability of their occurrence in the production.

  2. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Farrell, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    This qualitative hazard evaluation systematically assessed potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Postulated accidents included the spontaneous ignition of a waste drum, puncture of a waste drum by a forklift, dropping of a waste drum from a forklift, and simultaneous dropping of seven drums during a crane failure. The descriptions and estimated frequencies of occurrence for these accidents were developed by the Hazard and Operability Study for CH TRU Waste Handling System (WCAP 14312). The estimated materials at risk, damage ratios, airborne release fractions and respirable fractions for these accidents were taken from the 1995 Safety Analysis Report (SAR) update and from the DOE handbook Airborne Release Fractions/Rates and Respirable Fractions for Nonreactor Nuclear Facilities (DOE-HDBK-3010-94). A Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the range of worker exposures that could result from each accident. Guidelines for evaluating the adequacy of defense-in-depth for worker protection at WIPP were adopted from a scheme presented by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in its publication on Protection from Potential Exposure: A Conceptual Framework (ICRP Publication 64). Probabilities of exposures greater than 5, 50, and 300 rem were less than 10 -2 , 10 -4 , and 10 -6 per year, respectively. In conformance with the guidance of DOE standard 3009-94, Appendix A (draft), we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposure under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, as well as members of the public and the environment

  3. Assessment of Safety Condition in One of the Teaching Hospitals in Kermanshah (2015: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masod Ghanbari Kakavand

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Many working conditions-related stress factors that can produce injuries and illnesses are important in hospital environments. So, the health and safety of nurses and patients from workplace-induced injuries and illnesses is important. In this study, we have assessed the safety condition of one of the teaching hospitals in Kermanshah (2015. Materials and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted in one of the teaching hospital of Kermanshah University of medical sciences. For this aim a checklist was prepared based on the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's standards and Part 3 of the manual of National Building Regulations. These checklists comprised (The final checklist had 239 questions of 9 dimensions various sections of safety including; fire safety, building safety, electrical safety, emergency exit routes safety, heating and cooling equipment safety, operating room and laundry room and salty home safety. Eventually, using SPSS 16 and descriptive statistics, data were analyzed. Results: According to the results of this study, 66.6% of the units had poor safety and 33.4% of them were moderately safe. As well as, only ICU and CCU unit, heating and cooling equipment and operational room showed moderate compliance with safety requirements and other sections were poorly complied. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that safety conditions of hospital were not at favorable level. These poor safety statues can jeopardize patients and hospital personnel. Thus some interventions such as improvement of working conditions, compliance with safety acts and implementation of health, safety and environmental management system would be necessary.

  4. A simulation model for reliability-based appraisal of an energy policy: The case of Lebanon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, H.A.; Ghajar, R.F.; Chedid, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Lebanese Electric Power System (LEPS) has been suffering from technical and financial deficiencies for decades and mirrors the problems encountered in many developing countries suffering from inadequate or no power systems planning resulting in incomplete and ill-operating infrastructure, and suffering from effects of political instability, huge debts, unavailability of financing desired projects and inefficiency in operation. The upgrade and development of the system necessitate the adoption of a comprehensive energy policy that introduces solutions to a diversity of problems addressing the technical, financial, administrative and governance aspects of the system. In this paper, an energy policy for Lebanon is proposed and evaluated based on integration between energy modeling and financial modeling. The paper utilizes the Load Modification Technique (LMT) as a probabilistic tool to assess the impact of policy implementation on energy production, overall cost, technical/commercial losses and reliability. Scenarios reflecting implementation of policy projects are assessed and their impacts are compared with business-as-usual scenarios which assume no new investment is to take place in the sector. Conclusions are drawn on the usefulness of the proposed evaluation methodology and the effectiveness of the adopted energy policy for Lebanon and other developing countries suffering from similar power system problems. - Highlights: ► Evaluation methodology based on a probabilistic simulation tool is proposed. ► A business-as-usual scenario for a given study period of the LEPS was modeled. ► Mitigation scenarios reflecting implementation of the energy policy are modeled. ► Policy simulated and compared with business-as-usual scenarios of the LEPS. ► Results reflect usefulness of proposed methodology and the adopted energy policy.

  5. Assessing trail conditions in protected areas: Application of a problem-assessment method in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Y.-F.; Marion, J.

    1999-01-01

    The degradation of trail resources associated with expanding recreation and tourism visitation is a growing management problem in protected areas worldwide. In order to make judicious trail and visitor management decisions, protected area managers need objective and timely information on trail resource conditions. This paper introduces a trail survey method that efficiently characterizes the lineal extent of common trail problems. The method was applied to a large sample of trails within Great Smoky Mountains National Park, a highuse protected area in the USA. The Trail ProblemAssessment Method (TPAM) employs a continuous search for multiple indicators of predefined tread problems, yielding census data documenting the location, occurrence and extent of each problem. The present application employed 23 different indicators in three categories to gather inventory, resource condition, and design and maintenance data of each surveyed trail. Seventy-two backcountry hiking trails (528 km), or 35% of the Park's total trail length, were surveyed. Soil erosion and wet soil were found to be the two most common impacts on a lineal extent basis. Trails with serious tread problems were well distributed throughout the Park, although wet muddy treads tended to be concentrated in areas where horse use was high. The effectiveness of maintenance features installed to divert water from trail treads was also evaluated. Water bars were found to be more effective than drainage dips. The TPAM was able to provide Park managers with objective and quantitative information for use in trail planning, management and maintenance decisions, and is applicable to other protected areas elsewhere with different environmental and impact characteristics.

  6. The uncertainty cascade in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions - the Biala Tarnowska case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, Joanna; Romanowicz, Renata

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainty in the results of the hydraulic model is not only associated with the limitations of that model and the shortcomings of data. An important factor that has a major impact on the uncertainty of the flood risk assessment in a changing climate conditions is associated with the uncertainty of future climate scenarios (IPCC WG I, 2013). Future climate projections provided by global climate models are used to generate future runoff required as an input to hydraulic models applied in the derivation of flood risk maps. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the uncertainty of future climate projections, an uncertainty of flow routing model, the propagation of that uncertainty through the hydraulic model, and finally, the uncertainty related to the derivation of flood risk maps. One of the aims of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the process, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-section. The study shows that the application of the simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by the

  7. Assessment of bridge abutment scour and sediment transport under various flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilja, Gordon; Valyrakis, Manousos; Michalis, Panagiotis; Bekić, Damir; Kuspilić, Neven; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Safety of bridges over watercourses can be compromised by flow characteristics and bridge hydraulics. Scour process around bridge foundations can develop rapidly during low-recurrence interval floods when structural elements are exposed to increased flows. Variations in riverbed geometry, as a result of sediment removal and deposition processes, can increase flood-induced hazard at bridge sites with catastrophic failures and destructive consequences for civil infrastructure. The quantification of flood induced hazard on bridge safety generally involves coupled hydrodynamic and sediment transport models (i.e. 2D numerical or physical models) for a range of hydrological events covering both high and low flows. Modelled boundary conditions are usually estimated for their probability of occurrence using frequency analysis of long-term recordings at gauging stations. At smaller rivers gauging station records are scarce, especially in upper courses of rivers where weirs, drops and rapids are common elements of river bathymetry. As a result, boundary conditions that accurately represent flow patterns on modelled river reach cannot be often reliably acquired. Sediment transport process is also more complicated to describe due to its complexity and dependence to local flow field making scour hazard assessment a particularly challenging issue. This study investigates the influence of flow characteristics to the development of scour and sedimentation processes around bridge abutments of a single span masonry arch bridge in south Ireland. The impact of downstream weirs on bridge hydraulics through variation of downstream model domain type is also considered in this study. The numerical model is established based on detailed bathymetry data surveyed along a rectangular grid of 50cm spacing. Acquired data also consist of riverbed morphology and water level variations which are monitored continuously on bridge site. The obtained data are then used to compare and calibrate

  8. Assessing the effects of adaptation measures on optimal water resources allocation under varied water availability conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dedi; Guo, Shenglian; Shao, Quanxi; Liu, Pan; Xiong, Lihua; Wang, Le; Hong, Xingjun; Xu, Yao; Wang, Zhaoli

    2018-01-01

    Human activities and climate change have altered the spatial and temporal distribution of water availability which is a principal prerequisite for allocation of different water resources. In order to quantify the impacts of climate change and human activities on water availability and optimal allocation of water resources, hydrological models and optimal water resource allocation models should be integrated. Given that increasing human water demand and varying water availability conditions necessitate adaptation measures, we propose a framework to assess the effects of these measures on optimal allocation of water resources. The proposed model and framework were applied to a case study of the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjiang River Basin in China. Two representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios (RCP2.6 and RCP4.5) were employed to project future climate, and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrological model was used to simulate the variability of flows under historical (1956-2011) and future (2012-2099) conditions. The water availability determined by simulating flow with the VIC hydrological model was used to establish the optimal water resources allocation model. The allocation results were derived under an extremely dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 95%), a very dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 90%), a dry year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 75%), and a normal year (with an annual average water flow frequency of 50%) during historical and future periods. The results show that the total available water resources in the study area and the inflow of the Danjiangkou Reservoir will increase in the future. However, the uneven distribution of water availability will cause water shortage problems, especially in the boundary areas. The effects of adaptation measures, including water saving, and dynamic control of flood limiting water levels (FLWLs) for reservoir operation, were

  9. A Conditioned Behavioral Paradigm for Assessing Onset and Lasting Tinnitus in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Edward; Luo, Hao; Bobian, Michael; Panekkad, Ajay; Zhang, Xueguo; Zhang, Huiming; Zhang, Jinsheng

    2016-01-01

    Numerous behavioral paradigms have been developed to assess tinnitus-like behavior in animals. Nevertheless, they are often limited by prolonged training requirements, as well as an inability to simultaneously assess onset and lasting tinnitus behavior, tinnitus pitch or duration, or tinnitus presence without grouping data from multiple animals or testing sessions. To enhance behavioral testing of tinnitus, we developed a conditioned licking suppression paradigm to determine the pitch(s) of both onset and lasting tinnitus-like behavior within individual animals. Rats learned to lick water during broadband or narrowband noises, and to suppress licking to avoid footshocks during silence. After noise exposure, rats significantly increased licking during silent trials, suggesting onset tinnitus-like behavior. Lasting tinnitus-behavior, however, was exhibited in about half of noise-exposed rats through 7 weeks post-exposure tested. Licking activity during narrowband sound trials remained unchanged following noise exposure, while ABR hearing thresholds fully recovered and were comparable between tinnitus(+) and tinnitus(-) rats. To assess another tinnitus inducer, rats were injected with sodium salicylate. They demonstrated high pitch tinnitus-like behavior, but later recovered by 5 days post-injection. Further control studies showed that 1): sham noise-exposed rats tested with footshock did not exhibit tinnitus-like behavior, and 2): noise-exposed or sham rats tested without footshocks showed no fundamental changes in behavior compared to those tested with shocks. Together, these results demonstrate that this paradigm can efficiently test the development of noise- and salicylate-induced tinnitus behavior. The ability to assess tinnitus individually, over time, and without averaging data enables us to realistically address tinnitus in a clinically relevant way. Thus, we believe that this optimized behavioral paradigm will facilitate investigations into the mechanisms of

  10. Human reliability-based MC and A models for detecting insider theft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Wyss, Gregory Dane

    2010-01-01

    Material control and accounting (MC and A) safeguards operations that track and account for critical assets at nuclear facilities provide a key protection approach for defeating insider adversaries. These activities, however, have been difficult to characterize in ways that are compatible with the probabilistic path analysis methods that are used to systematically evaluate the effectiveness of a site's physical protection (security) system (PPS). MC and A activities have many similar characteristics to operator procedures performed in a nuclear power plant (NPP) to check for anomalous conditions. This work applies human reliability analysis (HRA) methods and models for human performance of NPP operations to develop detection probabilities for MC and A activities. This has enabled the development of an extended probabilistic path analysis methodology in which MC and A protections can be combined with traditional sensor data in the calculation of PPS effectiveness. The extended path analysis methodology provides an integrated evaluation of a safeguards and security system that addresses its effectiveness for attacks by both outside and inside adversaries.

  11. An application of a hydraulic model simulator in flood risk assessment under changing climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroszkiewicz, J. M.; Romanowicz, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The standard procedure of climate change impact assessment on future hydrological extremes consists of a chain of consecutive actions, starting from the choice of GCM driven by an assumed CO2 scenario, through downscaling of climatic forcing to a catchment scale, estimation of hydrological extreme indices using hydrological modelling tools and subsequent derivation of flood risk maps with the help of a hydraulic model. Among many possible sources of uncertainty, the main are the uncertainties related to future climate scenarios, climate models, downscaling techniques and hydrological and hydraulic models. Unfortunately, we cannot directly assess the impact of these different sources of uncertainties on flood risk in future due to lack of observations of future climate realizations. The aim of this study is an assessment of a relative impact of different sources of uncertainty on the uncertainty of flood risk maps. Due to the complexity of the processes involved, an assessment of total uncertainty of maps of inundation probability might be very computer time consuming. As a way forward we present an application of a hydraulic model simulator based on a nonlinear transfer function model for the chosen locations along the river reach. The transfer function model parameters are estimated based on the simulations of the hydraulic model at each of the model cross-sections. The study shows that the application of a simulator substantially reduces the computer requirements related to the derivation of flood risk maps under future climatic conditions. Biala Tarnowska catchment, situated in southern Poland is used as a case study. Future discharges at the input to a hydraulic model are obtained using the HBV model and climate projections obtained from the EUROCORDEX project. The study describes a cascade of uncertainty related to different stages of the process of derivation of flood risk maps under changing climate conditions. In this context it takes into account the

  12. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S st , S st , p st ) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S su , S su , p su ) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S st , S st , p st ) and (S su , S su , p su ). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  13. Obsidian: alteration study under hydrothermal-like conditions for its assessment as a nuclear waste glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rania, Nishi; Shrivastava, J.P.; Bajpai, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Alteration experiments of obsidian (from Osham Hill, Gujarat, India) were performed under hydrothermal-like conditions. Neo-formed minerals were compared with naturally altered minerals to assess its performance. Altered specimens show partial to complete leaching of glass, where ionic release is of the order of Na>Si>K>Ca>Al = Mg>Mn>Ti. SEM-BSE images show distinct microstructures and mineral paragenesis of smectite, chlorite, nontronite, and illite inside and outside of the secondary layers - show retention of Si, Al, and Mg ions, fixation in the alteration products after their meager release to the solution. Secondary minerals-palagonite, chlorite, calcite, zeolite and white colored clays - formed after experiments largely correspond to altered obsidian in the natural environment since ∼ 65 Ma. (authors)

  14. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helton, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S st , L st , P st ) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S su , L su , P su ) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S st , L st , P st ) and (S su , L su , P su ). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the US Environmental Protection Agency's standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems

  15. Assessing potential changes of chestnut productivity in Europe under future climate conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calheiros, T.; Pereira, M. G.; Pinto, J. G.; Caramelo, L.; Gomes-Laranjo, J.; Dacamara, C. C.

    2012-04-01

    The European chestnut is cultivated for its nuts and wood. Several studies point to the dependency of chestnut productivity on specific soil and climate characteristics. For instance, this species dislikes chalky and poorly drained soils, appreciates sedimentary, siliceous and acidic to neutral soils. Chestnut trees also seems to appreciate annual mean values of sunlight spanning between 2400 and 2600 h, rainfall ranging between 600 and 1500 mm, mean annual temperature between 9 and 13°C, 27°C being the mean of the maximum temperature (Heiniger and Conedera, 1992; Gomes-Laranjo et al.,2008). The amount of heat between May and October must range between 1800°D and 2400°D (Dinis et al., 2011) . In Poland, the growing season is defined as the period of time when the mean 24-h temperature is greater than 5°C (Wilczynski and Podalski, 2007). In Portugal, maximum photosynthetic activity occurs at 24-28°C for adult trees, but exhibits more than 50% of termoinhibition when the air temperature is above 32°C, which is frequent during summer (Gomes- Laranjo et al., 2006, 2008). Recently Pereira et al (2011) identified a set of meteorological variables/parameters with high impact on chestnut productivity. The main purpose of this work is to assess the potential impacts of future climate change on chestnut productivity in Portugal as well as on European chestnut orchards. First, observed data from the European Climate assessment (ECA) and simulations with the Regional Circulation Model (RCM) COSMO-CLM for recent climate conditions are used to assess the ability of the RCM to model the actual meteorological conditions. Then, ensemble projections from the ECHAM5/COSMO-CLM model chain for two climate scenarios (A1B and B1) are used to estimate the values of relevant meteorological variables and parameters und future climate conditions. Simulated values are then compared with those obtained for present climate. Results point to changes in the spatial and temporal

  16. Obsidian: alteration study under hydrothermal-like conditions for its assessment as a nuclear waste glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rania, Nishi; Shrivastava, J.P. [Department of Geology, University of Delhi, Delhi - 110007 (India); Bajpai, R.K. [BETDD, Nuclear Recycle Group, BARC, Mumbai - 400008 (India)

    2013-07-01

    Alteration experiments of obsidian (from Osham Hill, Gujarat, India) were performed under hydrothermal-like conditions. Neo-formed minerals were compared with naturally altered minerals to assess its performance. Altered specimens show partial to complete leaching of glass, where ionic release is of the order of Na>Si>K>Ca>Al = Mg>Mn>Ti. SEM-BSE images show distinct microstructures and mineral paragenesis of smectite, chlorite, nontronite, and illite inside and outside of the secondary layers - show retention of Si, Al, and Mg ions, fixation in the alteration products after their meager release to the solution. Secondary minerals-palagonite, chlorite, calcite, zeolite and white colored clays - formed after experiments largely correspond to altered obsidian in the natural environment since ∼ 65 Ma. (authors)

  17. Life cycle assessment of a conventional and plastic solar collector in alternative air-conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algarbi, N. M.

    2006-01-01

    Alternative solar systems include a large number of heat-and mass exchange apparatus (HMTA) with considerable size surfaces. Prequired for realization of the work processes. This result in the increase in the overall dimentions. and cost of the system. The possibility of using the principle of combining the working and auxiliary processes within the (HMTA) has been considred, and the calculation proving the working ability of the alternative system for solving the task of air-condition, obtaining comfort parameters by employing evaporative air-cooling methods only, and a solar system with flat solar collectors to provide for the absorbent regeneration, have been performed. The study shows the importance in using Live Cycle Assessment, study for renewable energy, technologies, where environmental performance is especially important.(Author)

  18. Pavement condition assessment to forecast maintenance program on JKR state roads in Petaling district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamsan, R.; Hafiz, H.; Azlan, A.; Keprawi, M. F.; Malik, A. K. A.; Adamuddin, A.; Abdullah, A. H.; Shafie, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    This research allows local authorities to project road maintenance in term of activities and financial expenditure through pavement condition assessment and then Highway Development and Management (HDM-4) analysis. Current form of road maintenance carried out by local authority is on reactive manner where corrective actions were taken based on reports recorded. Some went unrecorded hence causing prolonged damages. This causes the local authority unable to project the required cost to maintain the roads. This affects the socio-economy of the surrounding routes. Hence, it is seen, as preventive maintenance of the roads will provide more feasible option in term of work force and finance to the local authority. To overcome this issue, a preventive model was introduced. This was done through pavement condition assessment (PCA) where analysis was done through HDM-4. Nondestructive test and destructive test were conducted in order to provide an indicator to the road's health. This were then analyzed in HDM-4 where the result was benchmarked with maintenance standard. The scope of this research is set to PCA where DT and NDT were performed on the routes of Petaling and the output is analyzed in HDM-4. The result of this research provides a 10 years forecast maintenance budget in maintaining the roads in Petaling. This allows the local authority to perform good practice in term of maintaining the roads while at the same time helps them in forecasting their budget for the upcoming years. This research will have a strong impact on the local socio-economy as well as local road user confidence towards the authority over good practices. This research can be further expanded to other type of roads as well as highway bridges.

  19. [Assessment of adaptation to on-board conditions on "The Ship for World Youth"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, H; Kurabayashi, L; Yamato, H; Inamura, H

    1992-01-01

    The adaptation process of youth from 13 countries on board "The 3rd Ship for World Youth" cruise which was held from January 18 to March 20 in 1991 was analyzed. The age of almost all of the participants was in the 20's (average age was 24.9 yrs), and there were 103 participants (47 males, 56 females) from Japan, 171 participants (86 males, 85 females) from North, Middle and South America, and Oceanian countries for total of 274 participants (133 males, 141 females). The living environment on board differed significantly from daily living conditions of the participants, particularly due to the need to communicate in a foreign language, and to live in harmony with different cultures in a confinement situation, such that they were inevitably susceptible to various stressors. Among the participants there were some who needed psychiatric care and treatment. In order to assess quantitatively psychosomatic reactions to those stressors, a 28-item scaled GHQ (= General Health Questionnaire) assessment was performed four times on board with the following findings: 1. Highest scores were seen shortly after embarkment and decreased as the participants got accustomed to the living conditions on board. 2. The scores of the Japanese participants were higher than those of foreign participants, possibly indicating awkward adaptational skill on the part of Japanese participants especially during the first stage. 3. Japanese females scored slightly higher than Japanese males throughout the course of the program. 4. No clear difference in scores between Japanese participants aged under 25 y and over 26 y was observed. 5. A large proportion (77.3%) of Japanese participants had Y-G personality test results classifying them in the 'stable positive' group (D group). These participants had significantly lower scaled GHQ scores than those in the non-D group, indicating a high adaptational ability of D group participants.

  20. Reliability-based fatigue life estimation of shear riveted connections considering dependency of rivet hole failures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonetti* Davide

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Standards and guidelines for the fatigue design of riveted connections make use of a stress range-endurance (S-N curve based on the net section stress range regardless of the number and the position of the rivets. Almost all tests on which S-N curves are based, are performed with a minimum number of rivets. However, the number of rivets in a row is expected to increase the fail-safe behaviour of the connection, whereas the number of rows is supposed to decrease the theoretical stress concentration at the critical locations, and hence these aspects are not considered in the S-N curves. This paper presents a numerical model predicting the fatigue life of riveted connections by performing a system reliability analysis on a double cover plated riveted butt joint. The connection is considered in three geometries, with different number of rivets in a row and different number of rows. The stress state in the connection is evaluated using a finite element model in which the friction coefficient and the clamping force in the rivets are considered in a deterministic manner. The probability of failure is evaluated for the main plate, and fatigue failure is assumed to be originating at the sides of the rivet holes, the critical locations, or hot-spots. The notch stress approach is applied to assess the fatigue life, considered to be a stochastic quantity. Unlike other system reliability models available in the literature, the evaluation of the probability of failure takes into account the stochastic dependence between the failures at each critical location modelled as a parallel system, which means considering the change of the state of stress in the connection when a ligament between two rivets fails. A sensitivity study is performed to evaluate the effect of the pretension in the rivet and the friction coefficient on the fatigue life.

  1. Assessment of Radionuclides Release from Inshas LILW Disposal Facility Under Normal and Unusual Operational Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaki, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Disposing of low and intermediate radioactive waste (LILW) is a big concern for Egypt due to the accumulated waste as a result of past fifty years of peaceful nuclear applications. Assessment of radionuclides release from Inshas LILW disposal facility under normal and unusual operational conditions is very important in order to apply for operation license of the facility. Aqueous release of radionuclides from this disposal facility is controlled by water flow, access of the water to the wasteform, release of the radionuclides from the wasteform, and transport to the disposal facility boundary. In this work, the release of 137 Cs , 6C o, and 90 Sr radionuclides from the Inshas disposal facility was studied under the change of operational conditions. The release of these radio contaminants from the source term to the unsaturated and saturated zones , to groundwater were studied. It was found that the concentration of radionuclides in a groundwater well located 150 m away from the Inshas disposal facility is less than the maximum permissible concentration in groundwater in both cases

  2. Online adaptive learning of Left-Right Continuous HMM for bearings condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartella, F; Liu, T; Meganck, S; Lemeire, J; Sahli, H

    2012-01-01

    Standard Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) approaches used for condition assessment of bearings assume that all the possible system states are fixed and known a priori and that training data from all of the associated states are available. Moreover, the training procedure is performed offline, and only once at the beginning, with the available training set. These assumptions significantly impede component diagnosis applications when all of the possible states of the system are not known in advance or environmental factors or operative conditions change during the tool's usage. The method introduced in this paper overcomes the above limitations and proposes an approach to detect unknown degradation modalities using a Left-Right Continuous HMM with a variable state space. The proposed HMM is combined with Change Point Detection algorithms to (i) estimate, from historical observations, the initial number of the model's states, as well as to perform an initial guess of the parameters, and (ii) to adaptively recognize new states and, consequently, adjust the model parameters during monitoring. The approach has been tested using real monitoring data taken from the NASA benchmark repository. A comparative study with state of the art techniques shows improvements in terms of reduction of the training procedure iterations, and early detection of unknown states.

  3. Review at Bikini Atoll. Assessing radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll and the prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegnar, P.

    1998-01-01

    Some testing during the development of the atomic bomb was done in countries that do not have the infrastructure and expertise for evaluating any associated radiation risks. In such cases, outside expertise is needed to obtain independent advice about the radiological situation caused by residual radioactive material from nuclear testing. The IAEA has been requested by the governments of a number of its Member States to provide assistance in this context. Among the former nuclear test sites which the IAEA has reviewed is the Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. Based on its review, the IAEA Advisory Group determined that no further corroboration of the measurements and assessments of the radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll is necessary. The data that have been collected are of sufficient quality to allow an appropriate evaluation to be performed. The limited IAEA monitoring of the area provided a good quality assurance verification of the previously collected data. It was recommended that Bikini Island should not be permanently resettled under the present radiological conditions. This recommendation was based on the assumption that persons resettling on the island would consume a diet of entirely locally produced food. The radiological data support that if a diet of this type were permitted, it could lead to an annual effective dose of about 15 mSv. This level was judged to require intervention of some type for radiation protection purposes

  4. The National Library of Kosovo "PJETER Bogdani" Rapid Condition Assessment and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppich, R.; Ramku, B.; Binakaj, N.

    2017-08-01

    The National Library of Kosovo "Pjetër Bogdani" is a symbol of Prishtina, Kosovo and the quest for knowledge. It is simultaneously an icon of modernity and symbol of the past. Unfortunately, it suffered through the Kosovo war and neglect in times of economic difficulty. It was also unfortunately featured in the British newspaper The Telegraph in their travel section: "One of the world's 30 ugliest buildings?" In late 2015 the Kosovo Architectural Foundation, a non-profit dedicated to spirit of creating and preserving unique architecture, became concerned with the reputation and condition of the Library and contacted the Kosovo Ministry of Culture, visited the site and initiated a project to raise awareness and document this modern masterpiece. The Getty Foundation and their Keeping it Modern grant program awarded funding for initial condition assessment, documentation, capacity building and investigations. This paper discusses the project to document and improve the image and awareness of this important structure and set priorities for its future.

  5. Multitarget survey on the Finance Police personnel: assessment of the health condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraco, Giancarlo; Pagano, Stefano; Lupoli, Grazia; Dolci, Alessandro; Colagrosso, Beniamino

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10-15 years, Italy has undergone a social transformation, and the class of employees and workers has become more economically stable with a higher buying power. Along with the increased expectations of patients on the quality of life, it has now become a priority to make health and social services ready to face users bearing new requirements and different needs. To provide a description of the state of health of the operating personnel of the Finance Police (Guardia di Finanza), including elements for planning the most appropriate interventions for health promotion and prevention. The study analyzed the health condition of a group of soldiers (178 subjects, divided into different age classes) by evaluating the effectiveness of a training and information program and subsequently the level of benefit. The study population showed a good state of health correlated to the quality of life. Although the population voluntarily submitted to health assessment, the rigour of the calls and briefings carried out in the military health unit and the attention of the group to follow instructions on prevention underlined a positive trend, even in behaviours considered as health-risky. Socio-cultural components and the work environment influence the quality of life. In the case of military health care, the specific military organization was useful to monitor the health condition of the population, maximizing the effectiveness of services, enhancing the information and carrying out prevention strategies and demand of care, which should be an example for the public health services.

  6. Axial Fan Blade Vibration Assessment under Inlet Cross-Flow Conditions Using Laser Scanning Vibrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Heinemann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In thermal power plants equipped with air-cooled condensers (ACCs, axial cooling fans operate under the influence of ambient flow fields. Under inlet cross-flow conditions, the resultant asymmetric flow field is known to introduce additional harmonic forces to the fan blades. This effect has previously only been studied numerically or by using blade-mounted strain gauges. For this study, laser scanning vibrometry (LSV was used to assess fan blade vibration under inlet cross-flow conditions in an adapted fan test rig inside a wind tunnel test section. Two co-rotating laser beams scanned a low-pressure axial fan, resulting in spectral, phase-resolved surface vibration patterns of the fan blades. Two distinct operating points with flow coefficients of 0.17 and 0.28 were examined, with and without inlet cross-flow influence. While almost identical fan vibration patterns were found for both reference operating points, the overall blade vibration increased by 100% at the low fan flow rate as a result of cross-flow, and by 20% at the high fan flow rate. While numerically predicted natural frequency modes could be confirmed from experimental data as minor peaks in the vibration amplitude spectrum, they were not excited significantly by cross-flow. Instead, primarily higher rotation-rate harmonics were amplified; that is, a synchronous blade-tip flapping was strongly excited at the blade-pass frequency.

  7. Assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned buildings using PMV index

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosonen, R. [Halton OY, Kausala (Finland); Tan, F. [CapitaLand Commercial Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    2004-07-01

    This theoretical study reports on the assessment of productivity loss in air-conditioned office buildings using the PMV approach and makes use of Wyon's reviews [D.P. Wyon, P.O. Fanger, B.W. Olesen, C.J.K. Pedersen, The mental performance of subjects clothed for comfort at two different air temperatures, Ergonomics 18 (1975) 358-374; D.P. Wyon, Individual microclimate control: required range, probable benefits and current feasibility, in: Proceedings of Indoor Air '96, Institute of Public Health, Tokyo, 1996; D.P. Wyon, Indoor environmental effects on productivity. IAQ 96 Paths to better building environments/Keynote address. Y. Kevin. Atlanta, ASHRAE, pp. 5-15] as the basis to compare and to relate how the productivity loss could be minimised through improved thermal comfort design criteria. The finding shows that task-related performance is significantly correlated with the human perception of thermal environment that in turn is dependent on temperatures. Different combinations of thermal criteria (air velocity, clo, metabolic, etc.) can lead to similar PMV value and the PMV equation is useful to predict productivity loss that is due to the rate of change in thermal conditions. The study also highlights the issues that remain to be resolved in future research. (author)

  8. Assessment of the Conditions for Linking Microfinance to Household Biodigester Construction in Cambodia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandararot, K.; Dannet, L.

    2006-10-15

    This report presents a comprehensive assessment of the conditions for helping households finance the construction of a biodigester. A micro-credit programme for biodigester users was jointly designed by the National Biodigester Programme (NBP), Netherlands Development Finance Company (FMO) and Microfinance Institutions (MFIs). By using in-depth interviews, a household survey and a desk study, it was determined that the demand for biodigester market was significant, with 96.5% of the studied households possessing the capacity to operate a biodigester. The research for demand for micro-credit showed that households were indeed in need of a financial aid (84%) but the majority was unwilling to borrow credit due to fear of inability to repay it. The ones willing to borrow demanded a credit size of 400,000-1,200,000 riels. The MFIs contacted (ACLEDA, Amret, CEB, Prasac, HURREDO) were interested in lending a micro-credit to biodigester users but were also concerned for the credit as it was for consumption and not production. It appeared that credit conditions desired by potential biodigester users were overall in line with MFIs offered conditions, but an interest rate gap was also in place. Some of the extensive suggestions on how to alleviate the problem offered in the report place FMO in the centre of operations as a possible guarantor of default loans, among other duties. The challenges likely to arise because of a roll-out strategy (linking potential biodigester users with micro-credit), as well plausible solutions are presented as well.

  9. Assessing changes in a patient's condition - perspectives of intensive care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Monica; Delmar, Charlotte; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2017-03-01

    To explore the phenomenon of assessing changes in patients' conditions in intensive care units from the perspectives of experienced intensive care nurses. Providing safe care for patients in intensive care units requires an awareness and perception of the signs that indicate changes in a patient's condition. Nurses in intensive care units play an essential role in preventing the deterioration of a patient's condition and in improving patient outcomes. This hermeneutic phenomenological study conducted close observations and in-depth interviews with 11 intensive care nurses. The nurses' experience ranged from 7 to 28 years in the intensive care unit. Data were collected at two intensive care units in two Norwegian university hospitals. The analysis was performed using the reflective methods of van Manen. An overarching theme of 'sensitive situational attention' was identified, in which the nurses were sensitive in relation to a patient and understood the significance of a given situation. This theme was further unfolded in four subthemes: (1) being sensitive and emotionally present, (2) being systematic and concentrating, (3) being physically close to the bedside and (4) being trained and familiar with the routines. Nurses understand each patient's situation and foresee clinical eventualities through a sensitive and attentive way of thinking and working. This requires nurses to be present at the bedside with both their senses (sight, hearing, smell and touch) and emotions and to work in a concentrated and systematic manner. Knowledge about the unique patient exists in interplay with past experiences and medical knowledge, which are essential for nurses to understand the situation. Clinical practice should develop routines that enable nurses to be present at the bedside and to work in a concentrated and systematic manner. Furthermore, providing safe care requires nurses to be sensitive and attentive to each patient's unique situation. © 2016 British Association of

  10. Combined electric and pressure cuff pain stimuli for assessing conditioning pain modulation (CPM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, M; Petersen, K K; Mørch, C D; Arendt-Nielsen, L

    2017-12-29

    Aims Traditionally, conditioning pain modulation (CPM) can be assessed by applying a test stimulus (TS) before and after application of a conditioning stimulus (CS), which is normally applied extra-segmental. Currently, no studies have attempted to apply the TS and CS to the same site using different stimuli modalities. The aim of this study was to evaluate electrical TS and cuff pressure CS applied to the same experimental site for studying CPM. Methods 20 male volunteers participated in this study, which consisted of stimulations applied by a cuff-algometer (NociTech and Aalborg University, Denmark) and current stimulator (Digitimer DS5, UK), through two Ag/AgCl electrodes (Ambu® Neuroline 700, Denmark). The cuff was wrapped around the lower leg and stimulation electrodes were placed under the cuff and to the same location on the contralateral leg. Electrical TS were applied to the non-dominant leg with or without cuff pressure CS on the dominant (CS1) or the same (non-dominant) leg (CS2, electrode under cuff). The subjects were instructed to rate the electrical evoked pain intensity on a 10-cm continuous visual analog scale (VAS, "0" represented "no pain", and "10" represented "maximal pain"). The pain detection threshold (PDT) was defined as "1" on the VAS scale. Results There was no significant deference in PDT for neither CS1 nor CS2. A median split subanalysis on CPM-responders versus CPM-nonresponders to the TS + CS1 combination. Using this grouping, there was significant increase in PDT when comparing TS to TS + CS1 or TS + CS2 (4.0 mA vs 5.6 mA; P CPM can be evoked in a subgroup of subjects by applying the electrical test stimulus and cuff pressure conditioning stimuli to the same experimental site.

  11. Hygienic assessment of working conditions and occupational risk for workers health at railway transport objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Loginova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We performed hygienic assessment of working conditions at railway transport over 2011–2015. We detected a decreasing trend in specific weight of working places where physical factors were higher than hygienic standards and where steam and gases content in working area air was higher than maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. Working conditions of locomotive teams remain most unfavorable as per risk factors. We detected that a priori occupation risk for locomotive teams was characterized with parameters varying from moderate to considerable ones. Occupational noise was determined as a priority risk factor making working conditions category a hazardous one and it corresponded to occupational morbidity structure. We detected that sensorineural hearing loss took a leading place in morbidity both in the branch in general and among locomotive team workers. We also clarified that such workers as engine drivers and their assistants (up to 43 % had the greatest specific weight among railway workers with occupational diseases; occupational morbidity among locomotive team workers amounted to 3.0 per 10,000 workers in 2015 while average morbidity among all railway workers amounted to only 1.32 per 10,000 workers. We revealed that occupational diseases were most frequently detected in workers aged 51–60 (51.9 % in 2014 who had worked under hazardous occupational factors influence for longer than 15 years. While there was an overall decreasing trend in occupa-tional morbidity in the branch in 2011–2015 from 1.68 to 1.32 per 10,000 workers, we detected a brunch peculiarity in the risk group, namely, an unsatisfactory trend for growing share of workers with occupational diseases aged 31–40 (from 2.6 % in 2011 to 12 % in 2014 and it requires special attention in terms of risk management.

  12. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety R.; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-01-01

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses-frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world-act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in decision-making may be understood from this perspective. Environmental knowledge that is inconsistent with dominant discourses runs the risk of being ignored. Discourses on the value of EA as a tool for decision-making may have a similar effect. Stimulating decision-makers and stakeholders to critically reflect on and reconsider their discourses in the light of EAs-also known as frame reflection or policy learning-may enhance the probability that these assessments and the knowledge that they generate impact upon decision-making. Up to now little has been written about how discourse reflection in the context of EA can be promoted. Valuable inputs are fragmented over different bodies of literature. In this paper we draw from these bodies to identify favourable conditions for discourse reflection.

  13. Rainfall Downscaling Conditional on Upper-air Variables: Assessing Rainfall Statistics in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto; Marrocu, Marino; Kaleris, Vassilios

    2014-05-01

    Due to its intermittent and highly variable character, and the modeling parameterizations used, precipitation is one of the least well reproduced hydrologic variables by both Global Climate Models (GCMs) and Regional Climate Models (RCMs). This is especially the case at a regional level (where hydrologic risks are assessed) and at small temporal scales (e.g. daily) used to run hydrologic models. In an effort to remedy those shortcomings and assess the effect of climate change on rainfall statistics at hydrologically relevant scales, Langousis and Kaleris (2013) developed a statistical framework for simulation of daily rainfall intensities conditional on upper air variables. The developed downscaling scheme was tested using atmospheric data from the ERA-Interim archive (http://www.ecmwf.int/research/era/do/get/index), and daily rainfall measurements from western Greece, and was proved capable of reproducing several statistical properties of actual rainfall records, at both annual and seasonal levels. This was done solely by conditioning rainfall simulation on a vector of atmospheric predictors, properly selected to reflect the relative influence of upper-air variables on ground-level rainfall statistics. In this study, we apply the developed framework for conditional rainfall simulation using atmospheric data from different GCM/RCM combinations. This is done using atmospheric data from the ENSEMBLES project (http://ensembleseu.metoffice.com), and daily rainfall measurements for an intermediate-sized catchment in Italy; i.e. the Flumendosa catchment. Since GCM/RCM products are suited to reproduce the local climatology in a statistical sense (i.e. in terms of relative frequencies), rather than ensuring a one-to-one temporal correspondence between observed and simulated fields (i.e. as is the case for ERA-interim reanalysis data), we proceed in three steps: a) we use statistical tools to establish a linkage between ERA-Interim upper-air atmospheric forecasts and

  14. Assessment of potential doses to workers during postulated accident conditions at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Farrell, R.F. [DOE, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    The recent 1995 WIPP Safety Analysis Report (SAR) Update provided detailed analyses of potential radiation doses to members of the public at the site boundary during postulated accident scenarios at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The SAR Update addressed the complete spectrum of potential accidents associated with handling and emplacing transuranic waste at WIPP, including damage to waste drums from fires, punctures, drops, and other disruptions. The report focused on the adequacy of the multiple layers of safety practice ({open_quotes}defense-in-depth{close_quotes}) at WIPP, which are designed to (1) reduce the likelihood of accidents and (2) limit the consequences of those accidents. The safeguards which contribute to defense-in-depth at WIPP include a substantial array of inherent design features, engineered controls, and administrative procedures. The SAR Update confirmed that the defense-in-depth at WIPP is adequate to assure the protection of the public and environment. As a supplement to the 1995 SAR Update, we have conducted additional analyses to confirm that these controls will also provide adequate protection to workers at the WIPP. The approaches and results of the worker dose assessment are summarized here. In conformance with the guidance of DOE Standard 3009-94, we emphasize that use of these evaluation guidelines is not intended to imply that these numbers constitute acceptable limits for worker exposures under accident conditions. However, in conjunction with the extensive safety assessment in the 1995 SAR Update, these results indicate that the Carlsbad Area Office strategy for the assessment of hazards and accidents assures the protection of workers, members of the public, and the environment.

  15. Assessment of metals bioavailability to vegetables under field conditions using DGT, single extractions and multivariate statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The metals bioavailability in soils is commonly assessed by chemical extractions; however a generally accepted method is not yet established. In this study, the effectiveness of Diffusive Gradients in Thin-films (DGT) technique and single extractions in the assessment of metals bioaccumulation in vegetables, and the influence of soil parameters on phytoavailability were evaluated using multivariate statistics. Soil and plants grown in vegetable gardens from mining-affected rural areas, NW Romania, were collected and analysed. Results Pseudo-total metal content of Cu, Zn and Cd in soil ranged between 17.3-146 mg kg-1, 141–833 mg kg-1 and 0.15-2.05 mg kg-1, respectively, showing enriched contents of these elements. High degrees of metals extractability in 1M HCl and even in 1M NH4Cl were observed. Despite the relatively high total metal concentrations in soil, those found in vegetables were comparable to values typically reported for agricultural crops, probably due to the low concentrations of metals in soil solution (Csoln) and low effective concentrations (CE), assessed by DGT technique. Among the analysed vegetables, the highest metal concentrations were found in carrots roots. By applying multivariate statistics, it was found that CE, Csoln and extraction in 1M NH4Cl, were better predictors for metals bioavailability than the acid extractions applied in this study. Copper transfer to vegetables was strongly influenced by soil organic carbon (OC) and cation exchange capacity (CEC), while pH had a higher influence on Cd transfer from soil to plants. Conclusions The results showed that DGT can be used for general evaluation of the risks associated to soil contamination with Cu, Zn and Cd in field conditions. Although quantitative information on metals transfer from soil to vegetables was not observed. PMID:23079133

  16. A Geomorphologically Driven Conditional Assessment for the Study of Urban Stone Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Brian; McKinley, Jennifer; Warke, Patricia; Ruffell, Alastair

    2017-04-01

    Much of humanity's legacy is within the built environment and therefore in the stones that have been used for its construction. This means that targeted building conservation strategies are vital when considering the maintenance of this heritage. Conditional assessments play a major part in these efforts by classifying blocks based upon their visual state of decay. However, as these tools were developed with the purpose of informing decision making by professionals in the construction and conservation industries, limitations exist when considering them as part of studies with a geomorphological focus. Links between the decay of stonework and spatially variable control factors, such as material properties, microclimatic conditions and pollutant distribution, have been well documented in past studies, with observations of decay on wall sections supporting this concept. For example, the distribution of weathering features can indicate that certain blocks are more susceptible than others to decay. Additionally, adjoining blocks can exhibit similar processes, suggestive of interaction between the blocks, indicating a linkage between individual block scale decay and processes acting at a wider wall scale. These observations have led to comparisons between the weathering of rock outcrops and building façades, with mortar joints playing the role of fractures or bedding. This comparison has highlighted the necessity to not simply consider decay in terms of architecture or engineering, but also in terms of the geomorphological processes taking place. The patterns of decay created at a wall scale, whilst being visually chaotic, can provide clues to the controlling factors acting upon this system, if they are subjected to informed scrutiny. Despite such discussions, the focus of surveys towards remediation have created limitations when applying the results of these surveys towards the understanding of processes acting between blocks at a wall scale. This work aims to take

  17. Repeatability of road pavement condition assessment based on three-dimensional analysis of linear accelerations of vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniek, Marcin

    2018-05-01

    The article provides a discussion concerning a tool used for road pavement condition assessment based on signals of linear accelerations recorded with high sampling frequency for typical vehicles traversing the road network under real-life road traffic conditions. Specific relationships have been established for the sake of road pavement condition assessment, including identification of road sections of poor technical condition. The data thus acquired have been verified with regard to repeatability of estimated road pavement assessment indices. The data make it possible to describe the road network status against an area in which users of the system being developed move. What proves to be crucial in the assessment process is the scope of the data set based on multiple transfers within the road network.

  18. An accurate and efficient reliability-based design optimization using the second order reliability method and improved stability transformation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zeng; Yang, Dixiong; Zhou, Huanlin; Yu, Bo

    2018-05-01

    The first order reliability method has been extensively adopted for reliability-based design optimization (RBDO), but it shows inaccuracy in calculating the failure probability with highly nonlinear performance functions. Thus, the second order reliability method is required to evaluate the reliability accurately. However, its application for RBDO is quite challenge owing to the expensive computational cost incurred by the repeated reliability evaluation and Hessian calculation of probabilistic constraints. In this article, a new improved stability transformation method is proposed to search the most probable point efficiently, and the Hessian matrix is calculated by the symmetric rank-one update. The computational capability of the proposed method is illustrated and compared to the existing RBDO approaches through three mathematical and two engineering examples. The comparison results indicate that the proposed method is very efficient and accurate, providing an alternative tool for RBDO of engineering structures.

  19. Selected road condition, vehicle and freight considerations in pavement life cycle assessment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, WJ vdM

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available road condition data from two corridors were collected and analyzed to determine the effect of the current road condition and potential changes in these road conditions on the economic and environmental impacts of the situation. Existing Vehicle...

  20. Comparison of different test methods to assess thermal stresses of metal oxide surge arresters under pollution conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargigia, A.; de Nigris, M.; Pigini, A.; Sironi, A.

    1992-01-01

    The report deals with the research conducted by ENEL, the Italian Electricity Board, to assess the performance of zinc oxide surge arresters under pollution condition, with special reference to the consequent thermal stress on internal active parts which can affect the energy handling capabality of the arrester and may lead, in particular conditions, even to thermal runaway

  1. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Ann Tørngren, Mari

    2016-01-01

    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were...

  2. A fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical conditioning and testing system for behavioral learning and memory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hui; Hanna, Eriny; Gatto, Cheryl L; Page, Terry L; Bhuva, Bharat; Broadie, Kendal

    2016-03-01

    Aversive olfactory classical conditioning has been the standard method to assess Drosophila learning and memory behavior for decades, yet training and testing are conducted manually under exceedingly labor-intensive conditions. To overcome this severe limitation, a fully automated, inexpensive system has been developed, which allows accurate and efficient Pavlovian associative learning/memory analyses for high-throughput pharmacological and genetic studies. The automated system employs a linear actuator coupled to an odorant T-maze with airflow-mediated transfer of animals between training and testing stages. Odorant, airflow and electrical shock delivery are automatically administered and monitored during training trials. Control software allows operator-input variables to define parameters of Drosophila learning, short-term memory and long-term memory assays. The approach allows accurate learning/memory determinations with operational fail-safes. Automated learning indices (immediately post-training) and memory indices (after 24h) are comparable to traditional manual experiments, while minimizing experimenter involvement. The automated system provides vast improvements over labor-intensive manual approaches with no experimenter involvement required during either training or testing phases. It provides quality control tracking of airflow rates, odorant delivery and electrical shock treatments, and an expanded platform for high-throughput studies of combinational drug tests and genetic screens. The design uses inexpensive hardware and software for a total cost of ∼$500US, making it affordable to a wide range of investigators. This study demonstrates the design, construction and testing of a fully automated Drosophila olfactory classical association apparatus to provide low-labor, high-fidelity, quality-monitored, high-throughput and inexpensive learning and memory behavioral assays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of transition readiness in adolescents and young adults with chronic health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul T; Paul, Gabrielle V; LaCount, Stephanie; Peng, Juan; Spencer, Charles H; Higgins, Gloria C; Boyle, Brendan; Kamboj, Manmohan; Smallwood, Christopher; Ardoin, Stacy P

    2017-09-09

    Transition from pediatric to adult health care is a vulnerable period for adolescents and young adults. Challenges include paucity of validated measures to assess patients' transition readiness. We evaluated the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire (TRAQ) in adolescents and young adults with rheumatic, gastrointestinal, and endocrine disorders. We examined whether baseline TRAQ scores and other demographic variables predicted transition to adult care over a three year follow up period. In this descriptive study at a single institution, eighty-nine adolescents at a single pediatric academic medical center completed demographic and medical history surveys and the TRAQ and were followed over 3 years by telephone interview to determine whether they had transitioned to adult subspecialty care. Transition was defined as attending at least one adult subspecialty appointment. Multivariable logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine whether TRAQ scores predicted time to transition. Of the participants, 56% had rheumatic, 21% endocrine, and 23% gastrointestinal conditions. The TRAQ self-management domain score was not significantly associated with age, gender, socioeconomic status, or specialty. The TRAQ self-advocacy score increased with age. Baseline TRAQ scores did not predict transition or time to transition over three years. In this cohort of adolescents and young adults who were 16 to 23 years of age at enrollment, 48% transitioned to adult care over three years of follow up. Nearly half reported not discussing transition with provider or seeing provider independently for part of visit. Older age but not other demographic variables nor baseline TRAQ score predicted transition or time to transition to an adult subspecialty provider; however, a there was a trend towards shorter time to transition with the highest quartile TRAQ scores.

  4. Comparison of in-hospital versus 30-day mortality assessments for selected medical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzecki, Ann M; Christiansen, Cindy L; Chew, Priscilla; Loveland, Susan; Rosen, Amy K

    2010-12-01

    In-hospital mortality measures such as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Inpatient Quality Indicators (IQIs) are easily derived using hospital discharge abstracts and publicly available software. However, hospital assessments based on a 30-day postadmission interval might be more accurate given potential differences in facility discharge practices. To compare in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates for 6 medical conditions using the AHRQ IQI software. We used IQI software (v3.1) and 2004-2007 Veterans Health Administration (VA) discharge and Vital Status files to derive 4-year facility-level in-hospital and 30-day observed mortality rates and observed/expected ratios (O/Es) for admissions with a principal diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, hip fracture, and pneumonia. We standardized software-calculated O/Es to the VA population and compared O/Es and outlier status across sites using correlation, observed agreement, and kappas. Of 119 facilities, in-hospital versus 30-day mortality O/E correlations were generally high (median: r = 0.78; range: 0.31-0.86). Examining outlier status, observed agreement was high (median: 84.7%, 80.7%-89.1%). Kappas showed at least moderate agreement (k > 0.40) for all indicators except stroke and hip fracture (k ≤ 0.22). Across indicators, few sites changed from a high to nonoutlier or low outlier, or vice versa (median: 10, range: 7-13). The AHRQ IQI software can be easily adapted to generate 30-day mortality rates. Although 30-day mortality has better face validity as a hospital performance measure than in-hospital mortality, site assessments were similar despite the definition used. Thus, the measure selected for internal benchmarking should primarily depend on the healthcare system's data linkage capabilities.

  5. A Rapid Assessment of Instructional Strategies to Teach Auditory-Visual Conditional Discriminations to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodak, Tiffany; Clements, Andrea; LeBlanc, Brittany

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to evaluate a rapid assessment procedure to identify effective instructional strategies to teach auditory-visual conditional discriminations to children diagnosed with autism. We replicated and extended previous rapid skills assessments (Lerman, Vorndran, Addison, & Kuhn, 2004) by evaluating the effects…

  6. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  7. An assessment of the skid resistance effect on traffic safety under wet-pavement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardillo Mayora, José M; Jurado Piña, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    Pavement-tire friction provides the grip that is required for maintaining vehicle control and for stopping in emergency situations. Statistically significant negative correlations of skid resistance values and wet-pavement accident rates have been found in previous research. Skid resistance measured with SCRIM and crash data from over 1750km of two-lane rural roads in the Spanish National Road System were analyzed to determine the influence of pavement conditions on safety and to assess the effects of improving pavement friction on safety. Both wet- and dry-pavement crash rates presented a decreasing trend as skid resistance values increased. Thresholds in SCRIM coefficient values associated with significant decreases in wet-pavement crash rates were determined. Pavement friction improvement schemes were found to yield significant reductions in wet-pavement crash rates averaging 68%. The results confirm the importance of maintaining adequate levels of pavement friction to safeguard traffic safety as well as the potential of pavement friction improvement schemes to achieve significant crash reductions.

  8. Risk assessment during operating self-propelled lifting jib cranes in conditions of insufficient information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lagerev A.V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Presents the results of statistical analyses identified by the expert diagnostics of defects of the self-propelled lifting jib cranes, spent a normative term of exploitation. The greatest number of defects associated with the destruction and dete-rioration of structural elements, the occurrence of fatigue cracks and a violation of the conditions of operation of the equipment. The greatest number of defects occurs in the hydraulic system of cranes, the rope-block system, and rarely in steel structures. To conduct risk analysis of self-propelled jib cranes in case of insufficient information, proposed the method of expert estimations. It allows to assess the impact of potential defects on self-propelled jib cranes on the value of the economic damage of the crane and moving cargo and the value of the traumatic exposure on men. The proposed list of possible defects self-propelled lifting jib cranes and a checklist of questions about the degree of influence of these defects. Proposed calculated dependences to the approximate calculation of the magnitude of technical risk in the opera-tion of self-propelled jib cranes. The results of statistical analysis of expert estimations for each possible defect and per-formed their ranking in terms of impact on the magnitude of the economic damage of the crane and moving loads, the value of the traumatic exposure. Was calculated the value of technical risk for the surveyed taps.

  9. Probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions in performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helton, J.C. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-03-01

    A formal description of the structure of several recent performance assessments (PAs) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is given in terms of the following three components: a probability space (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) for stochastic uncertainty, a probability space (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}) for subjective uncertainty and a function (i.e., a random variable) defined on the product space associated with (S{sub st}, S{sub st}, p{sub st}) and (S{sub su}, S{sub su}, p{sub su}). The explicit recognition of the existence of these three components allows a careful description of the use of probability, conditional probability and complementary cumulative distribution functions within the WIPP PA. This usage is illustrated in the context of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency`s standard for the geologic disposal of radioactive waste (40 CFR 191, Subpart B). The paradigm described in this presentation can also be used to impose a logically consistent structure on PAs for other complex systems.

  10. Responsiveness of five condition-specific and generic outcome assessment instruments for chronic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verra Martin L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Changes of health and quality-of-life in chronic conditions are mostly small and require specific and sensitive instruments. The aim of this study was to determine and compare responsiveness, i.e. the sensitivity to change of five outcome instruments for effect measurement in chronic pain. Methods In a prospective cohort study, 273 chronic pain patients were assessed on the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS for pain, the Short Form 36 (SF-36, the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ. Responsiveness was quantified by effect size (ES and standardized response mean (SRM before and after a four week in-patient interdisciplinary pain program and compared by the modified Jacknife test. Results The MPI measured pain more responsively than the SF-36 (ES: 0.85 vs 0.72, p = 0.053; SRM: 0.72 vs 0.60, p = 0.027 and the pain NRS (ES: 0.85 vs 0.62, p Conclusion The MPI was most responsive in all comparable domains followed by the SF-36. The pain-specific MPI and the generic SF-36 can be recommended for comprehensive and specific bio-psycho-social effect measurement of health and quality-of-life in chronic pain.

  11. Assessment of illumination conditions in a single-pixel imaging configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoi, Florin; Udrea, Cristian; Damian, Cristian; Logofǎtu, Petre C.; Colţuc, Daniela

    2016-12-01

    Single-pixel imaging based on multiplexing is a promising technique, especially in applications where 2D detectors or raster scanning imaging are not readily applicable. With this method, Hadamard masks are projected on a spatial light modulator to encode an incident scene and a signal is recorded at the photodiode detector for each of these masks. Ultimately, the image is reconstructed on the computer by applying the inverse transform matrix. Thus, various algorithms were optimized and several spatial light modulators already characterized for such a task. This work analyses the imaging quality of such a single-pixel arrangement, when various illumination conditions are used. More precisely, the main comparison is made between coherent and incoherent ("white light") illumination and between two multiplexing methods, namely Hadamard and Scanning. The quality of the images is assessed by calculating their SNR, using two relations. The results show better images are obtained with "white light" illumination for the first method and coherent one for the second.

  12. Risk based lifetime assessment of piping under creep-fatigue conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielak, O.; Bina, V.; Korous, J.

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of the steam pipeline lifetime is based on: (i) technical procedures supplied by Nuclear Electric R5; (ii) random interpretation of material damage accumulation laws for creep and fatigue; (iii) a stochastic model of the creep process (creep rupture strength, deformation characteristics); (iv) probabilistic description of geometrical quantities of the steam pipeline. The probabilistic procedure results in the calculation of the crack initiation risks both for the critical localities and for the steam pipeline as a whole (its subsystems, if need be). The residual lifetime was calculated from the conditional (a posteriori) probabilities. The risks of crack initiation was calculated for different operating periods (inspection frequency), and the periods were optimised to meet (i) the minimum risk of crack initiation and (2) the operation and economy criteria. The method also involves calculation of the residual lifetime from the updated data (material properties, dimensions). In the standard service-life calculations there is no difference between the weld and BM, the justification being that the weld is exposed to axial stress caused by internal pressure, which is one half of the hoop stress. Thus, the low creep resistant properties of the weld were ignored, as well as the uneven state of stress and its redistribution. In a number of cases it is the welds that are a weak point and therefore should receive considerable attention. The probabilistic method of lifetime and reliability assessment was verified on over 29 piping systems in power and petrochemical plants

  13. Assessment of students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and bio-energetic reserves of organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Martyniuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to assess students’ health condition by indicators of adaptation potential, biological age and express-assessment. Material: in the research 47 first and second year girl students participated, who belonged to main health group. Results: we distributed the girl students into three groups: 14.89% of them were included in group with “safe” health condition; 34.04% - in group of “third state”; 51.06% were related to group with “ dangerous” health condition. We established that dangerous level was characterized by energy potential of below middle and low level. It is accompanied by accelerated processes of organism’s age destructions and tension of regulation mechanisms. Conclusions: the received results permit to further develop and generalize the data of students’ health’s assessment by indicators of adaptation potentials, biological age and physical health’s condition.

  14. Technical Needs for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Equipment Condition Assessment for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coble, Jamie B.; Coles, Garill A.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Meyer, Ryan M.; Berglin, Eric J.; Wootan, David W.; Mitchell, Mark R.

    2013-04-04

    Advanced small modular reactors (aSMRs) can provide the United States with a safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The controllable day-to-day costs of aSMRs are expected to be dominated by operation and maintenance costs. Health and condition assessment coupled with online risk monitors can potentially enhance affordability of aSMRs through optimized operational planning and maintenance scheduling. Currently deployed risk monitors are an extension of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). For complex engineered systems like nuclear power plants, PRA systematically combines event likelihoods and the probability of failure (POF) of key components, so that when combined with the magnitude of possible adverse consequences to determine risk. Traditional PRA uses population-based POF information to estimate the average plant risk over time. Currently, most nuclear power plants have a PRA that reflects the as-operated, as-modified plant; this model is updated periodically, typically once a year. Risk monitors expand on living PRA by incorporating changes in the day-by-day plant operation and configuration (e.g., changes in equipment availability, operating regime, environmental conditions). However, population-based POF (or population- and time-based POF) is still used to populate fault trees. Health monitoring techniques can be used to establish condition indicators and monitoring capabilities that indicate the component-specific POF at a desired point in time (or over a desired period), which can then be incorporated in the risk monitor to provide a more accurate estimate of the plant risk in different configurations. This is particularly important for active systems, structures, and components (SSCs) proposed for use in aSMR designs. These SSCs may differ significantly from those used in the operating fleet of light-water reactors (or even in LWR-based SMR designs). Additionally, the operating characteristics of aSMRs can present significantly different

  15. Assessing potential peptide targeting ligands by quantification of cellular adhesion of model nanoparticles under flow conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broda, Ellen; Mickler, Frauke Martina; Lächelt, Ulrich; Morys, Stephan; Wagner, Ernst; Bräuchle, Christoph

    2015-09-10

    Sophisticated drug delivery systems are coated with targeting ligands to improve the specific adhesion to surface receptors on diseased cells. In our study, we developed a method with which we assessed the potential of peptide ligands to specifically bind to receptor overexpressing target cells. Therefore, a microfluidic setup was used where the cellular adhesion of nanoparticles with ligand and of control nanoparticles was observed in parallel under the same experimental conditions. The effect of the ligand on cellular binding was quantified by counting the number of adhered nanoparticles with ligand and differently labeled control nanoparticles on single cells after incubation under flow conditions. To provide easy-to-synthesize, stable and reproducible nanoparticles which mimic the surface characteristics of drug delivery systems and meet the requirements for quantitative analysis, latex beads based on amine-modified polystyrene were used as model nanoparticles. Two short peptides were tested to serve as targeting ligand on the beads by increasing the specific binding to HuH7 cells. The c-Met binding peptide cMBP2 was used for hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-Met) targeting and the peptide B6 for transferrin receptor (TfR) targeting. The impact of the targeting peptide on binding was investigated by comparing the beads with ligand to different internal control beads: 1) without ligand and tailored surface charge (electrostatic control) and 2) with scrambled peptide and similar surface charge, but a different amino acid sequence (specificity control). Our results demonstrate that the method is very useful to select suitable targeting ligands for specific nanoparticle binding to receptor overexpressing tumor cells. We show that the cMBP2 ligand specifically enhances nanoparticle adhesion to target cells, whereas the B6 peptide mediates binding to tumor cells mainly by nonspecific interactions. All together, we suggest that cMBP2 is a suitable choice for

  16. Hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of environment and health condition of the population of Moscow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.E. Andreeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the results of work on the dual hygienic assessment of priority risk factors of the environment and the health condition of the population of Moscow. It is shown that in the territory of the metropolis the impact of conditions of negative factors on human health is retained. These trends are confirmed by the excess of the hygienic standards of pollutants in ambient air (up to 6.6 TLVc.e., by the substantial increase (up to 65.8 % of share of the centralized sources of water supply, water quality does not meet the hygienic standards due to the high level of non-standard samples of soil (more than 50 % on a number of sanitary-chemical and microbiological parameters in the territories of certain administrative districts. At the same time there is a tendency to a decrease in non-standard drinking water samples taken from the distribution network of centralized drinking water supply (from 4.36 % to 2.45 %. It was established that the primary morbidity have a number of positive trends to decrease, but exceeds the average indicators for individual classes and nosology, including the classes of "Respiratory diseases", "Diseases of the skin and subcutaneous tissue", "Neoplasms" and etc. by 4.1–68.3 %. Analysis of causality (about 50 significant biologically-based mathematical models were received on the system of "quality of habitat (a risk factor – health status (morbidity, mortality " showed that the impact of negative environmental factors probably shape up to 29.2 ‰ of additional cases and up to 0.056 ‰ of the additional deaths per year. The largest contribution to the formation of the probability of additional cases is made by the excess of morbidity by hygienic standards of air quality and soil, mortality and air quality. Risk factors are phenol, benzo a pyrene, nitrogen dioxide, suspended solids, ammonia, chlorine and its compounds, and sulfur dioxide, etc., coming from the atmospheric air, and cadmium

  17. Toxicity assessment of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clemente, Z., E-mail: zairaclemente@yahoo.com.br [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Funcional e Molecular, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castro, V.L.S.S. [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Moura, M.A.M. [Laboratório da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas, Instituto Biológico, APTA/SAA, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Jonsson, C.M. [Laboratório de Ecotoxicologia e Biossegurança, Embrapa CNPMA, Jaguariúna, SP (Brazil); Fraceto, L.F. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Funcional e Molecular, UNICAMP, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Ambiental, UNESP, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Highlights: •Nano-TiO{sub 2} accelerated hatching of the larvae. •Exposure to anatase/rutile mixture under UV light altered the equilibrium and survival of the larvae. •Nano-TiO{sub 2} caused alterations in the activities of CAT and GST. -- Abstract: The popularity of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (nano-TiO{sub 2}) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO{sub 2} under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of nano-TiO{sub 2} in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO{sub 2} appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the

  18. Recent developments in predictive uncertainty assessment based on the model conditional processor approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Coccia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The work aims at discussing the role of predictive uncertainty in flood forecasting and flood emergency management, its relevance to improve the decision making process and the techniques to be used for its assessment.

    Real time flood forecasting requires taking into account predictive uncertainty for a number of reasons. Deterministic hydrological/hydraulic forecasts give useful information about real future events, but their predictions, as usually done in practice, cannot be taken and used as real future occurrences but rather used as pseudo-measurements of future occurrences in order to reduce the uncertainty of decision makers. Predictive Uncertainty (PU is in fact defined as the probability of occurrence of a future value of a predictand (such as water level, discharge or water volume conditional upon prior observations and knowledge as well as on all the information we can obtain on that specific future value from model forecasts. When dealing with commensurable quantities, as in the case of floods, PU must be quantified in terms of a probability distribution function which will be used by the emergency managers in their decision process in order to improve the quality and reliability of their decisions.

    After introducing the concept of PU, the presently available processors are introduced and discussed in terms of their benefits and limitations. In this work the Model Conditional Processor (MCP has been extended to the possibility of using two joint Truncated Normal Distributions (TNDs, in order to improve adaptation to low and high flows.

    The paper concludes by showing the results of the application of the MCP on two case studies, the Po river in Italy and the Baron Fork river, OK, USA. In the Po river case the data provided by the Civil Protection of the Emilia Romagna region have been used to implement an operational example, where the predicted variable is the observed water level. In the Baron Fork River

  19. Toxicity assessment of TiO2 nanoparticles in zebrafish embryos under different exposure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemente, Z.; Castro, V.L.S.S.; Moura, M.A.M.; Jonsson, C.M.; Fraceto, L.F.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •Nano-TiO 2 accelerated hatching of the larvae. •Exposure to anatase/rutile mixture under UV light altered the equilibrium and survival of the larvae. •Nano-TiO 2 caused alterations in the activities of CAT and GST. -- Abstract: The popularity of TiO 2 nanoparticles (nano-TiO 2 ) lies in their wide range of nanotechnological applications, together with low toxicity. Meanwhile, recent studies have shown that the photocatalytic properties of this material can result in alterations in their behavior in the environment, causing effects that have not yet been fully elucidated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of two formulations of nano-TiO 2 under different illumination conditions, using an experimental model coherent with the principle of the three Rs of alternative animal experimentation (reduction, refinement, and replacement). Embryos of the fish Danio rerio were exposed for 96 h to different concentrations of nano-TiO 2 in the form of anatase (TA) or an anatase/rutile mixture (TM), under either visible light or a combination of visible and ultraviolet light (UV). The acute toxicity and sublethal parameters evaluated included survival rates, malformation, hatching, equilibrium, and overall length of the larvae, together with biochemical biomarkers (specific activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and acid phosphatase (AP)). Both TA and TM caused accelerated hatching of the larvae. Under UV irradiation, there was greater mortality of the larvae of the groups exposed to TM, compared to those exposed to TA. Exposure to TM under UV irradiation altered the equilibrium of the larvae. Alterations in the activities of CAT and GST were indicative of oxidative stress, although no clear dose-response relationship was observed. The effects of nano-TiO 2 appeared to depend on both the type of formulation and the illumination condition. The findings contribute to elucidation of the factors involved in the toxicity

  20. Description of a method for assessing veld condition in the Karoo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Canopy-spread cover; Current grazing capacity; Dry matter; Ecological index method; Forage; Grazing-index method; Karoo; Line-point survey method; Strikes; Veld condition; Veld condition index; botany; method; south africa; razing-index method; razing capacity; ine-point survey method; eld condition index

  1. A hybrid measure-correlate-predict method for long-term wind condition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jie; Chowdhury, Souma; Messac, Achille; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology with greater accuracy is developed. • Three sets of performance metrics are proposed to evaluate the hybrid MCP method. • Both wind speed and direction are considered in the hybrid MCP method. • The best combination of MCP algorithms is determined. • The developed hybrid MCP method is uniquely helpful for long-term wind resource assessment. - Abstract: This paper develops a hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) strategy to assess long-term wind resource variations at a farm site. The hybrid MCP method uses recorded data from multiple reference stations to estimate long-term wind conditions at a target wind plant site with greater accuracy than is possible with data from a single reference station. The weight of each reference station in the hybrid strategy is determined by the (i) distance and (ii) elevation differences between the target farm site and each reference station. In this case, the wind data is divided into sectors according to the wind direction, and the MCP strategy is implemented for each wind direction sector separately. The applicability of the proposed hybrid strategy is investigated using five MCP methods: (i) the linear regression; (ii) the variance ratio; (iii) the Weibull scale; (iv) the artificial neural networks; and (v) the support vector regression. To implement the hybrid MCP methodology, we use hourly averaged wind data recorded at five stations in the state of Minnesota between 07-01-1996 and 06-30-2004. Three sets of performance metrics are used to evaluate the hybrid MCP method. The first set of metrics analyze the statistical performance, including the mean wind speed, wind speed variance, root mean square error, and mean absolute error. The second set of metrics evaluate the distribution of long-term wind speed; to this end, the Weibull distribution and the Multivariate and Multimodal Wind Distribution models are adopted. The third set of metrics analyze

  2. Assessment extreme hydrometeorological conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvornikov, Anton; Martyanov, Stanislav; Ryabchenko, Vladimir; Eremina, Tatjana; Isaev, Alexey; Sein, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    Extreme hydrometeorological conditions in the Gulf of Bothnia, the Baltic Sea, are estimated paying a special attention to the area of the future construction of nuclear power plant (NPP) "Hanhikivi-1" (24° 16' E, 64° 32' N). To produce these estimates, long-term observations and results from numerical models of water and ice circulation and wind waves are used. It is estimated that the average annual air temperature in the vicinity of the station is +3° C, summer and winter extreme temperature is equal to 33.3° C and -41.5° C, respectively. Model calculations of wind waves have shown that the most dangerous (in terms of the generation of wind waves in the NPP area) is a north-west wind with the direction of 310°. The maximum height of the waves in the Gulf of Bothnia near the NPP for this wind direction with wind velocity of 10 m/s is 1.2-1.4 m. According to the model estimates, the highest possible level of the sea near the NPP is 248 cm, the minimum level, -151 cm, respectively for the western and eastern winds. These estimates are in good agreement with observations on the sea level for the period 1922-2015 at the nearest hydrometeorological station Raahe (Finland). In order to assess the likely impact of the NPP on the marine environment numerical experiments for the cold (2010) and warm year (2014) have been carried out. These calculations have shown that permanent release of heat into the marine environment from the operating NPP for the cold year (2010) will increase the temperature in the upper layer of 0-250m zone by 10°C in winter - spring and by 8°C in summer - early autumn, and in the bottom layer of 0-250m zone by 5°C in winter - spring and 3°C in summer - early autumn. For the warm year (2014), these temperature changes are smaller. Ice cover in both cases will disappear in two - kilometer vicinity of the NPP. These effects should be taken into account when assessing local climate changes in the future

  3. Detailed assessment of gene activation levels by multiple hypoxia-responsive elements under various hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yasuto; Inubushi, Masayuki; Jin, Yong-Nan; Murai, Chika; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Hata, Hironobu; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2014-12-01

    HIF-1/HRE pathway is a promising target for the imaging and the treatment of intractable malignancy (HIF-1; hypoxia-inducible factor 1, HRE; hypoxia-responsive element). The purposes of our study are: (1) to assess the gene activation levels resulting from various numbers of HREs under various hypoxic conditions, (2) to evaluate the bidirectional activity of multiple HREs, and (3) to confirm whether multiple HREs can induce gene expression in vivo. Human colon carcinoma HCT116 cells were transiently transfected by the constructs containing a firefly luciferase reporter gene and various numbers (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12) of HREs (nHRE+, nHRE-). The relative luciferase activities were measured under various durations of hypoxia (6, 12, 18, and 24 h), O2 concentrations (1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 %), and various concentrations of deferoxamine mesylate (20, 40, 80, 160, and 320 µg/mL growth medium). The bidirectional gene activation levels by HREs were examined in the constructs (dual-luc-nHREs) containing firefly and Renilla luciferase reporter genes at each side of nHREs. Finally, to test whether the construct containing 12HRE and the NIS reporter gene (12HRE-NIS) can induce gene expression in vivo, SPECT imaging was performed in a mouse xenograft model. (1) gene activation levels by HREs tended to increase with increasing HRE copy number, but a saturation effect was observed in constructs with more than 6 or 8 copies of an HRE, (2) gene activation levels by HREs increased remarkably during 6-12 h of hypoxia, but not beyond 12 h, (3) gene activation levels by HREs decreased with increasing O2 concentrations, but could be detected even under mild hypoxia at 16 % O2, (4) the bidirectionally proportional activity of the HRE was confirmed regardless of the hypoxic severity, and (5) NIS expression driven by 12 tandem copies of an HRE in response to hypoxia could be visualized on in vivo SPECT imaging. The results of this study will help in the understanding and assessment of

  4. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijie Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonexercise activities (NAs are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models. The average (mean ± SD mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p>0.05 with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition.

  5. Energetic Assessment of the Nonexercise Activities under Free-Living Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shijie; Tang, Qiang; Quan, Haiying; Lu, Qi; Sun, Ming; Zhang, Kuan

    2016-01-01

    Nonexercise activities (NAs) are common types of physical activity in daily life and critical component in energy expenditure. However, energetic assessment of NA, particularly in free-living subjects, is a technical challenge. In this study, mechanical modeling and portable device were used to evaluate five common types of NA in daily life: sit to stand, lie to sit, bowing while standing, squat, and right leg over left. A human indirect calorimeter was used to measure the activity energy expenditure of NA. Mechanical work and mechanical efficiency of NA were calculated for mechanical modeling. Thirty-two male subjects were recruited for the study (20 subjects for the development of models and 12 subjects for evaluation of models). The average (mean ± SD) mechanical work of 5 NAs was 2.31 ± 0.50, 2.88 ± 0.57, 1.75 ± 0.55, 3.96 ± 1.25, and 1.25 ± 0.51 J/kg·m, respectively. The mean mechanical efficiencies of those activities were 22.0 ± 3.3%, 26.5 ± 5.1%, 19.8 ± 3.7%, 24.0 ± 5.5%, and 26.3 ± 5.5%. The activity energy expenditure estimated by the models was not significantly different from the measurements by the calorimeter (p > 0.05) with accuracies of 102.2 ± 20.7%, 103.7 ± 25.8%, 105.6 ± 14.6%, 101.1 ± 28.0%, and 95.8 ± 20.7%, respectively, for those activities. These findings suggest that the mechanical models combined with a portable device can provide an alternative method for the energetic analysis of nonexercise activities under free-living condition.

  6. Energy production from grassland - Assessing the sustainability of different process chains under German conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, Christine; Skarka, J.; Raab, K.; Stelzer, V.

    2009-01-01

    In many regions of Europe, grassland shapes the landscape and fulfils important functions in protecting nature, soil, and water. However, the traditional uses of grassland for forage production are vanishing with progress in breeding and structural adaptations in agriculture. On the other hand, the demand for biomass energy is rising due to political sustainability goals and financial measures to support renewable energy. Against this background, the Institute for Technology Assessment and Systems Analysis investigated the applicability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of different techniques for energy production from grassland as well as from grassland converted into maize fields or short-rotation poplars under German conditions. The results show that despite relatively high energy prices and the financial support for bioenergy, the effects of energy production from grassland on employment in agriculture and farmers' income are modest. What is beneficial are savings in non-renewable energy, reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and local provision of energy carriers. If grassland biomass (grass silage or hay) is used for energy purposes, this brings the further advantages of preserving biodiversity and the cultural landscape and protecting of soil and groundwater. Negative impacts on sustainable development result from an increase in emissions, which leads to acidification, eutrophication, and risks to human health. The overall evaluation indicates that short-rotation poplars are comparatively advantageous from the economic and ecological point of view. Therefore, a development plan for grassland is required to identify areas where grassland could be used as an energy resource or where it would be favourable to install energy plantations with fast-growing perennial plants

  7. Multisensor signal denoising based on matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform for mechanical fault condition assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Cancan; Lv, Yong; Xiao, Han; Huang, Tao; You, Guanghui

    2018-04-01

    Since it is difficult to obtain the accurate running status of mechanical equipment with only one sensor, multisensor measurement technology has attracted extensive attention. In the field of mechanical fault diagnosis and condition assessment based on vibration signal analysis, multisensor signal denoising has emerged as an important tool to improve the reliability of the measurement result. A reassignment technique termed the synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (SWT) has obvious superiority in slow time-varying signal representation and denoising for fault diagnosis applications. The SWT uses the time-frequency reassignment scheme, which can provide signal properties in 2D domains (time and frequency). However, when the measured signal contains strong noise components and fast varying instantaneous frequency, the performance of SWT-based analysis still depends on the accuracy of instantaneous frequency estimation. In this paper, a matching synchrosqueezing wavelet transform (MSWT) is investigated as a potential candidate to replace the conventional synchrosqueezing transform for the applications of denoising and fault feature extraction. The improved technology utilizes the comprehensive instantaneous frequency estimation by chirp rate estimation to achieve a highly concentrated time-frequency representation so that the signal resolution can be significantly improved. To exploit inter-channel dependencies, the multisensor denoising strategy is performed by using a modulated multivariate oscillation model to partition the time-frequency domain; then, the common characteristics of the multivariate data can be effectively identified. Furthermore, a modified universal threshold is utilized to remove noise components, while the signal components of interest can be retained. Thus, a novel MSWT-based multisensor signal denoising algorithm is proposed in this paper. The validity of this method is verified by numerical simulation, and experiments including a rolling

  8. Terrestrial Condition Assessment for National Forests of the USDA Forest Service in the Continental US

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cleland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial condition assessment (TCA evaluates effects of uncharacteristic stressors and disturbance agents on land-type associations (LTAs to identify restoration opportunities on national forest system (NFS lands in the United States. A team of agency scientists and managers, representing a broad array of natural resource disciplines, developed a logic structure for the TCA to identify appropriate data sources to support analyses. Primary national data sources included observed insect- and pathogen-induced mortality, key critical loads for soil and the atmosphere, long term seasonal departures in temperature and precipitation, road densities, uncharacteristic wildfires, historical fire regime departure, wildfire potential, insect and pathogen risk, and vegetation departure from natural range of variability. The TCA was implemented with the ecosystem management decision support (EMDS system, a spatial decision support system for landscape analysis and planning. EMDS uses logic models to interpret data, synthesizes information over successive layers of logic topics, and draws inferences about the ecological integrity of LTAs as an initial step to identifying high priority LTAs for landscape restoration on NFS lands. Results from the analysis showed that about 74 percent of NFS lands had moderate or better overall ecological integrity. Major impacts to ecological integrity included risk of mortality due to insects and disease, extent of current mortality, extent of areas with high and very high wildfire hazard potential, uncharacteristically severe wildfire, and elevated temperatures. In the discussion, we consider implications for agency performance reporting on restoration activities, and subsequent possible steps, including strategic and tactical planning for restoration. The objective of the paper is to describe the TCA framework with results from a national scale application on NFS lands.

  9. A diatom functional-based approach to assess changing environmental conditions in temporary depressional wetlands

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Riato, L

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available is limited although important for the development of temporary wetland biological assessments. We assessed how diatom life-form and ecological guilds responded to a seasonal hydrological and hydrochemical gradient in three least human-disturbed, temporary...

  10. 42 CFR 416.52 - Conditions for coverage-Patient admission, assessment and discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... recently documented medical history and physical assessment, including documentation of any allergies to drugs and biologicals. (3) The patient's medical history and physical assessment must be placed in the... comprehensive medical history and physical assessment completed by a physician (as defined in section 1861(r) of...

  11. Assessing the relationships between nurse working conditions and patient outcomes: systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sung-Heui

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to systematically evaluate nurse working conditions and to review the literature dealing with their association with patient outcomes. Improving nurse working conditions is essential to address nursing shortages. Although general reviews of the literature support the positive link between working conditions and patient outcomes, definitive evidence has been lacking. A search of six electronic bibliographic databases was conducted for the primary research published in English, from January 2000 to October 2009. The concepts of working conditions were categorized into 10 groups of working conditions. A total of 69 relationships between working conditions and patient outcomes were examined. Increased attention has been drawn to nurse working conditions resulting from nursing shortages. The findings of this review suggested that the evidence supporting positive relationships between working conditions and patient outcomes is inconclusive. Further studies of a longitudinal and interventional nature in various settings are needed to advance knowledge of the complex contextual and multivariate influences among nurse working conditions and patient outcomes. Efforts to improve working conditions should be made in various health-care work settings to ensure patient safety and improve patient quality of outcomes. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. A new method to assess Pavlovian conditioning of psychostimulant drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianopoulos, E N; Carey, R J

    1994-07-01

    Experimental studies of psychoactive drugs by pavlovian drug-conditioning methods, which originally began with investigations of drug-induced responses mediated by the autonomic nervous system, have now been expanded to include drug-induced response effects expressed as modulations of spontaneous motoric behaviors. In the latter application, however, equivalent behavioral response outcomes in post-treatment tests for conditioning can occur following a psychostimulant drug treatment either through drug interference effects on habituation processes, drug-induced stress effects and/or by pavlovian conditioning of the drug-induced motoric activation effect. Current methodologies for the study of pavlovian conditioned drug effects and/or drug sensitization cannot distinguish among these possibilities. This methodological inadequacy was addressed by a modification of the conventional paired-unpaired treatment protocol. In the new protocol, the animal is sequentially placed into two test compartments with the drug treatment administered in conjunction with placement into the second test compartment. This design permits a differentiation of a pavlovian conditioned drug responses from non-conditioned drug effects through continuous measurement of the non-drug behavioral baseline in both the drug and non-drug control treatment groups combined with multiple response measurements and post-treatment tests for conditioning at variable post-conditioning intervals. The present study details the use of the new modified pavlovian protocol with repeated cocaine (10 mg/kg) treatment. A cocaine conditioned response at 1, 7, and 21 days post-conditioning was identified and distinguished from habituation and stress effects.

  13. Assessment of Body Condition in African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus Elephants in North American Zoos and Management Practices Associated with High Body Condition Scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari A Morfeld

    Full Text Available Obesity has a negative effect on health and welfare of many species, and has been speculated to be a problem for zoo elephants. To address this concern, we assessed the body condition of 240 elephants housed in North American zoos based on a set of standardized photographs using a 5-point Body Condition Score index (1 = thinnest; 5 = fattest. A multi-variable regression analysis was then used to determine how demographic, management, housing, and social factors were associated with an elevated body condition score in 132 African (Loxodonta africana and 108 Asian (Elephas maximus elephants. The highest BCS of 5, suggestive of obesity, was observed in 34% of zoo elephants. In both species, the majority of elephants had elevated BCS, with 74% in the BCS 4 (40% and 5 (34% categories. Only 22% of elephants had BCS 3, and less than 5% of the population was assigned the lowest BCS categories (BCS 1 and 2. The strongest multi-variable model demonstrated that staff-directed walking exercise of 14 hours or more per week and highly unpredictable feeding schedules were associated with decreased risk of BCS 4 or 5, while increased diversity in feeding methods and being female was associated with increased risk of BCS 4 or 5. Our data suggest that high body condition is prevalent among North American zoo elephants, and management strategies that help prevent and mitigate obesity may lead to improvements in welfare of zoo elephants.

  14. Assessing the Relationship Between Chronic Health Conditions and Productivity Loss Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranksy, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between health conditions and the risk for membership in longitudinal trajectories of productivity loss. Methods: Trajectories of productivity loss from the ages of 25 to 44 years, previously identified in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), were combined with information on health conditions from the age 40 years health module in the NLSY79. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relative risk of being in the low-risk, early-onset increasing risk, late-onset increasing risk, or high-risk trajectories compared with the no-risk trajectory for having various health conditions. Results: The trajectories with the greatest probability of productivity loss longitudinally had a greater prevalence of the individual health conditions and a greater total number of health conditions experienced. Conclusions: Health conditions are associated with specific longitudinal patterns of experiencing productivity loss. PMID:25479294

  15. Structural condition assessment and service load performance of deteriorated prestressed concrete deck beam bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Juan Bolivar

    Precast pretensioned deck beam bridges are a generic bridge type widely used by IDOT for new construction through the end of the 1970's and still widely used on county roads throughout Illinois. While these bridges were economical to build, IDOT discontinued their use because reflective cracks developed along the length of the longitudinal joints between beams. Three 30 years old deteriorated beams were removed from an existing bridge over Spoon River in Fulton County, IL and delivered to Newmark Civil Engineering Laboratory. The program consisted of a series of comprehensive, destructive and non-destructive, tests and evaluations of the three beams with emphasis on three major areas; (1) The Condition Assessment of the as-delivered beams. (2) The service load performance of the bridge sub-assemblage constructed from those beams. After a comprehensive inspection of the beams was completed, the beams were integrated together into a bridge subassembly that simulated a bridge lane. (3) Following the service load tests, the three beams were separated and tested individually to failure. The critical signs to be observed in existing structures that will lead the inspectors to conclude that a deck beam is being overloaded were are also studied. Several conclusions were found. Cracking of the longitudinal joint has little effect on the stiffness of the bridge if the transverse rod is snug. The presence of a snug transverse tie rod increases the strength of the longitudinal joint. After a longitudinal joint has fractured, reincorporating a snug transverse rod can significantly reestablish the stiffness of the longitudinal joint and reduce overloading of a deteriorated beam. Participation factors must be based on relative bending moments of one beam with respect to the total amount of bending moment produced by the applied load and not to the amount of total vertical displacement. The participation factors will vary along the span of the bridge deck and will depend on the

  16. Long Term Behaviour of 14C and Stability Assessments of Graphite Under Repository Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Abbie N.; McDermott, Lorraine; Worth, Robert; Hagos, Bereket; Black, Greg; Marsden, Barry J

    2016-01-01

    The key objectives of the University of Manchester’s nuclear graphite research within the CRP are to provide analysis on the long term behaviour and stability assessments of irradiated graphite waste. The research will concentrate on isotopic 14 C mobility under repository environments. This also requires an understanding the long-term behaviour of the final waste form under repository conditions. Procedures to evaluate the long term leaching properties of radionuclides from irradiated graphite waste has been developed by combining ANSI 16.1 (USA) and NEN 7345 (Netherlands) standardised diffusion leaching techniques. The ANSI 16.1 standard has been followed to acquire the leachates and to determine the leach rate and diffusion coefficient. The NEN 7345 standard technique has been used to determine the diffusion mechanism of radionuclides. The investigation employs simulated Drigg groundwater as a leachant using semi-dynamic technique for the production of leachate specimens. Analysis of 3 H and 14 C activity release from Magnox graphite was measured using liquid scintillating counting. Preliminary results show that there is an initial high release of activity and decreases when the leaching period increases. This may be due to the depletion of contaminants that were initially bound by the internal pore networks and the free surface. During the leaching test approximately 275.33 ± 18.20 Bq of 3 H and 106.26 ± 7.01 Bq of 14 C was released into the leachant within 91 days. The work reported herein contributed several key findings to the international work on graphite leaching to offer guidance leading toward obtaining leaching data in the future: (a) the effective diffusion coefficient for 14 C from graphite waste has been determined. The diffusion process for 14 C has two stages resulting two different values of diffusion coefficient, i.e., for the fast and slow components; (b) the controlling leaching mechanism for 3 H radionuclide from graphite is shown to be

  17. On real-time assessment of post-emergency condition existence in complex electric power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarasov, Vladimir I. [Irkutsk State Technical University 83, Lermontov Street, Irkutsk 664074 (Russian Federation)

    2008-12-15

    This paper presents two effective numerical criteria of estimating post-emergency operating conditions' non-existence in complicated electric power systems. These criteria are based on mathematic and programming tools of the regularized quadratic descent method and the regularized two-parameter minimization method. The proposed criteria can be effectively applied in calculations of real-time electric operating conditions. (author)

  18. Laser Scanning Technology as Part of a Comprehensive Condition Assessment for Covered Bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Samuel Anderson; Robert J. Ross

    2015-01-01

    New noncontact technologies have been developed and implemented for determining as-built condition and current dimensions for a wide variety of objects and buildings. In this study, a three-dimensional laser scanner was used to determine the dimensions and visual condition of a historic bridge in the Amnicon Falls State Park in northern Wisconsin. 3D scanning provides...

  19. Assessment of CHF characteristics at subcooled conditions for the CANFLEX bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onder, E.N.; Leung, L.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Boiling-Length-Average (BLA) Critical Heat Flux (CHF) values for the CANFLEX bundle at cross-sectional average subcooled conditions have been evaluated using the ASSERT-PV subchannel code. The predicted BLA CHF values supplement experimental BLA CHF values obtained with full-scale bundle simulators at saturated conditions in developing a BLA CHF correlation applicable over the interested range of cross-sectional average thermodynamic quality in regional overpower protection (ROP) trip and safety analyses. The BLA CHF correlation exhibits similar characteristics to those observed in tubes at subcooled and saturated conditions. Applying this correlation has led to similar prediction accuracy in dryout power to that using the BLA CHF-data-based correlation at saturated conditions. However, it provides improved prediction accuracy in dryout power at dryout conditions near saturation compared to the BLA CHF-data-based correlation (which tends to underpredict the dryout power)

  20. The assessment of chronic health conditions on work performance, absence, and total economic impact for employers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, James J; Baase, Catherine M; Sharda, Claire E; Ozminkowski, Ronald J; Nicholson, Sean; Billotti, Gary M; Turpin, Robin S; Olson, Michael; Berger, Marc L

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and estimate total costs for chronic health conditions in the U.S. workforce for the Dow Chemical Company (Dow). Using the Stanford Presenteeism Scale, information was collected from workers at five locations on work impairment and absenteeism based on self-reported "primary" chronic health conditions. Survey data were merged with employee demographics, medical and pharmaceutical claims, smoking status, biometric health risk factors, payroll records, and job type. Almost 65% of respondents reported having one or more of the surveyed chronic conditions. The most common were allergies, arthritis/joint pain or stiffness, and back or neck disorders. The associated absenteeism by chronic condition ranged from 0.9 to 5.9 hours in a 4-week period, and on-the-job work impairment ranged from a 17.8% to 36.4% decrement in ability to function at work. The presence of a chronic condition was the most important determinant of the reported levels of work impairment and absence after adjusting for other factors (P < 0.000). The total cost of chronic conditions was estimated to be 10.7% of the total labor costs for Dow in the United States; 6.8% was attributable to work impairment alone. For all chronic conditions studied, the cost associated with performance based work loss or "presenteeism" greatly exceeded the combined costs of absenteeism and medical treatment combined.

  1. Algorithms for the extension of precise and imprecise conditional probability assessments: an implementation with maple V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Biazzo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we illustrate an implementation with Maple V of some procedures which allow to exactly propagate precise and imprecise probability assessments. The extension of imprecise assessments is based on a suitable generalization of the concept of coherence of de Finetti. The procedures described are supported by some examples and relevant cases.

  2. Present condition and countermeasures for nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Xia; Huang Xin

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, with the deepening of nuclear and radiation safety supervision, great advances have been made in nuclear application environmental impact assessment in Jiangsu province. But some problems and deficiencies still exist in management. This paper describes the present management situation of nuclear application environmental impact assessment, analysis and discusses the existing problems as well as their countermeasures. (authors)

  3. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States. Vol. 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2004-01-01

    This report is volume 1 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broadscale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  4. Assessment of grassland ecosystem conditions in the Southwestern United States: Wildlife and fish. Vol. 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deborah M. Finch

    2005-01-01

    This report is volume 2 of a two-volume ecological assessment of grassland ecosystems in the Southwestern United States. Broad-scale assessments are syntheses of current scientific knowledge, including a description of uncertainties and assumptions, to provide a characterization and comprehensive description of ecological, social, and economic components within an...

  5. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Jason; Lombardi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-. biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25......, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MET wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions...

  6. Rapidly assessing the activation conditions and porosity of metal-organic frameworks using thermogravimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Thomas M; Bloch, Eric D; Long, Jeffrey R

    2015-03-25

    A methodology utilizing a thermogravimetric analyzer to monitor propane uptake following incremental increases of the temperature is demonstrated as a means of rapidly identifying porous materials and determining the optimum activation conditions of metal-organic frameworks.

  7. Remotely Sensed Information and Field Data are both Essential to Assess Biodiversity CONDITION!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, B.; Schaefer, M.; Scarth, P.; Phinn, S. R.; Christensen, R.; Lowe, A. J.; O'Neill, S.; Thurgate, N.; Wundke, D.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past year the TERN Ausplots facility has hosted a process to determine the definition of Biodiversity Condition in an Australian Continental Context, and conducted a wide collaborative process to determine which environmental attributes are required to be measures to accurately inform on biodiversity condition. A major output from this work was the acknowledgement that good quality data from both remotely sensed sources and good quality field collected data are both essential to provide the best information possible on biodiversity condition. This poster details some background to the project, the assesment of which attributes to measure, and if the are sources primarily from field based or remotely sensed measures. It then proceeds to provide three examples of ways in which the combination of data types provides a superior product as output, with one example being provided for the three cornerstone areas of condition: Structure, Function and Composition.

  8. Safe use of mine winding ropes, volume 4: studies towards a code of practice for rope condition assessment.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Borrello, M

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was the verification of the code of Practice for Rope Condition Assessment. Ropes were meant to be discarded according to the discard criteria as outlined in the code and then tested by the CSIR. The results...

  9. Satellite assessment of early-season forecasts for vegetation conditions of grazing allotments in Nevada, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifteen years of enhanced vegetation index data from the MODIS sensor are examined in conjunction with precipitation and the Palmer drought severity index to assess how well growing season conditions for vegetation within grazing allotments of Nevada can be predicted at different times of the year. ...

  10. Development and Verification of a Mobile Shelter Assessment System "Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition Featuring Gonryo and Miyagi (RASECC-GM)" for Major Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tadashi; Nakayama, Masaharu; Abe, Michiaki; Takayama, Shin; Kamei, Takashi; Abe, Yoshiko; Yamadera, Jun; Amito, Koichiro; Morino, Kazuma

    2016-10-01

    Introduction There were 5,385 deceased and 710 missing in the Ishinomaki medical zone following the Great East Japan Earthquake that occurred in Japan on March 11, 2011. The Ishinomaki Zone Joint Relief Team (IZJRT) was formed to unify the relief teams of all organizations joining in support of the Ishinomaki area. The IZJRT expanded relief activity as they continued to manually collect and analyze assessments of essential information for maintaining health in all 328 shelters using a paper-type survey. However, the IZJRT spent an enormous amount of time and effort entering and analyzing these data because the work was vastly complex. Therefore, an assessment system must be developed that can tabulate shelter assessment data correctly and efficiently. The objective of this report was to describe the development and verification of a system to rapidly assess evacuation centers in preparation for the next major disaster. Report Based on experiences with the complex work during the disaster, software called the "Rapid Assessment System of Evacuation Center Condition featuring Gonryo and Miyagi" (RASECC-GM) was developed to enter, tabulate, and manage the shelter assessment data. Further, a verification test was conducted during a large-scale Self-Defense Force (SDF) training exercise to confirm its feasibility, usability, and accuracy. The RASECC-GM comprises three screens: (1) the "Data Entry screen," allowing for quick entry on tablet devices of 19 assessment items, including shelter administrator, living and sanitary conditions, and a tally of the injured and sick; (2) the "Relief Team/Shelter Management screen," for registering information on relief teams and shelters; and (3) the "Data Tabulation screen," which allows tabulation of the data entered for each shelter, as well as viewing and sorting from a disaster headquarters' computer. During the verification test, data of mock shelters entered online were tabulated quickly and accurately on a mock disaster

  11. Relevance feature selection of modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition in structural health assessment for reinforced concrete buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He-Qing Mu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Modal frequency is an important indicator for structural health assessment. Previous studies have shown that this indicator is substantially affected by the fluctuation of ambient conditions, such as temperature and humidity. Therefore, recognizing the pattern between modal frequency and ambient conditions is necessary for reliable long-term structural health assessment. In this article, a novel machine-learning algorithm is proposed to automatically select relevance features in modal frequency-ambient condition pattern recognition based on structural dynamic response and ambient condition measurement. In contrast to the traditional feature selection approaches by examining a large number of combinations of extracted features, the proposed algorithm conducts continuous relevance feature selection by introducing a sophisticated hyperparameterization on the weight parameter vector controlling the relevancy of different features in the prediction model. The proposed algorithm is then utilized for structural health assessment for a reinforced concrete building based on 1-year daily measurements. It turns out that the optimal model class including the relevance features for each vibrational mode is capable to capture the pattern between the corresponding modal frequency and the ambient conditions.

  12. Assessment of existing local houses condition as analysis tools for shore housing improvement program in Weriagar district, Bintuni Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, F.; Fernando, A.; Allo, I. P. R.

    2018-01-01

    The housing assessment is a part of the pre-feasibility study inThe Shore Housing Improvement Program in Weriagar District, West Papua. The housing assessment was conducted to identify the physical condition of existing houses. The parameters of assessment formulated from local references, practices and also national building regulation that covers each building system components, such as building structure/frame, building floor, building cover, and building roof. This study aims to explains lessons from local practices and references, used as the formula to generate assessment parameter, elaborate with Indonesia building regulation. The result of housing assessment were used as a basis to develop the house improvement strategy, the design alternative for housing improvement and further planning recommendations. The local knowledges involved in housing improvement program expected that the local-based approach could respect to the local build culture, respect the local environment, and the most important can offer best suitable solutions for functional utility and livability.

  13. Joining the dots: Conditional pass and programmatic assessment enhances recognition of problems with professionalism and factors hampering student progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKenzie Jan M

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmatic assessment that looks across a whole year may contribute to better decisions compared with those made from isolated assessments alone. The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate a programmatic system to handle student assessment results that is aligned not only with learning and remediation, but also with defensibility. The key components are standards based assessments, use of "Conditional Pass", and regular progress meetings. Methods The new assessment system is described. The evaluation is based on years 4-6 of a 6-year medical course. The types of concerns staff had about students were clustered into themes alongside any interventions and outcomes for the students concerned. The likelihoods of passing the year according to type of problem were compared before and after phasing in of the new assessment system. Results The new system was phased in over four years. In the fourth year of implementation 701 students had 3539 assessment results, of which 4.1% were Conditional Pass. More in-depth analysis for 1516 results available from 447 students revealed the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals for failure was highest for students with problems identified in more than one part of the course (18.8 (7.7-46.2 p Conclusions The new system detects more students in difficulty and has resulted in less "failure to fail". The requirement to state conditions required to pass has contributed to a paper trail that should improve defensibility. Most importantly it has helped detect and act on some of the more difficult areas to assess such as professionalism.

  14. Dose assessment method for control room habitability in accident condition in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Tang Shaohua; Wang Jianhua

    2012-01-01

    Based on the NRC. technical requirements on NPP control room habitability assessment, and considering the characteristics of the improved second generation NPPs in China, this paper developed a complete dose assessment model for control room habitability. Contrasting to the existing model in China, this model is applicable for DBA and sever accident, and the short term atmospheric diffusion factor can be calculated using the combined wake mode. By considering the zoning of habitable area and the design characteristics of the ventilation system, the effects of un-filtrated air leakage from the building and the ventilation system on the assessment calculation can be considered. (authors)

  15. Fast dose assessment models, parameters and code under accident conditions for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Z.Y.; Hu, E.B.; Meng, X.C.; Zhang, Y.; Yao, R.T.

    1993-01-01

    According to requirement of accident emergency plan for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant, a Gaussian straight-line model was adopted for estimating radionuclide concentration in surface air. In addition, the effects of mountain body on atmospheric dispersion was considered. By combination of field atmospheric dispersion experiment and wind tunnel modeling test, necessary modifications have been done for some models and parameters. A computer code for assessment was written in Quick BASIC (V4.5) language. The radius of assessment region is 10 km and the code is applicable to early accident assessment. (1 tab.)

  16. Assessment of the quality of life in cities. Environmental conditions and mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Forward

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the paper is to provide knowledge about the practice of life quality assessment by different disciplines in connection with different types of public measures in the area of town planning and design, transportation and mobility. In this way we want to improve the understanding of responsible politicians and experts about assessment of quality of life. It is an introductory paper to a research about analysis of how mobility policies affect quality of life. The main product will be advice for improved assessment processes. The developed instruments will be tested in a pilot study.

  17. Level and period of realimentation to assess improvement in body condition and carcass quality in cull ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Randhir Singh; Soren, Nira Manik; Sahoo, Artabandhu; Karim, Shaikh Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Improvement in body condition was assessed in 40 cull ewes (>6 years), equally distributed in two groups and realimented with ad libitum roughage (gram straw) and two levels of concentrate feeding, i.e., 2.5 % (T(1)) of live weight (LW) and ad libitum (T(2)). Five representative animals from an initial 45 were slaughtered at the initiation of the study (0 day) and five animals from each treatment at 44, 67, and 90 days of experiment for carcass attributes. Improvement in body condition score (BCS), nutrient utilization, feed efficiency, and carcass traits were assessed at 44, 67, and 90 days. Metabolism trial of 6-day collection of feed, feces, and urine samples was conducted on five representative ewes from each group after 60 days of feeding. The level of concentrate feeding on LW gain and BCS was significant, and the duration of realimentation showed a linear improvement (P body condition of cull ewes for quality mutton production.

  18. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Novel Non-Invasive Tool to Assess Spiny Lobster Nutritional Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodemann, Thomas; Carter, Chris G.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid non-invasive monitoring of spiny lobster nutritional condition has considerable application in the established fishery, live market and prospective aquaculture. The aim of this research was to test the feasibility of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a novel non-invasive tool to assess the nutritional condition of three lobster species. Lobster (n = 92) abdominal muscle dry matter (AMDM) and carbon content (AMC) correlated significantly with indices of nutritional condition including hepatopancreas dry matter (HPDM; rho = 0.83, 0.78), total lipid content (HPTL; rho = 0.85, 0.87) and haemolymph total protein (TP; rho = 0.89, 0.87 respectively). Abdominal muscle nitrogen content (AMN) was a poor correlate of nutritional condition. Models based on FT-NIR scanning of whole lobster tails successfully predicted AMDM, AMN and AMC (RMSECV = 1.41%, 0.35% and 0.91%; R2 = 0.75, 0.65, 0.77, respectively), and to a lower accuracy HPDM, HPTL and TP (RMSECV = 6.22%, 8.37%, 18.4 g l-1; R2 = 0.51, 0.70, 0.83, respectively). NIRS was applied successfully to assess the condition of spiny lobsters non-invasively. This pilot study paves the way for the development of crustacean condition models using portable non-invasive devices in the laboratory or in the field. PMID:27442242

  19. Assessment of inservice conditions of safety-related nuclear plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashar, H.; Bagchi, G.

    1995-06-01

    The report is a compilation from a number of sources of information related to the condition Of structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants in the United States. The most significant information came from the hands-on inspection of the six old plants (licensed prior to 1977) performed by the staff of the Civil Engineering and Geosciences Branch (ECGB) in the Division of Engineering of the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. For the containment structures, most of the information related to the degraded conditions came from the licensees as part of the Licensing Event Report System (10 CFR 50.73), or as part of the requirement under limiting condition of operation of the plant-specific Technical Specifications. Most of the information related to the degradation of other Structures and civil engineering features was extracted from the industry survey, the reported incidents, and the plant visits. The report discusses the condition of the structures and civil engineering features at operating nuclear power plants and provides information that would help detect, alleviate, and correct the degraded conditions of the structures and civil engineering features

  20. Assessment of spent WWER-440 fuel performance under long-term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takats, F [TS Enercon Kft. (Hungary)

    2012-07-01

    Paks Nuclear Power Plant is the only NPP in Hungary. It has four WWER-440 type reactor units. The fresh fuel is imported from Russia so far. The spent fuel assemblies were shipped back to Russia until 1997 after about 6 years cooling at the plant. A dry storage facility (MVDS type) has been constructed and is operational since then. By 1 January 2008, there were 5107 assemblies in dry storage. The objectives are: 1) Wet AR storage of spent fuel from the NPP Paks: Measurements of conditions for spent fuel storage in the at-reactor (AR) storage pools of Paks NPP (physical and chemical characteristics of pool water, corrosion product data); Measurements and visual control of storage pool component characteristics; Evaluation of storage characteristics and conditions with respect to long-term stability (corrosion of fuel cladding, construction materials); 2) Dry AFR storage at Paks NPP: Calculation and measurement of spent fuel conditions during the transfer from the storage pool to the modular vault dry storage (MVDS) on the site; Calculation and measurement of spent fuel conditions during the preparation of fuel for dry storage (drying process), such as crud release, activity build-up; Measurement of spent fuel conditions during the long-term dry storage, activity data in the storage tubes and amount of crud.

  1. Use of a driving simulator to assess performance under adverse weather conditions in adults with albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, Gwen M; Summers, C Gail; Ward, Nicholas; Bhargava, Esha; Rakauskas, Michael E; Holleschau, Ann M

    2012-04-01

    Participants with albinism have reduced vision and nystagmus with reduced foveation times. This prospective study evaluated driving in 12 participants with albinism and 12 matched controls. Participants drove a vehicle simulator through a virtual rural course in sunny and foggy conditions. Under sunny conditions, participants with albinism showed a narrower preferred minimum safety boundary during car-following tasks than did controls, but there was no difference under foggy conditions. Their driving did not differ significantly from that of controls when approaching a stop sign or when choosing gap size between oncoming vehicles when crossing an intersection. However, when compared to control drivers, participants with albinism had a decreased minimum safety boundary for car-following that should be included in counseling regarding driving safety.

  2. Prioritization Assessment for Capability Gaps in Weapon System of Systems Based on the Conditional Evidential Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Pei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The prioritization of capability gaps for weapon system of systems is the basis for design and capability planning in the system of systems development process. In order to address input information uncertainties, the prioritization of capability gaps is computed in two steps using the conditional evidential network method. First, we evaluated the belief distribution of degree of required satisfaction for capabilities, and then calculated the reverse conditional belief function between capability hierarchies. We also provided verification for the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method through a prioritization of capability gaps calculation using an example of a spatial-navigation-and-positioning system of systems.

  3. Investigation of ageing status assessment and lifetime evaluation based on actual operation conditions of QNPC NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huilie, S.; Chun, G.; Hongyun, L.; Yinqiang, C.; Jun, T.; Wenbing, W.

    2009-01-01

    Qinshan NPP has been successfully operated for over 18 years with 30 year's design life. For 2nd PSR preparation and life extension strategies, a comprehensive status assessment and lifetime evaluation project is performed by NPP and SG research organization (CNPO). Assessment is subjects to main degradation mechanism of SG materials, including tube IGA/IGSCC tube pitting, fatigue of pressure boundary. Based on two primary functions of PWR steam generator, a comprehensive lifetime evaluation system and indicators has been established for keeping structural integrity of SG pressure boundary and thermal output performance. A series of specific assessment activities are implemented for defining actual ageing status and estimating safety and function margin of SG, including SG impurities hideout return analysis, fatigue evaluation of feedwater pipes based thermal stratification number simulation, fatigue evaluation of pressure boundary based on actual transition records, structure integrity assessment for lower chamber with defect, tube fouling analysis and trending etc. Assessment results shows, even extending operation to 50 years, SG would still keep sufficient safety and function margin, SG is not the neck of NPP life extension. (author)

  4. Assessment of Augmented Electronic Fuel Controls for Modular Engine Diagnostics and Condition Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    removal of the horoscope . Diagnostic Conoctor - E4 Th10 E4 23-pin connoctor on the electrical control unit Is provided for ground- checking electrical...confidenou in engine condition monitoring * 1min general. Thi9 has boon especially true in~ eases where fUse signal s have c~aused engine shutdowns. Where ECWI

  5. QEEG Spectral and Coherence Assessment of Autistic Children in Three Different Experimental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Calixto; Estévez, Mario; Leisman, Gerry; Melillo, Robert; Rodríguez, Rafael; DeFina, Phillip; Hernández, Adrián; Pérez-Nellar, Jesús; Naranjo, Rolando; Chinchilla, Mauricio; Garófalo, Nicolás; Vargas, José; Beltrán, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    We studied autistics by quantitative EEG spectral and coherence analysis during three experimental conditions: basal, watching a cartoon with audio (V-A), and with muted audio band (VwA). Significant reductions were found for the absolute power spectral density (PSD) in the central region for delta and theta, and in the posterior region for sigma…

  6. Assessment of ichthyo-fauna condition within zone of Semipalatinsk test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilov, N.Sh.; Mitrofanov, I.V.; Matmuratov, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents studies of biological factors and calculating morphological features for fish from the Uzunbulak and Shagan Rivers situated in the Semipalatinsk test site area. The conditions of fish habitat are characterized as favorable; however alteration of phenotypic features shows radiation water contamination. (author)

  7. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    "Modern, energy efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  8. Influence of deep neuromuscular block on the surgeonś assessment of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M V; Scheppan, S; Mørk, E

    2017-01-01

    Background: During laparotomy, surgeons may experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. Deep neuromuscular block (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) between 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesized th...

  9. An energy performance assessment for indoor environmental quality (IEQ) acceptance in air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining an acceptable indoor environmental quality (IEQ) for air-conditioned office buildings consumes a considerable amount of thermal energy. This study correlates thermal energy consumption with the overall occupant acceptance of IEQ in some air-conditioned offices. An empirical expression of an IEQ index associated with thermal comfort, indoor air quality, aural and visual comfort is used to benchmark the offices. Employing input parameters obtained from the building stocks of Hong Kong, the office portfolios regarding the thermal energy consumption and the IEQ index are determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In particular, an energy-to-acceptance ratio and an energy-to-IEQ improvement ratio are proposed to measure the performance of energy consumption for the IEQ in the air-conditioned offices. The ratios give the thermal energy consumption corresponding to a desirable percentage of IEQ acceptances and to an IEQ upgrade, respectively. The results showed a non-linear increasing trend of annual thermal energy consumption for IEQ improvement at the offices of higher IEQ benchmarks. The thermal energy consumption for visual comfort and indoor air quality would also be significant in these offices. This study provides useful information that incorporates the IEQ in air-conditioned offices into the development of performance evaluation measures for thermal energy consumption.

  10. Comparative economic assessment of the energy performance of air-conditioning within the Mexican residential sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Oropeza-Perez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This work shows a sensitivity analysis of the economic impact of different energy performances of air-conditioning within the Mexican housing sector. For this purpose, a cooling-load calculator program in function of the indoor temperature is developed. The program also calculates the electricity consumption along with the expenditure with the different residential rates of the Mexican Federal Commission of Electricity (CFE, initials in Spanish set according to the season of the year and zone of the country. After the results onto the national-scale scenario are validated with the literature, a sensitivity analysis is carried out by changing three parameters that are considered as influential on the consumption and which can be considered as energy saving strategies. With these strategies, it is found that the indoor temperature decrease due to the use of a passive cooling system is the most important characteristic to take into account followed by the coefficient of performance (COP of the air-conditioning and the increase of the comfort temperature set-point, respectively. Thereby, an economic analysis is carried out, finding an annual saving up to 770 USD within a single air-conditioned dwelling having a payback period of 3 years for using a combination of passive cooling techniques and increasing the comfort temperature set-point; or a 2 years payback period if the air-conditioning is changed by a high-efficient equipment.

  11. Satellite Based Assessment of Hydroclimatic Conditions Related to Cholera in Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antarpreet Jutla

    Full Text Available Cholera, an infectious diarrheal disease, has been shown to be associated with large scale hydroclimatic processes. The sudden and sporadic occurrence of epidemic cholera is linked with high mortality rates, in part, due to uncertainty in timing and location of outbreaks. Improved understanding of the relationship between pathogenic abundance and climatic processes allows prediction of disease outbreak to be an achievable goal. In this study, we show association of large scale hydroclimatic processes with the cholera epidemic in Zimbabwe reported to have begun in Chitungwiza, a city in Mashonaland East province, in August, 2008.Climatic factors in the region were found to be associated with triggering cholera outbreak and are shown to be related to anomalies of temperature and precipitation, validating the hypothesis that poor conditions of sanitation, coupled with elevated temperatures, and followed by heavy rainfall can initiate outbreaks of cholera. Spatial estimation by satellite of precipitation and global gridded air temperature captured sensitivities in hydroclimatic conditions that permitted identification of the location in the region where the disease outbreak began.Satellite derived hydroclimatic processes can be used to capture environmental conditions related to epidemic cholera, as occurred in Zimbabwe, thereby providing an early warning system. Since cholera cannot be eradicated because the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to the aquatic environment, prediction of conditions favorable for its growth and estimation of risks of triggering the disease in a given population can be used to alert responders, potentially decreasing infection and saving lives.

  12. 77 FR 47707 - Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Physical Condition Scoring Notice and Revised Dictionary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    .../Cooling System Leaks (HVAC--Building Systems) deficiency, coolant, water or steam escaping from the unit... surface failure, or evidence of water infiltration or other moisture producing conditions,'' and the title... beyond the control of a PHA. For instance, pooling of water on a site may not be fixable during winter...

  13. Field Demonstration of Innovative Condition Assessment Technologies for Water Mains: Leak Detection and Location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three leak detection/location technologies were demonstrated on a 76-year-old, 2,057-ft-long portion of a cement-lined, 24-in. cast iron water main in Louisville, KY. This activity was part of a series of field demonstrations of innovative leak detection/location and condition a...

  14. An assessment of the condition of South Africa's transport fixed infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wall, Kevin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the “report cards” of the condition of engineering infrastructure in South Africa, the product of cooperation between the CSIR and SAICE, have been to draw the attention of government, and of the public at large, to the importance...

  15. Assessment of spent WWER-440 fuel performance under long-term storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupca, L [VUJE Inc. (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01

    In the Slovak Republic are under operation 6 units (4 in the Jaslovske Bohunice site, and 2 in the Mochovce), 2 units are under construction in Mochovce site. All units are WWER-440 type. The fresh fuel is imported from the Russian Federation. The spent fuel assemblies are stored in wet conditions in Bohunice Interim Storage Spent Fuel Facility (SFIS). By 15 July 2008, there were 8413 assemblies in SFIS. The objectives are: 1) Wet AR storage of spent fuel from the NPP Bohunice and Mochovce: Surveillance of conditions for spent fuel storage in the at-reactor (AR) storage pools of both NPP's (characteristics of pool water, corrosion product data); Visual control of storage pool components; Evaluation of storage conditions with respect to long-term stability (corrosion of fuel cladding, structural materials); 2) Wet SFIS storage at Bohunice: Measurement of spent fuel conditions during the long-term wet storage, activity data in the storage casks and amount of crud; Surveillance program for SFIS structural materials.

  16. An approach to effectiveness monitoring of floodplain channel aquatic habitat: channel condition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Woodsmith; James R. Noel; Michael L. Dilger

    2005-01-01

    The condition of aquatic habitat and the health of species dependent on that habitat are issues of significant concern to land management agencies, other organizations, and the public at large in southeastern Alaska, as well as along much of the Pacific coastal region of North America. We develop and test a set of effectiveness monitoring procedures for measuring...

  17. Assessing the Risk Relevance of Accounting Variables in Diverse Economic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brimble, M.; Hodgson, A.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the association between accounting information and systematic (beta) risk. We extend previous research by using an updated data set, a range of risk measures that adjust for different market and time-varying conditions, and by examining whether the long-run association has

  18. Influence of deep neuromuscular block on the surgeonś assessment of surgical conditions during laparotomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, M V; Scheppan, S; Mørk, E

    2017-01-01

    Background: During laparotomy, surgeons may experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. Deep neuromuscular block (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) between 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesized th...... time, occurrence of wound infection, and wound dehiscence were found. Conclusions: Deep NMB compared with standard NMB resulted in better subjective ratings of surgical conditions during laparotomy.......Background: During laparotomy, surgeons may experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. Deep neuromuscular block (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) between 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesized...... that deep NMB (PTC 0-1) would improve subjective ratings of surgical conditions during upper laparotomy as compared with standard NMB. Methods: This was a double blinded, randomized study. A total of 128 patients undergoing elective upper laparotomy were randomized to either continuous deep NMB (infusion...

  19. Assessing uncertainties in global cropland futures using a conditional probabilistic modelling framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engström, Kerstin; Olin, Stefan; Rounsevell, Mark D A; Brogaard, Sara; Van Vuuren, Detlef P.; Alexander, Peter; Murray-Rust, Dave; Arneth, Almut

    2016-01-01

    We present a modelling framework to simulate probabilistic futures of global cropland areas that are conditional on the SSP (shared socio-economic pathway) scenarios. Simulations are based on the Parsimonious Land Use Model (PLUM) linked with the global dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS

  20. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  1. Condition assessment of timber bridges. 2, Evaluation of several stress-wave tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian K. Brashaw; Robert J. Vatalaro; James P. Wacker; Robert J. Ross

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and reliability of several stress-wave devices widely used for locating deteriorated areas in timber bridge members. Bridge components containing different levels of natural decay were tested using various devices. The specimens were then sawn (along their length) into slabs to expose their interior condition. The...

  2. The Intellectual Property Management Through Assessment of Intellectual Potential of Scientific Organization in Conditions of Knowledge Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomakh Viktoriia V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at researching and improving the process of the intellectual property management through assessment of innovation potential of scientific organizations in the conditions of knowledge economy. Theoretical and methodical questions of management of innovation processes and methodical support to assessment of innovative potential were analyzed. A methodical support of assessment of innovation potential of scientific organizations has been proposed, which takes into consideration the following stages: description of goals and choice of indicators, development of work plan, definition of the necessary list of indicators of components of innovation potential, data collection, calculation and analysis of the obtained data for assessment, identification of «strong» and «weak» sides of enterprise, calculation of particular indicators and comparison with planned values, calculation of the integral index, adjustment of strategy for development of enterprise.

  3. Food for thought: Conditions for discourse reflection in the ligth of environmental assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, Hens; Runhaar, Piety; Oegema, Tammo

    2010-01-01

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses—frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world—act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in

  4. Food for thought: conditions for discourse reflection in the light of environmental assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Runhaar, H.A.C.; Runhaar, P.R.; Oegema, T.

    2010-01-01

    People tend to take notice of what is happening around them selectively. Discourses—frames through which actors give meaning to aspects of the world—act as built-in filters that distinguish relevant from irrelevant data. Use of knowledge generated by environmental assessments (EAs) in

  5. A revised method for assessing veld condition. | N.M. | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As previously, basal cover and species composition are determined on a 30 x 30 m plot from 200 points observed using the wheel-point apparatus. Plants are grouped into ecological classes which are defined on the basis of how the plants respond to grazing and burning. These and additional, subjectively assessed ...

  6. Assessment of lighting conditions for older adults in Dutch nursing homes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; M.M. Sinoo; H.S.M. Kort

    2011-01-01

    Aim and objectives. To improve (eye)care in nursing homes by reporting and assessing visual functioning to enhance professional caregivers' awareness of visual problems. Background. Older adults experience visual problems owing to biological ageing or eye disease. In the Netherlands, the prevalence

  7. 42 CFR 418.54 - Condition of participation: Initial and comprehensive assessment of the patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patient's well-being, comfort, and dignity throughout the dying process. The comprehensive assessment must... and participate in his or her own care. (4) Imminence of death. (5) Severity of symptoms. (6) Drug... their ability to cope with the patient's death. Information gathered from the initial bereavement...

  8. MoDOT pavement preservation research program volume V, site-specific pavement condition assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The overall objective of Task 4 was to thoroughly assess the cost-effectiveness and utility of selected non-invasive technologies as : applicable to MoDOT roadways. Non-invasive imaging technologies investigated in this project were Ultrasonic Surfac...

  9. Current and historical forest conditions and disturbance regimes in the Hoosier-Shawnee ecological assessment area

    Science.gov (United States)

    George R. Parker; Charles M. Ruffner

    2004-01-01

    We review the historical and current status of forests in the Hoosier-Shawnee Ecological Assessment Area. Native American people influenced the vegetation through fire and agricultural clearing across the region until the early 1800s when European settlers arrived. Clearing of the land for agriculture peaked in the early 1900s after which badly eroded land was...

  10. 42 CFR 484.55 - Condition of participation: Comprehensive assessment of patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... patient's return to the home from a hospital admission of 24 hours or more for any reason other than... determined by the Secretary must be incorporated into the HHA's own assessment and must include: clinical..., activities of daily living, medications, equipment management, emergent care, and data items collected at...

  11. Joining the dots: conditional pass and programmatic assessment enhances recognition of problems with professionalism and factors hampering student progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Tweed, Mike J; Egan, Tony G; Ali, Anthony N; McKenzie, Jan M; Moore, MaryLeigh; Rudland, Joy R

    2011-06-07

    Programmatic assessment that looks across a whole year may contribute to better decisions compared with those made from isolated assessments alone. The aim of this study is to describe and evaluate a programmatic system to handle student assessment results that is aligned not only with learning and remediation, but also with defensibility. The key components are standards based assessments, use of "Conditional Pass", and regular progress meetings. The new assessment system is described. The evaluation is based on years 4-6 of a 6-year medical course. The types of concerns staff had about students were clustered into themes alongside any interventions and outcomes for the students concerned. The likelihoods of passing the year according to type of problem were compared before and after phasing in of the new assessment system. The new system was phased in over four years. In the fourth year of implementation 701 students had 3539 assessment results, of which 4.1% were Conditional Pass. More in-depth analysis for 1516 results available from 447 students revealed the odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) for failure was highest for students with problems identified in more than one part of the course (18.8 (7.7-46.2) p year under the new system on the basis of performance during the year (20 or 4.5% compared with four or 1.1% under the previous system (p pass has contributed to a paper trail that should improve defensibility. Most importantly it has helped detect and act on some of the more difficult areas to assess such as professionalism.

  12. Modeling intelligent adversaries for terrorism risk assessment: some necessary conditions for adversary models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guikema, Seth

    2012-07-01

    Intelligent adversary modeling has become increasingly important for risk analysis, and a number of different approaches have been proposed for incorporating intelligent adversaries in risk analysis models. However, these approaches are based on a range of often-implicit assumptions about the desirable properties of intelligent adversary models. This "Perspective" paper aims to further risk analysis for situations involving intelligent adversaries by fostering a discussion of the desirable properties for these models. A set of four basic necessary conditions for intelligent adversary models is proposed and discussed. These are: (1) behavioral accuracy to the degree possible, (2) computational tractability to support decision making, (3) explicit consideration of uncertainty, and (4) ability to gain confidence in the model. It is hoped that these suggested necessary conditions foster discussion about the goals and assumptions underlying intelligent adversary modeling in risk analysis. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  13. Neighborhood Condition and Geographic Locale in Assessing HIV/STI Risk Among African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Vanable, Peter; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph J; Romer, Daniel; Brown, Larry K; Farber, Naomi B; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-06-01

    Although region and neighborhood condition's effect on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk has been studied separately, there is little research examining their interplay. African American adolescents (n = 1,602) from four matched cities in the Northeastern and Southeastern US completed Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviews and submitted biospecimen samples to detect Sexually Transmitted Infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas). Logistic and negative binomial regressions determined HIV/STI risk differences by region, neighborhood stress, and stress-region dyads. Northeastern participants demonstrated lower HIV/STI risk while participants from higher stress neighborhoods exhibited greater risk. Relationships between neighborhood condition and ever having anal sex (p use (p partners (p partners than participants in comparable Southeastern neighborhoods (p risk.

  14. Is the conditioned pain modulation paradigm reliable? A test-retest assessment using the nociceptive withdrawal reflex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A Biurrun Manresa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the conditioned pain modulation (CPM paradigm assessed by an objective electrophysiological method, the nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR, and psychophysical measures, using hypothetical sample sizes for future studies as analytical goals. Thirty-four healthy volunteers participated in two identical experimental sessions, separated by 1 to 3 weeks. In each session, the cold pressor test (CPT was used to induce CPM, and the NWR thresholds, electrical pain detection thresholds and pain intensity ratings after suprathreshold electrical stimulation were assessed before and during CPT. CPM was consistently detected by all methods, and the electrophysiological measures did not introduce additional variation to the assessment. In particular, 99% of the trials resulted in higher NWR thresholds during CPT, with an average increase of 3.4 mA (p<0.001. Similarly, 96% of the trials resulted in higher electrical pain detection thresholds during CPT, with an average increase of 2.2 mA (p<0.001. Pain intensity ratings after suprathreshold electrical stimulation were reduced during CPT in 84% of the trials, displaying an average decrease of 1.5 points in a numeric rating scale (p<0.001. Under these experimental conditions, CPM reliability was acceptable for all assessment methods in terms of sample sizes for potential experiments. The presented results are encouraging with regards to the use of the CPM as an assessment tool in experimental and clinical pain. Trial registration: Clinical Trials.gov NCT01636440.

  15. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waber, H.N.; Hobbs, M.Y.; Frape, S.K.

    2013-01-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ 37 Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  16. RISK ASSESSMENT DURING OPERATING SELF-PROPELLED LIFTING JIB CRANES IN CONDITIONS OF INSUFFICIENT INFORMATION

    OpenAIRE

    Lagerev A.V.; Konchits S.V.; Bleyshmidt L.I.

    2018-01-01

    Presents the results of statistical analyses identified by the expert diagnostics of defects of the self-propelled lifting jib cranes, spent a normative term of exploitation. The greatest number of defects associated with the destruction and dete-rioration of structural elements, the occurrence of fatigue cracks and a violation of the conditions of operation of the equipment. The greatest number of defects occurs in the hydraulic system of cranes, the rope-block system, and rarely in steel st...

  17. Assessment of initial soil moisture conditions for event-based rainfall-runoff modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Tramblay, Yves; Bouvier, Christophe; Martin, C.; Didon-Lescot, J. F.; Todorovik, D.; Domergue, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Flash floods are the most destructive natural hazards that occur in the Mediterranean region. Rainfall-runoff models can be very useful for flash flood forecasting and prediction. Event-based models are very popular for operational purposes, but there is a need to reduce the uncertainties related to the initial moisture conditions estimation prior to a flood event. This paper aims to compare several soil moisture indicators: local Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) measurements of soil moisture,...

  18. Assessment of the environmental impact of available options in electric power development under Polish conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofala, Janusz; ); Jankowski, Boleslaw

    1999-01-01

    The current European initiatives limiting environmental impacts of energy production and use are presented and the proposal emission levels together with benefits are given. The role of nuclear power in achieving environmental targets in the EU countries is stressed. Then a comparison of the following 3 major electricity production options: modern coal fired power plants, gas fired combined cycle power plants and nuclear power plants is done. In the comparison Polish conditions are taken into account

  19. An energy impact assessment of indoor air quality acceptance for air-conditioned offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.; Hui, P.S.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of fresh air in ventilation systems for the air-conditioning consumes a considerable amount of energy and affects the indoor air quality (IAQ). The ventilation demand is primarily related to the occupant load. In this study, the ventilation demands due to occupant load variations and occupant acceptability were examined against certain IAQ objectives using the mass balance of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations in an air-conditioned office. In particular, this study proposed a ventilation model for the consideration of the occupant load variations and occupant acceptability based on the regional survey of typical offices (422 samples) in Hong Kong. The model was applied to evaluate the relative energy performance of different IAQ objectives in ventilation systems for typical office buildings in Hong Kong. The results showed that the energy consumption of a ventilation system would be correlated with the occupant load and acceptability in the air-conditioned office. Indicative CO 2 levels of 800 ppmv, 1000 ppmv and 1200 ppmv corresponding to 83%, 97% and 99.7% survey samples were shown, corresponding to the thermal energy consumptions of 1500 MJ m -2 yr -1 , 960 MJ m -2 yr -1 and 670 MJ m -2 yr -1 , respectively. In regards to the monetary issue, an annual value of HK$ 762 million per year in electrical consumption could be saved in all office buildings in Hong Kong when the indoor target CO 2 concentration is increased from 1000 ppmv to 1200 ppmv. To achieve an excellent IAQ following the existing design standard, i.e. to decrease the CO 2 level from 1000 ppmv to 800 ppmv, 56% additional energy would be consumed, corresponding to an annual value of HK$ 1,419 million, even though the occupant acceptability is only improved from 81% to 86%. The development of the models in this study would be useful for the energy performance evaluation of ventilation systems in air-conditioned offices

  20. Assessing initial conditions for chloride transport across low-permeability argillaceous rocks, Wellenberg, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waber, H.N. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Hobbs, M.Y. [Rock-Water Interaction Group, Institute of Geological Sciences, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO), 22 St. Clair Avenue East, M4T 2S3 Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    Information about fluid evolution and solute transport in a low-permeability metamorphic rock sequence has been obtained by comparing chloride concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of pore water, groundwater, and fluid inclusions. The similarity of δ{sup 37}Cl values in fluid inclusions and groundwater suggests a closed-system evolution during the metamorphic overprint, and signatures established at this time appear to form the initial conditions for chloride transport after exhumation of the rock sequence. (authors)

  1. Alternative fuels from forest residues for passenger cars - an assessment under German framework conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtig, O.; Leible, L.; Kälber, S.; Kappler, g.; Spicher, U.

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the available volumes, biogenic residues are a promising resource for renewable fuels for passenger cars to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we compare three fuels from forest residues under German framework conditions: biogenic electricity, substitute natural gas (SNG), and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel. Methods Fuels from forest residues are compared with regard to their technical efficiency (here defined as ‘pkm per kg b...

  2. Assessing the international parity conditions and transmission mechanism for Malaysia-China

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Tze-Haw

    2012-01-01

    We construct a structural system that jointly examines Purchasing Power and Interest Parity conditions for Malaysia-China during 1996Q1-2010Q4. Structural VARX, VECMX, over-identifying restrictions, bootstrapping and persistent profiles are utilized in the analyses. We find support for interaction between the goods and capital markets of Malaysia-China, when Asia crisis and subprime crisis are taken into accounts. The faster pace of adjustment towards price instead of interest equilibrium imp...

  3. A Preliminary Assessment of Daily Weather Conditions in Nuclear Site for Development of Effective Emergency Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2012-01-01

    A radiological emergency preparedness for nuclear sites is recognized as an important measure against anticipated severe accidents with environmental releases of radioactive materials. While there are many individual means in the emergency preparedness for nuclear accidents, one of most important means is to make a decision of evacuation or shelter of the public residents with the emergency plan zone (EPZ) of a nuclear site. In order to prepare an effective strategy for the evacuation as a basis of the emergency preparedness, it may need the understanding of atmospheric dispersion characteristics of radiation releases to the environment, mainly depending upon the weather conditions of a radiation releases location, i.e., a nuclear site. As a preliminary study for the development of an effective emergency plan, the basic features of the weather conditions of a specific site were investigated. A main interest of this study is to identify whether or not the site weather conditions have specific features helpful for a decision making of evacuation of the public residents

  4. Assessment of MPPT Techniques During the Faulty Conditions of PV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhukya Krishna Naick

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Distributed Generation (DG systems like wind energy systems and solar Photovoltaic (PV systems on the generation of electricity has increased. Out of these DG systems, the PV systems have gained wide popularity, because of the availability of solar energy throughout the day. Depending on the size of PV installations, a large number of PV modules can be interconnected in the form of series and parallel connection. Since a large number of modules are interconnected, it is possible for the faults in a PV array to occur due to the failure of protection system, which can cause damage to the PV module and also the decrease in the output power. This paper presents the tracking of a maximum power point under the faulty conditions of 12x5 PV array. The fault conditions that have been considered in the PV array are open circuit fault, line to ground, line to line and failure of bypass diodes. Perturb and observe, incremental conductance and fuzzy logic controller are the maximum power point tracking techniques that have been implemented. For each of the fault conditions, the results have been presented in terms of the maximum power tracked, tracking time and tracking efficiency.

  5. Condition assessment survey of onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Roger W; Lamichhane, Krishna M; Cummings, Michael J; Cheong, Gloria H

    2014-01-01

    Onsite sewage disposal systems (OSDSs) are the third leading cause of groundwater contamination in the USA. The existing condition of OSDSs in the State of Hawaii was investigated to determine whether a mandatory management program should be implemented. Based on observed conditions, OSDSs were differentiated into four categories: 'pass', 'sludge scum', 'potential failure' and 'fail'. Of all OSDSs inspected, approximately 68% appear to be in good working condition while the remaining 32% are failing or are in danger of failing. Homeowner interviews found that 80% of OSDSs were not being serviced in any way. About 70% of effluent samples had values of total-N and total-P greater than typical values and 40% had total suspended solids (TSS) and 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) greater than typical values. The performance of aerobic treatment units (ATUs) was no better than septic tanks and cesspools indicating that the State's approach of requiring but not enforcing maintenance contracts for ATUs is not working. In addition, effluent samples from OSDSs located in drinking water wells estimated 2-year capture zones had higher average concentrations of TSS, BOD5, and total-P than units outside of these zones, indicating the potential for contamination. These findings suggest the need to introduce a proactive, life-cycle OSDS management program in the State of Hawaii.

  6. Postulated accident conditions for air cleaning systems and radiological dose assessments for containment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Ambient conditions and performance requirements for emergency air cleaning systems applicable to commercial LMFBR plants were studied. The focus of this study centered on aerosol removal under hypothetical core disruptive accident conditions. Effort completed includes a review of air cleaning systems related to LMFBR plants, selection of three reference containment system designs, postulation of the EACS design basis accident (EACS-DBA), analysis of thermal conditions resulting from the DBA, analysis of aerosol transport behavior following the DBA, and an estimate of bone dose at the site boundary for each of the reference plant designs. Reference plant concepts were a single containment system (e.g., FFTF), a double containment system (e.g., CRBRP with closed head compartment), and a containment-confinement design in which an inerted, sealed primary volume was located within a ventilated building whose exhaust was filtered. The reference design basis accident selected here involved release to the inner containment system of 1 percent of non-volatile solids and plutonium, 25 percent of core halogens, 25 percent of core volatile solids, 100 percent of core noble gases, 68 lbs of sodium vapor and 5000 lbs of liquid sodium. 13 references. (U.S.)

  7. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emission Assessment of Conventional and Solar Assisted Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofeng Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in the buildings is responsible for 26% of Australia’s greenhouse gas emissions where cooling typically accounts for over 50% of the total building energy use. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential for reducing the cooling systems’ environmental footprint with applications of alternative renewable energy source. Three types of cooling systems, water cooled, air cooled and a hybrid solar-based air-conditioning system, with a total of six scenarios were designed in this work. The scenarios accounted for the types of power supply to the air-conditioning systems with electricity from the grid and with a solar power from highly integrated building photovoltaics (BIPV. Within and between these scenarios, systems’ energy performances were compared based on energy modelling while the harvesting potential of the renewable energy source was further predicted based on building’s detailed geometrical model. The results showed that renewable energy obtained via BIPV scenario could cover building’s annual electricity consumption for cooling and reduce 140 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions each year. The hybrid solar air-conditioning system has higher energy efficiency than the air cooled chiller system but lower than the water cooled system.

  8. An assessment of the relationships between overweight, obesity, related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jeffrey T; Potter, Lloyd B

    2014-01-01

    Worker absenteeism is an important area of study within the field of occupational health. Prior studies have linked the presence of obesity to higher rates of absenteeism, but have not examined whether or not the relationship is moderated by the presence of other chronic health conditions or whether or not the relationships have been stable over time. Data from the 2000 and 2010 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative sample of the US population, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the presence of 5 obesity-related chronic health conditions moderates the relationship between overweight/obesity and worker absenteeism, and whether or not these relationships are stable over time. Logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between overweight/obesity, the obesity-related chronic health conditions and worker absenteeism, while controlling for demographic, socio-economic, occupational, health related and behavioral variables. The findings suggest that obesity (p absenteeism, and that the effect is doubled for those with both class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and diabetes. The moderating effect between class III obesity and diabetes was observed only in 2010, indicating that this may be a relatively new phenomenon. © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity . Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of indoor air quality in comparison using air conditioning and fan system in printing premise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramlan Nazirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Printers contribute to various emissions consist with chemical contaminants. High concentration of the particulate matter can cause serious health problems. This study focuses on the indoor air quality in printing premise unit in Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia. Field testing involving air sampling methods were taken from 900 hours to 1600 hours, for every 30 minutes using physical measurement which is Multi-Channel Air Quality Monitor (YESAIR, E-Sampler and Ozone Meter. Air sampling was recorded based on one sampling point and most suitable point for production. A comparison based on different ventilation using fan and air-conditioning were also taken and results is being compared based on OSHA and NIOSH standards. Besides that, the statistical analysis is being conducted in order to predict the effect on number of printers. From the result, the O3 concentrations show, 10% reduced for printing premise using fan ventilation compared to air-conditioning but remain the same value for PM2.5. The concentration of O3 increased when the number of printers decreased, while the concentration of PM2.5 increased the increase of printers number. Overall, the use of fan in printing premise is more suggested since the level is slightly lower than the printing premise using air-conditioning.

  10. Assessing the importance of food for improving noble crayfish culture conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusch J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Captive breeding and crayfish culture are considered important measures in species protection activities. Thus, knowledge on optimal feeding of crayfish in captivity is needed in order to secure minimal mortality and prevent detrimental effects to health. To optimize conditions of crayfish prior to subsequent stocking, feeding trials were conducted with the aim of investigating the connection between food intake, food preference and temperature under near natural conditions. During a five-month period, noble crayfish were fed on fish, carrots, algae and chironomid-larvae according to a pre-defined rotation system, whereby the ambient water temperature ranged from 5 °C to 13 °C, following the natural temperature regime. The results of these feeding trials demonstrate a direct correlation between rising temperature and increasing food intake for water temperatures exceeding 8 °C. Food intake is further influenced by the variety of food items available at any one time. The results also confirm that Astacus astacus has a strong preference for fish and that alternation of food types has an impact on consumption. Our results prompt the following recommendations for optimized feeding conditions of crayfish in captivity prior to their release: (1 a balanced diet containing not only plant tissue but also a significant proportion of animal tissue and (2 the amount of available food must be adjusted according to the carapace length of the crayfish.

  11. Efficiency assessment of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    To reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through thermal energy conservation, air-conditioned offices in the subtropics are recommended to operate within specified ranges of indoor temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. As thermal discomfort leads to productivity loss, some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong are investigated in this study with relation to thermal energy consumption, CO 2 emissions from electricity use, and productivity loss due to thermal discomfort. Occupant thermal response is specifically considered as an adaptive factor in evaluating the energy consumption and productivity loss. The energy efficiency of an office is determined by the productivity which corresponds to the CO 2 generated. The results found that a policy with little impact on occupant thermal comfort and worker productivity would improve the office efficiency while the one with excessive energy consumption reduction would result in a substantial productivity loss. This study is a useful reference source for evaluating an indoor thermal environmental policy regarding the energy consumption, CO 2 emissions reduction, thermal comfort and productivity loss in air-conditioned offices in subtropical areas.

  12. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantini, Sara, E-mail: pantini@ing.uniroma2.it [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  13. Pavement Condition Assessment Using IRI from Roadroid and Surface Distress Index Method on National Road in Sumenep Regency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arianto, T.; Suprapto, M.; Syafi’i

    2018-03-01

    The pavement condition will decrease due to the influence of traffic and environment, so that the maintenance effort is needed to maintain the road condition during the service period. In order to carry out road maintenance activities right on target, there needs to be a plan based on accurate pavement condition data. Road roughness is the most commonly used condition parameter in evaluating pavement conditions objectively because road roughness data is relatively easy to obtain, well correlated with vehicle operating costs and the most relevant parameter in road functional performance measurement. The Roadroid is an Android-based application that measures road roughness by using vibration sensors on a smartphone so it is possible to get an International Roughness Index (IRI) value as an indicator of pavement conditions more easily and efficiently. Besides based on road roughness, pavement condition evaluation can also be done visually by using Surface Distress Index (SDI) method that uses the total crack area parameters, average crack width, total number of potholes and the average depth of rutting. This study attempts to assess the condition of Jenderal Sudirman-Kalianget road by combining IRI Roadroid value and SDI value which will be used as the basis to determine the required road maintenance. This road segment is one of the national strategic road connecting the center of Sumenep regency with the Kalianget harbor. Based on IRI measurement and SDI calculation, the pavement condition of Jenderal Sudirman-Kalianget road can be described 4.2 kilometers (37.17%) were good and 2.3 kilometers (20.35%) were fair that need routine maintenance. While 2.1 kilometers (18.58%) were bad and 2.7 kilometers (23.89%) were poor that need periodical maintenance and reconstruction.

  14. Ecological risk assessments for the baseline condition for the Port Hope and Port Granby Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.R.; Kleb, H.

    2006-01-01

    Baseline ecological risk assessments were completed in and around the areas where cleanup of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) and marginally contaminated soil (MCS) is planned under the Port Hope Area Initiative (PHAI). Both aquatic and terrestrial environments were assessed, in the vicinity of the proposed waste management facilities near Welcome and Port Granby, in locations potentially influenced by LLRW and MCS that will be cleaned up in future, and in reference locations that are not potentially influenced. The calculated doses and risk quotients suggest potential radiation effects for pre-cleanup benthic invertebrates in Port Hope Harbour, for any ducks feeding exclusively in this area, and for soil invertebrates in some other waste sites. In addition, risk quotients suggest potential baseline effects from some elements, particularly uranium and arsenic, in localized areas that are influenced by LLRW and MCS. (author)

  15. Condition Assessment of PC Tendon Duct Filling by Elastic Wave Velocity Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Fook Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging techniques are high in demand for modern nondestructive evaluation of large-scale concrete structures. The travel-time tomography (TTT technique, which is based on the principle of mapping the change of propagation velocity of transient elastic waves in a measured object, has found increasing application for assessing in situ concrete structures. The primary aim of this technique is to detect defects that exist in a structure. The TTT technique can offer an effective means for assessing tendon duct filling of prestressed concrete (PC elements. This study is aimed at clarifying some of the issues pertaining to the reliability of the technique for this purpose, such as sensor arrangement, model, meshing, type of tendon sheath, thickness of sheath, and material type as well as the scale of inhomogeneity. The work involved 2D simulations of wave motions, signal processing to extract travel time of waves, and tomography reconstruction computation for velocity mapping of defect in tendon duct.

  16. Comparative Assessment to Danger of Rock Bursts Origin in Different Conditions of Mining in OKR

    OpenAIRE

    Bukovanský Stanislav

    1998-01-01

    For this comparative assessment to factual possibilities of balance failure it is necessary to investigate a character and possible changes in individual elements of the system "rock - time", as well as their mutual interaction with rock burst origin and their course. Research observations after burst show that the influence of strong energy after rock burst, into the overlying impact click is present in a coal seam due to its higher pressure to a face (when compared with a relevant pressure...

  17. Comments on: ''The use of conditional simulation in nuclear waste site performance assessment''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendelberger, J.; Beckman, R.

    1993-01-01

    In the assessment of underground storage of nuclear waste, at locations like the Waste Isolation Pilot Plan (WIPP) one of the greatest concerns is encroachment of the repository and transportation of radionuclides from the repository to the surrounding environment by the groundwater. This paper demonstrates the contribution that can be made in the studies of this important problem and similar problems of national importance by the application of modern statistical techniques

  18. INSTITUTION FOR THE AGED: ASSESSING THE CONDITIONS OF ACCESSIBILITY AND FUNCTIONALITY OF THE ELDERLY.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaella Lomanto Santos de Almeida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study aim was to assess the capacity to undertake the Basic Activities of Daily Living (BADL of elderly residents of an Institution for the Aged (IA and their level of accessibility. This is an observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. The level of independence for BADL was assessed by the Barthel Index and the degree of accessibility of IA was verified through a check-list, based on the Brazilian Standard (NBR 9050/2004, the Brazilian Association of Technical Standards (ABNT. Of the 62 seniors who participated in the study, 64.5% had some degree of functional dependence. Noteworthy the level of functional dependency for activities undertaken in the bathroom among elderly on wheelchair. The assessed physical structure does not fully follow the technical standards established by NBR 9050, with differences mainly in the parameters of bedrooms, bathrooms and stairs. Although much of the institutionalized elderly presenting advanced and most functional vulnerability ages, level of IA architectural accessibility is still insufficient. Rooms and bathrooms are the places with the highest deficit of accessibility and also higher prevalence of falls among the elderly residents. A good level of accessibility in IA, can be an important factor in improving the level of independence for everyday activities and to prevent the risk of falls.

  19. Assessing exposure risks for aquatic organisms posed by Tamiflu use under seasonal influenza and pandemic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Yu; Lin, Chia-Jung; Liao, Chung-Min

    2014-01-01

    Environmental pollution by anti-influenza drugs is increasingly recognized as a threat to aquatic environments. However, little is known about empirical data on risk effects posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug based on recently published ecotoxicological researches in Taiwan. Here we linked ecotoxicology models with an epidemiological scheme to assess exposure risks of aquatic organisms and environmental hazards posed by antiviral oseltamivir (Tamiflu) use in Taiwan. Built on published bioassays, we used probabilistic risk assessment model to estimate potential threats of environmentally relevant hazards on algae, daphnid, and zerbrafish. We found that Tamiflu use was unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk to daphnia and zebrafish during seasonal influenza. However, the chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu use during pandemic was alarming. We conclude that no significant risk to algal growth was found during seasonal influenza and high pandemic Tamiflu use. -- Highlights: • Environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug have ecotoxicologically important effects. • Tamiflu is unlikely to pose a significant chronic environmental risk during seasonal influenza. • Chronic environmental risk posed by Tamiflu during pandemic is alarming. • Tertiary process in sewage treatment plants is crucial in mitigating Tamiflu exposure risk. -- A probabilistic framework can be used for assessing exposure risks posed by environmentally relevant concentrations of anti-influenza drug in aquatic ecosystems

  20. [Formation of working conditions and the problems of hygienic assessment of industrial environmental factors in railway tunnels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurenkova, G V; Lemeshevskaya, E P

    Tunnels are an integral part of the ways and artificial constructions of the railway. Objective assessment of working conditions is important, because current regulations fail to allow to give a definite hygienic assessment of some factors of the production environment of the tunnels. Objective: to reveal the peculiarities of the formation of working conditions in railway tunnels with the subsequent hygienic assessment for the development of preventive measures. Measurement of the factors of working process and working environment is carried out with the use of the certified equipment for the approved the hygienic and sanitary-chemical methods in workplaces in tunnels of the East-Siberian railway. Specific conditions were shown to be formed due to constructive solutions, climate and geographical location, the length of railway tunnels, the composition of the rocks through which the tunnel, the nature of the maintenance tunnels, ventilation system, repetition rate and type of passing rolling stock. All employees from occupational groups from examined tunnels were established to be exposed to high concentrations of aerosols with predominantly fibrogenic action, noise levels, adverse climate (low positive and negative temperatures, high relative humidity and mobility of air), the lack of natural lighting, low levels of artificial light, hard exertion of labor (dynamic physical load, working position, the slopes of the body, movement in space). Additionally, high levels of the vibration, nonionizing and ionizing radiation were typical for jobs of the Baikal and the North-Muya tunnel. There is proposed the algorithm of hygienic assessment of the microclimate, light environment at the working places depending on the time of the works in the underground conditions and constructional features of tunnels, methods of accounting personnel dose rates from natural sources.

  1. Assessing the Impacts of Atmospheric Conditions under Climate Change on Air Quality Profile over Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hei Tong, Cheuk

    2017-04-01

    Small particulates can cause long term impairment to human health as they can penetrate deep and deposit on the wall of the respiratory system. Under the projected climate change as reported by literature, atmospheric stability, which has strong effects on vertical mixing of air pollutants and thus air quality Hong Kong, is also varying from near to far future. In addition to domestic emission, Hong Kong receives also significant concentration of cross-boundary particulates that their natures and movements are correlated with atmospheric condition. This study aims to study the relation of atmospheric conditions with air quality over Hong Kong. Past meteorological data is based on Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis data. Radiosonde data provided from HKO are also adopted in testing and validating the data. Future meteorological data is simulated by the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), which dynamically downscaled the past and future climate under the A1B scenario simulated by ECHAM5/MPIOM. Air quality data is collected on one hand from the ground station data provided by Environment Protection Department, with selected stations revealing local emission and trans-boundary emission respectively. On the other hand, an Atmospheric Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which operates using the radar principle to detect Rayleigh and Mie scattering from atmospheric gas and aerosols, has also been adopted to measure vertical aerosol profile, which has been observed tightly related to the high level meteorology. Data from scattered signals are collected, averaged or some episode selected for characteristic comparison with the atmospheric stability indices and other meteorological factors. The relation between atmospheric conditions and air quality is observed by statistical analysis, and statistical models are built based on the stability indices to project the changes in sulphur dioxide, ozone and particulate

  2. Probabilistic assessment of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant response under station blackout conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valhuerdi, C.; Vilaragut, J.J.; Perdomo, M.; Torres, A.

    1995-01-01

    The preliminary results concerning the response of station blackout are shown in this paper. These results have been obtained in the framework of initiator lass of external electrical supply as a aport of the revision o of the current probabilistic safety analysis. The work is also based on the results reported in the thermohydraulic calculations of VVER 440 plants responses under these conditions and the experience of this type of notified incidents. Finally, a comparative analysis with the results obtained for other reactor technologies is presented

  3. Assessment of neutron skyshine near unmodified Accumulator Debuncher storage rings under Mu2e operational conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossairt, J.Donald; /Fermilab

    2010-12-01

    Preliminary plans for providing the proton beam needed by the proposed Mu2e experiment at Fermilab will require the transport of 8 GeV protons to the Accumulator/Debuncher where they be processed into an intensity and time structure useful for the experiment. The intensities involved are far greater that those encountered with antiprotons of the same kinetic energy in the same beam enclosures under Tevatron Collider operational conditions, the operating parameters for which the physical facilities of the Antiproton Source were designed. This note explores some important ramifications of the proposed operation for radiation safety and demonstrates the need for extensive modifications of significant portions of the shielding of the Accumulator Debuncher storage rings; notably that underneath the AP Service Buildings AP10, AP30, and AP50. While existing shielding is adequate for the current operating mode of the Accumulator/Debuncher as part of the Antiproton Source used in the Tevatron Collider program, without significant modifications of the shielding configuration in the Accumulator/Debuncher region and/or beam loss control systems far more effective than seen in most applications at Fermilab, the proposed operational mode for Mu2e is not viable for the following reasons: 1. Due to skyshine alone, under normal operational conditions large areas of the Fermilab site would be exposed to unacceptable levels of radiation where most of the Laboratory workforce and some members of the general public who regularly visit Fermilab would receive measurable doses annually, contrary to workforce, public, and DOE expectations concerning the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle. 2. Under normal operational conditions, a sizeable region of the Fermilab site would also require fencing due to skyshine. The size of the areas involved would likely invite public inquiry about the significant and visible enlargement of Fermilab's posted radiological areas. 3. There

  4. Recent advances in condition assessment of components based on strain monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.D. [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    Service experience indicates that creep cavitation and cracking can develop in components operating at high temperature and pressure. Life optimisation programmes for power generating plant require periodic evaluation of plant condition. Instrumentation to measure component deformation provides information regarding operating practices which lead to excessive loading and data which can be related to damage state. Indeed, even near weldments, where creep cavitation and cracking can develop with low overall strain, significant levels of deformation have been recorded in local regions. Thus, knowledge of strain accumulation allows identification of the factors affecting damage accumulation and provides a basis for predicting remaining life. (orig.) 8 refs.

  5. Assessing Long-Term Wind Conditions by Combining Different Measure-Correlate-Predict Algorithms: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J.; Chowdhury, S.; Messac, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-08-01

    This paper significantly advances the hybrid measure-correlate-predict (MCP) methodology, enabling it to account for variations of both wind speed and direction. The advanced hybrid MCP method uses the recorded data of multiple reference stations to estimate the long-term wind condition at a target wind plant site. The results show that the accuracy of the hybrid MCP method is highly sensitive to the combination of the individual MCP algorithms and reference stations. It was also found that the best combination of MCP algorithms varies based on the length of the correlation period.

  6. Recent advances in condition assessment of components based on strain monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J D [University of Wales, Swansea (United Kingdom)

    1999-12-31

    Service experience indicates that creep cavitation and cracking can develop in components operating at high temperature and pressure. Life optimisation programmes for power generating plant require periodic evaluation of plant condition. Instrumentation to measure component deformation provides information regarding operating practices which lead to excessive loading and data which can be related to damage state. Indeed, even near weldments, where creep cavitation and cracking can develop with low overall strain, significant levels of deformation have been recorded in local regions. Thus, knowledge of strain accumulation allows identification of the factors affecting damage accumulation and provides a basis for predicting remaining life. (orig.) 8 refs.

  7. Assessment of JVX Proprotor Performance Data in Hover and Airplane-Mode Flight Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    A 0.656-scale V-22 proprotor, the Joint Vertical Experimental (JVX) rotor, was tested at the NASA Ames Research Center in both hover and airplane-mode (high-speed axial flow) flight conditions, up to an advance ratio of 0.562 (231 knots). This paper examines the two principal data sets generated by those tests, and includes investigations of hub spinner tares, torque/thrust measurement interactions, tunnel blockage effects, and other phenomena suspected of causing erroneous measurements or predictions. Uncertainties in hover and high-speed data are characterized. The results are reported here to provide guidance for future wind tunnel tests, data processing, and data analysis.

  8. The improvement of approaches to assessment of the financial condition of economic entities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senko A.E.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available according to the author, the lack of unified approaches to the calculation of financial indicators, the multiple interpretations of their meanings ​​and the imperfection of information support of financial analysis hamper the effectiveness of economic entities operating under market principles. The existing approach to determining the financial condition of an enterprise does not always give the required qualitative result of an evaluation of its financial and economic activities. While analyzing the financial status of economic entities, it would be useful to take into account their industry particularities, size and organizational structure, development strategy and competitiveness in the market for goods and services.

  9. Assessment of slip resistance under footwear materials, tread designs, floor contamination, and floor inclination conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Chen, Chih-Yong; Chen, Ching Chung; Liu, Liwen

    2012-01-01

    Slip and fall incidences are common in our daily lives. They are not only important environmental safety issues but also important occupational safety and health problems. The purpose of this study was to use the Brungraber Mark II to measure the friction so as to investigate the effects of the shoe sole, surface condition and the inclined angle of the floor and their interactions on friction coefficient. The results of the study showed the effects of all the main factors and their interactions were significant (p<0.001). Engineering designs & ergonomic interventions in slip & fall prevention should take these factors in full consideration.

  10. How general practitioners perceive and assess self-care in patients with multiple chronic conditions: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Mads Aage Toft; Hølge-Hazelton, Bibi; Waldorff, Frans Boch; Guassora, Ann Dorrit

    2017-12-22

    It is not known how general practitioners (GPs) perceive the concept of self-care and how they assess self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions. As a part of the strategy to improve the care of people living with chronic conditions, disease management programs in Denmark require GPs and other health care workers to assess and support patients' self-care ability. The aim of the present study was to explore GPs' perceptions and assessment of self-care ability in patients with multiple chronic conditions who have difficulty following a given treatment. A qualitative study conducted through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 12 GPs in rural areas of Denmark with economically disadvantaged populations. The interviews involved 36 complex patient cases selected by the GPs themselves. Our analysis followed the principles of systematic text condensation. Most GPs in our study had a health-related perception of self-care, but some had a broader perception encompassing the situational context of the patient's life. The GPs' assessments of patients' self-care ability were based on information from the ongoing and often long-term relationships with the patients. GPs identified four major factors that influenced patients' self-care ability, which accumulated and fluctuated over time: multimorbidity, cognitive resources, material resources, and the patients' social contexts. The GPs in this study had dual perceptions of self-care, related to both the chronic health conditions and to the broader situational contexts of their patients' lives. GPs' assessments of self-care ability depended largely on their experiences from the doctor-patient relationship, and they emphasized that the factors affecting self-care ability were highly dynamic over the patient's lifetime. However, these findings might be resisted by the Danish disease management programs, which tend to have a static and more narrow, health-related view of patient self

  11. Assessment of the Swelling Pressure of the Green Clay of Tangier (Morocco Compared with the Soil-Moisture Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Bahlouli Tarik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The swelling phenomenon appears seriously when changing the soil-moisture conditions. The swelling pressure induced by the expansive soil can causes unfavourable problems or instability for the civil structures. So, understanding the soil behavior is considered a valuable work for engineers and consultants in the geotechnical and civil engineering sectors. In reality, the assessment of the swelling pressure of expansive soil depends, first of all, of test conditions related to the change of soil-moisture, as it happens, the influence of the combination “loading-start wetting” and also the unloading process after saturation. To this end, we establish an experimental study on the green clay of Tangier to evaluate the swelling pressure by using oedometer apparatus. Secondly, attention is bore to the combination “initial water content-dry density”, another factor related to the change of the soil-moisture, to show the influence of initial state condition on the swelling pressure.

  12. Assessment of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in an atmospheric model for varying meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Anurose

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a surface-layer parameterization scheme in a high-resolution regional model (HRM is carried out by comparing the model-simulated sensible heat flux (H with the concurrent in situ measurements recorded at Thiruvananthapuram (8.5° N, 76.9° E, a coastal station in India. With a view to examining the role of atmospheric stability in conjunction with the roughness lengths in the determination of heat exchange coefficient (CH and H for varying meteorological conditions, the model simulations are repeated by assigning different values to the ratio of momentum and thermal roughness lengths (i.e. z0m/z0h in three distinct configurations of the surface-layer scheme designed for the present study. These three configurations resulted in differential behaviour for the varying meteorological conditions, which is attributed to the sensitivity of CH to the bulk Richardson number (RiB under extremely unstable, near-neutral and stable stratification of the atmosphere.

  13. Experimental assessment for instantaneous temperature and heat flux measurements under Diesel motored engine conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torregrosa, A.J.; Bermúdez, V.; Olmeda, P.; Fygueroa, O.

    2012-01-01

    Higlights: ► We measured in-cylinder wall heat fluxes. ► We examine the effects of different engine parameters. ► Increasing air mass flow increase heat fluxes. ► The effect of engine speed can be masked by the effect of volumetric efficiency. ► Differences among the different walls have been found. - Abstract: The main goal of this work is to validate an innovative experimental facility and to establish a methodology to evaluate the influence of some of the engine parameters on local engine heat transfer behaviour under motored steady-state conditions. Instantaneous temperature measurements have been performed in order to estimate heat fluxes on a modified Diesel single cylinder combustion chamber. This study was divided into two main parts. The first one was the design and setting on of an experimental bench to reproduce Diesel conditions and perform local-instantaneous temperature measurements along the walls of the combustion chamber by means of fast response thermocouples. The second one was the development of a procedure for temperature signal treatment and local heat flux calculation based on one-dimensional Fourier analysis. A thermodynamic diagnosis model has been employed to characterise the modified engine with the new designed chamber. As a result of the measured data coherent findings have been obtained in order to understand local behaviour of heat transfer in an internal combustion engine, and the influence of engine parameters on local instantaneous temperature and heat flux, have been analysed.

  14. Assessing Boundary Conditions of the Testing Effect: On the Relative Efficacy of Covert vs. Overt Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max L. Sundqvist

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Repeated testing during learning often improves later memory, which is often referred to as the testing effect. To clarify its boundary conditions, we examined whether the testing effect was selectively affected by covert (retrieved but not articulated or overt (retrieved and articulated response format. In Experiments 1 and 2, we compared immediate (5 min and delayed (1 week cued recall for paired associates following study-only, covert, and overt conditions, including two types of overt articulation (typing and writing. A clear testing effect was observed in both experiments, but with no selective effects of response format. In Experiments 3 and 4, we compared covert and overt retrieval under blocked and random list orders. The effect sizes were small in both experiments, but there was a significant effect of response format, with overt retrieval showing better final recall performance than covert retrieval. There were no significant effects of blocked vs. random list orders with respect to the testing effect produced. Taken together, these findings suggest that, under specific circumstances, overt retrieval may lead to a greater testing effect than that of covert retrieval, but because of small effect sizes, it appears that the testing effect is mainly the result of retrieval processes and that articulation has fairly little to add to its magnitude in a paired-associates learning paradigm.

  15. Assessment of tourism and recreation destinations under climate change conditions in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzarakis, Andreas; Haemmerle, Martin [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Endler, Christina [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Research Center Human Biometeorology, Freiburg (Germany). German Weather Service; Muthers, Stefan [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Meteorological Inst.; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Climate and Environmental Physics; Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research; Koch, Elisabeth [Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamcis, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-04-15

    Tourism and recreation are important economic factors which are directly connected to weather and climate of a specific destination. Based on the observation network of the Central Institute of Meteorology and Geodynamics of Austria (ZAMG), data of 37 stations has been collected and analysed for tourism and recreation purposes. The analysis was based on long term data sets which were processed in relevant ways for tourism and recreation, resulting in frequency diagrams of Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) and precipitation. Additionally, we prepared the results according to the demands of tourism and recreation authorities and industry using the Climate-Tourism/Transfer-Information-Scheme (CTIS). Applying data from the regional climate models REMO and CLM we can provide information on future climate conditions in Austria's recreation areas. We chose two different time slices (2021-2050, 2071-2100) and IPCC emission scenarios (A1B, B1). The data was processed based on the threshold factors which are included in the CTIS (e.g. thermal comfort, heat stress, cold stress, sunshine, etc.). For the time slice 2021-2050 only moderate changes can be expected. But for 2071-2100 one can observe a distinct decrease of cold stress and the skiing potential. On the other hand, moderate increases of thermal comfort, heat stress, sultriness and sunshine are expected. No tendencies can be seen in precipitation and wind conditions. (orig.)

  16. Assessing the reaction conditions to mediate the milkfat-soybean oil enzymatic interesterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Veloso de Paula

    Full Text Available Summary A food grade lipase from Rhizopus oryzae immobilized on a hybrid polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol matrix (SiO2-PVA was used as the biocatalyst to mediate the interesterification reactions of a blend containing 65% milkfat and 35% soybean oil. All the reactions occurred in an inert nitrogen atmosphere in cylindrical glass reactors (80 mL with 40 g of the milkfat-soybean oil blend. The influence of the following variables was evaluated: biocatalyst loading (250-1500 activity units per gram of blend, biocatalyst moisture content (5-20%, temperature (45-60 °C and incubation time (2-48 h. The reactions were monitored by determining the free fatty acid content, triacylglycerol (TAGs composition in carbon species, and the consistency of the interesterified (IE products. The reaction conditions were set based on the parameters that provided a high interesterification yield and good consistency of the final product within the ideal range (200 to 800 gf cm-2. Hence the best results were obtained using a biocatalyst loading of 500 U g-1 of blend with 10% moisture content at 45 °C for 4 h. Under these conditions the consistency of the interesterified product was 539.7 ± 38 gf cm-2. The results demonstrated the potential of the immobilized lipase to alter the TAGs profile of the milkfat-soybean oil blend, allowing for the production of structured lipids.

  17. Global assessment of surfing conditions: seasonal, interannual and long-term variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espejo, A.; Losada, I.; Mendez, F.

    2012-12-01

    International surfing destinations owe a great debt to specific combinations of wind-wave, thermal conditions and local bathymetry. As surf quality depends on a vast number of geophysical variables, a multivariable standardized index on the basis of expert judgment is proposed to analyze surf resource in a worldwide domain. Data needed is obtained by combining several datasets (reanalyses): 60-year satellite-calibrated spectral wave hindcast (GOW, WaveWatchIII), wind fields from NCEP/NCAR, global sea surface temperature from ERSST.v3b, and global tides from TPXO7.1. A summary of the global surf resource is presented, which highlights the high degree of variability in surfable events. According to general atmospheric circulation, results show that west facing low to middle latitude coasts are more suitable for surfing, especially those in Southern Hemisphere. Month to month analysis reveals strong seasonal changes in the occurrence of surfable events, enhancing those in North Atlantic or North Pacific. Interannual variability is investigated by comparing occurrence values with global and regional climate patterns showing a great influence at both, global and regional scales. Analysis of long term trends shows an increase in the probability of surfable events over the west facing coasts on the planet (i.e. + 30 hours/year in California). The resulting maps provide useful information for surfers and surf related stakeholders, coastal planning, education, and basic research.; Figure 1. Global distribution of medium quality (a) and high quality surf conditions probability (b).

  18. Assessment of turkey vehicle container microclimate on transit during summer season conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rafael H; Honorato, Danielle C B; Guarnieri, Paulo D; Soares, Adriana L; Pedrão, Mayka R; Oba, Alexandre; Paião, Fernanda G; Ida, Elza I; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2018-01-23

    This study evaluated the formed microclimate commercial truck transport practices effects on the turkeys' welfare by measuring Dead on Arrival (DOA) index and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE-like) meat occurrence. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a 6 × 2 factorial arrangements (two truck container compartments × six water shower groups) with birds positioned at superior front (SF), inferior front (IF), superior middle (SM), inferior middle (IM), superior rear (SR), and inferior rear (IR) and two bath treatments: with water shower (WiS) and without water shower (WoS) with eight replications for each treatment. The animals were transported for 95 min' journey from the farm to the slaughterhouse under hot-humidity conditions. The results shown herein indicated the formation of a thermal core at the inferior middle and rear truck container regions, because the heat produced by the birds and the influence of developed microclimate consisting of temperature, relative humidity, and air ventilation. The IM and IR container compartments under the WoS treatment presented the highest (P container microclimate in transit. The formed microclimate during the commercial transport practices under hot-humidity conditions affected the bird's welfare consequently turkey meat qualities.

  19. Assessment of the radiological conditions in areas of Kuwait with residues of depleted uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabianca, T.; Danesi, P.R.; Linsley, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 1991 Gulf War was the first conflict in which DU munitions were used extensively. After this conflict, questions arose regarding the possible link between exposure to ionizing radiation from DU and harmful biological effects. In view of these concerns, the Government of Kuwait, in February 2001, requested the IAEA to conduct an assessment to evaluate the possible radiological impact of residues of DU munitions from the 1991 Gulf War at 11 locations in Kuwait. For this purpose, the IAEA assembled a team of senior experts, who visited Kuwait in September 2001 to carry out a preliminary assessment of the sites and to evaluate the available information. In February 2002 scientists from the IAEA, the Spiez Laboratory (Switzerland), representing UNEP, and the Radiation Protection Department of the Ministry of Health of Kuwait, carried out a sampling campaign at these sites. Around 200 environmental samples, including soil, water and vegetation, were collected during the campaign and subsequently analysed. This study constitutes the first comprehensive radiological assessment of compliance with international radiation protection criteria and standards for areas with residues of DU munitions conducted under the auspices of the IAEA. The findings of this investigation indicate that DU does not pose a radiological hazard to the population of Kuwait. Annual radiation doses arising from exposure to DU residues would be of a few micro-sieverts, well below the annual doses from natural sources of radiation and far below the reference level recommended by the IAEA as a criterion to help establish whether remedial actions are necessary. DU penetrators can still be found at some of the locations visited. Prolonged skin contact with these residues is the only possible pathway that could result in exposures of radiological significance. As long as access to these areas remains restricted, the likelihood that members of the public could come into contact with these residues is low

  20. Wave modelling to assess the storm conditions in the Black Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, Liliana; Raileanu, Alina

    2014-05-01

    The work proposed herewith presents the results of a ten-year wave hindcast performed in the Black Sea and focused on the storm conditions. A wave modelling system, SWAN based, was implemented in the basin of the Black Sea. Validations have been performed both against in situ and remotely sensed data for the entire ten-year period considered (1999-2008). The wind field provided by NCEP-CFSR (United States National Centers for Environmental Prediction, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) with a spatial resolution of 0.312ºx0.312º and a temporal resolution of 3 hours was considered for forcing the wave model. In statistical terms, the results are in general in line with those provided by similar wave prediction systems implemented in enclosed or semi-enclosed seas, the most important factors in increasing the general system reliability being the accuracy and resolution of the wind fields considered. As regards the physical processes, the calibration tests performed show that whitecapping still represents the weak link in deep water wave modelling. The most relevant storm conditions encountered in this ten-year period considered were further analysed. This analysis was performed from the point of view of the intensity, location of occurrence, duration and propagation in the geographical space of the storms. Following the results of the work, the western side of the sea is more energetic and almost each year storms with significant wave heights of about eight meters are encountered in this part of the Black Sea, while in the case of the extreme storms significant wave heights even greater than eleven meters may occur. From this perspective, it can be concluded that the present work provides valuable information about the characteristics of the storm conditions and on their dynamics in the Black Sea. Moreover, this marine environment is currently subjected to high navigation traffic and to offshore operations and the strong storms that systematically occur may produce

  1. DETERMINATION OF INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISE MANAGEMENT PRIORITY TASKS AND ASSESSMENT OF ITS CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Vartanyan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new systematic approach to identifying main pyramid projections of business for main consumers of company’s products and services. Pyramid and matrix business concepts are introduced through which the consumers may assess the state of business of any industrial enterprise. Investigated in the article are factors and components of successful sales. Using the business matrix and pyramid, a new promising and consumer-directed approach to choosing the organization’s marketing activity directions is developed. The industrial enterprise component notion is defined along with the component’s main elements. A list of enterprise management and investment priority tasks is made.

  2. Comparative Assessment to Danger of Rock Bursts Origin in Different Conditions of Mining in OKR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukovanský Stanislav

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available For this comparative assessment to factual possibilities of balance failure it is necessary to investigate a character and possible changes in individual elements of the system "rock - time", as well as their mutual interaction with rock burst origin and their course. Research observations after burst show that the influence of strong energy after rock burst, into the overlying impact click is present in a coal seam due to its higher pressure to a face (when compared with a relevant pressure answerring a final deformation after such burst. Certain "avalanche" in failures after burst could be characterized as a certain rank of individual particular phenomena.

  3. Clinicoelectrocardiographic assessment of the CVS condition in rescuers at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metlyaeva, N.A.; Nadezhina, N.M.

    1991-01-01

    Cardiovascular system state was assessed in rescuers of various age groups (107 men 44% - 24-39 years old, 39% - 40-49 years old, 17% - 50-63 years old) at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. All the rescuers were subjected to external uniform low dose γ-radiation (up to 50 rem). A high percent of hyperternsion was detected in rescuers aged up to 39 years old resulting from strong psychoemotional tension and radiophobia in the course of the Chernobyl accident response. Data on the affect of external low dose γ-radiation on cardiovascular system were not established

  4. Assessment of ranges plasma indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared under conditions of intensive aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Radovan Kopp; Jan Mareš; Štěpán Lang; Tomáš Brabec; Andrea Ziková

    2011-01-01

    Plasma parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from three various trout farms in the Czech Republic were assessed using automated blood plasma analyser. Non-haemolysed serum from the heart of 48 healthy, randomly selected fish (standard length, mean ± SD = 247.3 ± 24.2 mm; body mass, mean ± SD = 262.18 ± 87.28 g) was analysed for the following plasma parameters: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creat...

  5. Inertial Measures of Motion for Clinical Biomechanics: Comparative Assessment of Accuracy under Controlled Conditions - Effect of Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Karina; Boissy, Patrick; Hamel, Mathieu; Duval, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background Inertial measurement of motion with Attitude and Heading Reference Systems (AHRS) is emerging as an alternative to 3D motion capture systems in biomechanics. The objectives of this study are: 1) to describe the absolute and relative accuracy of multiple units of commercially available AHRS under various types of motion; and 2) to evaluate the effect of motion velocity on the accuracy of these measurements. Methods The criterion validity of accuracy was established under controlled conditions using an instrumented Gimbal table. AHRS modules were carefully attached to the center plate of the Gimbal table and put through experimental static and dynamic conditions. Static and absolute accuracy was assessed by comparing the AHRS orientation measurement to those obtained using an optical gold standard. Relative accuracy was assessed by measuring the variation in relative orientation between modules during trials. Findings Evaluated AHRS systems demonstrated good absolute static accuracy (mean error < 0.5o) and clinically acceptable absolute accuracy under condition of slow motions (mean error between 0.5o and 3.1o). In slow motions, relative accuracy varied from 2o to 7o depending on the type of AHRS and the type of rotation. Absolute and relative accuracy were significantly affected (p<0.05) by velocity during sustained motions. The extent of that effect varied across AHRS. Interpretation Absolute and relative accuracy of AHRS are affected by environmental magnetic perturbations and conditions of motions. Relative accuracy of AHRS is mostly affected by the ability of all modules to locate the same global reference coordinate system at all time. Conclusions Existing AHRS systems can be considered for use in clinical biomechanics under constrained conditions of use. While their individual capacity to track absolute motion is relatively consistent, the use of multiple AHRS modules to compute relative motion between rigid bodies needs to be optimized according to

  6. Assessment of autonomic nervous system by using empirical mode decomposition-based reflection wave analysis during non-stationary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C C; Hsiao, T C; Kao, S C; Hsu, H Y

    2014-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure (ABP) is an important indicator of cardiovascular circulation and presents various intrinsic regulations. It has been found that the intrinsic characteristics of blood vessels can be assessed quantitatively by ABP analysis (called reflection wave analysis (RWA)), but conventional RWA is insufficient for assessment during non-stationary conditions, such as the Valsalva maneuver. Recently, a novel adaptive method called empirical mode decomposition (EMD) was proposed for non-stationary data analysis. This study proposed a RWA algorithm based on EMD (EMD-RWA). A total of 51 subjects participated in this study, including 39 healthy subjects and 12 patients with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The results showed that EMD-RWA provided a reliable estimation of reflection time in baseline and head-up tilt (HUT). Moreover, the estimated reflection time is able to assess the ANS function non-invasively, both in normal, healthy subjects and in the patients with ANS dysfunction. EMD-RWA provides a new approach for reflection time estimation in non-stationary conditions, and also helps with non-invasive ANS assessment. (paper)

  7. Measurement properties of tools used to assess depression in adults with and without autism spectrum conditions: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, S A; Bradley, L; Bowen, E; Wigham, S; Rodgers, J

    2018-01-23

    Depression is the most commonly experienced mental health condition in adults with autism spectrum conditions (ASC). However, it is unclear what tools are currently being used to assess depression in ASC, or whether tools need to be adapted for this group. This systematic review therefore aimed to identify tools used to assess depression in adults with and without ASC, and then evaluate these tools for their appropriateness and measurement properties. Medline, PsychINFO and Web of Knowledge were searched for studies of depression in: (a) adults with ASC, without co-morbid intellectual disability; and (b) adults from the general population without co-morbid conditions. Articles examining the measurement properties of these tools were then searched for using a methodological filter in PubMed, and the quality of the evidence was evaluated using the COSMIN checklist. Twelve articles were identified which utilized three tools to assess depression in adults with ASC, but only one article which assessed the measurement properties of one of these tools was identified and thus evaluated. Sixty-four articles were identified which utilized five tools to assess depression in general population adults, and fourteen articles had assessed the measurement properties of these tools. Overall, two tools were found to be robust in their measurement properties in the general population-the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II), and the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-9). Crucially only one study was identified from the COSMIN search, which showed weak evidence in support of the measurement properties of the BDI-II in an ASC sample. Implications for effective measurement of depression in ASC are discussed. Autism Res 2018. © 2018 The Authors Autism Research published by International Society for Autism Research and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Depression is the most common mental health problem experienced by adults with autism. However, the current study found very limited evidence

  8. Assessment of Genetics Understanding. Under What Conditions Do Situational Features Have an Impact on Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiemann, Philipp; Nehm, Ross H.; Tornabene, Robyn E.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding how situational features of assessment tasks impact reasoning is important for many educational pursuits, notably the selection of curricular examples to illustrate phenomena, the design of formative and summative assessment items, and determination of whether instruction has fostered the development of abstract schemas divorced from particular instances. The goal of our study was to employ an experimental research design to quantify the degree to which situational features impact inferences about participants' understanding of Mendelian genetics. Two participant samples from different educational levels and cultural backgrounds (high school, n = 480; university, n = 444; Germany and USA) were used to test for context effects. A multi-matrix test design was employed, and item packets differing in situational features (e.g., plant, animal, human, fictitious) were randomly distributed to participants in the two samples. Rasch analyses of participant scores from both samples produced good item fit, person reliability, and item reliability and indicated that the university sample displayed stronger performance on the items compared to the high school sample. We found, surprisingly, that in both samples, no significant differences in performance occurred among the animal, plant, and human item contexts, or between the fictitious and "real" item contexts. In the university sample, we were also able to test for differences in performance between genders, among ethnic groups, and by prior biology coursework. None of these factors had a meaningful impact upon performance or context effects. Thus some, but not all, types of genetics problem solving or item formats are impacted by situational features.

  9. Dissipation behavior and risk assessment of butralin in soybean and soil under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Congdi; Liu, Rong; Li, Li; Li, Wei; He, Yujian; Yuan, Longfei

    2017-08-29

    Dissipation behavior, final residue, and risk assessment of butralin in soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil were investigated. Butralin residues were extracted with acetonitrile and then soybean samples were detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and soil samples were determined with GC with nitrogen phosphorous detector (GC-NPD). The limit of quantification (LOQ) of the method was 0.01 mg/kg for soybean, green soybean, plant, and soil. Average recoveries ranged from 90.4 ~ 98.2% for green soybean, 86.2 ~ 86.6% for soybean, 86.0 ~ 98.8% for plant, and 85.0 ~ 106.8% for soil. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.0 ~ 7.2% for green soybean, 2.0 ~ 3.0% for soybean, 3.1 ~ 8.1% for plant, and 1.8 ~ 6.6% for soil. Half-lives of butralin in soil samples varied in the range of 11-22 days. At harvest time, final residues of butralin in soybean and green soybean were lower than LOQ. Risk assessment demonstrated that, at recommended dosage and frequency, butralin would not induce significant harm on humans. The study could be used as a quantitative basis for application of butralin on soybean.

  10. Assessment of ranges plasma indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss reared under conditions of intensive aquaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovan Kopp

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss from three various trout farms in the Czech Republic were assessed using automated blood plasma analyser. Non-haemolysed serum from the heart of 48 healthy, randomly selected fish (standard length, mean ± SD = 247.3 ± 24.2 mm; body mass, mean ± SD = 262.18 ± 87.28 g was analysed for the following plasma parameters: alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total protein, cholinesterase, amylase, glucose, lactate, albumin, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, lipase, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Na, K and Cl. All data were analysed statistically such as normality assessment by means of Kolmogorov–Smirnov test and adequate statistical testing using various parametric and non-parametric tests for each variable. With regard to data distribution, 19 indices out of 23 (aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, amylase, glucose, lactate, albumin, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Na, K and Cl were normally distributed. The indices were affected by handling time and, accordingly to the physical and chemical properties of water. Estimates obtained were compared with previously reported ranges. The blood automated analyser proved to be a valuable and reliable instrument for the estimation of plasma parameters determining normal ranges in rainbow trout.

  11. Land agroecological quality assessment in conditions of high spatial soil cover variability at the Pereslavskoye Opolye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morev, Dmitriy; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The essential spatial variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis and agroecological interpretation of representative soil cover spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. Pereslavskoye Opolye is traditionally actively used in agriculture due to dominated high-quality cultivated soddy-podzoluvisols which are relatively reached in organic matter (especially for conditions of the North part at the European territory of Russia). However, the soil cover patterns are often very complicated even within the field that significantly influences on crop yield variability and have to be considered in farming system development and land agroecological quality evaluation. The detailed investigations of soil regimes and mapping of the winter rye yield have been carried in conditions of two representative fields with slopes sharply contrasted both in aspects and degrees. Rye biological productivity and weed infestation have been measured in elementary plots of 0.25 m2 with the following analysis the quality of the yield. In the same plot soil temperature and moisture have been measured by portable devices. Soil sampling was provided from three upper layers by drilling. The results of ray yield detailed mapping shown high differences both in average values and within-field variability on different slopes. In case of low-gradient slope (field 1) there is variability of ray yield from 39.4 to 44.8 dt/ha. In case of expressed slope (field 2) the same species of winter rye grown with the same technology has essentially lower yield and within-field variability from 20 to 29.6 dt/ha. The

  12. An influence diagram for urban flood risk assessment through pluvial flood hazards under non-stationary conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åström, Helena Lisa Alexandra; Friis Hansen, P.; Garrè, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Urban flooding introduces significant risk to society. Non-stationarity leads to increased uncertainty and this is challenging to include in actual decision-making. The primary objective of this study was to develop a risk assessment and decision support framework for pluvial urban flood risk under...... non-stationary conditions using an influence diagram (ID) which is a Bayesian network (BN) extended with decision and utility nodes. Non-stationarity is considered to be the influence of climate change where extreme precipitation patterns change over time. The overall risk is quantified in monetary...... terms expressed as expected annual damage. The network is dynamic in as much as it assesses risk at different points in time. The framework provides means for decision-makers to assess how different decisions on flood adaptation affect the risk now and in the future. The result from the ID was extended...

  13. How can we assess the burden of muscle, bone and joint conditions in rural Botswana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hondras, Maria; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-01-01

    , organisational and clinical characteristics for the burden of living with and caring for people living with musculoskeletal conditions in rural Botswana. In this paper, we describe the community context, theoretical framework, and research methods to address the project aim with a qualitative study. METHODS......-participant and participant observations, and informal and in-depth interviews with villagers and healthcare providers. Villager interviews were typically conducted in Setswana with an interpreter. Audio recordings were transcribed verbatim in the language spoken with Setswana contextually translated into English. Computer......- and middle-income countries in Africa. Since 2011, World Spine Care, a nongovernmental organisation, has collaborated with the Botswana Ministry of Health to open spine care centres and to conduct research. The broad aim of the Muscle, Bone and Joint (MuBoJo) research project is to examine the sociocultural...

  14. Probabilistic methods for condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Yasuhiro

    1993-01-01

    A probability-based methodology is being developed in support of the NRC Structural Aging Program to assist in evaluating the reliability of existing concrete structures in nuclear power plants under potential future operating loads and extreme evironmental and accidental events. The methodology includes models to predict structural deterioration due to environmental stressors, a database to support the use of these models, and methods for analyzing time-dependent reliability of concrete structural components subjected to stochastic loads. The methodology can be used to support a plant license extension application by providing evidence that safety-related concrete structures in their current (service) condition are able to withstand future extreme events with a level of reliability sufficient for public health and safety. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of a plasma ADH radioimmunoassay in experimental and physiologic or pathologic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itzkowitch, D.; Brauman, H.; Gregoire, F.; Staroukine, M.; Abramov, M.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay of ADH has been applied to the study of plasma ADH levels in various conditions. The validity of the assay has been evaluated by the usual quality control parameters of RIA and by the measure of plasma levels in 12 upright water deprived normal volunteers (mean 9.5 pg/ml, SEM +- 1.5) in 8 resting and hydrated normal volunteers (1.3 +- 0,4 pg/ml), in a case of diabetes insipidus (1.6 pg/ml), in 8 cases of SIADH Syndrome (range 13 - 77 pg/ml) and in 4 anesthetized dogs before (33.7 +- 9.2 pg/ml) and after acute haemorrhage (66 +- 9.5 pg/ml, p [de

  16. An Updated Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Coles, Garill A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonebrake, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivans, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wootan, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mitchell, Mark R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment, as AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors and the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results on augmenting an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors that integrate real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors. Methods to propagate uncertainty through the enhanced risk monitor are evaluated. Available data to quantify the level of uncertainty and the POF of key components are examined for their relevance, and a status update of this data evaluation is described. Finally, we describe potential targets for developing new risk metrics that may be useful for studying trade-offs for economic

  17. Thermodynamic assessment of hydrogen production and cobalt oxidation susceptibility under ethanol reforming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, C.N. de; Hori, C.E.; Assis, A.J. de

    2011-01-01

    A comparative thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming reactions was conducted using an in-house code. Equilibrium compositions were estimated using the Lagrange multipliers method, which generated systems of non-linear algebraic equations, solved numerically. Effects of temperature, pressure and steam to ethanol, O 2 to ethanol and CO 2 to ethanol ratios on the equilibrium compositions were evaluated. The validation was done by comparing these data with experimental literature. The results of this work proved to be useful to foresee whether the experimental results follow the stoichiometry of the reactions involved in each process. Mole fractions of H 2 and CO 2 proved to be the most reliable variables to make this type of validation. Maximization of H 2 mole fraction was attained between 773 and 873 K, but maximum net mole production of H 2 was only achieved at higher temperatures (>1123 K). This work also advances in the thermodynamics of solid-gas phase interactions. A solid phase thermodynamic analysis was performed to confirm that Co 0 formation from CoO is spontaneous under steam reforming conditions. The results showed that this reduction process occurs only for temperatures higher than 430 K. It was also found that once reduced, Co based catalysts will never oxidize back to Co 3 O 4 . -- Highlights: → Thermodynamic analysis of ethanol reforming reactions using an in-house code. → Analysis performed by solving systems of non-linear algebraic equations. → H 2 and CO 2 equilibrium data are useful to validate catalytic tests. → Maximization of H 2 mole fraction achieved between 773 and 873 K → CoO reduction is spontaneous under steam reforming of ethanol conditions.

  18. Safeguardability assessment on pilot-scale advanced spent fuel conditioning facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Li, T.K.; Pickett, S.E.; Miller, M.C.; Ko, W.I.; Kim, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: In South Korea, approximately 6,000 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel from commercial reactor operation has been accumulated with the expectation of more than 30,000 metric tons, three times the present storage capacity, by the end of 2040. To resolve these challenges in spent fuel management, the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has been developing a dry reprocessing technology called Advanced Spent Fuel Conditioning Process (ACP). This is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent fuel into a metallic form, and the electrolytic reduction (ER) technology developed recently is known as a more efficient concept for spent fuel conditioning. The goal of the ACP study is to recover more than 99% of the actinide elements into a metallic form with minimizing the volume and heat load of spent fuel. The significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel is expected to lighten the burden of final disposal in terms of disposal size, safety, and economics. In the framework of R and D collaboration for the ACP safeguards, a joint study on the safeguardability of the ACP technology has been performed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and KAERI. The purpose of this study is to address the safeguardability of the ACP technology, through analysis of material flow and development of a proper safeguards system that meet IAEA's comprehensive safeguards objective. The sub-processes and material flow of the pilot-scale ACP facility were analyzed, and subsequently the relevant material balance area (MBA) and key measurement point (KMP) were designed for material accounting. The uncertainties in material accounting were also estimated with international target values, and design requirements for the material accounting systems were derived

  19. Does the gestation age of newborn babies influence the ultrasonic assessment of hip condition?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Slavica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ultrasound represents a method of examination of hips of newborn babies capable of defining hip condition and distinguishing stable and unstable hips based on morphological elements. It is accepted in a large number of countries as a method of examination of high risk newborns, or as a method of systematic screening. Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between ultrasonically estimated hip maturity and respective gestation maturity both in premature and term-born babies, and to investigate the influence of different delivery types on hips condition. Methods. In our study 2045 patients, 1141 males and 904 females, were examined in at the Institute of Neonatology over a period of 5 years. The average age was 34.04 gestation weeks. There were significantly more premature (1698 or 83.03% than term-born babies (347 or 16.97%. Ultrasound hip examination, as a screening method, was carried out according to Graf. It was followed by clinical examination. Results were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods (χ2-test, one-way ANOVA, multifactor ANOVA. Results. The overall frequency of unstable hips was 3.2%, 1.88% in males and 4.87% in females (p<0.05. 96.8% babies had stable hips, out of which 35.21% were mature and 61.59% immature. In the study of the breech presentation, out of 183 babies, unstable hips were found in 1.58% of male cases, and in 10.23% of female cases. Conclusion. Clinical screening of developmental dysplasia of the hip is insufficient for early diagnosis and decision about the treatment of premature babies. The high frequency of unstable hip type IIc (risky and IId (decentralized in premature babies requires early diagnosis and therapy. Wide swaddling for prematures should be applied up to eight months of age. Gentle manipulation is necessary while nursing and conducting physiotherapy of a premature baby.

  20. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Rick, II; Vander Kaaden, Kathleen E.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Danielson, Lisa R.

    2017-01-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high Sand low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wtistite (lW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at I GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multianvil press, at temperatures up to 1850degC. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-Si02 buffer, which is approximately 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi206) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of

  1. Technical Report on Preliminary Methodology for Enhancing Risk Monitors with Integrated Equipment Condition Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Coles, Garill A.; Coble, Jamie B.; Hirt, Evelyn H.

    2013-09-17

    Small modular reactors (SMRs) generally include reactors with electric output of ~350 MWe or less (this cutoff varies somewhat but is substantially less than full-size plant output of 700 MWe or more). Advanced SMRs (AdvSMRs) refer to a specific class of SMRs and are based on modularization of advanced reactor concepts. AdvSMRs may provide a longer-term alternative to traditional light-water reactors (LWRs) and SMRs based on integral pressurized water reactor concepts currently being considered. Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs will be critical to ensuring wider deployment. AdvSMRs suffer from loss of economies of scale inherent in small reactors when compared to large (~greater than 600 MWe output) reactors. Some of this loss can be recovered through reduced capital costs through smaller size, fewer components, modular fabrication processes, and the opportunity for modular construction. However, the controllable day-to-day costs of AdvSMRs will be dominated by operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk are important for controlling O&M costs. Risk monitors are used in current nuclear power plants to provide a point-in-time estimate of the system risk given the current plant configuration (e.g., equipment availability, operational regime, and environmental conditions). However, current risk monitors are unable to support the capability requirements listed above as they do not take into account plant-specific normal, abnormal, and deteriorating states of active components and systems. This report documents technology developments that are a step towards enhancing risk monitors that, if integrated with supervisory plant control systems, can provide the capability requirements listed and meet the goals of controlling O&M costs. The report describes research results from an initial methodology for enhanced risk monitors by integrating real-time information about equipment condition and POF into risk monitors.

  2. The corneoscleral shell of the eye: potentials of assessing biomechanical parameters in normal and pathological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Iomdina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews modern methods of evaluating the biomechanical properties of the corneoscleral shell of the eye that can be used both in the studies of the pathogenesis of various ophthalmic pathologies and in clinical practice. The biomechanical parameters of the cornea and the sclera have been shown to be diagnostically significant in assessing the risk of complications and the effectiveness of keratorefractive interventions, in the diagnosis and the prognosis of keratoconus, progressive myopia, or glaucoma. In clinical practice, a special device, Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA, has been used on a large scale. The analyzer is used to assess two parameters that characterize viscoelastic properties of the cornea — corneal hysteresis (CH and corneal resistance factor (CRF. Reduced levels of CH and CRF have been noted after eximer laser surgery, especially that administered to patients who demonstrate a regression in the refraction effect or suffer from keratoconus. This fact justifies the use of these biomechanical parameters as additional diagnostic criteria in the evaluation of the state of the cornea. At the same time, ORA data are shown to reflect the biomechanical response to the impact of the air pulse not only from the cornea alone but also from the whole corneoscleral capsule. This is probably the cause of reduced CH in children with progressive myopia and a weakened supportive function of the sclera, as well as such reduction in glaucomatous adult patients. It is hypothesized that a low CH value is a result of remodeling of the connective tissue matrix of the corneoscleral shell of the eye and can be an independent factor testifying to a risk of glaucoma progression. Reduced CH in primary open-angle glaucoma occurs in parallel with the development of pathological structural changes of the optic disc, and deterioration of visual fields, which is an evidence of a specific character and sensitivity of this parameter. The

  3. Assessment of Deep Geological Environmental Condition for HLW Disposal in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Yong Kweon; Bae, Dae Seok; Kim, Kyung Su

    2010-04-01

    The research developed methods to study and evaluate geological factors and items to select radioactive waste disposal site, which should meet the safety requirements for radioactive waste disposal repositories according to the guidelines recommended by IAEA. A basic concept of site evaluation and selection for high level radioactive waste disposal and develop systematic geological data management with geological data system which will be used for site selection in future are provided. We selected 36 volcanic rock sites and 26 gneissic sites as the alternative host rocks for high level radioactive waste disposal and the geochemical characteristics of groundwaters of the four representative sites were statistically analyzed. From the hydrogeological and geochemical investigation, the spatial distribution characteristics were provided for the disposal system development and preliminary safety assessment. Finally, the technology and scientific methods were developed to obtain accurate data on the hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of the deep geological environments

  4. Performance assessment of a micro-cogeneration system under realistic operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Performances of a micro-cogeneration system have been experimentally evaluated. • Cogenerator performances have been compared with those of a traditional system. • Measured data have been analyzed from both energy and exergy points of view. - Abstract: The European Parliament stated that high-efficiency cogeneration is a Community priority given the potential benefits of cogeneration with regard to saving primary energy and reducing emissions. According to this position, the performance of many micro-cogeneration systems have been assessed from an energy and environmental point of view. However, in the most part of cases, the assessments have been performed by using technical data from manufacturers and/or experimental results measured during steady-state operation, without considering the inefficiencies related to the transient periods; in addition, few works have been devoted to analyze the system operation from an exergy-based point of view. In this paper the electric load-following operation of an internal combustion engine based micro-cogeneration unit with 6.0 kW as nominal electric output has been experimentally investigated in electric load-following operation during a 24 h dynamic test with the application of a realistic daily load profile representing the Italian domestic non-HVAC electric demand for a multi-family house of five dwellings. The measured data have been compared with those that would be associated with servicing the building with electricity from the central electric grid and heat from a natural gas fired boiler from an energy, exergy and environmental points of view

  5. Fracture assessment of shallow-flaw cruciform beams tested under uniaxial and biaxial loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Williams, P.T.; Pennell, W.E.

    1999-01-01

    A technology to determine shallow-flaw fracture toughness of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels is being developed for application to the safety assessment of RPVs containing postulated shallow surface flaws. Matrices of cruciform beam tests were developed to investigate and quantify the effects of temperature, biaxial loading, and specimen size on fracture initiation toughness of two-dimensional (constant depth), shallow, surface flaws. The cruciform beam specimens were developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to introduce a far-field, out-of-plane biaxial stress component in the test section that approximates the nonlinear stresses resulting from pressurized-thermal-shock or pressure-temperature loading of an RPV. Tests were conducted under biaxial load ratios ranging from uniaxial to equibiaxial. These tests demonstrated that biaxial loading can have a pronounced effect on shallow-flaw fracture toughness in the lower transition temperature region for an RPV material. The cruciform fracture toughness data were used to evaluate fracture methodologies for predicting the observed effects of biaxial loading on shallow-flaw fracture toughness. Initial emphasis was placed on assessment of stress-based methodologies, namely, the J-Q formulation, the Dodds-Anderson toughness scaling model, and the Weibull approach. Applications of these methodologies based on the hydrostatic stress fracture criterion indicated an effect of loading-biaxiality on fracture toughness; the conventional maximum principal stress criterion indicated no effect. A three-parameter Weibull model based on the hydrostatic stress criterion is shown to correlate with the experimentally observed biaxial effect on cleavage fracture toughness by providing a scaling mechanism between uniaxial and biaxial loading states. (orig.)

  6. Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe, the PHEWE project: background, objectives, design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Hugh

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The project "Assessment and prevention of acute health effects of weather conditions in Europe" (PHEWE had the aim of assessing the association between weather conditions and acute health effects, during both warm and cold seasons in 16 European cities with widely differing climatic conditions and to provide information for public health policies. Methods The PHEWE project was a three-year pan-European collaboration between epidemiologists, meteorologists and experts in public health. Meteorological, air pollution and mortality data from 16 cities and hospital admission data from 12 cities were available from 1990 to 2000. The short-term effect on mortality/morbidity was evaluated through city-specific and pooled time series analysis. The interaction between weather and air pollutants was evaluated and health impact assessments were performed to quantify the effect on the different populations. A heat/health watch warning system to predict oppressive weather conditions and alert the population was developed in a subgroup of cities and information on existing prevention policies and of adaptive strategies was gathered. Results Main results were presented in a symposium at the conference of the International Society of Environmental Epidemiology in Paris on September 6th 2006 and will be published as scientific articles. The present article introduces the project and includes a description of the database and the framework of the applied methodology. Conclusion The PHEWE project offers the opportunity to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in 16 European cities, representing a wide range of climatic, socio-demographic and cultural characteristics; the use of a standardized methodology allows for direct comparison between cities.

  7. Assessment of radiation doses in normal operation, upset accident conditions at the Olkiluoto nuclear waste facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, J.; Raiko, H.; Suolanen, V.

    2009-09-01

    Radiation doses for workers of the facility, for inhabitants in the environment and for terrestrial ecosystem possibly caused by the encapsulation and disposal facility to be built at Olkiluoto during its operation were considered in the study. The study covers both the normal operation of the plant and some hypothetical incidents and accidents. Release through the ventilation stack is assumed to be filtered both in normal operation and in hypothetical abnormal fault and accident cases. Calculation of the offsite doses from normal operation is based on the hypothesis that on average one fuel pin per 100 fuel bundles for all batches of spent fuel transported to the encapsulation facility is leaking. The release magnitude in incidents and accidents is based on the event chains, which lead to loss of fuel pin tightness followed by a discharge of radionuclides into the handling space and to some degree to the atmosphere through the ventilation stack equipped with redundant filters. The critical group is conservatively assumed to live at the distance of 200 meters from the encapsulation and disposal plant and thus it will receive the largest doses in most dispersion conditions. The dose value to a member of the critical group was calculated on the basis of the weather data in such a way that greater dose than obtained here is caused only in 0.5 percent of dispersion conditions. The results obtained indicate that during normal operation the doses to workers remain small and the dose to the member of the critical group is less than 0,001 mSv per year. In the case of hypothetical fault and accident releases the offsite doses do not exceed either the limit values set by the safety authority. The highest dose rates to the reference organisms of the terrestrial ecosystem with conservative assumptions from the largest release were estimated to be of the order of 100 μ Gy/h at the distance of 200 m. As a chronic exposure this dose rate is expected to bring up detrimental

  8. Metrics to assess ecological condition, change, and impacts in sandy beach ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlacher, Thomas A; Schoeman, David S; Jones, Alan R; Dugan, Jenifer E; Hubbard, David M; Defeo, Omar; Peterson, Charles H; Weston, Michael A; Maslo, Brooke; Olds, Andrew D; Scapini, Felicita; Nel, Ronel; Harris, Linda R; Lucrezi, Serena; Lastra, Mariano; Huijbers, Chantal M; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-11-01

    Complexity is increasingly the hallmark in environmental management practices of sandy shorelines. This arises primarily from meeting growing public demands (e.g., real estate, recreation) whilst reconciling economic demands with expectations of coastal users who have modern conservation ethics. Ideally, shoreline management is underpinned by empirical data, but selecting ecologically-meaningful metrics to accurately measure the condition of systems, and the ecological effects of human activities, is a complex task. Here we construct a framework for metric selection, considering six categories of issues that authorities commonly address: erosion; habitat loss; recreation; fishing; pollution (litter and chemical contaminants); and wildlife conservation. Possible metrics were scored in terms of their ability to reflect environmental change, and against criteria that are widely used for judging the performance of ecological indicators (i.e., sensitivity, practicability, costs, and public appeal). From this analysis, four types of broadly applicable metrics that also performed very well against the indicator criteria emerged: 1.) traits of bird populations and assemblages (e.g., abundance, diversity, distributions, habitat use); 2.) breeding/reproductive performance sensu lato (especially relevant for birds and turtles nesting on beaches and in dunes, but equally applicable to invertebrates and plants); 3.) population parameters and distributions of vertebrates associated primarily with dunes and the supralittoral beach zone (traditionally focused on birds and turtles, but expandable to mammals); 4.) compound measurements of the abundance/cover/biomass of biota (plants, invertebrates, vertebrates) at both the population and assemblage level. Local constraints (i.e., the absence of birds in highly degraded urban settings or lack of dunes on bluff-backed beaches) and particular issues may require alternatives. Metrics - if selected and applied correctly - provide

  9. Assessment of Environmental Flows under Human Intervention and Climate Change Conditions in a Mediterranean Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. T.; Alp, E.; Aras, M.; Özaltın, A. M.; Sarıcan, Y.; Afsar, M.; Bulut, B.; Ersoy, E. N.; Karasu, İ. G.; Onen, A.

    2017-12-01

    Allocation of the river flow for ecosystems is very critical for sustainable management of ecosystems containing aquatic habitats in need of more water than other environments. Availability and allocation of water over such locations becomes more stressed as a result of the influence of human interventions (e.g., increased water use for irrigation) and the expected change in climate. This study investigates the current and future (until 2100) low-flow requirements over 10 subcatchments in a Mediterranean Watershed, in Turkey, using Tennant and hydrological low-flow methods. The future river flows are estimated using HBV model forced by climate projections obtained by HADGEM2, MPI-ESM-MR, and CNRM-CM5.1 models coupled with RegCM4.3 under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Critical flows (i.e., Q10, Q25, Q50) are calculated using the best fit to commonly used distributions for the river flow data, while the decision between the selection of Q10, Q25, Q50 critical levels are made depending on the level of human interference made over the catchment. Total three low-flow requirement estimations are obtained over each subcatchment using the Tennant (two estimates for the low and high flow seasons for environmentally good conditions) and the hydrological low-flow methods. The highest estimate among these three methods is selected as the low-flow requirement of the subcatchment. The river flows over these 10 subcatchments range between 197hm3 and 1534hm3 while the drainage areas changing between 936 and 4505 km2. The final low-flow estimation (i.e., the highest among the three estimate) for the current conditions range between 94 hm3 and 715 hm3. The low-flow projection values between 2075 and 2099 are on average 39% lower than the 2016 values, while the steepest decline is expected between 2050 and 2074. The low flow and high flow season Tennant estimates dropped 22-25% while the hydrological method low-flow estimates dropped 32% from 2016 to 2075-2099 average, where

  10. Assessing the Behavior of Typically Lithophile Elements Under Highly Reducing Conditions Relevant to the Planet Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, R. L., II; Vander Kaaden, K. E.; McCubbin, F. M.; Danielson, L. R.

    2017-12-01

    With the data returned from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission, there are now numerous constraints on the physical and chemical properties of Mercury, including its surface composition. The high S and low FeO contents observed from MESSENGER suggest a low oxygen fugacity of the present materials on the planet's surface. Most of our understanding of elemental partitioning behavior comes from observations made on terrestrial rocks, but Mercury's oxygen fugacity is far outside the conditions of those samples, estimated at approximately 3-7 log units below the Iron-Wüstite (IW) oxygen buffer, several orders of magnitude more reducing than other terrestrial bodies we have data from. With limited oxygen available, lithophile elements may instead exhibit chalcophile, halophile, or siderophile behaviors. Furthermore, very few natural samples of rocks that formed under reducing conditions (e.g., enstatite chondrites, achondrites, aubrites) are available in our collections for examination of this change in geochemical affinity. Our goal is to determine the elemental partitioning behavior of typically lithophile elements at lower oxygen fugacity as a function of temperature and pressure. Experiments were conducted at 1 GPa in a 13 mm QUICKpress piston cylinder and at 4 GPa in an 880-ton multi-anvil press, at temperatures up to 1850°C. The composition of starting materials for the experiments were designed so the final run products contained metal, silicate melt, and sulfide melt phases. Oxygen fugacity was controlled in the experiments by adding silicon metal to the samples, in order to utilize the Si-SiO2 buffer, which is 5 log units more reducing than the IW buffer at our temperatures of interest. The target silicate melt composition was diopside (CaMgSi2O6) because measured surface compositions indicate partial melting of a pyroxene-rich mantle. The results of our experiments will aid in our understanding of the fate of

  11. Medical condition and care of undocumented migrants in ambulatory clinics in Tel Aviv, Israel: assessing unmet needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Zohar; Raveh, Yuval; Lurie, Ido; Leventhal, Alex; Gamzu, Roni; Davidovitch, Nadav; Benari, Orel; Grotto, Itamar

    2017-07-14

    Approximately 150,000 undocumented migrants (UM) who are medically uninsured reside in Israel, including ~50,000 originating from the horn of Africa (MHA). Free medical-care is provided by two walk-in clinics in Tel-Aviv. This study aims to compare the medical complaints of UM from different origins, define their community health needs and assess gaps between medical needs and available services. This cross-sectional study included a random sample of 610 UM aged 18-64 years, who were treated in these community clinics between 2008 and 2011. The study compared UM who had complex medical conditions which necessitated referral to more equipped medical settings with UM having mild/simple medical conditions, who were treated at the clinics. MHA were younger, unemployed and more commonly males compared with UM originating from other countries. MHA also had longer referral-delays and visited the clinics less frequently. UM with complex medical conditions were more commonly females, had chronic diseases and demonstrated longer referral-delays than those who had mild/simple medical conditions. The latter more commonly presented with complained of respiratory, muscular and skeletal discomfort. In multivariate analysis, the variables which predicted complex medical conditions included female gender, chronic illnes and self-referral to the clinics. The ambulatory clinics were capable of responding to mild/simple medical conditions. Yet, the health needs of women and migrants suffering from complex medical conditions and chronic diseases necessitated referrals to secondary/tertiary medical settings, while jeopardizing the continuity of care. The health gaps can be addressed by a more holistic social approach, which includes integration of UM in universal health insurance.

  12. Assessment of turkey vehicle container microclimate on transit during summer season conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Rafael H.; Honorato, Danielle C. B.; Guarnieri, Paulo D.; Soares, Adriana L.; Pedrão, Mayka R.; Oba, Alexandre; Paião, Fernanda G.; Ida, Elza I.; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the formed microclimate commercial truck transport practices effects on the turkeys' welfare by measuring Dead on Arrival (DOA) index and pale, soft, and exudative (PSE-like) meat occurrence. The experimental design was entirely randomized in a 6 × 2 factorial arrangements (two truck container compartments × six water shower groups) with birds positioned at superior front (SF), inferior front (IF), superior middle (SM), inferior middle (IM), superior rear (SR), and inferior rear (IR) and two bath treatments: with water shower (WiS) and without water shower (WoS) with eight replications for each treatment. The animals were transported for 95 min' journey from the farm to the slaughterhouse under hot-humidity conditions. The results shown herein indicated the formation of a thermal core at the inferior middle and rear truck container regions, because the heat produced by the birds and the influence of developed microclimate consisting of temperature, relative humidity, and air ventilation. The IM and IR container compartments under the WoS treatment presented the highest (P welfare consequently turkey meat qualities.

  13. Assessment of conditions of the spent nuclear fuel stored in the stainless steel channel-holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, M.; Sotic, O.; Cupac, S.; Maksin, T.; Dasic, N.

    2003-01-01

    The IAEA technical co-operation project 'Safe Removal of Spent Fuel of the Vinca RA Research Reactor' is carried out at the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro, since January 2003. Present activities will provide up-to-date information on the conditions of the spent nuclear fuel, stored in the stainless steel channel-holders ('chekhols') and on the water quality in the storage basins. Water samples taken out from the chekhols and the basins are measured to determine their activity and chemical parameters. Until September 2003, about 1/3 of the chekhols containing spent fuel elements with initial enrichment of 2% and 80% of uranium were inspected. High activity of Cs-137 was found in several water samples taken out from chekhols. All water samples show very high electrical conductivity, while those taken from the basins show the presence of chlorides and aluminium ions, too. Information on established procedures and measuring results are given in this paper. The obtained results, so far, show that the spent nuclear fuel elements are leaking in about 10% of chekhols. (author)

  14. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed

  15. Assessing the competitive conditions in the Italian banking system: some empirical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Coccorese

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of European financial market integration, resulting from the elimination of controls on capital movements and the free access given to banks to other domestic markets within the EU, the Italian financial system has undergone a considerable transformation. In the aftermath of these new changes, however, has there been an increase in competition resulting in significant gains for consumers? Or rather, is unification alone, due to imperfections in financial markets, not enough to bring about stronger competition? Utilizing the Rosse-Panzar test, the author analyzes a sample of Italian banks from 1988-96 to evaluate the degree of competition in the industry. The findings suggest that the Italian banking industry operates under conditions of monopolistic competition and that European integration has yet to have a significant impact on industry conduct. However, the Author notes that due to the relative novelty of liberalization its long-term effect can not yet be known. Although the banking industry was far from equilibrium in the years examined, after the initiation of European integration there was a move towards it, however, it has yet to be attained.

  16. Preliminary assessment of safeguardability on the concepture design of advanced spent fuel conditioning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yoon; Ha, Jang Ho; Ko, Won Il; Song, Dae Yong; Kim, Ho Dong

    2003-04-01

    In this report, a preliminary study on the safeguardability of ACP (Advanced spent fuel Conditioning Process) was conducted with Los Alamos National Laboratory. The proposed ACP concept is an electrometallurgical treatment technique to convert oxide-type spent nuclear fuels into metal forms, which can achieve significant reduction of the volume and heat load of spent fuel to be stored and disposed of. For the safeguardability analysis of the ACP facility, sub-processes and their KMPs (Key Measurement Points) were defined first, and then their material flows were analyzed. Finally, the standard deviation of the Inventory Difference (ID) value of the facility was estimated with assumption by assuming international target values for the uncertainty of measurement methods and their uncertainty. From the preliminary calculation, we concluded that if the assumptions regarding measurement instruments can be achieved in a safeguards system for the ACP facility, the safeguards goals of International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) could be met. In the second phase of this study, further study on sensitivity analyses considering various factors such as measurement errors, facility capacities, MBA periods etc. may be needed.

  17. Assessment of polyelectrolyte coating stability under dynamic buffer conditions in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swords, Kyleen E; Bartline, Peter B; Roguski, Katherine M; Bashaw, Sarah A; Frederick, Kimberley A

    2011-09-01

    Dynamic buffer conditions are present in many electrophoretically driven separations. Polyelectrolyte multilayer coatings have been employed in CE because of their chemical and physical stability as well as their ease of application. The goal of this study is to measure the effect of dynamic changes in buffer pH on flow using a real-time method for measuring EOF. Polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) were composed of pairs of strong or completely ionized polyelectrolytes including poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride and poly(styrene sulfonate) and weak or ionizable polyelectrolytes including poly(allylamine) and poly(methacrylic acid). Polyelectrolyte multilayers of varying thicknesses (3, 4, 7, 8, 15, or 16 layers) were also studied. While the magnitude of the EOF was monitored every 2 s, the buffer pH was exchanged from a relatively basic pH (7.1) to increasingly acidic pHs (6.6, 6.1, 5.5, and 5.1). Strong polyelectrolytes responded minimally to changes in buffer pH (10%) and sometimes irreversible changes were measured with weak polyelectrolytes. Thicker coatings resulted in a similar magnitude of response but were more likely to degrade in response to buffer pH changes. The most stable coatings were formed from thinner layers of strong polyelectrolytes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. A Review on the Assessment of Stress conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amritpreet kaur Minhas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions.

  19. A Review on the Assessment of Stress Conditions for Simultaneous Production of Microalgal Lipids and Carotenoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Amritpreet K.; Hodgson, Peter; Barrow, Colin J.; Adholeya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Microalgal species are potential resource of both biofuels and high-value metabolites, and their production is growth dependent. Growth parameters can be screened for the selection of novel microalgal species that produce molecules of interest. In this context our review confirms that, autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms have demonstrated a dual potential, namely the ability to produce lipids as well as value-added products (particularly carotenoids) under influence of various physico-chemical stresses on microalgae. Some species of microalgae can synthesize, besides some pigments, very-long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (VL-PUFA,>20C) such as docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid, those have significant applications in food and health. Producing value-added by-products in addition to biofuels, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and lipids has the potential to improve microalgae-based biorefineries by employing either the autotrophic or the heterotrophic mode, which could be an offshoot of biotechnology. The review considers the potential of microalgae to produce a range of products and indicates future directions for developing suitable criteria for choosing novel isolates through bioprospecting large gene pool of microalga obtained from various habitats and climatic conditions. PMID:27199903

  20. Assessment and Analysis of Smolt Condition in the Columbia River Basin, 1999 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, Robin M.; Jones, Ray

    1999-12-01

    The primary objective of the study was to increase the number of summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Dworshak National Fish Hatchery that outmigrate by promoting smoltification in a larger proportion of the production release. To achieve this goal, growth was reduced during the winter to produce a smaller size range of fish to eliminate the production of large fish that residualize. A period of accelerated growth prior to release was designed to promote smoltification in all fish, regardless of size. Decreased winter growth was achieved with a combination of reduced ration and short, intermittent feeding periods. Growth rates were not reduced to the expected level in the modified feeding schedule treatment group, control group, or general production fish reared in the same system. Although significant differences in length, weight and condition factor developed between treatment and control groups during December and January, compensatory growth of the treatment fish after return to full rations resulted in fish of the same size from both groups for release. Migration rates of the treatment group were higher than that of the control group, although the difference was not significant. Growth and survival during extended seawater rearing did not differ between the two groups. Smoltification, as measured by gill Na{sup +}, K{sup +}-ATPase and seawater survival, were unaffected by a reduction in feed during winter months.