WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliability worth concepts

  1. Reliability worth assessment of radial systems with distributed generation

    OpenAIRE

    Bellart Llavall, Francesc Xavier

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in technology, utilities generation (DG) on the distribution systems. Reliability worth is very important in power system planning and operation. Having a DG ensures reli increase the reliability worth. This research project presents the study of a radial distribution system and the impact of placing DG in order to increase the reliability worth. where a DG have to be placed. The reliability improvement is measured by different reliability indices tha...

  2. Reliability: How much is it worth? Beyond its estimation or prediction, the (net) present value of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, J.H.; Marais, K.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we link an engineering concept, reliability, to a financial and managerial concept, net present value, by exploring the impact of a system's reliability on its revenue generation capability. The framework here developed for non-repairable systems quantitatively captures the value of reliability from a financial standpoint. We show that traditional present value calculations of engineering systems do not account for system reliability, thus over-estimate a system's worth and can therefore lead to flawed investment decisions. It is therefore important to involve reliability engineers upfront before investment decisions are made in technical systems. In addition, the analyses here developed help designers identify the optimal level of reliability that maximizes a system's net present value-the financial value reliability provides to the system minus the cost to achieve this level of reliability. Although we recognize that there are numerous considerations driving the specification of an engineering system's reliability, we contend that the financial analysis of reliability here developed should be made available to decision-makers to support in part, or at least be factored into, the system reliability specification

  3. Self-Concept Is a Concept Worth Considering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nora

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the importance of self-concept in the pediatric rehabilitation research literature. There also is confusion and inconsistency in the definitions of and the terminology used to describe self-concept. What is agreed is that self-concept is multidimensional, comprising a child's perception of their personal…

  4. Reliability Worth Analysis of Distribution Systems Using Cascade Correlation Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidari, Alireza; Agelidis, Vassilios; Pou, Josep

    2018-01-01

    Reliability worth analysis is of great importance in the area of distribution network planning and operation. The reliability worth's precision can be affected greatly by the customer interruption cost model used. The choice of the cost models can change system and load point reliability indices....... In this study, a cascade correlation neural network is adopted to further develop two cost models comprising a probabilistic distribution model and an average or aggregate model. A contingency-based analytical technique is adopted to conduct the reliability worth analysis. Furthermore, the possible effects...

  5. LMR design concepts for transuranic management in low sodium void worth cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel cycle processing techniques and hard neutron spectrum of the integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel cycle have favorable characteristics for the management of transuranics; and the wide range of breeding characteristics available in metal fuelled cores provides for flexibility in transuranic management strategy. Previous studies indicate that most design options which decrease the breeding ratio also allow a decrease in sodium void worth; therefore, low void worths are achievable in transuranic burning (low breeding ratio) core designs. This paper describes numerous trade studies assessing various design options for a low void worth transuranic burner core. A flat annular core design appears to be a promising concept; the high leakage geometry yields a low breeding ratio and small sodium void worth. To allow flexibility in breeding characteristics, alternate design options which achieve fissile self-sufficiency are also evaluated. A self-sufficient core design which is interchangeable with the burner core and maintains a low sodium void worth is developed. (author)

  6. Application of reliability worth concepts in power system operational planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, J C.O. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.M. Leite da [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pereira, M V.F. [Power System Research (PSR), Inc., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    This work describes the application of a new methodology for calculating total system interruption costs in power system operational planning. Some important operational aspects are discussed: chronological load curves, customer damage functions for each consumer class, maintenance scheduling and non-exponential repair times. It is also presented the calculation of the probability distribution of the system interruption cost to improve the decision making process associated with alternative operational strategies. The Brazilian Southeastern system is used to illustrate all previous applications. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. LMR design concepts for transuranic management in low sodium void worth cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel cycle processing techniques and hard neuron spectrum of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) metal fuel cycle have favorable characteristics for the management of transuranics; and the wide range of breeding characteristics available in metal fuelled cores provides for flexibility in transuranic management strategy. Previous studies indicate that most design options which decrease the breeding ratio also show a decrease in sodium void worth; therefore, low void worths are achievable in transuranic burning (low breeding ratio) core designs. This paper describes numerous trade studies assessing various design options for a low void worth transuranic burner core. A flat annular core design appears to be a promising concept; the high leakage geometry yields a low breeding ratio and small sodium void worth. To allow flexibility in breeding characteristics, alternate design options which achieve fissile self-sufficiency are also evaluated. A self-sufficient core design which is interchangeable with the burner core and maintains a low sodium void worth is developed. 13 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  8. Friendship Predictors of Global Self-Worth and Domain-Specific Self-Concepts in University Students with and without Learning Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shany, Michal; Wiener, Judith; Assido, Michal

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association among friendship, global self-worth, and domain-specific self-concepts in 102 university students with and without learning disabilities (LD). Students with LD reported lower global self-worth and academic self-concept than students without LD, and this difference was greater for women. Students with LD also…

  9. Core concepts for ''zero-sodium-void-worth core'' in metal fuelled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Hill, R.N.; Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.; Kumaoka, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    Core design options to reduce the sodium void worth in metal fueled LMRs are investigated. Two core designs which achieve a zero sodium void worth are analyzed in detail. The first design is a ''pancaked'' and annular core with enhanced transuranic burning capabilities; the high leakage in this design yields a low breeding ratio and small void worth. The second design is an axially multilayered annular core which is fissile self-sufficient; in this design, the upper and lower core regions are neutronically decoupled for reduced void worth while fissile self-sufficiency is achieved using internal axial blankets plus external radial and axial blanket zones. The neutronic performance characteristics of these low void worth designs are assessed here; their passive safety properties are discussed in a companion paper. 16 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Core concepts for 'zero-sodium-void-worth core' in metal fuelled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Hill, R.N.; Fujita, E.K.; Wade, D.C.; Kumaoka, Y.; Suzuki, M.; Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, H.

    1991-01-01

    Core design options to reduce the sodium void worth in metal fuelled LMRs are investigated. Two core designs which achieve a zero sodium void worth are analyzed in detail. The first design is a 'pancaked' and annular core with enhanced transuranic burning capabilities; the high leakage in this design yields a low breeding ratio and small void worth. The second design is an axially multilayered annular core which is fissile self-sufficient; in this design, the upper and lower core regions are neutronically decoupled for reduced void worth while fissile self-sufficiency is achieved using internal axial blankets plus external radial and axial blanket-zones. The neutronic performance characteristics of these low void worth designs are assessed here; their passive safety properties are discussed in a companion paper. (author)

  11. Reliability and cost/worth evaluation of generating systems utilizing wind and solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagen

    The utilization of renewable energy resources such as wind and solar energy for electric power supply has received considerable attention in recent years due to adverse environmental impacts and fuel cost escalation associated with conventional generation. At the present time, wind and/or solar energy sources are utilized to generate electric power in many applications. Wind and solar energy will become important sources for power generation in the future because of their environmental, social and economic benefits, together with public support and government incentives. The wind and sunlight are, however, unstable and variable energy sources, and behave far differently than conventional sources. Energy storage systems are, therefore, often required to smooth the fluctuating nature of the energy conversion system especially in small isolated applications. The research work presented in this thesis is focused on the development and application of reliability and economic benefits assessment associated with incorporating wind energy, solar energy and energy storage in power generating systems. A probabilistic approach using sequential Monte Carlo simulation was employed in this research and a number of analyses were conducted with regards to the adequacy and economic assessment of generation systems containing wind energy, solar energy and energy storage. The evaluation models and techniques incorporate risk index distributions and different operating strategies associated with diesel generation in small isolated systems. Deterministic and probabilistic techniques are combined in this thesis using a system well-being approach to provide useful adequacy indices for small isolated systems that include renewable energy and energy storage. The concepts presented and examples illustrated in this thesis will help power system planners and utility managers to assess the reliability and economic benefits of utilizing wind energy conversion systems, solar energy conversion

  12. Is fear of others linked to an uncertain sense of self? The relevance of self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs to paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lincoln, Tania M; Mehl, Stephanie; Ziegler, Michael; Kesting, Marie-Luise; Exner, Cornelia; Rief, Winfried

    2010-06-01

    The assumption that a low sense of self-worth can give rise to paranoid delusions is relevant from a therapeutic perspective, but research has been inconsistent. The present study sought to investigate how interpersonal self-concepts and global self-worth relate to psychotic and depressive psychopathology in persons with psychosis. Participants with psychosis (n=83) and healthy controls (n=33) were assessed for global self-worth, interpersonal self-concepts, and dysfunctional beliefs using the Frankfurt Self-Concept Scale and the Dysfunctional Attitude Scale. Symptoms were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Peters et al. Delusions Inventory, the Paranoia Checklist, and the Beck Depression Inventory. We hypothesized that perceived threat to self-worth, as expressed in dysfunctional acceptance beliefs and negative interpersonal self-concepts, would be uniquely associated with persecutory delusions. In contrast, low global self-worth would be strongly associated with symptoms of depression. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the association between symptoms and self-concepts. As expected, low global self-worth was associated with depression, whereas the more specific perception of not being accepted by relevant others was most clearly related to psychotic symptoms. Almost half of the variance in paranoia scores was explained by negative interpersonal self-concepts and the interaction between negative interpersonal self-concepts and dysfunctional acceptance beliefs. Thus, cognitive interventions for delusions might be improved by focusing more on interpersonal self-concepts. 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Cost/worth assessment of reliability improvement in distribution networks by means of artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhouras, Aggelos S.; Labridis, Dimitris P.; Bakirtzis, Anastasios G. [Power Systems Laboratory, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2010-06-15

    A major challenge for the power utilities today is to ensure a high level of reliability of supply to customers. Two main factors determine the feasibility of a project that improves the reliability of supply: the project cost (investment and operational) and the benefits that result from the implementation of the project. This paper examines the implementation of an Artificial Intelligence System in an urban distribution network, capable to locate and isolate short circuit faults in the feeder, thus accomplishing immediate restoration of electric supply to the customers. The paper describes the benefits of the project, which are supply reliability improvement and distribution network loss reduction through network reconfigurations. By comparison of the project benefits and costs the economic feasibility of such a project for an underground distribution feeder in Greece is demonstrated. (author)

  14. The Concept of Reliability and Trustworthiness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atencio, Julian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-05

    The objective of this presentation is to obtain an appreciation and understanding of human behavior as it relates to critical jobs; to understand the basics of the Department of Energy's Human Reliability Program; to understand the importance of monitoring and deterrence; and to understand the effects of "right-sized" reaction.

  15. Reliability assessment using the concept of possibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ping, R.; Zhao, G.

    1994-01-01

    The role of the possibility theory in the quantitative approach to the reliability of large scale systems, in particular man-machine systems, is discussed. According to the original idea due to professor L.A. Zadeh, an error rate may be associated with a possibility distribution and a probability distribution. They describe the potentiallity and the actuality for error. This is especially important for the analysis of big accidents

  16. Sequential decision reliability concept and failure rate assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciftcioglu, O.

    1990-11-01

    Conventionally, a reliability concept is considered together with both each basic unit and their integration in a complicated large scale system such as a nuclear power plant (NPP). Basically, as the plant's operational status is determined by the information obtained from various sensors, the plant's reliability and the risk assessment is closely related to the reliability of the sensory information and hence the sensor components. However, considering the relevant information-processing systems, e.g. fault detection processors, there exists a further question about the reliability of such systems, specifically the reliability of the systems' decision-based outcomes by means of which the further actions are performed. To this end, a general sequential decision reliability concept and the failure rate assessment methodology is introduced. The implications of the methodology are investigated and the importance of the decision reliability concept in system operation is demonstrated by means of sensory signals in real-time from the Borssele NPP in the Netherlands. (author). 21 refs.; 8 figs

  17. Concept development of the human reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Sandia National Laboratories initiated a three-phased research program in 1981 to develop a plan for a human reliability data bank. This research initiative was in response to the data needs of the nuclear power industry's probabilistic risk assessment community. The three phases are: (1) develop the data bank concept; (2) develop an implementation plan and conduct a feasibility test; and (3) assist the sponsor in implementing the data bank. This paper briefly describes some of the results of the work performed during Phase A and outlines the program elements schedules for Phase B

  18. Reliabilty worth: Development of a relationship with outage magnitude, duration and frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, F.P.P.; Katrichak, A.M.; Dwyer, A.; Edwards, D.; Ibrahim, A.

    1994-01-01

    British Columbia Hydro's Worth Project Team was founded to determine values for reliability for reference in evaluation of investment and operating decisions. Work to date has produced key preliminary values for specific outages and concepts for the shape of the relationship between value and these determinates of reliability worth, frequency, magnitude and duration. These values and concepts are described. The values are developed through an iterative, trial and refinement approach. The approach incorporates direct input from customers, common sense and judgement, and micro- and macro-economic concepts. Reliability worth values for reduced or prevented outages are presented for residential, commercial, small industrial and mixed sectors and various outage durations. Reliability worth values were obtained through customer surveys. Limitations of the reliability worth value are numerous and are listed. Study of cost vs magnitude of interruption using microeconomic models has shown that costly system improvements to reduce the possibility of widespread outages may not be justified. The case of exceptionally large area outages (blackouts) is examined. The cost vs frequency relationship was examined in terms of the economic concept of utility or satisfaction. Different loss/frequency characteristics are demonstrated for different customer classes. Customer value for reduced outage duration is expressed in a curve with flatter slope than that for eliminated outages. 2 refs., 6 figs

  19. Guide to the Intergration of Selected Concepts of Economics into the History Curriculum of Fort Worth Country Day School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Ford

    This guide will help teachers of grades 6-12 integrate economics concepts into history courses. The developers believe that the language and theories of economics are more understandable, germane, and pertinent in the context of a history curriculum. The seven basic economic concepts taught are: the law of demand, the law of supply, private…

  20. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena, E-mail: cpatino@udea.edu.c [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  1. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena; Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  2. Financial reporting reliability concept and impact factors in its determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vygivska I.М.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article sets the goal to assess the reliability of financial reporting essence and summarize the factors that affect it. The article grounds the reliability of financial reporting urgency and characterizes its dual nature (on one hand, it is accounting containing reliable, reasonable data, characterized by the absence of errors and can be correctly perceived by users, on the other hand, reliable financial statements are considered to be formed according to the rules regulated by normative documents. It is proved that making decisions by interested users based on financial statements is closely related to information risk that arises because of the restrictions affect the flow of information on which management decisions are taken (accounting information that is difficult to understand by unskilled users, the impact of human factor, the level of information importance. The author establishes that the reliability of financial reporting is affected by many factors whose influence can be seen both outside, and within an enterprise. The main factors include: informational, political, legal, human, organizational and financial and they should be taken into account while making management decisions.

  3. Applications of Human Performance Reliability Evaluation Concepts and Demonstration Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-15

    ship stops dead in the water and the AN/SQS-26 operator recommends a new heading (000°). At T + 14 minutes, the target ship begins a hard turn to...Various Simulated Conditions 82 9 Hunan Reliability for Each Simulated Operator (Baseline Run) 83 10 Human and Equipment Availabilit / under

  4. Usability Evaluation of Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) Concept in Dallas/Fort Worth Airport Tower Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Miwa; Hoang, Ty; Jung, Yoon C.; Gupta, Gautam; Malik, Waqar; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA) is a proposed decision-support tool for air traffic control tower controllers for reducing taxi delay and optimizing the departure sequence. In the present study, the tool's usability was evaluated to ensure that its claimed performance benefits are not being realized at the cost of increasing the work burden on controllers. For the evaluation, workload ratings and questionnaire responses collected during a human-in-the-loop simulation experiment were analyzed to assess the SARDA advisories' effects on the controllers' ratings on cognitive resources (e.g., workload, spare attention) and satisfaction. The results showed that SARDA reduced the controllers' workload and increased their spare attention. It also made workload and attention levels less susceptible to the effects of increases in the traffic load. The questionnaire responses suggested that the controllers generally were satisfied with the ease of use of the tool and the objectives of the SARDA concept, but with some caution. To gain more trust from controllers, the the reasoning behind advisories may need to be made more transparent to them.

  5. Reliability, Dimensionality, and Internal Consistency as Defined by Cronbach: Distinct Albeit Related Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.

    2015-01-01

    This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…

  6. A simple, robust and reliable wind diesel concept for remote power supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundsager, P.; Bindner, H.

    1994-01-01

    The paper introduces a Wind Diesel concept suitable for remote communities, the 'Simple, Robust and Reliable Concept' developed at Riso. All components are standard components, the system is self regulating using the component controllers and there is no power electronics. The paper documents...

  7. 'Living PRA' concept for plant risk: Reliability and availability tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sancaktar, S.; Sharp, D.R.

    1985-01-01

    The 'Living PRA' (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) is based on placing a PRA plant model on an interactive computer. This model consists of fault tree analyses for plant systems, event tree analyses for abnormal events and site specific consequence analysis for public and/or financial risks, for a nuclear power plant. A living PRA allows updates and sensitivity analyses by the plant owner throughout the lifetime of a plant. Recently, event and fault trees from two major PRAs were placed in a computerized format. The BYRON PRA study and the Living PRA and Economic Risk examples for Indian Point Unit-3 enabled analysts to gain experience and insight into the problems of plant operation. The above concept is well established for the Nuclear Power Plant evaluation. It has been also used for evaluation of processing facilities. In these studies, systems modeling was carried out by using the GRAFTER system for automated fault tree construction. Presently both the tools and the experience exists to set up useful and viable living PRA models for nuclear and chemical processing plants to enhance risk management by the plant owners through in-house use of micro computer based models

  8. Evaluation of European blanket concepts for DEMO from availability and reliability point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, C.

    1995-12-01

    This technical report is concerned with the ENEA activities relating to reliability and availability for the selection among two of the four European blanket concepts for the DEMO reactor. The activities on the BIT concept, the one proposed by ENEA, are emphasized. In spite of the lack of data relating to the behaviour of structures in an environment similar to that of a fusion reactor, it is evidenced that the available data are relevant to the BIT concept geometry. Moreover, it is evidenced that the qualitative reliability evaluations, compared to the quantitative ones, can lead to a better understanding of the typical problems of a structure to be used in a fusion reactor

  9. The concepts of leak before break and absolute reliability of NPP equipment and piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getman, A.F.; Komarov, O.V.; Sokov, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the absolute reliability (AR) concept for ensuring safe operation of nuclear plant equipment and piping. The AR of a pipeline or component is defined as the level of reliability when the probability of an instantaneous double-ended break is near zero. AR analysis has been applied to Russian RBMK and VVER type reactors. It is proposed that analyses required for application of the leak before break concept should be included in AR implementation. The basic principles, methods, and approaches that provide the basis for implementing the AR concept are described

  10. The concepts of leak before break and absolute reliability of NPP equipment and piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Getman, A.F.; Komarov, O.V.; Sokov, L.M. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper describes the absolute reliability (AR) concept for ensuring safe operation of nuclear plant equipment and piping. The AR of a pipeline or component is defined as the level of reliability when the probability of an instantaneous double-ended break is near zero. AR analysis has been applied to Russian RBMK and VVER type reactors. It is proposed that analyses required for application of the leak before break concept should be included in AR implementation. The basic principles, methods, and approaches that provide the basis for implementing the AR concept are described.

  11. Design of Korean nuclear reliability data-base network using a two-stage Bayesian concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.W.; Jeong, K.S.; Chae, S.K.

    1987-01-01

    In an analysis of probabilistic risk, safety, and reliability of a nuclear power plant, the reliability data base (DB) must be established first. As the importance of the reliability data base increases, event reporting systems such as the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Licensee Event Report and the International Atomic Energy Agency's Incident Reporting System have been developed. In Korea, however, the systematic reliability data base is not yet available. Therefore, foreign data bases have been directly quoted in reliability analyses of Korean plants. In order to develop a reliability data base for Korean plants, the problem is which methodology is to be used, and the application limits of the selected method must be solved and clarified. After starting the commercial operation of Korea Nuclear Unit-1 (KNU-1) in 1978, six nuclear power plants have begun operation. Of these, only KNU-3 is a Canada Deuterium Uranium pressurized heavy-water reactor, and the others are all pressurized water reactors. This paper describes the proposed reliability data-base network (KNRDS) for Korean nuclear power plants in the context of two-stage Bayesian (TSB) procedure of Kaplan. It describes the concept of TSB to obtain the Korean-specific plant reliability data base, which is updated with the incorporation of both the reported generic reliability data and the operation experiences of similar plants

  12. Reliability, availability and maintenance aspects of large-scale offshore wind farms, a concepts study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bussel, G.J.W.; Zaayer, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    The DOWEC projects aims at implementation of large wind turbines in large scale wind farms. part of the DOWEC project a concepts study was performed regarding the achievable reliability and availability levels. A reduction with a factor of 2 with regard to the present state of the art seems fairly

  13. A novel random-pulser concept for empirical reliability studies of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Priesmeyer, H.G.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of a computer-controlled pseudo-random pulser is described, which is able to produce pulse sequences obeying statistical distributions, used in probability assessments of safety technology. It shall be used in empirical investigations of the reliability of complex systems. (orig.) [de

  14. The reliability and validity of the Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao Yi; Liu, Xiao Hong; Tian, Lang; Guo, Yan Qin

    2013-05-01

    To examine the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire. Nurses' self-concept is important to alleviate the current shortage of nurses. Nurses' self-concept questionnaire is an effective instrument to measure nurses' self-perception of professional competencies. However, the psychometric properties of the Chinese version have not been tested. A two-stage research design was used in this study. At Stage 1347 registered nurses were recruited to establish the psychometric properties of the Chinese version. At Stage 2, a confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the extracted factor structure from Stage 1 with 1017 respondents as a sample. The internal consistency of the Chinese version was 0.95 and the test-retest reliability was 0.83. The exploratory factor analysis extracted six dimensions. The findings at Stage 2 showed an acceptable model fit and discriminant validity. The Chinese version was a significant predictor of Maslach Burnout Inventory (β = -0.58; P = 0.00). This study verified the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire. The Chinese version of nurses' self-concept questionnaire will facilitate the evaluation of professional self-concept among nurses and help to develop the individualized self-concept strategies. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Fog-computing concept usage as means to enhance information and control system reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E. V.; Klimenko, A. B.; Ivanov, D. Ya

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on the reliability issue of information and control systems (ICS). The authors propose using the elements of the fog-computing concept to enhance the reliability function. The key idea of fog-computing is to shift computations to the fog-layer of the network, and thus to decrease the workload of the communication environment and data processing components. As for ICS, workload also can be distributed among sensors, actuators and network infrastructure facilities near the sources of data. The authors simulated typical workload distribution situations for the “traditional” ICS architecture and for the one with fogcomputing concept elements usage. The paper contains some models, selected simulation results and conclusion about the prospects of the fog-computing as a means to enhance ICS reliability.

  16. The Concept of Human Error and the Design of Reliable Human-Machine Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens

    1995-01-01

    The concept of human error is unreliable as a basis for design of reliable human-machine systems. Humans are basically highly adaptive and 'errors' are closely related to the process of adaptation and learning. Therefore, reliability of system operation depends on an interface that is not designed...... so as to support a pre-conceived operating procedure, but, instead, makes visible the deep, functional structure of the system together with the boundaries of acceptable operation in away that allows operators to 'touch' the boundaries and to learn to cope with the effects of errors in a reversible...... way. The concepts behind such 'ecological' interfaces are discussed, an it is argued that a 'typology' of visualization concepts is a pressing research need....

  17. Distributed Information and Control system reliability enhancement by fog-computing concept application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, E. V.; Klimenko, A. B.; Ivanov, D. Ya

    2018-03-01

    The paper focuses on the information and control system reliability issue. Authors of the current paper propose a new complex approach of information and control system reliability enhancement by application of the computing concept elements. The approach proposed consists of a complex of optimization problems to be solved. These problems are: estimation of computational complexity, which can be shifted to the edge of the network and fog-layer, distribution of computations among the data processing elements and distribution of computations among the sensors. The problems as well as some simulated results and discussion are formulated and presented within this paper.

  18. Utilizing reliability concepts in the development of IEEE recommended good practices for nuclear plant maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gradin, L.P.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents information describing the concern for nuclear power plant electrical equipment maintenance and the IEEE Nuclear Power Engineering Committee's method to address that concern. That method includes the creation of Working Group 3.3, ''Maintenance Good Practices'' which is developing specific maintenance good practice documents, supporting technical information exchange, and providing a vehicle to promote practices which can reduce cost and enhance plant safety. The foundation for that effort is the utilization of Reliability concepts

  19. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  20. Test of understanding of vectors: A reliable multiple-choice vector concept test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-06-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended problems in which a total of 2067 students participated. Using this taxonomy, we then designed a 20-item multiple-choice test [Test of understanding of vectors (TUV)] and administered it in English to 423 students who were completing the required sequence of introductory physics courses at a large private Mexican university. We evaluated the test's content validity, reliability, and discriminatory power. The results indicate that the TUV is a reliable assessment tool. We also conducted a detailed analysis of the students' understanding of the vector concepts evaluated in the test. The TUV is included in the Supplemental Material as a resource for other researchers studying vector learning, as well as instructors teaching the material.

  1. Content Validity and Inter-Rater Reliability of the Halliwick-Concept-Based Instrument "Swimming with Independent Measure"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srsen, Katja Groleger; Vidmar, Gaj; Pikl, Masa; Vrecar, Irena; Burja, Cirila; Krusec, Klavdija

    2012-01-01

    The Halliwick concept is widely used in different settings to promote joyful movement in water and swimming. To assess the swimming skills and progression of an individual swimmer, a valid and reliable measure should be used. The Halliwick-concept-based Swimming with Independent Measure (SWIM) was introduced for this purpose. We aimed to determine…

  2. Safety related maintenance in the framework of the reliability centered maintenance concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Elevated safety requirements and ever increasing costs of maintenance of nuclear power plants stimulate the interest in different methods and approaches to optimize maintenance activities. Among different concepts, the Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) as an approach to improve Preventive Maintenance (PM) programmes is being widely discussed an applied in several IAEA Member States. In order to summarize basic principles and current implementation of the RCM, the IAEA organized a Consultants Meeting in November 1990. The report prepared during that meeting was discussed during the Technical Committee Meeting (TCM) held in May 1991. Numerous technical presentations as well as panel and plenary discussions took place at the TCM. This document contains the report of the Consultants Meeting (modified to include comments of the TCM), a summary of the most important discussions as well as all 14 papers presented at the TCM

  3. Fundamental concepts and relations for reliability analysis of multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchland, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The fundamental concepts and relations that should be used in the reliability analysis of systems with numerous components are discussed, with an emphasis on calculable quantities. These are: (1) the average probability of being in a state, (2) the average transition rates between states, in the long run or as time functions, and (3) the integrals of the transition rates, which are the expected numbers of transitions. These quantities are related by the net transition relations, and the calculationally vital transition rate relation when the inputs of an item are statistically independent. Assumptions necessary for the existence of these quantities and for the relations are listed, and proofs given. The importance of exploiting the closeness to ''simple'' structure which systems may possess, and the versatility for different problems of a computational technique of ''reduction'' and ''expansion'' are discussed. The key relations for the latter are formally derived. Applications are made to fault trees, structure networks, undirected and directed communication networks

  4. How reliable must advanced nondestructive testing be? A concept for the prediction, validation and raised quality of NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nockemann, C.; Tillack, G.R.; Schnitger, D.; Heidt, H.

    1995-01-01

    A concept of the harmonic integration of the following three mainstays of the reliability of ndt is proposed: 1. Theoretical prediction of the reliability as a function of physical parameter by computer modelling of the test problem concerned and the ndt process; maximisation by variation of the parameters. 2. Experimental evaluation of the reliability of ndt processes by the application of statistical methods to test practice. 3. Increasing the reliability by the combination of several ndt methods in a standard DV environment and European interconnection and provision of a distributed databank system. International exchange of experience via telecommunication. (orig.) [de

  5. Integrating software reliability concepts into risk and reliability modeling of digital instrumentation and control systems used in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arndt, S. A.

    2006-01-01

    As software-based digital systems are becoming more and more common in all aspects of industrial process control, including the nuclear power industry, it is vital that the current state of the art in quality, reliability, and safety analysis be advanced to support the quantitative review of these systems. Several research groups throughout the world are working on the development and assessment of software-based digital system reliability methods and their applications in the nuclear power, aerospace, transportation, and defense industries. However, these groups are hampered by the fact that software experts and probabilistic safety assessment experts view reliability engineering very differently. This paper discusses the characteristics of a common vocabulary and modeling framework. (authors)

  6. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenius, Aino

    2007-08-01

    work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  7. Validity and Reliability of the DeMoulin Self-Concept Developmental Scale for Turkish Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turasli, Nalan Kuru

    2014-01-01

    Problem Statement: "Self-concept" is a primary issue of emotional and social development. Though the most important stage in the formation of self-concept is childhood, measuring the development of the self in the preschool period is quite difficult, for the tools used to measure children's self-concept either require the child's knowing…

  8. Comparable Worth Theory and Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin; Lowe, Rosemary Hays

    1989-01-01

    Provides different perspectives on comparable worth issues. Covers the following topics: (1) competing explanations for the wage gap; (2) indirect approaches to wage equity; (3) the need for a direct approach to wage equity; (4) job evaluation; (5) application of comparable worth principles to compensation systems; and (6) strategies for adopting…

  9. Recent and future evolution of the conception of French PWR facing safety and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vignon, D.; Morin, R.; Brisbois, J.

    1987-11-01

    The realization of French construction of REP(54 units) has conducted at an original approach of the safety. Now this approach is finished and the totality of detained dispositions are taken in consideration for the conception of the new standardized plant series N4. For the future, after this rationalization of this safety approach, a research on the simplification of the conception is provided. This new conception is based on the experience returns and on the results of the probabilistic studies on the 900 and 1300 MWe reactors. This rationalization, the new concepts and the research of simplifications are illustrated by concrete examples in this presentation [fr

  10. Basic conceptions for development of new-type high-efficiency cooling towers with enhanced reliability, maneuverability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim En Be; Nedviga, Yu.S.

    1990-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of cooling tower design, construction and operation is analysed. From the analysis formulated are general requirements which can be imposed upon cooling towers serving as most important technological apparatuses in water supply systems of thermal and nuclear power plants. With these requirements taken into account, basic research and technical conceptions are developed to be used in designing new-type cooling towers characterized by enhanced reliability, maneuverability and maintainability

  11. Test of Understanding of Vectors: A Reliable Multiple-Choice Vector Concept Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barniol, Pablo; Zavala, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    In this article we discuss the findings of our research on students' understanding of vector concepts in problems without physical context. First, we develop a complete taxonomy of the most frequent errors made by university students when learning vector concepts. This study is based on the results of several test administrations of open-ended…

  12. The Conceptions about Teamwork Questionnaire: Design, Reliability and Validity with Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Fernandez, J. Reinaldo; Corcelles, Mariona; Cerrato-Lara, Maria

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we present the conceptions about teamwork questionnaire designed to evaluate the conceptions that secondary students have about teamwork. Participants were 309 students aged 15-16 from eight secondary schools, seven from Barcelona and one from Girona (Spain). The original 27-item questionnaire was reduced according to expert…

  13. Reliability engineering: Old problems and new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.

    2009-01-01

    The first recorded usage of the word reliability dates back to the 1800s, albeit referred to a person and not a technical system. Since then, the concept of reliability has become a pervasive attribute worth of both qualitative and quantitative connotations. In particular, the revolutionary social, cultural and technological changes that have occurred from the 1800s to the 2000s have contributed to the need for a rational framework and quantitative treatment of the reliability of engineered systems and plants. This has led to the rise of reliability engineering as a scientific discipline. In this paper, some considerations are shared with respect to a number of problems and challenges which researchers and practitioners in reliability engineering are facing when analyzing today's complex systems. The focus will be on the contribution of reliability to system safety and on its role within system risk analysis

  14. Epistemic Trust and Education: Effects of Informant Reliability on Student Learning of Decimal Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kelley; Shafto, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The epistemic trust literature emphasizes that children's evaluations of informants' trustworthiness affects learning, but there is no evidence that epistemic trust affects learning in academic domains. The current study investigated how reliability affects decimal learning. Fourth and fifth graders (N = 122; M[subscript age] = 10.1 years)…

  15. The design of reliability data bases, part I: review of standard design concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Main styles in the design of reliability data banks (RDB's) are reviewed. The conceptual and mathematical tools underlying these designs are summarized. A key point is the method for assessing failure rates for competing failure modes. The theory of independent competing risk and the relation to colored Poisson processes is explained. The notions of observed and naked failure rates are defined, and their equivalence under the assumption of independence is shown. In conclusion, the needs of different users are compared with the information currently offered

  16. Is leadership a reliable concept in animals? An empirical study in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership--departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates--was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.

  17. Is leadership a reliable concept in animals? An empirical study in the horse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bourjade

    Full Text Available Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership--departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates--was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii. We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research.

  18. PROOF OF CONCEPT FOR A HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS METHOD FOR HEURISTIC USABILITY EVALUATION OF SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald L. Boring; David I. Gertman; Jeffrey C. Joe; Julie L. Marble

    2005-01-01

    An ongoing issue within human-computer interaction (HCI) is the need for simplified or ''discount'' methods. The current economic slowdown has necessitated innovative methods that are results driven and cost effective. The myriad methods of design and usability are currently being cost-justified, and new techniques are actively being explored that meet current budgets and needs. Recent efforts in human reliability analysis (HRA) are highlighted by the ten-year development of the Standardized Plant Analysis Risk HRA (SPAR-H) method. The SPAR-H method has been used primarily for determining human centered risk at nuclear power plants. The SPAR-H method, however, shares task analysis underpinnings with HCI. Despite this methodological overlap, there is currently no HRA approach deployed in heuristic usability evaluation. This paper presents an extension of the existing SPAR-H method to be used as part of heuristic usability evaluation in HCI

  19. What the Common Economic Arguments against Comparable Worth Are Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, Barbara R.

    1989-01-01

    Reviews economists' views about how the economy works, from which conclusions opposing comparable worth are drawn. Discusses factors that have been omitted from economists' views--social and psychological factors that affect behavior in the workplace, permit and encourage discrimination, and have an effect on the distribution of jobs and wages.…

  20. A Tutorial on Nonlinear Time-Series Data Mining in Engineering Asset Health and Reliability Prediction: Concepts, Models, and Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Dong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of engineering asset management is to optimize assets service delivery potential and to minimize the related risks and costs over their entire life through the development and application of asset health and usage management in which the health and reliability prediction plays an important role. In real-life situations where an engineering asset operates under dynamic operational and environmental conditions, the lifetime of an engineering asset is generally described as monitored nonlinear time-series data and subject to high levels of uncertainty and unpredictability. It has been proved that application of data mining techniques is very useful for extracting relevant features which can be used as parameters for assets diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, a tutorial on nonlinear time-series data mining in engineering asset health and reliability prediction is given. Besides that an overview on health and reliability prediction techniques for engineering assets is covered, this tutorial will focus on concepts, models, algorithms, and applications of hidden Markov models (HMMs and hidden semi-Markov models (HSMMs in engineering asset health prognosis, which are representatives of recent engineering asset health prediction techniques.

  1. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  2. Application of reliability based design concepts to transmission line structure foundations. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiGioia, A.M. Jr.; Rojas-Gonzalez, L.F.

    1991-01-01

    The application of reliability based design (RBD) methods to transmission line structure foundations has developed somewhat more slowly than that for the other structural components in line systems. In a previous paper, a procedure was proposed for the design of transmission line structures foundations using a probability based load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. This procedure involved the determination of a foundation strength factor, φ F , which was used as a multiplier of the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the calculated nominal design strength to estimate the five percent exclusion limit strength required in the LRFD equation. Statistical analyses of results from full-scale load tests were used to obtain φ F values applicable to various nominal design strength equations and for drilled shafts subjected to uplift loads. These results clearly illustrated the significant economic benefits of conducting more detailed subsurface investigations for the design of transmission line structure foundations. A design example was also presented. In this paper the proposed procedure is extended to laterally load drilled shafts

  3. The Economics of Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Mark R.

    This document concludes that the basic difficulty with comparable worth is that it is an ill-conceived solution to a serious problem and that alternative policies, such as equal employment opportunity legislation or application of antitrust laws, provide means of addressing employment discrimination that are both more effective and less likely to…

  4. Basic Concepts in Classical Test Theory: Tests Aren't Reliable, the Nature of Alpha, and Reliability Generalization as a Meta-analytic Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, LuAnn Sherbeck

    This paper discusses the fact that reliability is about scores and not tests and how reliability limits effect sizes. The paper also explores the classical reliability coefficients of stability, equivalence, and internal consistency. Stability is concerned with how stable test scores will be over time, while equivalence addresses the relationship…

  5. Achieving equal pay for comparable worth through arbitration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, S C

    1982-01-01

    Traditional "women's jobs" often pay relatively low wages because of the effects of institutionalized stereotypes concerning women and their role in the work place. One way of dealing with sex discrimination that results in job segregation is to narrow the existing wage differential between "men's jobs" and "women's jobs." Where the jobs are dissimilar on their face, this narrowing of pay differences involves implementing the concept of "equal pay for jobs of comparable worth." Some time in the future, far-reaching, perhaps even industrywide, reductions in male-female pay differentials may be achieved by pursuing legal remedies based on equal pay for comparable worth. However, as the author demonstrates, immediate, albeit more limited, relief for sex-based pay inequities found in specific work places can be obtained by implementing equal pay for jobs of comparable worth through the collective bargaining and arbitration processes.

  6. To seek work and worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Yong Gyu

    2010-07-01

    It describes the documentary which shows US writers effect and process to seek worth though the work related nuclear power for half a century such as international nuclear school start of use of nuclear energy industry, establishment of nuclear society, by becoming a member of a standing committee and introduction of KINS, KANS and NSSC. It also describes his personal history about family and work and a brief summary of his career.

  7. Student-Centered Reliability, Concurrent Validity and Instructional Sensitivity in Scoring of Students' Concept Maps in a University Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kilic, Ziya

    2004-01-01

    Student-centered approach of scoring the concept maps consisted of three elements namely symbol system, individual portfolio and scoring scheme. We scored student-constructed concept maps based on 5 concept map criteria: validity of concepts, adequacy of propositions, significance of cross-links, relevancy of examples, and interconnectedness. With…

  8. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  9. The Philosophical Worth of Liberal Peacebuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waffaa Kharisma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Liberal Peacebuilding is often associated with the failure of pushing liberalisation in war-torn failed states: the practice of liberal peacebuilding as a liberal project instead of a peacebuilding effort. The essay starts with breaking down the basic premises of a liberal peacebuilding and its ideological drive. Then, it identifies and evaluates the critics and alternatives to liberal peacebuilding. The essay sees that the implementation of fixed standard peacebuilding packages in vastly different scenarios and countries is the consequence of practicing liberal peacebuilding as a liberal project. This essay argues that liberal peacebuilding is worth saving if it recognises itself as an unfinished project, and instead advocates peacebuilding efforts that are more concentrated as a (and in showing technical solution rather than an ideological impulse. As such, the essay proposes the prioritisation of maintaining stability in a post-conflict state, through concentrating on ensuring the specific case-per-case technical solutions, often which is attributed to institutional foundation to ensure the deliveries of collective aims and interests of local society.

  10. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  11. Impact of reducing sodium void worth on the severe accident response of metallic-fueled sodium-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.; Turski, R.B.; Pizzica, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    Analyses have performed on the severe accident response of four 90 MWth reactor cores, all designed using the metallic fuel of the Integrated Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The four core designs have different sodium void worth, in the range of -3$ to 5$. The purpose of the investigation is to determine the improvement in safety, as measured by the severe accident consequences, that can be achieved from a reduction in the sodium void worth for reactor cores designed using the IFR concept

  12. What are the forests worth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellows, L

    1992-05-30

    The Earth is a finite environment, thus growth cannot occur indefinitely. Eventually we will run out of space, resources, or anything else that is also finite. Once this fact is recognized, it becomes clear that we must develop in a sustainable way so that we can endure into the future. Overpopulation, vegetation destruction, and pollution are all serious threats to our finite environment. Traditionally, change has been to expensive and politically destabilizing. However, extensive changes in our modes of living must be made so that they become sustainable. In both developed and developing countries, consumptive growth must be replaced with sustainable development. Many developing countries are currently selling their natural resources to the developed countries. When they run out of resources, they will be truly poor. All governments must recognize the value of forests. It is estimated that in terms of medical uses for forest products alone, they will be worth US$11-12 billion (1990 dollars) by 2050. This constitutes a large portion of developing countries economies. Also, 80% of the population of developing countries rely on natural, traditional medicines made from forest products. Even in the US 25% of prescription drugs are based on phytochemicals. Now the drug companies are actively pursuing these resources for their products. It is estimated that 95% of the world species have not been assayed for their chemical value. Technology and money are not the obstacles to sustainable development and forest conservation. It is will and attitude that must be radically changed in order to protect the forests for the ecological and economic value.

  13. What is geothermal steam worth?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorhallsson, S.; Ragnarsson, A.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal steam is obtained from high-temperature boreholes, either directly from the reservoir or by flashing. The value of geothermal steam is similar to that of steam produced in boilers and lies in its ability to do work in heat engines such as turbines and to supply heat for a wide range of uses. In isolated cases the steam can be used as a source of chemicals, for example the production of carbon dioxide. Once the saturated steam has been separated from the water, it can be transported without further treatment to the end user. There are several constraints on its use set by the temperature of the reservoir and the chemical composition of the reservoir fluid. These constraints are described (temperature of steam, scaling in water phase, gas content of steam, well output) as are the methods that have been adopted to utilize this source of energy successfully. Steam can only be transported over relatively short distances (a few km) and thus has to be used close to the source. Examples are given of the pressure drop and sizing of steam mains for pipelines. The path of the steam from the reservoir to the end user is traced and typical cost figures given for each part of the system. The production cost of geothermal steam is estimated and its sensitivity to site-specific conditions discussed. Optimum energy recovery and efficiency is important as is optimizing costs. The paper will treat the steam supply system as a whole, from the reservoir to the end user, and give examples of how the site-specific conditions and system design have an influence on what geothermal steam is worth from the technical and economic points of view

  14. Climate protection and reliability of supply. Development of a sustainable power supply concept; Klimaschutz und Versorgungssicherheit. Entwicklung einer nachhaltigen Stromversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klaus, Thomas; Loreck, Charlotte; Mueschen, Klaus

    2009-09-15

    Germany, like other states, committed itself to sustainable development in the Rio declaration of 1992. The boundary conditions for this are set by nature itself, whose laws must be respected if goals like reliability of supply and economic efficiency are to be achieved. This study of the Federal Environmental Office shows how sustainable power supply can be achieved. It is possible to combine climate protection, reliability of supply and economic efficiency, even without nuclear power and without constructing new conventional power plants that do not have the function of combined heat and power generation. (orig.)

  15. Reliability and effectiveness of early warning systems for natural hazards: Concept and application to debris flow warning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sättele, Martina; Bründl, Michael; Straub, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Early Warning Systems (EWS) are increasingly applied to mitigate the risks posed by natural hazards. To compare the effect of EWS with alternative risk reduction measures and to optimize their design and operation, their reliability and effectiveness must be quantified. In the present contribution, a framework approach to the evaluation of threshold-based EWS for natural hazards is presented. The system reliability is classically represented by the Probability of Detection (POD) and Probability of False Alarms (PFA). We demonstrate how the EWS effectiveness, which is a measure of risk reduction, can be formulated as a function of POD and PFA. To model the EWS and compute the reliability, we develop a framework based on Bayesian Networks, which is further extended to a decision graph, facilitating the optimization of the warning system. In a case study, the framework is applied to the assessment of an existing debris flow EWS. The application demonstrates the potential of the framework for identifying the important factors influencing the effectiveness of the EWS and determining optimal warning strategies and system configurations. - Highlights: • Warning systems are increasingly applied measures to reduce natural hazard risks. • Bayesian Networks (BN) are powerful tools to quantify warning system's reliability. • The effectiveness is defined to assess the optimality of warning systems. • By extending BNs to decision graphs, the optimal warning strategy is identified. • Sensors positioning significantly influence the effectiveness of warning systems

  16. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  17. [Autism Spectrum Disorder in DSM-5 - concept, validity, and reliability, impact on clinical care and future research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, Christine M

    2014-05-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in DSM-5 comprises the former DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of Autistic Disorder, Asperger's Disorder and PDD-nos. The criteria for ASD in DSM-5 were considerably revised from those of ICD-10 and DSM-IV-TR. The present article compares the diagnostic criteria, presents studies on the validity and reliability of ASD, and discusses open questions. It ends with a clinical and research perspective.

  18. The Reliability of Classifications of Proximal Femoral Fractures with 3-Dimensional Computed Tomography: The New Concept of Comprehensive Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki Kijima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of proximal femoral fracture classifications using 3DCT was evaluated, and a comprehensive “area classification” was developed. Eleven orthopedists (5–26 years from graduation classified 27 proximal femoral fractures at one hospital from June 2013 to July 2014 based on preoperative images. Various classifications were compared to “area classification.” In “area classification,” the proximal femur is divided into 4 areas with 3 boundary lines: Line-1 is the center of the neck, Line-2 is the border between the neck and the trochanteric zone, and Line-3 links the inferior borders of the greater and lesser trochanters. A fracture only in the first area was classified as a pure first area fracture; one in the first and second area was classified as a 1-2 type fracture. In the same way, fractures were classified as pure 2, 3-4, 1-2-3, and so on. “Area classification” reliability was highest when orthopedists with varying experience classified proximal femoral fractures using 3DCT. Other classifications cannot classify proximal femoral fractures if they exceed each classification’s particular zones. However, fractures that exceed the target zones are “dangerous” fractures. “Area classification” can classify such fractures, and it is therefore useful for selecting osteosynthesis methods.

  19. Multi-objective optimization of generalized reliability design problems using feature models-A concept for early design stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbourg, Philipp; Kochs, Hans-Dieter

    2008-01-01

    Reliability optimization problems such as the redundancy allocation problem (RAP) have been of considerable interest in the past. However, due to the restrictions of the design space formulation, they may not be applicable in all practical design problems. A method with high modelling freedom for rapid design screening is desirable, especially in early design stages. This work presents a novel approach to reliability optimization. Feature modelling, a specification method originating from software engineering, is applied for the fast specification and enumeration of complex design spaces. It is shown how feature models can not only describe arbitrary RAPs but also much more complex design problems. The design screening is accomplished by a multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for probabilistic objectives. Comparing averages or medians may hide the true characteristics of this distributions. Therefore the algorithm uses solely the probability of a system dominating another to achieve the Pareto optimal set. We illustrate the approach by specifying a RAP and a more complex design space and screening them with the evolutionary algorithm

  20. Derivation of the acceptance and self-worth adjustment scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrett, Daryl R; Latham, Keziah

    2010-11-01

    The original 55-item Nottingham Adjustment Scale (NAS) is a first generation self-report instrument constructed using classical test theory to evaluate adjustment to vision loss. This study assesses the function of the NAS using Rasch analysis in a sample of adults with visual impairment and presents a revised second-generation instrument. Ninety-nine subjects with established vision loss (median onset 5 years) were administered the NAS. Rasch analysis was performed to: (1) determine optimum response scale function, (2) aid item reduction, (3) determine reliability indices and item targeting, (4) assess unidimensionality using Rasch-based principal component analysis, (5) assess differential item functioning (notable defined as >1.0 logit), and (6) formulate person measures to correlate with Geriatric Depression Scale scores and distance visual acuity to indicate convergent and discriminant validity, respectively. Response categories exhibited underutilization, which when repaired improved response scale functioning and ordered structural calibrations. Misfitting items were removed iteratively until all items had mean-square infit and outfit values of 0.70 to 1.30. However, principal component analysis confirmed insufficient unidimensionality (two contrasts identified, eigenvalues 2.4 and 2.3). Removal of these contrasts and two further iterations restored unidimensionality. Despite item mistargeting (1.58 logits), the revised 19-item instrument demonstrated good person (0.85) and item (0.96) reliability coefficients, good convergent and discriminant validity, and no systematic differential item functioning. The resultant 19-item instrument was termed the Acceptance and Self-Worth Adjustment Scale (AS-WAS). In those with established vision loss, the 19-item Acceptance and Self-Worth Adjustment Scale is a reliable and valid instrument that estimates the level of adjustment concerned with acceptance, attitudes, self-esteem, self-efficacy, and locus of control. An

  1. Nuclear business worth billions begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, G.; Marcan, P.; Slovak, K.

    2005-01-01

    The first V1 unit of Bohunice nuclear power station is to be shutdown by the end of next year. However, its decommissioning can only start in 2011 as before the decommissioning can start the second unit must be shutdown and the nuclear fuel to be stored in a basin must cool down. But in spite of these limitations, the decommissioning process has already started. Various analyses and projects have been put out to tender, work on the technical division of the decommissioned V1 units from the V2 units, which will remain in service, has also began. The state owned company, GovCo, a.s., will be in charge of the decommissioning of the V1 units. The method to be applied to the decommissioning of the V1 units has not yet been selected. The project management unit of Slovak Electric favours immediate decommissioning. 'Not only will decommissioning start immediately following the removal of the nuclear fuel, but it will also be done continuously,'explained unit director, Peter Hlbocky. Using this procedure, decommissioned could be complete by 2026. The question as to whether the power plant will be completely decommissioned to create a green field site will, according to P. Hlbocky, depend on Slovakia's future plans regarding nuclear energy generation at Jaslovske Bohunice, which could be a suitable location for building a new nuclear power station. In such a case, a part of the infrastructure would remain in place. 'Should Slovakia decide to continue its nuclear program, it would be a waste not to take advantage of the existing infrastructure,' said P. Hlbocky. The cabinet is to decide on the method to be used for decommissioning of the V1 reactor and the time frame for the process by the end of next year. The cabinet will decide mainly on the basis of cost estimates to be prepared together with decommissioning concept that is currently under preparation. The decommissioning concept financed by the Bohunice International Decommissioning Support Fund should provide more

  2. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Boring, Ronald Laurids; Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie; Mandelli, Diego; Smith, Curtis Lee

    2015-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS 'pathways,' or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  3. Proof-of-Concept Demonstrations for Computation-Based Human Reliability Analysis. Modeling Operator Performance During Flooding Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe, Jeffrey Clark [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Boring, Ronald Laurids [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Herberger, Sarah Elizabeth Marie [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Mandelli, Diego [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smith, Curtis Lee [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The United States (U.S.) Department of Energy (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program has the overall objective to help sustain the existing commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To accomplish this program objective, there are multiple LWRS “pathways,” or research and development (R&D) focus areas. One LWRS focus area is called the Risk-Informed Safety Margin and Characterization (RISMC) pathway. Initial efforts under this pathway to combine probabilistic and plant multi-physics models to quantify safety margins and support business decisions also included HRA, but in a somewhat simplified manner. HRA experts at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) have been collaborating with other experts to develop a computational HRA approach, called the Human Unimodel for Nuclear Technology to Enhance Reliability (HUNTER), for inclusion into the RISMC framework. The basic premise of this research is to leverage applicable computational techniques, namely simulation and modeling, to develop and then, using RAVEN as a controller, seamlessly integrate virtual operator models (HUNTER) with 1) the dynamic computational MOOSE runtime environment that includes a full-scope plant model, and 2) the RISMC framework PRA models already in use. The HUNTER computational HRA approach is a hybrid approach that leverages past work from cognitive psychology, human performance modeling, and HRA, but it is also a significant departure from existing static and even dynamic HRA methods. This report is divided into five chapters that cover the development of an external flooding event test case and associated statistical modeling considerations.

  4. Validity of the Worth 4 Dot Test in Patients with Red-Green Color Vision Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Eunoo; Yang, Hee Kyung; Hwang, Jeong-Min

    2017-05-01

    The Worth four dot test uses red and green glasses for binocular dissociation, and although it has been believed that patients with red-green color vision defects cannot accurately perform the Worth four dot test, this has not been validated. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the validity of the Worth four dot test in patients with congenital red-green color vision defects who have normal or abnormal binocular vision. A retrospective review of medical records was performed on 30 consecutive congenital red-green color vision defect patients who underwent the Worth four dot test. The type of color vision anomaly was determined by the Hardy Rand and Rittler (HRR) pseudoisochromatic plate test, Ishihara color test, anomaloscope, and/or the 100 hue test. All patients underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination. Binocular sensory status was evaluated with the Worth four dot test and Randot stereotest. The results were interpreted according to the presence of strabismus or amblyopia. Among the 30 patients, 24 had normal visual acuity without strabismus nor amblyopia and 6 patients had strabismus and/or amblyopia. The 24 patients without strabismus nor amblyopia all showed binocular fusional responses by seeing four dots of the Worth four dot test. Meanwhile, the six patients with strabismus or amblyopia showed various results of fusion, suppression, and diplopia. Congenital red-green color vision defect patients of different types and variable degree of binocularity could successfully perform the Worth four dot test. They showed reliable results that were in accordance with their estimated binocular sensory status.

  5. Safety instrumented systems in the oil and gas industry : Concepts and methods for safety and reliability assessments in design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundteigen, Mary Ann

    2009-07-01

    This thesis proposes new methods and gives new insight to safety and reliability assessments of safety instrumented systems (SISs). These systems play an important role in many industry sectors and are used to detect the onset of hazardous events and mitigate their consequences to humans, the environment, and material assets. The thesis focuses on SIS applications in the oil and gas industry. Here, the SIS must respond to hazardous events such as gas leakages, fires, and over pressurization. Because there are personnel onboard the oil and gas installations, the operations take place in a vulnerable marine environment, and substantial values are associated with the offshore facilities, the reliability of SIS is of great concern to the public, the authorities, and the plant owners. The objective of this project has been to identify some of the key factors that influence the SIS reliability, clarify their effects on reliability, and suggest means to improve the treatment of these factors in safety and reliability assessments in design and operation. The project builds on concepts, methods, and definitions in two key standards for SIS design, construction, and operation: IEC 61508 and IEC 61511. The main contributions from this project are: A product development model that integrates reliability, availability, maintainability, and safety (RAMS) requirements with product development. The contributions have been presented in ten articles, five published in international journals, two submitted for publication, and three presented at conferences and in conference proceedings. The contributions are also directed to the industry and the actors that are involved in SIS design, construction, and operation. Even if the oil and gas industry is the main focus area, the results may be relevant for other industry sectors as well. SIS manufacturers and SIS designers face a large number of requirements from authorities, oil companies, international standards, and so on. At the same

  6. Quantifying data worth toward reducing predictive uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dausman, A.M.; Doherty, J.; Langevin, C.D.; Sukop, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The present study demonstrates a methodology for optimization of environmental data acquisition. Based on the premise that the worth of data increases in proportion to its ability to reduce the uncertainty of key model predictions, the methodology can be used to compare the worth of different data types, gathered at different locations within study areas of arbitrary complexity. The method is applied to a hypothetical nonlinear, variable density numerical model of salt and heat transport. The relative utilities of temperature and concentration measurements at different locations within the model domain are assessed in terms of their ability to reduce the uncertainty associated with predictions of movement of the salt water interface in response to a decrease in fresh water recharge. In order to test the sensitivity of the method to nonlinear model behavior, analyses were repeated for multiple realizations of system properties. Rankings of observation worth were similar for all realizations, indicating robust performance of the methodology when employed in conjunction with a highly nonlinear model. The analysis showed that while concentration and temperature measurements can both aid in the prediction of interface movement, concentration measurements, especially when taken in proximity to the interface at locations where the interface is expected to move, are of greater worth than temperature measurements. Nevertheless, it was also demonstrated that pairs of temperature measurements, taken in strategic locations with respect to the interface, can also lead to more precise predictions of interface movement. Journal compilation ?? 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  7. Estimation of irradiated control rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varvayanni, M.; Catsaros, N.; Antonopoulos-Domis, M.

    2009-01-01

    When depleted control rods are planned to be used in new core configurations, their worth has to be accurately predicted in order to deduce key design and safety parameters such as the available shutdown margin. In this work a methodology is suggested for the derivation of the distributed absorbing capacity of a depleted rod, useful in the case that the level of detail that is known about the irradiation history of the control rod does not allow an accurate calculation of the absorber's burnup. The suggested methodology is based on measurements of the rod's worth carried out in the former core configuration and on corresponding calculations based on the original (before first irradiation) absorber concentration. The methodology is formulated for the general case of the multi-group theory; it is successfully tested for the one-group approximation, for a depleted control rod of the Greek Research Reactor, containing five neutron absorbers. The computations reproduce satisfactorily the irradiated rod worth measurements, practically eliminating the discrepancy of the total rod worth, compared to the computations based on the nominal absorber densities.

  8. Ten Ideas Worth Stealing from New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarchow, Elaine

    1992-01-01

    New Zealand educators have some ideas worth stealing, including morning tea-time, the lie-flat manifold duplicate book for recording classroom observation comments, school uniforms, collegial planning and grading of college assignments, good meeting etiquette, a whole-child orientation, portable primary architecture, group employment interviews…

  9. A Short Is Worth a Thousand Films!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massi, Maria Palmira; Blázquez, Bettiana Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The importance of visual input in the contemporary ELT classroom is such that it is commonplace to use audiovisual elements provided by pictures, films, clips and the like. The power of images is unquestionable, and as the old saying goes, an image is worth a thousand words. Following this line of reasoning, the objective of this article is to…

  10. [Contingencies of self-worth in Japanese culture: validation of the Japanese contingencies of self-worth scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Yukiko

    2008-08-01

    The author developed a Japanese version of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale (CSWS) that was originally developed in the United States (Crocker, Luhtanen, Cooper, & Bouvrette, 2003). The Japanese version of the scale measures seven contingencies of self-esteem: Defeating others in competition, appearance, relationship harmony, other's approval, academic competence, virtue, and support of family and friends. Scores on the scale had systematic relationships with related variables, and the scale therefore exhibited satisfactory levels of construct validity: Relationship harmony, other's approval, and support of family and friends were positively correlated with sympathy and interdependence, whereas competitiveness was negatively correlated with sympathy. Moreover, competitiveness and academic achievement contingencies predicted competitive motivation, whereas the support of family and friends contingency predicted self-sufficient motivation. The scale has adequate test-retest reliability and a seven-factor structural model was confirmed. The implications for self-esteem and interpersonal relationships in Japanese culture are discussed.

  11. Adjusted Money's Worth Ratios in Life Annuities

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Casassus; Eduardo Walker

    2013-01-01

    The Money's Worth Ratio (MWR) measures an annuity's actuarial fairness. It is calculated as the discounted present value of expected future payments divided by its cost. We argue that from the perspective of annuitants, this measure may overestimate the value-for-money obtained, since it does not adjust for liquidity or risk factors. Measuring these factors is challenging, requiring detailed knowledge of assets, liabilities, and of the stochastic processes followed by them. Using a multi-fact...

  12. Construction and initial validation of the self-worth protection scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L

    2003-03-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in certain circumstances students stand to gain by deliberately withdrawing effort. When failure occurs despite effort, students are likely to conclude that failure resulted from lack of ability. Thus, withdrawing effort offers a defence against conclusions of low ability, thereby protecting self-worth. We undertook to assess the psychometric properties of the Self-Worth Protection Scale (SWPS). Data were obtained from 243 participants (Study 1) and 411 participants (Study 2) enrolled in undergraduate psychology courses at a university in the United States. We administered a number of scales, including the SWPS and scales assessing a fear of negative evaluation, academic self-esteem, uncertain global self-evaluations, self-handicapping, and causal uncertainty. Exploratory factor analysis indicated a three-factor solution (ability doubts, the importance of ability as a criterion of self-worth, and an avoidance orientation) utilising 33 of the original 44 items. A confirmatory factor analysis indicated that this three-factor solution was a poor fit of the data. After modifying the model, a confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a three-factor solution with 26 of the original items and a higher order factor of self-worth protection was an adequate fit of the data. Reliability measures were acceptable for the three subscales and total score. The total score of the SWPS was positively correlated with theoretically related constructs, demonstrating construct validity. The SWPS appears to be a psychometrically sound scale to assist in identifying individuals who manifest self-worth protection in achievement situations.

  13. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  14. The tension between self governance and absolute inner worth in Kant's moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häyry, M

    2005-11-01

    The concepts of autonomy as the self governance of individuals and dignity as the inner worth of human beings play an important role in contemporary bioethics. Since both notions are crucial to Immanuel Kant's moral theory, it would be tempting to think that Kantian ethics could ease the friction between the two concepts. It is argued in this paper, however, that this line of thought cannot be supported by Kant's original ideas. While he did make a conscious effort to bring autonomy and dignity together, his emphasis on the absolute inner worth of our collective humanity made it impossible for him to embrace fully the personal self determination of individuals, as it is usually understood in today's liberal thinking.

  15. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  16. 29 CFR 4062.4 - Determinations of net worth and collective net worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial condition, and business history. (6) The economic outlook for the person's industry and the market... do not produce income for the business being valued or are not used in the business. (c) Factors for... to sell, or offer to purchase or sell the business of the person made on or about the net worth...

  17. Using influence diagrams for data worth analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif Heger, A.; White, Janis E.

    1997-01-01

    Decision-making under uncertainty describes most environmental remediation and waste management problems. Inherent limitations in knowledge concerning contaminants, environmental fate and transport, remedies, and risks force decision-makers to select a course of action based on uncertain and incomplete information. Because uncertainties can be reduced by collecting additional data., uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques have received considerable attention. When costs associated with reducing uncertainty are considered in a decision problem, the objective changes; rather than determine what data to collect to reduce overall uncertainty, the goal is to determine what data to collect to best differentiate between possible courses of action or decision alternatives. Environmental restoration and waste management requires cost-effective methods for characterization and monitoring, and these methods must also satisfy regulatory requirements. Characterization and monitoring activities imply that, sooner or later, a decision must be made about collecting new field data. Limited fiscal resources for data collection should be committed only to those data that have the most impact on the decision at lowest possible cost. Applying influence diagrams in combination with data worth analysis produces a method which not only satisfies these requirements but also gives rise to an intuitive representation of complex structures not possible in the more traditional decision tree representation. This paper demonstrates the use of influence diagrams in data worth analysis by applying to a monitor-and-treat problem often encountered in environmental decision problems

  18. Analysis of control rod worth in experimental fast reactor JOYO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arii, Y.; Aoyama, T.; Okimoto, Y.; Yoshida, A.; Mizoo, N.

    1988-01-01

    In JOYO, the measurement of control rod worths have been carried out in the beginning of the each cycle, using both period method and neutron source multiplication method. In this paper, the calculational method of control rod worths in the design stage and the comparison with the design values and measured ones are shown. The reasons that the control rod worths change slightly in each cycle, are also investigated. (author). 13 figs, 12 tabs

  19. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  20. Spectral fine structure effects on material and doppler reactivity worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Karni, Y.

    1975-01-01

    New formulations concerning the fine structure effects on the reactivity worth of resonances are developed and conclusions are derived following the extension to more general types of perturbations which include: the removal of resonance material at finite temperatures and the temperature variation of part of the resonance material. It is concluded that the flux method can overpredict the reactivity worth of resonance materials more than anticipated. Calculations on the Doppler worth were carried out; the results can be useful for asessing the contribution of the fine structure effects to the large discrepancy that exists between the calculated and measured small sample Doppler worths. (B.G.)

  1. Attachment styles and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Crocker, Jennifer; Mickelson, Kristin D

    2004-10-01

    Previous research on attachment theory has focused on mean differences in level of self-esteem among people with different attachment styles. The present study examines the associations between attachment styles and different bases of self-esteem, or contingencies of self-worth, among a sample of 795 college students. Results showed that attachment security was related to basing self-worth on family support. Both the preoccupied attachment style and fearful attachment style were related to basing self-worth on physical attractiveness. The dismissing attachment style was related to basing self-worth less on others' approval, family support, and God's love.

  2. Human Reliability Analysis. Applicability of the HRA-concept in maintenance shutdown; Analys av maensklig tillfoerlitlighet. HRA-begreppets tillaempbarhet vid revisionsavstaellning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obenius, Aino (MTO Psykologi AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-08-15

    monotonous work tasks. Errors and mistakes during this plant operating state may have severe consequences, both on the immediate work, as well as on the future power production. The human influence on the technical system is of great importance when analysing the LPSD condition. This should also affect the basis and performance of the analysis, to make as a realistic analysis as possible. When analysing human operation during LPSD, a holistic perspective should be used. A way to take the human abilities and performance variability into consideration is important. The study of performed analysis of human reliability for the LPSD condition shows, that the normative and/or descriptive approach and the linear cause-effect model are used. The main objective of HRAs performed within SPSAs is the quantification of human interaction and error frequency. Modelling of human behaviour in complex, sociotechnical systems differs in theory and practice. A reason may be that models as the one for functional resonance, not yet are applicable for practising analysts, due to a lack of well tried methods and the fact that analysis of the LPSD condition is performed in the PSA concept, which defines the type of results sought from the HRA, i.e. probabilities for human error. LPSD analysis methods need to be further evaluated, validated and developed. The basis for the analysis should, instead of PSA, be a holistic analysis according to how Man, Technology and Organization affect the system and plant safety. To achieve this, further activities could be to perform an in-depth study of existing analysis of the LPSD condition, to develop specifications of requirement for LPSD analysis, to further validate the HRA work process as well as to further develop practically applicable methods for human performance and variability analysis in sociotechnical systems

  3. Development and Validation of the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, Maria; Rosen, Natalie O; Vannier, Sarah; MacLellan, Margaret C

    2017-01-01

    Sexual contingent self-worth (CSW) refers to self-worth that is dependent on maintaining a sexual relationship, and has not been studied previously. This novel construct may have implications for sexual, relationship, and psychological well-being, because it could affect the cognitions, affect, and behaviors of individuals in sexual relationships. The purpose of this study was to develop the Sexual Contingent Self-Worth Scale and examine its reliability and validity in community samples. Two separate online studies (N = 329 and N = 282) included men and women who were in committed, sexually active relationships. The Sexual CSW Scale was adapted from a validated measure of relationship CSW. In Study 1, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale, whereas in Study 2, participants also responded to standardized measures of related constructs. In addition, participants completed the Sexual CSW Scale again two weeks later in Study 2. Factor analysis yielded two subscales: (a) sexual CSW dependent on positive sexual events in the relationship and (b) sexual CSW dependent on negative sexual events. Results indicated good construct validity, incremental validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability for the Sexual CSW Scale. This research contributes to the fields of both CSW and sexuality by introducing a novel domain of CSW.

  4. Small-sample-worth perturbation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    It has been assumed that the perturbed region, R/sub p/, is large enough so that: (1) even without a great deal of biasing there is a substantial probability that an average source-neutron will enter it; and (2) once having entered, the neutron is likely to make several collisions in R/sub p/ during its lifetime. Unfortunately neither assumption is valid for the typical configurations one encounters in small-sample-worth experiments. In such experiments one measures the reactivity change which is induced when a very small void in a critical assembly is filled with a sample of some test-material. Only a minute fraction of the fission-source neutrons ever gets into the sample and, of those neutrons that do, most emerge uncollided. Monte Carlo small-sample perturbations computations are described

  5. Blackness coefficients, effective diffusion parameters, and control rod worths for thermal reactors - Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, M M [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Simple diffusion theory cannot be used to evaluate control rod worths in thermal neutron reactors because of the strongly absorbing character of the control material. However, reliable control rod worths can be obtained within the framework of diffusion theory if the control material is characterized by a set of mesh-dependent effective diffusion parameters. For thin slab absorbers the effective diffusion parameters can be expressed as functions of a suitably-defined pair of 'blackness coefficients'. Methods for calculating these blackness coefficients in the P1, P3, and P5 approximations, with and without scattering, are presented. For control elements whose geometry does not permit a thin slab treatment, other methods are needed for determining the effective diffusion parameters. One such method, based on reaction rate ratios, is discussed. (author)

  6. Void worths in subcritical cores cooled by lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallenius, Janne; Tucek, Kamil; Gudowski, Waclaw

    2001-01-01

    The introduction lead-bismuth coolant in accelerator driven transmutation systems (ADS) was: good neutron economy (higher source efficiency); natural circulation possible (decay heat removal); synergy with spallation target (simplified coolant management); high temperature of boiling (larger overpower margin); smaller void worths (operation at higher k-values). This paper deals with different aspects of the void worths in JAERI ADS

  7. 42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that CMS considers appropriate to reduce, control or eliminate start-up administrative costs. (b) After... section. (c) Calculation of the minimum net worth amount—(1) Cash requirement. (i) At the time of application, the organization must maintain at least $750,000 of the minimum net worth amount in cash or cash...

  8. 19 CFR 212.11 - Net worth exhibit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Net worth exhibit. 212.11 Section 212.11 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION INVESTIGATIONS OF UNFAIR PRACTICES IN IMPORT TRADE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE EQUAL ACCESS TO JUSTICE ACT Information Required From Applicants § 212.11 Net worth exhibit...

  9. Tradeoff of sodium void worth and burnup reactivity swing: Impacts on balance safety position in metallic-fueled cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wigeland, R.A.; Turski, R.B.; Pizzica, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    A study has been conducted to investigate the effect of a lower sodium void worth on the consequences of severe accidents in metallic-fueled sodium-cooled reactors. Four 900 MWth designs were used for the study, where all of the reactor cores were designed based on the metallic fuel of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. The four core designs each have different sodium void worth, in the range of -3$ to 5$. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the differences in severe accident response for the four core designs, in order to estimate the improvement in overall safety that could be achieved from a reduction in the sodium void worth for reactor cores which use a metallic fuel form

  10. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  11. Something worth remembering: visual discrimination in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Theodora; Schluessel, Vera

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated memory retention capabilities of juvenile gray bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) using two-alternative forced-choice experiments. The sharks had previously been trained in a range of visual discrimination tasks, such as distinguishing between squares, triangles and lines, and their corresponding optical illusions (i.e., the Kanizsa figures or Müller-Lyer illusions), and in the present study, we tested them for memory retention. Despite the absence of reinforcement, sharks remembered the learned information for a period of up to 50 weeks, after which testing was terminated. In fish, as in other vertebrates, memory windows vary in duration depending on species and task; while it may seem beneficial to retain some information for a long time or even indefinitely, other information may be forgotten more easily to retain flexibility and save energy. The results of this study indicate that sharks are capable of long-term memory within the framework of selected cognitive skills. These could aid sharks in activities such as food retrieval, predator avoidance, mate choice or habitat selection and therefore be worth being remembered for extended periods of time. As in other cognitive tasks, intraspecific differences reflected the behavioral breadth of the species.

  12. Simulation error propagation for a dynamic rod worth measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, D.F.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    KRSKO nuclear station, subsequently adapted by Westinghouse, introduced the dynamic rod worth measurement (DRWM) technique for measuring pressurized water reactor rod worths. This technique has the potential for reduced test time and primary loop waste water versus alternatives. The measurement is performed starting from a slightly supercritical state with all rods out (ARO), driving a bank in at the maximum stepping rate, and recording the ex-core detectors responses and bank position as a function of time. The static bank worth is obtained by (1) using the ex-core detectors' responses to obtain the core average flux (2) using the core average flux in the inverse point-kinetics equations to obtain the dynamic bank worth (3) converting the dynamic bank worth to the static bank worth. In this data interpretation process, various calculated quantities obtained from a core simulator are utilized. This paper presents an analysis of the sensitivity to the impact of core simulator errors on the deduced static bank worth

  13. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  14. Local heterogeneity effects on small-sample worths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    One of the parameters usually measured in a fast reactor critical assembly is the reactivity associated with inserting a small sample of a material into the core (sample worth). Local heterogeneities introduced by the worth measurement techniques can have a significant effect on the sample worth. Unfortunately, the capability is lacking to model some of the heterogeneity effects associated with the experimental technique traditionally used at ANL (the radial tube technique). It has been suggested that these effects could account for a large portion of what remains of the longstanding central worth discrepancy. The purpose of this paper is to describe a large body of experimental data - most of which has never been reported - that shows the effect of radial tube-related local heterogeneities

  15. Dispositions in Education: Nonentities Worth Talking about

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splitter, Laurance J.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of dispositions has commanded considerable attention in both philosophy and education. In this essay, Laurance Splitter draws on philosophy to take a fresh look at dispositions in education, specifically teacher education. Bypassing the pitfalls of both subjectivity and crude behaviorism, he proposes a conceptual framework in which…

  16. Significant others and contingencies of self-worth: activation and consequences of relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horberg, E J; Chen, Serena

    2010-01-01

    Three studies tested the activation and consequences of contingencies of self-worth associated with specific significant others, that is, relationship-specific contingencies of self-worth. The results showed that activating the mental representation of a significant other with whom one strongly desires closeness led participants to stake their self-esteem in domains in which the significant other wanted them to excel. This was shown in terms of self-reported contingencies of self-worth (Study 1), in terms of self-worth after receiving feedback on a successful or unsatisfactory performance in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 2), and in terms of feelings of reduced self-worth after thinking about a failure in a relationship-specific contingency domain (Study 3). Across studies, a variety of contingency domains were examined. Furthermore, Study 3 showed that failing in an activated relationship-specific contingency domain had negative implications for current feelings of closeness and acceptance in the significant-other relationship. Overall, the findings suggest that people's contingencies of self-worth depend on the social situation and that performance in relationship-specific contingency domains can influence people's perceptions of their relationships.

  17. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  18. Electronics reliability calculation and design

    CERN Document Server

    Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N

    1966-01-01

    Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea

  19. Bulk electric system reliability evaluation incorporating wind power and demand side management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dange

    correlations and the interactive effects of wind power and load forecast uncertainty on system reliability are examined. The concept of the security cost associated with operating in the marginal state in the well-being framework is incorporated in the economic analyses associated with system expansion planning including wind power and load forecast uncertainty. Overall reliability cost/worth analyses including security cost concepts are applied to select an optimal wind power injection strategy in a bulk electric system. The effects of the various demand side management measures on system reliability are illustrated using the system, load point, and well-being indices, and the reliability index probability distributions. The reliability effects of demand side management procedures in a bulk electric system including wind power and load forecast uncertainty considerations are also investigated. The system reliability effects due to specific demand side management programs are quantified and examined in terms of their reliability benefits.

  20. Characteristics of self-worth protection in achievement behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, T

    1993-11-01

    Two experiments are reported comprising an investigation of individual difference variables associated with self-worth protection. This is a phenomenon whereby students in achievement situations adopt one of a number of strategies, including withdrawing effort, in order to avoid damage to self-esteem which results from attributing failure to inability. Experiment 1 confirmed the adequacy of an operational definition which identified self-worth students on the basis of two criteria. These were deteriorated performance following failure, together with subsequent enhanced performance following a face-saving excuse allowing students to explain failure without implicating low ability. The results of Experiment 2 established that the behaviour of self-worth protective students in achievement situations may be understood in terms of their low academic self-esteem coupled with uncertainty about their level of global self-esteem. Investigation of the manner in which self-worth students explain success and failure outcomes failed to demonstrate a tendency to internalise failure but revealed a propensity on the part of these students to reject due credit for their successes. The implications of these findings in terms of the prevention and modification of self-worth protective reactions in achievement situations are discussed.

  1. A core performance study on an actinide recycling 'zero-sodium-void worth' core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, M.; Nakagawa, M.; Yamaoka, M.; Kasahara, F.

    1994-01-01

    A core performance study was made for an absorber-type parfait core (A-APC) as one of 'Zero-sodium-void-worth' core concepts. This evaluation study pursued different two aspects; one for transuranic (TRU) management strategy, and another for a loss-of-coolant anticipated transient behavior considering the unique core configuration. The results indicated that this core has a large flexibility for actinide recycling in terms of self-sufficiency and minor actinide burning. The result also showed that this core has kept a large mitigation potential for ULOF events as well as a simple flat core concept, reflecting detailed three dimensional core bowing behavior for the A-APC configuration. (author)

  2. A core design study for 'zero-sodium-void-worth' cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Masao; Hill, R.N.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a number of low sodium-void-worth metal-fueled core design concepts have been proposed; to provide for flexibility in transuranic nuclide management strategy, core designs which exhibit a wide range of breeding characteristics have been developed. Two core concepts, a flat annular (transuranic burning) core and an absorber-type parfait (transuranic self-sufficient) core, are selected for this study. In this paper, the excess reactivity management schemes applied in the two designs are investigated in detail. In addition, the transient effect of reactivity insertions on the parfait core design is assessed. The upper and lower core regions in the parfait design are neutronically decoupled; however, the common coolant channel creates thermalhydraulic coupling. This combination of neutronic and thermalhydraulic characteristics leads to unique behavior in anticipated transient overpower events. (author)

  3. Measurement and analysis of CEFR safety and shim rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yiyu; Yang Yong; Gang Zhi; Xu Li; Yang Xiaoyan; Zhou Keyuan; Hu Dingsheng

    2013-01-01

    The reactivity worth of safety rods and shim rods in critical phase and operating phase was calculated respectively using Monte Carlo program in this paper. In addition, the reactivity worth of safety rods and shim rods was measured by the rod drop-off method and period method. The experimental results are in good agreement with the calculated values with less than 5% error. It illustrates the high calculation precision of Monte Carlo program, which provides a practical reference for subsequent application of Monte Carlo program in future demonstration fast reactors. (authors)

  4. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  5. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  6. Dual Kidney Transplantation: Is It Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snanoudj, Renaud; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Rabant, Marion; Tinel, Claire; Lazareth, Hélène; Lamhaut, Lionel; Martinez, Frank; Legendre, Christophe

    2017-03-01

    Use of expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidneys, which are associated with a reduced graft survival rate, has become widely adopted in elderly recipients in an old-to-old allocation system. However, the results are frequently unsatisfactory, and a high proportion of these ECD kidneys are discarded. Dual kidney transplantation (DKT) is an underused way to expand the pool of ECD kidneys and to rapidly transplant elderly patients with satisfactory results because of the transplantation of double the nephronic mass. In this overview, we summarize the results of the main studies on DKT. DKT suffers from a prejudice of heaviness and is considered to be useless by transplant centers that do not perform it. The literature is often biased by the heterogeneity of the criteria leading to a DKT and the common refusal of kidneys that are judged too marginal. In fact, we show that when strictly allocated according to reliable clinical or histological scores, dual and single ECD transplantations yield similar results in terms of patient and graft survival rates despite significant differences in donors' characteristics. DKTs are not associated with a higher proportion of surgical complications, except in some studies showing thrombosis of 1 of the 2 grafts. The benefits of dual transplantation are particularly evident for kidneys coming from most ECDs. There is still a need for more studies to find the best allocation criteria that would permit transplantation to the highest number of patients with similar outcomes in recipients of single and dual ECD kidneys.

  7. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design

  8. Microcomputer-based equipment-control and data-acquisition system for fission-reactor reactivity-worth measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, W.P.; Bucher, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    Material reactivity-worth measurements are one of the major classes of experiments conducted on the Zero Power research reactors (ZPR) at Argonne National Laboratory. These measurements require the monitoring of the position of a servo control element as a sample material is positioned at various locations in a critical reactor configuration. In order to guarantee operational reliability and increase experimental flexibility for these measurements, the obsolete hardware-based control unit has been replaced with a microcomputer based equipment control and data acquisition system. This system is based on an S-100 bus, dual floppy disk computer with custom built cards to interface with the experimental system. To measure reactivity worths, the system accurately positions samples in the reactor core and acquires data on the position of the servo control element. The data are then analyzed to determine statistical adequacy. The paper covers both the hardware and software aspects of the design.

  9. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  10. Calculation of control rod worth with mutual interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balthar, M.C.V.; Oliveira Vellozo, S. de; Carvalho Vital, H. de

    1989-01-01

    This work presents a two-dimensional model for determining the total worth of a set of N absorbing rods. The model simplifies the evaluation of the interaction coefficient among rods by analysing them in pairs and attributes to it a purely geometrical character. Comparisons with conventional calculational methods indicate that the results are in error by less than 6%. (author) [pt

  11. Is your upgrade worth it? process mining can tell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genuchten, van M.J.I.M.; Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Software vendors typically release updates and upgrades of their software once or twice a year. Users are then faced with the question of whether the upgrade is worth the price and the trouble. The software industry doesn't provide much evidence that it's worthwhile to upgrade to new releases. The

  12. Is your upgrade worth it? Process mining can tell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genuchten, M.J.I.M.; Mans, R.S.; Reijers, H.A.; Wismeijer, D.

    2014-01-01

    Software vendors typically release updates and upgrades of their software once or twice a year. Users are then faced with the question of whether the upgrade is worth the price and the trouble. The software industry doesn't provide much evidence that it's worthwhile to upgrade to new releases. The

  13. Dereplications Can Amplify The Extent And Worth Of Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Moreover, since the talents and methods of those conducting these initial studies varied widely, little effort was made to provide adequate information on how selective processes and preferences as well as modes of collection, preparation and use were achieved. Without these data, the potential of their clinical worth, ...

  14. Site-Based Budgeting in Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternick, Lauri; Sherman, Joel

    1998-01-01

    Examines the Fort Worth Independent School District's decentralized decision-making system through three lenses: a review of site-based decision-making procedures at several schools; an examination of who participates; and stakeholders' perceptions. Some schools operated democratically, significantly including teachers, parents, and community…

  15. 76 FR 16345 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... acquisition must be measured under generally accepted accounting principles as referenced in the Act. 12 U.S.C... equity or member interest in the acquirer. Generally accepted accounting principles require this excess... generally accepted accounting principles. For low income-designated credit unions, net worth also includes...

  16. Educational worth of physical education and sport participation: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bailey alleged that the benefits of PESS has been made in such assertive tones that a bystander might think that nothing more can be said. Bailey and Hardman believe that it has not been proven scientifically that PESS contributes to the holistic development of the child. The present article attested the educational worth of ...

  17. 76 FR 60364 - Net Worth and Equity Ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... to ``follow the new Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) rule while still allowing the capital... accepted accounting principles and as further defined in Sec. 702.2(f) of this chapter. * * * * * [[Page... also proposed technical changes to the term ``net worth'' to ensure consistency and accurate accounting...

  18. Self-Efficacy, Self-Worth and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Deborah M.; Chow, Peter

    2017-01-01

    One of the most stressful periods of life has been reported to be the time spent in the post secondary education system (Hales, 2009). As a result, researchers are interested in determining the various correlates associated with the successful coping during this time. It has been well established that self-esteem and self-worth are both factors…

  19. 76 FR 5307 - Net Worth Standard for Accredited Investors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... affected investors who do not fund capital calls or otherwise reinvest in future rounds of financing. \\41...-3144; IC-29572; File No. S7-04-11] RIN 3235-AK90 Net Worth Standard for Accredited Investors AGENCY... accredited investor standards in our rules under the Securities Act of 1933 to reflect the requirements of...

  20. Gender Differences in Comparisons and Entitlement: Implications for Comparable Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Brenda

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the role of comparison processes in the persistence of the gender wage gap, its toleration by those disadvantaged by it, and resistance to comparable worth as a corrective strategy. Argues that gender segregation and undercompensation for women's jobs leads women to use different comparison standards when evaluating what they deserve.…

  1. De la conception à la sûreté des barrages de correction torrentielle From design to safety and reliability assessment of torrent control dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Tacnet et Didier Richard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dans les bassins versants de montagne, les phénomènes torrentiels, de par leur caractère brutal et très rapide, présentent des risques importants pour les biens, les personnes et l'environnement. Afin de réduire ces risques, des mesures structurelles ont été mises en place, comme la construction de barrages de correction torrentielle. Mais comment caractériser l'état et l'efficacité de ces ouvrages ? Assurent-ils un niveau de sécurité suffisant ? Les auteurs s'intéressent ici aux principes de conception et à l'analyse des pathologies et défaillances de ce type d'ouvrages.To reduce risk level in mountain rivers floods prone areas, structural defence works are still mandatory. The global efficiency of those protection strategies depends on both functional and structural approaches. This article first presents main types and functions of torrent control dams. Afterwards, it describes the design and building requirements with references to the main failure situations that could be encountered. This technical background is finally identified as a basis for danger and risk analysis that are going to become mandatory for some categories of torrent control dams.

  2. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  3. Designing reliability into accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutton, A.

    1992-08-01

    For the next generation of high performance, high average luminosity colliders, the ''factories,'' reliability engineering must be introduced right at the inception of the project and maintained as a central theme throughout the project. There are several aspects which will be addressed separately: Concept; design; motivation; management techniques; and fault diagnosis

  4. System reliability worth assessment at a midwest utility-survey results for residential customers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chowdhury, A.A.; Mielnik, T.C. [Electric System Planning, MidAmerican Energy Company, Davenport, Iowa (United States); Lawton, L.E.; Sullivan, M.J.; Katz, A. [Population Research Systems, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents the overall results of a residential customer survey conducted in service areas of MidAmerican Energy Company, a Midwest utility. A similar survey was conducted concurrently in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors and the survey results are presented in a companion paper. The results of this study are compared with the results of other studies performed in the high cost areas of the US east and west coasts. This is the first ever study of this nature performed for the residential customers in the US Midwest region. Methodological differences in the study design compared to coastal surveys are discussed. Customer survey costing techniques can be categorized into three main groups: contingent valuation techniques, direct costing techniques and indirect costing techniques. Most customer surveys conducted by different organizations in the last two decades used a combination of all three techniques. The selection of a technique is mainly dependent on the type of customer being surveyed. In this MidAmerican study, contingent valuation techniques and an indirect costing technique have been used, as most consequences of power outages to residential users are related to inconvenience or disruption of housekeeping and leisure activities that are intangible in nature. The major contribution of this paper is that particulars of Midwest residential customers compared to residential customers of coastal utilities are noted and customer responses on power quality issues that are important to customers are summarized. (author)

  5. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  6. Reliability of power system with open access

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, A.; Ranjbar, A. M.; Fotuhi Firuzabad, M.; Ehsani, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, in many countries, electric utility industry is undergoing considerable changes in regard to its structure and regulation. It can be clearly seen that the thrust towards privatization and deregulation or re regulation of the electric utility industry will introduce numerous reliability problems that will require new criteria and analytical tools that recognize the residual uncertainties in the new environment. In this paper, different risks and uncertainties in competitive electricity markets are briefly introduced; the approach of customers, operators, planners, generation bodies and network providers to the reliability of deregulated system is studied; the impact of dispersed generation on system reliability is evaluated; and finally, the reliability cost/reliability worth issues in the new competitive environment are considered

  7. Study on evaluating the reactivity worth of the control rods of the PWR 900 MWe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan Quoc Vuong; Tran Vinh Thanh; Tran Viet Phu

    2015-01-01

    Control rods of a nuclear reactor are divided into two groups: shut down and power control. Reactivity worth of the control rods depends nonlinearly on the rods' compositions and positions where the rods are inserted into the core. Therefore, calculation of control rod worth is of high important. In this study, we calculated the reactivity worth of the power control rod bank of the Mitsubishi PWR 900 MWe. The results are integral and differential worth calibration of the control rods. (author)

  8. Poor Performance in Mathematics: Is There a Basis for a Self-Worth Explanation for Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    The self-worth theory of achievement motivation holds that in situations in which poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, certain students (known as self-worth protective students) intentionally withdraw effort in order to avoid the negative implications of poor performance in terms of damage to self-worth. In this study, evidence of…

  9. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  10. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence

  11. The Consolidated Net Worth of Private Colleges. Recommendation of a Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Hans H.

    One of several essential tools for assessing how the financial health of educational institutions is evolving is the Consolidated Net Worth Statement. This essay explores various aspects of conventional "funds" balance sheets and compares them with the Consolidated Net Worth. Emphasis is placed on how the Consolidated Net Worth Statement…

  12. Enhancing Student Self-Worth in the Primary School Learning Environment: Teachers' Views and Students' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Penni; Cowan, Jackie

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the findings from a study of teachers and students' views regarding self-worth in the primary school learning environment. The revised New Zealand curriculum recognises the importance of self-worth in students' motivation and ability to learn. While the need to enhance self-worth in the classroom has been well established in the…

  13. Medical device reliability and associated areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhillon, Balbir S

    2000-01-01

    .... Although the history of reliability engineering can be traced back to World War II, the application of reliability engineering concepts to medical devices is a fairly recent idea that goes back to the latter part of the 1960s when many publications on medical device reliability emerged. Today, a large number of books on general reliability have been...

  14. Pragmatic sociology and competing orders of worth in organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2011-01-01

    primarily has been related to three main themes in organizational research: non-profit and co-operative organizations, inter-organizational co-operation, and organizational change. Third, I discuss how the pragmatic, process-oriented aspect of the research program, focusing on the intertwining of values......Different notions of multiple rationalities have recently been applied to describe the phenomena of co-existence of competing rationalities in organizations. These include institutional pluralism, institutional logics, competing rationalities and pluralistic contexts. The French pragmatic...... studies of organizations. First, I summarize the basic ideas of the framework, stressing the aspects of special relevance for studies of organizations. Second, I review the empirical studies focusing on the coexistence of competing orders of worth in organizations showing that the order of worth framework...

  15. Vaccination against meningitis B: is it worth it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter English

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: when a new vaccine is licensed having passed the tests for efficacy and safety, governments who have to pay for it to be used, as in the UK, will carry out a careful economic appraisal before making it generally available. In this challenging article, Dr Peter English discusses whether or not a new vaccine for meningitis that has just been licensed and that could save lives is actually worth it.

  16. The analytic method for calculating the control rod worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Han Gon; Lee, Byeong Ho; Chang, Soon Heung

    1989-01-01

    We calculated the control rod worth in this paper. To avoid complexity, we did not consider burnable poisons and soluble boron. The system was localized within one assembly. The control rod was treated as not an absorber but an another boundary. Thus all of the group constants were unchanged before and after control rod insertion. And we discussed the method for calculation of the reactivity of the whole core

  17. Determination of the control rod worth for research reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, D.L.; Gual, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays there is a big interest in developing neutronic analysis methods for research reactor and particularly for the determination of the control rods worth under different operation conditions and core configurations. The reactivity associated with the control rods is of interest in the shutdown margin and in calculations of possible abnormal conditions related to reactivity accidents. For theses studies several computer codes have been developed. The present work is aimed at the validation of the calculation methods of the Nuclear Technology Center of Cuba. For this purpose, in order to evaluate the safety of this type of installations, the reactivity worth of the control rods of the cylindrical configuration of the Brazilian critical assembly IPEN/MB-01 is determined. These calculations, however, are a relatively complex task that requires the use of three-dimensional models. Because of this, the validation of the calculation methods used for this purpose is of great importance. In fact, it is one of the requirements called upon by the quality assurance programs for the development, maintenance and utilization of the calculation codes used in safety analysis. For the calculation of control rod worth the lattice code WIMS-D/4 [8] and the diffusion code SNAP-3D [9] were used. This work presents the obtained results and gives a comparison with the experimental values

  18. A study of operational and testing reliability in software reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B.; Xie, M.

    2000-01-01

    Software reliability is an important aspect of any complex equipment today. Software reliability is usually estimated based on reliability models such as nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models. Software systems are improving in testing phase, while it normally does not change in operational phase. Depending on whether the reliability is to be predicted for testing phase or operation phase, different measure should be used. In this paper, two different reliability concepts, namely, the operational reliability and the testing reliability, are clarified and studied in detail. These concepts have been mixed up or even misused in some existing literature. Using different reliability concept will lead to different reliability values obtained and it will further lead to different reliability-based decisions made. The difference of the estimated reliabilities is studied and the effect on the optimal release time is investigated

  19. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  20. Sex work and three dimensions of self-esteem: self-worth, authenticity and self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Cecilia; Smith, Michaela; Jansson, Mikael; Magnus, Samantha; Flagg, Jackson; Maurice, Renay

    2018-01-01

    Sex work is assumed to have a negative effect on self-esteem, nearly exclusively expressed as low self-worth, due to its social unacceptability and despite the diversity of persons, positions and roles within the sex industry. In this study, we asked a heterogeneous sample of 218 Canadian sex workers delivering services in various venues about how their work affected their sense of self. Using thematic analysis based on a three-dimensional conception of self-esteem - self-worth (viewing oneself in a favourable light), authenticity (being one's true self) and self-efficacy (competency) - we shed light on the relationship between involvement in sex work and self-esteem. Findings demonstrate that the relationship between sex work and self-esteem is complex: the majority of participants discussed multiple dimensions of self-esteem and often spoke of how sex work had both positive and negative effects on their sense of self. Social background factors, work location and life events and experiences also had an effect on self-esteem. Future research should take a more complex approach to understanding these issues by considering elements beyond self-worth, such as authenticity and self-efficacy, and examining how sex workers' backgrounds and individual motivations intersect with these three dimensions.

  1. Exploring the role of obsessive-compulsive relevant self-worth contingencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soriano, Gemma; Belloch, Amparo

    2012-06-30

    This article examines whether self-worth contingencies in the personal domains of cleanliness, morality, hoarding, certainty, accuracy, religion and respect for others have specific associations with obsessive symptoms and cognitions in individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Fifty-seven patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD completed the Obsessional Concerns and Self Questionnaire (OCSQ), designed to assess the extent to which respondents consider OCD content domains relevant to their self-worth, along with a battery of other instruments. Results indicate that the OCSQ is more associated with OCD than with non-OCD anxiety symptoms, and that it is also associated with comorbid depressive symptoms in OCD patients. Moreover, the OCSQ-Order and Cleanliness and Hoarding dimensions are associated with their symptom counterparts (i.e., contamination, checking, order, hoarding and neutralizing). OCSQ domains were highly associated with dysfunctional beliefs about obsessions. However, only the OCSQ scores, but not the dysfunctional beliefs, predicted OCD symptoms. These results support cognitive conceptualizations implicating self-concept in OCD development, and they suggest the need to further analyze the influence of self-worth in OCD development and maintenance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  3. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  4. Reliability and validity in a nutshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannigan, Katrina; Watson, Roger

    2009-12-01

    To explore and explain the different concepts of reliability and validity as they are related to measurement instruments in social science and health care. There are different concepts contained in the terms reliability and validity and these are often explained poorly and there is often confusion between them. To develop some clarity about reliability and validity a conceptual framework was built based on the existing literature. The concepts of reliability, validity and utility are explored and explained. Reliability contains the concepts of internal consistency and stability and equivalence. Validity contains the concepts of content, face, criterion, concurrent, predictive, construct, convergent (and divergent), factorial and discriminant. In addition, for clinical practice and research, it is essential to establish the utility of a measurement instrument. To use measurement instruments appropriately in clinical practice, the extent to which they are reliable, valid and usable must be established.

  5. Comparison of three different concepts of high dynamic range and dependability optimised current measurement digitisers for beam loss systems

    CERN Document Server

    Viganò, W; Effinger, E; Venturini, G G; Zamantzas, C

    2012-01-01

    Three Different Concepts of High Dynamic Range and Dependability Optimised Current Measurement Digitisers for Beam Loss Systems will be compared on this paper. The first concept is based on Current to Frequency Conversion, enhanced with an ADC for extending the dynamic range and decreasing the response time. A summary of 3 years’ worth of operational experience with such a system for LHC beam loss monitoring will be given. The second principle is based on an Adaptive Current to Frequency Converter implemented in an ASIC. The basic parameters of the circuit are discussed and compared with measurements. Several measures are taken to harden both circuits against single event effects and to make them tolerant for operation in radioactive environments. The third circuit is based on a Fully Differential Integrator for enhanced dynamic range, where laboratory and test installation measurements will be presented. All circuits are designed to avoid any dead time in the acquisition and have reliability and fail safe...

  6. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  7. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  8. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  9. Reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Birolini, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...

  10. School Picture Day and Self-Concept: A Smile Is Worth the Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Margaret A.; Pfeiffer, Karl T.

    2011-01-01

    School picture day--it's an almost universal experience of waiting in line with a new comb, perching nervously on a stool, smiling under the bright lights, and then moving quickly out into the hall. For the past 8 years the authors have been increasingly aware of a picture day bias in the pictures taken of their oldest son. It appears to them that…

  11. Long term warranty and after sales service concept, policies and cost models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents concepts, policies and cost models for various long-term warranty and maintenance contracts. It offers several numerical examples for estimating costs to both the manufacturer and consumer. Long-term warranties and maintenance contracts are becoming increasingly popular, as these types of aftersales services provide assurance to consumers that they can enjoy long, reliable service, and protect them from defects and the potentially high costs of repairs. Studying long-term warranty and service contracts is important to manufacturers and consumers alike, as offering long-term warranty and maintenance contracts produce additional costs for manufacturers / service providers over the product’s service life. These costs must be factored into the price, or the manufacturer / dealer will incur losses instead of making a profit. On the other hand, the buyer / consumer needs to weigh the cost of maintaining it over its service life and to decide whether or not these policies are worth purchasing....

  12. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Schuengel, C.; Voorman, J.; Stolk, J.; Dallmeijer, A.J.; Vermeer, A; Becher, J.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. Methods. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour probl...

  13. Data on Occurrence of Selected Trace Metals, Organochlorines, and Semivolatile Organic Compounds in Edible Fish Tissues From Lake Worth, Fort Worth, Texas 1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moring, J. B

    2002-01-01

    .... Air Force and in collaboration with the Texas Department of Health, collected samples of edible fish tissues from Lake Worth for analysis of selected trace metals, organochlorines, and semivolatile...

  14. Waste package reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Sastre, C.

    1983-01-01

    Proof of future performance of a complex system such as a high-level nuclear waste package over a period of hundreds to thousands of years cannot be had in the ordinary sense of the word. The general method of probabilistic reliability analysis could provide an acceptable framework to identify, organize, and convey the information necessary to satisfy the criterion of reasonable assurance of waste package performance according to the regulatory requirements set forth in 10 CFR 60. General principles which may be used to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative reliability of a waste package design are indicated and illustrated with a sample calculation of a repository concept in basalt. 8 references, 1 table

  15. Some remarks on software reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Hernando, J.; Sanchez Izquierdo, J.

    1978-01-01

    Trend in modern NPPCI is toward a broad use of programmable elements. Some aspects concerning present status of programmable digital systems reliability are reported. Basic differences between software and hardware concept require a specific approach in all the reliability topics concerning software systems. The software reliability theory was initialy developed upon hardware models analogies. At present this approach is changing and specific models are being developed. The growing use of programmable systems necessitates emphasizing the importance of more adequate regulatory requirements to include this technology in NPPCI. (author)

  16. Reliability evaluation of power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Billinton, Roy

    1996-01-01

    The Second Edition of this well-received textbook presents over a decade of new research in power system reliability-while maintaining the general concept, structure, and style of the original volume. This edition features new chapters on the growing areas of Monte Carlo simulation and reliability economics. In addition, chapters cover the latest developments in techniques and their application to real problems. The text also explores the progress occurring in the structure, planning, and operation of real power systems due to changing ownership, regulation, and access. This work serves as a companion volume to Reliability Evaluation of Engineering Systems: Second Edition (1992).

  17. Education without Moral Worth? Kantian Moral Theory and the Obligation to Educate Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the possibility of a Kantian justification of the intrinsic moral worth of education. The author critiques a recent attempt to secure such justification via Kant's notion of the Kingdom of Ends. He gives four reasons why such an account would deny any intrinsic moral worth to education. He concludes with a tentative…

  18. Beyond Rational Autonomy: Levinas and the Incomparable Worth of the Student as Singular Other

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joldersma, Clarence W.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the question: Why are students of worth? Educationally, an answer often involves a Kantian response: They are of worth because they are always ends and never means. This response is usually connected to a notion of autonomy interpreted as individual, rational self-determination. The article argues for a different answer. The…

  19. 75 FR 39621 - Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income-Net Worth and Employment...

  20. 77 FR 20888 - Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Proposed Information Collection (Income, Net Worth, and Employment Statement) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Income, Net Worth, and Employment...

  1. Self-worth, perceived competence, and behaviour problems in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuengel, Carlo; Voorman, Jeanine; Stolk, Joop; Dallmeijer, Annet; Vermeer, Adri; Becher, Jules

    2006-10-30

    To examine the relevance of physical disabilities for self-worth and perceived competence in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and to examine associations between behaviour problems and self-worth and perceived competence. The Harter scales for self-worth and perceived competence and a new scale for perceived motor competence were used in a sample of 80 children with CP. Their motor functioning was assessed with the Gross Motor Functioning Measure (GMFM) and behaviour problems with the Child Behaviour Check List administered to parents. Self-worth and perceived competence for children with CP were comparable to the Dutch norm sample, except for perceived athletic competence. Within the CP sample, the GMFM showed a domain-specific effect on perceived motor competence. In the multivariate analysis, internalizing problems were associated negatively with all perceived competence scales and self-worth, whereas aggression was positively associated with perceived motor competence, physical appearance, and self-worth. Children with CP appear resilient against challenges posed to their self-worth caused by their disabilities. The relevance of the physical disability appears to be domain-specific. For internalizing problems and aggression, different theoretical models are needed to account for their associations with self-worth and perceived competence.

  2. Reliability-Based Code Calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....

  3. What factors mediate the relationship between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edel; Dooley, Barbara; Menton, Aoife; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-04-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the relationship between global self-worth and weight concerns and global self-worth and shape concerns was mediated by pertinent body image factors, while controlling for gender and estimated BMI. Participants were 775 adolescents (56% male) aged 12-18years (M=14.6; SD=1.50). Mediation analysis revealed a direct and a mediated effect between global self-worth and two body image models: 1) weight concerns and 2) shape concerns. The strongest mediators in both models were physical appearance, restrained eating, and depression. Partial mediation was observed for both models, indicating that body image factors which span cognitive, affective, and behavioral constructs, explain the association between global self-worth and weight and shape concerns. Implications for future research, weight and shape concern prevention and global self-worth enhancement programs are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  5. Junction Temperature Control for More Reliable Power Electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Markus; Ma, Ke; Buticchi, Giampaolo

    2018-01-01

    The thermal stress of power electronic components is one of the most important causes of their failure. Proper thermal management plays an important role for more reliable and cost-effective energy conversion. As one of the most vulnerable and expensive components, power semiconductor components ...... the desired cost-benefit tradeoff. This paper analyzes also the many open questions of this research area. Among them, it is worth highlighting that a verification of the actual lifetime extension is still missing....

  6. Evaluating data worth for ground-water management under uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models-a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programing sampling network design model-to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring network design model identifies, prior to data collection, the sampling strategy that will minimize model uncertainty; (3) the optimal ground-water management strategy is recalculated on the basis of the projected model uncertainty after sampling; and (4) the worth of the monitoring strategy is assessed by comparing the value of the sample information-i.e., the projected reduction in management costs-with the cost of data collection. Steps 2-4 are repeated for a series of data collection budgets, producing a suite of management/monitoring alternatives, from which the best alternative can be selected. A hypothetical example demonstrates the methodology's ability to identify the ground-water sampling strategy with greatest net economic benefit for ground-water management.A decision framework is presented for assessing the value of ground-water sampling within the context of ground-water management under uncertainty. The framework couples two optimization models - a chance-constrained ground-water management model and an integer-programming sampling network design model - to identify optimal pumping and sampling strategies. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) The optimal ground-water management strategy for the present level of model uncertainty is determined using the chance-constrained management model; (2) for a specified data collection budget, the monitoring

  7. Reliability tasks from prediction to field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    This tutorial paper is part of a series intended to sensitive on reliability prolems. Reliability probabilistic concept, is an important parameter of availability. Reliability prediction is an estimation process for evaluating design progress. It is only by the application of a reliability program that reliability objectives can be attained through the different stages of work: conception, fabrication, field use. The user is mainly interested in operational reliability. Indication are given on the support and the treatment of data in the case of electronic equipment at C.E.A. Reliability engineering requires a special state of mind which must be formed and developed in a company in the same way as it may be done for example for safety [fr

  8. The effect of interpersonal rejection on attentional biases regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images: The moderating role of body weight- and shape-based self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Elizabeth; Dolan, Ashleigh; Thomas, Brittany; Bell, Jason

    2017-09-01

    Interpersonal dysfunction and weight/shape-based self-worth have been implicated as key constructs for eating disorders, although the relationship between these two concepts is under-researched. This study investigated the moderating role of weight/shape-based self-worth in terms of the impact of interpersonal rejection on attentional bias regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images. Participants were 94 females without an eating disorder, who were exposed to either interpersonal rejection or acceptance (using the Cyberball paradigm), and subsequently assessed in terms of their attentional biases regarding thin-ideal and non-thin images. Results revealed that weight/shape-based self-worth moderated the relationship between interpersonal rejection/acceptance and attentional biases for thin-ideal (but not non-thin) images. Specifically, participants with a greater tendency to base their self-worth on weight/shape demonstrated reduced avoidance of thin-ideal images when rejected relative to those who were accepted. The findings support the role of interpersonal rejection in eliciting attentional disturbances among those with higher body weight/shape-based self-worth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. What's it worth? A general manager's guide to valuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luehrman, T A

    1997-01-01

    Behind every major resource-allocation decision a company makes lies some calculation of what that move is worth. So it is not surprising that valuation is the financial analytical skill general managers want to learn more than any other. Managers whose formal training is more than a few years old, however, are likely to have learned approaches that are becoming obsolete. What do generalists need in an updated valuation tool kit? In the 1970s, discounted-cash-flow analysis (DCF) emerged as best practice for valuing corporate assets. And one version of DCF-using the weighted-average cost of capital (WACC)-became the standard. Over the years, WACC has been used by most companies as a one-size-fits-all valuation tool. Today the WACC standard is insufficient. Improvements in computers and new theoretical insights have given rise to tools that outperform WACC in the three basic types of valuation problems managers face. Timothy Luehrman presents an overview of the three tools, explaining how they work and when to use them. For valuing operations, the DCF methodology of adjusted present value allows managers to break a problem into pieces that make managerial sense. For valuing opportunities, option pricing captures the contingent nature of investments in areas such as R&D and marketing. And for valuing ownership claims, the tool of equity cash flows helps managers value their company's stake in a joint venture, a strategic alliance, or an investment that uses project financing.

  10. What an option is worth for an exploration opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKay, J.A.; Lerche, I.

    1995-01-01

    The reason that a corporation might want to take an option on an opportunity is to wait until more information becomes available before committing to the decision to drill. For instance, in a situation where an opportunity is one of the first prospects in a new play trend, there is often very little known (as opposed to surmised) about the potential gain, and the chances of success are also often poorly determined. Thus, until the estimates of costs, gains, and success chances are firmed up in the future by drilling information from other operators, the corporation would prefer to hold off on the decision to drill a particular prospect. Recently Dixit and Pindyck have persuasively argued qualitatively that an options approach should be taken to capital investment in any business field because, opportunities are options--rights but not obligations to take some action in the future and, as soon as you begin thinking of investment opportunities as options, the premise (that investment decisions can be reversed if conditions change or, if they cannot be reversed, that they are now-or-never propositions) changes. Irreversibility, uncertainty, and the choice of timing alter the investment decision in critical ways. From an oil industry perspective Dixit and Pindyck eloquently provide the rationale for considering an option position rather than dealing only with net present value considerations. The ability to calculate the worth of an option to a hydrocarbon exploration opportunity is what this article is about

  11. Contingent self-worth moderates the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizu, Kenichiro

    2017-04-01

    This study examined the moderating role of contingent self-worth on the relationships between school stressors and psychological stress responses among Japanese adolescents. A total of 371 Japanese junior high school students (184 boys and 187 girls, M age  = 12.79 years, SD = 0.71) completed the Japanese version of the Self-Worth Contingency Questionnaire and a mental health checklist at two points separated by a two-month interval. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were then used to determine whether contingent self-worth moderated the relationship between school stressors and psychological stress responses. The results indicated that, when psychological stress responses were controlled for at Time 1, contingent self-worth did not predict the psychological stress responses at Time 2. However, a two-way interaction between contingent self-worth and stressors was found to significantly influence psychological stress responses, thus indicating that stressors had a stronger impact on psychological stress responses among those with high contingent self-worth compared to those with low contingent self-worth. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Division I men and women athletes do not differ on perceptions of worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, Barbara D; Black, Nate; Vincent, William J

    2012-04-01

    Historically, especially prior to the increased interest in women's athletics with the passage of Title IX in 1972, there have been negative perceptions of women as athletes. If these social perceptions still hold in part today, as is indirectly suggested by unequal press coverage and less basic support for women athletes, one might predict that collegiate female athletes would rate themselves lower on self-esteem and worth than collegiate male athletes. 176 Division I male (n = 90) and female (n = 86) athletes rated their perceptions of self on the Worth Index which measures basic human worth, personal security, performance, and physical self; these are divided into intrinsic (unconditional worth) measures and behavior or performance (conditional worth) measures. There were no significant sex differences in the ratings of any aspect of perceived worth, in contrast to prior results among non-athletes. In spite of less support given to women athletes, perhaps the long-term high-intensity competition that is required to reach Division I status tends to eliminate sex differences in self-worth.

  13. Calculation of RABBIT and Simulator Worth in the HFIR Hydraulic Tube and Comparison with Measured Values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, CO

    2005-09-08

    To aid in the determinations of reactivity worths for target materials in a proposed High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) target configuration containing two additional hydraulic tubes, the worths of cadmium rabbits within the current hydraulic tube were calculated using a reference model of the HFIR and the MCNP5 computer code. The worths were compared to measured worths for both static and ejection experiments. After accounting for uncertainties in the calculations and the measurements, excellent agreement between the two was obtained. Computational and measurement limitations indicate that accurate estimation of worth is only possible when the worth exceeds 10 cents. Results indicate that MCNP5 and the reactor model can be used to predict reactivity worths of various samples when the expected perturbations are greater than 10 cents. The level of agreement between calculation and experiment indicates that the accuracy of such predictions would be dependent solely on the quality of the nuclear data for the materials to be irradiated. Transients that are approximated by ''piecewise static'' computational models should likewise have an accuracy that is dependent solely on the quality of the nuclear data.

  14. Collegiate misuse of prescription stimulants: examining differences in self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Amanda L; Prosek, Elizabeth A; Reader, Emily A; Bevly, Cynthia M; Turner, Kori D; LeBlanc, Yvette N; Vera, Ryan A; Molina, Citlali E; Garber, Sage Ann

    2015-02-01

    Prescription stimulant medication is commonly used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, stimulant medication misuse is a prevalent problem among the college population. There is limited research on psychological factors associated with collegiate nonmedical stimulant misuse. To examine the association between college students' self-worth and stimulant medication misuse. A quantitative study implemented during the 2013-2014 academic year in which we utilized a convenience sample of undergraduate students at a public university. College students (N = 3,038) completed an electronic survey packet including a stimulant use index and the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale. We conducted descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) to measure the associations between four groups: Nonusers, Appropriate Users, Nonprescribed Misusuers, and Prescribed Users. Significant differences in contingencies of self-worth existed between the four groups of students. Specifically, external contingencies of self-worth, such as appearance and approval, were associated with stimulant medication misuse, whereas, internal contingencies of self-worth, such as God's love and virtue, were associated with nonuse and appropriate prescribed use. Conclusions/Importance: The findings of the current study suggested contingencies of self-worth partially explain prescription stimulant misuse among the collegiate population. Addressing self-worth may be helpful in the treatment of stimulant misuse with college students.

  15. Study on dynamic rod worth measurement method and its test verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Lei; Liu Tongxian; Zhao Wenbo; Li Songling; Yu Yingrui

    2015-01-01

    An advanced rod worth measurement technique, the dynamic rod worth measurement method (DRWM) has been developed. Static Spatial Factors (SSF) and Dynamic Spatial Factor (DSF) were introduced to improve the inverse kinetics method. The three dimensional steady and transient simulations for the measurement process was carried out to calculate the modification factors. The rod worth measurement, test was performed on a research reactor to verify DRWM. The results showed that the DRWM method provided the improved accuracy and could be a replacement of the traditional methods. (authors)

  16. Uncertainty of Doppler reactivity worth due to uncertainties of JENDL-3.2 resonance parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zukeran, Atsushi [Hitachi Ltd., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan). Power and Industrial System R and D Div.; Hanaki, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Tuneo; Shibata, Keiichi; Ishikawa, Makoto

    1998-03-01

    Analytical formula of Resonance Self-shielding Factor (f-factor) is derived from the resonance integral (J-function) based on NR approximation and the analytical expression for Doppler reactivity worth ({rho}) is also obtained by using the result. Uncertainties of the f-factor and Doppler reactivity worth are evaluated on the basis of sensitivity coefficients to the resonance parameters. The uncertainty of the Doppler reactivity worth at 487{sup 0}K is about 4 % for the PNC Large Fast Breeder Reactor. (author)

  17. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  18. Reliability analysis and operator modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed

  19. Fundamentals and applications of systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boesebeck, K.; Heuser, F.W.; Kotthoff, K.

    1976-01-01

    The lecture gives a survey on the application of methods of reliability analysis to assess the safety of nuclear power plants. Possible statements of reliability analysis in connection with specifications of the atomic licensing procedure are especially dealt with. Existing specifications of safety criteria are additionally discussed with the help of reliability analysis by the example of the reliability analysis of a reactor protection system. Beyond the limited application to single safety systems, the significance of reliability analysis for a closed risk concept is explained in the last part of the lecture. (orig./LH) [de

  20. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  1. The use of a hands-on model in learning the regulation of an inducible operon and the development of a gene regulation concept inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanski, Katherine M.

    A central concept in genetics is the regulation of gene expression. Inducible gene expression is often taught in undergraduate biology courses using the lac operon of Escherichia coli (E. coli ). With national calls for reform in undergraduate biology education and a body of literature that supports the use of active learning techniques including hands-on learning and analogies we were motivated to develop a hands-on analogous model of the lac operon. The model was developed over two iterations and was administered to genetics students. To determine the model's worth as a learning tool a concept inventory (CI) was developed using rigorous protocols. Concept inventories are valuable tools which can be used to assess students' understanding of a topic and pinpoint commonly held misconceptions as well as the value of educational tools. Through in-class testing (n =115) the lac operon concept inventory (LOCI) was demonstrated to be valid, predictive, and reliable (? coefficient = 0.994). LOCI scores for students who participated in the hands-on activity (n = 67) were 7.5% higher (t = -2.281, P operon. We were able to determine the efficacy of the activity and identify misconceptions held by students about the lac operon because of the use of a valid and reliable CI.

  2. A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost - 12479

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Drew [Project Time and Cost Inc. (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This paper, 'A Second Opinion is Worth the Cost', shows how a second opinion for a Department of Energy (DOE) Project helped prepare and pass a DOE Order 413.3A 'Program and Project Management for the acquisition of Capital Assets' Office of Engineering and Construction Management (OECM) required External Independent Review (EIR) in support of the approved baseline for Critical Decision (CD) 2. The DOE project personnel were informed that the project's Total Project Cost (TPC) was going to increase from $815 million to $1.1 billion due to unforeseen problems and unexplained reasons. The DOE Project Team determined that a second opinion was needed to review and validate the TPC. Project Time and Cost, Inc. (PT and C) was requested to evaluate the cost estimate, schedule, basis of estimate (BOE), and risk management plan of the Project and to give an independent assessment of the TPC that was presented to DOE. This paper will demonstrate how breaking down a project to the work breakdown structure (WBS) level allows a project to be analyzed for potential cost increases and/or decreases, thus providing a more accurate TPC. The review Team's cost analyses of Projects identified eight primary drivers resulting in cost increases. They included: - Overstatement of the effort required to develop drawings and specifications. - Cost allocation to 'Miscellaneous' without sufficient detail or documentation. - Cost for duplicated efforts. - Vendor estimates or quotations without sufficient detail. - The practice of using the highest price quoted then adding an additional 10% mark-up. - Application of Nuclear Quality Assurance (NQA) highest level quality requirements when not required. - Allocation of operational costs to the Project Costs instead of to the Operating Expenses (OPEX). OPEX costs come from a different funding source. - DOE had not approved the activities. By using a Team approach with professionals from cost, civil

  3. Slip Potential of Faults in the Fort Worth Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennings, P.; Osmond, J.; Lund Snee, J. E.; Zoback, M. D.

    2017-12-01

    Similar to other areas of the southcentral United States, the Fort Worth Basin of NE Texas has experienced an increase in the rate of seismicity which has been attributed to injection of waste water in deep saline aquifers. To assess the hazard of induced seismicity in the basin we have integrated new data on location and character of previously known and unknown faults, stress state, and pore pressure to produce an assessment of fault slip potential which can be used to investigate prior and ongoing earthquake sequences and for development of mitigation strategies. We have assembled data on faults in the basin from published sources, 2D and 3D seismic data, and interpretations provided from petroleum operators to yield a 3D fault model with 292 faults ranging in strike-length from 116 to 0.4 km. The faults have mostly normal geometries, all cut the disposal intervals, and most are presumed to cut into the underlying crystalline and metamorphic basement. Analysis of outcrops along the SW flank of the basin assist with geometric characterization of the fault systems. The interpretation of stress state comes from integration of wellbore image and sonic data, reservoir stimulation data, and earthquake focal mechanisms. The orientation of SHmax is generally uniform across the basin but stress style changes from being more strike-slip in the NE part of the basin to normal faulting in the SW part. Estimates of pore pressure come from a basin-scale hydrogeologic model as history-matched to injection test data. With these deterministic inputs and appropriate ranges of uncertainty we assess the conditional probability that faults in our 3D model might slip via Mohr-Coulomb reactivation in response to increases in injected-related pore pressure. A key component of the analysis is constraining the uncertainties associated with each of the principal parameters. Many of the faults in the model are interpreted to be critically-stressed within reasonable ranges of uncertainty.

  4. ISOS: A job evaluation system to implement comparable worth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Corominas

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fair pay structure is an essential element of the personnel policy of a firm. If the pay structure is perceived as arbitrary by the members of the staff, it becomes a cause of disturbance of the labor relations. Particularly, a pay structure is unfair if it discriminates against women. Job evaluation is a traditional tool used by companies to assist in the process of determining pay structures that can be also useful to detect and combat wage discrimination, since allow determining whether two jobs are of comparable worth or not. Although there are many kinds of systems, authors agree when defining point factor methods as the most appropriate and fair job evaluation systems. However, even being well defined from a technical point of view, most existing systems give discriminatory results regarding to gender. ISOS, a new job evaluation system which is described in this paper, has been designed, with the aim to define a neutral system with regard to gender, based on present jobs characteristics, existing job evaluation systems and job description questionnaires, international experts’ knowledge and a wide body of literature on gender discrimination and its relation with job evaluation. Using ISOS can contribute to detect, combat and eliminate part of the existing wage discrimination in general and, in particular, against women. ISOS includes all aspects of the work so no characteristics are omitted. The system can be applied in any company and to evaluate any job, and offers flexibility to be adapted to the specific characteristics of an organization. ISOS can also be used to detect and combat wage discrimination. Furthermore, characteristics of present jobs, such as cross-training or flexible working time, are also included so the system can be considered innovative in a very traditional field of industrial engineering.

  5. Brief Report: Performing on the Stage, the Field, or Both? Australian Adolescent Extracurricular Activity Participation and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomfield, Corey J.; Barber, Bonnie L.

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between Australian adolescents' participation in extracurricular activities and their self-concepts was investigated. A total of 1489 adolescents (56% female; mean age 13.8 years) completed measures of social self-concept, academic self-concept, and general self-worth, and reported on their extracurricular activity participation.…

  6. Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) - Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) prototype : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Final Report for the FRATIS Dallas-Fort Worth DFW prototype system. The FRATIS prototype in : DFW consisted of the following components: optimization algorithm, terminal wait time, route specific : navigation/traffic/weather, and advanced...

  7. Further development of the Dynamic Control Assemblies Worth Measurement Method for Advanced Reactivity Computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petenyi, V.; Strmensky, C.; Jagrik, J.; Minarcin, M.; Sarvaic, I.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamic control assemblies worth measurement technique is a quick method for validation of predicted control assemblies worth. The dynamic control assemblies worth measurement utilize space-time corrections for the measured out of core ionization chamber readings calculated by DYN 3D computer code. The space-time correction arising from the prompt neutron density redistribution in the measured ionization chamber reading can be directly applied in the advanced reactivity computer. The second correction concerning the difference of spatial distribution of delayed neutrons can be calculated by simulation the measurement procedure by dynamic version of the DYN 3D code. In the paper some results of dynamic control assemblies worth measurement applied for NPP Mochovce are presented (Authors)

  8. Correlates of self-worth and body size dissatisfaction among obese Latino youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Nazrat M; Mackey, Eleanor Race; Armstrong, Bridget; Jaramillo, Ana; Palmer, Matilde M

    2011-03-01

    The current study examined self-worth and body size dissatisfaction, and their association with maternal acculturation among obese Latino youth enrolled in a community-based obesity intervention program. Upon entry to the program, a sample of 113 participants reported global self-worth comparable to general population norms, but lower athletic competence and perception of physical appearance. Interestingly, body size dissatisfaction was more prevalent among younger respondents. Youth body size dissatisfaction was associated with less acculturated mothers and higher maternal dissatisfaction with their child's body size. By contrast, although global self-worth was significantly related to body dissatisfaction, it was not influenced by mothers' acculturation or dissatisfaction with their own or their child's body size. Obesity intervention programs targeted to Latino youth need to address self-worth concerns among the youth as well as addressing maternal dissatisfaction with their children's body size. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. An investigation of the associations between contingent self-worth and aspirations among Iranian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabzehara, Milad; Ferguson, Yuna Lee; Sarafraz, Mehdi Reza; Mohammadi, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the novel associations between intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations and internal and external domains of contingent self-worth among a sample of 502 Iranian university students. We found a meaningful pattern showing that intrinsic aspirations were positively associated with internal domains, whereas extrinsic aspirations were positively associated with external domains. Our survey data also suggested that the factor structure of the Aspiration Index, as well as the factor structure of the Contingencies of Self-Worth Scale in our Iranian sample were consistent with factor structures of foreign samples. Finally, the types of aspirations and domains of contingencies of self-worth meaningfully predicted variables related to well-being, confirming previous research. We discuss the nature of the associations between the aspirations and the domains of contingent self-worth.

  10. Reducing contingent self-worth: a defensive response to self-threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Justin; Lam, Tiffany A; Andrade, Fernanda C; Boring, Brandon L; Emery, Danielle

    2018-04-10

    Previous research shows that people with high self-esteem cope with threats to the self by reducing the extent to which their self-worth is contingent on the threatened domain (Buckingham, Weber, & Sypher, 2012). The present studies tested the hypothesis that this is a defensive process. In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 (N = 160), showed that self-affirmation attenuates the tendency for people with high self-esteem to reduce their contingencies of self-worth following self-threat. Furthermore, Study 2 (N = 286), showed that this tendency was more prevalent among people with defensive self-esteem than among those with secure self-esteem. The present studies imply that reducing contingent self-worth after self-threat is a defensive process. We discuss implications for theories of contingent self-worth.

  11. Reliability of structural systems subject to fatigue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rackwitz, R.

    1984-01-01

    Concepts and computational procedures for the reliability calculation of structural systems subject to fatigue are outlined. Systems are dealt with by approximately computing componential times to first failure. So-called first-order reliability methods are then used to formulate dependencies between componential failures and to evaluate the system failure probability. (Author) [pt

  12. System Based Code: Principal Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuhide Asada; Masanori Tashimo; Masahiro Ueta

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a concept of the 'System Based Code' which has initially been proposed by the authors intending to give nuclear industry a leap of progress in the system reliability, performance improvement, and cost reduction. The concept of the System Based Code intends to give a theoretical procedure to optimize the reliability of the system by administrating every related engineering requirement throughout the life of the system from design to decommissioning. (authors)

  13. A longitudinal assessment of the links between physical activity and physical self-worth in adolescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raudsepp, Lennart; Neissaar, Inga; Kull, Merike

    2013-01-01

    A longitudinal framework was used to examine the hypotheses of (1) whether physical activity predicts changes in physical self-worth or (2) whether physical self-worth predicts changes in physical activity in adolescent girls. Participants (n=272) completed measures of physical self-worth and participation in physical activities at three different points spanning a two-year interval. A cross-lagged panel model using structural equation modelling analyses indicated that physical self-worth predicted subsequent physical activity and physical activity in turn predicted subsequent physical self-worth across time. Findings demonstrated a reciprocal relationship between physical self-worth and physical activity during early adolescence. This study supports the use of the reciprocal effects model (REM) in gaining an understanding of the cross-lagged relationships between physical self-worth and participation in physical activities amongst adolescent girls.

  14. Method for determining detailed rod worth profiles at low power in the fast test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevenich, R.A.

    1975-08-01

    A method for obtaining a detailed rod worth profile at low power for a slow control rod insertion is presented. The accuracy of the method depends on a preparatory experiment in which the test rod is dropped quickly to yield, upon analysis, the magnitude of the rod worth and an effective source value. These numbers are employed to initialize the inverse kinetics analysis for the slow insertion. Corrections for changes in detection efficiency are not included for the simulated experiments. (U.S.)

  15. A Bayesian Analysis of the Flood Frequency Hydrology Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    ERDC/CHL CHETN-X-1 February 2016 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A Bayesian Analysis of the Flood Frequency Hydrology ...flood frequency hydrology concept as a formal probabilistic-based means by which to coherently combine and also evaluate the worth of different types...and development. INTRODUCTION: Merz and Blöschl (2008a,b) proposed the concept of flood frequency hydrology , which emphasizes the importance of

  16. Development of a reactivity worth correction scheme for the one-dimensional transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. Y.; Song, J. S.; Joo, H. G.; Kim, H. Y.; Kim, K. S.; Lee, C. C.; Zee, S. Q.

    2003-11-01

    This work is to develop a reactivity worth correction scheme for the MASTER one-dimensional (1-D) calculation model. The 1-D cross section variations according to the core state in the MASTER input file, which are produced for 1-D calculation performed by the MASTER code, are incorrect in most of all the core states except for exactly the same core state where the variations are produced. Therefore this scheme performs the reactivity worth correction factor calculations before the main 1-D transient calculation, and generates correction factors for boron worth, Doppler and moderator temperature coefficients, and control rod worth, respectively. These correction factors force the one dimensional calculation to generate the same reactivity worths with the 3-dimensional calculation. This scheme is applied to the control bank withdrawal accident of Yonggwang unit 1 cycle 14, and the performance is examined by comparing the 1-D results with the 3-D results. This problem is analyzed by the RETRAN-MASTER consolidated code system. Most of all results of 1-D calculation including the transient power behavior, the peak power and time are very similar with the 3-D results. In the MASTER neutronics computing time, the 1-D calculation including the correction factor calculation requires the negligible time comparing with the 3-D case. Therefore, the reactivity worth correction scheme is concluded to be very good in that it enables the 1-D calculation to produce the very accurate results in a few computing time

  17. Adolescents and Music Media: Toward an Involvement-Mediational Model of Consumption and Self-Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Michelle; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce; Power, Thomas; Austin, Erica Weintraub; Hill, Laura Griner

    2010-01-01

    Using social cognitive theory and structural regression modeling, we examined pathways between early adolescents' music media consumption, involvement with music media, and 3 domains of self-concept (physical appearance, romantic appeal, and global self-worth; N=124). A mediational model was supported for 2 domains of self-concept. Music media…

  18. Application of bias factor method with use of virtual experimental value to prediction uncertainty reduction in void reactivity worth of breeding light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugo, Teruhiko; Mori, Takamasa; Kojima, Kensuke; Takeda, Toshikazu

    2007-01-01

    We have carried out the critical experiments for the MOX fueled tight lattice LWR cores using FCA facility and constructed the XXII-1 series cores. Utilizing the critical experiments carried out at FCA, we have evaluated the reduction of prediction uncertainty in the coolant void reactivity worth of the breeding LWR core based on the bias factor method with focusing on the prediction uncertainty due to cross section errors. In the present study, we have introduced a concept of a virtual experimental value into the conventional bias factor method to overcome a problem caused by the conventional bias factor method in which the prediction uncertainty increases in the case that the experimental core has the opposite reactivity worth and the consequent opposite sensitivity coefficients to the real core. To extend the applicability of the bias factor method, we have adopted an exponentiated experimental value as the virtual experimental value and formulated the prediction uncertainty reduction by the use of the bias factor method extended by the concept of the virtual experimental value. From the numerical evaluation, it has been shown that the prediction uncertainty due to cross section errors has been reduced by the use of the concept of the virtual experimental value. It is concluded that the introduction of virtual experimental value can effectively utilize experimental data and extend applicability of the bias factor method. (author)

  19. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  20. Is It Worth It? - the Economics of Reusable Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades billions of dollars have been invested by governments and private companies in the pursuit of lower cost access to space through earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation systems. Much of that investment has been focused on the development and operation of various forms of reusable transportation systems. From the Space Shuttle to current efforts by private commercial companies, the overarching belief of those making such investments has been that reusing system elements will be cheaper than utilizing expendable systems that involve throwing away costly engines, avionics, and other hardware with each flight. However, the view that reusable systems are ultimately a "better" approach to providing ETO transportation is not held universally by major stakeholders within the space transportation industry. While the technical feasibility of at least some degree of reusability has been demonstrated, there continues to be a sometimes lively debate over the merits and drawbacks of reusable versus expendable systems from an economic perspective. In summary, is it worth it? Based on our many years of direct involvement with the business aspects of several expendable and reusable transportation systems, it appears to us that much of the discussion surrounding reusability is hindered by a failure to clearly define and understand the financial and other metrics by which the financial "goodness" of a reusable or expandable approach is measured. As stakeholders, the different users and suppliers of space transportation have a varied set of criteria for determining the relative economic viability of alternative strategies, including reusability. Many different metrics have been used to measure the affordability of space transportation, such as dollars per payload pound (kilogram) to orbit, cost per flight, life cycle cost, net present value/internal rate of return, and many others. This paper will examine the key considerations that influence

  1. Load Control System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-04-03

    This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”

  2. Human reliability in complex systems: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1976-07-01

    A detailed analysis is presented of the main conceptual background underlying the areas of human reliability and human error. The concept of error is examined and generalized to that of human reliability, and some of the practical and methodological difficulties of reconciling the different standpoints of the human factors specialist and the engineer discussed. Following a survey of general reviews available on human reliability, quantitative techniques for prediction of human reliability are considered. An in-depth critical analysis of the various quantitative methods is then presented, together with the data bank requirements for human reliability prediction. Reliability considerations in process control and nuclear plant, and also areas of design, maintenance, testing and emergency situations are discussed. The effects of stress on human reliability are analysed and methods of minimizing these effects discussed. Finally, a summary is presented and proposals for further research are set out. (author)

  3. How Does Students’ Sense of Self-Worth Influence Their Goal Orientation in Mathematics Achievement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulseren Sekreter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In learning mathematics, students are naturally motivated to protect their self-worth by maintaining a belief that they are competent in this area. However, there is an important question which educators have to answer: “Why do students often confuse ability with worth?” The most important reason is that in our society students are widely considered to be worthy according to their ability to achieve in the given tasks in mathematics. Irrespective the contributions of the Multiple Intelligence Theory of intelligence in education, unfortunately mathematics is still regarded as predicting students’ overall ability to learn. Educators should realize that the need in order to protect self-worth arises primarily from fear of failure. Therefore, if this fear of failure is strong, some students will not try and gradually they will produce failure- avoiding strategies to avoid certain tasks in order not to look bad or receive negative assessments from others to protect his/her self-worth. It is important to make sure that the performance goals do not promote failure-avoidance (performance-avoidance-oriented behavior, such as avoiding unfavorable judgments of capabilities and looking incompetent when the student encounters greater challenges. The main purpose of this qualitative study, therefore, is to explore students’ achievement goal motivation, their self-worth and how these motivational factors impact their learning goals in mathematics. This study hypothesizes that self- worth protection in math has also been considered from a performance-avoidance goal viewpoint.This study emphasizes that educators, who consider true self-worth as the student’s inherent value, should avoid comparing their students’ ability, capability relative to others as well as students’ academic performance and outcomes with others in class context.

  4. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  5. No Occasion for Pleasure: The Self-Worth Contingency of a Setback and Coping With Humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fay Caroline Mary Geisler

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Whether or not one uses humor to cope with a setback may depend on the idiosyncratic relation of the setback to feeling of self-worth. All people pursue the higher order goal of self-validation, but people differ in what domains of life their self-worth is contingent upon and to what extent. In this article based on an incongruity theory of humor we argue that the use of humor in coping with a highly self-worth-contingent setback may be impeded by two cognitive-motivational processes: goal-driven activation and goal shielding. From the outlined theory we derived the hypothesis that the more a domain is contingent upon self-worth, the less likely a person will be to use humor to deal with a setback in that domain. We tested this hypothesis in two studies employing two forms of self-report, i.e., ratings of reaction likelihood to setbacks described at an abstract domain level (Study 1, and ranking of reaction likelihood to concrete setbacks from different domains (Study 2. The hypothesis was affirmed in different domains of self-worth contingency controlling for the influence of habitual coping with humor, coping by disengagement, and global self-esteem.

  6. Changes in academic adjustment and relational self-worth across the transition to middle school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Allison M; Shim, Sungok Serena; Makara, Kara A

    2013-09-01

    Moving from elementary to middle school is a time of great transition for many early adolescents. The present study examined students' academic adjustment and relational self-worth at 6-month intervals for four time points spanning the transition from elementary school to middle school (N = 738 at time 1; 53 % girls; 54 % African American, 46 % European American). Grade point average (G.P.A.), intrinsic value for schoolwork, self-worth around teachers, and self-worth around friends were examined at every time point. The overall developmental trajectory indicated that G.P.A. and intrinsic value for schoolwork declined. The overall decline in G.P.A. was due to changes at the transition and across the first year in middle school. Intrinsic value declined across all time points. Self-worth around teachers was stable. The developmental trends were the same regardless of gender or ethnicity except for self-worth around friends, which was stable for European American students and increased for African American students due to an ascent at the transition into middle school. Implications for the education of early adolescents in middle schools are discussed.

  7. Calculational benchmark comparisons for a low sodium void worth actinide burner core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Kawashima, M.; Arie, K.; Suzuki, M.

    1992-01-01

    Recently, a number of low void worth core designs with non-conventional core geometries have been proposed. Since these designs lack a good experimental and computational database, benchmark calculations are useful for the identification of possible biases in performance characteristics predictions. In this paper, a simplified benchmark model of a metal fueled, low void worth actinide burner design is detailed; and two independent neutronic performance evaluations are compared. Calculated performance characteristics are evaluated for three spatially uniform compositions (fresh uranium/plutonium, batch-averaged uranium/transuranic, and batch-averaged uranium/transuranic with fission products) and a regional depleted distribution obtained from a benchmark depletion calculation. For each core composition, the flooded and voided multiplication factor, power peaking factor, sodium void worth (and its components), flooded Doppler coefficient and control rod worth predictions are compared. In addition, the burnup swing, average discharge burnup, peak linear power, and fresh fuel enrichment are calculated for the depletion case. In general, remarkably good agreement is observed between the evaluations. The most significant difference is predicted performance characteristics is a 0.3--0.5% Δk/(kk) bias in the sodium void worth. Significant differences in the transmutation rate of higher actinides are also observed; however, these differences do not cause discrepancies in the performing predictions

  8. Exercise effects on depressive symptoms and self-worth in overweight children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H; Davis, Catherine L; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L

    2009-10-01

    To test the dose-response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7-11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 +/- 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. A dose-response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race x group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. This study shows dose-response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth.

  9. Social Support and Neighborhood Stressors Among African American Youth: Networks and Relations to Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Susan D; Felix, Erika D; Nagarajan, Thara

    2011-06-01

    Although neighborhood stressors have a negative impact on youth, and social support can play a protective role, it is unclear what types and sources of social support may contribute to positive outcomes among at-risk youth. We examined the influences of neighborhood disadvantage and social support on global self-worth among low-income, urban African American youth, both concurrently and longitudinally. We examined social support from both a structural and functional perspective, and tested the main-effects and the stress-buffering models of social support. Participants included 82-130 youth, in 6th-8th grade, who completed self-report measures. Network support results suggest participants received emotional, tangible, and informational support most often from mothers and other female relatives, with friends, fathers, and teachers also playing important roles. Model testing accounted for neighborhood stressors and support from various sources, revealing support from close friends was associated with concurrent self-worth; whereas, parent support predicted self-worth longitudinally, above and beyond initial levels of self-worth. The findings provide evidence for the main-effects model of social support and not the stress-buffering model. Our findings illustrate the importance of extended family networks and the types of support that youth rely upon in African American impoverished communities, as well as how support contributes to global self-worth. Implications and suggestions for future research and intervention are discussed.

  10. Exercise Effects on Depressive Symptoms and Self-Worth in Overweight Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen H.; Tkacz, Joseph; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Waller, Jennifer L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the dose–response effects of an exercise program on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. Method Overweight, sedentary children (N = 207, 7–11 years, 58% male, 59% Black) were randomly assigned to low or high dose (20 or 40 min/day) aerobic exercise programs (13 ± 1.6 weeks), or control group. Children completed the Reynolds Child Depression Scale and Self-Perception Profile for Children at baseline and posttest. Results A dose–response benefit of exercise was detected for depressive symptoms. A race × group interaction showed only White children's global self-worth (GSW) improved. There was some evidence that increased self-worth mediated the effect on depressive symptoms. Conclusions This study shows dose–response benefits of exercise on depressive symptoms and self-worth in children. However, Blacks did not show increased GSW in response to the intervention. Results provide some support for mediation of the effect of exercise on depressive symptoms via self-worth. PMID:19223278

  11. [Does self-worth mediate the effects of socio-environmental experiences on depression among fifth and sixth grade students?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Yasuyo; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Kitagawa, Tomoko

    2009-08-01

    This study investigated self-worth as a mediator between socio-environmental experiences and depression. A sample of 255 fifth and sixth grade students completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-worth, depression, and socio-environmental experiences of social support and stressors. Data for both males and females showed a direct effect of "friend support" on depression. However, for males, but not females, self-worth also mediated the influence of "friend support" on depression.

  12. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  13. Animal Welfare: Freedoms, Dominions and "A Life Worth Living".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, John

    2016-05-24

    This opinion paper considers the relative validity and utility of three concepts: the Five Freedoms (FF), Five Domains (FD) and Quality of Life (QoL) as tools for the analysis of animal welfare. The aims of FF and FD are different but complementary. FD seeks to assess the impact of the physical and social environment on the mental (affective) state of a sentient animal, FF is an outcome-based approach to identify and evaluate the efficacy of specific actions necessary to promote well-being. Both have utility. The concept of QoL is presented mainly as a motivational framework. The FD approach provides an effective foundation for research and evidence-based conclusions as to the impact of the things we do on the mental state of the animals in our care. Moreover, it is one that can evolve with time. The FF are much simpler. They do not attempt to achieve an overall picture of mental state and welfare status, but the principles upon which they are based are timeless. Their aim is to be no more than a memorable set of signposts to right action. Since, so far as the animals are concerned, it is not what we think but what we do that counts, I suggest that they are likely to have a more general impact.

  14. Improved Monte Carlo-perturbation method for estimation of control rod worths in a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, Edgar

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid method dedicated to improve the experimental technique for estimation of control rod worths in a research reactor is presented. The method uses a combination of Monte Carlo technique and perturbation theory. Perturbation method is used to obtain the equation for the relative efficiency of control rod insertion. A series of coefficients, describing the axial absorption profile are used to correct the equation for a composite rod, having a complicated burn-up irradiation history. These coefficients have to be determined - by experiment or by using some theoretical/numerical method. In the present paper they are derived from the macroscopic absorption cross-sections, obtained from detailed Monte Carlo calculations by MCNPX 2.6.F of the axial burn-up profile during control rod life. The method is validated on measurements of control rod worths at the BR2 reactor. Comparison with direct MCNPX evaluations of control rod worths is also presented

  15. Application of a spatial modal kinetic model for determination of control rod worths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, A.; Waldman, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    A high-precision rod drop method based on a modal kinetic model, with low dependence on detector location, is proposed to measure the reactivity worth of control rods. This value is obtained from data adjustment for the delayed evolution. It is necessary to maintain the experimental data fluctuation in a small value so that the error of the control rod worth should not be large. A model was developed in order to relate the fluctuation with some parameters which may be modified in the measuring process. The method was applied in the RA-6 reactor to measure control rod worth. For practical purpose it was found that the method can be applied to 15 dollars and it does not depend on relative detector and control rod locations, as the method based on the Point Reactor Model does. (author). 2 refs

  16. Parent-adolescent attachment and procrastination: The mediating role of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin-Bin

    2017-01-01

    Within the theoretical framework of attachment theory, the author examined associations between adolescents' procrastination and their attachment relationships with both mothers and fathers, and explored the potential mediation role of self-worth in these associations. Participants were 384 Chinese adolescents (49.6% boys, average age 15.13 years) from public schools in Shanghai, China. They completed self-report measures of 3 dimensions of parental attachment (i.e., trust, communication, and alienation), general self-worth, and procrastination. The results indicated that both paternal and maternal trust and paternal communication were negatively associated with higher levels of procrastination whereas both paternal and maternal alienation were positively associated with procrastination. In addition, self-worth mediated the associations among 3 dimensions of parental attachment and procrastination. The findings highlighted the importance of parental attachment-based intervention strategies to reduce procrastination among adolescents.

  17. Perfectionism and Contingent Self-Worth in Relation to Disordered Eating and Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M; Lin, Stacy L; Butler, Rachel M

    2017-05-01

    Perfectionism has been proposed as a transdiagnostic risk factor linked to eating disorders and anxiety. In the current study, we examine domains of contingent self-worth as potential moderators of the relationships between maladaptive perfectionism and disordered eating and anxiety using two waves of data collection. Undergraduate females (N = 237) completed online surveys of the study's core constructs at two points separated by about 14 months. At a bivariate level, maladaptive perfectionism was positively associated with disordered eating and anxiety. Maladaptive perfectionism and both appearance and relationship contingent self-worth interacted to predict increases in disordered eating. Neither of the interactive models predicted change in anxiety. Findings highlight maladaptive perfectionism as a transdiagnostic construct related to both disordered eating and anxiety. Interactive findings suggest that targeting maladaptive perfectionism and contingent self-worth (appearance, relationship) in prevention and treatment efforts could mitigate risk for the development or increase of disordered eating. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. It's All About the Money (For Some): Consequences of Financially Contingent Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Ward, Deborah E; Naragon-Gainey, Kristin

    2017-05-01

    Financial success is an important goal, yet striving for it is often associated with negative outcomes. One reason for this paradox is that financial pressures may be tied to basing self-worth on financial success. Studies 1a to 1c developed a measure of Financial Contingency of Self-Worth (Financial CSW), and found that it predicted more financial social comparisons, financial hassles, stress, anxiety, and less autonomy. In response to a financial (vs. academic) threat, higher Financial CSW participants experienced less autonomy, perceived financial problems more negatively, and disengaged from their financial problems (Study 2). When given an opportunity to self-affirm, however, Financial CSW participants did not show diminished autonomy in response to a financial (vs. academic) threat (Study 3). Finally, participants with higher Financial CSW were less likely to make extravagant spending decisions following a financial (vs. health) threat (Study 4). Together, these studies demonstrate the many consequences of staking self-worth on financial success.

  19. Men seek social standing, women seek companionship: sex differences in deriving self-worth from relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwang, Tracy; Crockett, Erin E; Sanchez, Diana T; Swann, William B

    2013-07-01

    Do men base their self-worth on relationships less than do women? In an assessment of lay beliefs, men and women alike indicated that men are less reliant on relationships as a source of self-worth than are women (Study 1). Yet relationships may make a different important contribution to the self-esteem of men. Men reported basing their self-esteem on their own relationship status (whether or not they were in a relationship) more than did women, and this link was statistically mediated by the perceived importance of relationships as a source of social standing (Studies 1 and 2). Finally, when relationship status was threatened, men displayed increased social-standing concerns, whereas women displayed increased interdependence concerns (Study 3). Together, these findings demonstrate that both men and women rely on relationships for self-worth, but that they derive self-esteem from relationships in different ways.

  20. Is it worth to calculate the dose of radioiodine?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikalauskas, V.; Kuprionis, G.; Vajauskas, D.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Administration of empirical doses of radioiodine (RAI) has been preferred to calculated doses in many hospitals, because the need to measure the size and the iodine uptake in the thyroid involves considerable inconvenience to the patient and additional costs. The preparation of RAI of varying activities also means extra work. Today there is no general consensus on whether radioiodine should be given as a fixed dose or should be calculated. There is also no consensus regarding the question of which radiation burden should be administered to a given volume of thyroid if the activity is calculated. However, while it is possible to deliver a relatively precise dose of radiation to the thyroid gland, maybe it is worth doing this?The aim of this study was to investigate the results of different uptake and volume dependent target doses on clinical outcome of patients with hyperthyroidism in Graves' disease, multi-nodular toxic goiter or toxic adenoma after radioiodine therapy. We reviewed the records of 428 patients (389 women and 39 men, mean age 56.8±12.9 years) who had received radioiodine treatment for Graves' disease and multinodular toxic goiter (n=312) or toxic adenoma (n=116) during the period of 2000-2004 in Kaunas Medical University Hospital. Most patients were given antithyroid drug therapy in order to achieve euthyroidism before treatment with RAI. Radioiodine uptake test with repeated measurements at 2, 6, 24, 48 and/or 72 and/or 96 hr to define the effective half-life was performed. In addition, all the patients underwent thyroid ultrasonography and scintigraphy to define the volume of the thyroid. The 131I activities were calculated according to the formula of Marinelli. In addition to the normal calculation individual target doses were adjusted to the thyroid volumes of each patient before therapy. For statistical evaluation, the patients were divided into four groups: group I included those with a thyroid volume 51 ml. Statistical analysis was

  1. Physical Activity and Global Self-worth in a Longitudinal Study of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddon, Hudson; Meyre, David; Cairney, John

    2017-08-01

    Physical activity is associated with an array of physical and mental health benefits among children and adolescents. The development of self-worth/self-esteem has been proposed as a mechanism to explain the mental health benefits derived from physical activity. Despite several studies that have analyzed the association between physical activity and self-worth, the results have been inconsistent. It is also uncertain how related physical health measures, such as sedentary behavior, body composition, and fitness, influence the relationship between physical activity and self-worth over time. In the present study, we 1) analyzed if the association between physical activity and self-worth remained constant over time and whether this relationship varied by sex and 2) investigated if changes in body composition and fitness level mediated the relationship between physical activity and self-worth. Data from the Physical Health Activity Study Team were used for this analysis. The Physical Health Activity Study Team is a prospective cohort study that included 2278 children at baseline (ages 9-10 yr) and included eight follow-up contacts for a 4-yr study period. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate global self-worth (GSW) over follow-up. Increased physical activity was associated with greater GSW across all waves of data collection, and this relationship did not vary significantly over time or between sexes. Aerobic fitness was positively associated with GSW, whereas body mass index (BMI) was inversely related to GSW. Both aerobic fitness and BMI appeared to mediate the association between physical activity and GSW. Sedentary behavior was not significantly associated with GSW. Physical activity is associated with greater GSW, and this relationship appears to be mediated by BMI and aerobic fitness. These findings reinforce the importance of physical behaviors and physical characteristics in shaping GSW in children.

  2. Evaluation of differential shim rod worth measurements in the OAK Ridge research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretscher, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Reasonable agreement between calculated and measured differential shim rod worths in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) has been achieved by taking into account the combined effects of negative reactivity contributions from changing fuel-moderator temperatures and of delayed photo-neutrons. A method has been developed for extracting the asymptotic period from the shape of the initial portion of the measured time-dependent neutron flux profile following a positive reactivity insertion. In this region of the curve temperature related reactivity feedback effects are negligibly small. Results obtained by applying this technique to differential shim rod worth measurements made in a wide variety of ORR cores are presented. (Author)

  3. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozin, Igor O

    1996-10-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects.

  4. Analogical reasoning for reliability analysis based on generic data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozin, Igor O.

    1996-01-01

    The paper suggests using the systemic concept 'analogy' for the foundation of an approach to analyze system reliability on the basis of generic data, describing the method of structuring the set that defines analogical models, an approach of transition from the analogical model to a reliability model and a way of obtaining reliability intervals of analogous objects

  5. The energy concept of the federal state of Lower Saxony. Reliable, environmentally friendly, climate friendly, and affordable. Energy policy for tomorrow; Das Energiekonzept des Landes Niedersachsen. Verlaesslich, umweltfreundlich, klimavertraeglich und bezahlbar. Energiepolitik fuer morgen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The present publication shows how the energy concept of the state administration of Lower Saxony contributes to a vision of tomorrow's energy supply and how it can be realised. It sets out by describing the present status of the energy supply and the challenges and situation confronting Germany and Lower Saxony. The ensuing chapters have the following headings: Energy supply in 2020: accelerating the expansion of renewable energies, exploiting potentials sustainably and efficiently; Prospects and instruments for improving energy efficiency; Modern conventional power plants for securing a stable and efficient electricity supply; The expansion of electricity networks and the development of smart grids; Costs of the energy turnaround; Natural gas and crude oil. The final chapter bears the heading: Innovation and energy research - our strengths.

  6. Reliability benefits of dispersed wind resource development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.; Artig, R.

    1998-05-01

    Generating capacity that is available during the utility peak period is worth more than off-peak capacity. Wind power from a single location might not be available during enough of the peak period to provide sufficient value. However, if the wind power plant is developed over geographically disperse locations, the timing and availability of wind power from these multiple sources could provide a better match with the utility's peak load than a single site. There are other issues that arise when considering disperse wind plant development. Singular development can result in economies of scale and might reduce the costs of obtaining multiple permits and multiple interconnections. However, disperse development can result in cost efficiencies if interconnection can be accomplished at lower voltages or at locations closer to load centers. Several wind plants are in various stages of planning or development in the US. Although some of these are small-scale demonstration projects, significant wind capacity has been developed in Minnesota, with additional developments planned in Wyoming, Iowa and Texas. As these and other projects are planned and developed, there is a need to perform analysis of the value of geographically disperse sites on the reliability of the overall wind plant.This paper uses a production-cost/reliability model to analyze the reliability of several wind sites in the state of Minnesota. The analysis finds that the use of a model with traditional reliability measures does not produce consistent, robust results. An approach based on fuzzy set theory is applied in this paper, with improved results. Using such a model, the authors find that system reliability can be optimized with a mix of disperse wind sites

  7. Dentascan – Is the Investment Worth the Hype ???

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Monali A; Shah, Sneha S; Dave, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Open Bone Measurement (OBM) and Bone Sounding (BS) are most reliable but invasive clinical methods for Alveolar Bone Level (ABL) assessment, causing discomfort to the patient. Routinely, IOPAs & OPGs are the commonest radiographic techniques used, which tend to underestimate bone loss and obscure buccal/lingual defects. Novel technique like dentascan (CBCT) eliminates this limitation by giving images in 3 planes – sagittal, coronal and axial. Aim: To compare & correlate non-invasive 3D radiographic technique of Dentascan with BS & OBM, and IOPA and OPG, in assessing the ABL. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional diagnostic study. Material and Methods: Two hundred and five sites were subjected to clinical and radiographic diagnostic techniques. Relative distance between the alveolar bone crest and reference wire was measured. All the measurements were compared and tested against the OBM. Statistical Analysis: Student’s t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: There is statistically significant difference between dentascan and OBM, only BS showed agreement with OBM (p < 0.05). Dentascan weakly correlated with OBM & BS lingually.Rest all techniques showed statistically significant difference between them (p= 0.00). Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, only BS seems to be comparable with OBM with no superior result of Dentascan over the conventional techniques, except for lingual measurements. PMID:24551722

  8. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  9. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  10. Do Self Concept Tests Test Self Concept? An Evaluation of the Validity of Items on the Piers Harris and Coopersmith Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Mervin D.; Chaves, John

    Items from Peirs-Harris and Coopersmith self-concept tests were evaluated against independent measures on three self-constructs, idealized, empathic, and worth. Construct measurements were obtained with the semantic differential and D statistic. Ratings were obtained from 381 children, grades 4-6. For each test, item ratings and construct measures…

  11. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  12. [The body--a sight worth seeing. Anatomy in controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetz, Franz Josef

    2007-01-01

    Astronomy and anatomy, for a long period at a standstill, mostly taught using old text books, gradually witnessed a reawakening. One began to trust one's own eyes, and the scientific view of the heavens and the dissected body satisfied both the needs of scientific enlightenment as well as people's curiosity and desire for sensation. In addition, the scientific view brought about an awareness of the individual's finiteness and his essential nothingness as well as an awe in the face of God's creation. In the 19th century, anatomy receded from public life, disappearing behind the closed doors of universities. From this perspective, only scientific, "expert" interest remained. Only in present times have the non-scientific views (mentioned above) been shown greater interest. It has become clear that anatomical exhibitions neither disturb the dead nor devalue their dignity, and these exhibitions have become popular worldwide. Not only do they satisfy peoples curiosity and desire for sensation, but also confront the individual with his existential vulnerability. Man's conception is now open to various interpretations, but seldom do historical, anatomical or pathological museums of medicine satisfy this human yearning to know, not to mention the pecuniary aspects of such institutions.

  13. The LG-bank control concept: An improved method for PWR load-following operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Won Seok; Christenson, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the results of an investigation of a new pressurized water reactor load-following control concept that utilizes light gray (LG) banks in combination with a single high-worth bank. The investigation determined a control strategy and a set of nuclear design parameters for the control banks that permits unrestricted load-following operation over a wide power range at both beginning-of-cycle and end-of-cycle conditions. Advantages of the LG-bank control concept are that flexible load-following maneuvers can be performed without either making changes in the boron concentration or requiring the continuous insertion of a high-worth control bank. These features remove both of the disadvantages of current gray-bank load-following designs, which generally require the continuous insertion of a high-worth bank and in some cases also involve changes in the boron concentration

  14. Analysis of sodium-void-worths in ZPPR-3 modified phase 3 core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, T.; Arai, K.; Otake, I. [Osaka Univ. (JP)

    1980-09-15

    The sodium-void-worths in the ZPPR-3 modified phase 3 core, in which singularities such as control-rods and sodium-followers were voided, have been analyzed using a unified diffusion coefficient. The unified diffusion coefficient is obtained by applying the Benoist formula to a super-cell consisting of different drawers, and is applicable not only to fuel drawers but also to control-rod drawers or sodium-followers. Using the coefficient the interference effect of neutron streaming between different drawers can be taken into account. The applicability of the unified diffusion coefficient to sodium-void-worth calculations has been checked in a slab model and a RZ model. The sodium-void-worths in the ZPPR-3 modified phase 3 core have been analyzed by carrying out 16-group three-dimensional diffusion calculations using the unified diffusion coefficient and the results have been compared with experimental data. The comparison indicates that the unified diffusion coefficient is useful in calculating the sodium-void-worth in a region including sodium-voided singularities.

  15. Troubled Diversities, Multiple Identities and the Relevance of Royce: What Makes a Community Worth Caring about?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposa, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article raises questions about what it means to be a diverse academic community and about why such diversity is worth struggling to achieve. The controversial arguments of Walter Benn Michaels are critically examined as a stimulus and prelude to considering the more constructive perspectives supplied by Amartya Sen and Josiah Royce. Royce's…

  16. 78 FR 4356 - Proposed Modification of the Dallas/Fort Worth Class B Airspace Area; TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) and Dallas Love Field Airport (DAL) within Class B airspace... acknowledge receipt of their comments on this action must submit with those comments a self-addressed, stamped... configuration has not kept pace with airport expansions and increasing operations and the current design makes...

  17. 29 CFR 102.147 - Contents of application; net worth exhibit; documentation of fees and expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Awards of Fees and Other Expenses § 102.147 Contents of... it is a cooperative association as defined in section 15(a) of the Agricultural Marketing Act (12 U.S... otherwise directed by the administrative law judge, the net worth exhibit will be included in the public...

  18. Predicting the Effects of Comparable Worth Programs on Female Labor Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Alice; Nakamura, Masao

    1989-01-01

    Surveys theories in labor economics about how the female labor supply is affected by the wage offers that women receive. Summarizes the implications concerning expected effects of comparable worth wage adjustments on female labor supply. Examines empirical evidence pertaining to the theory of female labor supply. (JS)

  19. 38 CFR 3.274 - Relationship of net worth to pension entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of net worth to pension entitlement. 3.274 Section 3.274 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Regulations...

  20. Evaluation of Tehran research reactor (TRR) control rod worth using MCNP4C computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, Mohammad; Vosoughi, Naser; Hosseini, Seyed Abolfazl

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of reactor control system is to provide a safe reactor starting up, operation and shutting down. Calculation or measurement of precise values of control rod worth is of great importance in Tehran Research Reactor (TRR), considering the fact that they are the only controlling tools in the reactor. In present paper, simulation of TRR in First Operation Cycle (FOC) and in cold and clean core for the calculation of total and integral worth of control nods is reported. MCNP4C computer code has been used for all simulation process. Two method have been used for control rods worth calculation in this paper, namely the direct approach and perturbation method. It is shown that while the direct approach is appropriate for worth calculation of both the shim and the regulating control rods, the perturbation method is just suitable for tiny reactivity changes, i.e. for small initial part of regulating rods. Results of simulation are compared with the reported data in Safety Analysis Report (SAR) of Tehran research reactor and showed satisfactory agreement. (author)

  1. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... Worth, Texas, Application for Manufacturing Authority, ATC Logistics & Electronics (Cell Phone Kitting... million unit capacity) is used for the kitting and distribution of cell phones. Components and materials sourced from abroad (representing 96% of the value of the finished product) include: cell phone batteries...

  2. Intercomparison of rod-worth measurement techniques in a LEU-HTR assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.; Chawla, R.

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of absorber-rod worths in the radial reflector of a LEU-HTR pebble bed system is described. Particular emphasis is placed on the choice of complementary measurement techniques to ensure that sensitivities to systematic errors in the calculated parameters used in the analysis are minimised. (author) 3 figs., 3 tabs., 8 refs

  3. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  4. Older Adults' Perceived Changes in Physical Self-Worth Associated with Resistance Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A.; Cannon, Jack

    2009-01-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional…

  5. Domain-Specific Ratings of Importance and Global Self-Worth of Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Deborah R.; Moffett, Aaron; Lieberman, Lauren; Dummer, Gail M.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined perceived competence; ratings of importance of physical appearance, athletic competence, and social acceptance; discrepancy scores; and global self-worth of 43 children with visual impairments. The findings revealed that the children discounted the importance of physical appearance, athletic competence, and social acceptance…

  6. Selected Findings from What's It Worth? The Economic Value of College Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Strohl, Jeff; Melton, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    These Selected Findings are part of a larger report: "What's It Worth?: The Economic Value of College Majors." In the full report, readers can find detailed information about earnings, broken down by 171 different undergraduate majors and a variety of demographic factors. The study also analyzes the likelihood that students in specific majors…

  7. 78 FR 32699 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Fort Worth Spinks Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... to Release Airport Property at the Fort Worth Spinks Airport, Fort Worth, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request to release airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA... the provisions of Section 125 of the Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st...

  8. 77 FR 39343 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  9. 75 FR 56662 - Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS [OMB Control No. 2900-0002] Agency Information Collection (Income-Net Worth and Employment Statement) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits Administration... . Please refer to ``OMB Control No. 2900-0002.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Income-Net Worth and...

  10. Is Self-Worth Protection Best Regarded as Intentional Self-Handicapping Behaviour or an Outcome of Choking under Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ted; Dinnel, Dale L.

    2007-01-01

    Self-worth protective students characteristically perform poorly when they anticipate that poor performance is likely to reveal low ability, yet perform well in situations that involve little threat to self-worth. The present study sought a further understanding of this variable pattern of achievement, assessing two possibilities: (1) that the…

  11. Relations between Perceived Competence, Importance Ratings, and Self-Worth among African American School-Age Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Leslie K.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate how domain-specific importance ratings affect relations between perceived competence and self-worth among African American school-age children. Importance ratings have been found to affect the strength of the relationship between perceived competence and self-worth and have implications for…

  12. The Role of Contingent Self-Worth in the Relation between Victimization and Internalizing Problems in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoul, Assia; Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Peer victimization can challenge mental health, yet limited research has considered contingent self-worth as a moderator of that relation. This study examined the relation of peer victimization to major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and social phobia during adolescence, and contingent self-worth as a hypothesized moderator of…

  13. Framework to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyen, Luc; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2005-03-01

    We propose a framework that combines simulation optimization with Bayesian decision analysis to evaluate the worth of hydraulic conductivity data for optimal groundwater resources management in ecologically sensitive areas. A stochastic simulation optimization management model is employed to plan regionally distributed groundwater pumping while preserving the hydroecological balance in wetland areas. Because predictions made by an aquifer model are uncertain, groundwater supply systems operate below maximum yield. Collecting data from the groundwater system can potentially reduce predictive uncertainty and increase safe water production. The price paid for improvement in water management is the cost of collecting the additional data. Efficient data collection using Bayesian decision analysis proceeds in three stages: (1) The prior analysis determines the optimal pumping scheme and profit from water sales on the basis of known information. (2) The preposterior analysis estimates the optimal measurement locations and evaluates whether each sequential measurement will be cost-effective before it is taken. (3) The posterior analysis then revises the prior optimal pumping scheme and consequent profit, given the new information. Stochastic simulation optimization employing a multiple-realization approach is used to determine the optimal pumping scheme in each of the three stages. The cost of new data must not exceed the expected increase in benefit obtained in optimal groundwater exploitation. An example based on groundwater management practices in Florida aimed at wetland protection showed that the cost of data collection more than paid for itself by enabling a safe and reliable increase in production.

  14. Self-reported "worth it" rating of aesthetic surgery in social media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domanski, Mark C; Cavale, Naveen

    2012-12-01

    A wide variety of surveys have been used to validate the satisfaction of patients who underwent aesthetic surgery. However, such studies are often limited by patient number and number of surgeons. Social media now allows patients, on a large scale, to discuss and rate their satisfaction with procedures. The views of aesthetic procedures patients expressed in social media provide unique insight into patient satisfaction. The "worth it" percentage, average cost, and number of respondents were recorded on October 16, 2011, for all topics evaluated on the aesthetic procedure social media site www.realself.com . Procedures were divided into categories: surgical, liposuction, nonsurgical, and dental. For each group, procedures with the most respondents were chosen and ordered by "worth it" score. A literature search was performed for the most commonly rated surgical procedures and the satisfaction rates were compared. A total of 16,949 evaluations of 159 aesthetic surgery topics were recorded. A correlation between cost of the procedure and percentage of respondents indicating that the procedure was "worth it" was not found. The highest-rated surgical procedure was abdominoplasty, with 93 % of the 1,589 self-selected respondents expressing that abdominoplasty was "worth it." The average self-reported cost was $8,400. The highest-rated nonsurgical product was Latisse, with 85 % of 231 respondents reporting it was "worth it" for an average cost of $200. The satisfaction scores in the literature for commonly rated surgical procedures ranged from 62 to 97.6 %. No statistically significant correlations between literature satisfaction scores and realself.com "worth it" scores were found. Abdominoplasty had the highest "worth it" rating among aesthetic surgical procedures. Aesthetic surgeons should be wary that satisfaction scores reported in the literature might not correlate with commonly achieved results. Social media has opened a new door into how procedures are

  15. COMET concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsmeyer, H.; Tromm, W.

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the COMET core catcher concept developed for a future PWR have been continued. The concept is based on the spreading of a core melt on a sacrificial layer and its erosion, until a subsequent addition of water from below causes a fragmentation of the melt. A porous solidification of the melt would then admit a complete flooding within a short period. (orig.)

  16. Concept Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology & Learning, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Concept maps are graphical ways of working with ideas and presenting information. They reveal patterns and relationships and help students to clarify their thinking, and to process, organize and prioritize. Displaying information visually--in concept maps, word webs, or diagrams--stimulates creativity. Being able to think logically teaches…

  17. Management concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Management concepts evolve through time. Health care managers can learn new concepts by evaluating classical management strategies, as well as modern-day strategies. Focusing on quality improvement and team building can help managers align the goals of their departments with the goals of the organization, consequently improving patient care.

  18. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  19. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  20. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  1. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  2. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  3. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  4. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  5. Design for Reliability in Renewable Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Zhou, Dao; Sangwongwanich, Ariya

    2017-01-01

    Power electronics are widely used in renewable energy systems to achieve lower cost of energy, higher efficiency and high power density. At the same time, the high reliability of the power electronics products is demanded, in order to reduce the failure rates and ensure cost-effective operation...... of the renewable energy systems. This paper thus describes the basic concepts used in reliability engineering, and presents the status and future trends of Design for Reliability (DfR) in power electronics, which is currently undergoing a paradigm shift to a physics-of-failure approach. Two case studies of a 2 MW...

  6. Development in structural systems reliability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murotsu, Y.

    1986-01-01

    This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem. (orig.)

  7. Development in structural systems reliability theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murotsu, Y

    1986-07-01

    This paper is concerned with two topics on structural systems reliability theory. One covers automatic generation of failure mode equations, identifications of stochastically dominant failure modes, and reliability assessment of redundant structures. Reduced stiffness matrixes and equivalent nodal forces representing the failed elements are introduced for expressing the safety of the elements, using a matrix method. Dominant failure modes are systematically selected by a branch-and-bound technique and heuristic operations. The other discusses the various optimum design problems based on reliability concept. Those problems are interpreted through a solution to a multi-objective optimization problem.

  8. The establish and application of equipment reliability database in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Wei; Li He

    2006-03-01

    Take the case of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant, the collecting and handling of equipment reliability data, the calculation method of reliability parameters and the establish and application of reliability databases, etc. are discussed. The data source involved the design information of the equipment, the operation information, the maintenance information and periodically test record, etc. Equipment reliability database built on a base of the operation experience. It provided the valid tool for thoroughly and objectively recording the operation history and the present condition of various equipment of the plant; supervising the appearance of the equipment, especially the safety-related equipment, provided the very practical worth information for enhancing the safety and availability management of the equipment and insuring the safety and economic operation of the plant; and provided the essential data for the research and applications in safety management, reliability analysis, probabilistic safety assessment, reliability centered maintenance and economic management in nuclear power plant. (authors)

  9. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  10. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  11. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on the association between performance-based self-esteem and exhaustion: A study of the self-worth notion of burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svedberg, Pia; Hallsten, Lennart; Narusyte, Jurgita; Bodin, Lennart; Blom, Victoria

    2016-10-01

    In the self-worth model, burnout is considered to be a syndrome of performance-based self-esteem (PBSE) and experiences of exhaustion. Studies have shown that PBSE and burnout indices such as Pines' Burnout Measure (BM) are associated. Whether these variables have overlapping etiologies has however not been studied before. Genetic and environmental components of covariation between PBSE and exhaustion measured with Pines' BM were examined in a bivariate Cholesky model using data from 14,875 monozygotic and dizygotic Swedish twins. Fifty-two per cent of the phenotypic correlation (r = 0.41) between PBSE and Pines' BM was explained by genetics and 48% by environmental factors. The findings of the present study strengthen the assumption that PBSE should be considered in the burnout process as proposed by the self-worth conception of burnout. The present results extend our understanding of the link between this contingent self-esteem construct and exhaustion and provide additional information about the underlying mechanisms in terms of genetics and environment. This finding corroborates the assumed syndrome view on burnout, while it also suggests an altered view of how the syndrome emerges and how it can be alleviated. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  14. Self-Concept in Arab American Adolescents: Implications of Social Support and Experiences in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabbah, Rhonda; Miranda, Antoinette Halsell; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate three domains (Scholastic Competence, Social Acceptance, and Global Self-Worth) of self-concept in Arab American adolescents in relation to their school experiences, including discrimination, self-perceived teacher social support, and self-perceived classmate social support. Half of the sample either…

  15. Classifier Fusion With Contextual Reliability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunga; Pan, Quan; Dezert, Jean; Han, Jun-Wei; He, You

    2018-05-01

    Classifier fusion is an efficient strategy to improve the classification performance for the complex pattern recognition problem. In practice, the multiple classifiers to combine can have different reliabilities and the proper reliability evaluation plays an important role in the fusion process for getting the best classification performance. We propose a new method for classifier fusion with contextual reliability evaluation (CF-CRE) based on inner reliability and relative reliability concepts. The inner reliability, represented by a matrix, characterizes the probability of the object belonging to one class when it is classified to another class. The elements of this matrix are estimated from the -nearest neighbors of the object. A cautious discounting rule is developed under belief functions framework to revise the classification result according to the inner reliability. The relative reliability is evaluated based on a new incompatibility measure which allows to reduce the level of conflict between the classifiers by applying the classical evidence discounting rule to each classifier before their combination. The inner reliability and relative reliability capture different aspects of the classification reliability. The discounted classification results are combined with Dempster-Shafer's rule for the final class decision making support. The performance of CF-CRE have been evaluated and compared with those of main classical fusion methods using real data sets. The experimental results show that CF-CRE can produce substantially higher accuracy than other fusion methods in general. Moreover, CF-CRE is robust to the changes of the number of nearest neighbors chosen for estimating the reliability matrix, which is appealing for the applications.

  16. Glaciotectonic deformation and reinterpretation of the Worth Point stratigraphic sequence: Banks Island, NT, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jessica M.; England, John H.; Evans, David J. A.

    2014-05-01

    Hill-hole pairs, comprising an ice-pushed hill and associated source depression, cluster in a belt along the west coast of Banks Island, NT. Ongoing coastal erosion at Worth Point, southwest Banks Island, has exposed a section (6 km long and ˜30 m high) through an ice-pushed hill that was transported ˜ 2 km from a corresponding source depression to the southeast. The exposed stratigraphic sequence is polydeformed and comprises folded and faulted rafts of Early Cretaceous and Late Tertiary bedrock, a prominent organic raft, Quaternary glacial sediments, and buried glacial ice. Three distinct structural domains can be identified within the stratigraphic sequence that represent proximal to distal deformation in an ice-marginal setting. Complex thrust sequences, interfering fold-sets, brecciated bedrock and widespread shear structures superimposed on this ice-marginally deformed sequence record subsequent deformation in a subglacial shear zone. Analysis of cross-cutting relationships within the stratigraphic sequence combined with OSL dating indicate that the Worth Point hill-hole pair was deformed during two separate glaciotectonic events. Firstly, ice sheet advance constructed the hill-hole pair and glaciotectonized the strata ice-marginally, producing a proximal to distal deformation sequence. A glacioisostatically forced marine transgression resulted in extensive reworking of the strata and the deposition of a glaciomarine diamict. A readvance during this initial stage redeformed the strata in a subglacial shear zone, overprinting complex deformation structures and depositing a glaciotectonite ˜20 m thick. Outwash channels that incise the subglacially deformed strata record a deglacial marine regression, whereas aggradation of glaciofluvial sand and gravel infilling the channels record a subsequent marine transgression. Secondly, a later, largely non-erosive ice margin overrode Worth Point, deforming only the most surficial units in the section and depositing a

  17. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  18. software reliability: failures, consequences and improvement

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BARTH EKWUEME

    2009-07-16

    Jul 16, 2009 ... function of time, but it is believed that some modeling technique for software reliability is reaching propensity, by ..... February 25, 1991 during the Gulf war, the chopping ... Let us consider a few key concepts that apply to both.

  19. Risk and reliability allocation to risk control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vojnovic, D.; Kozuh, M.

    1992-01-01

    The risk allocation procedure is used as an analytical model to support the optimal decision making for reliability/availability improvement planning. Both levels of decision criteria, the plant risk measures and plant performance indices, are used in risk allocation procedure. Decision support system uses the multi objective decision making concept. (author) [sl

  20. Evaluation of accuracy of Monte Carlo code MVP with VHTRC experiments. Multiplication factor at criticality, burnable poison worth and void worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nojiri, Naoki; Yamashita, Kiyonobu; Fiujimoto, Nozomu; Nakano, Masaaki , Yamane, Tsuyoshi; Akino, Fujiyoshi.

    1997-11-01

    Experimental data of VHTRC (Very High Temperature Reactor Critical Assembly) were analyzed using Monte Carlo code MVP (general purpose Monte Carlo code of neutron and photon transport calculations based on the continuous energy method). The calculation accuracy of the code was evaluated by the analysis for nuclear characteristics of a HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor). The MVP code can analyze with a detailed three-dimensional core model with a few approximations. The HTGRs have following characteristics from view point of nuclear design : they have burnable poisons, many void holes, namely, the control insertion holes and so on. Taking account of these characteristics, multiplication factor at criticality, burnable poison worth, and void worth were evaluated. The maximum calculation errors were 0.8%Δk, 7%, and 25% respectively, From these results, it can be concluded that the MVP code is able to be applied to the nuclear characteristics analysis of the HTGR like the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR). (author)

  1. An empirical evaluation of two theoretically-based hypotheses on the directional association between self-worth and hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavid, Lindley; McDonough, Meghan H; Smith, Alan L

    2015-06-01

    Fostering self-worth and hope are important goals of positive youth development (PYD) efforts, yet intervention design is complicated by contrasting theoretical hypotheses regarding the directional association between these constructs. Therefore, within a longitudinal design we tested: (1) that self-worth predicts changes in hope (self theory; Harter, 1999), and (2) that hope predicts changes in self-worth (hope theory; Snyder, 2002) over time. Youth (N = 321; Mage = 10.33 years) in a physical activity-based PYD program completed surveys 37-45 days prior to and on the second day and third-to-last day of the program. A latent variable panel model that included autoregressive and cross-lagged paths indicated that self-worth was a significant predictor of change in hope, but hope did not predict change in self-worth. Therefore, the directional association between self-worth and hope is better explained by self-theory and PYD programs should aim to enhance perceptions of self-worth to build perceptions of hope. Copyright © 2015 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of the worth of control and protection system rods of different design on the basis of the measurements in BN-600 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilyev, B.A.; Roslyakov, V.F.; Farakshin, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the worth measurements of the basic and experimental absorbing rods of BN-600 reactor are presented. The procedure used for the rods worth comparison on the basis of calculated and experimental data interpretation is described here. Basic and experimental rods relative worth is also presented. (author). 5 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Reliability evaluation of nuclear power plants by fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwao, H.; Otsuka, T.; Fujita, I.

    1993-01-01

    As a work sponsored by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, the Safety Information Research Center of NUPEC, using reliability data based on the operational experience of the domestic LWR Plants, has implemented FTA for the standard PWRs and BWRs in Japan with reactor scram due to system failures being at the top event. Up to this point, we have obtained the FT chart and minimal cut set for each type of system failure for qualitative evaluation, and we have estimated system unavailability, Fussell-Vesely importance and risk worth for components for quantitative evaluation. As the second stage of a series in our reliability evaluation work, another program was started to establish a support system. The aim of this system is to assist foreign and domestic plants in creating countermeasures when incidents occur, by providing them with the necessary information using the above analytical method and its results. (author)

  4. Contribution to high voltage matrix switches reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausenaz, Yvan

    2000-01-01

    Nowadays, power electronic equipment requirements are important, concerning performances, quality and reliability. On the other hand, costs have to be reduced in order to satisfy the market rules. To provide cheap, reliability and performances, many standard components with mass production are developed. But the construction of specific products must be considered following these two different points: in one band you can produce specific components, with delay, over-cost problems and eventuality quality and reliability problems, in the other and you can use standard components in a adapted topologies. The CEA of Pierrelatte has adopted this last technique of power electronic conception for the development of these high voltage pulsed power converters. The technique consists in using standard components and to associate them in series and in parallel. The matrix constitutes high voltage macro-switch where electrical parameters are distributed between the synchronized components. This study deals with the reliability of these structures. It brings up the high reliability aspect of MOSFETs matrix associations. Thanks to several homemade test facilities, we obtained lots of data concerning the components we use. The understanding of defects propagation mechanisms in matrix structures has allowed us to put forwards the necessity of robust drive system, adapted clamping voltage protection, and careful geometrical construction. All these reliability considerations in matrix associations have notably allowed the construction of a new matrix structure regrouping all solutions insuring reliability. Reliable and robust, this product has already reaches the industrial stage. (author) [fr

  5. Reliability analysis of software based safety functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1993-05-01

    The methods applicable in the reliability analysis of software based safety functions are described in the report. Although the safety functions also include other components, the main emphasis in the report is on the reliability analysis of software. The check list type qualitative reliability analysis methods, such as failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), are described, as well as the software fault tree analysis. The safety analysis based on the Petri nets is discussed. The most essential concepts and models of quantitative software reliability analysis are described. The most common software metrics and their combined use with software reliability models are discussed. The application of software reliability models in PSA is evaluated; it is observed that the recent software reliability models do not produce the estimates needed in PSA directly. As a result from the study some recommendations and conclusions are drawn. The need of formal methods in the analysis and development of software based systems, the applicability of qualitative reliability engineering methods in connection to PSA and the need to make more precise the requirements for software based systems and their analyses in the regulatory guides should be mentioned. (orig.). (46 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.)

  6. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnaby D Dunn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  7. Calculation code of heterogeneity effects for analysis of small sample reactivity worth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shigeaki; Mukaiyama, Takehiko; Maeda, Akio.

    1988-03-01

    The discrepancy between experimental and calculated central reactivity worths has been one of the most significant interests for the analysis of fast reactor critical experiment. Two effects have been pointed out so as to be taken into account in the calculation as the possible cause of the discrepancy; one is the local heterogeneity effect which is associated with the measurement geometry, the other is the heterogeneity effect on the distribution of the intracell adjoint flux. In order to evaluate these effects in the analysis of FCA actinide sample reactivity worth the calculation code based on the collision probability method was developed. The code can handle the sample size effect which is one of the local heterogeneity effects and also the intracell adjoint heterogeneity effect. (author)

  8. Childhood Predictors of Adolescent Competence and Self-Worth in Rural Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W.; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-01-01

    Problem Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Methods Data for regression analyses were collected when children (N = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade, (M=10.4 years of age) and again five years later when they were in high school (M=15 years of age). Findings Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother’s education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Conclusions Parents’ perceptions of child’s temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. PMID:23121139

  9. Analysis of reactivity worth for xenon poisoning during restart-up of reactor in iodine pit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xaofeng; Chen Wenzhen; Zhu Qian; Xu Guojun

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity worth of xenon poisoning and the densities of 135 I and 135 Xe were derived when the reactor was restarted up in iodine pit. Through the expressions obtained we can find the physics characteristics of reactor restarted up in iodine pit comprehensively and essentially. The results were analyzed and discussed. The reactor power before shutdown, the start-up power, the position where the reactor starts up in iodine pit, and so on, all have effect on the reactivity worth of xenon poisoning, and the different conditions can lead to totally different physics characteristics. In addition, the time when the reactor starts up in iodine pit is a very important factor for nuclear reactors safety. The conclusions are very important to the maneuverability and operation safety of ship nuclear reactors. (authors)

  10. Measurement and analysis of reactivity worth of 237Np sample in cores of TCA and FCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takeshi; Mori, Takamasa; Okajima, Shigeaki; Tani, Kazuhiro; Suzaki, Takenori; Saito, Masaki

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity worth of 22.87 grams of 237 Np oxide sample was measured and analyzed in seven uranium cores in the Tank-Type Critical Assembly (TCA) and two uranium cores in the Fast Critical Assembly (FCA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency. The TCA cores provided a systematic variation in the neutron spectrum between the thermal and resonance energy regions. The FCA cores, XXI and XXV, provided a hard neutron spectrum of the fast reactor and a soft one of the resonance energy region, respectively. Analyses were carried out using the JENDL-3.3 nuclear data library with a Monte Carlo method for the TCA cores and a deterministic method for the FCA cores. The ratios of calculated to experimental (C/E) reactivity worth were between 0.97 and 0.91, and showed no apparent dependence on the neutron spectrum. (author)

  11. "I'm worth more than that": trait positivity predicts increased rejection of unfair financial offers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Barnaby D; Makarova, Dasha; Evans, David; Clark, Luke

    2010-12-08

    Humans react strongly to unfairness, sometimes rejecting inequitable proposals even if this sacrifices personal financial gain. Here we explored whether emotional dispositions--trait tendencies to experience positive or negative feelings--shape the rejection of unfair financial offers. Participants played an Ultimatum Game, where the division of a sum of money is proposed and the player can accept or reject this offer. Individuals high in trait positivity and low in trait negativity rejected more unfair offers. These relationships could not be explained by existing accounts which argue that rejection behaviour results from a failure to regulate negative emotions, or serves to arbitrate social relationships and identity. Instead, the relationship between dispositional affect and rejection behaviour may be underpinned by perceived self worth, with those of a positive disposition believing that they are "worth more than that" and those of a negative disposition resigning themselves to "taking the crumbs from under the table".

  12. Dual worth trade-off method and its application for solving multiple criteria decision making problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Junwen

    2006-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of the traditional surrogate worth trade-off (SWT) method and solve the multiple criteria decision making problem more efficiently and interactively, a new method labeled dual worth trade-off (DWT) method is proposed. The DWT method dynamically uses the duality theory related to the multiple criteria decision making problem and analytic hierarchy process technique to obtain the decision maker's solution preference information and finally find the satisfactory compromise solution of the decision maker. Through the interactive process between the analyst and the decision maker, trade-off information is solicited and treated properly, the representative subset of efficient solutions and the satisfactory solution to the problem are found. The implementation procedure for the DWT method is presented. The effectiveness and applicability of the DWT method are shown by a practical case study in the field of production scheduling.

  13. Contingencies of self-worth and social-networking-site behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanone, Michael A; Lackaff, Derek; Rosen, Devan

    2011-01-01

    Social-networking sites like Facebook enable people to share a range of personal information with expansive groups of "friends." With the growing popularity of media sharing online, many questions remain regarding antecedent conditions for this behavior. Contingencies of self-worth afford a more nuanced approach to variable traits that affect self-esteem, and may help explain online behavior. A total of 311 participants completed an online survey measuring such contingencies and typical behaviors on Facebook. First, exploratory factor analyses revealed an underlying structure to the seven dimensions of self-worth. Public-based contingencies explained online photo sharing (β = 0.158, p relationship with time online (β = -0.186, p relationship with the intensity of online photo sharing (β = 0.242), although no relationship was evident for time spent managing profiles.

  14. Self-perceptions, self-worth and sport participation in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguer, Isabel; Atienza, Francisco L; Duda, Joan L

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to study the associations between specific self-perceptions and global self-worth with different frequency levels of sport participation among Spanish boys and girls adolescents. Students (457 boys and 460 girls) completed the Self Perception Profile for Children (Harter, 1985) and items assessing sport engagement from The Health Behavior in School Children Questionnaire (Wold, 1995). Results showed that some specific dimensions of self-perception were related to different frequency of sport participation whereas overall judgments of self-worth did not. Specifically, for boys and girls, higher levels of sport participation were positively associated to Athletic Competence, and for boys were also associated with Physical Appearance and Social Acceptance. The potential implications of domain specific socialisation processes on the configuration of self-perceptions are highlighted.

  15. Childhood predictors of adolescent competence and self-worth in rural youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rew, Lynn; Grady, Matthew W; Spoden, Micajah

    2012-11-01

    Urban children who become competent adults despite circumstances that place their development and mental health at risk are considered to be resilient. Less is known about the risk and protective factors that characterize resilience among Hispanic/Latinos living in rural areas. Data for regression analyses were collected when children (n = 603; 54% Hispanic/Latino) enrolled in the study in fifth grade (M = 10.4 years of age), and again 5 years later when they were in high school (M = 15 years of age). Statistically significant predictors of competence and self-worth in high schoolers included gender, ethnicity, and mother's education, as well as stress, temperament (task persistence), and competences measured in grade school. Parents' perception of child's temperament is a significant predictor of future competence and self-worth among rural adolescents. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Self-worth as a mediator between attachment and posttraumatic stress in interpersonal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ban Hong Phylice; Adams, Lauren A; Lilly, Michelle M

    2012-07-01

    It is well documented that most trauma survivors recover from adversity and only a number of them go on to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, survivors of interpersonal trauma (IPT) appear to be at heightened risk for developing PTSD in comparison to survivors of noninterpersonal trauma (NIPT). Despite a robust association between IPT exposure and attachment disruptions, there is a dearth of research examining the role of attachment-related processes implicated in predicting PTSD. Using a sample of college undergraduates exposed to IPT and NIPT, this study explores the mediating effect of self-worth in the relationship between attachment and PTSD. It is hypothesized that insecure attachment will be related to posttraumatic symptomatology via a reduced sense of self-worth in IPT survivors but not in NIPT survivors. Mediation analyses provide support for this hypothesis, suggesting the importance of considering negative cognitions about the self in therapeutic interventions, particularly those offered to IPT survivors.

  17. Self-worth mediates the effects of violent loss on PTSD symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Anthony D; Prati, Gabriele; Black, Sarah

    2011-02-01

    Although research has confirmed that violent losses can exacerbate grief reactions, few investigations have explored underlying mechanisms. In this study, the authors used a dataset on bereaved spouses and bereaved parents at 4- and 18-months postloss to examine the mediating effects of self-worth and worldviews (benevolence and meaningfulness beliefs). Persons bereaved by violent causes had significantly more posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), grief, and depression symptoms at 4- and 18-months postloss than persons bereaved by natural causes. Moreover, self-worth but not worldviews mediated the effects of violent loss on PTSD and depression symptoms cross sectionally and PTSD symptoms longitudinally. Findings underscore that self-views are a critical component of problematic reactions to violent loss, but fail to support the role of "shattered" worldviews. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.

  18. The pursuit of self-esteem: contingencies of self-worth and self-regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Jennifer; Brook, Amara T; Niiya, Yu; Villacorta, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Successful self-regulation is defined as the willingness to exert effort toward one's most important goals, while taking setbacks and failures as opportunities to learn, identify weaknesses and address them, and develop new strategies toward achieving those goals. Contingencies of self-worth can facilitate self-regulation because people are highly motivated to succeed and avoid failure in domains of contingency. However, because boosts in self-esteem are pleasurable and drops in self-esteem are painful, protection, maintenance, and enhancement of self-esteem can become the overriding goal. Several pitfalls for self-regulation can result, especially when tasks are difficult and failure is likely. In this article, we describe a program of research examining these self-regulation pitfalls associated with contingent self-worth and suggest that learning orientations, particularly the willingness to embrace failure for the learning it affords, foster successful self-regulation even in people with highly contingent self-esteem.

  19. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  20. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  1. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  2. Evaluation of the professional worth of scientific papers, their citation responding and the publication authority

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jaroslav; Fiala, J.; Gavrichev, K.S.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 1 (2018), s. 463-471 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : professional worth * citation response * quantity versus quality * impact factors * predatory journals * databases * JTAC * fields venture Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.953, year: 2016

  3. Mental Health and Self-Worth in Socially Transitioned Transgender Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durwood, Lily; McLaughlin, Katie A; Olson, Kristina R

    2017-02-01

    Social transitions are increasingly common for transgender children. A social transition involves a child presenting to other people as a member of the "opposite" gender in all contexts (e.g., wearing clothes and using pronouns of that gender). Little is known about the well-being of socially transitioned transgender children. This study examined self-reported depression, anxiety, and self-worth in socially transitioned transgender children compared with 2 control groups: age- and gender-matched controls and siblings of transgender children. As part of a longitudinal study (TransYouth Project), children (9-14 years old) and their parents completed measurements of depression and anxiety (n = 63 transgender children, n = 63 controls, n = 38 siblings). Children (6-14 years old; n = 116 transgender children, n = 122 controls, n = 72 siblings) also reported on their self-worth. Mental health and self-worth were compared across groups. Transgender children reported depression and self-worth that did not differ from their matched-control or sibling peers (p = .311), and they reported marginally higher anxiety (p = .076). Compared with national averages, transgender children showed typical rates of depression (p = .290) and marginally higher rates of anxiety (p = .096). Parents similarly reported that their transgender children experienced more anxiety than children in the control groups (p = .002) and rated their transgender children as having equivalent levels of depression (p = .728). These findings are in striking contrast to previous work with gender-nonconforming children who had not socially transitioned, which found very high rates of depression and anxiety. These findings lessen concerns from previous work that parents of socially transitioned children could be systematically underreporting mental health problems. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-worth therapy for depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yun-Fang; Wong, Thomas K S; Tsai, Hsiu-Hsin; Ku, Yan-Chiou

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study is to report the effects of self-worth therapy on depressive symptoms of older nursing home residents. Depression in older people has become a serious healthcare issue worldwide. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been shown to have inconsistent effects, and drug treatment can have important side-effects. A quasi-experimental design was used. Older people were sampled by convenience from residents of a nursing home in northern Taiwan between 2005 and 2006. To be included in the study participants had to: (i) have no severe cognitive deficits; (ii) test positive for depressive status and (iii) take the same anti-depressant medication in the previous 3 months and throughout the study. Participants in the experimental group (n = 31) received 30 minutes of one-to-one self-worth therapy on 1 day a week for 4 weeks. Control group participants (n = 32) received no therapy, but were individually visited by the same research assistant, who chatted with them for 30 minutes on 1 day/week for 4 weeks. Depressive status, cognitive status and functional status were measured at baseline, immediately after the intervention and 2 months later. Data were analysed by mean, standard deviations, t-test, chi-squared test and univariate anova. Self-worth therapy immediately decreased depressive symptoms relative to baseline, but not relative to control treatment. However, 2 months later, depressive symptoms were statistically significantly reduced relative to control. Self-worth therapy is an easily-administered, effective, non-pharmacological treatment with potential for decreasing depressive symptoms in older nursing home residents.

  5. Concepts of intrinsic safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    A newly introduced Japanese reactor concept, ISER (Intrinsically Safe and Economical Reactor), is intended to be a reference intrinsically safe light water reactor. ISER is designed similarly to PIUS but with greater economy in mind such that any utility in any country can choose it for its power system. Social assimilation and acceptability in the Asia Pacific Region including the United States are the keys to the ISER with the hope of dramatic reductions of social costs due to safeguards, reliability, financiability, and infrastructure building, particularly in the third world, as well as reactor safety itself. In this respect and others, the ISER proposal is different from other vendor-proposed reactor concepts and is unique

  6. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  7. Success Stories of Tanzanian Women Entrepreneurship Programs in Alleviating Poverty: Insights from WORTH Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwajabu Mbaruku

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to provide evidence on the relevance and type of support given by women entrepreneurship support programs in alleviating poverty among Tanzanian women entrepreneurs. As such, it argues that WORTH is beneficial for women entrepreneurs. Data for this study was drawn from the reviewed literature including existing documents at PACT Tanzania, supplemented by field work and discussions with PACT Tanzania’s WORTH specialists. The study revealed that the WORTH program provides various support to women both in groups and at an individual level. In addition, the success stories highlight that in the face of daunting obstacles, women have shown their ability and commitment to change their lives and their communities. Women entrepreneurs have had limited opportunities to describe their own opinions, experience and their ways of establishing and conducting business. This study gives voice to the voiceless and contributes to the growing body of literature on women entrepreneurship support programs in alleviating poverty.Working with allies and partners, in both the public and private sectors, is essential in successfully addressing and scaling up women’s entrepreneurial opportunities and support programs.

  8. Improved Monte Carlo - Perturbation Method For Estimation Of Control Rod Worths In A Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, Silva; Koonen, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    A hybrid method dedicated to improve the experimental technique for estimation of control rod worths in a research reactor is presented. The method uses a combination of Monte Carlo technique and perturbation theory. The perturbation theory is used to obtain the relation between the relative rod efficiency and the buckling of the reactor with partially inserted rod. A series of coefficients, describing the axial absorption profile are used to correct the buckling for an arbitrary composite rod, having complicated burn up irradiation history. These coefficients have to be determined - by experiment or by using some theoretical/numerical method. In the present paper they are derived from the macroscopic absorption cross sections, obtained from detailed Monte Carlo calculations by MCNPX 2.6.F of the axial burn up profile during control rod life. The method is validated on measurements of control rod worths at the BR2 reactor. Comparison with direct Monte Carlo evaluations of control rod worths is also presented. The uncertainties, arising from the used approximations in the presented hybrid method are discussed. (authors)

  9. Associations of adolescent hopelessness and self-worth with pregnancy attempts and pregnancy desire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorowicz, Anna R; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Schreiner, Pamela J; Bolland, John M

    2014-08-01

    We examined the associations of pregnancy desire (ambivalence or happiness about a pregnancy in the next year) and recent pregnancy attempts with hopelessness and self-worth among low-income adolescents. To evaluate independent associations among the study variables, we conducted gender-stratified multivariable logistic regression analyses with data derived from 2285 sexually experienced 9- to 18-year-old participants in the Mobile Youth Survey between 2006 and 2009. Fifty-seven percent of youths reported a desire for pregnancy and 9% reported pregnancy attempts. In multivariable analyses, hopelessness was positively associated and self-worth was negatively associated with pregnancy attempts among both female and male youths. Hopelessness was weakly associated (P = .05) with pregnancy desire among female youths. The negative association of self-worth and the positive association of hopelessness with pregnancy attempts among young men as well as young women and the association of hopelessness with pregnancy desire among young women raise questions about why pregnancy is apparently valued by youths who rate their social and cognitive competence as low and who live in an environment with few options for material success.

  10. Developing Sustainable Life Support System Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Evan A.

    2010-01-01

    Sustainable spacecraft life support concepts may allow the development of more reliable technologies for long duration space missions. Currently, life support technologies at different levels of development are not well evaluated against each other, and evaluation methods do not account for long term reliability and sustainability of the hardware. This paper presents point-of-departure sustainability evaluation criteria for life support systems, that may allow more robust technology development, testing and comparison. An example sustainable water recovery system concept is presented.

  11. Evaluation of structural reliability using simulation methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baballëku Markel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eurocode describes the 'index of reliability' as a measure of structural reliability, related to the 'probability of failure'. This paper is focused on the assessment of this index for a reinforced concrete bridge pier. It is rare to explicitly use reliability concepts for design of structures, but the problems of structural engineering are better known through them. Some of the main methods for the estimation of the probability of failure are the exact analytical integration, numerical integration, approximate analytical methods and simulation methods. Monte Carlo Simulation is used in this paper, because it offers a very good tool for the estimation of probability in multivariate functions. Complicated probability and statistics problems are solved through computer aided simulations of a large number of tests. The procedures of structural reliability assessment for the bridge pier and the comparison with the partial factor method of the Eurocodes have been demonstrated in this paper.

  12. Structural reliability codes for probabilistic design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    1997-01-01

    probabilistic code format has not only strong influence on the formal reliability measure, but also on the formal cost of failure to be associated if a design made to the target reliability level is considered to be optimal. In fact, the formal cost of failure can be different by several orders of size for two...... different, but by and large equally justifiable probabilistic code formats. Thus, the consequence is that a code format based on decision theoretical concepts and formulated as an extension of a probabilistic code format must specify formal values to be used as costs of failure. A principle of prudence...... is suggested for guiding the choice of the reference probabilistic code format for constant reliability. In the author's opinion there is an urgent need for establishing a standard probabilistic reliability code. This paper presents some considerations that may be debatable, but nevertheless point...

  13. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  14. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  15. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  16. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  17. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  18. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  19. Basic concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, B.

    1999-01-01

    The basic concepts of neutron scattering as a tool for studying the structure and the dynamics of condensed matter. Theoretical aspects are outlined, the two different cases of coherent and incoherent scattering are presented. The issue of resolution, coherence volume and the role of monochromators are also discussed. (K.A.)

  20. Simple Concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 295-319 ISSN 0353-5150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/0792 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : concept * constructions * set-theoretical paradigm Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  1. Freight Advanced Traveler Information System (FRATIS) - Dallas-Fort Worth : as-built system architecture and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document describes the As-Built System Architecture and Design for the FRATIS Dallas-Fort Worth : DFW prototype system. The FRATIS prototype in DFW consisted of the following components: : optimization algorithm, terminal wait time, route specif...

  2. 78 FR 33808 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 39-Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... Street, and 4600 Blue Mound Road, Fort Worth (Tarrant County), Texas. A separate application for ``usage... abroad include: plastic labels; parts of fans (housings, grills, pedestal assemblies, blades); electric...

  3. Does self-threat promote social connection? The role of self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Lora E; Maner, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Six studies examined the social motivations of people with high self-esteem (HSE) and low self-esteem (LSE) following a threat to a domain of contingent self-worth. Whether people desired social contact following self-threat depended on an interaction between an individual's trait self-esteem and contingencies of self-worth. HSE participants who strongly based self-worth on appearance sought to connect with close others following a threat to their physical attractiveness. LSE participants who staked self-worth on appearance wanted to avoid social contact and, instead, preferred a less interpersonally risky way of coping with self-threat (wanting to enhance their physical attractiveness). Implications for theories of self-esteem, motivation, and interpersonal processes are discussed.

  4. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  5. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  6. Women's worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, N

    1992-01-01

    Jill Conway is a feminist historian, writer, teacher, and now-emerita 1st woman president of Smith College. She claims that women today still suffer from a great deal of oppression. Women around the world are currently in a disadvantage position. In 7 countries women do not have the right to vote. In the US less that .5% of top executives are women. The wage gap in the US between 1939 and 1989 has only shrunk $.10, from $.58-$.68. Conway points out that we are all constrained by our social mores, generational attitudes, political events, and economic circumstances. Few people are able to overcome these things in the way that they live their lives. Conway questions the validity of history written from a male dominated point of view. Around the world the value of women's work is almost always lower than that of men. India is just 1 example, there 75% of women are illiterate and 1/2 the population lives in poverty based on a caste system. Female literacy tripled in the 1st 30 years of independence and by 1981 it had reached 25%. The literacy gap is actually growing in India Today with 44% of girls aged 6 to 11, who are eligible to attend school, not doing so. Rural poverty keeps them at home because their domestic work is more valuable than their education. Other cultural tradition compound the problem: arranged marriages often result in motherhood for 14 year old girls. This is done for many reasons, 1 of which is crop failure insurance. When 2 families are combined through marriage, their total land share grows and they are thus more likely to have enough to eat. Education is just 1 necessary step. Developed nations must realize the realities that exist in the countries they provide aid for. In Africa for example, 70% of continent's food is produced by women. Yet the aid programs of the past have only been designed to offer assistant to men and create jobs for men.

  7. Applications of majorization and Schur functions in reliability and life testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proschan, F.

    1975-01-01

    This is an expository paper presenting basic definitions and properties of majorization and Schur functions, and displaying a variety of applications of these concepts in reliability prediction and modelling, and in reliability inference and life testing

  8. The influence of social identity on self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J; Balderson, Danny; Hawkins, Michael; Wilson, Kathleen; Bruner, Mark W

    2018-02-01

    ​​​The current study examined the influence of social identity for individual perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort in school-based youth athletes. Using a prospective research design, 303 athletes (M age  = 14.89, SD = 1.77; 133 female) from 27 sport teams completed questionnaires at 2 time points (T1 - demographics, social identity; T2 - self-worth, commitment, effort) during an athletic season. Multilevel analyses indicated that at the individual level, the social identity dimension of in-group ties (IGT) predicted commitment (b = 0.12, P = .006) and perceived effort (b = 0.14, P = .008), whereas in-group affect (IGA) predicted commitment (b = 0.25, P = .001) and self-worth (b = 2.62, P = .006). At the team level, means for IGT predicted commitment (b = 0.31, P < .001) and self-worth (b = 4.76, P = .024). Overall, social identity accounted for variance at both levels, ranging from 4% (self-worth) to 15% (commitment). Identifying with a group to a greater extent was found to predict athlete perceptions of self-worth, commitment, and effort. More specifically, at the individual level, IGT predicted commitment and effort, and IGA predicted commitment and self-worth. At the team level, IGT predicted commitment and self-worth.

  9. Reactivity worth of the thermal column of a MTR type swimming pool research reactor using low enriched uranium fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali Khan, L.; Ahmad, N.

    2002-01-01

    The reactivity worth of the thermal column of a typical MTR type swimming pool research reactor using low enriched uranium fuel has been determined by modeling the core using standard computer codes. It was also measured experimentally by operating the reactor in the stall and open ends. The calculated value of the reactivity worth of the thermal column is about 14% greater than the experimentally determined value

  10. High Resolution Flash Flood Forecasting Using a Wireless Sensor Network in the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, M. D.; Kerkez, B.; Noh, S.; Seo, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we develop and evaluate a high resolution urban flash flood monitoring system using a wireless sensor network (WSN), a real-time rainfall-runoff model, and spatially-explicit radar rainfall predictions. Flooding is the leading cause of natural disaster fatalities in the US, with flash flooding in particular responsible for a majority of flooding deaths. While many riverine flood models have been operationalized into early warning systems, there is currently no model that is capable of reliably predicting flash floods in urban areas. Urban flash floods are particularly difficult to model due to a lack of rainfall and runoff data at appropriate scales. To address this problem, we develop a wide-area flood-monitoring wireless sensor network for the Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex, and use this network to characterize rainfall-runoff response over multiple heterogeneous catchments. First, we deploy a network of 22 wireless sensor nodes to collect real-time stream stage measurements over catchments ranging from 2-80 km2 in size. Next, we characterize the rainfall-runoff response of each catchment by combining stream stage data with gage and radar-based precipitation measurements. Finally, we demonstrate the potential for real-time flash flood prediction by joining the derived rainfall-runoff models with real-time radar rainfall predictions. We find that runoff response is highly heterogeneous among catchments, with large variabilities in runoff response detected even among nearby gages. However, when spatially-explicit rainfall fields are included, spatial variability in runoff response is largely captured. This result highlights the importance of increased spatial coverage for flash flood prediction.

  11. Materials technologies for advanced nuclear energy concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiStefano, J.; Harms, B.

    1983-01-01

    High-performance, advanced nuclear power plant concepts have emerged with major emphasis on lower capital costs, inherent safety, and increased reliability. The materials problems posed by these concepts are discussed and how the scientists and technologists at ORNL plan to solve them is described

  12. Conceptualizing Essay Tests' Reliability and Validity: From Research to Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badjadi, Nour El Imane

    2013-01-01

    The current paper on writing assessment surveys the literature on the reliability and validity of essay tests. The paper aims to examine the two concepts in relationship with essay testing as well as to provide a snapshot of the current understandings of the reliability and validity of essay tests as drawn in recent research studies. Bearing in…

  13. Product quality, service reliability and management of operations at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High product quality, service reliability, and management of operations are key factors in business growth and sustainability. Analyzing “The Starbucks Experience” is a pedagogical approach to reinforcing the concepts of control and management of quality, service reliability, and efficient operations in action. The objective ...

  14. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  15. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  16. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  17. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  18. Research on the Reliability Testing of Electrical Automation Control Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Yongjie Luo

    2014-01-01

    According to the author’s many years’ work experience, this paper first discusses the concepts of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, and then analyzes the test method of electrical automation control equipment reliability testing, finally, on this basis, this article discusses how to determine the reliability test method of electrical automation control equipment. Results of this study will provide a useful reference for electrical automation control equipment reliab...

  19. Introductory concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, W.E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical theories are commonly classified as being either ''classical'' or ''modern''. The reasons for this distinction are both historical and substantive. Limited in the sophistication of their measuring instruments, early scientists proposed theories appropriate for the description of the simplest and most accessible physical phenomena, e.g., the trajectories of the planets. Because of the class of phenomena observed, certain beliefs came to underlie all classical theories with regard to the nature of time, space, matter, etc. For example, the idea was undisputed that an object has at all times both a definite position and velocity. Not until the interior of the atom and the nature of electromagnetic radiation were explored was it discovered that the concepts of classical physics are inadequate to deal with many phenomena. A reassessment of fundamental postulates led to the formulation of modern physics which, it is believed, successfully treats the behavior of all physical systems. To gain an understanding of the rudiments of modern physics, one proceeds as the early scientists did by first mastering the classical concepts that emerge from their intuitive picture of the world. Modifications of these concepts are subsequently introduced which allow a more accurate treatment of physical phenomena, particularly atomic and nuclear systems

  20. Human reliability assessment in context

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollnagel, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Human Reliability Assessment (HRA) is conducted on the unspoken premise that 'human error' is a meaningful concept and that it can be associated with individual actions. The basis for this assumption it found in the origin of HRA, as a necessary extension of PSA to account for the impact of failures emanating from human actions. Although it was natural to model HRA on PSA, a large number of studies have shown that the premises are wrong, specifically that human and technological functions cannot be decomposed in the same manner. The general experience from accident studies also indicates that action failures are a function of the context, and that it is the variability of the context rather than the 'human error probability' that is the much sought for signal. Accepting this will have significant consequences for the way in which HRA, and ultimately also PSA, should be pursued

  1. Reliability and validity of risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aven, Terje; Heide, Bjornar

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we investigate to what extent risk analysis meets the scientific quality requirements of reliability and validity. We distinguish between two types of approaches within risk analysis, relative frequency-based approaches and Bayesian approaches. The former category includes both traditional statistical inference methods and the so-called probability of frequency approach. Depending on the risk analysis approach, the aim of the analysis is different, the results are presented in different ways and consequently the meaning of the concepts reliability and validity are not the same.

  2. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  3. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  4. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  6. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  7. Penn State advanced light water reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkowski, J.A.; Smith, K.A.; Edwards, R.M.; Robinson, G.E.; Schultz, M.A.; Klevans, E.H.

    1987-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island heightened concerns over the safety of nuclear power. In response to these concerns, a research group at the Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) undertook the conceptual design of an advanced light water reactor (ALWR) under sponsorship of the US Dept. of Energy (DOE). The design builds on the literally hundreds of years worth of experience with light water reactor technology. The concept is a reconfigured pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the capability of being shut down to a safe condition simply by removing all ac power, both off-site and on-site. Using additional passively activated heat sinks and replacing the pressurizer with a pressurizing pump system, the concept essentially eliminates the concerns of core damage associated with a total station blackout. Evaluation of the Penn State ALWR concept has been conducted using the EPRI Modular Modeling System (MMS). Results show that a superior response to normal operating transients can be achieved in comparison to the response with a conventional PWR pressurizer. The DOE-sponsored Penn State ALWR concept has evolved into a significant reconfiguration of a PWR leading to enhanced safety characteristics. The reconfiguration has touched a number of areas in overall plant design including a shutdown turbine in the secondary system, additional passively activated heat sinks, a unique primary side pressurizing concept, a low pressure cleanup system, reactor building layout, and a low power density core design

  8. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  9. Extending Data Worth Analyses to Select Multiple Observations Targeting Multiple Forecasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilhelmsen, Troels Norvin; Ferre, Ty Paul

    2017-01-01

    . In the present study, we extend previous data worth analyses to include: simultaneous selection of multiple new measurements and consideration of multiple forecasts of interest. We show how the suggested approach can be used to optimize data collection. This can be used in a manner that suggests specific...... measurement sets or that produces probability maps indicating areas likely to be informative for specific forecasts. Moreover, we provide examples documenting that sequential measurement election approaches often lead to suboptimal designs and that estimates of data covariance should be included when...

  10. Detailed analysis for a control rod worth of the gas turbine high temperature reactor (GTHTR300)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, Tetsuo; Katanishi, Shoji; Takada, Shoji; Yan, Xing; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    GTHTR300 is composed of a simplified and economical power plant based on an inherent safe 600 MWt reactor and a nearly 50% high efficiency gas turbine power conversion cycle. GTHTR300 core consist of annular fuel region, center and outer side reflectors because of cooling it effectively in depressurized accident conditions, and all control rods are located in both side reflectors of annular core. As a thermal neutron spectrum is strongly distorted in reflector regions, an accurate calculation is especially required for the control rod worth evaluation. In this study, we applied the detailed Monte Carlo calculations of a full core model, and confirmed that our design method has enough accuracy. (author)

  11. Comparable Worth Comes to the Private Sector: The Case of Ontario

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Baker; Nicole Fortin

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pro-active comparable worth legislation, covering both the public and private sectors, on wages, employment and the gender gap. Our focus is the pay equity initiative adopted by the Canadian province of Ontario in the early 1990s. Our preliminary finding is that the law fell short of its goal of reducing gender based wage differentials.Firm surveys indicate that the effect of the legislation was blunted by lack of compliance in small private firms, the low inciden...

  12. Polynomial curve fitting for control rod worth using least square numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mark Dennis Usang; Julia Abdul Karim; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh

    2012-01-01

    RTP must have sufficient excess reactivity to compensate the negative reactivity feedback effects such as those caused by the fuel temperature and power defects of reactivity, fuel burn-up and to allow full power operation for predetermined period of time. To compensate this excess reactivity, it is necessary to introduce an amount of negative reactivity by adjusting or controlling the control rods at will. Control rod worth depends largely upon the value of the neutron flux at the location of the rod and reflected by a polynomial curve. Purpose of this paper is to rule out the polynomial curve fitting using least square numerical techniques via MATLAB compatible language. (author)

  13. Investigating The Integral Control Rod Worth Of The Miniature Neutron Source Reactor MNSR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Hoang Hai; Do Quang Binh

    2011-01-01

    Determining control rod characteristics is an essential problem of nuclear reactor analysis. In this research, the integral control rod worth of the miniature neutron source reactor MNSR is investigated. Some other parameters of the nuclear reactor, such as core excess reactivity, shut down margin, are also calculated. Group constants for all reactor components are generated by the WIMSD code and then are used in the CITATION code to solve the neutron diffusion equations. The maximum relative error of the calculated results compared with the measurement data is about 3.5%. (author)

  14. Feasibility of reactivity worth measurements by perturbation method with Caliban and Silene experimental reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casoli, Pierre; Authier, Nicolas [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes de Valduc, 21120 Is-Sur-Tille (France)

    2008-07-01

    Reactivity worth measurements of material samples put in the central cavities of nuclear reactors allow to test cross section nuclear databases or to extract information about the critical masses of fissile elements. Such experiments have already been completed on the Caliban and Silene experimental reactors operated by the Criticality and Neutronics Research Laboratory of Valduc (CEA, France) using the perturbation measurement technique. Calculations have been performed to prepare future experiments on new materials, such as light elements, structure materials, fission products or actinides. (authors)

  15. Evaluation of MHTGR fuel reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichner, R.P.; Barthold, W.P.

    1992-07-01

    Modular High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (MHTGR) concepts that house the reactor vessel in a tight but unsealed reactor building place heightened importance on the reliability of the fuel particle coatings as fission product barriers. Though accident consequence analyses continue to show favorable results, the increased dependence on one type of barrier, in addition to a number of other factors, has caused the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to consider conservative assumptions regarding fuel behavior. For this purpose, the concept termed ''weak fuel'' has been proposed on an interim basis. ''Weak fuel'' is a penalty imposed on consequence analyses whereby the fuel is assumed to respond less favorably to environmental conditions than predicted by behavioral models. The rationale for adopting this penalty, as well as conditions that would permit its reduction or elimination, are examined in this report. The evaluation includes an examination of possible fuel-manufacturing defects, quality-control procedures for defect detection, and the mechanisms by which fuel defects may lead to failure

  16. Some areas of reliability technique which have been neglected to some extent - maintainability - human reliability - mechanical reliability - repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akersten, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis consists of four papers, three of which are of a expositary nature and one more theoretical. The first two papers have a natural coupling to the man-machine interface. The first paper is devoted to the concept of maintainability and the role of man as maintenance technician. The second paper discusses aspects of human reliability, mainly studying man as operator. However, maintenance tasks can be studied in the same manner. The third paper concerns reliability prediction for mechanical components. This is an area of vital importance for the reliability practitioner, who needs realistic and easy-to-use mathematical models for different failure modes. The fourth paper discusses mathematical models for repairable systems, especially the problem of testing whether a constant event intensity model is adequate or not. (author)

  17. Reliability measures in managing GI bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon

    2012-06-01

    Multiple procedures and devices are used in a complex interplay to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. To model how a large variety of diagnostic and therapeutic components interact in the successful management of GI bleeding. The analysis uses the concept of reliability block diagrams from probability theory to model management outcome. Separate components of the management process are arranged in a serial or parallel fashion. If the outcome depends on the function of each component individually, such components are modeled to be arranged in series. If components complement each other and can mutually compensate for each of their failures, such components are arranged in a parallel fashion. General endoscopy practice. Patients with GI bleeding of unknown etiology. All available endoscopic and radiographic means to diagnose and treat GI bleeding. Process reliability in achieving hemostasis. Serial arrangements tend to reduce process reliability, whereas parallel arrangements increase it. Whenever possible, serial components should be bridged and complemented by additional alternative (parallel) routes of operation. Parallel components with low individual reliability can still contribute to overall process reliability as long as they function independently of other pre-existing alternatives. Probability of success associated with individual components is partly unknown. Modeling management of GI bleeding by a reliability block diagram provides a useful tool in assessing the impact of individual endoscopic techniques and administrative structures on the overall outcome. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. System reliability developments in structural engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, F.

    1982-01-01

    Two major limitations occur in present structural design code developments utilizing reliability theory. The notional system reliabilities may differ significantly from calibrated component reliabilities. Secondly, actual failures are often due to gross errors not reflected in most present code formats. A review is presented of system reliability methods and further new concepts are developed. The incremental load approach for identifying and expressing collapse modes is expanded by employing a strategy to identify and enumerate the significant structural collapse modes. It further isolates the importance of critical components in the system performance. Ductile and brittle component behavior and strength correlation is reflected in the system model and illustrated in several examples. Modal combinations for the system reliability are also reviewed. From these developments a system factor can be addended to component safety checking equations. Values may be derived from system behavior by substituting in a damage model which accounts for the response range from component failure to collapse. Other strategies are discussed which emphasize quality assurance during design and in-service inspection for components whose behavior is critical to the system reliability. (Auth.)

  19. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  20. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  1. Cooling concepts for HTS components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binneberg, A.; Buschmann, H.; Neubert, J.

    1993-01-01

    HTS components require that low-cost, reliable cooling systems be used. There are no general solutions to such systems. Any cooling concept has to be tailored to the specific requirements of a system. The following has to he taken into consideration when designing cooling concepts: - cooling temperature - constancy and controllability of the cooling temperature - cooling load and refrigerating capacity - continuous or discontinuous mode - degree of automation - full serviceability or availability before evacuation -malfunctions caused by microphonic, thermal or electromagnetic effects -stationary or mobile application - investment and operating costs (orig.)

  2. 'Ethical rationality': A subjective-objective concept of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, H.

    1991-01-01

    'Ethical rationality' as a concept of risk assessment means that risks are assessed using an integrative, ethical-normative approach (taking values, world views and people's understanding of what it means to be a human being and of what makes life worth living into account). Thus risks cannot be assessed on a mathematical and statistical basis alone. It is much more important to reflect upon what makes life worth living. In order to answer this question, the rationality of probability calculus does not suffice. Instead, this form of rationality must be transformed into or replaced by ethical discourse (an open, iterative and complex process of making ethical judgement). Proposals for an ethical assessment of risk are made which are substantiated by the theoretical concept of ethical rationality comprising the following steps: - Consideration of the nature of ethics (understanding of the viewer's perspective); - A look at an ethical interpretation of the traditional mathematical concept of risk (description); - Scheme for an ethical conception of rationality (theoretical reflections); - Weighing risks from an ethical perspective in practice. (orig./HSCH) [de

  3. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  4. Monte Carlo verification of control-rod worth for the Savannah River K reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosteller, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Savannah River K Reactor is a heavy-water reactor that relies on control-rod movement to control its reactivity and power distribution during normal operations. It is necessary, therefore, to have an accurate estimate of the reactivity worth of its control rods in order to predict the behavior of the reactor. Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) uses the GLASS lattice-physics code to calculate few-group cross sections for fuel and control-rod assemblies in the K reactor. This paper compares the control-rod worth calculated by GLASS to that calculated by the MCNP Monte Carlo program. The GLASS calculations utilize its standard 37-group cross-section library, while the MCNP calculations employ continuous-energy isotopic cross-section libraries derived from ENDF/B-V. The MCNP calculations therefore combine the most rigorous analytical model and the most accurate cross sections currently available for thermal-reactor analysis. Consequently, the MCNP results comprise a computational benchmark against which the accuracy of the GLASS code can be evaluated

  5. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Kristin J; Tylka, Tracy L

    2015-09-01

    Although research on positive body image has increased, little research has explored which variables protect body appreciation during body-related threats. Self-compassion may be one such variable. Individuals high in self-compassion are mindful, kind, and nurturing toward themselves during situations that threaten their adequacy, while recognizing that being imperfect is part of "being human." In this study, we investigated whether two body-related threats (i.e., body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth) were more weakly related to body appreciation when self-compassion was high among an online sample of 263 women (Mage=35.26, SD=12.42). Results indicated that self-compassion moderated the inverse relationships between body related threats and body appreciation. Specifically, when self-compassion was very high, body comparison and appearance contingent self-worth were unrelated to body appreciation. However, when self-compassion was low, these relationships were strong. Self-compassion, then, may help preserve women's body appreciation during body-related threats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Is It Worth Saving?: The Condition of Archaeological Documentary Record and Strategies for Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1992-11-01

    Full Text Available "[Historical] objects are events which have finished happening, and conditions [are] no longer in existence. Only when they are no longer perceptible do they become objects of historical thought" (Collingwood 1946:233. Scholars engaged in research in the history of anthropology and archaeology have long been aware of the deplorable conditions in which records as to anthropology's development in time are found and stored. All too often the researcher finds records in individual and institutional hands that are physically degrading because of the lack of proper storage facilities, the fiscal inability to hire professional archivists, the usage of improper methods of acquisition and curation, and dwindling financial resources to properly care for materials. It is now the time to ask if anthropological records are worth saving, and if they are, what are the best strategies to be employed to ensure their survival and protection now and into the future. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that the records of the subdiscipline of archaeology are worth saving and that there is a great sense of urgency to get about the business of identification and preservation before archaeological documentary records are further destroyed due to neglect and the lack of means to ensure their future existence.  This paper will define the problems of identification and preservation of archaeological records as they exist now and suggest strategies to rectify those problems.

  7. Analysis of Atmospheric Mercury and Associated Trace Gases in Dallas Fort Worth, TX (Barnett Shale area)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, P. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the month of June 2011, a variety of air quality measurements were obtained in the Dallas Fort Worth (Barnett Shale) field campaign. Species such as Hg0, O3, CO, NO, NO2, SO2 were monitored continuously along with a variety of volatile organic carbon (VOC) species ranging in size from C2 (ethane) to C9 aromatics to sesquiterpines. Mixed layer boundary heights were also monitored by Ceilometer measurements. At first glance, the mercury data has peaks that reach as high as 750 ppqv (parts per quadrillion by volume) which is approximately a 5 fold increase over the typical background values observed (~ 150 ppqv). The Fort Worth area has underlying Barnett Shale with thousands of natural gas compressor stations scattered throughout the surrounding landscape. We believe that a potential source of the elevated Hg0 is the result of leakage from these stations under the nocturnal boundary layer. A closer look at diurnal variations and backward wind trajectories will yield information pertaining to the types of air masses spanning the area. We will utilize the suite of chemical and meteorological measurements conducted during the campaign to facilitate source identification for specific time periods. Analysis of these data should provide new information on as yet unexplored sources of atmospheric mercury.

  8. Shame and Depressive Symptoms: Self-compassion and Contingent Self-worth as Mediators?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huaiyu; Carr, Erika R; Garcia-Williams, Amanda G; Siegelman, Asher E; Berke, Danielle; Niles-Carnes, Larisa V; Patterson, Bobbi; Watson-Singleton, Natalie N; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2018-02-27

    Research has identified the experience of shame as a relevant predictor of depressive symptoms. Building upon resilience theory, this is the first study to investigate if self-compassion and/or contingent self-worth (i.e., family support and God's love) mediate the link between shame and depressive symptoms. Participants were 109 African Americans, within the age range of 18 and 64, who sought service following a suicide attempt from a public hospital that serves mostly low-income patients. Findings suggest that shame was related to depressive symptoms through self-compassion but not through contingent self-worth, underscoring the significant role that self-compassion plays in ameliorating the aggravating effect of shame on depressive symptoms. Results highlight the value of incorporating self-compassion training into interventions for suicidal African Americans in an effort to reduce the impact of shame on their depressive symptoms and ultimately their suicidal behavior and as a result enhance their capacity for resilience.

  9. Reactivity worth measurements on the CALIBAN reactor: interpretation of integral experiments for the nuclear data validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, B.

    2012-01-01

    The good knowledge of nuclear data, input parameters for the neutron transport calculation codes, is necessary to support the advances of the nuclear industry. The purpose of this work is to bring pertinent information regarding the nuclear data integral validation process. Reactivity worth measurements have been performed on the Caliban reactor, they concern four materials of interest for the nuclear industry: gold, lutetium, plutonium and uranium 238. Experiments which have been conducted in order to improve the characterization of the core are also described and discussed, the latter are necessary to the good interpretation of reactivity worth measurements. The experimental procedures are described with their associated uncertainties, measurements are then compared to numerical results. The methods used in numerical calculations are reported, especially the multigroup cross sections generation for deterministic codes. The modeling of the experiments is presented along with the associated uncertainties. This comparison led to an interpretation concerning the qualification of nuclear data libraries. Discrepancies are reported, discussed and justify the need of such experiments. (author) [fr

  10. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  11. Issues in cognitive reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, D.D.; Hitchler, M.J.; Rumancik, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines some problems in current methods to assess reactor operator reliability at cognitive tasks and discusses new approaches to solve these problems. The two types of human failures are errors in the execution of an intention and errors in the formation/selection of an intention. Topics considered include the types of description, error correction, cognitive performance and response time, the speed-accuracy tradeoff function, function based task analysis, and cognitive task analysis. One problem of human reliability analysis (HRA) techniques in general is the question of what are the units of behavior whose reliability are to be determined. A second problem for HRA is that people often detect and correct their errors. The use of function based analysis, which maps the problem space for plant control, is recommended

  12. Application of the Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) technique to subcritical reactivity worth measurements in thermal and fast reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaise, P.; Fougeras, P.; Mellier, F.

    2009-01-01

    The Amplified Source Multiplication (ASM) method and its improved Modified Source Multiplication (MSM) method have been widely used in the CEA's EOLE and MASURCA critical facilities over the past decades for the determination of reactivity worths by using fission chambers in subcritical configurations. They have been successfully applied to absorber (single or clusters) worth measurement in both thermal and fast spectra, or for (sodium or water) void reactivity worths. The ASM methodology, which is the basic technique to estimate a reactivity worth, uses relatively simple relationships between count rates of efficient miniature fission chambers located in slightly subcritical reference and perturbed configurations. If this method works quite well for small reactivity variation (a few effective delayed neutron fraction), its raw results needs to be corrected to take into account the flux perturbation in the fission chamber. This is performed by applying to the measurement a correction factor called MSM. Its characteristics is to take into account the local space and energy variation of the spectrum in the fission chamber, through standard perturbation theory applied to neutron transport calculation in the perturbed configuration. The proposed paper describes in details both methodologies, with their associated uncertainties. Applications on absorber cluster worth in the MISTRAL-4 full MOX mock-up core and the last core loaded in MASURCA show the importance of the MSM correction on raw data. (authors)

  13. Proximal predictors of depressive symptomatology: perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal domains and introjective and anaclitic mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopala-Sibley, Daniel C; Zuroff, David C

    2010-01-01

    Although much research has demonstrated a relationship between negative life events and depressive symptoms, relatively little research has examined the mechanisms that may mediate this relationship. The theories of Blatt (1974), Bowlby (1980), and Gilbert (1992) each propose proximal predictors of depression. In accordance with these theories, this study examined the relationships among perceived losses in self-worth and interpersonal relationships, anaclitic (dependent) and introjective (self-critical) mood states, and depressive symptoms following a significant negative life event. A sample of 172 undergraduate students completed measures of depressive symptoms and depressive vulnerability factors and retrospectively described the worst period of their lives. They also rated the extent to which the events surrounding this worst period affected their self-worth and their relationships with close others. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that the effect of a perceived loss of self-worth on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by both introjective and anaclitic mood states, whereas the effect of a perceived loss of interpersonal relationships on depressive symptoms was fully mediated by an anaclitic mood state. Additionally, perceived losses of self-worth showed a stronger effect on introjective mood in highly self-critical individuals. Findings highlight the importance of perceived losses in both self-worth and interpersonal domains in response to adverse life events and suggest pathways through which perceived losses may affect depressive symptoms.

  14. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  15. Reliability Parts Derating Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    226-30, October 1974. 66 I, 26. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser Engineering and...Vol. R-23, No. 4, 226-30, October 1974. 28. "Reliability of GAAS Injection Lasers", De Loach , B. C., Jr., 1973 IEEE/OSA Conference on Laser...opnatien ot 󈨊 deg C, mounted on a 4-inach square 0.250~ inch thick al~loy alum~nusi panel.. This mounting technique should be L~ ken into cunoidur~tiou

  16. Fundamentals of reliability engineering applications in multistage interconnection networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gunawan, Indra

    2014-01-01

    This book presents fundamentals of reliability engineering with its applications in evaluating reliability of multistage interconnection networks. In the first part of the book, it introduces the concept of reliability engineering, elements of probability theory, probability distributions, availability and data analysis.  The second part of the book provides an overview of parallel/distributed computing, network design considerations, and more.  The book covers a comprehensive reliability engineering methods and its practical aspects in the interconnection network systems. Students, engineers, researchers, managers will find this book as a valuable reference source.

  17. A possibilistic uncertainty model in classical reliability theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cooman, G.; Capelle, B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors argue that a possibilistic uncertainty model can be used to represent linguistic uncertainty about the states of a system and of its components. Furthermore, the basic properties of the application of this model to classical reliability theory are studied. The notion of the possibilistic reliability of a system or a component is defined. Based on the concept of a binary structure function, the important notion of a possibilistic function is introduced. It allows to calculate the possibilistic reliability of a system in terms of the possibilistic reliabilities of its components

  18. Reliable software for unreliable hardware a cross layer perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Rehman, Semeen; Henkel, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    This book describes novel software concepts to increase reliability under user-defined constraints. The authors’ approach bridges, for the first time, the reliability gap between hardware and software. Readers will learn how to achieve increased soft error resilience on unreliable hardware, while exploiting the inherent error masking characteristics and error (stemming from soft errors, aging, and process variations) mitigations potential at different software layers. · Provides a comprehensive overview of reliability modeling and optimization techniques at different hardware and software levels; · Describes novel optimization techniques for software cross-layer reliability, targeting unreliable hardware.

  19. Columbus safety and reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, F.; Wessels, H.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses carried out to ensure Columbus reliability, availability, and maintainability, and operational and design safety are summarized. Failure modes/effects/criticality is the main qualitative tool used. The main aspects studied are fault tolerance, hazard consequence control, risk minimization, human error effects, restorability, and safe-life design.

  20. Reliability versus reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenheiser, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Defect detection and reproducibility of results are two separate but closely related subjects. It is axiomatic that a defect must be detected from examination to examination or reproducibility of results is very poor. On the other hand, a defect can be detected on each of subsequent examinations for higher reliability and still have poor reproducibility of results

  1. Power transformer reliability modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.

    2010-01-01

    Problem description Electrical power grids serve to transport and distribute electrical power with high reliability and availability at acceptable costs and risks. These grids play a crucial though preferably invisible role in supplying sufficient power in a convenient form. Today’s society has

  2. Proof tests on reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Yoshitsugu

    1983-01-01

    In order to obtain public understanding on nuclear power plants, tests should be carried out to prove the reliability and safety of present LWR plants. For example, the aseismicity of nuclear power plants must be verified by using a large scale earthquake simulator. Reliability test began in fiscal 1975, and the proof tests on steam generators and on PWR support and flexure pins against stress corrosion cracking have already been completed, and the results have been internationally highly appreciated. The capacity factor of the nuclear power plant operation in Japan rose to 80% in the summer of 1983, and considering the period of regular inspection, it means the operation of almost full capacity. Japanese LWR technology has now risen to the top place in the world after having overcome the defects. The significance of the reliability test is to secure the functioning till the age limit is reached, to confirm the correct forecast of deteriorating process, to confirm the effectiveness of the remedy to defects and to confirm the accuracy of predicting the behavior of facilities. The reliability of nuclear valves, fuel assemblies, the heat affected zones in welding, reactor cooling pumps and electric instruments has been tested or is being tested. (Kako, I.)

  3. Reliability and code level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kasperski, M.; Geurts, C.P.W.

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the work of the IAWE Working Group WBG - Reliability and Code Level, one of the International Codification Working Groups set up at ICWE10 in Copenhagen. The following topics are covered: sources of uncertainties in the design wind load, appropriate design target values for the

  4. Reliability of Plastic Slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1989-01-01

    In the paper it is shown how upper and lower bounds for the reliability of plastic slabs can be determined. For the fundamental case it is shown that optimal bounds of a deterministic and a stochastic analysis are obtained on the basis of the same failure mechanisms and the same stress fields....

  5. Reliability based structural design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A

  6. Travel time reliability modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This report includes three papers as follows: : 1. Guo F., Rakha H., and Park S. (2010), "A Multi-state Travel Time Reliability Model," : Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, n 2188, : pp. 46-54. : 2. Park S.,...

  7. Reliability and Model Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Leanne M.; Edwards, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to highlight the distinction between the reliability of test scores and the fit of psychometric measurement models, reminding readers why it is important to consider both when evaluating whether test scores are valid for a proposed interpretation and/or use. It is often the case that an investigator judges both the…

  8. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  9. Reciprocal links among differential parenting, perceived partiality, and self-worth: a three-wave longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebloski, Barbara; Conger, Katherine J; Widaman, Keith F

    2005-12-01

    This study examined reciprocal links between parental differential treatment, siblings' perception of partiality, and self-worth with 3 waves of data from 384 adolescent sibling dyads. Results suggest that birth-order status was significantly associated with self-worth and perception of maternal and paternal differential treatment. There was a consistent across-time effect of self-worth on perception of parental partiality for later born siblings, but not earlier born siblings, and a consistent effect of differential treatment on perception of partiality for earlier born but not later born siblings. The results contribute new insight into the associations between perception of differential parenting and adolescents' adjustment and the role of birth order. Copyright 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. High 240Pu FTR/EMC experiments and analysis: Carbide fuel and UO2 blanket subassembly worths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ombrellaro, P.A.

    1977-06-01

    Carbide-plutonium fuel and UO 2 blanket subassembly worth measurements performed at ANL in the EMC/LWR were analyzed. Composition exchange worth calculations were performed for: (a) the replacement of high- 240 Pu fuel composition for low- 240 Pu fuel composition and carbide-plutonium fuel composition, successively, in the center subassembly of the core; (b) the replacement of low- 240 Pu fuel composition for carbide--plutonium fuel composition in one outer driver subassembly; and (c) the replacement of the radial reflector composition with UO 2 blanket composition in one subassembly of the radial reflector. The composition exchange worth calculations were performed in two-dimensional x,y geometry, using diffusion theory and perturbation theory. Each method produces about the same calculated-to-experimental bias factors

  11. "You're Just Saying That." Contingencies of Self-Worth, Suspicion, and Authenticity in the Interpersonal Affirmation Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Edward P; Clark, Margaret S

    2008-09-01

    A model of the role and costs of contingent self-worth in the partner-affirmation process was tested. Actors whose self-worth was contingent on appearance or intelligence claimed to have expressed their particular heightened sensitivity to their romantic partners. Suggesting a cost to these reactions, actors' beliefs about having expressed heightened sensitivity, in turn, predicted their doubts about the authenticity of partners' positive feedback in the domain of contingency, independently of whether partners claimed to deliver inauthentic feedback. Suggesting a cost for partners, partners of contingent actors appeared to detect actors' expressions of sensitivity in the domain of contingency and respond by delivering inauthentic feedback to actors in the domain, which in turn predicted partners' increased relationship anxiety and decreased satisfaction. Results suggest that contingent self-worth may undermine the functioning of the partner-affirmation process through actors discrediting partners' positive feedback and partners behaving in an inauthentic and controlled manner.

  12. Sexual Assault and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Lower-Income Rural Women: The Mediating Role of Self-Worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Julia; Littleton, Heather

    2017-02-01

    Sexual victimization is associated with risky sexual behaviors. Limited research has examined mechanisms via which victimization affects risk behaviors, particularly following different types of sexual victimization. This study examined self-worth as a mediator of the relationship between sexual victimization history: contact childhood sexual abuse (CSA), completed rape in adolescence/adulthood (adolescent/adulthood sexual assault [ASA]), and combined CSA/ASA, and two sexual risk behaviors: past year partners and one-time encounters. Participants were diverse (57.9% African American), low-income women recruited from an OB-GYN waiting room (n = 646). Women with a history of sexual victimization, 29.8% (n = 186) reported lower self-worth, t(586) = 5.26, p < .001, and more partners, t(612) = 2.45, p < .01, than nonvictims. Self-worth was a significant mediator only among women with combined CSA/ASA histories in both risk behavior models.

  13. Reliability Approach of a Compressor System using Reliability Block ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... This paper presents a reliability analysis of such a system using reliability ... Keywords-compressor system, reliability, reliability block diagram, RBD .... the same structure has been kept with the three subsystems: air flow, oil flow and .... and Safety in Engineering Design", Springer, 2009. [3] P. O'Connor ...

  14. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  15. Comparison of seismic isolation concepts for FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiojiri, H.; Mazda, T.; Kasai, H.; Kanda, J.N.; Kubo, T.; Madokoro, M.; Shimomura, T.; Nojima, O.

    1989-01-01

    This paper seeks to verify the reliability and effectiveness of seismic isolation for FBR. Some results of the preliminary study of the program are described. Seismic isolation concepts and corresponding seismic isolation devices were selected. Three kinds of seismically-isolated FBR plant concepts were developed by applying promising seismic isolation concepts to the non-isolated FBR plant, and by developing plant component layout plans and building structural designs. Each plant was subjected to seismic response analysis and reduction in the amount of material of components and buildings were estimated for each seismic isolation concepts. Research and development items were evaluated

  16. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  17. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  18. Physical activity, menopause, and quality of life: the role of affect and self-worth across time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity has been shown to enhance quality of life (QOL); however, few investigations of these effects exist in women undergoing the menopausal transition. The present study examined the long-term effects of physical activity on menopause-related QOL and tested the mediating effects of physical self-worth and positive affect in this relationship. Middle-aged women previously enrolled in a 4-month randomized controlled trial involving walking and yoga, and a control group completed a follow-up mail-in survey 2 years after the end of the trial. The survey included a battery of psychological and physical activity measures, including measures of menopausal symptoms and menopause-related QOL. Longitudinal linear panel analysis was conducted within a covariance modeling framework to test whether physical self-worth and positive affect mediated the physical activity-QOL relationship over time. At the end of the trial, physical activity and menopausal symptoms were related to physical self-worth and positive affect, and in turn, greater levels of physical self-worth and positive affect were associated with higher levels of menopause-related QOL. Analyses indicated that increases in physical activity and decreases in menopausal symptoms over the 2-year period were related to increases in physical self-worth (betas = 0.23 and -0.52, physical activity and menopausal symptoms, respectively) and, for symptoms, also to decreased positive affect (beta = -0.47), and both physical self-worth (beta = 0.34) and affect (beta = 0.43) directly influenced enhancements in QOL (R = 0.775). The findings support the position that the effects of physical activity on QOL are mediated, in part, by intermediate psychological outcomes and that physical activity can have long-term benefits for women undergoing the menopausal transition.

  19. Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....

  20. Heroic Reliability Improvement in Manned Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    System reliability can be significantly improved by a strong continued effort to identify and remove all the causes of actual failures. Newly designed systems often have unexpected high failure rates which can be reduced by successive design improvements until the final operational system has an acceptable failure rate. There are many causes of failures and many ways to remove them. New systems may have poor specifications, design errors, or mistaken operations concepts. Correcting unexpected problems as they occur can produce large early gains in reliability. Improved technology in materials, components, and design approaches can increase reliability. The reliability growth is achieved by repeatedly operating the system until it fails, identifying the failure cause, and fixing the problem. The failure rate reduction that can be obtained depends on the number and the failure rates of the correctable failures. Under the strong assumption that the failure causes can be removed, the decline in overall failure rate can be predicted. If a failure occurs at the rate of lambda per unit time, the expected time before the failure occurs and can be corrected is 1/lambda, the Mean Time Before Failure (MTBF). Finding and fixing a less frequent failure with the rate of lambda/2 per unit time requires twice as long, time of 1/(2 lambda). Cutting the failure rate in half requires doubling the test and redesign time and finding and eliminating the failure causes.Reducing the failure rate significantly requires a heroic reliability improvement effort.

  1. Methodology for allocating reliability and risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, N.Z.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Bari, R.A.

    1986-05-01

    This report describes a methodology for reliability and risk allocation in nuclear power plants. The work investigates the technical feasibility of allocating reliability and risk, which are expressed in a set of global safety criteria and which may not necessarily be rigid, to various reactor systems, subsystems, components, operations, and structures in a consistent manner. The report also provides general discussions on the problem of reliability and risk allocation. The problem is formulated as a multiattribute decision analysis paradigm. The work mainly addresses the first two steps of a typical decision analysis, i.e., (1) identifying alternatives, and (2) generating information on outcomes of the alternatives, by performing a multiobjective optimization on a PRA model and reliability cost functions. The multiobjective optimization serves as the guiding principle to reliability and risk allocation. The concept of ''noninferiority'' is used in the multiobjective optimization problem. Finding the noninferior solution set is the main theme of the current approach. The final step of decision analysis, i.e., assessment of the decision maker's preferences could then be performed more easily on the noninferior solution set. Some results of the methodology applications to a nontrivial risk model are provided, and several outstanding issues such as generic allocation, preference assessment, and uncertainty are discussed. 29 refs., 44 figs., 39 tabs

  2. RTE - Reliability report 2016

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    Every year, RTE produces a reliability report for the past year. This document lays out the main factors that affected the electrical power system's operational reliability in 2016 and the initiatives currently under way intended to ensure its reliability in the future. Within a context of the energy transition, changes to the European interconnected network mean that RTE has to adapt on an on-going basis. These changes include the increase in the share of renewables injecting an intermittent power supply into networks, resulting in a need for flexibility, and a diversification in the numbers of stakeholders operating in the energy sector and changes in the ways in which they behave. These changes are dramatically changing the structure of the power system of tomorrow and the way in which it will operate - particularly the way in which voltage and frequency are controlled, as well as the distribution of flows, the power system's stability, the level of reserves needed to ensure supply-demand balance, network studies, assets' operating and control rules, the tools used and the expertise of operators. The results obtained in 2016 are evidence of a globally satisfactory level of reliability for RTE's operations in somewhat demanding circumstances: more complex supply-demand balance management, cross-border schedules at interconnections indicating operation that is closer to its limits and - most noteworthy - having to manage a cold spell just as several nuclear power plants had been shut down. In a drive to keep pace with the changes expected to occur in these circumstances, RTE implemented numerous initiatives to ensure high levels of reliability: - maintaining investment levels of euro 1.5 billion per year; - increasing cross-zonal capacity at borders with our neighbouring countries, thus bolstering the security of our electricity supply; - implementing new mechanisms (demand response, capacity mechanism, interruptibility, etc.); - involvement in tests or projects

  3. Testing Standard Reliability Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, David

    2017-01-01

    Maul's paper, "Rethinking Traditional Methods of Survey Validation" (Andrew Maul), contains two stages. First he presents empirical results that cast doubt on traditional methods for validating psychological measurement instruments. These results motivate the second stage, a critique of current conceptions of psychological measurement…

  4. Runway Incursion Prevention System: Demonstration and Testing at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Denise R.; Quach, Cuong C.; Young, Steven D.

    2007-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) was tested at the Dallas-Ft. Worth International Airport (DFW) in October 2000. The system integrated airborne and ground components to provide both pilots and controllers with enhanced situational awareness, supplemental guidance cues, a real-time display of traffic information, and warning of runway incursions in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. A series of test runs was conducted using NASA s Boeing 757 research aircraft and a test van equipped to emulate an incurring aircraft. The system was also demonstrated to over 100 visitors from the aviation community. This paper gives an overview of the RIPS, DFW flight test activities, and quantitative and qualitative results of the testing.

  5. A glimpse behind the mask: facets of narcissism and feelings of self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Besser, Avi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the connections that the facets of narcissism captured by the Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979) and the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009) have with self-esteem. This was accomplished by asking 372 participants to complete measures of narcissism and self-esteem level as well as daily diary measures concerning their state self-esteem and daily experiences. Our analyses found that the facets of narcissism differed in their associations with average level of self-esteem, fluctuations in state self-esteem over time, and self-esteem reactions following daily events. These results suggest that it is important to consider specific facets of narcissism when examining feelings of self-worth rather than relying on broader composite measures of narcissistic personality features. Implications of these results for our understanding of the dynamics of the narcissistic personality are discussed.

  6. THE WORTH OF WIVES: 1950s Corporate America “Discovers” Spousal Social Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Diehl Taylor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is an asset that is generated by the relationship between individuals within a social structure. It allows individuals to achieve goals that are unachievable in its absence or achievable only at higher cost. Wives are a form of social capital, and although they have contributed to the success of their husbands and their firms ever since the nineteenth century, corporations only began to acknowledge their worth during the 1950s. This company recognition arose out of the prevalence of large corporations and bureaucratic practices, corporate decentralization, concerns over frill-employment and unionization, the emphasis on human relations, and the early rumblings of the modern-day womens movement.

  7. Analysis of RSG-GAS Control Rod Worth Due to Perturbation Reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taswanda Taryo

    2004-01-01

    The control rod interaction effect of RSG-GAS typical working core was studied using a method based on the exact perturbation theory with three simplifying assumptions which require only N+1 criticality calculations. The interaction effect between two interacting rods reached up to 19 % while the interaction effect of multiple interacting rods reached up to 32 % for all (8) control rods involved. The accuracy of the adopted method were extensively investigated to determine the error sources and the magnitude of the error. Through comparison of the present results with ones of the simple summation method, it was obvious that the adopted method was superior in that a significant improvement on the accuracy of the calculated reactivity worth can be achieved with a small number of criticality calculations. (author)

  8. Because You're Worth It: Women's daily hair care routines in contemporary Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Hielscher

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hair care is a significant international industry – estimated to be worth over £1.44 billion in contemporary Britain (Mintel 2015. Given this, it is perhaps not so surprising to learn that British women spend on average £40,000 on their hair over a lifetime (Sharkey 2014. However, despite women's preoccupation with hair, social science research has paid little attention to this area (McCracken 1997; Cox 1999. Most previous studies have examined the changing nature of styles and fashion, offering valuable insights into its symbolic, ritualistic and religious nature and in turn demonstrating the conspicuous aspects of hair (Cox 1999; Biddle-Perry and Cheang 2008. While the public nature of hair has been documented, what is rarely explored is the private world of hair care, often part of a wider network of day-to-day domestic routines (Shove 2003.

  9. Fuel element reactivity worth in different rings of the IPR-R1 TRIGA reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes do Prado Souza, Rose Mary

    2008-10-29

    The thermal power of the IPR-R1 TRIGA Reactor will be upgraded from 100 kW to 250 kW. Starting core: loaded with 59 aluminum cladded fuel elements; 1.34 $ excess reactivity; and 100 kW power. It is planned to go 2.5 times the power licensed, i.e., 250 kW. This forces to enlarge the reactivity level. Nuclear reactors must have sufficient excess reactivity to compensate the negative reactivity feedback effects caused by: the fuel temperature, fuel burnup, fission poisoning production, and to allow full power operation for predetermined period of time. To provide information for the calculation of the new core arrangement, the reactivity worth of some fuel elements in the core were measured as well as the determination of the core reactivity increase in the substitution of the original fuels, cladded with aluminium, for new ones, cladded with stainless steel. The reactivity worth of fuel element was measured from the difference in critical position of the control rods, calibrated by the positive period method, before and after the fuel element was withdrawn from the core. The magnitude of reactivity increase was determined when withdrawing the original Al-clad fuel (a little burned up) and the graphite elements, and inserting a fresh Al-clad fuel element, one by one. Experimental results indicated that to obtain enough reactivity excess to increase the rector power the addition of 4 new fuel elements in the core would be sufficient: - Substitution of 4 Al-clad fuel elements in ring C for fresh stainless steel clad fuel elements; - increase the reactivity {approx_equal} 4 x 6.5 = 26 cents; - The removed 4 Al-clad F. E. (a little burned up) put in the core periphery, ring F, replacing graphite elements; - add < 4 x 39 156 cents (39 cents was measured with a fresh F.E.). Neutron source was changed from position F7 to F8. Control and Safety rods were moved from ring D to C in order to increase their reactivity worth. Regulating rod was kept at the same position, F16. Four

  10. Older adults' perceived changes in physical self-worth associated with resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionigi, Rylee A; Cannon, Jack

    2009-06-01

    Using Sonstroem, Harlow, and Josephs' (1994) expanded version of the Exercise and Self-Esteem Model (EXSEM; Sonstroem & Morgan, 1989), we explored how 9 older adults (6 women and 3 men, aged 65-72 years) involved in a resistance training program experienced and perceived changes in physical self-worth (i.e., improved strength, functional competency, physical condition, and body satisfaction). We conducted three in-depth interviews with each participant over the course of the program. In individual log books, participants recorded the weight lifted and the number of repetitions for each exercise. Our findings showed the course of changes in physical self-perceptions in these older adults and how actual individual changes in strength performance related to perceived changes in important psychological outcomes.

  11. Perfectionism in gifted students: moderating effects of goal orientation and contingent self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kenneth T; Fu, Chu-Chun; Rice, Kenneth G

    2012-06-01

    We examined the moderating effects of mastery goals and academic contingency of self-worth (CSW-A) on how perfectionistic discrepancy associates with academic efficacy and satisfaction with life among gifted students in middle and high school. Participants in this study were 144 gifted students from 6th to 12th grade in a suburban Midwest U.S. school district. A significant three-way interaction effect was found among discrepancy, mastery goals, and CSW-A on academic self-efficacy. The findings suggest that having high mastery goals served as a protective factor against the negative impact of discrepancy on academic efficacy for gifted students, but only for those with low CSW-A. For gifted students with elevated CSW-A, discrepancy was not negatively associated with academic self-efficacy, regardless of their level of mastery goals. The implications for these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Threading the needle in health-risk communication: increasing vulnerability salience while promoting self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Hart; Gerrard, Meg; McClive-Reed, Kimberly P

    2013-01-01

    Health interventions often draw attention to the risks associated with unhealthy choice but in the process produce a boomerang effect such that those targeted become more committed to risky behavior. In 2 studies designed to promote condom use among sexually active college students, the authors document strategies for highlighting risk while promoting healthy choices. Study 1 demonstrated that optimistic perceptions regarding the likelihood of contracting sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) can be counteracted by drawing attention to the emotional consequences of contracting STDs, instead of its likelihood. Rather than promoting condom use, however, this procedure generated a boomerang effect: It decreased commitment to using condoms, especially among high self-esteem individuals. Study 2 showed that this unwanted effect could be reversed when emotional vulnerability was paired with a self-affirmation. This finding suggests that there can be benefits to adding threatening content to health interventions, provided that the message also contains elements designed to protect feelings of self-worth.

  13. Accelerator reliability workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, L; Duru, Ph; Koch, J M; Revol, J L; Van Vaerenbergh, P; Volpe, A M; Clugnet, K; Dely, A; Goodhew, D

    2002-07-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.

  14. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  15. Reliability and construction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif S. AbdelSalam

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.

  16. Scyllac equipment reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutscher, W.D.; Johnson, K.J.

    1975-01-01

    Most of the failures in Scyllac can be related to crowbar trigger cable faults. A new cable has been designed, procured, and is currently undergoing evaluation. When the new cable has been proven, it will be worked into the system as quickly as possible without causing too much additional down time. The cable-tip problem may not be easy or even desirable to solve. A tightly fastened permanent connection that maximizes contact area would be more reliable than the plug-in type of connection in use now, but it would make system changes and repairs much more difficult. The balance of the failures have such a low occurrence rate that they do not cause much down time and no major effort is underway to eliminate them. Even though Scyllac was built as an experimental system and has many thousands of components, its reliability is very good. Because of this the experiment has been able to progress at a reasonable pace

  17. Improving Power Converter Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental......The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...

  18. Accelerator reliability workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D.

    2002-01-01

    About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop

  19. Safety and reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the course on safety and reliability assessment held at the CSIR Conference Centre, Scientia, Pretoria. The following topics were discussed: safety standards; licensing; biological effects of radiation; what is a PWR; safety principles in the design of a nuclear reactor; radio-release analysis; quality assurance; the staffing, organisation and training for a nuclear power plant project; event trees, fault trees and probability; Automatic Protective Systems; sources of failure-rate data; interpretation of failure data; synthesis and reliability; quantification of human error in man-machine systems; dispersion of noxious substances through the atmosphere; criticality aspects of enrichment and recovery plants; and risk and hazard analysis. Extensive examples are given as well as case studies

  20. Concept caring in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Drahošová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this literature review was to search for qualitative studies focusing on the concept of caring in nursing, to analyse them and to synthesize knowledge that concerns the definition of the concept of caring in nursing from the point of view of nurses and patients. Design: Review. Methods: Qualitative studies were searched for systematically in the electronic databases Academic Search Complete (EBSCO, CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, and the Wiley Library Online, according to set criteria and defined key words for the period 1970-2015. Seven selected articles were analysed after selection of documents with the aid of a sorting chart. Results: Nurses understand caring in nursing as a relationship with patients which is characterised on the nurses' part by an individual and empathetic approach, attentiveness, experience and sensitivity. Through caring, active communication takes place, providing information which reduces anxiety and leads to the breaking down of barriers. This relationship helps protect patients' autonomy, dignity and comfort. It requires experience on the part of nurses, and it is influenced by the environment. The nurses' personal qualities (what professional knowledge, attitudes and skills they have and their availability, reliability, and emotional and physical support are important to patients. Conclusion: The concept of caring is a content specific interpersonal process which is characterized by the professional knowledge, skills, personal maturity, and interpersonal sensitivity of nurses, which result in the protection, emotional support, and the meeting of bio-psycho-social needs of patients. The results of the overview study could contribute to an explanation and understanding of the nature of caring as a fundamental feature of the discipline of nursing.

  1. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, Halil; Togan, Vedat; Vrouwenvelder, Ton

    2009-01-01

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  2. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeniz, Halil [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.karadeniz@tudelft.nl; Togan, Vedat [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Vrouwenvelder, Ton [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  3. Technical feasibility study of 60 MWe fast reactor concept: RAPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Uotani, Masaki

    1993-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features and technical feasibility of an inherently safe 60 MWe fast reactor concept RAPID to meet various power requirements in Japan. The system dynamic analyses on the UTOP and ULOF transients revealed that the enhanced reactivity feedback derived from an annular core configuration and the integrated fuel assembly provides a high margin of self-protection. Structural integrity of the integrated fuel assembly has also been confirmed. The following innovative key technologies have been demonstrated; Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for ultimate shutdown, Lithium Expansion Modulus (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback and Void Leading Channel (VLC) for the sodium void worth reduction. (author)

  4. Reliability of Circumplex Axes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micha Strack

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.

  5. The cost of reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, M.

    1998-01-01

    In this article the restructuring process under way in the US power industry is being revisited from the point of view of transmission system provision and reliability was rolled into the average cost of electricity to all, it is not so obvious how is this cost managed in the new industry. A new MIT approach to transmission pricing is here suggested as a possible solution [it

  6. Evaluation of fission product worth margins in PWR spent nuclear fuel burnup credit calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomquist, R.N.; Finck, P.J.; Jammes, C.; Stenberg, C.G.

    1999-01-01

    Current criticality safety calculations for the transportation of irradiated LWR fuel make the very conservative assumption that the fuel is fresh. This results in a very substantial overprediction of the actual k eff of the transportation casks; in certain cases, this decreases the amount of spent fuel which can be loaded in a cask, and increases the cost of transporting the spent fuel to the repository. Accounting for the change of reactivity due to fuel depletion is usually referred to as ''burnup credit.'' The US DOE is currently funding a program aimed at establishing an actinide only burnup credit methodology (in this case, the calculated reactivity takes into account the buildup or depletion of a limited number of actinides). This work is undergoing NRC review. While this methodology is being validated on a significant experimental basis, it implicitly relies on additional margins: in particular, the absorption of neutrons by certain actinides and by all fission products is not taken into account. This provides an important additional margin and helps guarantee that the methodology is conservative provided these neglected absorption are known with reasonable accuracy. This report establishes the accuracy of fission product absorption rate calculations: (1) the analysis of European fission product worth experiments demonstrates that fission product cross-sections available in the US provide very good predictions of fission product worth; (2) this is confirmed by a direct comparison of European and US cross section evaluations; (3) accuracy of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) fission product content predictions is established in a recent ORNL report where several SNF isotopic assays are analyzed; and (4) these data are then combined to establish in a conservative manner the fraction of the predicted total fission product absorption which can be guaranteed based on available experimental data

  7. Neural Mechanisms of the Transformation from Objective Value to Subjective Utility: Converting from Count to Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnianingsih, Yoanna A.; Mullette-Gillman, O'Dhaniel A.

    2016-01-01

    When deciding, we aim to choose the “best” possible outcome. This is not just selection of the option that is the most numerous or physically largest, as options are translated from objective value (count) to subjective value (worth or utility). We localized the neural instantiation of the value-to-utility transformation to the dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (daMCC), with independent replication. The daMCC encodes the context-specific information necessary to convert from count to worth. This encoding is not simply a representation of utility or preference, but the interaction of the two. Specifically, the relationship of brain activation to value is dependent on individual preference, with both positive and negative slopes across the population depending on whether each individual's preference results in enhancement or diminishment of the valuation. For a given value, across participants, enhanced daMCC activation corresponds to diminished subjective valuation, deactivation to enhanced subjective valuation, and non-modulated activation with non-modulated subjective valuation. Further, functional connectivity analyses identified brain regions (positive connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus and negative connectivity with the nucleus accumbens) through which contextual information may be integrated into the daMCC and allow for outputs to modulate valuation signals. All analyses were replicated through an independent within-study replication, with initial testing in the gains domain and replication in the intermixed and mirrored losses trials. We also present and discuss an ancillary finding: we were unable to identify parametric value signals for losses through whole-brain analyses, and ROI analyses of the vmPFC presented non-modulation across loss value levels. These results identify the neural locus of the value-to-utility transformation, and provide a specific computational function for the daMCC in the production of subjective valuation through

  8. Software reliability studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  9. Investment in new product reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, D.N.P.; Rausand, M.; Virtanen, S.

    2009-01-01

    Product reliability is of great importance to both manufacturers and customers. Building reliability into a new product is costly, but the consequences of inadequate product reliability can be costlier. This implies that manufacturers need to decide on the optimal investment in new product reliability by achieving a suitable trade-off between the two costs. This paper develops a framework and proposes an approach to help manufacturers decide on the investment in new product reliability.

  10. Reliability evaluation of deregulated electric power systems for planning applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsani, A.; Ranjbar, A.M.; Jafari, A.; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, M.

    2008-01-01

    In a deregulated electric power utility industry in which a competitive electricity market can influence system reliability, market risks cannot be ignored. This paper (1) proposes an analytical probabilistic model for reliability evaluation of competitive electricity markets and (2) develops a methodology for incorporating the market reliability problem into HLII reliability studies. A Markov state space diagram is employed to evaluate the market reliability. Since the market is a continuously operated system, the concept of absorbing states is applied to it in order to evaluate the reliability. The market states are identified by using market performance indices and the transition rates are calculated by using historical data. The key point in the proposed method is the concept that the reliability level of a restructured electric power system can be calculated using the availability of the composite power system (HLII) and the reliability of the electricity market. Two case studies are carried out over Roy Billinton Test System (RBTS) to illustrate interesting features of the proposed methodology

  11. Career Advancement and Work Support Services on the Job: Implementing the Fort Worth Work Advancement and Support Center Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Caroline; Seith, David

    2011-01-01

    The Work Advancement and Support Center (WASC) program in Fort Worth was part of a demonstration that is testing innovative strategies to help increase the income of low-wage workers, who make up a large segment of the U.S. workforce. The program offered services to help workers stabilize their employment, improve their skills, and increase their…

  12. Global Sensitivity and Data-Worth Analyses in iTOUGH2: User's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wainwright, Haruko Murakami [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Finsterle, Stefan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-07-15

    This manual explains the use of local sensitivity analysis, the global Morris OAT and Sobol’ methods, and a related data-worth analysis as implemented in iTOUGH2. In addition to input specification and output formats, it includes some examples to show how to interpret results.

  13. 30 CFR 253.24 - When I submit audited annual financial statements to verify my net worth, what standards must...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... statements to verify my net worth, what standards must they meet? (a) Your audited annual financial statements must be bound. (b) Your audited annual financial statements must include the unqualified opinion of an independent accountant that states: (1) The financial statements are free from material...

  14. 75 FR 55401 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX AGENCY... airport property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the request for permanent... H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21). DATES: Comments must be...

  15. 78 FR 9105 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, TX AGENCY... Airport Property. SUMMARY: The FAA proposes to rule and invite public comment on the request for permanent... H. Ford Aviation Investment Reform Act for the 21st Century (AIR 21). DATES: Comments must be...

  16. Why Sticks and Carrots Are Only for Animals: An Exploratory Study on Self-Worth in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdhani, J.; Nkoane, M.

    2010-01-01

    The question that needs to be asked is what is motivating employees at higher education institution and why do people act in the way that they do? This article sought to test the following statement: There exists within the context of higher education an organizational culture based on the premise of self worth. Various theories of motivation have…

  17. Comparable Worth, Job Evaluation and Wage Discrimination: The Employer Approaches Wage Gap Issues in the 1980's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Daniel E.

    1984-01-01

    The role of women in the work force and the wages paid to women workers have become major employment discrimination issues of the 1980's. Comparable worth, wage discrimination, and the existence and possible influence of sex-related factors in wage administration systems, which include formalized job evaluation schemes, are discussed. (MLW)

  18. 75 FR 17691 - Foreign-Trade Zone 196 - Fort Worth, Texas, Application for Temporary/Interim Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... (Cell Phone Kitting and Distribution), Fort Worth, Texas An application has been submitted to the... cell phones (HTSUS 8517.12, duty free) under T/IM procedures at its facility (152 employees, 186,000... 96% of the value of the finished product) include: cell phone batteries; cell phone chargers and...

  19. 78 FR 37785 - Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ) 196-Fort Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Worth, Texas; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; Flextronics International USA, Inc. (Mobile... facility is used for the assembly, kitting, programming, testing, packaging, warehousing and distribution of mobile phones. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be limited to the specific foreign...

  20. Externally Contingent and Unstable Self-Worth as Predictors of Depression in College Women: A 3-Month Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Frederick G.; Thorne, Brittany; Schoenecker, Sydney; Siffert, Kevin; Chaliman, Rebecca; Castleberry, Erica

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate women completed measures of externally contingent self-worth, self-esteem instability, and depression at the beginning (Time 1) and again 3 months later near the end (Time 2) of an academic semester. Findings indicated that when Time 1 depression scores were controlled for, each Time 1 facet of self-esteem made significant…

  1. Configurations of actual and perceived motor competence among children: Associations with motivation for sports and global self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardid, Farid; De Meester, An; Tallir, Isabel; Cardon, Greet; Lenoir, Matthieu; Haerens, Leen

    2016-12-01

    The present study used a person-centred approach to examine whether different profiles based on actual and perceived motor competence exist in elementary school children. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to explore how children with different motor competence-based profiles might differ in their autonomous motivation for sports and global self-worth. Validated questionnaires were administered to 161 children (40% boys; age=8.82±0.66years) to assess their perceived motor competence, global self-worth, and motivation for sports. Actual motor competence was measured with the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. Cluster analyses identified four motor competence-based profiles: two groups were characterized by corresponding levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., low-low and high-high) and two groups were characterized by divergent levels of actual and perceived motor competence (i.e., high-low and low-high). Children in the low-low and high-low group displayed significantly lower levels of autonomous motivation for sports and lower levels of global self-worth than children in the low-high and high-high group. These findings emphasize that fostering children's perceived motor competence might be crucial to improve their motivation for sports and their global self-worth. Teachers and instructors involved in physical education and youth sports should thus focus on both actual and perceived motor competence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Intimacy development in late adolescence: Longitudinal associations with perceived parental autonomy support and adolescents' self-worth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Petegem, Stijn; Brenning, Katrijn; Baudat, Sophie; Beyers, Wim; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2018-03-21

    The present longitudinal study tested for the role of perceived parental autonomy-support and late adolescents' self-worth in their intimacy development. A sample of 497 Belgian late adolescents (M age  = 17.9, 43.5% girls) participated in this two-wave study. Results indicated that perceived autonomy-supportive parenting did not relate significantly to change in adolescents' experienced intimacy (in terms of closeness and mutuality), but was associated with a decrease in unmitigated agency (an excessive focus on the self) and unmitigated communion (an excessive focus on the other) across time. Adolescents' self-worth predicted an increase in experienced intimacy and a decrease in unmitigated agency and communion, and the initial level of experienced intimacy predicted an increase in self-worth. Finally, results suggested that adolescents' self-worth may mediate some of the longitudinal relations between perceived parental autonomy-support and adolescents' intimate functioning. No evidence was found for moderation by romantic involvement, gender or age. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. The Moderating Role of Physical Self-Perceptions in the Relationship between Maturity Status and Physical Self-Worth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Anne E.; Cole, Amy N.; Laurson, Kelly

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the moderating role of physical self-perceptions in the relationship between physical maturity and physical self-worth (PSW). Method: Students in Grades 5 through 8 (N = 241; 57% females; M[subscript age] =12.30 years) completed a questionnaire assessing physical self-perceptions (i.e., perceived sport competence, conditioning,…

  4. Associations between the parent-child relationship and adolescent self-worth: a genetically informed study of twin parents and their adolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams, Tom A; Rijsdijk, Fruhling V; Narusyte, Jurgita; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Spotts, Erica; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eley, Thalia C

    2017-01-01

    Low self-worth during adolescence predicts a range of emotional and behavioural problems. As such, identifying potential sources of influence on self-worth is important. Aspects of the parent-child relationship are often associated with adolescent self-worth but to date it is unclear whether such associations may be attributable to familial confounding (e.g. genetic relatedness). We set out to clarify the nature of relationships between parental expressed affection and adolescent self-worth, and parent-child closeness and adolescent self-worth. We used data from the Twin and Offspring Study in Sweden, a children-of-twins sample comprising 909 adult twin pairs with adolescent children. Using these data we were able to apply structural equation models with which we could examine whether associations remained after accounting for genetic transmission. Results demonstrated that parent-child closeness and parental-expressed affection were both phenotypically associated with adolescent self-worth. Associations could not be attributed to genetic relatedness between parent and child. Parent-child closeness and parental affection are associated with adolescent self-worth above and beyond effects attributable to genetic relatedness. Data were cross-sectional, so the direction of effects cannot be confirmed but findings support the notion that positive parent-child relationships increase adolescent self-worth. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  5. 26 CFR 1.989(c)-1 - Transition rules for certain branches of United States persons using a net worth method of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... business units (QBU) branches of United States persons, whose functional currency (as defined in section... that used a net worth method of accounting for their last taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987... section to a QBU branch that used a net worth method of accounting for its last taxable year beginning...

  6. Identified versus Introjected Approach and Introjected Avoidance Motivations in School and in Sports: The Limited Benefits of Self-Worth Strivings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assor, Avi; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Kaplan, Avi

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000), the authors examined whether 2 different types of introjected motivation--an avoidant type aimed at avoiding low self-worth and an approach type aimed at attaining high self-worth--are both associated with a less positive pattern of correlates relative to identified…

  7. Nuclear performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothwell, G.

    1993-01-01

    If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive. There has been a significant improvement in nuclear power plant performance, due largely to a decline in the forced outage rate and a dramatic drop in the average number of forced outages per fuel cycle. If fewer forced outages are a sign of improved safety, nuclear power plants have become safer and more productive over time. To encourage further increases in performance, regulatory incentive schemes should reward reactor operators for improved reliability and safety, as well as for improved performance

  8. [How Reliable is Neuronavigation?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz, Lennart Henning

    2016-02-17

    Neuronavigation plays a central role in modern neurosurgery. It allows visualizing instruments and three-dimensional image data intraoperatively and supports spatial orientation. Thus it allows to reduce surgical risks and speed up complex surgical procedures. The growing availability and importance of neuronavigation makes clear how relevant it is to know about its reliability and accuracy. Different factors may influence the accuracy during the surgery unnoticed, misleading the surgeon. Besides the best possible optimization of the systems themselves, a good knowledge about its weaknesses is mandatory for every neurosurgeon.

  9. The value of reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...... of the form of the standardised distribution of trip durations. This insight provides a unification of the scheduling model and models that include the standard deviation of trip duration directly as an argument in the cost or utility function. The results generalise approximately to the case where the mean...

  10. Reliability based Robustness of Timber Structures through NDT Data Updating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, Hélder S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    This work presents a framework for reliability-based assessment of timber structures / members using data gathered from non-destructive test results. These results are used for modeling an update of the mechanical characteristics of timber, using Bayesian methods. Results gathered from ultrasound...... of the structure, thus, being possible to evaluate reliability based in time dependent factors, as well to categorize that structure in terms of robustness. For exemplification of the underlined concepts, three different types of structures are studied....

  11. Aspect Of Reliability In Airport Business Continuity Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Michał

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the issue of ensuring the continuity of the operation at the airport. Requirements and objectives relating to business continuity management have been defined in accordance with ISO 22301 international standard. Conducted a study of reliability issues operation of the airport. Defined the function of the reliability and operational readiness of the airport. Presented the concept of using function of operational readiness in the risk assessment for the continuity of the airport.

  12. Calling to Nursing: Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Christie

    The aims of this article are (a) to analyze the concept of a calling as it relates nursing and (b) to develop a definition of calling to nursing with the detail and clarity needed to guide reliable and valid research. The classic steps described by Walker and Avant are used for the analysis. Literature from several disciplines is reviewed including vocational psychology, Christian career counseling, sociology, organizational management, and nursing. The analysis provides an operational definition of a calling to nursing and establishes 3 defining attributes of the concept: (a) a passionate intrinsic motivation or desire (perhaps with a religious component), (b) an aspiration to engage in nursing practice, as a means of fulfilling one's purpose in life, and (c) the desire to help others as one's purpose in life. Antecedents to the concept are personal introspection and cognitive awareness. Positive consequences to the concept are improved work meaningfulness, work engagement, career commitment, personal well-being, and satisfaction. Negative consequences of having a calling might include willingness to sacrifice well-being for work and problems with work-life balance. Following the concept analysis, philosophical assumptions, contextual factors, interdisciplinary work, research opportunities, and practice implications are discussed.

  13. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  14. Microprocessor hardware reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, R I

    1982-01-01

    Microprocessor-based technology has had an impact in nearly every area of industrial electronics and many applications have important safety implications. Microprocessors are being used for the monitoring and control of hazardous processes in the chemical, oil and power generation industries, for the control and instrumentation of aircraft and other transport systems and for the control of industrial machinery. Even in the field of nuclear reactor protection, where designers are particularly conservative, microprocessors are used to implement certain safety functions and may play increasingly important roles in protection systems in the future. Where microprocessors are simply replacing conventional hard-wired control and instrumentation systems no new hazards are created by their use. In the field of robotics, however, the microprocessor has opened up a totally new technology and with it has created possible new and as yet unknown hazards. The paper discusses some of the design and manufacturing techniques which may be used to enhance the reliability of microprocessor based systems and examines the available reliability data on lsi/vlsi microcircuits. 12 references.

  15. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  16. Reliability analysis of reactor protection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsan, S.

    1976-07-01

    A theoretical mathematical study of reliability is presented and the concepts subsequently defined applied to the study of nuclear reactor safety systems. The theory is applied to investigations of the operational reliability of the Siloe reactor from the point of view of rod drop. A statistical study conducted between 1964 and 1971 demonstrated that most rod drop incidents arose from circumstances associated with experimental equipment (new set-ups). The reliability of the most suitable safety system for some recently developed experimental equipment is discussed. Calculations indicate that if all experimental equipment were equipped with these new systems, only 1.75 rod drop accidents would be expected to occur per year on average. It is suggested that all experimental equipment should be equipped with these new safety systems and tested every 21 days. The reliability of the new safety system currently being studied for the Siloe reactor was also investigated. The following results were obtained: definite failures must be detected immediately as a result of the disturbances produced; the repair time must not exceed a few hours; the equipment must be tested every week. Under such conditions, the rate of accidental rod drops is about 0.013 on average per year. The level of nondefinite failures is less than 10 -6 per hour and the level of nonprotection 1 hour per year. (author)

  17. DMD reliability: a MEMS success story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) developed by Texas Instruments (TI) has made tremendous progress in both performance and reliability since it was first invented in 1987. From the first working concept of a bistable mirror, the DMD is now providing high-brightness, high-contrast, and high-reliability in over 1,500,000 projectors using Digital Light Processing technology. In early 2000, TI introduced the first DMD chip with a smaller mirror (14-micron pitch versus 17-micron pitch). This allowed a greater number of high-resolution DMD chips per wafer, thus providing an increased output capacity as well as the flexibility to use existing package designs. By using existing package designs, subsequent DMDs cost less as well as met our customers' demand for faster time to market. In recent years, the DMD achieved the status of being a commercially successful MEMS device. It reached this status by the efforts of hundreds of individuals working toward a common goal over many years. Neither textbooks nor design guidelines existed at the time. There was little infrastructure in place to support such a large endeavor. The knowledge we gained through our characterization and testing was all we had available to us through the first few years of development. Reliability was only a goal in 1992 when production development activity started; a goal that many throughout the industry and even within Texas Instruments doubted the DMD could achieve. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that we succeeded by exceeding the reliability goals.

  18. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  19. Teaching accuracy and reliability for student projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Nick

    2002-09-01

    Physics students at Rugby School follow the Salters Horners A-level course, which involves working on a two-week practical project of their own choosing. Pupils often misunderstand the concepts of accuracy and reliability, believing, for example, that repeating readings makes them more accurate and more reliable, whereas all it does is help to check repeatability. The course emphasizes the ideas of checking anomalous points, improving accuracy and making readings more sensitive. This article describes how we teach pupils in preparation for their projects. Based on many years of running such projects, much of this material is from a short booklet that we give out to pupils, when we train them in practical project skills.

  20. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-11-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.).

  1. OSS reliability measurement and assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.

  2. Transit ridership, reliability, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This project explores two major components that affect transit ridership: travel time reliability and rider : retention. It has been recognized that transit travel time reliability may have a significant impact on : attractiveness of transit to many ...

  3. Travel reliability inventory for Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    The overarching goal of this research project is to enable state DOTs to document and monitor the reliability performance : of their highway networks. To this end, a computer tool, TRIC, was developed to produce travel reliability inventories from : ...

  4. Unsustainable Growth, Hyper-Competition, and Worth in Life Science Research: Narrowing Evaluative Repertoires in Doctoral and Postdoctoral Scientists' Work and Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fochler, Maximilian; Felt, Ulrike; Müller, Ruth

    There is a crisis of valuation practices in the current academic life sciences, triggered by unsustainable growth and "hyper-competition." Quantitative metrics in evaluating researchers are seen as replacing deeper considerations of the quality and novelty of work, as well as substantive care for the societal implications of research. Junior researchers are frequently mentioned as those most strongly affected by these dynamics. However, their own perceptions of these issues are much less frequently considered. This paper aims at contributing to a better understanding of the interplay between how research is valued and how young researchers learn to live, work and produce knowledge within academia. We thus analyze how PhD students and postdocs in the Austrian life sciences ascribe worth to people, objects and practices as they talk about their own present and future lives in research. We draw on literature from the field of valuation studies and its interest in how actors refer to different forms of valuation to account for their actions. We explore how young researchers are socialized into different valuation practices in different stages of their growing into science. Introducing the concept of "regimes of valuation" we show that PhD students relate to a wider evaluative repertoire while postdocs base their decisions on one dominant regime of valuing research. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of these findings for the epistemic and social development of the life sciences, and for other scientific fields.

  5. Prediction uncertainty and data worth assessment for groundwater transport times in an agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zell, Wesley O.; Culver, Teresa B.; Sanford, Ward E.

    2018-06-01

    Uncertainties about the age of base-flow discharge can have serious implications for the management of degraded environmental systems where subsurface pathways, and the ongoing release of pollutants that accumulated in the subsurface during past decades, dominate the water quality signal. Numerical groundwater models may be used to estimate groundwater return times and base-flow ages and thus predict the time required for stakeholders to see the results of improved agricultural management practices. However, the uncertainty inherent in the relationship between (i) the observations of atmospherically-derived tracers that are required to calibrate such models and (ii) the predictions of system age that the observations inform have not been investigated. For example, few if any studies have assessed the uncertainty of numerically-simulated system ages or evaluated the uncertainty reductions that may result from the expense of collecting additional subsurface tracer data. In this study we combine numerical flow and transport modeling of atmospherically-derived tracers with prediction uncertainty methods to accomplish four objectives. First, we show the relative importance of head, discharge, and tracer information for characterizing response times in a uniquely data rich catchment that includes 266 age-tracer measurements (SF6, CFCs, and 3H) in addition to long term monitoring of water levels and stream discharge. Second, we calculate uncertainty intervals for model-simulated base-flow ages using both linear and non-linear methods, and find that the prediction sensitivity vector used by linear first-order second-moment methods results in much larger uncertainties than non-linear Monte Carlo methods operating on the same parameter uncertainty. Third, by combining prediction uncertainty analysis with multiple models of the system, we show that data-worth calculations and monitoring network design are sensitive to variations in the amount of water leaving the system via

  6. Description of reactor fuel breeding with three integral concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Hanan, N.A.; Maudlin, P.J.; Borg, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The time-dependent breeding of fuel in a growing system of breeder reactors can be characterized by the transitory (instantaneous) growth rate, γ(t). The three most important aspects of γ(t) can be expressed by time-independent integral concepts. Two of these concepts are in widespread use. A third integral concept that links the two earlier ones is introduced. The time-dependent growth rate has an asymptotic value, γ/sup infinity/, the equilibrium growth rate, which is the basis for the calculation of the doubling time. The equilibrium growth rate measures the breeding capability and represents a reactor property. Maximum deviation of γ(t) and γ/sup infinity/ generally appears at the initial startup of the reactor, where γ(t = 0) = γ 0 . This deviation is due to the difference between the initial and asymptotic fuel inventory composition. The initial growth rate can be considered a second integral concept; it characterizes the breeding of a particular fuel in a given reactor. Growth rates are logarithmic derivatives of the growing mass of fuel in breeder reactors, especially γ/sup infinity/, which describes the asymptotic growth by exp(γ/sup infinity/t). There is, however, a variation in the fuel-mass factor in front of this exponential function during the transition from γ 0 to γ/sup infinity/. It is shown that this variation of the fuel mass during transitioncan be described by a third integral concept, termed the breeding bonus, b. The breeding bonus measures the quality of a fuel for its use in a given reactor in terms of its impact on the magnitude of the asymptotically growing fuel mass. The calculation of γ 0 and γ/sup infinity/ is facilitated by use of the critical mass (CM) worths and the breeding worth factors, respectively

  7. Behavioral reliability program for the nuclear industry. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.C.; Davis, S.O.; Dunnette, M.D.; Meyer, P.; Sharac, J.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of the study was the development of standards for a behavioral observation program which could be used by the NRC licensed nuclear industry to detect indications of emotional instability in its employees who have access to protected and vital areas. Emphasis was placed on those observable characteristics which could be assessed by supervisors or peers in a work environment. The behavioral reliability program, as was defined in this report, encompasses the concept and basic components of the program, the definition of the behavioral reliability program, the definition of the behavioral reliability criterion, and a set of instructions for the creation and implementation of the program by an individual facility

  8. The effect of loss functions on empirical Bayes reliability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent A. R. Camara

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity of empirical Bayes estimates of the reliability function with respect to changing of the loss function. In addition to applying some of the basic analytical results on empirical Bayes reliability obtained with the use of the “popular” squared error loss function, we shall derive some expressions corresponding to empirical Bayes reliability estimates obtained with the Higgins–Tsokos, the Harris and our proposed logarithmic loss functions. The concept of efficiency, along with the notion of integrated mean square error, will be used as a criterion to numerically compare our results.

  9. Validity and reliability of food security measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W

    2014-12-01

    This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  10. 2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-15

    NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.

  11. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  12. A Near-Term Concept for Trajectory Based Operations with Air/Ground Data Link Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, David; Mueller, Eric; Thipphavong, David; Paielli, Russell; Cheng, Jinn-Hwei; Lee, Chuhan; Sahlman, Scott; Walton, Joe

    2010-01-01

    An operating concept and required system components for trajectory-based operations with air/ground data link for today's en route and transition airspace is proposed. Controllers are fully responsible for separation as they are today, and no new aircraft equipage is required. Trajectory automation computes integrated solutions to problems like metering, weather avoidance, traffic conflicts and the desire to find and fly more time/fuel efficient flight trajectories. A common ground-based system supports all levels of aircraft equipage and performance including those equipped and not equipped for data link. User interface functions for the radar controller's display make trajectory-based clearance advisories easy to visualize, modify if necessary, and implement. Laboratory simulations (without human operators) were conducted to test integrated operation of selected system components with uncertainty modeling. Results are based on 102 hours of Fort Worth Center traffic recordings involving over 37,000 individual flights. The presence of uncertainty had a marginal effect (5%) on minimum-delay conflict resolution performance, and windfavorable routes had no effect on detection and resolution metrics. Flight plan amendments and clearances were substantially reduced compared to today s operations. Top-of-descent prediction errors are the largest cause of failure indicating that better descent predictions are needed to reliably achieve fuel-efficient descent profiles in medium to heavy traffic. Improved conflict detections for climbing flights could enable substantially more continuous climbs to cruise altitude. Unlike today s Conflict Alert, tactical automation must alert when an altitude amendment is entered, but before the aircraft starts the maneuver. In every other failure case tactical automation prevented losses of separation. A real-time prototype trajectory trajectory-automation system is running now and could be made ready for operational testing at an en route

  13. Business of reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Pierre

    1999-12-01

    The presentation is organized around three themes: (1) The decrease of reception equipment costs allows non-Remote Sensing organization to access a technology until recently reserved to scientific elite. What this means is the rise of 'operational' executive agencies considering space-based technology and operations as a viable input to their daily tasks. This is possible thanks to totally dedicated ground receiving entities focusing on one application for themselves, rather than serving a vast community of users. (2) The multiplication of earth observation platforms will form the base for reliable technical and financial solutions. One obstacle to the growth of the earth observation industry is the variety of policies (commercial versus non-commercial) ruling the distribution of the data and value-added products. In particular, the high volume of data sales required for the return on investment does conflict with traditional low-volume data use for most applications. Constant access to data sources supposes monitoring needs as well as technical proficiency. (3) Large volume use of data coupled with low- cost equipment costs is only possible when the technology has proven reliable, in terms of application results, financial risks and data supply. Each of these factors is reviewed. The expectation is that international cooperation between agencies and private ventures will pave the way for future business models. As an illustration, the presentation proposes to use some recent non-traditional monitoring applications, that may lead to significant use of earth observation data, value added products and services: flood monitoring, ship detection, marine oil pollution deterrent systems and rice acreage monitoring.

  14. The effect of loss functions on empirical Bayes reliability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camara Vincent A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to investigate the sensitivity of empirical Bayes estimates of the reliability function with respect to changing of the loss function. In addition to applying some of the basic analytical results on empirical Bayes reliability obtained with the use of the “popular” squared error loss function, we shall derive some expressions corresponding to empirical Bayes reliability estimates obtained with the Higgins–Tsokos, the Harris and our proposed logarithmic loss functions. The concept of efficiency, along with the notion of integrated mean square error, will be used as a criterion to numerically compare our results. It is shown that empirical Bayes reliability functions are in general sensitive to the choice of the loss function, and that the squared error loss does not always yield the best empirical Bayes reliability estimate.

  15. General Atomic's superconducting toroidal field coil concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcorn, J.; Purcell, J.

    1978-01-01

    General Atomic's concept for a superconducting toroidal field coil is presented. The concept is generic for large tokamak devices, while a specific design is indicated for a 3.8 meter (major radius) ignition/burn machine. The concept utilizes bath cooled NbTi conductor to generate a peak field of 10 tesla at 4.2 K. The design is simple and straightforward, requires a minimum of developmental effort, and draws extensively upon the perspective of past experience in the design and construction of large superconducting magnets for high energy physics. Thus, the primary emphasis is upon economy, reliability, and expeditious construction scheduling. (author)

  16. Common views of potentially attractive fusion concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piet, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Several innovative fusion concepts have recently been proposed with the intent of improving radically the attractiveness of fusion energy. Before their assessment is complete, however, the question of what constitutes an especially attractive fusion product should be examined from multiple viewpoints. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine views of potentially attractive fusion concepts from three perspectives, trying to determine commonalities. These viewpoints are (a) economics, (b) maintenance and reliability, and (c) safety and environment. The secondary purpose of the paper is to review some innovative concepts from these viewpoints

  17. Analysis of subcritical control rod worth measurements in assembly BZB/3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, H.

    1981-07-01

    A series of subcritical absorber array measurements was performed in version three of the BIZET assembly BZB in order to check the ability of standard reactor computational codes used by the BIZET participants in predicting control rod worths in large fast reactors. Assembly BZB/3 was a two-zone core with a diameter of about 2.5 m and a core height of 0.89 m, fuelled with plutonium. Fifteen control rod positions and twelve secondary shutdown rod positions were simulated in the core. The measurements comprised the insertion of single absorbers as well as various groups of absorbers and were based on the modified source multiplication method. The KfK analysis was confined to the calculation of eigenvalues for different absorber arrays, also with a view to a comparison with the results of a former BZA evaluation with calculation-to-experiment values of up to C/E ∼ 1.10. The C/E-values found for BZB/3 ranged from 1.02 to 1.10 and did not show a systematic variation at different radial positions or different degrees of absorber asymmetry

  18. For What It's Worth: Historical Financial Bubbles and the Boundaries of Economic Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deringer, William

    2015-09-01

    This essay is a historical and epistemological exploration of a traditionally crazy economic event: the financial bubble. Venturing into two different moments in the history of economic thinking, it investigates financial bubbles as epistemic frontiers, where rationality has reached its limits. The first half forays into late twentieth-century economics. Since 1980, an interpretive battle over the ir/rationality of bubbles has made those peculiar events, long beyond the pale of the rational, contested terrain on which the limits of rationality have been fought out. The essay's second half turns to one historical crisis, the South Sea Bubble. For contemporaries in 1720, the bubble was a different kind of epistemic frontier. As they tried to reckon what South Sea Company stock was worth, investors were confronted not with clearly rational or irrational choices but with a decidedly unruly collection of similarly plausible calculations. The story of 1720 suggests that studying historical confusion might be a profitable enterprise for scholars of the economic and epistemological past.

  19. Mapping of sodium void worth and doppler effect for sodium-cooled fast reactor - 15458

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krepel, J.; Pelloni, S.; Bortot, S.; Panadero, A.L.; Mikityuk, K.

    2015-01-01

    The sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) represents the reference and the most technologically mastered system among the Generation-IV reactors. Nevertheless, the sodium void worth in the fuel regions of SFR is usually positive. To overcome this safety drawback, low-void sodium-cooled fast spectrum core (CFV) was proposed by CEA. Such a CFV core is used in the frame of WP6 'Core safety' of the FP7 Euratom ESNII+ project as a reference SFR design. The overall sodium void effect is negative for the CFV core. Nevertheless, locally it is positive in the fuel region and negative in the sodium plenum. Similarly, also the Doppler effect is spatially dependent and it varies between the inner and outer fuel regions and between the middle and lower blankets. Accordingly, knowledge of the local distributions or actually mappings of the two safety-related parameters will be necessary, before safety assessment and transient analysis can be done. In this study these maps have been produced using the deterministic code ERANOS. The obtained mapping shows strong local dependency of both safety-related effects. A sensitivity of the void effect to the sodium plenum modeling was also demonstrated. The results may serve as an input for the transient analysis of the CFV core or as a cross-check for the Monte Carlo method based maps. (authors)

  20. Sense of life worth living (ikigai) and incident functional disability in elderly Japanese: The Tsurugaya Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Kentaro; Kaiho, Yu; Tomata, Yasutake; Narita, Mamoru; Tanji, Fumiya; Sugiyama, Kemmyo; Sugawara, Yumi; Tsuji, Ichiro

    2017-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that elderly persons who feel ikigai (a sense of life worth living) have a lower risk of incident functional disability than those who do not. Recent studies have suggested that ikigai impacts on mortality. However, its impact upon disability is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between ikigai and incident functional disability among elderly persons. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 830 Japanese elderly persons aged ≥70 years as a comprehensive geriatric assessment in 2003. Information on ikigai was collected by self-reported questionnaire. Data on functional disability were retrieved from the public Long-term Care Insurance database in which participants were followed up for 11 years. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of functional disability were calculated for three groups delineated according to the presence of ikigai (“no”, “uncertain” or “yes”) using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The 11-year incidence of functional disability was 53.3% (442 cases). As compared with the “no” group, the multiple-adjusted HR (95% CI) of incident functional disability was 0.61 (0.36–1.02) for the “uncertain” group and 0.50 (0.30–0.84) for the “yes” group. A stronger degree of ikigai is significantly associated with a lower risk of incident functional disability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.