Making statistical inferences about software reliability
Miller, Douglas R.
1988-01-01
Failure times of software undergoing random debugging can be modelled as order statistics of independent but nonidentically distributed exponential random variables. Using this model inferences can be made about current reliability and, if debugging continues, future reliability. This model also shows the difficulty inherent in statistical verification of very highly reliable software such as that used by digital avionics in commercial aircraft.
Meat-consumption statistics: reliability and discrepancy
Pål Börjesson
2013-07-01
Full Text Available Interest in meat consumption and its impact on the environment and health has grown markedly over the last few decades and this upsurge has led to greater demand for reliable data. This article aims to describe methods for producing meat-consumption statistics and discuss their limitations and strengths; to identify uncertainties in statistics and to estimate their individual impact; to outline how relevant data are produced and presented at the national (Swedish, regional (Eurostat, and international (FAOSTAT levels; to analyze the consequences of identified discrepancies and uncertainties for estimating the environmental and health effects of meat consumption; and to suggest recommendations for improved production, presentation, and use of meat-consumption statistics. We demonstrate many inconsistencies in how meat-consumption data are produced and presented. Of special importance are assumptions on bone weight, food losses and waste, weight losses during cooking, and nonmeat ingredients. Depending on the methods employed to handle these ambiguous factors, per capita meat-consumption levels may differ by a factor of two or more. This finding illustrates that knowledge concerning limitations, uncertainties, and discrepancies in data is essential for a correct understanding, interpretation, and use of meat-consumption statistics in, for instance, dietary recommendations related to health and environmental issues.
Statistical models and methods for reliability and survival analysis
Couallier, Vincent; Huber-Carol, Catherine; Mesbah, Mounir; Huber -Carol, Catherine; Limnios, Nikolaos; Gerville-Reache, Leo
2013-01-01
Statistical Models and Methods for Reliability and Survival Analysis brings together contributions by specialists in statistical theory as they discuss their applications providing up-to-date developments in methods used in survival analysis, statistical goodness of fit, stochastic processes for system reliability, amongst others. Many of these are related to the work of Professor M. Nikulin in statistics over the past 30 years. The authors gather together various contributions with a broad array of techniques and results, divided into three parts - Statistical Models and Methods, Statistical
DISTRIBUTED MONITORING SYSTEM RELIABILITY ESTIMATION WITH CONSIDERATION OF STATISTICAL UNCERTAINTY
Yi Pengxing; Yang Shuzi; Du Runsheng; Wu Bo; Liu Shiyuan
2005-01-01
Taking into account the whole system structure and the component reliability estimation uncertainty, a system reliability estimation method based on probability and statistical theory for distributed monitoring systems is presented. The variance and confidence intervals of the system reliability estimation are obtained by expressing system reliability as a linear sum of products of higher order moments of component reliability estimates when the number of component or system survivals obeys binomial distribution. The eigenfunction of binomial distribution is used to determine the moments of component reliability estimates, and a symbolic matrix which can facilitate the search of explicit system reliability estimates is proposed. Furthermore, a case of application is used to illustrate the procedure, and with the help of this example, various issues such as the applicability of this estimation model, and measures to improve system reliability of monitoring systems are discussed.
Statistical analysis on reliability and serviceability of caterpillar tractor
WANG Jinwu; LIU Jiafu; XU Zhongxiang
2007-01-01
For further understanding reliability and serviceability of tractor and to furnish scientific and technical theories, based on the promotion and application of it, the following experiments and statistical analysis on reliability (reliability and MTBF) serviceability (service and MTTR) of Donfanghong-1002 and Dongfanghong-802 were conducted. The result showed that the intervals of average troubles of these two tractors were 182.62 h and 160.2 h, respectively, and the weakest assembly of them was engine part.
Notes on numerical reliability of several statistical analysis programs
Landwehr, J.M.; Tasker, Gary D.
1999-01-01
This report presents a benchmark analysis of several statistical analysis programs currently in use in the USGS. The benchmark consists of a comparison between the values provided by a statistical analysis program for variables in the reference data set ANASTY and their known or calculated theoretical values. The ANASTY data set is an amendment of the Wilkinson NASTY data set that has been used in the statistical literature to assess the reliability (computational correctness) of calculated analytical results.
Exponential order statistic models of software reliability growth
Miller, D. R.
1986-01-01
Failure times of a software reliability growth process are modeled as order statistics of independent, nonidentically distributed exponential random variables. The Jelinsky-Moranda, Goel-Okumoto, Littlewood, Musa-Okumoto Logarithmic, and Power Law models are all special cases of Exponential Order Statistic Models, but there are many additional examples also. Various characterizations, properties and examples of this class of models are developed and presented.
Statistical Analysis of Human Reliability of Armored Equipment
LIU Wei-ping; CAO Wei-guo; REN Jing
2007-01-01
Human errors of seven types of armored equipment, which occur during the course of field test, are statistically analyzed. The human error-to-armored equipment failure ratio is obtained. The causes of human errors are analyzed. The distribution law of human errors is acquired. The ratio of human errors and human reliability index are also calculated.
Monitoring Software Reliability using Statistical Process Control: An MMLE Approach
Bandla Sreenivasa Rao
2011-11-01
Full Text Available This paper consider an MMLE (Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation based scheme to estimatesoftware reliability using exponential distribution. The MMLE is one of the generalized frameworks ofsoftware reliability models of Non Homogeneous Poisson Processes (NHPPs. The MMLE givesanalytical estimators rather than an iterative approximation to estimate the parameters. In this paper weproposed SPC (Statistical Process Control Charts mechanism to determine the software quality usinginter failure times data. The Control charts can be used to measure whether the software process isstatistically under control or not.
Reliability Evaluation of Concentric Butterfly Valve Using Statistical Hypothesis Test
Chang, Mu Seong; Choi, Jong Sik; Choi, Byung Oh; Kim, Do Sik [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-15
A butterfly valve is a type of flow-control device typically used to regulate a fluid flow. This paper presents an estimation of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution, characteristic life, and B10 life for a concentric butterfly valve based on a statistical analysis of the reliability test data taken before and after the valve improvement. The difference in the shape and scale parameters between the existing and improved valves is reviewed using a statistical hypothesis test. The test results indicate that the shape parameter of the improved valve is similar to that of the existing valve, and that the scale parameter of the improved valve is found to have increased. These analysis results are particularly useful for a reliability qualification test and the determination of the service life cycles.
The Reliability of Single Subject Statistics for Biofeedback Studies.
Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others
To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…
The Reliability of Single Subject Statistics for Biofeedback Studies.
Bremner, Frederick J.; And Others
To test the usefulness of single subject statistical designs for biofeedback, three experiments were conducted comparing biofeedback to meditation, and to a compound stimulus recognition task. In a statistical sense, this experimental design is best described as one experiment with two replications. The apparatus for each of the three experiments…
Fault maintenance trees: reliability centered maintenance via statistical model checking
Ruijters, Enno; Guck, Dennis; Drolenga, Peter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle
2016-01-01
The current trend in infrastructural asset management is towards risk-based (a.k.a. reliability centered) maintenance, promising better performance at lower cost. By maintaining crucial components more intensively than less important ones, dependability increases while costs decrease. This requires
Fault maintenance trees: reliability centered maintenance via statistical model checking
Ruijters, Enno Jozef Johannes; Guck, Dennis; Drolenga, Peter; Stoelinga, Mariëlle Ida Antoinette
The current trend in infrastructural asset management is towards risk-based (a.k.a. reliability centered) maintenance, promising better performance at lower cost. By maintaining crucial components more intensively than less important ones, dependability increases while costs decrease. This requires
Recent Advances in System Reliability Signatures, Multi-state Systems and Statistical Inference
Frenkel, Ilia
2012-01-01
Recent Advances in System Reliability discusses developments in modern reliability theory such as signatures, multi-state systems and statistical inference. It describes the latest achievements in these fields, and covers the application of these achievements to reliability engineering practice. The chapters cover a wide range of new theoretical subjects and have been written by leading experts in reliability theory and its applications. The topics include: concepts and different definitions of signatures (D-spectra), their properties and applications to reliability of coherent systems and network-type structures; Lz-transform of Markov stochastic process and its application to multi-state system reliability analysis; methods for cost-reliability and cost-availability analysis of multi-state systems; optimal replacement and protection strategy; and statistical inference. Recent Advances in System Reliability presents many examples to illustrate the theoretical results. Real world multi-state systems...
Engineer’s estimate reliability and statistical characteristics of bids
Fariborz M. Tehrani
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The objective of this report is to provide a methodology for examining bids and evaluating the performance of engineer’s estimates in capturing the true cost of projects. This study reviews the cost development for transportation projects in addition to two sources of uncertainties in a cost estimate, including modeling errors and inherent variability. Sample projects are highway maintenance projects with a similar scope of the work, size, and schedule. Statistical analysis of engineering estimates and bids examines the adaptability of statistical models for sample projects. Further, the variation of engineering cost estimates from inception to implementation has been presented and discussed for selected projects. Moreover, the applicability of extreme values theory is assessed for available data. The results indicate that the performance of engineer’s estimate is best evaluated based on trimmed average of bids, excluding discordant bids.
Reliable detection of directional couplings using rank statistics.
Chicharro, Daniel; Andrzejak, Ralph G
2009-08-01
To detect directional couplings from time series various measures based on distances in reconstructed state spaces were introduced. These measures can, however, be biased by asymmetries in the dynamics' structure, noise color, or noise level, which are ubiquitous in experimental signals. Using theoretical reasoning and results from model systems we identify the various sources of bias and show that most of them can be eliminated by an appropriate normalization. We furthermore diminish the remaining biases by introducing a measure based on ranks of distances. This rank-based measure outperforms existing distance-based measures concerning both sensitivity and specificity for directional couplings. Therefore, our findings are relevant for a reliable detection of directional couplings from experimental signals.
Reliability Analysis of Production System of Fully-Mechanized Face Based on Output Statistic
CAI Qing-xiang; LI Nai-liang
2005-01-01
Production system of fully-mechanized face is a complicated system composed of human, machine and environment, meantime influenced by various random factors. Analyzing the reliability of system needs plentiful data by means of system faults statistic. Based on the viewpoint that shift output of fully-mechanized face is the result of various random factors' synthetical influence, the process of how to analyze its reliability was deduced by using probability theory, symbolic statistics theory and systematic reliability theory combined with the concrete case study in this paper. And it has been proved that this method is feasible and valuable.
Towards consistent and reliable Dutch and international energy statistics for the chemical industry
Neelis, M.L.; Pouwelse, J.W.
2008-01-01
Consistent and reliable energy statistics are of vital importance for proper monitoring of energy-efficiency policies. In recent studies, irregularities have been reported in the Dutch energy statistics for the chemical industry. We studied in depth the company data that form the basis of the energy
Lim, T. J.; Byun, S. S.; Han, S. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lim, J. S.; Oh, S. J.; Park, K. Y.; Song, H. S. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea)
2001-04-01
This project has been performed in order to construct I and C part reliability databases for detailed analysis of plant protection system and to develop a methodology for analysing trip set point drifts. Reliability database for the I and C parts of plant protection system is required to perform the detailed analysis. First, we have developed an electronic part reliability prediction code based on MIL-HDBK-217F. Then we have collected generic reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system. Statistical analysis procedure has been developed to process the data. Then the generic reliability database has been constructed. We have also collected plant specific reliability data for the I and C parts in plant protection system for YGN 3,4 and UCN 3,4 units. Plant specific reliability database for I and C parts has been developed by the Bayesian procedure. We have also developed an statistical analysis procedure for set point drift, and performed analysis of drift effects for trip set point. The basis for the detailed analysis can be provided from the reliability database for the PPS I and C parts. The safety of the KSNP and succeeding NPPs can be proved by reducing the uncertainty of PSA. Economic and efficient operation of NPP can be possible by optimizing the test period to reduce utility's burden. 14 refs., 215 figs., 137 tabs. (Author)
ROLE OF STATISTICAL VIS-A-VIS PHYSICS-OFFAILURE METHODS IN RELIABILITY ENGINEERING
P.V.Varde
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Traditionally the statistical or more specifically probabilistic methods form the basicframework for assessing the reliability characteristics of the components. However the recenttrend for predicting the reliability or life of the component involves application of physics-offailuremethods. This rather new approach is finding wider application as it is based on basicfundamentals of science and thereby provides an improved framework to understand the failuremechanism. Since accelerated testing of component forms part of this approach, the prediction oftime-to-failure of the components is more accurate compared to the existing methods whichdepends only historical data and its evaluation using probabilistic methods. The new approach isall the more relevant when it comes to assessment of reliability of new components as thetraditional probabilistic approach is not adequate to predict reliability of new components as itdepends on historical data for prediction of reliability.In view of the above this paper investigates the role of statistical or probabilisticapproach and physics-of-failure approach for reliability assessment of engineering components ingeneral and electronics components in particular.
Estimating Reliability of Disturbances in Satellite Time Series Data Based on Statistical Analysis
Zhou, Z.-G.; Tang, P.; Zhou, M.
2016-06-01
Normally, the status of land cover is inherently dynamic and changing continuously on temporal scale. However, disturbances or abnormal changes of land cover — caused by such as forest fire, flood, deforestation, and plant diseases — occur worldwide at unknown times and locations. Timely detection and characterization of these disturbances is of importance for land cover monitoring. Recently, many time-series-analysis methods have been developed for near real-time or online disturbance detection, using satellite image time series. However, the detection results were only labelled with "Change/ No change" by most of the present methods, while few methods focus on estimating reliability (or confidence level) of the detected disturbances in image time series. To this end, this paper propose a statistical analysis method for estimating reliability of disturbances in new available remote sensing image time series, through analysis of full temporal information laid in time series data. The method consists of three main steps. (1) Segmenting and modelling of historical time series data based on Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST). (2) Forecasting and detecting disturbances in new time series data. (3) Estimating reliability of each detected disturbance using statistical analysis based on Confidence Interval (CI) and Confidence Levels (CL). The method was validated by estimating reliability of disturbance regions caused by a recent severe flooding occurred around the border of Russia and China. Results demonstrated that the method can estimate reliability of disturbances detected in satellite image with estimation error less than 5% and overall accuracy up to 90%.
Dars, P.; Ternisien D'Ouville, T.; Mingam, H.; Merckel, G.
1988-01-01
Statistical analysis of asymmetry in LDD NMOSFETs electrical characteristics shows the influence of implantation angles on non-overlap variation observed on devices realized on a 100 mm wafer and within the wafers of a batch . The study of the consequence of this dispersion on the aging behaviour illustrates the importance of this parameter for reliability and the necessity to take it in account for accurate analysis of stress results.
Statistical Degradation Models for Reliability Analysis in Non-Destructive Testing
Chetvertakova, E. S.; Chimitova, E. V.
2017-04-01
In this paper, we consider the application of the statistical degradation models for reliability analysis in non-destructive testing. Such models enable to estimate the reliability function (the dependence of non-failure probability on time) for the fixed critical level using the information of the degradation paths of tested items. The most widely used models are the gamma and Wiener degradation models, in which the gamma or normal distributions are assumed as the distribution of degradation increments, respectively. Using the computer simulation technique, we have analysed the accuracy of the reliability estimates, obtained for considered models. The number of increments can be enlarged by increasing the sample size (the number of tested items) or by increasing the frequency of measuring degradation. It has been shown, that the sample size has a greater influence on the accuracy of the reliability estimates in comparison with the measuring frequency. Moreover, it has been shown that another important factor, influencing the accuracy of reliability estimation, is the duration of observing degradation process.
ESTIMATING RELIABILITY OF DISTURBANCES IN SATELLITE TIME SERIES DATA BASED ON STATISTICAL ANALYSIS
Z.-G. Zhou
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Normally, the status of land cover is inherently dynamic and changing continuously on temporal scale. However, disturbances or abnormal changes of land cover — caused by such as forest fire, flood, deforestation, and plant diseases — occur worldwide at unknown times and locations. Timely detection and characterization of these disturbances is of importance for land cover monitoring. Recently, many time-series-analysis methods have been developed for near real-time or online disturbance detection, using satellite image time series. However, the detection results were only labelled with “Change/ No change” by most of the present methods, while few methods focus on estimating reliability (or confidence level of the detected disturbances in image time series. To this end, this paper propose a statistical analysis method for estimating reliability of disturbances in new available remote sensing image time series, through analysis of full temporal information laid in time series data. The method consists of three main steps. (1 Segmenting and modelling of historical time series data based on Breaks for Additive Seasonal and Trend (BFAST. (2 Forecasting and detecting disturbances in new time series data. (3 Estimating reliability of each detected disturbance using statistical analysis based on Confidence Interval (CI and Confidence Levels (CL. The method was validated by estimating reliability of disturbance regions caused by a recent severe flooding occurred around the border of Russia and China. Results demonstrated that the method can estimate reliability of disturbances detected in satellite image with estimation error less than 5% and overall accuracy up to 90%.
Chu, Tsong-Lun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Varuttamaseni, Athi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, Joo-Seok [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-11-01
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) encourages the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology in all regulatory matters, to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although much has been accomplished in the area of risk-informed regulation, risk assessment for digital systems has not been fully developed. The NRC established a plan for research on digital systems to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems in the PRAs of nuclear power plants (NPPs), and (2) incorporating digital systems in the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. Under NRC's sponsorship, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) explored approaches for addressing the failures of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in the current NPP PRA framework. Specific areas investigated included PRA modeling digital hardware, development of a philosophical basis for defining software failure, and identification of desirable attributes of quantitative software reliability methods. Based on the earlier research, statistical testing is considered a promising method for quantifying software reliability. This paper describes a statistical software testing approach for quantifying software reliability and applies it to the loop-operating control system (LOCS) of an experimental loop of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL).
Statistical analysis of the reliability of complex systems for maintenance planning
Pedersen, Thomas Espelund
2003-01-01
is to analyze failure and maintenance data using mathematical and statistical models in order to improve maintenance procedures in the Danish Defence. The first part of the report introduces the maintenance planning problem and presents an overview of models for reliability, failure processes, and maintenance...... planning. This overview is structured to highlight the process of choosing a proper model for a given data set, focusing on different measures of time and the data requirements for the different models. The second part of the report describes the analysis of two data sets from the Danish Defence. The data...
Statistical reliability and path diversity based PageRank algorithm improvements
Hong, Dohy
2012-01-01
In this paper we present new improvement ideas of the original PageRank algorithm. The first idea is to introduce an evaluation of the statistical reliability of the ranking score of each node based on the local graph property and the second one is to introduce the notion of the path diversity. The path diversity can be exploited to dynamically modify the increment value of each node in the random surfer model or to dynamically adapt the damping factor. We illustrate the impact of such modifications through examples and simple simulations.
MING Zhimao; TAO Junyong; ZHANG Yunan; YI Xiaoshan; CHEN Xun
2009-01-01
New armament systems are subjected to the method for dealing with multi-stage system reliability-growth statistical problems of diverse population in order to improve reliability before starting mass production. Aiming at the test process which is high expense and small sample-size in the development of complex system, the specific methods are studied on how to process the statistical information of Bayesian reliability growth regarding diverse populations. Firstly, according to the characteristics of reliability growth during product development, the Bayesian method is used to integrate the testing information of multi-stage and the order relations of distribution parameters. And then a Gamma-Beta prior distribution is proposed based on non-homogeneous Poisson process(NHPP) corresponding to the reliability growth process. The posterior distribution of reliability parameters is obtained regarding different stages of product, and the reliability parameters are evaluated based on the posterior distribution. Finally, Bayesian approach proposed in this paper for multi-stage reliability growth test is applied to the test process which is small sample-size in the astronautics filed. The results of a numerical example show that the presented model can make use of the diverse information synthetically, and pave the way for the application of the Bayesian model for multi-stage reliability growth test evaluation with small sample-size. The method is useful for evaluating multi-stage system reliability and making reliability growth plan rationally.
Chu, Tsong-Lun [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Varuttamaseni, Athi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Baek, Joo-Seok [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)
2016-11-01
The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) encourages the use of probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) technology in all regulatory matters, to the extent supported by the state-of-the-art in PRA methods and data. Although much has been accomplished in the area of risk-informed regulation, risk assessment for digital systems has not been fully developed. The NRC established a plan1 for research on digital systems to identify and develop methods, analytical tools, and regulatory guidance for (1) including models of digital systems in the PRA's of nuclear power plants (NPPs), and, (2) incorporating digital systems in the NRC's risk-informed licensing and oversight activities. Under NRC?s sponsorship, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) explored approaches for addressing the failures of digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems in the current NPP PRA framework. Specific areas investigated included PRA modeling digital hardware2, development of a philosophical basis for defining software failure3, and identification of desirable attributes of quantitative software reliability methods4 7044. Based on the earlier research, statistical testing is considered a promising method for quantifying software reliability.
A statistical test on the reliability of the non-coevality of stars in binary systems
Valle, G.; Dell'Omodarme, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Degl'Innocenti, S.
2016-03-01
Aims: We develop a statistical test on the expected difference in age estimates of two coeval stars in detached double-lined eclipsing binary systems that are only caused by observational uncertainties. We focus on stars in the mass range [0.8; 1.6] M⊙, with an initial metallicity [Fe/H] from -0.55 to 0.55 dex, and on stars in the main-sequence phase. Methods: The ages were obtained by means of the SCEPtER technique, a maximum-likelihood procedure relying on a pre-computed grid of stellar models. The observational constraints used in the recovery procedure are stellar mass, radius, effective temperature, and metallicity [Fe/H]. To check the effect of the uncertainties affecting observations on the (non-)coevality assessment, the chosen observational constraints were subjected to a Gaussian perturbation before applying the SCEPtER code. We defined the statistic W computed as the ratio of the absolute difference of estimated ages for the two stars over the age of the older one. We determined the critical values of this statistics above which coevality can be rejected in dependence on the mass of the two stars, on the initial metallicity [Fe/H], and on the evolutionary stage of the primary star. Results: The median expected difference in the reconstructed age between the coeval stars of a binary system - caused alone by the observational uncertainties - shows a strong dependence on the evolutionary stage. This ranges from about 20% for an evolved primary star to about 75% for a near ZAMS primary. The median difference also shows an increase with the mass of the primary star from 20% for 0.8 M⊙ stars to about 50% for 1.6 M⊙ stars. The reliability of these results was checked by repeating the process with a grid of stellar models computed by a different evolutionary code; the median difference in the critical values was only 0.01. We show that the W test is much more sensible to age differences in the binary system components than the alternative approach of
Olivero, Jesús; Márquez, Ana L; Real, Raimundo
2013-01-01
This study uses the amphibian species of the Mediterranean basin to develop a consistent procedure based on fuzzy sets with which biogeographic regions and biotic transition zones can be objectively detected and reliably mapped. Biogeographical regionalizations are abstractions of the geographical organization of life on Earth that provide frameworks for cataloguing species and ecosystems, for answering basic questions in biogeography, evolutionary biology, and systematics, and for assessing priorities for conservation. On the other hand, limits between regions may form sharply defined boundaries along some parts of their borders, whereas elsewhere they may consist of broad transition zones. The fuzzy set approach provides a heuristic way to analyse the complexity of the biota within an area; significantly different regions are detected whose mutual limits are sometimes fuzzy, sometimes clearly crisp. Most of the regionalizations described in the literature for the Mediterranean biogeographical area present a certain degree of convergence when they are compared within the context of fuzzy interpretation, as many of the differences found between regionalizations are located in transition zones, according to our case study. Compared with other classification procedures based on fuzzy sets, the novelty of our method is that both fuzzy logic and statistics are used together in a synergy in order to avoid arbitrary decisions in the definition of biogeographic regions and transition zones.
Rafdzah Zaki
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Objective(s: Reliability measures precision or the extent to which test results can be replicated. This is the first ever systematic review to identify statistical methods used to measure reliability of equipment measuring continuous variables. This studyalso aims to highlight the inappropriate statistical method used in the reliability analysis and its implication in the medical practice. Materials and Methods: In 2010, five electronic databases were searched between 2007 and 2009 to look for reliability studies. A total of 5,795 titles were initially identified. Only 282 titles were potentially related, and finally 42 fitted the inclusion criteria. Results: The Intra-class Correlation Coefficient (ICC is the most popular method with 25 (60% studies having used this method followed by the comparing means (8 or 19%. Out of 25 studies using the ICC, only 7 (28% reported the confidence intervals and types of ICC used. Most studies (71% also tested the agreement of instruments. Conclusion: This study finds that the Intra-class Correlation Coefficient is the most popular method used to assess the reliability of medical instruments measuring continuous outcomes. There are also inappropriate applications and interpretations of statistical methods in some studies. It is important for medical researchers to be aware of this issue, and be able to correctly perform analysis in reliability studies.
Liem, Franziskus; Mérillat, Susan; Bezzola, Ladina; Hirsiger, Sarah; Philipp, Michel; Madhyastha, Tara; Jäncke, Lutz
2015-03-01
FreeSurfer is a tool to quantify cortical and subcortical brain anatomy automatically and noninvasively. Previous studies have reported reliability and statistical power analyses in relatively small samples or only selected one aspect of brain anatomy. Here, we investigated reliability and statistical power of cortical thickness, surface area, volume, and the volume of subcortical structures in a large sample (N=189) of healthy elderly subjects (64+ years). Reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient) of cortical and subcortical parameters is generally high (cortical: ICCs>0.87, subcortical: ICCs>0.95). Surface-based smoothing increases reliability of cortical thickness maps, while it decreases reliability of cortical surface area and volume. Nevertheless, statistical power of all measures benefits from smoothing. When aiming to detect a 10% difference between groups, the number of subjects required to test effects with sufficient power over the entire cortex varies between cortical measures (cortical thickness: N=39, surface area: N=21, volume: N=81; 10mm smoothing, power=0.8, α=0.05). For subcortical regions this number is between 16 and 76 subjects, depending on the region. We also demonstrate the advantage of within-subject designs over between-subject designs. Furthermore, we publicly provide a tool that allows researchers to perform a priori power analysis and sensitivity analysis to help evaluate previously published studies and to design future studies with sufficient statistical power.
Statistics and Analysis on Reliability of HVDC Transmission Systems of SGCC
Xu
2010-01-01
Reliability level of HVDC power transmission systems becomes an important factor impacting the entire power grid. The author analyzes the reliability of HVDC power transmission systems owned by SGCC since 2003 in respect of forced outage times, forced energy unavailability, scheduled energy unavailability and energy utilization efficiency. The results show that the reliability level of HVDC power transmission systems owned by SGCC is improving. By analyzing different reliability indices of HVDC power transmission system, the maximum asset benefits of power grid can be achieved through building a scientific and reasonable reliability evaluation system.
Kimura, Y. [Positron Medical Center, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Naka, Itabashi, Tokyo (Japan); Senda, M. [Foundation for Biomedical Research and Innovation, 7F Chamber of Commerce, Minatojima-Nakamachi, Chuo, Kobe (Japan); Alpert, N.M. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)]. E-mail: alpert@pet.mgh.harvard.edu
2002-02-07
Formation of parametric images requires voxel-by-voxel estimation of rate constants, a process sensitive to noise and computationally demanding. A model-based clustering method for a two-parameter model (CAKS) was extended to the FDG three-parameter model. The concept was to average voxels with similar kinetic signatures to reduce noise. Voxel kinetics were categorized by the first two principal components of the tissue time-activity curves for all voxels. k{sub 2} and k{sub 3} were estimated cluster-by-cluster, and K{sub 1} was estimated voxel-by-voxel within clusters. When CAKS was applied to simulated images with noise levels similar to brain FDG scans, estimation bias was well suppressed, and estimation errors were substantially smaller - 1.3 times for K{sub i} and 1.5 times for k{sub 3} - than those of conventional voxel-based estimation. The statistical reliability of voxel-level estimation by CAKS was comparable with ROI analysis including 100 voxels. CAKS was applied to clinical cases with Alzheimer's disease (ALZ) and cortico basal degeneration (CBD). In ALZ, the affected regions had low K{sub i}(K{sub 1}k{sub 3}/(k{sub 2}+k{sub 3})) and k{sub 3}. In CBD, K{sub i} was low, but k{sub 3} was preserved. These results were consistent with ROI-based kinetic analysis. Because CAKS decreased the number of invoked estimations, the calculation time was reduced substantially. In conclusion, CAKS has been extended to allow parametric imaging of a three-compartment model. The method is computationally efficient, with low bias and excellent noise properties. (author)
Bohlin, J; Skjerve, E; Ussery, David
2008-01-01
BACKGROUND: The increasing number of sequenced prokaryotic genomes contains a wealth of genomic data that needs to be effectively analysed. A set of statistical tools exists for such analysis, but their strengths and weaknesses have not been fully explored. The statistical methods we are concerned......, or be based on specific statistical distributions. Advantages with these statistical methods include measurements of phylogenetic relationship with relatively small pieces of DNA sampled from almost anywhere within genomes, detection of foreign/conserved DNA, and homology searches. Our aim was to explore...... measure was a good measure to detect horizontally transferred regions, and when used to compare the phylogenetic relationships between plasmids and hosts, significant correlation (R2 = 0.4) was found with genomic GC content and intra-chromosomal homogeneity. CONCLUSION: The statistical methods examined...
Thompson, Bruce; Snyder, Patricia A.
1998-01-01
Investigates two aspects of research analyses in quantitative research studies reported in the 1996 issues of "Journal of Counseling & Development" (JCD). Acceptable methodological practice regarding significance testing and evaluation of score reliability has evolved considerably. Contemporary thinking on these issues is described; practice as…
An Exercise in Exploring Big Data for Producing Reliable Statistical Information.
Rey-Del-Castillo, Pilar; Cardeñosa, Jesús
2016-06-01
The availability of copious data about many human, social, and economic phenomena is considered an opportunity for the production of official statistics. National statistical organizations and other institutions are more and more involved in new projects for developing what is sometimes seen as a possible change of paradigm in the way statistical figures are produced. Nevertheless, there are hardly any systems in production using Big Data sources. Arguments of confidentiality, data ownership, representativeness, and others make it a difficult task to get results in the short term. Using Call Detail Records from Ivory Coast as an illustration, this article shows some of the issues that must be dealt with when producing statistical indicators from Big Data sources. A proposal of a graphical method to evaluate one specific aspect of the quality of the computed figures is also presented, demonstrating that the visual insight provided improves the results obtained using other traditional procedures.
David Rogosa
2005-04-01
Full Text Available The body of this report consists of a fairly thorough effort to discredit the empirical assertions and methodological prescriptions of Kane and Staiger (KS. The four main sections of content that follow this (lengthy Preamble are:Section 1 Accuracy Of Group SummariesExact results are obtained for the accuracy of grade-level scores (forn=68 which are then compared with the reliability-style calculationsreported in KS for North Carolina data. Also, accuracy properties ofCalifornia API school-level scores are presented, and to compare with KS assertions, the reliability coefficients for these scores are calculated. KS find high volatility even when accuracy is very good, and KS find extreme absence of volatility even when accuracy is moderate to poor.Section 2 Accuracy of ImprovementPrecision of improvement is contrasted with KS-style reliability ofimprovement. Analytic and empirical examples for accuracy of improvement reinforce the basic message: reliability is not precision. Most importantly, precision, which is what matters, can be low, and reliability still be high. And vice versa. Also, school-level California API data display no relation between amount of improvement and uncertainty in the scores (Figures 2.1-2.3, refuting a key KS assertion about school size.Section 3 Persistence of Change.The KS correlation of consecutive changes--and thus the KS estimate of"proportion of variance in changes due to nonpersistent factors"--isshown to be a function of the reliability of the difference score. KSdeterminations of persistence of change are shown to be without valuein accountability systems. Common-sense definitions of consistency ofimprovement and empirical demonstrations using artificial data arepresented.Section 4 California Academic Performance Index Award ProgramsDiscussion of appropriate methods for describing the properties of Award Programs (e.g., determinations of false positive and false negatives are contrasted with the incorrect
Time-Variant Reliability Analysis of FPSO Hull Girder Considering Corrosion Based on Statistics
ZHANG Dao-kun; TANG Wen-yong; ZHANG Sheng-kun
2007-01-01
FPSO is a kind of important exploitation platform used in ocean oil and gas industry, which has the unique character of mooring at outsea for a long time. Since it can not be inspected and maintained thoroughly at dock like other kinds of ships, the reliability of FPSO hull girder during the whole service should be focused. Based on latest corrosion database and rational corrosion model, the ultimate strength of one FPSO is calculated under the conditions of slight, moderate and severe corrosion. The results not only provide the reliability under different corrosion conditions, but also do well for further inspection and maintenance research. The results provide necessary foundation for deciding inspection intervals and maintenance measures, which has practical sense to improve the general safety level of ocean engineering.
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Enevoldsen, I.
1993-01-01
a stochastic variable is modelled by an asymmetrical density function. For lognormally, Gumbel and Weibull distributed stochastic variables it is shown for which combinations of the/3-point, the expected value and standard deviation the weakness can occur. In relation to practical application the behaviour...... is probably rather infrequent. A simple example is shown as illustration and to exemplify that for second order reliability methods and for exact calculations of the probability of failure this behaviour is much more infrequent....
Kozine, Igor; Krymsky, V.G.
2009-01-01
of additional information can be incorporated to make the bounds tighter? The present paper gives an account of the source of this imprecision that prevents interval-valued statistical models from being widely applied. Firstly, the mathematical approach to building interval-valued models (discrete......The application of interval-valued statistical models is often hindered by the rapid growth in imprecision that occurs when intervals are propagated through models. Is this deficiency inherent in the models? If so, what is the underlying cause of imprecision in mathematical terms? What kind...
Tomislav Car
1989-12-01
Full Text Available Statistical approach is one of methods offering us some quantitative indications of structure security and basic techno-economics criterion of their applications. The basis of that approach is determination of the probability of error occurrence in different interactive relationship between natural forces and structure properties. Results of that analyse are the basis for quantitative definition of the techno-economics optimum for structure and system application (the paper is published in Croatian.
A statistical test on the reliability of the non-coevality of stars in binary systems
Valle, G; Moroni, P G Prada; Degl'Innocenti, S
2016-01-01
We develop a statistical test on the expected difference in age estimates of two coeval stars in detached double-lined eclipsing binary systems that are only caused by observational uncertainties. We focus on stars in the mass range [0.8; 1.6] Msun, and on stars in the main-sequence phase. The ages were obtained by means of the maximum-likelihood SCEPtER technique. The observational constraints used in the recovery procedure are stellar mass, radius, effective temperature, and metallicity [Fe/H]. We defined the statistic W computed as the ratio of the absolute difference of estimated ages for the two stars over the age of the older one. We determined the critical values of this statistics above which coevality can be rejected. The median expected difference in the reconstructed age between the coeval stars of a binary system -- caused alone by the observational uncertainties -- shows a strong dependence on the evolutionary stage. This ranges from about 20% for an evolved primary star to about 75% for a near Z...
Matusiewicz, Alexis K; Carter, Anne E; Landes, Reid D; Yi, Richard
2013-11-01
Delay discounting (DD) and probability discounting (PD) refer to the reduction in the subjective value of outcomes as a function of delay and uncertainty, respectively. Elevated measures of discounting are associated with a variety of maladaptive behaviors, and confidence in the validity of these measures is imperative. The present research examined (1) the statistical equivalence of discounting measures when rewards were hypothetical or real, and (2) their 1-week reliability. While previous research has partially explored these issues using the low threshold of nonsignificant difference, the present study fully addressed this issue using the more-compelling threshold of statistical equivalence. DD and PD measures were collected from 28 healthy adults using real and hypothetical $50 rewards during each of two experimental sessions, one week apart. Analyses using area-under-the-curve measures revealed a general pattern of statistical equivalence, indicating equivalence of real/hypothetical conditions as well as 1-week reliability. Exceptions are identified and discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Improving the statistical reliability of stream heat assimilation prediction. Final report
McLay, R.W.; Hundal, M.S.; Lamborn, K.R.
1975-06-01
In response to an increased interest in water quality by the public, a large effort has been mounted to develop mathematical models for predicting heat assimilation in bodies of water. The accuracy of these models has recently come under scrutiny due to the need for temperature predictions within 1C of the ambient. This work is an evaluation of existing, one-dimensional stream temperature prediction techniques for accuracy and precision. The approach is through error estimates on a general model that encompasses all of the models presently used. A sensitivity analysis of this general model is used in conjunction with statistical methods to determine the solution errors. (GRA)
The reliability of fishing statistics as a source for catches and fish stocks in antiquity
Jacobsen, A. Lif Lund
2005-01-01
fishery data to estimate the productivity of ancient fisheries. Unfortunately his work suffered from several severe misunderstandings about ecosystems, the nature of a fishery and its biological interaction with its environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the statistical background...... for Gallant’s conclusions about fishery and the usefulness of modern catch data for historical fishery research. In order to do so, the author adopts the viewpoint of marine-environmental history, with some reference to other authors’ work on ancient fisheries....
The reliability of fishing statistics as a source for catches and fish stocks in antiquity
Jacobsen, A. Lif Lund
2005-01-01
In 1985, T.W. Gallant published an influential essay on the potential productivity of fishing in the ancient world. He concluded that: ”the role of fishing in the diet and economy would have been, on the whole, subordinate and supplementary…” His methodological approach was original in using modern...... fishery data to estimate the productivity of ancient fisheries. Unfortunately his work suffered from several severe misunderstandings about ecosystems, the nature of a fishery and its biological interaction with its environment. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the statistical background...
Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret;
arithmetic calculations classified nine farms (14.1 %) as resistant and 11 farms (17.2 %) as suspect resistant. Using 10000 Monte Carlo simulated data sets, our methodology provides a reliable classification of farms into different resistance categories with a false discovery rate of 1.02 %. The methodology...... statistical model was therefore developed for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. Horse age, gender, zip code and pre-treatment egg count were incorporated into the model. Horses and farms were kept as random effects. Resistance classifications were based on model-based 95% lower confidence limit (LCL......) values of predicted mean efficacies, and cutoff values were justified statistically. The model was used to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel embonate paste on 64 Danish horse farms. Of 1644 horses, 614 had egg counts > 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. The cutoff LCL values used for classifying...
Harrou, Fouzi
2017-09-18
This study reports the development of an innovative fault detection and diagnosis scheme to monitor the direct current (DC) side of photovoltaic (PV) systems. Towards this end, we propose a statistical approach that exploits the advantages of one-diode model and those of the univariate and multivariate exponentially weighted moving average (EWMA) charts to better detect faults. Specifically, we generate array\\'s residuals of current, voltage and power using measured temperature and irradiance. These residuals capture the difference between the measurements and the predictions MPP for the current, voltage and power from the one-diode model, and use them as fault indicators. Then, we apply the multivariate EWMA (MEWMA) monitoring chart to the residuals to detect faults. However, a MEWMA scheme cannot identify the type of fault. Once a fault is detected in MEWMA chart, the univariate EWMA chart based on current and voltage indicators is used to identify the type of fault (e.g., short-circuit, open-circuit and shading faults). We applied this strategy to real data from the grid-connected PV system installed at the Renewable Energy Development Center, Algeria. Results show the capacity of the proposed strategy to monitors the DC side of PV systems and detects partial shading.
Hayslett, H T
1991-01-01
Statistics covers the basic principles of Statistics. The book starts by tackling the importance and the two kinds of statistics; the presentation of sample data; the definition, illustration and explanation of several measures of location; and the measures of variation. The text then discusses elementary probability, the normal distribution and the normal approximation to the binomial. Testing of statistical hypotheses and tests of hypotheses about the theoretical proportion of successes in a binomial population and about the theoretical mean of a normal population are explained. The text the
McShane, Blakeley B; 10.1214/10-AOAS398
2011-01-01
Predicting historic temperatures based on tree rings, ice cores, and other natural proxies is a difficult endeavor. The relationship between proxies and temperature is weak and the number of proxies is far larger than the number of target data points. Furthermore, the data contain complex spatial and temporal dependence structures which are not easily captured with simple models. In this paper, we assess the reliability of such reconstructions and their statistical significance against various null models. We find that the proxies do not predict temperature significantly better than random series generated independently of temperature. Furthermore, various model specifications that perform similarly at predicting temperature produce extremely different historical backcasts. Finally, the proxies seem unable to forecast the high levels of and sharp run-up in temperature in the 1990s either in-sample or from contiguous holdout blocks, thus casting doubt on their ability to predict such phenomena if in fact they ...
Amin Salem
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The present investigation provides a detailed relationship between the powder composition and reliability of random ceramic beds. This evaluation is important due to standing in the liquid-gas contactors as well as predicting lifetime. It is still unclear whether the normal distribution is the most suitable function for estimation of failure. By developing the application of ceramic beds in the chemical plants, a special attention has been paid in screening strength distributions. To achieve this goal, an experimental-theoretical study was presented on compressive strength distribution. The powder compositions were prepared according to the statistical response surface methodology and then were formed by a single screw extrusion as Raschig rings. The compressive strength of specimens was measured to evaluate the strength data sets by normal and Weibull distributions. The results were analyzed by the Akaike information criterion and the Anderson-Darling test. The accuracy of distributions in prediction fracture was discussed.
Links to sources of cancer-related statistics, including the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program, SEER-Medicare datasets, cancer survivor prevalence data, and the Cancer Trends Progress Report.
EMU test operation reliability statistics and evaluation%动车组试运营可靠性数据统计与评估
李庭芳; 李敬雅; 夏丹锋; 周汛
2013-01-01
介绍了动车组试运营可靠性数据的来源、故障等级和可靠性指标的定义，通过开展可靠性统计和评估，发现产品的薄弱环节，再经过采取可靠性闭合管理，最终实现了可靠性的目标。%This paper introduces the EMU test operation reliability data source ,fault level and reliability index is defined ,by carrying out the reliability statistics and evaluation ,found product of the weak links ,and then by taking the reliability of closed management ,fi-nally achieve the reliability target .
Antczak, K; Wilczyńska, U
1980-01-01
Part II presents a statistical model devised by the authors for evaluating toxicological analyses results. The model includes: 1. Establishment of a reference value, basing on our own measurements taken by two independent analytical methods. 2. Selection of laboratories -- basing on the deviation of the obtained values from reference ones. 3. On consideration of variance analysis, t-student's test and differences test, subsequent quality controls and particular laboratories have been evaluated.
Bendell, A
1986-01-01
Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo
Nielsen, Martin Krarup; Vidyashankar, Anand N.; Hanlon, Bret
statistical model was therefore developed for analysis of FECRT data from multiple farms. Horse age, gender, zip code and pre-treatment egg count were incorporated into the model. Horses and farms were kept as random effects. Resistance classifications were based on model-based 95% lower confidence limit (LCL...... was shown to be unaffected by single outlier horses on the farms, while traditional calculations were strongly biased. The statistical model combines information between farms to distinguish between variability and genuine reduction in efficacy and can be adapted to handle FECRT data obtained from other......) values of predicted mean efficacies, and cutoff values were justified statistically. The model was used to evaluate the efficacy of pyrantel embonate paste on 64 Danish horse farms. Of 1644 horses, 614 had egg counts > 200 eggs per gram (EPG) and were treated. The cutoff LCL values used for classifying...
Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally
2015-06-01
Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable and can further inform large-scale experimental designs. In this research note, a statistical analysis for case-study data is outlined that employs a modification to the Reliable Change Index (Jacobson & Truax, 1991). The relationship between reliable change and clinical significance is discussed. Example data are used to guide the reader through the use and application of this analysis. A method of analysis is detailed that is suitable for assessing change in measures with binary categorical outcomes. The analysis is illustrated using data from one individual, measured before and after treatment for stuttering. The application of this approach to assess change in categorical, binary data has potential application in speech-language pathology. It enables clinicians and researchers to analyze results from case studies for their statistical and clinical significance. This new method addresses a gap in the research design literature, that is, the lack of analysis methods for noncontinuous data (such as counts, rates, proportions of events) that may be used in case-study designs.
Cho, Hyeyoung; Kim, Hyosil; Na, Dokyun; Kim, So Youn; Jo, Deokyeon; Lee, Doheon
2016-03-04
Biomarkers that are identified from a single study often appear to be biologically irrelevant or false positives. Meta-analysis techniques allow integrating data from multiple studies that are related but independent in order to identify biomarkers across multiple conditions. However, existing biomarker meta-analysis methods tend to be sensitive to the dataset being analyzed. Here, we propose a meta-analysis method, iMeta, which integrates t-statistic and fold change ratio for improved robustness. For evaluation of predictive performance of the biomarkers identified by iMeta, we compare our method with other meta-analysis methods. As a result, iMeta outperforms the other methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and especially shows robustness to study variance increase; it consistently shows higher classification accuracy on diverse datasets, while the performance of the others is highly affected by the dataset being analyzed. Application of iMeta to 59 drug-induced liver injury studies identified three key biomarker genes: Zwint, Abcc3, and Ppp1r3b. Experimental evaluation using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR shows that their expressional changes in response to drug toxicity are concordant with the result of our method. iMeta is available at http://imeta.kaist.ac.kr/index.html.
Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Update (Presentation)
Sheng, S.; Keller, J.; Glinsky, C.
2013-10-01
This presentation was given at the Sandia Reliability Workshop in August 2013 and provides information on current statistics, a status update, next steps, and other reliability research and development activities related to the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative.
Assuring reliability program effectiveness.
Ball, L. W.
1973-01-01
An attempt is made to provide simple identification and description of techniques that have proved to be most useful either in developing a new product or in improving reliability of an established product. The first reliability task is obtaining and organizing parts failure rate data. Other tasks are parts screening, tabulation of general failure rates, preventive maintenance, prediction of new product reliability, and statistical demonstration of achieved reliability. Five principal tasks for improving reliability involve the physics of failure research, derating of internal stresses, control of external stresses, functional redundancy, and failure effects control. A final task is the training and motivation of reliability specialist engineers.
Osler, James Edward, II
2015-01-01
This monograph provides an epistemological rational for the Accumulative Manifold Validation Analysis [also referred by the acronym "AMOVA"] statistical methodology designed to test psychometric instruments. This form of inquiry is a form of mathematical optimization in the discipline of linear stochastic modelling. AMOVA is an in-depth…
Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally
2015-01-01
Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…
Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally
2015-01-01
Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…
陈丽娟; 李霞
2012-01-01
According to the statistics on reliability indices of nation-wide 220 kV and the above power transmission and transformation facilities in 2010, especially operation data of three main kinds of power transmission and transformation facilities, namely transformer, circuit breaker and overhead line, the main influencing causes of scheduled and unscheduled outages were analyzed and evaluated. Through the analysis of reliability indices in recent years, the reliability changing tendency was discussed, which provided the beneficial basis for improving the reliability of power transmission and transformation facilities in the coming years.%通过对2011年全国220 kV及以上电压等级输变电设施可靠性指标的分析,特别是对影响变压器、断路器、架空线路3类主要输变电设施可靠性的计划停运、非计划停运的主要因素及目前在运的特高压输电线路的分析与评估,提出了影响可靠性因素的变化趋势,为电力系统规划、设计制造、设备选型、安装调试、生产运行、检修维护等各环节工作提供了技术支撑.
Mathematical and statistical analysis
Houston, A. Glen
1988-01-01
The goal of the mathematical and statistical analysis component of RICIS is to research, develop, and evaluate mathematical and statistical techniques for aerospace technology applications. Specific research areas of interest include modeling, simulation, experiment design, reliability assessment, and numerical analysis.
Antczak, K; Wilczyńska, U
1980-01-01
2 statistical models for evaluation of toxicological studies results have been presented. Model I. after R. Hoschek and H. J. Schittke (2) involves: 1. Elimination of the values deviating from most results-by Grubbs' method (2). 2. Analysis of the differences between the results obtained by the participants of the action and tentatively assumed value. 3. Evaluation of significant differences between the reference value and average value for a given series of measurements. 4. Thorough evaluation of laboratories based on evaluation coefficient fx. Model II after Keppler et al. As a criterion for evaluating the results the authors assumed the median. Individual evaluation of laboratories was performed on the basis of: 1. Adjusted test "t" 2. Linear regression test.
Kopáček Jaroslav
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the importance of detection reliability, especially in complex fluid systems for demanding production technology. The initial criterion for assessing the reliability is the failure of object (element, which is seen as a random variable and their data (values can be processed using by the mathematical methods of theory probability and statistics. They are defined the basic indicators of reliability and their applications in calculations of serial, parallel and backed-up systems. For illustration, there are calculation examples of indicators of reliability for various elements of the system and for the selected pneumatic circuit.
陈丽娟; 胡小正
2011-01-01
According to the statistics on reliability indices of nation-wide 220 kV and the above power transmission and transformation facilities in 2010, especially operation data of three main kinds of power transmission and transformation facilities, namely transformer, circuit breaker and overhead line, the main influencing causes of scheduled and unscheduled outages were analyzed and evaluated. Through the analysis of reliability indices in recent years, the reliability changing tendency was discussed, which provided the beneficial basis for improving the reliability of power transmission and transformation facilities in the coming years.%通过对2010年全国220 kV及以上电压等级输变电设施可靠性分析,特别是对220kV、330 kV、500kV变压器、断路器、架空线路3类主要输变电设施的计划停运及非计划停运方面的分析,从技术及责任原因中找出影响其运行可靠性的薄弱环节,并通过设备型式、部件分析、进口与国产设备指标对比,找出了可靠性的变化趋势,为规划、设计、施工、生产等各环节电力企业制定确保输变电设施可靠性有效措施提供参考依据.
Reliability-based optimization of engineering structures
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2008-01-01
The theoretical basis for reliability-based structural optimization within the framework of Bayesian statistical decision theory is briefly described. Reliability-based cost benefit problems are formulated and exemplitied with structural optimization. The basic reliability-based optimization prob...
Hartzell, Allyson L; Shea, Herbert R
2010-01-01
This book focuses on the reliability and manufacturability of MEMS at a fundamental level. It demonstrates how to design MEMs for reliability and provides detailed information on the different types of failure modes and how to avoid them.
吕峰
2011-01-01
通过对发电投产12年来天荒坪电站设备运行和故障情况的统计，分析电站设备消缺和健康运行水平及影响可靠性指标的主要因素，提出相应对策，对设备运行监测重点提出建议。%The statistics was conducted on the equipment operation and failures in Tianhuangping Pumped-Storage Power Station for its 12-year power generation. This paper analyzes the main factors influencing the level of equipment faults elimination and healthy operation, as well as the reliability index, and proposes the corresponding countermeasures. Finally, the equipment operation monitoring focus was suggested.
Radulović, Niko S; Blagojević, Polina D
2013-08-02
Plant volatiles have been repeatedly shown to provide valuable insight into the evolutionary relationships among plant taxa on various taxonomical levels. The number of variables available from GC-MS analyses of these plant metabolites usually represents a large data set. The comparison of such data sets requires the use of multivariate statistical analyses (MSA) but with several serious shortcomings. In order to make multivariate statistical comparison of essential oils more applicable, reliable and faster, this work was set to explore the suitability of a complementary use of relative abundances of m/z values of the average mass scan of the total GC chromatograms instead of the traditionally used variables-percentages (peak areas) of individual oil constituents. To achieve this, essential oils extracted from 12 different Artemisia species were analyzed using GC-FID and GC-MS. Almost 500 different constituents were successfully identified. Average mass scans of the total GC chromatograms (AMS) and chemical compositions (relative percentages) of the analyzed oils were separately compared using two MSA methods: agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. This approach was applied to an additional set of essential oil compositional data (representatives of a number of different genera/families; data from the literature) using both types of variables. The obtained results strongly suggest that MSA of complex volatile mixtures, using the corresponding directly obtainable AMS, could be considered as a promising time saving tool for easy and reliable comparison purposes. The AMS approach gives comparable or even better results than the traditional method - it reflected the natural relationships between observations within both studied groups of oils.
Statistical methods of economic and reliability benefits in outage management%停电管理的经济效益与可靠性效益统计方法
杜力; 黎灿兵; 熊浩清; 杜亮; 程子霞; 曹丽华
2011-01-01
科学的停电管理可以取得较好的经济效益和可靠性效益.分析了停电管理效益的宏观统计方法,分别用增供电量和停电时户数描述经济效益和可靠性效益.研究了停电管理中实现增供扩销的措施,从微观角度分析增供扩销效果的统计方法.最后提出停电管理中评估经济效益与可靠性效益的指标,为管理层提供停电管理决策支持,同时更加准确地进行业绩考核,提高供电企业的精细化管理水平,实现供需双赢.实践证明,所提出的方法具有较强的实用性.%Scientific outage management can achieve great economic benefits and reliability benefits. The macro-statistic method of outage management benefit is analyzed. The economic and reliability benefits are described by increased electricity sales and number of outage hour-households respectively. The measures that can realize supply increase and marketing enlarging are studied and the practical effect of these statistical methods are analyzed from microcosmic angle. Finally, the indicators of economic benefits and reliability benefits in outage management are put forward. These indicators can provide outage management decision support for management layer, and also achieve more accurate performance assessment, which can improve the fine management level of power supply enterprise, and also achieve benefit for both supply enterprise and energy consumer. It is proved that the methods proposed are practical.This work is supported by the National High Technology Research and Development Program of China (863 Program) (No. SQ2010AA0500165004).
Algora, Carlos; Espinet-Gonzalez, Pilar; Vazquez, Manuel; Bosco, Nick; Miller, David; Kurtz, Sarah; Rubio, Francisca; McConnell,Robert
2016-04-15
This chapter describes the accumulated knowledge on CPV reliability with its fundamentals and qualification. It explains the reliability of solar cells, modules (including optics) and plants. The chapter discusses the statistical distributions, namely exponential, normal and Weibull. The reliability of solar cells includes: namely the issues in accelerated aging tests in CPV solar cells, types of failure and failures in real time operation. The chapter explores the accelerated life tests, namely qualitative life tests (mainly HALT) and quantitative accelerated life tests (QALT). It examines other well proven and experienced PV cells and/or semiconductor devices, which share similar semiconductor materials, manufacturing techniques or operating conditions, namely, III-V space solar cells and light emitting diodes (LEDs). It addresses each of the identified reliability issues and presents the current state of the art knowledge for their testing and evaluation. Finally, the chapter summarizes the CPV qualification and reliability standards.
Reliability and Its Quantitative Measures
Alexandru ISAIC-MANIU
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this article is made an opening for the software reliability issues, through wide-ranging statistical indicators, which are designed based on information collected from operating or testing (samples. It is developed the reliability issues also for the case of the main reliability laws (exponential, normal, Weibull, which validated for a particular system, allows the calculation of some reliability indicators with a higher degree of accuracy and trustworthiness
Lazzaroni, Massimo
2012-01-01
This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be
Electronics reliability calculation and design
Dummer, Geoffrey W A; Hiller, N
1966-01-01
Electronics Reliability-Calculation and Design provides an introduction to the fundamental concepts of reliability. The increasing complexity of electronic equipment has made problems in designing and manufacturing a reliable product more and more difficult. Specific techniques have been developed that enable designers to integrate reliability into their products, and reliability has become a science in its own right. The book begins with a discussion of basic mathematical and statistical concepts, including arithmetic mean, frequency distribution, median and mode, scatter or dispersion of mea
Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Clinical versus statistical significance
Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc
2015-01-01
In clinical research, study results, which are statistically significant are often interpreted as being clinically important. While statistical significance indicates the reliability of the study results, clinical significance reflects its impact on clinical practice. The third article in this series exploring pitfalls in statistical analysis clarifies the importance of differentiating between statistical significance and clinical significance. PMID:26229754
Algebraic statistics computational commutative algebra in statistics
Pistone, Giovanni; Wynn, Henry P
2000-01-01
Written by pioneers in this exciting new field, Algebraic Statistics introduces the application of polynomial algebra to experimental design, discrete probability, and statistics. It begins with an introduction to Gröbner bases and a thorough description of their applications to experimental design. A special chapter covers the binary case with new application to coherent systems in reliability and two level factorial designs. The work paves the way, in the last two chapters, for the application of computer algebra to discrete probability and statistical modelling through the important concept of an algebraic statistical model.As the first book on the subject, Algebraic Statistics presents many opportunities for spin-off research and applications and should become a landmark work welcomed by both the statistical community and its relatives in mathematics and computer science.
The rating reliability calculator
Solomon David J
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.
Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies
Kammerer, Catherine C.
2009-01-01
Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.
... Certification Import Safety International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & Decisions Research & Statistics Research & Statistics Technical Reports Injury Statistics NEISS Injury ...
Cosmic Statistics of Statistics
Szapudi, I.; Colombi, S.; Bernardeau, F.
1999-01-01
The errors on statistics measured in finite galaxy catalogs are exhaustively investigated. The theory of errors on factorial moments by Szapudi & Colombi (1996) is applied to cumulants via a series expansion method. All results are subsequently extended to the weakly non-linear regime. Together with previous investigations this yields an analytic theory of the errors for moments and connected moments of counts in cells from highly nonlinear to weakly nonlinear scales. The final analytic formu...
2017-01-17
convey any rights or permission to manufacture, use, or sell any patented invention that may relate to them. This report was cleared for public release...testing for reliability prediction of devices exhibiting multiple failure mechanisms. Also presented was an integrated accelerating and measuring ...13 Table 2 T, V, F and matrix versus measured FIT
Statistical modeling for degradation data
Lio, Yuhlong; Ng, Hon; Tsai, Tzong-Ru
2017-01-01
This book focuses on the statistical aspects of the analysis of degradation data. In recent years, degradation data analysis has come to play an increasingly important role in different disciplines such as reliability, public health sciences, and finance. For example, information on products’ reliability can be obtained by analyzing degradation data. In addition, statistical modeling and inference techniques have been developed on the basis of different degradation measures. The book brings together experts engaged in statistical modeling and inference, presenting and discussing important recent advances in degradation data analysis and related applications. The topics covered are timely and have considerable potential to impact both statistics and reliability engineering.
The Highest & Lowest Reliability Achievable with Redundancy
Becker, Peter W.
1977-01-01
-dependent, it is difficult to assess the reliability of the system. The paper describes the ¿-transformation by which the highest and lowest reliability achievable can be determined for a configuration using components with specified reliabilities. As a by-product we become able to pinpoint the statistical relationships...
Saiz, P; Rocha, R; Andreeva, J
2007-01-01
We are offering a system to track the efficiency of different components of the GRID. We can study the performance of both the WMS and the data transfers At the moment, we have set different parts of the system for ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. None of the components that we have developed are VO specific, therefore it would be very easy to deploy them for any other VO. Our main goal is basically to improve the reliability of the GRID. The main idea is to discover as soon as possible the different problems that have happened, and inform the responsible. Since we study the jobs and transfers issued by real users, we see the same problems that users see. As a matter of fact, we see even more problems than the end user does, since we are also interested in following up the errors that GRID components can overcome by themselves (like for instance, in case of a job failure, resubmitting the job to a different site). This kind of information is very useful to site and VO administrators. They can find out the efficien...
Norén, Patrik
2013-01-01
Algebraic statistics brings together ideas from algebraic geometry, commutative algebra, and combinatorics to address problems in statistics and its applications. Computer algebra provides powerful tools for the study of algorithms and software. However, these tools are rarely prepared to address statistical challenges and therefore new algebraic results need often be developed. This way of interplay between algebra and statistics fertilizes both disciplines. Algebraic statistics is a relativ...
NONE
2010-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K
1998-01-01
This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul
查静; 宁毅
2015-01-01
文章首先回顾了信度和效度的概念以及检测信度和效度的方法，以此为依据，将收集到的电脑评分和专家人工评分的数据进行了相关性分析、信度检验、重复性方差分析、独立样本t检验以及定性分析等各项分析，多方位地多元评分系统的信度和效度进行了验证。结果表明，本系统具有良好的内部一致性，信度较好，但是初评分比例较高时，信度较低；与专家评分的结果对比研究表明，自动评分系统结果对说明文和应用文体两种文体写作能力解释力较差。%The paper sets out to analyze the reliability and validity of automated essay scoring with E-scorer. It begins with a review on previous empirical researches on the reliability and validity of automated essay scoring systems.The evidence based approach is used in this study to examine the reliability of automated scoring and com-pare the automated and human scores.The relevance test, reliability statistics, repeated measures and independent samples T-test show that the automated scoring system is highly reliable when the proportion of preliminary scores is below 50%.However, the statistical and quality analyses show that the scoring results from automated scoring system are not able to provide good interpretation for practical and informative writing ability.
新家, 健精
2013-01-01
© 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved. Article Outline: Glossary Definition of the Subject and Introduction The Bayesian Statistical Paradigm Three Examples Comparison with the Frequentist Statistical Paradigm Future Directions Bibliography
Pestman, Wiebe R
2009-01-01
This textbook provides a broad and solid introduction to mathematical statistics, including the classical subjects hypothesis testing, normal regression analysis, and normal analysis of variance. In addition, non-parametric statistics and vectorial statistics are considered, as well as applications of stochastic analysis in modern statistics, e.g., Kolmogorov-Smirnov testing, smoothing techniques, robustness and density estimation. For students with some elementary mathematical background. With many exercises. Prerequisites from measure theory and linear algebra are presented.
Eliazar, Iddo
2017-05-01
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their 'public relations' for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford's law, and 1/f noise.
Eugster, P.; Guerraoui, R.; Kouznetsov, P.
2001-01-01
This paper presents a new, non-binary measure of the reliability of broadcast algorithms, called Delta-Reliability. This measure quantifies the reliability of practical broadcast algorithms that, on the one hand, were devised with some form of reliability in mind, but, on the other hand, are not considered reliable according to the ``traditional'' notion of broadcast reliability [HT94]. Our specification of Delta-Reliability suggests a further step towards bridging the gap between theory and...
Frontiers in statistical quality control
Wilrich, Peter-Theodor
2004-01-01
This volume treats the four main categories of Statistical Quality Control: General SQC Methodology, On-line Control including Sampling Inspection and Statistical Process Control, Off-line Control with Data Analysis and Experimental Design, and, fields related to Reliability. Experts with international reputation present their newest contributions.
Statistics 101 for Radiologists.
Anvari, Arash; Halpern, Elkan F; Samir, Anthony E
2015-10-01
Diagnostic tests have wide clinical applications, including screening, diagnosis, measuring treatment effect, and determining prognosis. Interpreting diagnostic test results requires an understanding of key statistical concepts used to evaluate test efficacy. This review explains descriptive statistics and discusses probability, including mutually exclusive and independent events and conditional probability. In the inferential statistics section, a statistical perspective on study design is provided, together with an explanation of how to select appropriate statistical tests. Key concepts in recruiting study samples are discussed, including representativeness and random sampling. Variable types are defined, including predictor, outcome, and covariate variables, and the relationship of these variables to one another. In the hypothesis testing section, we explain how to determine if observed differences between groups are likely to be due to chance. We explain type I and II errors, statistical significance, and study power, followed by an explanation of effect sizes and how confidence intervals can be used to generalize observed effect sizes to the larger population. Statistical tests are explained in four categories: t tests and analysis of variance, proportion analysis tests, nonparametric tests, and regression techniques. We discuss sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, receiver operating characteristic analysis, and likelihood ratios. Measures of reliability and agreement, including κ statistics, intraclass correlation coefficients, and Bland-Altman graphs and analysis, are introduced.
Reliability computation from reliability block diagrams
Chelson, P. O.; Eckstein, E. Y.
1975-01-01
Computer program computes system reliability for very general class of reliability block diagrams. Four factors are considered in calculating probability of system success: active block redundancy, standby block redundancy, partial redundancy, and presence of equivalent blocks in the diagram.
Sadovskii, Michael V
2012-01-01
This volume provides a compact presentation of modern statistical physics at an advanced level. Beginning with questions on the foundations of statistical mechanics all important aspects of statistical physics are included, such as applications to ideal gases, the theory of quantum liquids and superconductivity and the modern theory of critical phenomena. Beyond that attention is given to new approaches, such as quantum field theory methods and non-equilibrium problems.
Szulc, Stefan
1965-01-01
Statistical Methods provides a discussion of the principles of the organization and technique of research, with emphasis on its application to the problems in social statistics. This book discusses branch statistics, which aims to develop practical ways of collecting and processing numerical data and to adapt general statistical methods to the objectives in a given field.Organized into five parts encompassing 22 chapters, this book begins with an overview of how to organize the collection of such information on individual units, primarily as accomplished by government agencies. This text then
Goodman, Joseph W
2015-01-01
This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications. The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i
... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Histoplasmosis Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How common is histoplasmosis? In the United States, an estimated 60% to ...
Forbes, Catherine; Hastings, Nicholas; Peacock, Brian J.
2010-01-01
A new edition of the trusted guide on commonly used statistical distributions Fully updated to reflect the latest developments on the topic, Statistical Distributions, Fourth Edition continues to serve as an authoritative guide on the application of statistical methods to research across various disciplines. The book provides a concise presentation of popular statistical distributions along with the necessary knowledge for their successful use in data modeling and analysis. Following a basic introduction, forty popular distributions are outlined in individual chapters that are complete with re
Eliazar, Iddo, E-mail: eliazar@post.tau.ac.il
2017-05-15
The exponential, the normal, and the Poisson statistical laws are of major importance due to their universality. Harmonic statistics are as universal as the three aforementioned laws, but yet they fall short in their ‘public relations’ for the following reason: the full scope of harmonic statistics cannot be described in terms of a statistical law. In this paper we describe harmonic statistics, in their full scope, via an object termed harmonic Poisson process: a Poisson process, over the positive half-line, with a harmonic intensity. The paper reviews the harmonic Poisson process, investigates its properties, and presents the connections of this object to an assortment of topics: uniform statistics, scale invariance, random multiplicative perturbations, Pareto and inverse-Pareto statistics, exponential growth and exponential decay, power-law renormalization, convergence and domains of attraction, the Langevin equation, diffusions, Benford’s law, and 1/f noise. - Highlights: • Harmonic statistics are described and reviewed in detail. • Connections to various statistical laws are established. • Connections to perturbation, renormalization and dynamics are established.
Reliability Considerations for the Operation of Large Accelerator User Facilities
Willeke, F J
2016-01-01
The lecture provides an overview of considerations relevant for achieving highly reliable operation of accelerator based user facilities. The article starts with an overview of statistical reliability formalism which is followed by high reliability design considerations with examples. The article closes with operational aspects of high reliability such as preventive maintenance and spares inventory.
Glaz, Joseph
2009-01-01
Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.
Petocz, Peter; Sowey, Eric
2008-01-01
In this article, the authors focus on hypothesis testing--that peculiarly statistical way of deciding things. Statistical methods for testing hypotheses were developed in the 1920s and 1930s by some of the most famous statisticians, in particular Ronald Fisher, Jerzy Neyman and Egon Pearson, who laid the foundations of almost all modern methods of…
Lyons, L
2016-01-01
Accelerators and detectors are expensive, both in terms of money and human effort. It is thus important to invest effort in performing a good statistical anal- ysis of the data, in order to extract the best information from it. This series of five lectures deals with practical aspects of statistical issues that arise in typical High Energy Physics analyses.
Verweij, Jan F.
1993-01-01
Several issue's regarding VLSI reliability research in Europe are discussed. Organizations involved in stimulating the activities on reliability by exchanging information or supporting research programs are described. Within one such program, ESPRIT, a technical interest group on IC reliability was
Ross, Sheldon M
2005-01-01
In this revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this goal through a coherent mix of mathematical analysis, intuitive discussions and examples.* Ross's clear writin
Ross, Sheldon M
2010-01-01
In this 3rd edition revised text, master expositor Sheldon Ross has produced a unique work in introductory statistics. The text's main merits are the clarity of presentation, contemporary examples and applications from diverse areas, and an explanation of intuition and ideas behind the statistical methods. Concepts are motivated, illustrated and explained in a way that attempts to increase one's intuition. To quote from the preface, ""It is only when a student develops a feel or intuition for statistics that she or he is really on the path toward making sense of data."" Ross achieves this
Feiveson, Alan H.; Foy, Millennia; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James
2014-01-01
Do you have elevated p-values? Is the data analysis process getting you down? Do you experience anxiety when you need to respond to criticism of statistical methods in your manuscript? You may be suffering from Insufficient Statistical Support Syndrome (ISSS). For symptomatic relief of ISSS, come for a free consultation with JSC biostatisticians at our help desk during the poster sessions at the HRP Investigators Workshop. Get answers to common questions about sample size, missing data, multiple testing, when to trust the results of your analyses and more. Side effects may include sudden loss of statistics anxiety, improved interpretation of your data, and increased confidence in your results.
Wannier, Gregory H
2010-01-01
Until recently, the field of statistical physics was traditionally taught as three separate subjects: thermodynamics, statistical mechanics, and kinetic theory. This text, a forerunner in its field and now a classic, was the first to recognize the outdated reasons for their separation and to combine the essentials of the three subjects into one unified presentation of thermal physics. It has been widely adopted in graduate and advanced undergraduate courses, and is recommended throughout the field as an indispensable aid to the independent study and research of statistical physics.Designed for
Blakemore, J S
1962-01-01
Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co
王炳兴
2012-01-01
The maximum likelihood estimation and generalized confidence interval of the system reliability of general multi-component stress-strength model are derived when the component strengths and the stress are independent exponential random variables. The goodness-of-fit test of the model is discussed. The coverage probability of the proposed generalized confidence interval and the power of the test are evaluated by Monte Carlo simulation. The simulation results show that the proposed generalized confidence interval and test are very satisfactory even for small and moderate samples. Finally, an example is shown to illustrate the proposed procedures.%利用最大似然估计和广义区间估计方法,研究了元件的强度和承受的应力均服从指数分布时系统应力强度模型可靠度的估计问题,导出了可靠度的最大似然估计和广义区间估计.同时也讨论了模型的拟合检验问题.利用模拟方法研究了提出的广义置信区间的覆盖率和拟合检验的功效,模拟结果表明提出的广义置信区间的覆盖率与名义置信系数是一致的,提出的拟合检验的功效是好的.最后用一个例子说明提出的方法.
Reliability of the NINDS Myotatic Reflex Scale.
Litvan, I; Mangone, C A; Werden, W; Bueri, J A; Estol, C J; Garcea, D O; Rey, R C; Sica, R E; Hallett, M; Bartko, J J
1996-10-01
The assessment of deep tendon reflexes is useful for localization and diagnosis of neurologic disorders, but only a few studies have evaluated their reliability. We assessed the reliability of four neurologists, instructed in two different countries, in using the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) Myotatic Reflex Scale. To evaluate the role of training in using the scale, the neurologists randomly and blindly evaluated a total of 80 patients, 40 before and 40 after a training session. Inter- and intraobserver reliability were measured with kappa statistics. Our results showed substantial to near-perfect intraobserver reliability, and moderate-to-substantial interobserver reliability of the NINDS Myotatic Reflex Scale. The reproducibility was better for reflexes in the lower than in the upper extremities. Neither educational background nor the training session influenced the reliability of our results. The NINDS Myotatic Reflex Scale has sufficient reliability to be adopted as a universal scale.
The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute works to provide information on cancer statistics in an effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the U.S. population.
... Resources Conducting Clinical Trials Statistical Tools and Data Terminology Resources NCI Data Catalog Cryo-EM NCI's Role ... Contacts Other Funding Find NCI funding for small business innovation, technology transfer, and contracts Training Cancer Training ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Center for Strategic Planning produces an annual CMS Statistics reference booklet that provides a quick reference for summary information about health...
Tryggestad, Kjell
2004-01-01
The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...
Wendelberger, Laura Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-08-08
In large datasets, it is time consuming or even impossible to pick out interesting images. Our proposed solution is to find statistics to quantify the information in each image and use those to identify and pick out images of interest.
Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...
Serdobolskii, Vadim Ivanovich
2007-01-01
This monograph presents mathematical theory of statistical models described by the essentially large number of unknown parameters, comparable with sample size but can also be much larger. In this meaning, the proposed theory can be called "essentially multiparametric". It is developed on the basis of the Kolmogorov asymptotic approach in which sample size increases along with the number of unknown parameters.This theory opens a way for solution of central problems of multivariate statistics, which up until now have not been solved. Traditional statistical methods based on the idea of an infinite sampling often break down in the solution of real problems, and, dependent on data, can be inefficient, unstable and even not applicable. In this situation, practical statisticians are forced to use various heuristic methods in the hope the will find a satisfactory solution.Mathematical theory developed in this book presents a regular technique for implementing new, more efficient versions of statistical procedures. ...
New Approaches to Reliability Assessment
Ma, Ke; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
of energy. New approaches for reliability assessment are being taken in the design phase of power electronics systems based on the physics-of-failure in components. In this approach, many new methods, such as multidisciplinary simulation tools, strength testing of components, translation of mission profiles......Power electronics are facing continuous pressure to be cheaper and smaller, have a higher power density, and, in some cases, also operate at higher temperatures. At the same time, power electronics products are expected to have reduced failures because it is essential for reducing the cost......, and statistical analysis, are involved to enable better prediction and design of reliability for products. This article gives an overview of the new design flow in the reliability engineering of power electronics from the system-level point of view and discusses some of the emerging needs for the technology...
Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"
Smith, Julie M.
2011-01-01
This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…
RELIABILITY AND DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
Adrian Stere PARIS
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The mechanical reliability uses many statistical tools to find the factors of influence and their levels inthe optimization of parameters on the basis of experimental data. Design of Experiments (DOE techniquesenables designers to determine simultaneously the individual and interactive effects of many factors that couldaffect the output results in any design. The state-of-the-art in the domain implies extended use of software and abasic mathematical knowledge, mainly applying ANOVA and the regression analysis of experimental data.
Jana, Madhusudan
2015-01-01
Statistical mechanics is self sufficient, written in a lucid manner, keeping in mind the exam system of the universities. Need of study this subject and its relation to Thermodynamics is discussed in detail. Starting from Liouville theorem gradually, the Statistical Mechanics is developed thoroughly. All three types of Statistical distribution functions are derived separately with their periphery of applications and limitations. Non-interacting ideal Bose gas and Fermi gas are discussed thoroughly. Properties of Liquid He-II and the corresponding models have been depicted. White dwarfs and condensed matter physics, transport phenomenon - thermal and electrical conductivity, Hall effect, Magneto resistance, viscosity, diffusion, etc. are discussed. Basic understanding of Ising model is given to explain the phase transition. The book ends with a detailed coverage to the method of ensembles (namely Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical) and their applications. Various numerical and conceptual problems ar...
Schwabl, Franz
2006-01-01
The completely revised new edition of the classical book on Statistical Mechanics covers the basic concepts of equilibrium and non-equilibrium statistical physics. In addition to a deductive approach to equilibrium statistics and thermodynamics based on a single hypothesis - the form of the microcanonical density matrix - this book treats the most important elements of non-equilibrium phenomena. Intermediate calculations are presented in complete detail. Problems at the end of each chapter help students to consolidate their understanding of the material. Beyond the fundamentals, this text demonstrates the breadth of the field and its great variety of applications. Modern areas such as renormalization group theory, percolation, stochastic equations of motion and their applications to critical dynamics, kinetic theories, as well as fundamental considerations of irreversibility, are discussed. The text will be useful for advanced students of physics and other natural sciences; a basic knowledge of quantum mechan...
Rohatgi, Vijay K
2003-01-01
Unified treatment of probability and statistics examines and analyzes the relationship between the two fields, exploring inferential issues. Numerous problems, examples, and diagrams--some with solutions--plus clear-cut, highlighted summaries of results. Advanced undergraduate to graduate level. Contents: 1. Introduction. 2. Probability Model. 3. Probability Distributions. 4. Introduction to Statistical Inference. 5. More on Mathematical Expectation. 6. Some Discrete Models. 7. Some Continuous Models. 8. Functions of Random Variables and Random Vectors. 9. Large-Sample Theory. 10. General Meth
Mandl, Franz
1988-01-01
The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition E. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw The Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient
Levine-Wissing, Robin
2012-01-01
All Access for the AP® Statistics Exam Book + Web + Mobile Everything you need to prepare for the Advanced Placement® exam, in a study system built around you! There are many different ways to prepare for an Advanced Placement® exam. What's best for you depends on how much time you have to study and how comfortable you are with the subject matter. To score your highest, you need a system that can be customized to fit you: your schedule, your learning style, and your current level of knowledge. This book, and the online tools that come with it, will help you personalize your AP® Statistics prep
Freund, Rudolf J; Wilson, William J
2010-01-01
Statistical Methods, 3e provides students with a working introduction to statistical methods offering a wide range of applications that emphasize the quantitative skills useful across many academic disciplines. This text takes a classic approach emphasizing concepts and techniques for working out problems and intepreting results. The book includes research projects, real-world case studies, numerous examples and data exercises organized by level of difficulty. This text requires that a student be familiar with algebra. New to this edition: NEW expansion of exercises a
Davidson, Norman
2003-01-01
Clear and readable, this fine text assists students in achieving a grasp of the techniques and limitations of statistical mechanics. The treatment follows a logical progression from elementary to advanced theories, with careful attention to detail and mathematical development, and is sufficiently rigorous for introductory or intermediate graduate courses.Beginning with a study of the statistical mechanics of ideal gases and other systems of non-interacting particles, the text develops the theory in detail and applies it to the study of chemical equilibrium and the calculation of the thermody
NONE
1998-12-31
For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1997, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1998, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-September 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-September 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products
NONE
1998-12-31
For the year 1997 and 1998, part of the figures shown in the tables of the Energy Review are preliminary or estimated. The annual statistics of the Energy Review appear in more detail from the publication Energiatilastot - Energy Statistics issued annually includes also historical time series over a longer period (see e.g. Energiatilastot 1996, Statistics Finland, Helsinki 1997, ISSN 0784-3165). The inside of the Review`s back cover shows the energy units and the conversion coefficients used for them. Explanatory notes to the statistical tables can be found after tables and figures. The figures presents: Changes in the volume of GNP and energy consumption, Changes in the volume of GNP and electricity, Coal consumption, Natural gas consumption, Peat consumption, Domestic oil deliveries, Import prices of oil, Consumer prices of principal oil products, Fuel prices for heat production, Fuel prices for electricity production, Carbon dioxide emissions, Total energy consumption by source and CO{sub 2}-emissions, Electricity supply, Energy imports by country of origin in January-June 1998, Energy exports by recipient country in January-June 1998, Consumer prices of liquid fuels, Consumer prices of hard coal, Natural gas and indigenous fuels, Average electricity price by type of consumer, Price of district heating by type of consumer, Excise taxes, Value added taxes and fiscal charges and fees included in consumer prices of some energy sources, Energy taxes and precautionary stock fees, pollution fees on oil products
Gallavotti, Giovanni
2011-01-01
C. Cercignani: A sketch of the theory of the Boltzmann equation.- O.E. Lanford: Qualitative and statistical theory of dissipative systems.- E.H. Lieb: many particle Coulomb systems.- B. Tirozzi: Report on renormalization group.- A. Wehrl: Basic properties of entropy in quantum mechanics.
The Accelerator Reliability Forum
Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R
2014-01-01
A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.
Combination of structural reliability and interval analysis
Zhiping Qiu; Di Yang; saac Elishakoff
2008-01-01
In engineering applications,probabilistic reliability theory appears to be presently the most important method,however,in many cases precise probabilistic reliability theory cannot be considered as adequate and credible model of the real state of actual affairs.In this paper,we developed a hybrid of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability theory,which describes the structural uncertain parameters as interval variables when statistical data are found insufficient.By using the interval analysis,a new method for calculating the interval of the structural reliability as well as the reliability index is introduced in this paper,and the traditional probabilistic theory is incorporated with the interval analysis.Moreover,the new method preserves the useful part of the traditional probabilistic reliability theory,but removes the restriction of its strict requirement on data acquisition.Example is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed theory.
Enlightenment on Computer Network Reliability From Transportation Network Reliability
Hu Wenjun; Zhou Xizhao
2011-01-01
Referring to transportation network reliability problem, five new computer network reliability definitions are proposed and discussed. They are computer network connectivity reliability, computer network time reliability, computer network capacity reliability, computer network behavior reliability and computer network potential reliability. Finally strategies are suggested to enhance network reliability.
Structural Reliability Methods for Wind Power Converter System Component Reliability Assessment
Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2012-01-01
is defined by the threshold model. The attention is focused on crack propagation in solder joints of electrical components due to the temperature loadings. Structural Reliability approaches are used to incorporate model, physical and statistical uncertainties. Reliability estimation by means of structural...
Natrella, Mary Gibbons
2005-01-01
Formulated to assist scientists and engineers engaged in army ordnance research and development programs, this well-known and highly regarded handbook is a ready reference for advanced undergraduate and graduate students as well as for professionals seeking engineering information and quantitative data for designing, developing, constructing, and testing equipment. Topics include characterizing and comparing the measured performance of a material, product, or process; general considerations in planning experiments; statistical techniques for analyzing extreme-value data; use of transformations
Meneghetti, M; Dahle, H; Limousin, M
2013-01-01
The existence of an arc statistics problem was at the center of a strong debate in the last fifteen years. With the aim to clarify if the optical depth for giant gravitational arcs by galaxy clusters in the so called concordance model is compatible with observations, several studies were carried out which helped to significantly improve our knowledge of strong lensing clusters, unveiling their extremely complex internal structure. In particular, the abundance and the frequency of strong lensing events like gravitational arcs turned out to be a potentially very powerful tool to trace the structure formation. However, given the limited size of observational and theoretical data-sets, the power of arc statistics as a cosmological tool has been only minimally exploited so far. On the other hand, the last years were characterized by significant advancements in the field, and several cluster surveys that are ongoing or planned for the near future seem to have the potential to make arc statistics a competitive cosmo...
Human Reliability Program Overview
Bodin, Michael
2012-09-25
This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.
Power electronics reliability analysis.
Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley
2009-12-01
This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.
Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.
2016-01-01
This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?
Viking Lander reliability program
Pilny, M. J.
1978-01-01
The Viking Lander reliability program is reviewed with attention given to the development of the reliability program requirements, reliability program management, documents evaluation, failure modes evaluation, production variation control, failure reporting and correction, and the parts program. Lander hardware failures which have occurred during the mission are listed.
Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine
Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon
2013-01-01
as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine...... to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda....
Application of a truncated normal failure distribution in reliability testing
Groves, C., Jr.
1968-01-01
Statistical truncated normal distribution function is applied as a time-to-failure distribution function in equipment reliability estimations. Age-dependent characteristics of the truncated function provide a basis for formulating a system of high-reliability testing that effectively merges statistical, engineering, and cost considerations.
2012-01-01
In 1975 John Tukey proposed a multivariate median which is the 'deepest' point in a given data cloud in R^d. Later, in measuring the depth of an arbitrary point z with respect to the data, David Donoho and Miriam Gasko considered hyperplanes through z and determined its 'depth' by the smallest portion of data that are separated by such a hyperplane. Since then, these ideas has proved extremely fruitful. A rich statistical methodology has developed that is based on data depth and, more general...
Sheffield, Scott
2009-01-01
In recent years, statistical mechanics has been increasingly recognized as a central domain of mathematics. Major developments include the Schramm-Loewner evolution, which describes two-dimensional phase transitions, random matrix theory, renormalization group theory and the fluctuations of random surfaces described by dimers. The lectures contained in this volume present an introduction to recent mathematical progress in these fields. They are designed for graduate students in mathematics with a strong background in analysis and probability. This book will be of particular interest to graduate students and researchers interested in modern aspects of probability, conformal field theory, percolation, random matrices and stochastic differential equations.
Reliability Analysis of DOOF for Weibull Distribution
陈文华; 崔杰; 樊小燕; 卢献彪; 相平
2003-01-01
Hierarchical Bayesian method for estimating the failure probability under DOOF by taking the quasi-Beta distribution as the prior distribution is proposed in this paper. The weighted Least Squares Estimate method was used to obtain the formula for computing reliability distribution parameters and estimating the reliability characteristic values under DOOF. Taking one type of aerospace electrical connector as an example, the correctness of the above method through statistical analysis of electrical connector accelerated life test data was verified.
Paine, Gregory Harold
1982-03-01
The primary objective of the thesis is to explore the dynamical properties of small nerve networks by means of the methods of statistical mechanics. To this end, a general formalism is developed and applied to elementary groupings of model neurons which are driven by either constant (steady state) or nonconstant (nonsteady state) forces. Neuronal models described by a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations are considered. A linearized form of the neuronal equations is studied in detail. A Lagrange function corresponding to the linear neural network is constructed which, through a Legendre transformation, provides a constant of motion. By invoking the Maximum-Entropy Principle with the single integral of motion as a constraint, a probability distribution function for the network in a steady state can be obtained. The formalism is implemented for some simple networks driven by a constant force; accordingly, the analysis focuses on a study of fluctuations about the steady state. In particular, a network composed of N noninteracting neurons, termed Free Thinkers, is considered in detail, with a view to interpretation and numerical estimation of the Lagrange multiplier corresponding to the constant of motion. As an archetypical example of a net of interacting neurons, the classical neural oscillator, consisting of two mutually inhibitory neurons, is investigated. It is further shown that in the case of a network driven by a nonconstant force, the Maximum-Entropy Principle can be applied to determine a probability distribution functional describing the network in a nonsteady state. The above examples are reconsidered with nonconstant driving forces which produce small deviations from the steady state. Numerical studies are performed on simplified models of two physical systems: the starfish central nervous system and the mammalian olfactory bulb. Discussions are given as to how statistical neurodynamics can be used to gain a better
Energy Statistics Manual [Arabic version
NONE
2011-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
Energy Statistics Manual [Chinese version
NONE
2007-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
Energy Statistics Manual; Handbuch Energiestatistik
NONE
2005-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
Introduction to quality and reliability engineering
Jiang, Renyan
2015-01-01
This book presents the state-of-the-art in quality and reliability engineering from a product life cycle standpoint. Topics in reliability include reliability models, life data analysis and modeling, design for reliability and accelerated life testing, while topics in quality include design for quality, acceptance sampling and supplier selection, statistical process control, production tests such as screening and burn-in, warranty and maintenance. The book provides comprehensive insights into two closely related subjects, and includes a wealth of examples and problems to enhance reader comprehension and link theory and practice. All numerical examples can be easily solved using Microsoft Excel. The book is intended for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in related engineering and management programs such as mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and engineering management programs, as well as for researchers and engineers in the quality and reliability fields. D...
MEMS reliability: The challenge and the promise
Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.; Peterson, K.A.
1998-05-01
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost effective solutions only if they prove to be sufficiently reliable. A valid reliability assessment of MEMS has three prerequisites: (1) statistical significance; (2) a technique for accelerating fundamental failure mechanisms, and (3) valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. These already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems. The challenge lies in the less well understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This paper presents a methodology addressing these prerequisites and a description of the underlying physics of reliability for micromachines.
Decision theory in structural reliability
Thomas, J. M.; Hanagud, S.; Hawk, J. D.
1975-01-01
Some fundamentals of reliability analysis as applicable to aerospace structures are reviewed, and the concept of a test option is introduced. A decision methodology, based on statistical decision theory, is developed for determining the most cost-effective design factor and method of testing for a given structural assembly. The method is applied to several Saturn V and Space Shuttle structural assemblies as examples. It is observed that the cost and weight features of the design have a significant effect on the optimum decision.
Students' attitudes towards learning statistics
Ghulami, Hassan Rahnaward; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Zakaria, Roslinazairimah
2015-05-01
Positive attitude towards learning is vital in order to master the core content of the subject matters under study. This is unexceptional in learning statistics course especially at the university level. Therefore, this study investigates the students' attitude towards learning statistics. Six variables or constructs have been identified such as affect, cognitive competence, value, difficulty, interest, and effort. The instrument used for the study is questionnaire that was adopted and adapted from the reliable instrument of Survey of Attitudes towards Statistics(SATS©). This study is conducted to engineering undergraduate students in one of the university in the East Coast of Malaysia. The respondents consist of students who were taking the applied statistics course from different faculties. The results are analysed in terms of descriptive analysis and it contributes to the descriptive understanding of students' attitude towards the teaching and learning process of statistics.
Reliability and safety engineering
Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao
2016-01-01
Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...
Measurement System Reliability Assessment
Kłos Ryszard
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Decision-making in problem situations is based on up-to-date and reliable information. A great deal of information is subject to rapid changes, hence it may be outdated or manipulated and enforce erroneous decisions. It is crucial to have the possibility to assess the obtained information. In order to ensure its reliability it is best to obtain it with an own measurement process. In such a case, conducting assessment of measurement system reliability seems to be crucial. The article describes general approach to assessing reliability of measurement systems.
Dai, Honghua; Smirnov, Evgueni
2012-01-01
Reliable Knowledge Discovery focuses on theory, methods, and techniques for RKDD, a new sub-field of KDD. It studies the theory and methods to assure the reliability and trustworthiness of discovered knowledge and to maintain the stability and consistency of knowledge discovery processes. RKDD has a broad spectrum of applications, especially in critical domains like medicine, finance, and military. Reliable Knowledge Discovery also presents methods and techniques for designing robust knowledge-discovery processes. Approaches to assessing the reliability of the discovered knowledge are introduc
Circuit design for reliability
Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson
2015-01-01
This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units. The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.
Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.
2011-01-01
This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific ex
Principles of Bridge Reliability
Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.
The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated...
Improving machinery reliability
Bloch, Heinz P
1998-01-01
This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.
Hawaii Electric System Reliability
Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2012-08-01
This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.
Hawaii electric system reliability.
Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William
2012-09-01
This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.
Applied multivariate statistical analysis
Härdle, Wolfgang Karl
2015-01-01
Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners. It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added. All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior. All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...
Combined HW/SW Reliability Models.
1982-04-01
Stone, C. J. (1972). Introduction to Stochastic Processes . New York: Houghton Mifflin. Jelinski, Z. and Moranda, P. (1972). Software reliability...research. Statistical Computer Performance Evaluation, New York: Academic Press, 465-484. Kannan, D. (1979). An Introduction to Stochastic Processes . New
Photovoltaic system reliability
Maish, A.B.; Atcitty, C. [Sandia National Labs., NM (United States); Greenberg, D. [Ascension Technology, Inc., Lincoln Center, MA (United States)] [and others
1997-10-01
This paper discusses the reliability of several photovoltaic projects including SMUD`s PV Pioneer project, various projects monitored by Ascension Technology, and the Colorado Parks project. System times-to-failure range from 1 to 16 years, and maintenance costs range from 1 to 16 cents per kilowatt-hour. Factors contributing to the reliability of these systems are discussed, and practices are recommended that can be applied to future projects. This paper also discusses the methodology used to collect and analyze PV system reliability data.
Structural Reliability Methods
Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.
of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...
师雪姣; 常春起; 胡南; 孙兵
2015-01-01
目的 基于MRI技术,采用基于序统计量相关系数法的脑功能连接网络分析方法研究静息态下语言网络活动情况,并探讨其时间可靠性和功能偏侧化,为静息态语言网络的临床研究提供理论基础.资料与方法 对25例正常志愿者进行3次静息态功能MRI扫描,32位Matlab 7.11.0及DPARSF软件进行数据处理,选取大脑左半球Broca和Wernicke两个语言脑功能区域为感兴趣区,采用序统计量相关系数法分析受试者的语言网络功能连接性.结果 基于种子分析方法的功能连接图,得到受试者的不对称指数图和组内相关系数图.采用序统计量相关系数法分析静息态语言网络的功能连接情况与传统相关系数法分析的结果相似度极高,该方法可用于类似网络功能连接情况的研究.结论 静息态大脑语言功能网络的时间可靠性为语言疾病的临床研究提供一定的参考价值,因语言网络功能偏侧化异常而引起的语言疾病或精神性疾病的临床诊疗,可借鉴静息态语言网络的功能偏侧化及其时间可靠性情况.%Purpose To investigate the activity of language network with brain function connection network analysis method using MRI order statistics correlation coefficient, and to explore the temporal reliability and functional asymmetry, and provide the theoretical foundation for clinical researches of resting-state language network.Materials and Methods Twenty-five healthy volunteers were scanned three times in resting state. All data were processed using 32 bit Matlab 7.11.0 and DPARSF. The two main language functional areas, Broca and Wernicke, were selected as the regions of interest. The functional connectivity of language network was analyzed with order statistics correlation coefficient.Results Based on the functional connectivity diagrams using seed analysis method, the asymmetry index and intra-class correlation were obtained. The functional connectivity of resting
MOV reliability evaluation and periodic verification scheduling
Bunte, B.D.
1996-12-01
The purpose of this paper is to establish a periodic verification testing schedule based on the expected long term reliability of gate or globe motor operated valves (MOVs). The methodology in this position paper determines the nominal (best estimate) design margin for any MOV based on the best available information pertaining to the MOVs design requirements, design parameters, existing hardware design, and present setup. The uncertainty in this margin is then determined using statistical means. By comparing the nominal margin to the uncertainty, the reliability of the MOV is estimated. The methodology is appropriate for evaluating the reliability of MOVs in the GL 89-10 program. It may be used following periodic testing to evaluate and trend MOV performance and reliability. It may also be used to evaluate the impact of proposed modifications and maintenance activities such as packing adjustments. In addition, it may be used to assess the impact of new information of a generic nature which impacts safety related MOVs.
Operational reliability of standby safety systems
Grant, G.M.; Atwood, C.L.; Gentillon, C.D. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others
1995-04-01
The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is evaluating the operational reliability of several risk-significant standby safety systems based on the operating experience at US commercial nuclear power plants from 1987 through 1993. The reliability assessed is the probability that the system will perform its Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) defined safety function. The quantitative estimates of system reliability are expected to be useful in risk-based regulation. This paper is an overview of the analysis methods and the results of the high pressure coolant injection (HPCI) system reliability study. Key characteristics include (1) descriptions of the data collection and analysis methods, (2) the statistical methods employed to estimate operational unreliability, (3) a description of how the operational unreliability estimates were compared with typical PRA results, both overall and for each dominant failure mode, and (4) a summary of results of the study.
N. A. Nayak
1960-05-01
Full Text Available The reliability aspect of electronic equipment's is discussed. To obtain optimum results, close cooperation between the components engineer, the design engineer and the production engineer is suggested.
Reliability prediction techniques
Whittaker, B.; Worthington, B.; Lord, J.F.; Pinkard, D.
1986-01-01
The paper demonstrates the feasibility of applying reliability assessment techniques to mining equipment. A number of techniques are identified and described and examples of their use in assessing mining equipment are given. These techniques include: reliability prediction; failure analysis; design audit; maintainability; availability and the life cycle costing. Specific conclusions regarding the usefulness of each technique are outlined. The choice of techniques depends upon both the type of equipment being assessed and its stage of development, with numerical prediction best suited for electronic equipment and fault analysis and design audit suited to mechanical equipment. Reliability assessments involve much detailed and time consuming work but it has been demonstrated that the resulting reliability improvements lead to savings in service costs which more than offset the cost of the evaluation.
Reliability of power connections
BRAUNOVIC Milenko
2007-01-01
Despite the use of various preventive maintenance measures, there are still a number of problem areas that can adversely affect system reliability. Also, economical constraints have pushed the designs of power connections closer to the limits allowed by the existing standards. The major parameters influencing the reliability and life of Al-Al and Al-Cu connections are identified. The effectiveness of various palliative measures is determined and the misconceptions about their effectiveness are dealt in detail.
Nonparametric statistics for social and behavioral sciences
Kraska-MIller, M
2013-01-01
Introduction to Research in Social and Behavioral SciencesBasic Principles of ResearchPlanning for ResearchTypes of Research Designs Sampling ProceduresValidity and Reliability of Measurement InstrumentsSteps of the Research Process Introduction to Nonparametric StatisticsData AnalysisOverview of Nonparametric Statistics and Parametric Statistics Overview of Parametric Statistics Overview of Nonparametric StatisticsImportance of Nonparametric MethodsMeasurement InstrumentsAnalysis of Data to Determine Association and Agreement Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association and IndependenceContingency
Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis
Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.
Reliability design method for steam turbine blades
Jinyuan SHI
2008-01-01
Based on theories of probability and statistics, and taking static stresses, dynamic stresses, endurance strength, safety ratios, vibration frequencies and exciting force frequencies of blades as random variables, a reliabil-ity design method for steam turbine blades is presented. The purport and calculation method for blade reliability are expounded. The distribution parameters of random variables are determined after analysis and numerical cal-culation of test data. The fatigue strength and the vibra-tion design reliability of turbine blades are determined with the aid of a probabilistic design method and by inter-ference models for stress distribution and strength distri-bution. Some blade reliability design calculation formulas for a dynamic stress design method, a safety ratio design method for fatigue strength, and a vibration reliability design method for the first and second types of tuned blades and a packet of blades on a disk connected closely, are given together with some practical examples. With these methods, the design reliability of steam turbine blades can be guaranteed in the design stage. This research may provide some scientific basis for reliability design of steam turbine blades.
Sensitivity Analysis of Component Reliability
ZhenhuaGe
2004-01-01
In a system, Every component has its unique position within system and its unique failure characteristics. When a component's reliability is changed, its effect on system reliability is not equal. Component reliability sensitivity is a measure of effect on system reliability while a component's reliability is changed. In this paper, the definition and relative matrix of component reliability sensitivity is proposed, and some of their characteristics are analyzed. All these will help us to analyse or improve the system reliability.
System reliability analysis for kinematic performance of planar mechanisms
ZHANG YiMin; HUANG XianZhen; ZHANG XuFang; HE XiangDong; WEN BangChun
2009-01-01
Based on the reliability and mechanism kinematic accuracy theories, we propose a general methodology for system reliability analysis of kinematic performance of planar mechanisms. The loop closure equations are used to estimate the kinematic performance errors of planar mechanisms. Reliability and system reliability theories are introduced to develop the limit state functions (LSF) for failure of kinematic performance qualities. The statistical fourth moment method and the Edgeworth series technique are used on system reliability analysis for kinematic performance of planar mechanisms, which relax the restrictions of probability distribution of design variables. Finally, the practicality, efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical examples.
Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) were proposed
Kottner, Jan; Audigé, Laurent; Brorson, Stig;
2011-01-01
Results of reliability and agreement studies are intended to provide information about the amount of error inherent in any diagnosis, score, or measurement. The level of reliability and agreement among users of scales, instruments, or classifications is widely unknown. Therefore, there is a need...... for rigorously conducted interrater and intrarater reliability and agreement studies. Information about sample selection, study design, and statistical analysis is often incomplete. Because of inadequate reporting, interpretation and synthesis of study results are often difficult. Widely accepted criteria......, standards, or guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement in the health care and medical field are lacking. The objective was to develop guidelines for reporting reliability and agreement studies....
THE AIRLINE'S RELIABILITY PROGRAM
Тамаргазін, О. А.; Національний авіаційний університет; Власенко, П. О.; Національний авіаційний університет
2013-01-01
Airline's operational structure for Reliability program implementation — engineering division, reliability division, reliability control division, aircraft maintenance division, quality assurance division — was considered. Airline's Reliability program structure is shown. Using of Reliability program for reducing costs on aircraft maintenance is proposed. Рассмотрена организационная структура авиакомпании по выполнению Программы надежности - инженерный отдел, отделы по надежности авиацио...
Shapiro, Andrew A.
2006-01-01
Ultra reliable systems are critical to NASA particularly as consideration is being given to extended lunar missions and manned missions to Mars. NASA has formulated a program designed to improve the reliability of NASA systems. The long term goal for the NASA ultra reliability is to ultimately improve NASA systems by an order of magnitude. The approach outlined in this presentation involves the steps used in developing a strategic plan to achieve the long term objective of ultra reliability. Consideration is given to: complex systems, hardware (including aircraft, aerospace craft and launch vehicles), software, human interactions, long life missions, infrastructure development, and cross cutting technologies. Several NASA-wide workshops have been held, identifying issues for reliability improvement and providing mitigation strategies for these issues. In addition to representation from all of the NASA centers, experts from government (NASA and non-NASA), universities and industry participated. Highlights of a strategic plan, which is being developed using the results from these workshops, will be presented.
Photovoltaic module reliability workshop
Mrig, L. (ed.)
1990-01-01
The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.
Foundational Issues in Statistical Modeling: Statistical Model Specification and Validation
Aris Spanos
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Statistical model specification and validation raise crucial foundational problems whose pertinent resolution holds the key to learning from data by securing the reliability of frequentist inference. The paper questions the judiciousness of several current practices, including the theory-driven approach, and the Akaike-type model selection procedures, arguing that they often lead to unreliable inferences. This is primarily due to the fact that goodness-of-fit/prediction measures and other substantive and pragmatic criteria are of questionable value when the estimated model is statistically misspecified. Foisting one's favorite model on the data often yields estimated models which are both statistically and substantively misspecified, but one has no way to delineate between the two sources of error and apportion blame. The paper argues that the error statistical approach can address this Duhemian ambiguity by distinguishing between statistical and substantive premises and viewing empirical modeling in a piecemeal way with a view to delineate the various issues more effectively. It is also argued that Hendry's general to specific procedures does a much better job in model selection than the theory-driven and the Akaike-type procedures primary because of its error statistical underpinnings.
An Investigation of Software metrics Affect on Cobol Program reliability
Day II, Henry Jesse
1996-01-01
The purpose of this research was to predict a COBOL program's reliability from software characteristics that are found in the program's source code. The first step was to select factors based on the human information processing model that are associated with changes in computer program reliability. Then these factors (software metrics) were quantitatively studied to determine which factors affect COBOL program reliability. Then a statistical model was developed that predicts COBOL program rel...
Reliability Analysis of Slope Stability by Central Point Method
Li, Chunge; WU Congliang
2015-01-01
Given uncertainty and variability of the slope stability analysis parameter, the paper proceed from the perspective of probability theory and statistics based on the reliability theory. Through the central point method of reliability analysis, performance function about the reliability of slope stability analysis is established. What’s more, the central point method and conventional limit equilibrium methods do comparative analysis by calculation example. The approach’s numerical ...
Technique for Measuring Hybrid Electronic Component Reliability
Green, C.C.; Hernandez, C.L.; Hosking, F.M.; Robinson, D.; Rutherford, B.; Uribe, F.
1999-01-01
Materials compatibility studies of aged, engineered materials and hardware are critical to understanding and predicting component reliability, particularly for systems with extended stockpile life requirements. Nondestructive testing capabilities for component reliability would significantly enhance lifetime predictions. For example, if the detection of crack propagation through a solder joint can be demonstrated, this technique could be used to develop baseline information to statistically determine solder joint lifelengths. This report will investigate high frequency signal response techniques for nondestructively evaluating the electrical behavior of thick film hybrid transmission lines.
MECHANICAL STRENGTH AND RELIABILITY OF SOLID CATALYSTS
Yongdan Li; Dongfang Wu; Y.S. Lin
2004-01-01
The mechanical strength of solid catalysts is one of the key parameters for reliable and efficient performance of a fixed bed reactor. Some recent developments and their basic mechanics within this context are reviewed. The main concepts discussed are brittle fracture which leads to the mechanical failure of the catalyst pellets, measurement and statistical properties of the catalyst strength data, and mechanical reliability of the catalyst pellets and their packed bed. The scientific basis for the issues on the catalyst mechanical properties calls yet for further elucidation and advancement.
Reliability analysis of DOOF for Weibull distribution
陈文华; 崔杰; 樊晓燕; 卢献彪; 相平
2003-01-01
Hierarchical Bayesian method for estimating the failure probability Pi under DOOF by taking the quasi-Beta distribution B(pi-1 , 1,1, b ) as the prior distribution is proposed in this paper. The weighted Least Squares Estimate method was used to obtain the formula for computing reliability distribution parameters and estimating the reliability characteristic values under DOOF. Taking one type of aerospace electrical connectoras an example, the correctness of the above method through statistical analysis of electrical connector acceler-ated life test data was verified.
Computer System Reliability Allocation Method and Supporting Tool
无
2001-01-01
This paper presents a computer system reliability allocationmethod that is based on the theory of statistic and Markovian chain,which can be used to allocate reliability to subsystem, to hybrid system and software modules. Arele vant supporting tool built by us is introduced.
System Reliability Analysis: Foundations.
1982-07-01
performance formulas for systems subject to pre- ventive maintenance are given. V * ~, , 9 D -2 SYSTEM RELIABILITY ANALYSIS: FOUNDATIONS Richard E...reliability in this case is V P{s can communicate with the terminal t = h(p) Sp2(((((p p)p) p)p)gp) + p(l -p)(((pL p)p)(p 2 JLp)) + p(l -p)((p(p p...For undirected networks, the basic reference is A. Satyanarayana and Kevin Wood (1982). For directed networks, the basic reference is Avinash
... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...
... Standards Act and Program MQSA Insights MQSA National Statistics Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... but should level off with time. Archived Scorecard Statistics 2017 Scorecard Statistics 2016 Scorecard Statistics (Archived) 2015 ...
RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF A GEAR BOX
D.MADHUSEKHAR
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Reliability is the probability that a system, component or device will perform without failure for a specified period of time under specified operating conditions. The concept of reliability is of great importance in the design of various machine members. Conventional engineering design uses a deterministic approach. It disregards the fact that the material properties, the dimensions of the components and the externally applied loads are statistical in nature. In conventional design this uncertainties are covered with a factor of safety, which is not always successful. The growing trend towards reducing uncertainty and increasing reliability is to use the probabilistic approach. In the present work a three shaft four speed gear box and six speed gear box are designed using reliability principles. For the specified reliability of the system (Gear box, component reliability (Gear pair is calculated by considering the system as a series system. Design is considered to be safe and adequate if the probability of failure of gear box is less than or equal to a specified quantity in each of the two failure modes. . All the parameters affecting the design are considered as random variables and all the random variables are assumed to follow normal distribution. A computer program in C++ is developed to calculate the face widths in bending and surface failure modes. The larger one out of the two values is considered. By changing the variations in the design parameters, variations in the face widths are studied.
Expert system aids reliability
Johnson, A.T. [Tennessee Gas Pipeline, Houston, TX (United States)
1997-09-01
Quality and Reliability are key requirements in the energy transmission industry. Tennessee Gas Co. a division of El Paso Energy, has applied Gensym`s G2, object-oriented Expert System programming language as a standard tool for maintaining and improving quality and reliability in pipeline operation. Tennessee created a small team of gas controllers and engineers to develop a Proactive Controller`s Assistant (ProCA) that provides recommendations for operating the pipeline more efficiently, reliably and safely. The controller`s pipeline operating knowledge is recreated in G2 in the form of Rules and Procedures in ProCA. Two G2 programmers supporting the Gas Control Room add information to the ProCA knowledge base daily. The result is a dynamic, constantly improving system that not only supports the pipeline controllers in their operations, but also the measurement and communications departments` requests for special studies. The Proactive Controller`s Assistant development focus is in the following areas: Alarm Management; Pipeline Efficiency; Reliability; Fuel Efficiency; and Controller Development.
Reliability based structural design
Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.
2014-01-01
According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A ke
Reliability based structural design
Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.
2013-01-01
According to ISO 2394, structures shall be designed, constructed and maintained in such a way that they are suited for their use during the design working life in an economic way. To fulfil this requirement one needs insight into the risk and reliability under expected and non-expected actions. A ke
Fosgerau, Mogens; Karlström, Anders
2010-01-01
We derive the value of reliability in the scheduling of an activity of random duration, such as travel under congested conditions. Using a simple formulation of scheduling utility, we show that the maximal expected utility is linear in the mean and standard deviation of trip duration, regardless...
Parametric Mass Reliability Study
Holt, James P.
2014-01-01
The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.
Avionics Design for Reliability
1976-03-01
Consultant P.O. Box 181, Hazelwood. Missouri 63042, U.S.A. soup ""•.• • CONTENTS Page LIST OF SPEAKERS iii INTRODUCTION AND OVERVIEW-RELIABILITY UNDER... primordial , d’autant plus quo dans co cam ia procg- dure do st~lection en fiabilitg eat assez peu efficaco. La ripartition des pannes suit
1980-01-01
The reliability of a wind energy system depends on the size of the propeller and the size of the back-up energy storage. Design of the optimum system...speed incidents which generate a significant part of the wind energy . A nomogram is presented, based on some continuous wind speed measurements
Visser, M
1997-01-01
The ``reliability horizon'' for semi-classical quantum gravity quantifies the extent to which we should trust semi-classical quantum gravity, and gives a handle on just where the ``Planck regime'' resides. The key obstruction to pushing semi-classical quantum gravity into the Planck regime is often the existence of large metric fluctuations, rather than a large back-reaction.
Reliability of semiology description.
Heo, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Seo-Young; Cho, Jinwhan; Lee, Sang-Kun; Nam, Hyunwoo
2008-01-01
Seizure semiology is important for classifying patients' epilepsy. Physicians usually get most of the seizure information from observers though there have been few reports on the reliability of the observers' description. This study aims at determining the reliability of observers' description of the semiology. We included 92 patients who had their habitual seizures recorded during video-EEG monitoring. We compared the semiology described by the observers with that recorded on the videotape, and reviewed which characteristics of the observers affected the reliability of their reported data. The classification of seizures and the individual components of the semiology based only on the observer-description was somewhat discordant compared with the findings from the videotape (correct classification, 85%). The descriptions of some ictal behaviors such as oroalimentary automatism, tonic/dystonic limb posturing, and head versions were relatively accurate, but those of motionless staring and hand automatism were less accurate. The specified directions by the observers were relatively correct. The accuracy of the description was related to the educational level of the observers. Much of the information described by well-educated observers is reliable. However, every physician should keep in mind the limitations of this information and use this information cautiously.
High reliability organizations
Gallis, R.; Zwetsloot, G.I.J.M.
2014-01-01
High Reliability Organizations (HRO’s) are organizations that constantly face serious and complex (safety) risks yet succeed in realising an excellent safety performance. In such situations acceptable levels of safety cannot be achieved by traditional safety management only. HRO’s manage safety
Mechanical reliability analysis of tubes intended for hydrocarbons
Nahal, Mourad; Khelif, Rabia [Badji Mokhtar University, Annaba (Algeria)
2013-02-15
Reliability analysis constitutes an essential phase in any study concerning reliability. Many industrialists evaluate and improve the reliability of their products during the development cycle - from design to startup (design, manufacture, and exploitation) - to develop their knowledge on cost/reliability ratio and to control sources of failure. In this study, we obtain results for hardness, tensile, and hydrostatic tests carried out on steel tubes for transporting hydrocarbons followed by statistical analysis. Results obtained allow us to conduct a reliability study based on resistance request. Thus, index of reliability is calculated and the importance of the variables related to the tube is presented. Reliability-based assessment of residual stress effects is applied to underground pipelines under a roadway, with and without active corrosion. Residual stress has been found to greatly increase probability of failure, especially in the early stages of pipe lifetime.
Probability an introduction with statistical applications
Kinney, John J
2014-01-01
Praise for the First Edition""This is a well-written and impressively presented introduction to probability and statistics. The text throughout is highly readable, and the author makes liberal use of graphs and diagrams to clarify the theory."" - The StatisticianThoroughly updated, Probability: An Introduction with Statistical Applications, Second Edition features a comprehensive exploration of statistical data analysis as an application of probability. The new edition provides an introduction to statistics with accessible coverage of reliability, acceptance sampling, confidence intervals, h
Predict! Teaching Statistics Using Informational Statistical Inference
Makar, Katie
2013-01-01
Statistics is one of the most widely used topics for everyday life in the school mathematics curriculum. Unfortunately, the statistics taught in schools focuses on calculations and procedures before students have a chance to see it as a useful and powerful tool. Researchers have found that a dominant view of statistics is as an assortment of tools…
Reliability in the utility computing era: Towards reliable Fog computing
Madsen, Henrik; Burtschy, Bernard; Albeanu, G.
2013-01-01
This paper considers current paradigms in computing and outlines the most important aspects concerning their reliability. The Fog computing paradigm as a non-trivial extension of the Cloud is considered and the reliability of the networks of smart devices are discussed. Combining the reliability...... requirements of grid and cloud paradigms with the reliability requirements of networks of sensor and actuators it follows that designing a reliable Fog computing platform is feasible....
Improvement of the reliability on nondestructive inspection
Song, Sung Jin; Kim, Young H. [Sungkyunkwan Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyang Beom [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Young Kil [Kunsan National Univ., Gunsan (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Hyun Jo [Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ik Keun; Park, Eun Soo [Seoul Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2002-03-15
Retaining reliabilities of nondestructive testing is essential for the life-time maintenance of Nuclear Power Plant. The nondestructive testing methods which are frequently used in the Nuclear Power Plant are eddy current testing for the inspection of steam generator tubes and ultrasonic testing for the inspection of weldments. In order to improve reliabilities of ultrasonic testing and eddy current testing, the subjects carried out in this study are as follows : development of BEM analysis technique for ECT of SG tube, development of neural network technique for the intelligent analysis of ECT flaw signals of SG tubes, development of RFECT technology for the inspection of SG tube, FEM analysis of ultrasonic scattering field, evaluation of statistical reliability of PD-RR test of ultrasonic testing and development of multi-Gaussian beam modeling technique to predict accurate signal of signal beam ultrasonic testing with the efficiency in calculation time.
Reliability and Assessment Techniques on Ground Excavation
Sanga Tangchawal
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Planning and assessment on the excavation of the brittle materials (soil or rock can be done by using the machinery and/or explosives. The reliability assessment has been proposed to predict the failure of ground during excavation process. The stability planning on cutting soil (rock face by machinery can be compared between the deterministic and the statistical method. The risk of using explosives for rock excavation has to concern on the damage and environmental impacts after blasting events.
Human Reliability Program Workshop
Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen
2014-05-18
A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.
Accelerator reliability workshop
Hardy, L.; Duru, Ph.; Koch, J.M.; Revol, J.L.; Van Vaerenbergh, P.; Volpe, A.M.; Clugnet, K.; Dely, A.; Goodhew, D
2002-07-01
About 80 experts attended this workshop, which brought together all accelerator communities: accelerator driven systems, X-ray sources, medical and industrial accelerators, spallation sources projects (American and European), nuclear physics, etc. With newly proposed accelerator applications such as nuclear waste transmutation, replacement of nuclear power plants and others. Reliability has now become a number one priority for accelerator designers. Every part of an accelerator facility from cryogenic systems to data storage via RF systems are concerned by reliability. This aspect is now taken into account in the design/budget phase, especially for projects whose goal is to reach no more than 10 interruptions per year. This document gathers the slides but not the proceedings of the workshop.
Reliability and construction control
Sherif S. AbdelSalam
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The goal of this study was to determine the most reliable and efficient combination of design and construction methods required for vibro piles. For a wide range of static and dynamic formulas, the reliability-based resistance factors were calculated using EGYPT database, which houses load test results for 318 piles. The analysis was extended to introduce a construction control factor that determines the variation between the pile nominal capacities calculated using static versus dynamic formulae. From the major outcomes, the lowest coefficient of variation is associated with Davisson’s criterion, and the resistance factors calculated for the AASHTO method are relatively high compared with other methods. Additionally, the CPT-Nottingham and Schmertmann method provided the most economic design. Recommendations related to a pile construction control factor were also presented, and it was found that utilizing the factor can significantly reduce variations between calculated and actual capacities.
Improving Power Converter Reliability
Ghimire, Pramod; de Vega, Angel Ruiz; Beczkowski, Szymon
2014-01-01
The real-time junction temperature monitoring of a high-power insulated-gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) module is important to increase the overall reliability of power converters for industrial applications. This article proposes a new method to measure the on-state collector?emitter voltage...... of a high-power IGBT module during converter operation, which may play a vital role in improving the reliability of the power converters. The measured voltage is used to estimate the module average junction temperature of the high and low-voltage side of a half-bridge IGBT separately in every fundamental...... is measured in a wind power converter at a low fundamental frequency. To illustrate more, the test method as well as the performance of the measurement circuit are also presented. This measurement is also useful to indicate failure mechanisms such as bond wire lift-off and solder layer degradation...
Power electronics reliability.
Kaplar, Robert James; Brock, Reinhard C.; Marinella, Matthew; King, Michael Patrick; Stanley, James K.; Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley
2010-10-01
The project's goals are: (1) use experiments and modeling to investigate and characterize stress-related failure modes of post-silicon power electronic (PE) devices such as silicon carbide (SiC) and gallium nitride (GaN) switches; and (2) seek opportunities for condition monitoring (CM) and prognostics and health management (PHM) to further enhance the reliability of power electronics devices and equipment. CM - detect anomalies and diagnose problems that require maintenance. PHM - track damage growth, predict time to failure, and manage subsequent maintenance and operations in such a way to optimize overall system utility against cost. The benefits of CM/PHM are: (1) operate power conversion systems in ways that will preclude predicted failures; (2) reduce unscheduled downtime and thereby reduce costs; and (3) pioneering reliability in SiC and GaN.
Reliability of indicators of nursing care quality: testing interexaminer agreement and reliability
Dagmar Willamowius Vituri
2014-04-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: this study sought to test the interexaminer agreement and reliability of 15 indicators of nursing care quality.METHODS: this was a quantitative, methodological, experimental, and applied study conducted at a large, tertiary, public teaching hospital in the state of Paraná. For data analysis, the Kappa (k statistic was applied to the categorical variables - indicators 1 to 11 and 15 - and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC to the continuous variables - indicators 12, 13, and 14, with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals. The categorical data were analyzed using the Lee software, elaborated by the Laboratory of Epidemiology and Statistics of Dante Pazzanese Institute of Cardiology - Brazil, and the continuous data were assessed using BioEstat 5.0.RESULTS: the k-statistic results indicated excellent agreement, which was statistically significant, and the values of the ICC denoted excellent and statistically significant reproducibility/agreement relative to the investigated indicators.CONCLUSION: the investigated indicators exhibited excellent reliability and reproducibility, thus showing that it is possible to formulate valid and reliable assessment instruments for the management of nursing care.
Bartsch, R.R.
1995-09-01
Key elements of the 36 MJ ATLAS capacitor bank have been evaluated for individual probabilities of failure. These have been combined to estimate system reliability which is to be greater than 95% on each experimental shot. This analysis utilizes Weibull or Weibull-like distributions with increasing probability of failure with the number of shots. For transmission line insulation, a minimum thickness is obtained and for the railgaps, a method for obtaining a maintenance interval from forthcoming life tests is suggested.
Reliability of Circumplex Axes
Micha Strack
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We present a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA procedure for computing the reliability of circumplex axes. The tau-equivalent CFA variance decomposition model estimates five variance components: general factor, axes, scale-specificity, block-specificity, and item-specificity. Only the axes variance component is used for reliability estimation. We apply the model to six circumplex types and 13 instruments assessing interpersonal and motivational constructs—Interpersonal Adjective List (IAL, Interpersonal Adjective Scales (revised; IAS-R, Inventory of Interpersonal Problems (IIP, Impact Messages Inventory (IMI, Circumplex Scales of Interpersonal Values (CSIV, Support Action Scale Circumplex (SAS-C, Interaction Problems With Animals (IPI-A, Team Role Circle (TRC, Competing Values Leadership Instrument (CV-LI, Love Styles, Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI, Customer Orientation Circle (COC, and System for Multi-Level Observation of Groups (behavioral adjectives; SYMLOG—in 17 German-speaking samples (29 subsamples, grouped by self-report, other report, and metaperception assessments. The general factor accounted for a proportion ranging from 1% to 48% of the item variance, the axes component for 2% to 30%; and scale specificity for 1% to 28%, respectively. Reliability estimates varied considerably from .13 to .92. An application of the Nunnally and Bernstein formula proposed by Markey, Markey, and Tinsley overestimated axes reliabilities in cases of large-scale specificities but otherwise works effectively. Contemporary circumplex evaluations such as Tracey’s RANDALL are sensitive to the ratio of the axes and scale-specificity components. In contrast, the proposed model isolates both components.
On reliable discovery of molecular signatures
Björkegren Johan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular signatures are sets of genes, proteins, genetic variants or other variables that can be used as markers for a particular phenotype. Reliable signature discovery methods could yield valuable insight into cell biology and mechanisms of human disease. However, it is currently not clear how to control error rates such as the false discovery rate (FDR in signature discovery. Moreover, signatures for cancer gene expression have been shown to be unstable, that is, difficult to replicate in independent studies, casting doubts on their reliability. Results We demonstrate that with modern prediction methods, signatures that yield accurate predictions may still have a high FDR. Further, we show that even signatures with low FDR may fail to replicate in independent studies due to limited statistical power. Thus, neither stability nor predictive accuracy are relevant when FDR control is the primary goal. We therefore develop a general statistical hypothesis testing framework that for the first time provides FDR control for signature discovery. Our method is demonstrated to be correct in simulation studies. When applied to five cancer data sets, the method was able to discover molecular signatures with 5% FDR in three cases, while two data sets yielded no significant findings. Conclusion Our approach enables reliable discovery of molecular signatures from genome-wide data with current sample sizes. The statistical framework developed herein is potentially applicable to a wide range of prediction problems in bioinformatics.
Statistical methods in translational medicine.
Chow, Shein-Chung; Tse, Siu-Keung; Lin, Min
2008-12-01
This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials), information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic) and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints) in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physicianscientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change) are reviewed.
Statistical Methods in Translational Medicine
Shein-Chung Chow
2008-12-01
Full Text Available This study focuses on strategies and statistical considerations for assessment of translation in language (e.g. translation of case report forms in multinational clinical trials, information (e.g. translation of basic discoveries to the clinic and technology (e.g. translation of Chinese diagnostic techniques to well-established clinical study endpoints in pharmaceutical/clinical research and development. However, most of our efforts will be directed to statistical considerations for translation in information. Translational medicine has been defined as bench-to-bedside research, where a basic laboratory discovery becomes applicable to the diagnosis, treatment or prevention of a specific disease, and is brought forth by either a physician—scientist who works at the interface between the research laboratory and patient care, or by a team of basic and clinical science investigators. Statistics plays an important role in translational medicine to ensure that the translational process is accurate and reliable with certain statistical assurance. Statistical inference for the applicability of an animal model to a human model is also discussed. Strategies for selection of clinical study endpoints (e.g. absolute changes, relative changes, or responder-defined, based on either absolute or relative change are reviewed.
Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database :
Hines, Valerie Ann-Peters; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Bond, Cody R.
2013-09-01
To benchmark the current U.S. wind turbine fleet reliability performance and identify the major contributors to component-level failures and other downtime events, the Department of Energy funded the development of the Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW) database by Sandia National Laboratories. This report is the third annual Wind Plant Reliability Benchmark, to publically report on CREW findings for the wind industry. The CREW database uses both high resolution Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) data from operating plants and Strategic Power Systems ORAPWindª (Operational Reliability Analysis Program for Wind) data, which consist of downtime and reserve event records and daily summaries of various time categories for each turbine. Together, these data are used as inputs into CREWs reliability modeling. The results presented here include: the primary CREW Benchmark statistics (operational availability, utilization, capacity factor, mean time between events, and mean downtime); time accounting from an availability perspective; time accounting in terms of the combination of wind speed and generation levels; power curve analysis; and top system and component contributors to unavailability.
Small Area Estimation of Poverty Statistics
Villa Juan-Albacea, Zita
2009-01-01
In response to high demands for lower level poverty estimates, the National Statistical Coordination Board releases provincial estimates, in addition to the national and regional, starting with the 1997 FIES. However, estimates of the coefficients of variation (CV) of several provincial estimates indicate that the resulting poverty measures are not reliable. Making a decision based on unreliable poverty statistics is very risky especially if the decision to be made relates to the welfare of p...
Improved model for statistical alignment
Miklos, I.; Toroczkai, Z. (Zoltan)
2001-01-01
The statistical approach to molecular sequence evolution involves the stochastic modeling of the substitution, insertion and deletion processes. Substitution has been modeled in a reliable way for more than three decades by using finite Markov-processes. Insertion and deletion, however, seem to be more difficult to model, and thc recent approaches cannot acceptably deal with multiple insertions and deletions. A new method based on a generating function approach is introduced to describe the multiple insertion process. The presented algorithm computes the approximate joint probability of two sequences in 0(13) running time where 1 is the geometric mean of the sequence lengths.
Savage, Leonard J
1972-01-01
Classic analysis of the foundations of statistics and development of personal probability, one of the greatest controversies in modern statistical thought. Revised edition. Calculus, probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra are recommended.
Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics
... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...
... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...
Lifetimes and Reliabilities of Bevel-Gear Drive Trains
Lewicki, D.; Cox, J.; Savage, M.; Brikmanis, C.
1986-01-01
Statistical methods used to predict system lifetimes from component lifetimes. Report shows how to use information to determine system life of drive train, using methods of probability and statistics. Presents life and reliability model for bevel-gear drive trains. Bevel-gear and support-bearing lives analyzed for each gear and bearing in drive train, with results statistically combined to produce system life for entire drive train. Numerical example included.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS, REPORTS), (*PROBABILITY, REPORTS), INFORMATION THEORY, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, STATISTICAL PROCESSES, STOCHASTIC PROCESSES, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS, DISTRIBUTION THEORY , DECISION THEORY, MEASURE THEORY, OPTIMIZATION
Honeyman-Buck, Janice C.; Rill, Lynn; Frost, Meryll M.; Staab, Edward V.
1998-07-01
The purpose of this work was to develop a method for systematically testing the reliability of a CR system under realistic daily loads in a non-clinical environment prior to its clinical adoption. Once digital imaging replaces film, it will be very difficult to revert back should the digital system become unreliable. Prior to the beginning of the test, a formal evaluation was performed to set the benchmarks for performance and functionality. A formal protocol was established that included all the 62 imaging plates in the inventory for each 24-hour period in the study. Imaging plates were exposed using different combinations of collimation, orientation, and SID. Anthropomorphic phantoms were used to acquire images of different sizes. Each combination was chosen randomly to simulate the differences that could occur in clinical practice. The tests were performed over a wide range of times with batches of plates processed to simulate the temporal constraints required by the nature of portable radiographs taken in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Current patient demographics were used for the test studies so automatic routing algorithms could be tested. During the test, only three minor reliability problems occurred, two of which were not directly related to the CR unit. One plate was discovered to cause a segmentation error that essentially reduced the image to only black and white with no gray levels. This plate was removed from the inventory to be replaced. Another problem was a PACS routing problem that occurred when the DICOM server with which the CR was communicating had a problem with disk space. The final problem was a network printing failure to the laser cameras. Although the units passed the reliability test, problems with interfacing to workstations were discovered. The two issues that were identified were the interpretation of what constitutes a study for CR and the construction of the look-up table for a proper gray scale display.
Ultimately Reliable Pyrotechnic Systems
Scott, John H.; Hinkel, Todd
2015-01-01
This paper presents the methods by which NASA has designed, built, tested, and certified pyrotechnic devices for high reliability operation in extreme environments and illustrates the potential applications in the oil and gas industry. NASA's extremely successful application of pyrotechnics is built upon documented procedures and test methods that have been maintained and developed since the Apollo Program. Standards are managed and rigorously enforced for performance margins, redundancy, lot sampling, and personnel safety. The pyrotechnics utilized in spacecraft include such devices as small initiators and detonators with the power of a shotgun shell, detonating cord systems for explosive energy transfer across many feet, precision linear shaped charges for breaking structural membranes, and booster charges to actuate valves and pistons. NASA's pyrotechnics program is one of the more successful in the history of Human Spaceflight. No pyrotechnic device developed in accordance with NASA's Human Spaceflight standards has ever failed in flight use. NASA's pyrotechnic initiators work reliably in temperatures as low as -420 F. Each of the 135 Space Shuttle flights fired 102 of these initiators, some setting off multiple pyrotechnic devices, with never a failure. The recent landing on Mars of the Opportunity rover fired 174 of NASA's pyrotechnic initiators to complete the famous '7 minutes of terror.' Even after traveling through extreme radiation and thermal environments on the way to Mars, every one of them worked. These initiators have fired on the surface of Titan. NASA's design controls, procedures, and processes produce the most reliable pyrotechnics in the world. Application of pyrotechnics designed and procured in this manner could enable the energy industry's emergency equipment, such as shutoff valves and deep-sea blowout preventers, to be left in place for years in extreme environments and still be relied upon to function when needed, thus greatly enhancing
Universal Grammar, statistics or both?
Yang, Charles D
2004-10-01
Recent demonstrations of statistical learning in infants have reinvigorated the innateness versus learning debate in language acquisition. This article addresses these issues from both computational and developmental perspectives. First, I argue that statistical learning using transitional probabilities cannot reliably segment words when scaled to a realistic setting (e.g. child-directed English). To be successful, it must be constrained by knowledge of phonological structure. Then, turning to the bona fide theory of innateness--the Principles and Parameters framework--I argue that a full explanation of children's grammar development must abandon the domain-specific learning model of triggering, in favor of probabilistic learning mechanisms that might be domain-general but nevertheless operate in the domain-specific space of syntactic parameters.
Ferrite logic reliability study
Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.
1973-01-01
Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)
Blade reliability collaborative :
Ashwill, Thomas D.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.; Paquette, Joshua A.
2013-04-01
The Blade Reliability Collaborative (BRC) was started by the Wind Energy Technologies Department of Sandia National Laboratories and DOE in 2010 with the goal of gaining insight into planned and unplanned O&M issues associated with wind turbine blades. A significant part of BRC is the Blade Defect, Damage and Repair Survey task, which will gather data from blade manufacturers, service companies, operators and prior studies to determine details about the largest sources of blade unreliability. This report summarizes the initial findings from this work.
Calibrating ensemble reliability whilst preserving spatial structure
Jonathan Flowerdew
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Ensemble forecasts aim to improve decision-making by predicting a set of possible outcomes. Ideally, these would provide probabilities which are both sharp and reliable. In practice, the models, data assimilation and ensemble perturbation systems are all imperfect, leading to deficiencies in the predicted probabilities. This paper presents an ensemble post-processing scheme which directly targets local reliability, calibrating both climatology and ensemble dispersion in one coherent operation. It makes minimal assumptions about the underlying statistical distributions, aiming to extract as much information as possible from the original dynamic forecasts and support statistically awkward variables such as precipitation. The output is a set of ensemble members preserving the spatial, temporal and inter-variable structure from the raw forecasts, which should be beneficial to downstream applications such as hydrological models. The calibration is tested on three leading 15-d ensemble systems, and their aggregation into a simple multimodel ensemble. Results are presented for 12 h, 1° scale over Europe for a range of surface variables, including precipitation. The scheme is very effective at removing unreliability from the raw forecasts, whilst generally preserving or improving statistical resolution. In most cases, these benefits extend to the rarest events at each location within the 2-yr verification period. The reliability and resolution are generally equivalent or superior to those achieved using a Local Quantile-Quantile Transform, an established calibration method which generalises bias correction. The value of preserving spatial structure is demonstrated by the fact that 3×3 averages derived from grid-scale precipitation calibration perform almost as well as direct calibration at 3×3 scale, and much better than a similar test neglecting the spatial relationships. Some remaining issues are discussed regarding the finite size of the output
Load Control System Reliability
Trudnowski, Daniel [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)
2015-04-03
This report summarizes the results of the Load Control System Reliability project (DOE Award DE-FC26-06NT42750). The original grant was awarded to Montana Tech April 2006. Follow-on DOE awards and expansions to the project scope occurred August 2007, January 2009, April 2011, and April 2013. In addition to the DOE monies, the project also consisted of matching funds from the states of Montana and Wyoming. Project participants included Montana Tech; the University of Wyoming; Montana State University; NorthWestern Energy, Inc., and MSE. Research focused on two areas: real-time power-system load control methodologies; and, power-system measurement-based stability-assessment operation and control tools. The majority of effort was focused on area 2. Results from the research includes: development of fundamental power-system dynamic concepts, control schemes, and signal-processing algorithms; many papers (including two prize papers) in leading journals and conferences and leadership of IEEE activities; one patent; participation in major actual-system testing in the western North American power system; prototype power-system operation and control software installed and tested at three major North American control centers; and, the incubation of a new commercial-grade operation and control software tool. Work under this grant certainly supported the DOE-OE goals in the area of “Real Time Grid Reliability Management.”
Supply chain reliability modelling
Eugen Zaitsev
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.
Explorations in statistics: statistical facets of reproducibility.
Curran-Everett, Douglas
2016-06-01
Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This eleventh installment of Explorations in Statistics explores statistical facets of reproducibility. If we obtain an experimental result that is scientifically meaningful and statistically unusual, we would like to know that our result reflects a general biological phenomenon that another researcher could reproduce if (s)he repeated our experiment. But more often than not, we may learn this researcher cannot replicate our result. The National Institutes of Health and the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology have created training modules and outlined strategies to help improve the reproducibility of research. These particular approaches are necessary, but they are not sufficient. The principles of hypothesis testing and estimation are inherent to the notion of reproducibility in science. If we want to improve the reproducibility of our research, then we need to rethink how we apply fundamental concepts of statistics to our science.
Discrete Reliability Projection
2014-12-01
trials and that failures from individual failure modes are statistically independent and binomially distributed . The probability of success...such that p ∗ n is constant = λ, the binomial distribution approximates the Poisson distribution with parameter λ. 4.1.2 Unsurfaced Failure Modes Given...line (dark blue) is the result of numerical integration of beta and binomial distributions . It shows a theoretical prediction of the outcome of the 27
OSS reliability measurement and assessment
Yamada, Shigeru
2016-01-01
This book analyses quantitative open source software (OSS) reliability assessment and its applications, focusing on three major topic areas: the Fundamentals of OSS Quality/Reliability Measurement and Assessment; the Practical Applications of OSS Reliability Modelling; and Recent Developments in OSS Reliability Modelling. Offering an ideal reference guide for graduate students and researchers in reliability for open source software (OSS) and modelling, the book introduces several methods of reliability assessment for OSS including component-oriented reliability analysis based on analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), and non-homogeneous Poisson process (NHPP) models, the stochastic differential equation models and hazard rate models. These measurement and management technologies are essential to producing and maintaining quality/reliable systems using OSS.
Reliability and validity in research.
Roberts, Paula; Priest, Helena
This article examines reliability and validity as ways to demonstrate the rigour and trustworthiness of quantitative and qualitative research. The authors discuss the basic principles of reliability and validity for readers who are new to research.
Creep-rupture reliability analysis
Peralta-Duran, A.; Wirsching, P. H.
1985-01-01
A probabilistic approach to the correlation and extrapolation of creep-rupture data is presented. Time temperature parameters (TTP) are used to correlate the data, and an analytical expression for the master curve is developed. The expression provides a simple model for the statistical distribution of strength and fits neatly into a probabilistic design format. The analysis focuses on the Larson-Miller and on the Manson-Haferd parameters, but it can be applied to any of the TTP's. A method is developed for evaluating material dependent constants for TTP's. It is shown that optimized constants can provide a significant improvement in the correlation of the data, thereby reducing modelling error. Attempts were made to quantify the performance of the proposed method in predicting long term behavior. Uncertainty in predicting long term behavior from short term tests was derived for several sets of data. Examples are presented which illustrate the theory and demonstrate the application of state of the art reliability methods to the design of components under creep.
Purohit, Sudha G; Deshmukh, Shailaja R
2015-01-01
STATISTICS USING R will be useful at different levels, from an undergraduate course in statistics, through graduate courses in biological sciences, engineering, management and so on. The book introduces statistical terminology and defines it for the benefit of a novice. For a practicing statistician, it will serve as a guide to R language for statistical analysis. For a researcher, it is a dual guide, simultaneously explaining appropriate statistical methods for the problems at hand and indicating how these methods can be implemented using the R language. For a software developer, it is a guide in a variety of statistical methods for development of a suite of statistical procedures.
2017 NREL Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop
Kurtz, Sarah [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-08-15
NREL's Photovoltaic (PV) Reliability Workshop (PVRW) brings together PV reliability experts to share information, leading to the improvement of PV module reliability. Such improvement reduces the cost of solar electricity and promotes investor confidence in the technology -- both critical goals for moving PV technologies deeper into the electricity marketplace.
Testing for PV Reliability (Presentation)
Kurtz, S.; Bansal, S.
2014-09-01
The DOE SUNSHOT workshop is seeking input from the community about PV reliability and how the DOE might address gaps in understanding. This presentation describes the types of testing that are needed for PV reliability and introduces a discussion to identify gaps in our understanding of PV reliability testing.
Preskill, J
1997-01-01
The new field of quantum error correction has developed spectacularly since its origin less than two years ago. Encoded quantum information can be protected from errors that arise due to uncontrolled interactions with the environment. Recovery from errors can work effectively even if occasional mistakes occur during the recovery procedure. Furthermore, encoded quantum information can be processed without serious propagation of errors. Hence, an arbitrarily long quantum computation can be performed reliably, provided that the average probability of error per quantum gate is less than a certain critical value, the accuracy threshold. A quantum computer storing about 10^6 qubits, with a probability of error per quantum gate of order 10^{-6}, would be a formidable factoring engine. Even a smaller, less accurate quantum computer would be able to perform many useful tasks. (This paper is based on a talk presented at the ITP Conference on Quantum Coherence and Decoherence, 15-18 December 1996.)
Industrial psychology students’ attitudes towards statistics
Sanet Coetzee
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Orientation: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology.Research purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics (SATS-36 for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students’ attitudes.Motivation for study: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS-36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa.Main findings: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics.Practical implications: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well.Contribution: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students.
Industrial psychology students’ attitudes towards statistics
Sanet Coetzee
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Orientation: The attitude of students toward statistics may influence their enrolment, achievement and motivation in the subject of research and Industrial Psychology.Research purpose: The aims of this study were to determine the reliability and validity of the survey of attitudes toward statistics (SATS-36 for a South African sample and to determine whether biographical variables influence students’ attitudes.Motivation for study: Students could be better prepared for, and guided through, a course in statistics if more is known about their attitudes towards statistics.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey design was used and the SATS-36 was administered to a sample of convenience consisting of 235 students enrolled in Industrial and Organisational Psychology at a large tertiary institution in South Africa.Main findings: Results revealed that even though students perceive statistics to be technical, complicated and difficult to master, they are interested in the subject and believe statistics to be of value. The degree to which students perceived themselves to be competent in mathematics was related to the degree to which they felt confident in their own ability to master statistics. Males displayed slightly more positive feelings toward statistics than females. Older students perceived statistics to be less difficult than younger students and also displayed slightly more positive feelings concerning statistics.Practical implications: It seems that in preparing students for statistics, their perception regarding their mathematical competence could be managed as well.Contribution: This study provides the first preliminary evidence for the reliability and validity of the SATS-36 for a sample of South African students.
The Attenuation of Correlation Coefficients: A Statistical Literacy Issue
Trafimow, David
2016-01-01
Much of the science reported in the media depends on correlation coefficients. But the size of correlation coefficients depends, in part, on the reliability with which the correlated variables are measured. Understanding this is a statistical literacy issue.
Statistical Survey of Non-Formal Education
Ondřej Nývlt
2012-12-01
Full Text Available focused on a programme within a regular education system. Labour market flexibility and new requirements on employees create a new domain of education called non-formal education. Is there a reliable statistical source with a good methodological definition for the Czech Republic? Labour Force Survey (LFS has been the basic statistical source for time comparison of non-formal education for the last ten years. Furthermore, a special Adult Education Survey (AES in 2011 was focused on individual components of non-formal education in a detailed way. In general, the goal of the EU is to use data from both internationally comparable surveys for analyses of the particular fields of lifelong learning in the way, that annual LFS data could be enlarged by detailed information from AES in five years periods. This article describes reliability of statistical data aboutnon-formal education. This analysis is usually connected with sampling and non-sampling errors.
Energy Statistics Manual; Manual Statistik Energi
NONE
2005-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
About Statistical Analysis of Qualitative Survey Data
Stefan Loehnert
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Gathered data is frequently not in a numerical form allowing immediate appliance of the quantitative mathematical-statistical methods. In this paper are some basic aspects examining how quantitative-based statistical methodology can be utilized in the analysis of qualitative data sets. The transformation of qualitative data into numeric values is considered as the entrance point to quantitative analysis. Concurrently related publications and impacts of scale transformations are discussed. Subsequently, it is shown how correlation coefficients are usable in conjunction with data aggregation constrains to construct relationship modelling matrices. For illustration, a case study is referenced at which ordinal type ordered qualitative survey answers are allocated to process defining procedures as aggregation levels. Finally options about measuring the adherence of the gathered empirical data to such kind of derived aggregation models are introduced and a statistically based reliability check approach to evaluate the reliability of the chosen model specification is outlined.
Energy Statistics Manual; Enerji Istatistikleri El Kitabi
NONE
2004-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
Energy Statistics Manual; Manual de Estadisticas Energeticas
NONE
2007-07-01
Detailed, complete, timely and reliable statistics are essential to monitor the energy situation at a country level as well as at an international level. Energy statistics on supply, trade, stocks, transformation and demand are indeed the basis for any sound energy policy decision. For instance, the market of oil -- which is the largest traded commodity worldwide -- needs to be closely monitored in order for all market players to know at any time what is produced, traded, stocked and consumed and by whom. In view of the role and importance of energy in world development, one would expect that basic energy information to be readily available and reliable. This is not always the case and one can even observe a decline in the quality, coverage and timeliness of energy statistics over the last few years.
Official Statistics In a Modern Society
Ilie DUMITRESCU
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The modern democratic society cannot efficiently and rigorously function in the absence of a solid basis of relevant and reliable statistical data, allowing for an easy and user-friendly access. Representing a “public good”, in the contemporary society, the official statistical information is meant to serve the whole society, under the conditions of maximum transparency, impartiality and equal treatment of all the categories of data users.Official statistics should adapt itself to the changes taking place in the modern society and should comply with its increased demands for high quality information. On its turn, it imposes to both national and global statistical systems major tasks of structural changes in the activity of producing and disseminating official statistics, as well as in the communication with its partners from the informational fl ow upstream, but particularly from its downstream – these being the target recipients of statistical data.The article presents the vision on the official statistics role, functions and tasks in the modern society, as against the major challenges regarding the transformation of statistical information into knowledge, the promotion of statistical literacy and culture, ensuring the usefulness and the large scale use of statistical data.
The challenge of reliability in MEMS commercialization
Miller, W.M.; Tanner, D.M.; Miller, S.L.
1998-09-01
MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) that think, sense, act and communicate will open up a broad new array of cost-effective solutions only if MEMS is demonstrated to be sufficiently reliable. This could prove to be a major challenge if it is not addressed concurrently with technology development. There are three requirements for a valid assessment of reliability: statistical significance, identification of fundamental failure mechanisms and development of techniques for accelerating them, and valid physical models to allow prediction of failures during actual use. While these already exist for the microelectronics portion of such integrated systems, the real challenge lies in the less well-understood micromachine portions and its synergistic effects with microelectronics. This requires the elicitation of a methodology focused on MEMS reliability, which the authors discuss. A new testing and analysis infrastructure must also be developed to meet the needs of this methodology. They describe their implementation of this infrastructure and its success in addressing the three requirements for a valid reliability assessment.
Hybrid reliability model for fatigue reliability analysis of steel bridges
曹珊珊; 雷俊卿
2016-01-01
A kind of hybrid reliability model is presented to solve the fatigue reliability problems of steel bridges. The cumulative damage model is one kind of the models used in fatigue reliability analysis. The parameter characteristics of the model can be described as probabilistic and interval. The two-stage hybrid reliability model is given with a theoretical foundation and a solving algorithm to solve the hybrid reliability problems. The theoretical foundation is established by the consistency relationships of interval reliability model and probability reliability model with normally distributed variables in theory. The solving process is combined with the definition of interval reliability index and the probabilistic algorithm. With the consideration of the parameter characteristics of theS−N curve, the cumulative damage model with hybrid variables is given based on the standards from different countries. Lastly, a case of steel structure in the Neville Island Bridge is analyzed to verify the applicability of the hybrid reliability model in fatigue reliability analysis based on the AASHTO.
Modeling and Forecasting (Un)Reliable Realized Covariances for More Reliable Financial Decisions
Bollerslev, Tim; Patton, Andrew J.; Quaedvlieg, Rogier
We propose a new framework for modeling and forecasting common financial risks based on (un)reliable realized covariance measures constructed from high-frequency intraday data. Our new approach explicitly incorporates the effect of measurement errors and time-varying attenuation biases...... turnover and statistically superior positions compared to existing procedures. Translating these statistical improvements into economic gains, we find that under empirically realistic assumptions a risk-averse investor would be willing to pay up to 170 basis points per year to shift to using the new class...
Synthesis of Reliable Telecommunication Networks
Dusan Trstensky
2005-01-01
Full Text Available In many application, the network designer may to know to senthesise a reliable telecommunication network. Assume that a network, denoted Gm,e has the number of nodes n and the number of edges e, and the operational probability of each edge is known. The system reliability of the network is defined to be the reliability that every pair of nodes can communicate with each other. A network synthesis problem considered in this paper is to find a network G*n,e, that maximises system reliability over the class of all networks for the classes of networks Gn,n-1, Gn,m and Gn,n+1 respectively. In addition an upper bound of maximum reliability for the networks with n-node and e-edge (e>n+2 is derived in terms of node. Computational experiments for the reliability upper are also presented. the results show, that the proposed reliability upper bound is effective.
Mathematical reliability an expository perspective
Mazzuchi, Thomas; Singpurwalla, Nozer
2004-01-01
In this volume consideration was given to more advanced theoretical approaches and novel applications of reliability to ensure that topics having a futuristic impact were specifically included. Topics like finance, forensics, information, and orthopedics, as well as the more traditional reliability topics were purposefully undertaken to make this collection different from the existing books in reliability. The entries have been categorized into seven parts, each emphasizing a theme that seems poised for the future development of reliability as an academic discipline with relevance. The seven parts are networks and systems; recurrent events; information and design; failure rate function and burn-in; software reliability and random environments; reliability in composites and orthopedics, and reliability in finance and forensics. Embedded within the above are some of the other currently active topics such as causality, cascading, exchangeability, expert testimony, hierarchical modeling, optimization and survival...
Industrial statistics with Minitab
Cintas, Pere Grima; Llabres, Xavier Tort-Martorell
2012-01-01
Industrial Statistics with MINITAB demonstrates the use of MINITAB as a tool for performing statistical analysis in an industrial context. This book covers introductory industrial statistics, exploring the most commonly used techniques alongside those that serve to give an overview of more complex issues. A plethora of examples in MINITAB are featured along with case studies for each of the statistical techniques presented. Industrial Statistics with MINITAB: Provides comprehensive coverage of user-friendly practical guidance to the essential statistical methods applied in industry.Explores
Rumsey, Deborah
2011-01-01
The fun and easy way to get down to business with statistics Stymied by statistics? No fear ? this friendly guide offers clear, practical explanations of statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, with lots of examples that show you how these concepts apply to your everyday life. Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more.Tracks to a typical first semester statistics cou
Structural Reliability Sensitivities under Nonstationary Random Vibrations
Rita Greco
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Response sensitivity evaluation is an important element in reliability evaluation and design optimization of structural systems. It has been widely studied under static and dynamic forcing conditions with deterministic input data. In this paper, structural response and reliability sensitivities are determined by means of the time domain covariance analysis in both classically and nonclassically damped linear structural systems. A time integration scheme is proposed for covariance sensitivity. A modulated, filtered, white noise input process is adopted to model the stochastic nonstationary loads. The method allows for the evaluation of sensitivity statistics of different quantities of dynamic response with respect to structural parameters. Finally, numerical examples are presented regarding a multistorey shear frame building.
Analysis on Operation Reliability of Generating Units in 2009
Zhou
2010-01-01
This paper presents the data on operation reliability indices and relevant analyses toward China's conventional power generating units in 2009. The units brought into the statistical analysis include 100-MW or above thermal generating units, 40-MW or above hydro generating units, and all nuclear generating units. The reliability indices embodied include utilization hours, times and hours of scheduled outages, times and hours of unscheduled outages, equivalent forced outage rate and equivalent availability factor.
Is quantitative electromyography reliable?
Cecere, F; Ruf, S; Pancherz, H
1996-01-01
The reliability of quantitative electromyography (EMG) of the masticatory muscles was investigated in 14 subjects without any signs or symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. Integrated EMG activity from the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles was recorded bilaterally by means of bipolar surface electrodes during chewing and biting activities. In the first experiment, the influence of electrode relocation was investigated. No influence of electrode relocation on the recorded EMG signal could be detected. In a second experiment, three sessions of EMG recordings during five different chewing and biting activities were performed in the morning (I); 1 hour later without intermediate removal of the electrodes (II); and in the afternoon, using new electrodes (III). The method errors for different time intervals (I-II and I-III errors) for each muscle and each function were calculated. Depending on the time interval between the EMG recordings, the muscles considered, and the function performed, the individual errors ranged from 5% to 63%. The method error increased significantly (P masseter (mean 27.2%) was higher than for the temporalis (mean 20.0%). The largest function error was found during maximal biting in intercuspal position (mean 23.1%). Based on the findings, quantitative electromyography of the masticatory muscles seems to have a limited value in diagnostics and in the evaluation of individual treatment results.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Office of Enterprise Data and Analytics has developed CMS Program Statistics, which includes detailed summary statistics on national health care, Medicare...
... Standard Drink? Drinking Levels Defined Alcohol Facts and Statistics Print version Alcohol Use in the United States: ... 1245, 2004. PMID: 15010446 11 National Center for Statistics and Analysis. 2014 Crash Data Key Findings (Traffic ...
... Statistics Students' Pages Errata Other Statistical Sites Subjects Inflation & Prices » Consumer Price Index Producer Price Indexes Import/Export Price ... Choose a Subject Employment and Unemployment Employment Unemployment Inflation, Prices, and ... price indexes Consumer spending Industry price indexes Pay ...
Recreational Boating Statistics 2012
Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...
Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard
Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...
Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard
Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...
Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics
... Tumor > Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Neuroendocrine Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 11/ ... the United States are diagnosed with Merkel cell skin cancer each year. Almost all people diagnosed with the ...
Experiment in Elementary Statistics
Fernando, P. C. B.
1976-01-01
Presents an undergraduate laboratory exercise in elementary statistics in which students verify empirically the various aspects of the Gaussian distribution. Sampling techniques and other commonly used statistical procedures are introduced. (CP)
Overweight and Obesity Statistics
... the full list of resources . Overweight and Obesity Statistics Page Content About Overweight and Obesity Prevalence of ... adults age 20 and older [ Top ] Physical Activity Statistics Adults Research Findings Research suggests that staying active ...
... Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed Statistics for Other Kinds of Cancer Breast Cervical Colorectal ( ... Skin Vaginal and Vulvar Cancer Home Uterine Cancer Statistics Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...
School Violence: Data & Statistics
... Social Media Publications Injury Center School Violence: Data & Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The first ... fact sheet provides up-to-date data and statistics on youth violence. Data Sources Indicators of School ...
Recreational Boating Statistics 2013
Department of Homeland Security — Every year, the USCG compiles statistics on reported recreational boating accidents. These statistics are derived from accident reports that are filed by the owners...
Reliability models of belt drive systems under slipping failure mode
Peng Gao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Conventional reliability assessment and reliability-based optimal design of belt drive are based on the stress–strength interference model. However, the stress–strength interference model is essentially a static model, and the sensitivity analysis of belt drive reliability with respect to design parameters needs further investigations. In this article, time-dependent factors that contribute the dynamic characteristics of reliability are pointed out. Moreover, dynamic reliability models and failure rate models of belt drive systems under the failure mode of slipping are developed. Furthermore, dynamic sensitivity models of belt drive reliability based on the proposed dynamic reliability models are proposed. In addition, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed models and analyze the influences of design parameters on dynamic characteristics of reliability, failure rate, and sensitivity functions. The results show that the statistical properties of design parameters have different influences on reliability and failure rate of belt drive in cases of different values of design parameters and different operational durations.
Software for Spatial Statistics
Edzer Pebesma
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth, point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.
Software for Spatial Statistics
Edzer Pebesma; Roger Bivand; Paulo Justiniano Ribeiro
2015-01-01
We give an overview of the papers published in this special issue on spatial statistics, of the Journal of Statistical Software. 21 papers address issues covering visualization (micromaps, links to Google Maps or Google Earth), point pattern analysis, geostatistics, analysis of areal aggregated or lattice data, spatio-temporal statistics, Bayesian spatial statistics, and Laplace approximations. We also point to earlier publications in this journal on the same topic.
A Reliability Based Model for Wind Turbine Selection
A.K. Rajeevan
2013-06-01
Full Text Available A wind turbine generator output at a specific site depends on many factors, particularly cut- in, rated and cut-out wind speed parameters. Hence power output varies from turbine to turbine. The objective of this paper is to develop a mathematical relationship between reliability and wind power generation. The analytical computation of monthly wind power is obtained from weibull statistical model using cubic mean cube root of wind speed. Reliability calculation is based on failure probability analysis. There are many different types of wind turbinescommercially available in the market. From reliability point of view, to get optimum reliability in power generation, it is desirable to select a wind turbine generator which is best suited for a site. The mathematical relationship developed in this paper can be used for site-matching turbine selection in reliability point of view.
Reliability-based design of wind turbine blades
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
Reliability-based design of wind turbine blades requires identification of the important failure modes/limit states along with stochastic models for the uncertainties and methods for estimating the reliability. In the present paper it is described how reliability-based design can be applied to wind...... turbine blades. For wind turbine blades, tests with the basic composite materials and a few full-scale blades are normally performed during the design process. By adopting a reliability-based design approach, information from these tests can be taken into account in a rational way during the design...... process. In the present paper, a probabilistic framework for design of wind turbine blades are presented and it is demonstrated how information from tests can be taken into account using the Maximum-Likelihood method and Bayesian statistics. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a wind...
Reliability-based design of wind turbine blades
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2011-01-01
Reliability-based design of wind turbine blades requires identification of the important failure modes/limit states along with stochastic models for the uncertainties and methods for estimating the reliability. In the present paper it is described how reliability-based design can be applied to wind...... turbine blades. For wind turbine blades, tests with the basic composite materials and a few full-scale blades are normally performed during the design process. By adopting a reliability-based design approach, information from these tests can be taken into account in a rational way during the design...... process. In the present paper, a probabilistic framework for design of wind turbine blades are presented and it is demonstrated how information from tests can be taken into account using the Maximum-Likelihood method and Bayesian statistics. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a wind...
Ying He (Vattenfall Research and Development AB, Stockholm (SE))
2007-09-15
In risk analysis of a power system, the risk for the system to fail power supply is calculated from the knowledge of the reliability data of individual system components. Meaningful risk analysis requires reasonable and acceptable data. The quality of the data has the fundamental importance for the analysis. However, the valid data are expensive to collect. The component reliability performance statistics are not easy to obtain. This report documents the distribution equipment reliability data developed by the project 'Component Reliability Data for Risk Analysis of Distribution Systems' within the Elforsk RandD program 'Risk Analysis 06-10'. The project analyzed a large sample size of distribution outages recorded by more than a hundred power utilities in Sweden during 2004-2005, and derived the equipment reliability data nationwide. The detailed summaries of these data are presented in the appendices of the report. The component reliability was also investigated at a number of power utilities including Vattenfall Eldistribution AB, Goeteborg Energi Naet AB, E.ON Elnaet Sverige AB, Fortum Distribution, and Linde Energi AB. The reliability data were derived for individual utilities. The detailed data lists and failure statistics are summarized in the appendices for each participating companies. The data provided in this report are developed based on a large sample size of field outage records and can be therefore used as generic data in system risk analysis and reliability studies. In order to provide more references and complementary data, the equipment reliability surveys conducted by IEEE were studied in the project. The most significant results obtained by the IEEE surveys are provided in the report. A summary of the reliability data surveyed by IEEE is presented in the appendix of the report. These data are suggested to use in the absence of better data being available. The reliability data estimates were derived for sustained failure rates
Earth slope reliability analysis under seismic loadings using neural network
PENG Huai-sheng; DENG Jian; GU De-sheng
2005-01-01
A new method was proposed to cope with the earth slope reliability problem under seismic loadings. The algorithm integrates the concepts of artificial neural network, the first order second moment reliability method and the deterministic stability analysis method of earth slope. The performance function and its derivatives in slope stability analysis under seismic loadings were approximated by a trained multi-layer feed-forward neural network with differentiable transfer functions. The statistical moments calculated from the performance function values and the corresponding gradients using neural network were then used in the first order second moment method for the calculation of the reliability index in slope safety analysis. Two earth slope examples were presented for illustrating the applicability of the proposed approach. The new method is effective in slope reliability analysis. And it has potential application to other reliability problems of complicated engineering structure with a considerably large number of random variables.
Lenard, Christopher; McCarthy, Sally; Mills, Terence
2014-01-01
There are many different aspects of statistics. Statistics involves mathematics, computing, and applications to almost every field of endeavour. Each aspect provides an opportunity to spark someone's interest in the subject. In this paper we discuss some ethical aspects of statistics, and describe how an introduction to ethics has been…
3D face recognition algorithm based on detecting reliable components
Huang Wenjun; Zhou Xuebing; Niu Xiamu
2007-01-01
Fisherfaces algorithm is a popular method for face recognition. However, there exist some unstable components that degrade recognition performance. In this paper, we propose a method based on detecting reliable components to overcome the problem and introduce it to 3D face recognition. The reliable components are detected within the binary feature vector, which is generated from the Fisherfaces feature vector based on statistical properties, and is used for 3D face recognition as the final feature vector. Experimental results show that the reliable components feature vector is much more effective than the Fisherfaces feature vector for face recognition.
Calculating reliability measures for ordinal data.
Gamsu, C V
1986-11-01
Establishing the reliability of measures taken by judges is important in both clinical and research work. Calculating the statistic of choice, the kappa coefficient, unfortunately is not a particularly quick and simple procedure. Two much-needed practical tools have been developed to overcome these difficulties: a comprehensive and easily understood guide to the manual calculation of the most complex form of the kappa coefficient, weighted kappa for ordinal data, has been written; and a computer program to run under CP/M, PC-DOS and MS-DOS has been developed. With simple modification the program will also run on a Sinclair Spectrum home computer.
The quantitative failure of human reliability analysis
Bennett, C.T.
1995-07-01
This philosophical treatise argues the merits of Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) in the context of the nuclear power industry. Actually, the author attacks historic and current HRA as having failed in informing policy makers who make decisions based on risk that humans contribute to systems performance. He argues for an HRA based on Bayesian (fact-based) inferential statistics, which advocates a systems analysis process that employs cogent heuristics when using opinion, and tempers itself with a rational debate over the weight given subjective and empirical probabilities.
3. European-American workshop on reliability of NDE and demining. Proceedings
NONE
2002-07-01
This proceeding contains 43 lectures and three posters relating to the following main topics: 1. Understanding reliability, validation and structuring the Reliability Formula; 2. Special considerations for demining reliability; 3. Essential quality characteristics for NDE; 4. NDE reliability in risk and life cycle management; 5. Modelling of NDE processes; 6. Approaches for modular validation and modelling results for NDE and demining; 7. Statistical test design ad analysis; 8. Human factors. (MM)
Selling statistics[Statistics in scientific progress
Bridle, S. [Astrophysics Group, University College London (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: sarah@star.ucl.ac.uk
2006-09-15
From Cosmos to Chaos- Peter Coles, 2006, Oxford University Press, 224pp. To confirm or refute a scientific theory you have to make a measurement. Unfortunately, however, measurements are never perfect: the rest is statistics. Indeed, statistics is at the very heart of scientific progress, but it is often poorly taught and badly received; for many, the very word conjures up half-remembered nightmares of 'null hypotheses' and 'student's t-tests'. From Cosmos to Chaos by Peter Coles, a cosmologist at Nottingham University, is an approachable antidote that places statistics in a range of catchy contexts. Using this book you will be able to calculate the probabilities in a game of bridge or in a legal trial based on DNA fingerprinting, impress friends by talking confidently about entropy, and stretch your mind thinking about quantum mechanics. (U.K.)
Reliability Assessment Of Wind Turbines
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2014-01-01
Reduction of cost of energy for wind turbines are very important in order to make wind energy competitive compared to other energy sources. Therefore the turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability but also not be too costly (and safe). This paper presents models...... for uncertainty modeling and reliability assessment of especially the structural components such as tower, blades, substructure and foundation. But since the function of a wind turbine is highly dependent on many electrical and mechanical components as well as a control system also reliability aspects...... of these components are discussed and it is described how there reliability influences the reliability of the structural components. Two illustrative examples are presented considering uncertainty modeling, reliability assessment and calibration of partial safety factors for structural wind turbine components exposed...
Nuclear weapon reliability evaluation methodology
Wright, D.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1993-06-01
This document provides an overview of those activities that are normally performed by Sandia National Laboratories to provide nuclear weapon reliability evaluations for the Department of Energy. These reliability evaluations are first provided as a prediction of the attainable stockpile reliability of a proposed weapon design. Stockpile reliability assessments are provided for each weapon type as the weapon is fielded and are continuously updated throughout the weapon stockpile life. The reliability predictions and assessments depend heavily on data from both laboratory simulation and actual flight tests. An important part of the methodology are the opportunities for review that occur throughout the entire process that assure a consistent approach and appropriate use of the data for reliability evaluation purposes.
Reliability engineering theory and practice
Birolini, Alessandro
2014-01-01
This book shows how to build in, evaluate, and demonstrate reliability and availability of components, equipment, systems. It presents the state-of-theart of reliability engineering, both in theory and practice, and is based on the author's more than 30 years experience in this field, half in industry and half as Professor of Reliability Engineering at the ETH, Zurich. The structure of the book allows rapid access to practical results. This final edition extend and replace all previous editions. New are, in particular, a strategy to mitigate incomplete coverage, a comprehensive introduction to human reliability with design guidelines and new models, and a refinement of reliability allocation, design guidelines for maintainability, and concepts related to regenerative stochastic processes. The set of problems for homework has been extended. Methods & tools are given in a way that they can be tailored to cover different reliability requirement levels and be used for safety analysis. Because of the Appendice...
Statistics Essentials For Dummies
Rumsey, Deborah
2010-01-01
Statistics Essentials For Dummies not only provides students enrolled in Statistics I with an excellent high-level overview of key concepts, but it also serves as a reference or refresher for students in upper-level statistics courses. Free of review and ramp-up material, Statistics Essentials For Dummies sticks to the point, with content focused on key course topics only. It provides discrete explanations of essential concepts taught in a typical first semester college-level statistics course, from odds and error margins to confidence intervals and conclusions. This guide is also a perfect re
Statistics & probaility for dummies
Rumsey, Deborah J
2013-01-01
Two complete eBooks for one low price! Created and compiled by the publisher, this Statistics I and Statistics II bundle brings together two math titles in one, e-only bundle. With this special bundle, you'll get the complete text of the following two titles: Statistics For Dummies, 2nd Edition Statistics For Dummies shows you how to interpret and critique graphs and charts, determine the odds with probability, guesstimate with confidence using confidence intervals, set up and carry out a hypothesis test, compute statistical formulas, and more. Tra
Griffiths, Dawn
2009-01-01
Wouldn't it be great if there were a statistics book that made histograms, probability distributions, and chi square analysis more enjoyable than going to the dentist? Head First Statistics brings this typically dry subject to life, teaching you everything you want and need to know about statistics through engaging, interactive, and thought-provoking material, full of puzzles, stories, quizzes, visual aids, and real-world examples. Whether you're a student, a professional, or just curious about statistical analysis, Head First's brain-friendly formula helps you get a firm grasp of statistics
Business statistics for dummies
Anderson, Alan
2013-01-01
Score higher in your business statistics course? Easy. Business statistics is a common course for business majors and MBA candidates. It examines common data sets and the proper way to use such information when conducting research and producing informational reports such as profit and loss statements, customer satisfaction surveys, and peer comparisons. Business Statistics For Dummies tracks to a typical business statistics course offered at the undergraduate and graduate levels and provides clear, practical explanations of business statistical ideas, techniques, formulas, and calculations, w
Nonparametric statistical inference
Gibbons, Jean Dickinson
2010-01-01
Overall, this remains a very fine book suitable for a graduate-level course in nonparametric statistics. I recommend it for all people interested in learning the basic ideas of nonparametric statistical inference.-Eugenia Stoimenova, Journal of Applied Statistics, June 2012… one of the best books available for a graduate (or advanced undergraduate) text for a theory course on nonparametric statistics. … a very well-written and organized book on nonparametric statistics, especially useful and recommended for teachers and graduate students.-Biometrics, 67, September 2011This excellently presente
Boslaugh, Sarah
2013-01-01
Need to learn statistics for your job? Want help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference for anyone new to the subject. Thoroughly revised and expanded, this edition helps you gain a solid understanding of statistics without the numbing complexity of many college texts. Each chapter presents easy-to-follow descriptions, along with graphics, formulas, solved examples, and hands-on exercises. If you want to perform common statistical analyses and learn a wide range of techniques without getting in over your head, this is your book.
Lithium battery safety and reliability
Levy, Samuel C.
Lithium batteries have been used in a variety of applications for a number of years. As their use continues to grow, particularly in the consumer market, a greater emphasis needs to be placed on safety and reliability. There is a useful technique which can help to design cells and batteries having a greater degree of safety and higher reliability. This technique, known as fault tree analysis, can also be useful in determining the cause of unsafe behavior and poor reliability in existing designs.
Lectures on algebraic statistics
Drton, Mathias; Sullivant, Seth
2009-01-01
How does an algebraic geometer studying secant varieties further the understanding of hypothesis tests in statistics? Why would a statistician working on factor analysis raise open problems about determinantal varieties? Connections of this type are at the heart of the new field of "algebraic statistics". In this field, mathematicians and statisticians come together to solve statistical inference problems using concepts from algebraic geometry as well as related computational and combinatorial techniques. The goal of these lectures is to introduce newcomers from the different camps to algebraic statistics. The introduction will be centered around the following three observations: many important statistical models correspond to algebraic or semi-algebraic sets of parameters; the geometry of these parameter spaces determines the behaviour of widely used statistical inference procedures; computational algebraic geometry can be used to study parameter spaces and other features of statistical models.
Naghshpour, Shahdad
2012-01-01
Statistics is the branch of mathematics that deals with real-life problems. As such, it is an essential tool for economists. Unfortunately, the way you and many other economists learn the concept of statistics is not compatible with the way economists think and learn. The problem is worsened by the use of mathematical jargon and complex derivations. Here's a book that proves none of this is necessary. All the examples and exercises in this book are constructed within the field of economics, thus eliminating the difficulty of learning statistics with examples from fields that have no relation to business, politics, or policy. Statistics is, in fact, not more difficult than economics. Anyone who can comprehend economics can understand and use statistics successfully within this field, including you! This book utilizes Microsoft Excel to obtain statistical results, as well as to perform additional necessary computations. Microsoft Excel is not the software of choice for performing sophisticated statistical analy...
Estimation and inferential statistics
Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Das, Ajit Kumar
2015-01-01
This book focuses on the meaning of statistical inference and estimation. Statistical inference is concerned with the problems of estimation of population parameters and testing hypotheses. Primarily aimed at undergraduate and postgraduate students of statistics, the book is also useful to professionals and researchers in statistical, medical, social and other disciplines. It discusses current methodological techniques used in statistics and related interdisciplinary areas. Every concept is supported with relevant research examples to help readers to find the most suitable application. Statistical tools have been presented by using real-life examples, removing the “fear factor” usually associated with this complex subject. The book will help readers to discover diverse perspectives of statistical theory followed by relevant worked-out examples. Keeping in mind the needs of readers, as well as constantly changing scenarios, the material is presented in an easy-to-understand form.
Baseline Statistics of Linked Statistical Data
Scharnhorst, Andrea; Meroño-Peñuela, Albert; Guéret, Christophe
2014-01-01
We are surrounded by an ever increasing ocean of information, everybody will agree to that. We build sophisticated strategies to govern this information: design data models, develop infrastructures for data sharing, building tool for data analysis. Statistical datasets curated by National Statistica
Statistical inference on residual life
Jeong, Jong-Hyeon
2014-01-01
This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.
Fundamental statistical limitations of future dark matter direct detection experiments
Strege, C.; Trotta, F.; Bertone, G.; Peter, A.H.G.; Scott, P.
2012-01-01
We discuss irreducible statistical limitations of future ton-scale dark matter direct detection experiments. We focus in particular on the coverage of confidence intervals, which quantifies the reliability of the statistical method used to reconstruct the dark matter parameters and the bias of the r
Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2003-01-01
Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from a large number of specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analysis and fits have been investigated for the following distribution types: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull....... The statistical fits have generally been made using all data and the lower tail of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. The results show that the 2-parameter Weibull distribution gives the best...... fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the Log Normal distribution generally gives a poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used. The implications on the reliability level of typical structural elements and on partial safety factors...
Reliability engineering theory and practice
Birolini, Alessandro
2010-01-01
Presenting a solid overview of reliability engineering, this volume enables readers to build and evaluate the reliability of various components, equipment and systems. Current applications are presented, and the text itself is based on the author's 30 years of experience in the field.
The Validity of Reliability Measures.
Seddon, G. M.
1988-01-01
Demonstrates that some commonly used indices can be misleading in their quantification of reliability. The effects are most pronounced on gain or difference scores. Proposals are made to avoid sources of invalidity by using a procedure to assess reliability in terms of upper and lower limits for the true scores of each examinee. (Author/JDH)
Software Reliability through Theorem Proving
S.G.K. Murthy
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Improving software reliability of mission-critical systems is widely recognised as one of the major challenges. Early detection of errors in software requirements, designs and implementation, need rigorous verification and validation techniques. Several techniques comprising static and dynamic testing approaches are used to improve reliability of mission critical software; however it is hard to balance development time and budget with software reliability. Particularly using dynamic testing techniques, it is hard to ensure software reliability, as exhaustive testing is not possible. On the other hand, formal verification techniques utilise mathematical logic to prove correctness of the software based on given specifications, which in turn improves the reliability of the software. Theorem proving is a powerful formal verification technique that enhances the software reliability for missioncritical aerospace applications. This paper discusses the issues related to software reliability and theorem proving used to enhance software reliability through formal verification technique, based on the experiences with STeP tool, using the conventional and internationally accepted methodologies, models, theorem proving techniques available in the tool without proposing a new model.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(3, pp.314-317, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1527
Reliability engineering in RF CMOS
2008-01-01
In this thesis new developments are presented for reliability engineering in RF CMOS. Given the increase in use of CMOS technology in applications for mobile communication, also the reliability of CMOS for such applications becomes increasingly important. When applied in these applications, CMOS is typically referred to as RF CMOS, where RF stands for radio frequencies.
Reliability in automotive ethernet networks
Soares, Fabio L.; Campelo, Divanilson R.; Yan, Ying;
2015-01-01
This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular.......This paper provides an overview of in-vehicle communication networks and addresses the challenges of providing reliability in automotive Ethernet in particular....
Estimation of Bridge Reliability Distributions
Thoft-Christensen, Palle
In this paper it is shown how the so-called reliability distributions can be estimated using crude Monte Carlo simulation. The main purpose is to demonstrate the methodology. Therefor very exact data concerning reliability and deterioration are not needed. However, it is intended in the paper to ...
The statistical stability phenomenon
Gorban, Igor I
2017-01-01
This monograph investigates violations of statistical stability of physical events, variables, and processes and develops a new physical-mathematical theory taking into consideration such violations – the theory of hyper-random phenomena. There are five parts. The first describes the phenomenon of statistical stability and its features, and develops methods for detecting violations of statistical stability, in particular when data is limited. The second part presents several examples of real processes of different physical nature and demonstrates the violation of statistical stability over broad observation intervals. The third part outlines the mathematical foundations of the theory of hyper-random phenomena, while the fourth develops the foundations of the mathematical analysis of divergent and many-valued functions. The fifth part contains theoretical and experimental studies of statistical laws where there is violation of statistical stability. The monograph should be of particular interest to engineers...
Reliability theory with applications to preventive maintenance
Gertsbakh, Ilya
2000-01-01
The material in this book was first presented as a one-semester course in Relia bility Theory and Preventive Maintenance for M.Sc. students of the Industrial Engineering Department of Ben Gurion University in the 1997/98 and 1998/99 academic years. Engineering students are mainly interested in the applied part of this theory. The value of preventive maintenance theory lies in the possibility of its imple mentation, which crucially depends on how we handle statistical reliability data. The very nature of the object of reliability theory - system lifetime - makes it extremely difficult to collect large amounts of data. The data available are usu ally incomplete, e.g. heavily censored. Thus, the desire to make the course material more applicable led me to include in the course topics such as mod eling system lifetime distributions (Chaps. 1,2) and the maximum likelihood techniques for lifetime data processing (Chap. 3). A course in the theory of statistics is aprerequisite for these lectures. Stan dard...
SOFTWARE RELIABILITY OF PROFICIENT ENACTMENT
B.Anni Princy
2014-07-01
Full Text Available A software reliability exemplary projects snags the random process as disillusionments which were the culmination yield of two progressions: emerging faults and initial state values. The predominant classification uses the logistic analysis effort function mounting efficient software on the real time dataset. The detriments of the logistic testing were efficaciously overcome by Pareto distribution. The estimated outline ventures the resolved technique for analyzing the suitable communities and the preeminent of fit for a software reliability progress model. Its constraints are predictable to evaluate the reliability of a software system. The future process will permit for software reliability estimations that can be used both as prominence Indicator, but also for planning and controlling resources, the development times based on the onslaught assignments of the efficient computing and reliable measurement of a software system was competent.
Reliability estimation using kriging metamodel
Cho, Tae Min; Ju, Byeong Hyeon; Lee, Byung Chai [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Do Hyun [Korea Automotive Technology Institute, Chonan (Korea, Republic of)
2006-08-15
In this study, the new method for reliability estimation is proposed using kriging metamodel. Kriging metamodel can be determined by appropriate sampling range and sampling numbers because there are no random errors in the Design and Analysis of Computer Experiments(DACE) model. The first kriging metamodel is made based on widely ranged sampling points. The Advanced First Order Reliability Method(AFORM) is applied to the first kriging metamodel to estimate the reliability approximately. Then, the second kriging metamodel is constructed using additional sampling points with updated sampling range. The Monte-Carlo Simulation(MCS) is applied to the second kriging metamodel to evaluate the reliability. The proposed method is applied to numerical examples and the results are almost equal to the reference reliability.
Reliability-Based Code Calibration
Faber, M.H.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2003-01-01
The present paper addresses fundamental concepts of reliability based code calibration. First basic principles of structural reliability theory are introduced and it is shown how the results of FORM based reliability analysis may be related to partial safety factors and characteristic values....... Thereafter the code calibration problem is presented in its principal decision theoretical form and it is discussed how acceptable levels of failure probability (or target reliabilities) may be established. Furthermore suggested values for acceptable annual failure probabilities are given for ultimate...... and serviceability limit states. Finally the paper describes the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) recommended procedure - CodeCal - for the practical implementation of reliability based code calibration of LRFD based design codes....
Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop
Mrig, L. [ed.
1993-12-01
This workshop was the sixth in a series of workshops sponsored by NREL/DOE under the general subject of photovoltaic testing and reliability during the period 1986--1993. PV performance and PV reliability are at least as important as PV cost, if not more. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities, and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in the field were brought together to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this evolving field of PV reliability. The papers presented here reflect this effort since the last workshop held in September, 1992. The topics covered include: cell and module characterization, module and system testing, durability and reliability, system field experience, and standards and codes.
Lectures on statistical mechanics
Bowler, M G
1982-01-01
Anyone dissatisfied with the almost ritual dullness of many 'standard' texts in statistical mechanics will be grateful for the lucid explanation and generally reassuring tone. Aimed at securing firm foundations for equilibrium statistical mechanics, topics of great subtlety are presented transparently and enthusiastically. Very little mathematical preparation is required beyond elementary calculus and prerequisites in physics are limited to some elementary classical thermodynamics. Suitable as a basis for a first course in statistical mechanics, the book is an ideal supplement to more convent
Campbell, M J
2011-01-01
The new edition of this international bestseller continues to throw light on the world of statistics for health care professionals and medical students. Revised throughout, the 11th edition features new material in the areas of relative risk, absolute risk and numbers needed to treat diagnostic tests, sensitivity, specificity, ROC curves free statistical software The popular self-testing exercises at the end of every chapter are strengthened by the addition of new sections on reading and reporting statistics and formula appreciation.
Contributions to industrial statistics
2015-01-01
This thesis is about statistics' contributions to industry. It is an article compendium comprising four articles divided in two blocks: (i) two contributions for a water supply company, and (ii) significance of the effects in Design of Experiments. In the first block, great emphasis is placed on how the research design and statistics can be applied to various real problems that a water company raises and it aims to convince water management companies that statistics can be very useful to impr...
Optimization techniques in statistics
Rustagi, Jagdish S
1994-01-01
Statistics help guide us to optimal decisions under uncertainty. A large variety of statistical problems are essentially solutions to optimization problems. The mathematical techniques of optimization are fundamentalto statistical theory and practice. In this book, Jagdish Rustagi provides full-spectrum coverage of these methods, ranging from classical optimization and Lagrange multipliers, to numerical techniques using gradients or direct search, to linear, nonlinear, and dynamic programming using the Kuhn-Tucker conditions or the Pontryagin maximal principle. Variational methods and optimiza
Equilibrium statistical mechanics
Jackson, E Atlee
2000-01-01
Ideal as an elementary introduction to equilibrium statistical mechanics, this volume covers both classical and quantum methodology for open and closed systems. Introductory chapters familiarize readers with probability and microscopic models of systems, while additional chapters describe the general derivation of the fundamental statistical mechanics relationships. The final chapter contains 16 sections, each dealing with a different application, ordered according to complexity, from classical through degenerate quantum statistical mechanics. Key features include an elementary introduction t
Applied statistics for economists
Lewis, Margaret
2012-01-01
This book is an undergraduate text that introduces students to commonly-used statistical methods in economics. Using examples based on contemporary economic issues and readily-available data, it not only explains the mechanics of the various methods, it also guides students to connect statistical results to detailed economic interpretations. Because the goal is for students to be able to apply the statistical methods presented, online sources for economic data and directions for performing each task in Excel are also included.
Equilibrium statistical mechanics
Mayer, J E
1968-01-01
The International Encyclopedia of Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics, Volume 1: Equilibrium Statistical Mechanics covers the fundamental principles and the development of theoretical aspects of equilibrium statistical mechanics. Statistical mechanical is the study of the connection between the macroscopic behavior of bulk matter and the microscopic properties of its constituent atoms and molecules. This book contains eight chapters, and begins with a presentation of the master equation used for the calculation of the fundamental thermodynamic functions. The succeeding chapters highlight t
Mathematical statistics with applications
Wackerly, Dennis D; Scheaffer, Richard L
2008-01-01
In their bestselling MATHEMATICAL STATISTICS WITH APPLICATIONS, premiere authors Dennis Wackerly, William Mendenhall, and Richard L. Scheaffer present a solid foundation in statistical theory while conveying the relevance and importance of the theory in solving practical problems in the real world. The authors' use of practical applications and excellent exercises helps you discover the nature of statistics and understand its essential role in scientific research.
Mahalanobis, P C
1965-01-01
Contributions to Statistics focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in statistics. The book is presented to Professor P. C. Mahalanobis on the occasion of his 70th birthday. The selection first offers information on the recovery of ancillary information and combinatorial properties of partially balanced designs and association schemes. Discussions focus on combinatorial applications of the algebra of association matrices, sample size analogy, association matrices and the algebra of association schemes, and conceptual statistical experiments. The book then examines latt
Ariwahjoedi, Seramika; Kosasih, Jusak Sali; Rovelli, Carlo; Zen, Freddy Permana
2016-01-01
Following our earlier work, we construct statistical discrete geometry by applying statistical mechanics to discrete (Regge) gravity. We propose a coarse-graining method for discrete geometry under the assumptions of atomism and background independence. To maintain these assumptions, restrictions are given to the theory by introducing cut-offs, both in ultraviolet and infrared regime. Having a well-defined statistical picture of discrete Regge geometry, we take the infinite degrees of freedom (large n) limit. We argue that the correct limit consistent with the restrictions and the background independence concept is not the continuum limit of statistical mechanics, but the thermodynamical limit.
2009-01-01
Ericsson is a global provider of telecommunications systems equipment and related services for mobile and fixed network operators. 3Gsim is a tool used by Ericsson in tests of the 3G RNC node. In order to validate the tests, statistics are constantly gathered within 3Gsim and users can use telnet to access the statistics using some system specific 3Gsim commands. The statistics can be retrieved but is unstructured for the human eye and needs parsing and arranging to be readable. The statist...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2008 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2004 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2006 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2016 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2010 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2002 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2003 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2011 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2000 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2015 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2009 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2014 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2007 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2005 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001
Social Security Administration — The Annual Statistical Supplement, 2001 includes the most comprehensive data available on the Social Security and Supplemental Security Income programs. More than...
Kanji, Gopal K
2006-01-01
This expanded and updated Third Edition of Gopal K. Kanji's best-selling resource on statistical tests covers all the most commonly used tests with information on how to calculate and interpret results with simple datasets. Each entry begins with a short summary statement about the test's purpose, and contains details of the test objective, the limitations (or assumptions) involved, a brief outline of the method, a worked example, and the numerical calculation. 100 Statistical Tests, Third Edition is the one indispensable guide for users of statistical materials and consumers of statistical information at all levels and across all disciplines.
Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics
Bolstad, William M
2011-01-01
A hands-on introduction to computational statistics from a Bayesian point of view Providing a solid grounding in statistics while uniquely covering the topics from a Bayesian perspective, Understanding Computational Bayesian Statistics successfully guides readers through this new, cutting-edge approach. With its hands-on treatment of the topic, the book shows how samples can be drawn from the posterior distribution when the formula giving its shape is all that is known, and how Bayesian inferences can be based on these samples from the posterior. These ideas are illustrated on common statistic
Boslaugh, Sarah
2008-01-01
Need to learn statistics as part of your job, or want some help passing a statistics course? Statistics in a Nutshell is a clear and concise introduction and reference that's perfect for anyone with no previous background in the subject. This book gives you a solid understanding of statistics without being too simple, yet without the numbing complexity of most college texts. You get a firm grasp of the fundamentals and a hands-on understanding of how to apply them before moving on to the more advanced material that follows. Each chapter presents you with easy-to-follow descriptions illustrat
Record Statistics and Dynamics
Sibani, Paolo; Jensen, Henrik J.
2009-01-01
The term record statistics covers the statistical properties of records within an ordered series of numerical data obtained from observations or measurements. A record within such series is simply a value larger (or smaller) than all preceding values. The mathematical properties of records strongly...... fluctuations of e. g. the energy are able to push the system past some sort of ‘edge of stability’, inducing irreversible configurational changes, whose statistics then closely follows the statistics of record fluctuations....
Shasha, Dennis
2010-01-01
Statistics is the activity of inferring results about a population given a sample. Historically, statistics books assume an underlying distribution to the data (typically, the normal distribution) and derive results under that assumption. Unfortunately, in real life, one cannot normally be sure of the underlying distribution. For that reason, this book presents a distribution-independent approach to statistics based on a simple computational counting idea called resampling. This book explains the basic concepts of resampling, then systematically presents the standard statistical measures along
Bulmer, M G
1979-01-01
There are many textbooks which describe current methods of statistical analysis, while neglecting related theory. There are equally many advanced textbooks which delve into the far reaches of statistical theory, while bypassing practical applications. But between these two approaches is an unfilled gap, in which theory and practice merge at an intermediate level. Professor M. G. Bulmer's Principles of Statistics, originally published in 1965, was created to fill that need. The new, corrected Dover edition of Principles of Statistics makes this invaluable mid-level text available once again fo
A whistle-stop tour of statistics
Everitt, Brian S
2011-01-01
""I think that Everitt has been quite successful. All the standard topics, such as probability, estimation, hypothesis testing, analysis of variance, and regression, are discussed. The discussion is short, to the point, readable, and reliable. In addition, there are the more 'advanced' topics of logistic regression, survival analysis, longitudinal data analysis, and multivariate analysis, thus providing the reader with a short introduction to a wide array of the methods in the statistical arsenal without getting bogged down in detail. … a brief, but good, introduction to statistics. … excellen
Turbo Detection in Rayleigh flat fading channel with unknown statistics
Paul Fortier
2010-11-01
Full Text Available The turbo detection of turbo coded symbols over correlated Rayleigh flat fading channels generatedaccording to Jakes’ model is considered in this paper. We propose a method to estimate the channelsignal-to-noise ratio (SNR and the maximum Doppler frequency. These statistics are required bythe linear minimum mean squared error (LMMSE channel estimator. To improve the system convergence,we redefine the channel reliability factor by taking into account the channel estimationerror statistics. Simulation results for rate 1=3 turbo code and two different normalized fading ratesshow that the use of the new reliability factor greatly improves the performance. The improvementis more substantial when channel statistics are unknown.
Sampling for assurance of future reliability
Klauenberg, Katy; Elster, Clemens
2017-02-01
Ensuring measurement trueness, compliance with regulations and conformity with standards are key tasks in metrology which are often considered at the time of an inspection. Current practice does not always verify quality after or between inspections, calibrations, laboratory comparisons, conformity assessments, etc. Statistical models describing behavior over time may ensure reliability, i.e. they may give the probability of functioning, compliance or survival until some future point in time. It may not always be possible or economic to inspect a whole population of measuring devices or other units. Selecting a subset of the population according to statistical sampling plans and inspecting only these, allows conclusions about the quality of the whole population with a certain confidence. Combining these issues of sampling and aging, raises questions such as: How many devices need to be inspected, and at least how many of them must conform, so that one can be sure, that more than 100p % of the population will comply until the next inspection? This research is to raise awareness and offer a simple answer to such time- and sample-based quality statements in metrology and beyond. Reliability demonstration methods, such as the prevailing Weibull binomial model, quantify the confidence in future reliability on the basis of a sample. We adapt the binomial model to be applicable to sampling without replacement and simplify the Weibull model so that sampling plans may be determined on the basis of existing ISO standards. Provided the model is suitable, no additional information and no software are needed; and yet, the consumer is protected against future failure. We establish new sampling plans for utility meter surveillance, which are required by a recent modification of German law. These sampling plans are given in similar tables to the previous ones, which demonstrates their suitability for everyday use.
Study of the Service Reliability of Machines Based on Safety
无
2000-01-01
From the point of safety being the basic requirement of machine operation, equivalent failure number, which is employed to replace the actual statistical failure number, is introduced. Calculating theory of service reliability indexes of machines based on safety is developed. The method proposed in this paper can reflect the damage degree of failure.
Quasi-Bayesian software reliability model with small samples
ZHANG Jin; TU Jun-xiang; CHEN Zhuo-ning; YAN Xiao-guang
2009-01-01
In traditional Bayesian software reliability models,it was assume that all probabilities are precise.In practical applications the parameters of the probability distributions are often under uncertainty due to strong dependence on subjective information of experts' judgments on sparse statistical data.In this paper,a quasi-Bayesian software reliability model using interval-valued probabilities to clearly quantify experts' prior beliefs on possible intervals of the parameters of the probability distributions is presented.The model integrates experts' judgments with statistical data to obtain more convincible assessments of software reliability with small samples.For some actual data sets,the presented model yields better predictions than the Jelinski-Moranda (JM) model using maximum likelihood (ML).
International migration statistics in Mexico.
Garcia Y Griego, M
1987-01-01
During the past decade, Mexico has experienced both large-scale emigration directly, mostly to the US, and the mass immigration of Central American refugees. The implementation of the US Immigration and Control Act of 1986 and the possible escalation of armed conflicts in Central America may result in expanded inflows either of returning citizens or of new refugee waves. To develop appropriate policy responses, Mexico needs reliable information on international migration flows. This research note reviews available sources of that information--arrival and departure statistics, population censuses, refugee censuses, and survey data--and concludes that most of them are relatively weak. Currently, the published data on entries and departures provide little information on the demographic impact of legal migration, although they suggest that the inflow of foreigners is small. The census corroborates such findings, but it yields inadequate demographic detail. The movement of Mexican nationals, on the other hand, is poorly reflected by both sources. The void they leave has been palliated somewhat by surveys, but the only nationally representative survey on emigration was carried out in the late 1970s and might be a less than ideal basis for current policy formulation. It is hoped that as the relevance of international migration becomes more evident, steps towards the improvement of existing statistical systems may be undertaken. In the absence of such measures, policy-makers and researchers will have to continue relying on ad hoc surveys to answer the most pressing questions on the subject.
Reliability of novel postural sway task test
Milan Sedliak
2013-07-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of parameters obtained from a novel postural sway task test based on body movements controlled by visual feedback. Fifty-nine volunteers were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of young (n = 32, 16 females and 16 males, age: 25.2 ± 3.4 years and the second group of elderly individuals (n = 27, 17 females and 10 males, age: 75.7 ± 6.9 years. Participants stood in parallel on a computer based stabilographic platform with the feet approximately a shoulder width apart, the toes slightly pointing outwards, the hands placed on the hips. The computer screen was placed approximately 1.5 meter from the platform at a height of subjects’ eyes. An instantaneous visual feedback of participant’s centre of pressure (COP was given in a form of a blue cross visible on the screen. Participants were instructed to keep the blue cross driven by movements of their hips as close as possible to a predefined curve flowing on the screen. Out of the 6 parameters studied, only the average distance of COP from the curve line and the sum of the COP crossings through the curve line showed high reliability. Correlation between these two highly reliable parameters was -0.89. There was also a statistical difference (p<0.001 between young and elderly in both the average distance of COP from the curve line and the sum of the COP crossings through the curve. To conclude, the novel postural sway task provides a simple tool with relatively low time burden needed for testing. The suggested output parameters measured are highly reliable and easy to interpret.
Fatigue reliability of cracked engineering structures
Lanning, David Bruce, Jr.
1997-12-01
This study investigates the reliability of engineering structures containing fatigue cracks. Stress concentrations and welded joints are probable locations for the initiation and propagation of fatigue cracks. Due to the many unknowns of loading, materials properties, crack sizes and crack shapes present at these locations, a statistics-based reliability analysis is valuable in the careful consideration of these many different random factors involved in a fatigue life analysis, several of which are expanded upon in this study. The basic problem of a crack near a stress concentration is first considered. A formulation for the aspect ratio (a/c) of a propagating semi-elliptical fatigue crack located at the toe of a welded T-joint is developed using Newman and Raju's stress intensity factor for a cracked flat plate with a weld magnification factor and compared to that of a cracked flat plate, and the reliability in terms of fatigue lifetime is calculated with the aid of Paris' crack propagation equation for membrane and bending loadings. Crack closure effects are then introduced in the consideration of short crack effects, where crack growth rates typically may exceed those found using traditional linear elastic fracture mechanics solutions for long cracks. The probability of a very small, microstructurally influenced crack growing to a size influenced by local plastic conditions is calculated utilizing the probability of a crack continuing to grow past an obstacle, such as a grain boundary. The result is then combined with the probability for failure defined using the crack closure-modified Paris equation to find an overall reliability for the structure. Last, the probability of fracture is determined when a crack front encounters regions of non-uniform toughness, such as typical in the heat affected zone of a welded joint. An expression for the effective crack lengths of the dissimilar regions is derived, and used in a weakest-link fracture model in the evaluation
Statistical Engine Knock Control
Stotsky, Alexander A.
2008-01-01
A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency...
Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.
2007-01-01
Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…
Statistical Hadronization and Holography
Bechi, Jacopo
2009-01-01
In this paper we consider some issues about the statistical model of the hadronization in a holographic approach. We introduce a Rindler like horizon in the bulk and we understand the string breaking as a tunneling event under this horizon. We calculate the hadron spectrum and we get a thermal......, and so statistical, shape for it....
Handbook of Spatial Statistics
Gelfand, Alan E
2010-01-01
Offers an introduction detailing the evolution of the field of spatial statistics. This title focuses on the three main branches of spatial statistics: continuous spatial variation (point referenced data); discrete spatial variation, including lattice and areal unit data; and, spatial point patterns.
Practical statistics simply explained
Langley, Dr Russell A
1971-01-01
For those who need to know statistics but shy away from math, this book teaches how to extract truth and draw valid conclusions from numerical data using logic and the philosophy of statistics rather than complex formulae. Lucid discussion of averages and scatter, investigation design, more. Problems with solutions.
Statistical methods in astronomy
Long, James P.; de Souza, Rafael S.
2017-01-01
We present a review of data types and statistical methods often encountered in astronomy. The aim is to provide an introduction to statistical applications in astronomy for statisticians and computer scientists. We highlight the complex, often hierarchical, nature of many astronomy inference problems and advocate for cross-disciplinary collaborations to address these challenges.
Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt
This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...
Huizingh, Eelko K. R. E.
2007-01-01
Accessibly written and easy to use, "Applied Statistics Using SPSS" is an all-in-one self-study guide to SPSS and do-it-yourself guide to statistics. What is unique about Eelko Huizingh's approach is that this book is based around the needs of undergraduate students embarking on their own research project, and its self-help style is designed to…
Inductive Logic and Statistics
Romeijn, J. -W.
2009-01-01
This chapter concerns inductive logic in relation to mathematical statistics. I start by introducing a general notion of probabilistic induc- tive inference. Then I introduce Carnapian inductive logic, and I show that it can be related to Bayesian statistical inference via de Finetti's representatio
Statistical mechanics of pluripotency.
MacArthur, Ben D; Lemischka, Ihor R
2013-08-01
Recent reports using single-cell profiling have indicated a remarkably dynamic view of pluripotent stem cell identity. Here, we argue that the pluripotent state is not well defined at the single-cell level but rather is a statistical property of stem cell populations, amenable to analysis using the tools of statistical mechanics and information theory.
Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt
This book studies the brilliant Danish 19th Century astronomer, T.N. Thiele who made important contributions to statistics, actuarial science, astronomy and mathematics. The most important of these contributions in statistics are translated into English for the first time, and the text includes...
Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.
Summary statistics on application and registration patterns of applicants wishing to pursue full-time study in first-year places in Ontario universities (for the fall of 1987) are given. Data on registrations were received indirectly from the universities as part of their annual submission of USIS/UAR enrollment data to Statistics Canada and MCU.…
Deconstructing Statistical Analysis
Snell, Joel
2014-01-01
Using a very complex statistical analysis and research method for the sake of enhancing the prestige of an article or making a new product or service legitimate needs to be monitored and questioned for accuracy. 1) The more complicated the statistical analysis, and research the fewer the number of learned readers can understand it. This adds a…
Practical statistics for educators
Ravid, Ruth
2014-01-01
Practical Statistics for Educators, Fifth Edition, is a clear and easy-to-follow text written specifically for education students in introductory statistics courses and in action research courses. It is also a valuable resource and guidebook for educational practitioners who wish to study their own settings.
Statistical laws in linguistics
Altmann, Eduardo G
2015-01-01
Zipf's law is just one out of many universal laws proposed to describe statistical regularities in language. Here we review and critically discuss how these laws can be statistically interpreted, fitted, and tested (falsified). The modern availability of large databases of written text allows for tests with an unprecedent statistical accuracy and also a characterization of the fluctuations around the typical behavior. We find that fluctuations are usually much larger than expected based on simplifying statistical assumptions (e.g., independence and lack of correlations between observations).These simplifications appear also in usual statistical tests so that the large fluctuations can be erroneously interpreted as a falsification of the law. Instead, here we argue that linguistic laws are only meaningful (falsifiable) if accompanied by a model for which the fluctuations can be computed (e.g., a generative model of the text). The large fluctuations we report show that the constraints imposed by linguistic laws...
Introduction to Bayesian statistics
Bolstad, William M
2017-01-01
There is a strong upsurge in the use of Bayesian methods in applied statistical analysis, yet most introductory statistics texts only present frequentist methods. Bayesian statistics has many important advantages that students should learn about if they are going into fields where statistics will be used. In this Third Edition, four newly-added chapters address topics that reflect the rapid advances in the field of Bayesian staistics. The author continues to provide a Bayesian treatment of introductory statistical topics, such as scientific data gathering, discrete random variables, robust Bayesian methods, and Bayesian approaches to inferenfe cfor discrete random variables, bionomial proprotion, Poisson, normal mean, and simple linear regression. In addition, newly-developing topics in the field are presented in four new chapters: Bayesian inference with unknown mean and variance; Bayesian inference for Multivariate Normal mean vector; Bayesian inference for Multiple Linear RegressionModel; and Computati...
Statistical Methods for Astronomy
Feigelson, Eric D
2012-01-01
This review outlines concepts of mathematical statistics, elements of probability theory, hypothesis tests and point estimation for use in the analysis of modern astronomical data. Least squares, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to statistical inference are treated. Resampling methods, particularly the bootstrap, provide valuable procedures when distributions functions of statistics are not known. Several approaches to model selection and good- ness of fit are considered. Applied statistics relevant to astronomical research are briefly discussed: nonparametric methods for use when little is known about the behavior of the astronomical populations or processes; data smoothing with kernel density estimation and nonparametric regression; unsupervised clustering and supervised classification procedures for multivariate problems; survival analysis for astronomical datasets with nondetections; time- and frequency-domain times series analysis for light curves; and spatial statistics to interpret the spati...
Electronic parts reliability data 1997
Denson, William; Jaworski, Paul; Mahar, David
1996-01-01
This document contains reliability data on both commercial and military electronic components for use in reliability analyses. It contains failure rate data on integrated circuits, discrete semiconductors (diodes, transistors, optoelectronic devices), resistors, capacitors, and inductors/transformers, all of which were obtained from the field usage of electronic components. At 2,000 pages, the format of this document is the same as RIAC's popular NPRD document which contains reliability data on nonelectronic component and electronic assembly types. Data includes part descriptions, quality level, application environments, point estimates of failure rate, data sources, number of failures, total operating hours, miles, or cycles, and detailed part characteristics.
Grey System Judgment on Reliability of Mechanical Equipment
无
2001-01-01
The Grey system theory was applied in reliability analysis of mechanical equip-ment. It is a new theory and method in reliability engineering of mechanical engineering of mechanical equipment. Through the Grey forecast of reliability parameters and the relia-bility forecast of parts and systems, decisions were made in the real operative state of e-quipment in real time. It replaced the old method that required mathematics and physical statistics in a large base of test data to obtain a pre-check, and it was used in a practical problem. Because of applying the data of practical operation state in real time, it could much more approach the real condition of equipment; it was applied to guide the procedure and had rather considerable economic and social benefits.
Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines
Kostandyan, Erik
and uncertainties are quantified. Further, estimation of annual failure probability for structural components taking into account possible faults in electrical or mechanical systems is considered. For a representative structural failure mode, a probabilistic model is developed that incorporates grid loss failures...... components. Thus, models of reliability should be developed and applied in order to quantify the residual life of the components. Damage models based on physics of failure combined with stochastic models describing the uncertain parameters are imperative for development of cost-optimal decision tools...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...
Reliability Analysis of Wind Turbines
Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2008-01-01
In order to minimise the total expected life-cycle costs of a wind turbine it is important to estimate the reliability level for all components in the wind turbine. This paper deals with reliability analysis for the tower and blades of onshore wind turbines placed in a wind farm. The limit states...... consideres are in the ultimate limit state (ULS) extreme conditions in the standstill position and extreme conditions during operating. For wind turbines, where the magnitude of the loads is influenced by the control system, the ultimate limit state can occur in both cases. In the fatigue limit state (FLS......) the reliability level for a wind turbine placed in a wind farm is considered, and wake effects from neighbouring wind turbines is taken into account. An illustrative example with calculation of the reliability for mudline bending of the tower is considered. In the example the design is determined according...
Reliability analysis in intelligent machines
Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.
1990-01-01
Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.
Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
(and safe). In probabilistic design the single components are designed to a level of reliability, which accounts for an optimal balance between failure consequences, cost of operation & maintenance, material costs and the probability of failure. Furthermore, using a probabilistic design basis...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...
On Bayesian System Reliability Analysis
Soerensen Ringi, M.
1995-05-01
The view taken in this thesis is that reliability, the probability that a system will perform a required function for a stated period of time, depends on a person`s state of knowledge. Reliability changes as this state of knowledge changes, i.e. when new relevant information becomes available. Most existing models for system reliability prediction are developed in a classical framework of probability theory and they overlook some information that is always present. Probability is just an analytical tool to handle uncertainty, based on judgement and subjective opinions. It is argued that the Bayesian approach gives a much more comprehensive understanding of the foundations of probability than the so called frequentistic school. A new model for system reliability prediction is given in two papers. The model encloses the fact that component failures are dependent because of a shared operational environment. The suggested model also naturally permits learning from failure data of similar components in non identical environments. 85 refs.
VCSEL reliability: a user's perspective
McElfresh, David K.; Lopez, Leoncio D.; Melanson, Robert; Vacar, Dan
2005-03-01
VCSEL arrays are being considered for use in interconnect applications that require high speed, high bandwidth, high density, and high reliability. In order to better understand the reliability of VCSEL arrays, we initiated an internal project at SUN Microsystems, Inc. In this paper, we present preliminary results of an ongoing accelerated temperature-humidity-bias stress test on VCSEL arrays from several manufacturers. This test revealed no significant differences between the reliability of AlGaAs, oxide confined VCSEL arrays constructed with a trench oxide and mesa for isolation. This test did find that the reliability of arrays needs to be measured on arrays and not be estimated with the data from singulated VCSELs as is a common practice.
Innovations in power systems reliability
Santora, Albert H; Vaccaro, Alfredo
2011-01-01
Electrical grids are among the world's most reliable systems, yet they still face a host of issues, from aging infrastructure to questions of resource distribution. Here is a comprehensive and systematic approach to tackling these contemporary challenges.
Accelerator Availability and Reliability Issues
Steve Suhring
2003-05-01
Maintaining reliable machine operations for existing machines as well as planning for future machines' operability present significant challenges to those responsible for system performance and improvement. Changes to machine requirements and beam specifications often reduce overall machine availability in an effort to meet user needs. Accelerator reliability issues from around the world will be presented, followed by a discussion of the major factors influencing machine availability.
Software Reliability Experimentation and Control
Kai-Yuan Cai
2006-01-01
This paper classifies software researches as theoretical researches, experimental researches, and engineering researches, and is mainly concerned with the experimental researches with focus on software reliability experimentation and control. The state-of-the-art of experimental or empirical studies is reviewed. A new experimentation methodology is proposed, which is largely theory discovering oriented. Several unexpected results of experimental studies are presented to justify the importance of software reliability experimentation and control. Finally, a few topics that deserve future investigation are identified.
Statistics a complete introduction
Graham, Alan
2013-01-01
Statistics: A Complete Introduction is the most comprehensive yet easy-to-use introduction to using Statistics. Written by a leading expert, this book will help you if you are studying for an important exam or essay, or if you simply want to improve your knowledge. The book covers all the key areas of Statistics including graphs, data interpretation, spreadsheets, regression, correlation and probability. Everything you will need is here in this one book. Each chapter includes not only an explanation of the knowledge and skills you need, but also worked examples and test questions.
Statistics of football dynamics
Mendes, R S; Anteneodo, C
2007-01-01
We investigate the dynamics of football matches. Our goal is to characterize statistically the temporal sequence of ball movements in this collective sport game, searching for traits of complex behavior. Data were collected over a variety of matches in South American, European and World championships throughout 2005 and 2006. We show that the statistics of ball touches presents power-law tails and can be described by $q$-gamma distributions. To explain such behavior we propose a model that provides information on the characteristics of football dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the statistics of duration of out-of-play intervals, not directly related to the previous scenario.
Siegel, Andrew
2011-01-01
Practical Business Statistics, Sixth Edition, is a conceptual, realistic, and matter-of-fact approach to managerial statistics that carefully maintains-but does not overemphasize-mathematical correctness. The book offers a deep understanding of how to learn from data and how to deal with uncertainty while promoting the use of practical computer applications. This teaches present and future managers how to use and understand statistics without an overdose of technical detail, enabling them to better understand the concepts at hand and to interpret results. The text uses excellent examples with
Multivariate Statistical Process Control
Kulahci, Murat
2013-01-01
As sensor and computer technology continues to improve, it becomes a normal occurrence that we confront with high dimensional data sets. As in many areas of industrial statistics, this brings forth various challenges in statistical process control (SPC) and monitoring for which the aim...... is to identify “out-of-control” state of a process using control charts in order to reduce the excessive variation caused by so-called assignable causes. In practice, the most common method of monitoring multivariate data is through a statistic akin to the Hotelling’s T2. For high dimensional data with excessive...
Wallis, W Allen
2014-01-01
Focusing on everyday applications as well as those of scientific research, this classic of modern statistical methods requires little to no mathematical background. Readers develop basic skills for evaluating and using statistical data. Lively, relevant examples include applications to business, government, social and physical sciences, genetics, medicine, and public health. ""W. Allen Wallis and Harry V. Roberts have made statistics fascinating."" - The New York Times ""The authors have set out with considerable success, to write a text which would be of interest and value to the student who,
Mauro, John
2013-01-01
Written to reveal statistical deceptions often thrust upon unsuspecting journalists, this book views the use of numbers from a public perspective. Illustrating how the statistical naivete of journalists often nourishes quantitative misinformation, the author's intent is to make journalists more critical appraisers of numerical data so that in reporting them they do not deceive the public. The book frequently uses actual reported examples of misused statistical data reported by mass media and describes how journalists can avoid being taken in by them. Because reports of survey findings seldom g
Statistical Pattern Recognition
Webb, Andrew R
2011-01-01
Statistical pattern recognition relates to the use of statistical techniques for analysing data measurements in order to extract information and make justified decisions. It is a very active area of study and research, which has seen many advances in recent years. Applications such as data mining, web searching, multimedia data retrieval, face recognition, and cursive handwriting recognition, all require robust and efficient pattern recognition techniques. This third edition provides an introduction to statistical pattern theory and techniques, with material drawn from a wide range of fields,
Statistical Engine Knock Control
Stotsky, Alexander A.
2008-01-01
A new statistical concept of the knock control of a spark ignition automotive engine is proposed . The control aim is associated with the statistical hy pothesis test which compares the threshold value to the average value of the max imal amplitud e of the knock sensor signal at a given freq uency....... C ontrol algorithm which is used for minimization of the regulation error realizes a simple count-up-count-d own logic. A new ad aptation algorithm for the knock d etection threshold is also d eveloped . C onfi d ence interval method is used as the b asis for ad aptation. A simple statistical mod el...
Liao, Tim Futing
2011-01-01
An incomparably useful examination of statistical methods for comparisonThe nature of doing science, be it natural or social, inevitably calls for comparison. Statistical methods are at the heart of such comparison, for they not only help us gain understanding of the world around us but often define how our research is to be carried out. The need to compare between groups is best exemplified by experiments, which have clearly defined statistical methods. However, true experiments are not always possible. What complicates the matter more is a great deal of diversity in factors that are not inde
Young, M.; Koslovsky, M.; Schaefer, Caroline M.; Feiveson, A. H.
2017-01-01
Back by popular demand, the JSC Biostatistics Laboratory and LSAH statisticians are offering an opportunity to discuss your statistical challenges and needs. Take the opportunity to meet the individuals offering expert statistical support to the JSC community. Join us for an informal conversation about any questions you may have encountered with issues of experimental design, analysis, or data visualization. Get answers to common questions about sample size, repeated measures, statistical assumptions, missing data, multiple testing, time-to-event data, and when to trust the results of your analyses.
Approximating Stationary Statistical Properties
Xiaoming WANG
2009-01-01
It is well-known that physical laws for large chaotic dynamical systems are revealed statistically. Many times these statistical properties of the system must be approximated numerically. The main contribution of this manuscript is to provide simple and natural criterions on numerical methods (temporal and spatial discretization) that are able to capture the stationary statistical properties of the underlying dissipative chaotic dynamical systems asymptotically. The result on temporal approximation is a recent finding of the author, and the result on spatial approximation is a new one. Applications to the infinite Prandtl number model for convection and the barotropic quasi-geostrophic model are also discussed.
Commentary: statistics for biomarkers.
Lovell, David P
2012-05-01
This short commentary discusses Biomarkers' requirements for the reporting of statistical analyses in submitted papers. It is expected that submitters will follow the general instructions of the journal, the more detailed guidance given by the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors, the specific guidelines developed by the EQUATOR network, and those of various specialist groups. Biomarkers expects that the study design and subsequent statistical analyses are clearly reported and that the data reported can be made available for independent assessment. The journal recognizes that there is continuing debate about different approaches to statistical science. Biomarkers appreciates that the field continues to develop rapidly and encourages the use of new methodologies.
Evolutionary Statistical Procedures
Baragona, Roberto; Poli, Irene
2011-01-01
This proposed text appears to be a good introduction to evolutionary computation for use in applied statistics research. The authors draw from a vast base of knowledge about the current literature in both the design of evolutionary algorithms and statistical techniques. Modern statistical research is on the threshold of solving increasingly complex problems in high dimensions, and the generalization of its methodology to parameters whose estimators do not follow mathematically simple distributions is underway. Many of these challenges involve optimizing functions for which analytic solutions a
D'Alessio, Michael
2012-01-01
AP Statistics Crash Course - Gets You a Higher Advanced Placement Score in Less Time Crash Course is perfect for the time-crunched student, the last-minute studier, or anyone who wants a refresher on the subject. AP Statistics Crash Course gives you: Targeted, Focused Review - Study Only What You Need to Know Crash Course is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP Statistics course description outline and actual Advanced Placement test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Our easy-to-read format covers: exploring da
MEMS reliability: coming of age
Douglass, Michael R.
2008-02-01
In today's high-volume semiconductor world, one could easily take reliability for granted. As the MOEMS/MEMS industry continues to establish itself as a viable alternative to conventional manufacturing in the macro world, reliability can be of high concern. Currently, there are several emerging market opportunities in which MOEMS/MEMS is gaining a foothold. Markets such as mobile media, consumer electronics, biomedical devices, and homeland security are all showing great interest in microfabricated products. At the same time, these markets are among the most demanding when it comes to reliability assurance. To be successful, each company developing a MOEMS/MEMS device must consider reliability on an equal footing with cost, performance and manufacturability. What can this maturing industry learn from the successful development of DLP technology, air bag accelerometers and inkjet printheads? This paper discusses some basic reliability principles which any MOEMS/MEMS device development must use. Examples from the commercially successful and highly reliable Digital Micromirror Device complement the discussion.
On reliability analysis of multi-categorical forecasts
J. Bröcker
2008-08-01
Full Text Available Reliability analysis of probabilistic forecasts, in particular through the rank histogram or Talagrand diagram, is revisited. Two shortcomings are pointed out: Firstly, a uniform rank histogram is but a necessary condition for reliability. Secondly, if the forecast is assumed to be reliable, an indication is needed how far a histogram is expected to deviate from uniformity merely due to randomness. Concerning the first shortcoming, it is suggested that forecasts be grouped or stratified along suitable criteria, and that reliability is analyzed individually for each forecast stratum. A reliable forecast should have uniform histograms for all individual forecast strata, not only for all forecasts as a whole. As to the second shortcoming, instead of the observed frequencies, the probability of the observed frequency is plotted, providing and indication of the likelihood of the result under the hypothesis that the forecast is reliable. Furthermore, a Goodness-Of-Fit statistic is discussed which is essentially the reliability term of the Ignorance score. The discussed tools are applied to medium range forecasts for 2 m-temperature anomalies at several locations and lead times. The forecasts are stratified along the expected ranked probability score. Those forecasts which feature a high expected score turn out to be particularly unreliable.
Quantitative metal magnetic memory reliability modeling for welded joints
Xing, Haiyan; Dang, Yongbin; Wang, Ben; Leng, Jiancheng
2016-03-01
Metal magnetic memory(MMM) testing has been widely used to detect welded joints. However, load levels, environmental magnetic field, and measurement noises make the MMM data dispersive and bring difficulty to quantitative evaluation. In order to promote the development of quantitative MMM reliability assessment, a new MMM model is presented for welded joints. Steel Q235 welded specimens are tested along the longitudinal and horizontal lines by TSC-2M-8 instrument in the tensile fatigue experiments. The X-ray testing is carried out synchronously to verify the MMM results. It is found that MMM testing can detect the hidden crack earlier than X-ray testing. Moreover, the MMM gradient vector sum K vs is sensitive to the damage degree, especially at early and hidden damage stages. Considering the dispersion of MMM data, the K vs statistical law is investigated, which shows that K vs obeys Gaussian distribution. So K vs is the suitable MMM parameter to establish reliability model of welded joints. At last, the original quantitative MMM reliability model is first presented based on the improved stress strength interference theory. It is shown that the reliability degree R gradually decreases with the decreasing of the residual life ratio T, and the maximal error between prediction reliability degree R 1 and verification reliability degree R 2 is 9.15%. This presented method provides a novel tool of reliability testing and evaluating in practical engineering for welded joints.
Müller-Kirsten, Harald J W
2013-01-01
Statistics links microscopic and macroscopic phenomena, and requires for this reason a large number of microscopic elements like atoms. The results are values of maximum probability or of averaging. This introduction to statistical physics concentrates on the basic principles, and attempts to explain these in simple terms supplemented by numerous examples. These basic principles include the difference between classical and quantum statistics, a priori probabilities as related to degeneracies, the vital aspect of indistinguishability as compared with distinguishability in classical physics, the differences between conserved and non-conserved elements, the different ways of counting arrangements in the three statistics (Maxwell-Boltzmann, Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein), the difference between maximization of the number of arrangements of elements, and averaging in the Darwin-Fowler method. Significant applications to solids, radiation and electrons in metals are treated in separate chapters, as well as Bose-Eins...
Elements of statistical thermodynamics
Nash, Leonard K
2006-01-01
Encompassing essentially all aspects of statistical mechanics that appear in undergraduate texts, this concise, elementary treatment shows how an atomic-molecular perspective yields new insights into macroscopic thermodynamics. 1974 edition.
LBVs and Statistical Inference
Davidson, Kris; Weis, Kerstin
2016-01-01
Smith and Tombleson (2015) asserted that statistical tests disprove the standard view of LBVs, and proposed a far more complex scenario to replace it. But Humphreys et al. (2016) showed that Smith and Tombleson's Magellanic "LBV" sample was a mixture of physically different classes of stars, and genuine LBVs are in fact statistically consistent with the standard view. Smith (2016) recently objected at great length to this result. Here we note that he misrepresented some of the arguments, altered the test criteria, ignored some long-recognized observational facts, and employed inadequate statistical procedures. This case illustrates the dangers of uncareful statistical sampling, as well as the need to be wary of unstated assumptions.
Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology
... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...
Harrison, JM; Robbins, JM; 10.1098/rspa.2010.0254
2011-01-01
Quantum graphs are commonly used as models of complex quantum systems, for example molecules, networks of wires, and states of condensed matter. We consider quantum statistics for indistinguishable spinless particles on a graph, concentrating on the simplest case of abelian statistics for two particles. In spite of the fact that graphs are locally one-dimensional, anyon statistics emerge in a generalized form. A given graph may support a family of independent anyon phases associated with topologically inequivalent exchange processes. In addition, for sufficiently complex graphs, there appear new discrete-valued phases. Our analysis is simplified by considering combinatorial rather than metric graphs -- equivalently, a many-particle tight-binding model. The results demonstrate that graphs provide an arena in which to study new manifestations of quantum statistics. Possible applications include topological quantum computing, topological insulators, the fractional quantum Hall effect, superconductivity and molec...
Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard
Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...... that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical......, identify interest rate models, value bonds, estimate parameters, and much more. This textbook will help students understand and manage empirical research in financial engineering. It includes examples of how the statistical tools can be used to improve value-at-risk calculations and other issues...
CMS Statistics Reference Booklet
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The annual CMS Statistics reference booklet provides a quick reference for summary information about health expenditures and the Medicare and Medicaid health...
Scheck, Florian
2016-01-01
Scheck’s textbook starts with a concise introduction to classical thermodynamics, including geometrical aspects. Then a short introduction to probabilities and statistics lays the basis for the statistical interpretation of thermodynamics. Phase transitions, discrete models and the stability of matter are explained in great detail. Thermodynamics has a special role in theoretical physics. Due to the general approach of thermodynamics the field has a bridging function between several areas like the theory of condensed matter, elementary particle physics, astrophysics and cosmology. The classical thermodynamics describes predominantly averaged properties of matter, reaching from few particle systems and state of matter to stellar objects. Statistical Thermodynamics covers the same fields, but explores them in greater depth and unifies classical statistical mechanics with quantum theory of multiple particle systems. The content is presented as two tracks: the fast track for master students, providing the essen...
Grégoire, G.
2016-05-01
This chapter is devoted to two objectives. The first one is to answer the request expressed by attendees of the first Astrostatistics School (Annecy, October 2013) to be provided with an elementary vademecum of statistics that would facilitate understanding of the given courses. In this spirit we recall very basic notions, that is definitions and properties that we think sufficient to benefit from courses given in the Astrostatistical School. Thus we give briefly definitions and elementary properties on random variables and vectors, distributions, estimation and tests, maximum likelihood methodology. We intend to present basic ideas in a hopefully comprehensible way. We do not try to give a rigorous presentation, and due to the place devoted to this chapter, can cover only a rather limited field of statistics. The second aim is to focus on some statistical tools that are useful in classification: basic introduction to Bayesian statistics, maximum likelihood methodology, Gaussian vectors and Gaussian mixture models.
Statistical mechanics of superconductivity
Kita, Takafumi
2015-01-01
This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...
... Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Cancer Resources Childhood Cancer Statistics Coping With Cancer CureSearch CancerCare App Late Effects ...
Department of Homeland Security — Accident statistics available on the Coast Guard’s website by state, year, and one variable to obtain tables and/or graphs. Data from reports has been loaded for...
Playing at Statistical Mechanics
Clark, Paul M.; And Others
1974-01-01
Discussed are the applications of counting techniques of a sorting game to distributions and concepts in statistical mechanics. Included are the following distributions: Fermi-Dirac, Bose-Einstein, and most probable. (RH)
Shepperson, L
1997-12-01
Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...
Testa, Massimo
2015-01-01
Based on the fundamental principles of Relativistic Quantum Mechanics, we give a rigorous, but completely elementary, proof of the relation between fundamental observables of a statistical system when measured relatively to two inertial reference frames, connected by a Lorentz transformation.
Lindström, Erik; Madsen, Henrik; Nielsen, Jan Nygaard
that rarely connect concepts to data and books on econometrics and time series analysis that do not cover specific problems related to option valuation. The book discusses applications of financial derivatives pertaining to risk assessment and elimination. The authors cover various statistical......, identify interest rate models, value bonds, estimate parameters, and much more. This textbook will help students understand and manage empirical research in financial engineering. It includes examples of how the statistical tools can be used to improve value-at-risk calculations and other issues......Statistics for Finance develops students’ professional skills in statistics with applications in finance. Developed from the authors’ courses at the Technical University of Denmark and Lund University, the text bridges the gap between classical, rigorous treatments of financial mathematics...
... gov Disability.gov Freedom of Information Act | Privacy & Security Statement | Disclaimers | Customer Survey | Important Web Site Notices U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics | Postal Square Building, 2 Massachusetts Avenue, NE Washington, ...
Statistics For Neuroscientists
Subbakrishna D.K
2000-01-01
Full Text Available The role statistical methods play in medicine in the interpretation of empirical data is well recognized by researchers. With modern computing facilities and software packages there is little need for familiarity with the computational details of statistical calculations. However, for the researcher to understand whether these calculations are valid and appropriate it is necessary that the user is aware of the rudiments of the statistical methodology. Also, it needs to be emphasized that no amount of advanced analysis can be a substitute for a properly planned and executed study. An attempt is made in this communication to discuss some of the theoretical issues that are important for the valid analysis and interpretation of precious date that are gathered. The article summarises some of the basic statistical concepts followed by illustrations from live data generated from various research projects from the department of Neurology of this Institute.
Information theory and statistics
Kullback, Solomon
1997-01-01
Highly useful text studies logarithmic measures of information and their application to testing statistical hypotheses. Includes numerous worked examples and problems. References. Glossary. Appendix. 1968 2nd, revised edition.
Richfield, Jon; bookfeller
2016-07-01
In reply to Ralph Kenna and Pádraig Mac Carron's feature article “Maths meets myths” in which they describe how they are using techniques from statistical physics to characterize the societies depicted in ancient Icelandic sagas.
Gumbel, E J
2012-01-01
This classic text covers order statistics and their exceedances; exact distribution of extremes; the 1st asymptotic distribution; uses of the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd asymptotes; more. 1958 edition. Includes 44 tables and 97 graphs.
Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicaid Drug Claims Statistics CD is a useful tool that conveniently breaks up Medicaid claim counts and separates them by quarter and includes an annual count.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This section contains statistical information and reports related to the percentage of electronic transactions being sent to Medicare contractors in the formats...
... and Statistics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Plague in the United States Plague was first introduced ... per year in the United States: 1900-2012. Plague Worldwide Plague epidemics have occurred in Africa, Asia, ...
Every year, the South African Minister of Police releases the crime statistics in ... prove an invaluable source of information for those who seek to better understand and respond to crime ... of Social Development in the JCPS may suggest a.
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The United States Cancer Statistics (USCS) online databases in WONDER provide cancer incidence and mortality data for the United States for the years since 1999, by...
Probability and Statistical Inference
Prosper, Harrison B.
2006-01-01
These lectures introduce key concepts in probability and statistical inference at a level suitable for graduate students in particle physics. Our goal is to paint as vivid a picture as possible of the concepts covered.
2010-01-01
Abstract Background For years the Robert Koch Institute (RKI) has been annually pooling and reviewing the data from the German population-based cancer registries and evaluating them together with the cause-of-death statistics provided by the statistical offices. Traditionally, the RKI periodically estimates the number of new cancer cases in Germany on the basis of the available data from the regional cancer registries in which registration is complete; this figure, in turn, forms the basis fo...
Dominican Republic; Statistical Appendix
International Monetary Fund
2003-01-01
In this paper, statistical data for the Dominican Republic were presented as real, public, financial, and external sectors. In real sector, GDP by sector at constant prices, savings, investment, consumer price index, petroleum statistics, and so on, were outlined. The public sector summarizes operations of the consolidated public sector, central government, and revenues. A summary of the banking system, claims, interest rates, financial indicators, and reserve requirements were described in t...
Introductory statistical inference
Mukhopadhyay, Nitis
2014-01-01
This gracefully organized text reveals the rigorous theory of probability and statistical inference in the style of a tutorial, using worked examples, exercises, figures, tables, and computer simulations to develop and illustrate concepts. Drills and boxed summaries emphasize and reinforce important ideas and special techniques.Beginning with a review of the basic concepts and methods in probability theory, moments, and moment generating functions, the author moves to more intricate topics. Introductory Statistical Inference studies multivariate random variables, exponential families of dist
Business statistics I essentials
Clark, Louise
2014-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Business Statistics I includes descriptive statistics, introduction to probability, probability distributions, sampling and sampling distributions, interval estimation, and hypothesis t
Dominican Republic; Statistical Appendix
International Monetary Fund
2003-01-01
In this paper, statistical data for the Dominican Republic were presented as real, public, financial, and external sectors. In real sector, GDP by sector at constant prices, savings, investment, consumer price index, petroleum statistics, and so on, were outlined. The public sector summarizes operations of the consolidated public sector, central government, and revenues. A summary of the banking system, claims, interest rates, financial indicators, and reserve requirements were described in t...
Addressing mathematics & statistics anxiety
Kotecha, Meena
2015-01-01
This paper should be of interest to mathematics and statistics educators ranging from pre-university to university education sectors. It will discuss some features of the author’s teaching model developed over her longitudinal study conducted to understand and address mathematics and statistics anxiety, which is one of the main barriers to engaging with these subjects especially in non-specialist undergraduates. It will demonstrate how a range of formative assessments are used to kindle, as w...
Johnson, Norman
This is author-approved bcc: This is the third volume of a collection of seminal papers in the statistical sciences written during the past 110 years. These papers have each had an outstanding influence on the development of statistical theory and practice over the last century. Each paper is preceded by an introduction written by an authority in the field providing background information and assessing its influence. Volume III concerntrates on articles from the 1980's while including some earlier articles not included in Volume I and II. Samuel Kotz is Professor of Statistics in the College of Business and Management at the University of Maryland. Norman L. Johnson is Professor Emeritus of Statistics at the University of North Carolina. Also available: Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume I: Foundations and Basic Theory Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Editors 1993. 631 pp. Softcover. ISBN 0-387-94037-5 Breakthroughs in Statistics Volume II: Methodology and Distribution Samuel Kotz and Norman L. Johnson, Edi...
Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics.
Zwicker, David; Murugan, Arvind; Brenner, Michael P
2016-05-17
Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) Each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction, and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor arrays.
Receptor arrays optimized for natural odor statistics
Zwicker, David; Brenner, Michael P
2016-01-01
Natural odors typically consist of many molecules at different concentrations. It is unclear how the numerous odorant molecules and their possible mixtures are discriminated by relatively few olfactory receptors. Using an information-theoretic model, we show that a receptor array is optimal for this task if it achieves two possibly conflicting goals: (i) each receptor should respond to half of all odors and (ii) the response of different receptors should be uncorrelated when averaged over odors presented with natural statistics. We use these design principles to predict statistics of the affinities between receptors and odorant molecules for a broad class of odor statistics. We also show that optimal receptor arrays can be tuned to either resolve concentrations well or distinguish mixtures reliably. Finally, we use our results to predict properties of experimentally measured receptor arrays. Our work can thus be used to better understand natural olfaction and it also suggests ways to improve artificial sensor...
UN Data: Environment Statistics: Waste
World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...
UN Data- Environmental Statistics: Waste
World Wide Human Geography Data Working Group — The Environment Statistics Database contains selected water and waste statistics by country. Statistics on water and waste are based on official statistics supplied...
Reliability of plantar pressure platforms.
Hafer, Jocelyn F; Lenhoff, Mark W; Song, Jinsup; Jordan, Joanne M; Hannan, Marian T; Hillstrom, Howard J
2013-07-01
Plantar pressure measurement is common practice in many research and clinical protocols. While the accuracy of some plantar pressure measuring devices and methods for ensuring consistency in data collection on plantar pressure measuring devices have been reported, the reliability of different devices when testing the same individuals is not known. This study calculated intra-mat, intra-manufacturer, and inter-manufacturer reliability of plantar pressure parameters as well as the number of plantar pressure trials needed to reach a stable estimate of the mean for an individual. Twenty-two healthy adults completed ten walking trials across each of two Novel emed-x(®) and two Tekscan MatScan(®) plantar pressure measuring devices in a single visit. Intraclass correlation (ICC) was used to describe the agreement between values measured by different devices. All intra-platform reliability correlations were greater than 0.70. All inter-emed-x(®) reliability correlations were greater than 0.70. Inter-MatScan(®) reliability correlations were greater than 0.70 in 31 and 52 of 56 parameters when looking at a 10-trial average and a 5-trial average, respectively. Inter-manufacturer reliability including all four devices was greater than 0.70 for 52 and 56 of 56 parameters when looking at a 10-trial average and a 5-trial average, respectively. All parameters reached a value within 90% of an unbiased estimate of the mean within five trials. Overall, reliability results are encouraging for investigators and clinicians who may have plantar pressure data sets that include data collected on different devices.
78 FR 38311 - Reliability Technical Conference Agenda
2013-06-26
..., Fix, Track, and Report program enhanced reliability? b. What is the status of the NERC Reliability... Energy Regulatory Commission Reliability Technical Conference Agenda Reliability Technical Docket No. AD13-6-000 Conference. North American Electric Docket No. RC11-6-004 Reliability Corporation....
Which statistics should tropical biologists learn?
Loaiza Velásquez, Natalia; González Lutz, María Isabel; Monge-Nájera, Julián
2011-09-01
Tropical biologists study the richest and most endangered biodiversity in the planet, and in these times of climate change and mega-extinctions, the need for efficient, good quality research is more pressing than in the past. However, the statistical component in research published by tropical authors sometimes suffers from poor quality in data collection; mediocre or bad experimental design and a rigid and outdated view of data analysis. To suggest improvements in their statistical education, we listed all the statistical tests and other quantitative analyses used in two leading tropical journals, the Revista de Biología Tropical and Biotropica, during a year. The 12 most frequent tests in the articles were: Analysis of Variance (ANOVA), Chi-Square Test, Student's T Test, Linear Regression, Pearson's Correlation Coefficient, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal-Wallis Test, Shannon's Diversity Index, Tukey's Test, Cluster Analysis, Spearman's Rank Correlation Test and Principal Component Analysis. We conclude that statistical education for tropical biologists must abandon the old syllabus based on the mathematical side of statistics and concentrate on the correct selection of these and other procedures and tests, on their biological interpretation and on the use of reliable and friendly freeware. We think that their time will be better spent understanding and protecting tropical ecosystems than trying to learn the mathematical foundations of statistics: in most cases, a well designed one-semester course should be enough for their basic requirements.
Evaluation of aileron actuator reliability with censored data
Li Huaiyuan
2015-08-01
Full Text Available For the purpose of enhancing reliability of aileron of Airbus new-generation A350XWB, an evaluation of aileron reliability on the basis of maintenance data is presented in this paper. Practical maintenance data contains large number of censoring samples, information uncertainty of which makes it hard to evaluate reliability of aileron actuator. Considering that true lifetime of censoring sample has identical distribution with complete sample, if censoring sample is transformed into complete sample, conversion frequency of censoring sample can be estimated according to frequency of complete sample. On the one hand, standard life table estimation and product limit method are improved on the basis of such conversion frequency, enabling accurate estimation of various censoring samples. On the other hand, by taking such frequency as one of the weight factors and integrating variance of order statistics under standard distribution, weighted least square estimation is formed for accurately estimating various censoring samples. Large amounts of experiments and simulations show that reliabilities of improved life table and improved product limit method are closer to the true value and more conservative; moreover, weighted least square estimate (WLSE, with conversion frequency of censoring sample and variances of order statistics as the weights, can still estimate accurately with high proportion of censored data in samples. Algorithm in this paper has good effect and can accurately estimate the reliability of aileron actuator even with small sample and high censoring rate. This research has certain significance in theory and engineering practice.
Reliable Eigenspectra for New Generation Surveys
Budavari, Tamas; Szalay, Alexander S; Dobos, Laszlo; Yip, Ching-Wa
2008-01-01
We present a novel technique to overcome the limitations of the applicability of Principal Component Analysis to typical real-life data sets, especially astronomical spectra. Our new approach addresses the issues of outliers, missing information, large number of dimensions and the vast amount of data by combining elements of robust statistics and recursive algorithms that provide improved eigensystem estimates step-by-step. We develop a generic mechanism for deriving reliable eigenspectra without manual data censoring, while utilising all the information contained in the observations. We demonstrate the power of the methodology on the attractive collection of the VIMOS VLT Deep Survey spectra that manifest most of the challenges today, and highlight the improvements over previous workarounds, as well as the scalability of our approach to collections with sizes of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and beyond.
Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains
Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael
1990-01-01
Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.
How frog embryos replicate their DNA reliably
Bechhoefer, John; Marshall, Brandon
2007-03-01
Frog embryos contain three billion base pairs of DNA. In early embryos (cycles 2-12), DNA replication is extremely rapid, about 20 min., and the entire cell cycle lasts only 25 min., meaning that mitosis (cell division) takes place in about 5 min. In this stripped-down cell cycle, there are no efficient checkpoints to prevent the cell from dividing before its DNA has finished replication - a disastrous scenario. Even worse, the many origins of replication are laid down stochastically and are also initiated stochastically throughout the replication process. Despite the very tight time constraints and despite the randomness introduced by origin stochasticity, replication is extremely reliable, with cell division failing no more than once in 10,000 tries. We discuss a recent model of DNA replication that is drawn from condensed-matter theories of 1d nucleation and growth. Using our model, we discuss different strategies of replication: should one initiate all origins as early as possible, or is it better to hold back and initiate some later on? Using concepts from extreme-value statistics, we derive the distribution of replication times given a particular scenario for the initiation of origins. We show that the experimentally observed initiation strategy for frog embryos meets the reliability constraint and is close to the one that requires the fewest resources of a cell.
Reliability Based Ship Structural Design
Dogliani, M.; Østergaard, C.; Parmentier, G.;
1996-01-01
with developments of models of load effects and of structural collapse adopted in reliability formulations which aim at calibrating partial safety factors for ship structural design. New probabilistic models of still-water load effects are developed both for tankers and for containerships. New results are presented......This paper deals with the development of different methods that allow the reliability-based design of ship structures to be transferred from the area of research to the systematic application in current design. It summarises the achievements of a three-year collaborative research project dealing...... structure of several tankers and containerships. The results of the reliability analysis were the basis for the definition of a target safety level which was used to asses the partial safety factors suitable for in a new design rules format to be adopted in modern ship structural design. Finally...
Reliability Modeling of Wind Turbines
Kostandyan, Erik
Cost reductions for offshore wind turbines are a substantial requirement in order to make offshore wind energy more competitive compared to other energy supply methods. During the 20 – 25 years of wind turbines useful life, Operation & Maintenance costs are typically estimated to be a quarter...... the actions should be made and the type of actions requires knowledge on the accumulated damage or degradation state of the wind turbine components. For offshore wind turbines, the action times could be extended due to weather restrictions and result in damage or degradation increase of the remaining...... for Operation & Maintenance planning. Concentrating efforts on development of such models, this research is focused on reliability modeling of Wind Turbine critical subsystems (especially the power converter system). For reliability assessment of these components, structural reliability methods are applied...
Reliability Assessment of Wind Turbines
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...
Reliability assessment of Wind turbines
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
2015-01-01
Wind turbines can be considered as structures that are in between civil engineering structures and machines since they consist of structural components and many electrical and machine components together with a control system. Further, a wind turbine is not a one-of-a-kind structure...... but manufactured in series production based on many component tests, some prototype tests and zeroseries wind turbines. These characteristics influence the reliability assessment where focus in this paper is on the structural components. Levelized Cost Of Energy is very important for wind energy, especially when...... comparing to other energy sources. Therefore much focus is on cost reductions and improved reliability both for offshore and onshore wind turbines. The wind turbine components should be designed to have sufficient reliability level with respect to both extreme and fatigue loads but also not be too costly...
Reliability of Wave Energy Converters
Ambühl, Simon
. Structural reliability considerations and optimizations impact operation and maintenance (O&M) costs as well as the initial investment costs. Furthermore, there is a control system for WEC applications which defines the harvested energy but also the loads onto the structure. Therefore, extreme loads but also...... WEPTOS. Calibration of safety factors are performed for welded structures at theWavestar device including different control systems for harvesting energy from waves. In addition, a case study of different O&M strategies for WECs is discussed, and an example of reliability-based structural optimization......There are many different working principles for wave energy converters (WECs) which are used to produce electricity from waves. In order for WECs to become successful and more competitive to other renewable electricity sources, the consideration of the structural reliability of WECs is essential...
Reliability Characteristics of Power Plants
Zbynek Martinek
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes the phenomenon of reliability of power plants. It gives an explanation of the terms connected with this topic as their proper understanding is important for understanding the relations and equations which model the possible real situations. The reliability phenomenon is analysed using both the exponential distribution and the Weibull distribution. The results of our analysis are specific equations giving information about the characteristics of the power plants, the mean time of operations and the probability of failure-free operation. Equations solved for the Weibull distribution respect the failures as well as the actual operating hours. Thanks to our results, we are able to create a model of dynamic reliability for prediction of future states. It can be useful for improving the current situation of the unit as well as for creating the optimal plan of maintenance and thus have an impact on the overall economics of the operation of these power plants.
Component reliability for electronic systems
Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I
2010-01-01
The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.
Structural Optimization with Reliability Constraints
Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Thoft-Christensen, Palle
1986-01-01
During the last 25 years considerable progress has been made in the fields of structural optimization and structural reliability theory. In classical deterministic structural optimization all variables are assumed to be deterministic. Due to the unpredictability of loads and strengths of actual...... structures it is now widely accepted that structural problems are non-deterministic. Therefore, some of the variables have to be modelled as random variables/processes and a reliability-based design philosophy should be used, Comell [1], Moses [2], Ditlevsen [3] and Thoft-Christensen & Baker [ 4......]. In this paper we consider only structures which can be modelled as systems of elasto-plastic elements, e.g. frame and truss structures. In section 2 a method to evaluate the reliability of such structural systems is presented. Based on a probabilistic point of view a modern structural optimization problem...
RELIABILITY EVALUATION AS A MEANS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE
Vladimír Stuchlý; Roman Poprocký; Malgorzata Kaczmarek
2016-01-01
Quality assurance of production and the associated maintenance systems have changed a lot for recent decades and are subject to change requirements for reliability – Reliability and Availability of machinery and equipment subject to the optimal maintenance costs. The paper deals with design options and assessment of the maintenance system intended method of reliability-oriented maintenance and maintenance costs. They use the methods of statistical and probabilistic analyzes of data on failure...
Balakrishnan, N; Nagaraja, HN
2007-01-01
S. Panchapakesan has made significant contributions to ranking and selection and has published in many other areas of statistics, including order statistics, reliability theory, stochastic inequalities, and inference. Written in his honor, the twenty invited articles in this volume reflect recent advances in these areas and form a tribute to Panchapakesan's influence and impact on these areas. Thematically organized, the chapters cover a broad range of topics from: Inference; Ranking and Selection; Multiple Comparisons and Tests; Agreement Assessment; Reliability; and Biostatistics. Featuring
Defect distribution and reliability assessment of wind turbine blades
Stensgaard Toft, Henrik; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter
2011-01-01
In this paper, two stochastic models for the distribution of defects in wind turbine blades are proposed. The first model assumes that the individual defects are completely randomly distributed in the blade. The second model assumes that the defects occur in clusters of different size, based...... on the assumption that one error in the production process tends to trigger several defects. For both models, additional information, such as number, type, and size of the defects, is included as stochastic variables. In a numerical example, the reliability is estimated for a generic wind turbine blade model both...... the reliability for the wind turbine blade using Bayesian statistics....
Aucone, Ernest J.; Raphael, Alan J.; Golden, Charles J.; Espe-Pfeifer, Patricia; Seldon, Jen; Pospisil, Tanya; Dornheim, Liane; Proctor-Weber, Zoe; Calabria, Michael
1999-01-01
Assessed the interrater reliability of the revised Advanced Psychodiagnostic Interpretation (API) (A. Raphael and C. Golden, 1998) scoring system for the Bender Gestalt Test (L. Bender, 1938). Agreement across nine raters exceeded 90% for each of three clinical protocols, and kappa statistics indicated good interrater reliability. (SLD)
Binge Eating Disorder: Reliability and Validity of a New Diagnostic Category.
Brody, Michelle L.; And Others
1994-01-01
Examined reliability and validity of binge eating disorder (BED), proposed for inclusion in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), fourth edition. Interrater reliability of BED diagnosis compared favorably with that of most diagnoses in DSM revised third edition. Study comparing obese individuals with and without BED and…
Analysis and Evaluation of Statistical Models for Integrated Circuits Design
Sáenz-Noval J.J.
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Statistical models for integrated circuits (IC allow us to estimate the percentage of acceptable devices in the batch before fabrication. Actually, Pelgrom is the statistical model most accepted in the industry; however it was derived from a micrometer technology, which does not guarantee reliability in nanometric manufacturing processes. This work considers three of the most relevant statistical models in the industry and evaluates their limitations and advantages in analog design, so that the designer has a better criterion to make a choice. Moreover, it shows how several statistical models can be used for each one of the stages and design purposes.
Forster, Malcolm R
2011-01-01
Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling "restricted” by their disciplines or thinking "piecemeal” in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers' favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines.
Probability and Bayesian statistics
1987-01-01
This book contains selected and refereed contributions to the "Inter national Symposium on Probability and Bayesian Statistics" which was orga nized to celebrate the 80th birthday of Professor Bruno de Finetti at his birthplace Innsbruck in Austria. Since Professor de Finetti died in 1985 the symposium was dedicated to the memory of Bruno de Finetti and took place at Igls near Innsbruck from 23 to 26 September 1986. Some of the pa pers are published especially by the relationship to Bruno de Finetti's scientific work. The evolution of stochastics shows growing importance of probability as coherent assessment of numerical values as degrees of believe in certain events. This is the basis for Bayesian inference in the sense of modern statistics. The contributions in this volume cover a broad spectrum ranging from foundations of probability across psychological aspects of formulating sub jective probability statements, abstract measure theoretical considerations, contributions to theoretical statistics an...
Feigelson, Eric D
2009-01-01
Perhaps more than other physical sciences, astronomy is frequently statistical in nature. The objects under study are inaccessible to direct manipulation in the laboratory, so the astronomer is restricted to observing a few external characteristics and inferring underlying properties and physics. Astronomy played a profound role in the historical development of statistics from the ancient Greeks through the 19th century. But the fields drifted apart in the 20th century as astronomy turned towards astrophysics and statistics towards human affairs. Today we see a resurgence in astrostatistical activity with the proliferation of survey mega-datasets and the need to link complicated data to nonlinear astrophysical models. Several contemporary astrostatistical challenges are outlined: heteroscedastic measurement errors, censoring and truncation in multivariate databases; time series analysis of variable objects including dynamical models of extrasolar planetary systems; treatments of faint sources and other Poisso...
Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices
Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.
2015-02-01
The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.
Reliability Assessment of Concrete Bridges
Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Middleton, C. R.
This paper is partly based on research performed for the Highways Agency, London, UK under the project DPU/9/44 "Revision of Bridge Assessment Rules Based on Whole Life Performance: concrete bridges". It contains the details of a methodology which can be used to generate Whole Life (WL) reliability...... profiles. These WL reliability profiles may be used to establish revised rules for concrete bridges. This paper is to some extend based on Thoft-Christensen et. al. [1996], Thoft-Christensen [1996] et. al. and Thoft-Christensen [1996]....
Reliability Management for Information System
李睿; 俞涛; 刘明伦
2005-01-01
An integrated intelligent management is presented to help organizations manage many heterogeneous resources in their information system. A general architecture of management for information system reliability is proposed, and the architecture from two aspects, process model and hierarchical model, described. Data mining techniques are used in data analysis. A data analysis system applicable to real-time data analysis is developed by improved data mining on the critical processes. The framework of the integrated management for information system reliability based on real-time data mining is illustrated, and the development of integrated and intelligent management of information system discussed.
STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY
Orlov A. I.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious
Perception in statistical graphics
VanderPlas, Susan Ruth
There has been quite a bit of research on statistical graphics and visualization, generally focused on new types of graphics, new software to create graphics, interactivity, and usability studies. Our ability to interpret and use statistical graphics hinges on the interface between the graph itself and the brain that perceives and interprets it, and there is substantially less research on the interplay between graph, eye, brain, and mind than is sufficient to understand the nature of these relationships. The goal of the work presented here is to further explore the interplay between a static graph, the translation of that graph from paper to mental representation (the journey from eye to brain), and the mental processes that operate on that graph once it is transferred into memory (mind). Understanding the perception of statistical graphics should allow researchers to create more effective graphs which produce fewer distortions and viewer errors while reducing the cognitive load necessary to understand the information presented in the graph. Taken together, these experiments should lay a foundation for exploring the perception of statistical graphics. There has been considerable research into the accuracy of numerical judgments viewers make from graphs, and these studies are useful, but it is more effective to understand how errors in these judgments occur so that the root cause of the error can be addressed directly. Understanding how visual reasoning relates to the ability to make judgments from graphs allows us to tailor graphics to particular target audiences. In addition, understanding the hierarchy of salient features in statistical graphics allows us to clearly communicate the important message from data or statistical models by constructing graphics which are designed specifically for the perceptual system.
READING STATISTICS AND RESEARCH
Reviewed by Yavuz Akbulut
2008-10-01
Full Text Available The book demonstrates the best and most conservative ways to decipher and critique research reports particularly for social science researchers. In addition, new editions of the book are always better organized, effectively structured and meticulously updated in line with the developments in the field of research statistics. Even the most trivial issues are revisited and updated in new editions. For instance, purchaser of the previous editions might check the interpretation of skewness and kurtosis indices in the third edition (p. 34 and in the fifth edition (p.29 to see how the author revisits every single detail. Theory and practice always go hand in hand in all editions of the book. Re-reading previous editions (e.g. third edition before reading the fifth edition gives the impression that the author never stops ameliorating his instructional text writing methods. In brief, “Reading Statistics and Research” is among the best sources showing research consumers how to understand and critically assess the statistical information and research results contained in technical research reports. In this respect, the review written by Mirko Savić in Panoeconomicus (2008, 2, pp. 249-252 will help the readers to get a more detailed overview of each chapters. I cordially urge the beginning researchers to pick a highlighter to conduct a detailed reading with the book. A thorough reading of the source will make the researchers quite selective in appreciating the harmony between the data analysis, results and discussion sections of typical journal articles. If interested, beginning researchers might begin with this book to grasp the basics of research statistics, and prop up their critical research reading skills with some statistics package applications through the help of Dr. Andy Field’s book, Discovering Statistics using SPSS (second edition published by Sage in 2005.
Neave, Henry R
2012-01-01
This book, designed for students taking a basic introductory course in statistical analysis, is far more than just a book of tables. Each table is accompanied by a careful but concise explanation and useful worked examples. Requiring little mathematical background, Elementary Statistics Tables is thus not just a reference book but a positive and user-friendly teaching and learning aid. The new edition contains a new and comprehensive "teach-yourself" section on a simple but powerful approach, now well-known in parts of industry but less so in academia, to analysing and interpreting process dat
Milewski, Emil G
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Statistics II discusses sampling theory, statistical inference, independent and dependent variables, correlation theory, experimental design, count data, chi-square test, and time se
Nonparametric statistical methods
Hollander, Myles; Chicken, Eric
2013-01-01
Praise for the Second Edition"This book should be an essential part of the personal library of every practicing statistician."-Technometrics Thoroughly revised and updated, the new edition of Nonparametric Statistical Methods includes additional modern topics and procedures, more practical data sets, and new problems from real-life situations. The book continues to emphasize the importance of nonparametric methods as a significant branch of modern statistics and equips readers with the conceptual and technical skills necessary to select and apply the appropriate procedures for any given sit
Computational statistical mechanics
Hoover, WG
1991-01-01
Computational Statistical Mechanics describes the use of fast computers to simulate the equilibrium and nonequilibrium properties of gases, liquids, and solids at, and away from equilibrium. The underlying theory is developed from basic principles and illustrated by applying it to the simplest possible examples. Thermodynamics, based on the ideal gas thermometer, is related to Gibb's statistical mechanics through the use of Nosé-Hoover heat reservoirs. These reservoirs use integral feedback to control temperature. The same approach is carried through to the simulation and anal
Statistics As Principled Argument
Abelson, Robert P
2012-01-01
In this illuminating volume, Robert P. Abelson delves into the too-often dismissed problems of interpreting quantitative data and then presenting them in the context of a coherent story about one's research. Unlike too many books on statistics, this is a remarkably engaging read, filled with fascinating real-life (and real-research) examples rather than with recipes for analysis. It will be of true interest and lasting value to beginning graduate students and seasoned researchers alike. The focus of the book is that the purpose of statistics is to organize a useful argument from quantitative
Introductory statistical thermodynamics
Dalarsson, Nils; Golubovic, Leonardo
2011-01-01
Introductory Statistical Thermodynamics is a text for an introductory one-semester course in statistical thermodynamics for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students in physics and engineering. The book offers a high level of detail in derivations of all equations and results. This information is necessary for students to grasp difficult concepts in physics that are needed to move on to higher level courses. The text is elementary, self contained, and mathematically well-founded, containing a number of problems with detailed solutions to help students to grasp the more difficult
Statistical Images Segmentation
Corina Curilă
2008-05-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with fuzzy statistical imagesegmentation. We introduce a new hierarchicalMarkovian fuzzy hidden field model, which extends to thefuzzy case the classical Pérez and Heitz hard model. Twofuzzy statistical segmentation methods related with themodel proposed are defined in this paper and we show viasimulations that they are competitive with, in some casesthan, the classical Maximum Posterior Mode (MPMbased methods. Furthermore, they are faster, which willshould facilitate extensions to more than two hard classesin future work. In addition, the model proposed isapplicable to the multiscale segmentation andmultiresolution images fusion problems.
Bayesian statistics an introduction
Lee, Peter M
2012-01-01
Bayesian Statistics is the school of thought that combines prior beliefs with the likelihood of a hypothesis to arrive at posterior beliefs. The first edition of Peter Lee’s book appeared in 1989, but the subject has moved ever onwards, with increasing emphasis on Monte Carlo based techniques. This new fourth edition looks at recent techniques such as variational methods, Bayesian importance sampling, approximate Bayesian computation and Reversible Jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC), providing a concise account of the way in which the Bayesian approach to statistics develops as wel
Waller, Derek L
2008-01-01
Statistical analysis is essential to business decision-making and management, but the underlying theory of data collection, organization and analysis is one of the most challenging topics for business students and practitioners. This user-friendly text and CD-ROM package will help you to develop strong skills in presenting and interpreting statistical information in a business or management environment. Based entirely on using Microsoft Excel rather than more complicated applications, it includes a clear guide to using Excel with the key functions employed in the book, a glossary of terms and
Elementary statistical physics
Kittel, Charles
2004-01-01
Noteworthy for the philosophical subtlety of its foundations and the elegance of its problem-solving methods, statistical mechanics can be employed in a broad range of applications - among them, astrophysics, biology, chemistry, nuclear and solid state physics, communications engineering, metallurgy, and mathematics. Geared toward graduate students in physics, this text covers such important topics as stochastic processes and transport theory in order to provide students with a working knowledge of statistical mechanics.To explain the fundamentals of his subject, the author uses the method of
Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistical Classes
Stickels, John W.; Dobbs, Rhonda R.
2007-01-01
This study, Helping Alleviate Statistical Anxiety with Computer Aided Statistics Classes, investigated whether undergraduate students' anxiety about statistics changed when statistics is taught using computers compared to the traditional method. Two groups of students were questioned concerning their anxiety about statistics. One group was taught…
RELIABILITY OF PRINTED WIRING CORDWOOD MODULES,
MODULES (ELECTRONICS), *RELIABILITY(ELECTRONICS), RELIABILITY(ELECTRONICS), MODULES (ELECTRONICS), PRINTED CIRCUITS, ENVIRONMENTAL TESTS, LIFE EXPECTANCY(SERVICE LIFE), TEST METHODS, ENCAPSULATION, SOLDERED JOINTS.
Assessing agreement on classification tasks the kappa statistic
Carletta, J
1996-01-01
Currently, computational linguists and cognitive scientists working in the area of discourse and dialogue argue that their subjective judgments are reliable using several different statistics, none of which are easily interpretable or comparable to each other. Meanwhile, researchers in content analysis have already experienced the same difficulties and come up with a solution in the kappa statistic. We discuss what is wrong with reliability measures as they are currently used for discourse and dialogue work in computational linguistics and cognitive science, and argue that we would be better off as a field adopting techniques from content analysis.
Reliability of quantitative content analyses
Enschot-van Dijk, R. van
2014-01-01
Reliable coding of stimuli is a daunting task that often yields unsatisfactory results. This paper discusses a case study in which tropes (e.g., metaphors, puns) in TV commercials were analyzed as well the extent and location of verbal and visual anchoring (i.e., explanation) of these tropes. After
Wind turbine reliability database update.
Peters, Valerie A.; Hill, Roger Ray; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.; Veers, Paul S.
2009-03-01
This report documents the status of the Sandia National Laboratories' Wind Plant Reliability Database. Included in this report are updates on the form and contents of the Database, which stems from a fivestep process of data partnerships, data definition and transfer, data formatting and normalization, analysis, and reporting. Selected observations are also reported.
Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop
Kroposki, B
1996-10-01
This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.
RELIABILITY EVALUATION OF PRIMARY CELLS
Dr Obe
Evaluation of the reliability of a primary cell took place in three stages: 192 cells went through a ... CCV - Closed Circuit Voltage, the voltage at the terminals of a battery when it is under an electrical ... Cylindrical spirally wound cells have the.
Finding Reliable Health Information Online
... at NHGRI About About the Institute Budget and Financial Information Divisions Director's Page How to Contact Us Institute ... una búsqueda saludable en Internet Finding Reliable Health Information Online As Internet users quickly discover, an enormous amount of health information ...
Reliability of subjective wound assessment
M.C.T. Bloemen; P.P.M. van Zuijlen; E. Middelkoop
2011-01-01
Introduction: Assessment of the take of split-skin graft and the rate of epithelialisation are important parameters in burn surgery. Such parameters are normally estimated by the clinician in a bedside procedure. This study investigates whether this subjective assessment is reliable for graft take a
Fatigue Reliability under Random Loads
Talreja, R.
1979-01-01
, with the application of random loads, the initial homogeneous distribution of strength changes to a two-component distribution, reflecting the two-stage fatigue damage. In the crack initiation stage, the strength increases initially and then decreases, while an abrupt decrease of strength is seen in the crack...... propagation stage. The consequences of this behaviour on the fatigue reliability are discussed....