WorldWideScience

Sample records for reliability program prp

  1. PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.

    A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.

  2. Human Reliability Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  3. Implementation and Sustainability of the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lata, Vasiliy; Coates, Cameron W.

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the US Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD is at the stage of implementation. Sustaining the program is of major significance for long term success. This paper will discuss the elements of the RF PRP and the equipment needs for implementation. Program requirements, documentation needs, training, and assurances of appropriate equipment use will be addressed.

  4. Human factor reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoblochova, L.

    2017-01-01

    The human factor's reliability program was at Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (SE) nuclear power plants. introduced as one of the components Initiatives of Excellent Performance in 2011. The initiative's goal was to increase the reliability of both people and facilities, in response to 3 major areas of improvement - Need for improvement of the results, Troubleshooting support, Supporting the achievement of the company's goals. The human agent's reliability program is in practice included: - Tools to prevent human error; - Managerial observation and coaching; - Human factor analysis; -Quick information about the event with a human agent; -Human reliability timeline and performance indicators; - Basic, periodic and extraordinary training in human factor reliability(authors)

  5. Portable Radiation Package (PRP) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, R Michael [Remote Measurements and Research Company, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-08-03

    The Portable Radiation Package (PRP) was developed to provide basic radiation information in locations such as ships at sea where proper exposure is remote and difficult, the platform is in motion, and azimuth alignment is not fixed. Development of the PRP began at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1990s and versions of it were deployed on ships in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility’s Nauru-99 project. The PRP was deployed on ships in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Sensor Intercomparison for Marine Biological and Interdisciplinary Ocean Studies (SIMBIOS) program. Over the years the measurements have remained the same while the post-processing data analysis, especially for the FRSR, has evolved. This document describes the next-generation Portable Radiation Package (PRP2) that was developed for the DOE ARM Facility, under contract no. 9F-31462 from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The PRP2 has the same scientific principles that were well validated in prior studies, but has upgraded electronic hardware. The PRP2 approach is completely modular, both in hardware and software. Each sensor input is treated as a separate serial stream into the data collection computer. In this way the operator has complete access to each component of the system for purposes of error checking, calibration, and maintenance. The resulting system is more reliable, easier to install in complex situations, and more amenable to upgrade.

  6. Human Reliability Program Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, John; Rogers, Erin; Gerke, Gretchen

    2014-05-18

    A Human Reliability Program (HRP) is designed to protect national security as well as worker and public safety by continuously evaluating the reliability of those who have access to sensitive materials, facilities, and programs. Some elements of a site HRP include systematic (1) supervisory reviews, (2) medical and psychological assessments, (3) management evaluations, (4) personnel security reviews, and (4) training of HRP staff and critical positions. Over the years of implementing an HRP, the Department of Energy (DOE) has faced various challenges and overcome obstacles. During this 4-day activity, participants will examine programs that mitigate threats to nuclear security and the insider threat to include HRP, Nuclear Security Culture (NSC) Enhancement, and Employee Assistance Programs. The focus will be to develop an understanding of the need for a systematic HRP and to discuss challenges and best practices associated with mitigating the insider threat.

  7. AECL's reliability and maintainability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, W.A.; Nieuwhof, G.W.E.

    1976-05-01

    AECL's reliability and maintainability program for nuclear generating stations is described. How the various resources of the company are organized to design and construct stations that operate reliably and safely is shown. Reliability and maintainability includes not only special mathematically oriented techniques, but also the technical skills and organizational abilities of the company. (author)

  8. Emergency diesel generator reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serkiz, A.W.

    1989-01-01

    The need for an emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability program has been established by 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.63, Loss of All Alternating Current Power, which requires that utilities assess their station blackout duration and recovery capability. EDGs are the principal emergency ac power sources for coping with a station blackout. Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout, identifies a need for (1) an EDG reliability equal to or greater than 0.95, and (2) an EDG reliability program to monitor and maintain the required levels. The resolution of Generic Safety Issue (GSI) B-56 embodies the identification of a suitable EDG reliability program structure, revision of pertinent regulatory guides and Tech Specs, and development of an Inspection Module. Resolution of B-56 is coupled to the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue (USI) A-44, Station Blackout, which resulted in the station blackout rule, 10 CFR 50.63 and Regulatory Guide 1.155, Station Blackout. This paper discusses the principal elements of an EDG reliability program developed for resolving GSI B-56 and related matters

  9. Standing Up a Narcotic Confirmation Laboratory for the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense Nuclear Personnel Reliability Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanenko, Victor; Eisele, Gerhard R.; Coates, Cameron W.

    2010-01-01

    Through a cooperative effort between the U. S. Department of Energy and the Russian Federation (RF) Ministry of Defense (MOD) a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) for the nuclear handlers within the RF MOD has been implemented. A key element in the RF MOD PRP is the detection and confirmation of narcotic use in subject military and civilian personnel. This paper describes the process of narcotics screening and testing in the RF MOD and explains the confirmation process once screening has shown a positive result. Issues of laboratory certification, employee certification, employee training, sample chain-of-custody, and equipment needs will be addressed.

  10. Interim reliability evaluation program (IREP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Murphy, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP), sponsored by the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, is currently applying probabilistic risk analysis techniques to two PWR and two BWR type power plants. Emphasis was placed on the systems analysis portion of the risk assessment, as opposed to accident phenomenology or consequence analysis, since the identification of risk significant plant features was of primary interest. Traditional event tree/fault tree modeling was used for the analysis. However, the study involved a more thorough investigation of transient initiators and of support system faults than studies in the past and substantially improved techniques were used to quantify accident sequence frequencies. This study also attempted to quantify the potential for operator recovery actions in the course of each significant accident

  11. Common-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest, M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, CROSSER, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. CROSSER, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and NEWTONP (NPO-17556), used independently of one another. Point of equality between reliability of system and common reliability of components found. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  12. System-Reliability Cumulative-Binomial Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuer, Ernest M.; Bowerman, Paul N.

    1989-01-01

    Cumulative-binomial computer program, NEWTONP, one of set of three programs, calculates cumulative binomial probability distributions for arbitrary inputs. NEWTONP, CUMBIN (NPO-17555), and CROSSER (NPO-17557), used independently of one another. Program finds probability required to yield given system reliability. Used by statisticians and users of statistical procedures, test planners, designers, and numerical analysts. Program written in C.

  13. A reliability program approach to operational safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Reliability Program (RP) model based on proven reliability techniques is being formulated for potential application in the nuclear power industry. Methods employed under NASA and military direction, commercial airline and related FAA programs were surveyed and a review of current nuclear risk-dominant issues conducted. The need for a reliability approach to address dependent system failures, operating and emergency procedures and human performance, and develop a plant-specific performance data base for safety decision making is demonstrated. Current research has concentrated on developing a Reliability Program approach for the operating phase of a nuclear plant's lifecycle. The approach incorporates performance monitoring and evaluation activities with dedicated tasks that integrate these activities with operation, surveillance, and maintenance of the plant. The detection, root-cause evaluation and before-the-fact correction of incipient or actual systems failures as a mechanism for maintaining plant safety is a major objective of the Reliability Program. (orig./HP)

  14. Equipment Reliability Program in NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaler, F.; Djetelic, N.

    2006-01-01

    Operation that is safe, reliable, effective and acceptable to public is the common message in a mission statement of commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs). To fulfill these goals, nuclear industry, among other areas, has to focus on: 1 Human Performance (HU) and 2 Equipment Reliability (EQ). The performance objective of HU is as follows: The behaviors of all personnel result in safe and reliable station operation. While unwanted human behaviors in operations mostly result directly in the event, the behavior flaws either in the area of maintenance or engineering usually cause decreased equipment reliability. Unsatisfied Human performance leads even the best designed power plants into significant operating events, which can be found as well-known examples in nuclear industry. Equipment reliability is today recognized as the key to success. While the human performance at most NPPs has been improving since the start of WANO / INPO / IAEA evaluations, the open energy market has forced the nuclear plants to reduce production costs and operate more reliably and effectively. The balance between these two (opposite) goals has made equipment reliability even more important for safe, reliable and efficient production. Insisting on on-line operation by ignoring some principles of safety could nowadays in a well-developed safety culture and human performance environment exceed the cost of electricity losses. In last decade the leading USA nuclear companies put a lot of effort to improve equipment reliability primarily based on INPO Equipment Reliability Program AP-913 at their NPP stations. The Equipment Reliability Program is the key program not only for safe and reliable operation, but also for the Life Cycle Management and Aging Management on the way to the nuclear power plant life extension. The purpose of Equipment Reliability process is to identify, organize, integrate and coordinate equipment reliability activities (preventive and predictive maintenance, maintenance

  15. Software reliability and programming language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrenberger, W.

    1983-01-01

    When discussing advantages and drawbacks of programming languages, it is sometimes suggested to use these languages also for safety-related tasks. The author states the demands to be made on programming languages for this purpose. His recommendations are based on the work of TC7 of the European Workshop on Industrial Computer Systems and WG A3 of IEC SC 45a. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Establishing monitoring programs for travel time reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Within the second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2), Project L02 focused on creating a suite of methods by which transportation agencies could monitor and evaluate travel time reliability. Creation of the methods also produced an improved u...

  17. Hyperuricemic PRP in Tendon Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Andia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is injected within tendons to stimulate healing. Metabolic alterations such as the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or hyperuricemia could hinder the therapeutic effect of PRP. We hypothesise that tendon cells sense high levels of uric acid and this could modify their response to PRP. Tendon cells were treated with allogeneic PRPs for 96 hours. Hyperuricemic PRP did not hinder the proliferative actions of PRP. The gene expression pattern of inflammatory molecules in response to PRP showed absence of IL-1b and COX1 and modest expression of IL6, IL8, COX2, and TGF-b1. IL8 and IL6 proteins were secreted by tendon cells treated with PRP. The synthesis of IL6 and IL8 proteins induced by PRP is decreased significantly in the presence of hyperuricemia (P = 0.017 and P = 0.012, resp.. Concerning extracellular matrix, PRP-treated tendon cells displayed high type-1 collagen, moderate type-3 collagen, decorin, and hyaluronan synthase-2 expression and modest expression of scleraxis. Hyperuricemia modified the expression pattern of extracellular matrix proteins, upregulating COL1 (P = 0.036 and COMP (P = 0.012 and downregulating HAS2 (P = 0.012. Positive correlations between TGF-b1 and type-1 collagen (R = 0.905, P = 0.002 and aggrecan (R = 0.833, P = 0.010 and negative correlations between TGF-b1 and IL6 synthesis (R = −0.857, P = 0.007 and COX2 (R = −0.810, P = 0.015 were found.

  18. Can PRP effectively treat injured tendons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, James H-C

    2014-01-01

    PRP is widely used to treat tendon and other tissue injuries in orthopaedics and sports medicine; however, the efficacy of PRP treatment on injured tendons is highly controversial. In this commentary, I reason that there are many PRP- and patient-related factors that influence the outcomes of PRP treatment on injured tendons. Therefore, more basic science studies are needed to understand the mechanism of PRP on injured tendons. Finally, I suggest that better understanding of the PRP action mechanism will lead to better use of PRP for the effective treatment of tendon injuries in clinics.

  19. Interim Reliability Evaluation Program procedures guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.; Gallup, D.R.; Kolaczkowski, A.M.; Kolb, G.J.; Stack, D.W.; Lofgren, E.; Horton, W.H.; Lobner, P.R.

    1983-01-01

    This document presents procedures for conducting analyses of a scope similar to those performed in Phase II of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). It documents the current state of the art in performing the plant systems analysis portion of a probabilistic risk assessment. Insights gained into managing such an analysis are discussed. Step-by-step procedures and methodological guidance constitute the major portion of the document. While not to be viewed as a cookbook, the procedures set forth the principal steps in performing an IREP analysis. Guidance for resolving the problems encountered in previous analyses is offered. Numerous examples and representative products from previous analyses clarify the discussion

  20. Phase diagram of Pr-P system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1981-01-01

    An area of the Pr-P system, adjoining to the Pr ordinate, is plotted up by the DTA method. Presence of P solid solution in Pr is established. Data on thermal stability of PrP, PrP 2 , PrP 5 and PrP 7 are generalized. The diagram of phase transformations in Pr-P system is plotted up proceeding from the whole complex of the data, presented. A supposition is made on a possible formation of solid solutions between the highest polyphosphide and phosphorus [ru

  1. Human reliability program: Components and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baley-Downes, S.

    1986-01-01

    The term ''Human Reliability Program'' (HRP) is defined as a series of selective controls which are implemented and integrated to identify the ''insider threat'' from current and prospective employees who are dishonest, disloyal and unreliable. The HRP, although not a prediction of human behaviour, is an excellent tool for decision making and should compliment security and improve employee quality. The HRP consists of several component applications such as management evaluation; appropriate background investigative requirements; occupational health examination and laboratory testing; drug/alcohol screening; psychological testing and interviews; polygraph examination; job related aberrant behaviour recognition; on-going education and training; document control; drug/alcohol rehabilitation; periodic HRP audit; and implementation of an onsite central clearing house. The components and effects of HRP are discussed in further detail in this paper

  2. Implementation of a personnel reliability program as a facilitator of biosafety and biosecurity culture in BSL-3 and BSL-4 laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Jacki J; Weaver, Patrick; Fitch, J Patrick; Johnson, Barbara; Pearl, R Marene

    2013-06-01

    In late 2010, the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) implemented a Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) with the goal of enabling active participation by its staff to drive and improve the biosafety and biosecurity culture at the organization. A philosophical keystone for accomplishment of NBACC's scientific mission is simultaneous excellence in operations and outreach. Its personnel reliability program builds on this approach to: (1) enable and support a culture of responsibility based on human performance principles, (2) maintain compliance with regulations, and (3) address the risk associated with the insider threat. Recently, the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) governing use and possession of biological select agents and toxins (BSAT) was amended to require a pre-access suitability assessment and ongoing evaluation for staff accessing Tier 1 BSAT. These 2 new requirements are in addition to the already required Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Security Risk Assessment (SRA). Two years prior to the release of these guidelines, NBACC developed its PRP to supplement the SRA requirement as a means to empower personnel and foster an operational environment where any and all work with BSAT is conducted in a safe, secure, and reliable manner.

  3. Behavioral reliability program for the nuclear industry. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.C.; Davis, S.O.; Dunnette, M.D.; Meyer, P.; Sharac, J.

    1981-07-01

    The subject of the study was the development of standards for a behavioral observation program which could be used by the NRC licensed nuclear industry to detect indications of emotional instability in its employees who have access to protected and vital areas. Emphasis was placed on those observable characteristics which could be assessed by supervisors or peers in a work environment. The behavioral reliability program, as was defined in this report, encompasses the concept and basic components of the program, the definition of the behavioral reliability program, the definition of the behavioral reliability criterion, and a set of instructions for the creation and implementation of the program by an individual facility

  4. Program integration of predictive maintenance with reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, D.K. Jr; Wray, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses improving the safety and reliability of power plants in a cost-effective manner by integrating the recently developed reliability centered maintenance techniques with the traditional predictive maintenance techniques of nuclear power plants. The topics of the paper include a description of reliability centered maintenance (RCM), enhancing RCM with predictive maintenance, predictive maintenance programs, condition monitoring techniques, performance test techniques, the mid-Atlantic Reliability Centered Maintenance Users Group, test guides and the benefits of shared guide development

  5. Status of an operating reliability program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with productivity improvement programs (PIP) for nuclear generating plants. The PIP was implemented in 1979 as a joint effort between Commonwealth Edison's (CECo's) operating nuclear stations and the Station Nuclear Engineering Department. Goals were set to reduce nonproductivity by 10% over a 5 year period. This goal was accomplished December 31, 1983. Topics of discussion are program method, problem analysis and resolution, program results, program improvements, and proposed additions to the PIP. The program is providing CECo with greater electrical generating productivity

  6. Selenide isotope generator for the Galileo mission. Reliability program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    The reliability program plan for the Selenide Isotope Generator (SIG) program is presented. It delineates the specific tasks that will be accomplished by Teledyne Energy Systems and its suppliers during design, development, fabrication and test of deliverable Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTG), Electrical Heated Thermoelectric Generators (ETG) and associated Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The Plan is formulated in general accordance with procedures specified in DOE Reliability Engineering Program Requirements Publication No. SNS-2, dated June 17, 1974. The Reliability Program Plan presented herein defines the total reliability effort without further reference to Government Specifications. The reliability tasks to be accomplished are delineated herein and become the basis for contract compliance to the extent specified in the SIG contract Statement of Work

  7. Establishing monitoring programs for travel time reliability. [supporting datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this project was to develop system designs for programs to monitor travel time reliability and to prepare a guidebook that practitioners and others can use to design, build, operate, and maintain such systems. Generally, such travel ...

  8. Statis Program Analysis for Reliable, Trusted Apps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    and prevent errors in their Java programs. The Checker Framework includes compiler plug-ins (“checkers”) that find bugs or verify their absence. It...versions of the Java language. 4.8 DATAFLOW FRAMEWORK The dataflow framework enables more accurate analysis of source code. (Despite their similar...names, the dataflow framework is independent of the (Information) Flow Checker of chapter 2.) In Java code, a given operation may be permitted or

  9. Systems reliability analysis: applications of the SPARCS System-Reliability Assessment Computer Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locks, M.O.

    1978-01-01

    SPARCS-2 (Simulation Program for Assessing the Reliabilities of Complex Systems, Version 2) is a PL/1 computer program for assessing (establishing interval estimates for) the reliability and the MTBF of a large and complex s-coherent system of any modular configuration. The system can consist of a complex logical assembly of independently failing attribute (binomial-Bernoulli) and time-to-failure (Poisson-exponential) components, without regard to their placement. Alternatively, it can be a configuration of independently failing modules, where each module has either or both attribute and time-to-failure components. SPARCS-2 also has an improved super modularity feature. Modules with minimal-cut unreliabiliy calculations can be mixed with those having minimal-path reliability calculations. All output has been standardized to system reliability or probability of success, regardless of the form in which the input data is presented, and whatever the configuration of modules or elements within modules

  10. Automation of reliability evaluation procedures through CARE - The computer-aided reliability estimation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, F. P.

    1972-01-01

    Description of an on-line interactive computer program called CARE (Computer-Aided Reliability Estimation) which can model self-repair and fault-tolerant organizations and perform certain other functions. Essentially CARE consists of a repository of mathematical equations defining the various basic redundancy schemes. These equations, under program control, are then interrelated to generate the desired mathematical model to fit the architecture of the system under evaluation. The mathematical model is then supplied with ground instances of its variables and is then evaluated to generate values for the reliability-theoretic functions applied to the model.

  11. PrP Knockout Cells Expressing Transmembrane PrP Resist Prion Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Karen E; Hughson, Andrew; Vascellari, Sarah; Priola, Suzette A; Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi; Baron, Gerald S

    2017-01-15

    Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C ) influences PrP C misfolding into the disease-associated isoform, PrP res , as well as prion propagation and infectivity. GPI proteins are found in cholesterol- and sphingolipid-rich membrane regions called rafts. Exchanging the GPI anchor for a nonraft transmembrane sequence redirects PrP C away from rafts. Previous studies showed that nonraft transmembrane PrP C variants resist conversion to PrP res when transfected into scrapie-infected N2a neuroblastoma cells, likely due to segregation of transmembrane PrP C and GPI-anchored PrP res in distinct membrane environments. Thus, it remained unclear whether transmembrane PrP C might convert to PrP res if seeded by an exogenous source of PrP res not associated with host cell rafts and without the potential influence of endogenous expression of GPI-anchored PrP C To further explore these questions, constructs containing either a C-terminal wild-type GPI anchor signal sequence or a nonraft transmembrane sequence containing a flexible linker were expressed in a cell line derived from PrP knockout hippocampal neurons, NpL2. NpL2 cells have physiological similarities to primary neurons, representing a novel and advantageous model for studying transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infection. Cells were infected with inocula from multiple prion strains and in different biochemical states (i.e., membrane bound as in brain microsomes from wild-type mice or purified GPI-anchorless amyloid fibrils). Only GPI-anchored PrP C supported persistent PrP res propagation. Our data provide strong evidence that in cell culture GPI anchor-directed membrane association of PrP C is required for persistent PrP res propagation, implicating raft microdomains as a location for conversion. Mechanisms of prion propagation, and what makes them transmissible, are poorly understood. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchoring of the prion protein (PrP C

  12. Human performance for the success of equipment reliability programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodcock, J.

    2007-01-01

    Human performance is a critical element of programs directed at equipment reliability. Reliable equipment performance requires broad support from all levels of plant management and throughout all plant departments. Experience at both nuclear power plants and fuel manufacturing plants shows that human performance must be addressed during all phases of program implementation from the beginning through the establishment of a living, on-going process. At the beginning, certain organizational and management actions during the initiation of the program set the stage for successful adoption by station personnel, leading to more rapid benefits. For the long term, equipment reliability is a living process needed throughout the lifetime of a station, a program which must be motivated and measured. Sustained acceptance and participation by the plant personnel is a requirement, and culture is a key ingredient. This paper will provide an overview of key human performance issues to be considered, using the application of the INPO AP-913 Equipment Reliability Guideline as a basis and gives some best practices for training, communicating and implementing programs. The very last part includes ways to tell if the program is effective

  13. Reliability centered Maintenance (RCM) program for Chashma NPP (CHASNUPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, S.; Khan, S.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the proposed Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program for Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP). Major steps are the identification of risk critical components and the implementation of RCM procedures. Identification of risk critical components is based upon the CHASNUPP level 1 PSA results (performed under IAEA TC Project PAK/9/019) which is near completion. The other requirements for implementation of RCM program is the qualitative analysis to be performed for identifying the dominant potential failure modes of each risk critical component and determination of the necessary maintenance activities, required to ensure reliable operation of the identified risk critical components. Implementation of RCM program for these components will lead to improvement in plant availability and safety together with reduction in the maintenance cost. Development - implementation of RCM program at this stage will help the CHASNUPP Maintenance department who is now developing the maintenance program - procedures for CHASNUPP. (author)

  14. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Program structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; DeMoss, G.M.; Fragola, J.R.; Appignani, P.L.; Delarche, G.; Boccio, J.

    1988-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide technical guidelines for NRC staff use in the development of positions for evaluating emergency diesel generator (EDG) reliability programs. Such reviews will likely result following resolution of USI A-44 and GSI B-56. The diesel generator reliability program is a management system for achieving and maintaining a selected (or target) level of reliability. This can be achieved by: (1) understanding the factors that control the EDG reliability and (2) then applying reliability and maintenance techniques in the proper proportion to achieve selected performance goals. The concepts and guidelines discussed in this report are concepts and approaches that have been successful in applications where high levels of reliability must be maintained. Both an EDG reliability program process and a set of review items for NRC use are provided. The review items represent a checklist for reviewing EDG reliability programs. They do not, in themselves, constitute a reliability program. Rather, the review items are those distinctive features of a reliability program that must be present for the program to be effective

  15. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberto; Castoldi, Filippo; Michielon, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory. PMID:26075244

  16. PRP and Articular Cartilage: A Clinical Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marmotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The convincing background of the recent studies, investigating the different potentials of platelet-rich plasma, offers the clinician an appealing alternative for the treatment of cartilage lesions and osteoarthritis. Recent evidences in literature have shown that PRP may be helpful both as an adjuvant for surgical treatment of cartilage defects and as a therapeutic tool by intra-articular injection in patients affected by osteoarthritis. In this review, the authors introduce the trophic and anti-inflammatory properties of PRP and the different products of the available platelet concentrates. Then, in a complex scenario made of a great number of clinical variables, they resume the current literature on the PRP applications in cartilage surgery as well as the use of intra-articular PRP injections for the conservative treatment of cartilage degenerative lesions and osteoarthritis in humans, available as both case series and comparative studies. The result of this review confirms the fascinating biological role of PRP, although many aspects yet remain to be clarified and the use of PRP in a clinical setting has to be considered still exploratory.

  17. High Speed Simulation Framework for Reliable Logic Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wan-Bok; Kim, Seog-Ju

    2006-01-01

    This paper shows a case study of designing a PLC logic simulator that was developed to simulate and verify PLC control programs for nuclear plant systems. The nuclear control system requires strict restrictions rather than normal process control system does, since it works with nuclear power plants requiring high reliability under severe environment. One restriction is the safeness of the control programs which can be assured by exploiting severe testing. Another restriction is the simulation speed of the control programs, that should be fast enough to control multi devices concurrently in real-time. To cope with these restrictions, we devised a logic compiler which generates C-code programs from given PLC logic programs. Once the logic program was translated into C-code, the program could be analyzed by conventional software analysis tools and could be used to construct a fast logic simulator after cross-compiling, in fact, that is a kind of compiled-code simulation

  18. Reliability assurance program for operational emergency ac power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heineman, J.B.; Ragland, W.A.; Mueller, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    A comprehensive review of emergency ac power systems in nuclear generating plants (the vast majority of these plants contain redundant diesel generator systems) delineates several operational areas that can be improved by instituting a reliability assurance program (RAP), which initially upgrades the diesel generator performance and provides for ongoing monitoring and maintenance based upon alert levels

  19. Achieving High Reliability Operations Through Multi-Program Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holly M. Ashley; Ronald K. Farris; Robert E. Richards

    2009-04-01

    Over the last 20 years the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has adopted a number of operations and safety-related programs which has each periodically taken its turn in the limelight. As new programs have come along there has been natural competition for resources, focus and commitment. In the last few years, the INL has made real progress in integrating all these programs and are starting to realize important synergies. Contributing to this integration are both collaborative individuals and an emerging shared vision and goal of the INL fully maturing in its high reliability operations. This goal is so powerful because the concept of high reliability operations (and the resulting organizations) is a masterful amalgam and orchestrator of the best of all the participating programs (i.e. conduct of operations, behavior based safety, human performance, voluntary protection, quality assurance, and integrated safety management). This paper is a brief recounting of the lessons learned, thus far, at the INL in bringing previously competing programs into harmony under the goal (umbrella) of seeking to perform regularly as a high reliability organization. In addition to a brief diagram-illustrated historical review, the authors will share the INL’s primary successes (things already effectively stopped or started) and the gaps yet to be bridged.

  20. RIO: a program to determine reliability importance and allocate optimal reliability goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poloski, J.P.

    1978-09-01

    The designer of a nuclear plant must know the plant's associated risk limitations so that he can design the plant accordingly. To design a safety system, he must understand its importance and how it relates to the overall plant risk. The computer program RIO can aid the designer to understand a system's contribution to the plant's overall risk. The methodology developed and presented was sponsored by the Nuclear Research Applications Division of the Department of Energy for use in the Gas Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) Program. The principal motivation behind its development was the need to translate nuclear plants safety goals into reliability goals for systems which make up that plant. The method described herein will make use of the GCFR Accident Initiation and Progression Analyses (AIPA) event trees and other models in order to determine these reliability goals

  1. DOE Human Reliability Program Removals Report 2004-2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Center for Human Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    This report presents results of the comprehensive data analysis and assessment of all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) facilities that have positions requiring workers to be certified in the Human Reliability Program (HRP). Those facilities include: Albuquerque, Amarillo, DOE Headquarters, Hanford, Idaho, Nevada, Oak Ridge, Oakland, and Savannah River. The HRP was established to ensure, through continuous review and evaluation, the reliability of individuals who have access to the DOE's most sensitive facilities, materials, and information

  2. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of sports-related severe acute hamstring injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillodo, Yannick; Madouas, Gwénaelle; Simon, Thomas; Le Dauphin, Hermine; Saraux, Alain

    2015-01-01

    hamstring injury is the most common musculoskeletal disorder and one of the main causes of missed sporting events. Shortening the time to return to play (TTRTP) is a priority for athletes and sports medicine practitioners. platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection at the site of severe acute hamstring injury increases the healing rate and shortens the TTRTP. Cohort study. all patients with ultrasonography and MRI evidence of severe acute hamstring injury between January 2012 and March 2014 were offered PRP treatment. Those who accepted received a single intramuscular PRP injection within 8 days post-injury; the other patients served as controls. The same standardized rehabilitation program was used in both groups. A physical examination and ultrasonography were performed 10 and 30 days post-injury, then a phone interview 120 days post-injury, to determine the TTRTP at the pre-injury level. of 34 patients, 15 received PRP and 19 did not. Mean TTRTP at the pre-injury level was 50.9±10.7 days in the PRP group and 52.8±15.7 days in the control group. The difference was not statistically significant. a single intramuscular PRP injection did not shorten the TTRTP in sports people with severe acute hamstring injuries.

  3. System safety and reliability using object-oriented programming techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.; Koen, B.V.

    1987-01-01

    Direct evaluation fault tree codes have been written in recursive, list-processing computer languages such as PL/1 (PATREC-I) and LISP (PATREC-L). The pattern-matching strategy implemented in these codes has been used extensively in France to evaluate system reliability. Recent reviews of the risk management process suggest that a data base containing plant-specific information be integrated with a package of codes used for probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) to alleviate some of the difficulties that make a PRA so costly and time-intensive. A new programming paradigm, object-oriented programming, is uniquely suited for the development of such a software system. A knowledge base and fault tree evaluation algorithm, based on previous experience with PATREC-L, have been implemented using object-oriented techniques, resulting in a reliability assessment environment that is easy to develop, modify, and extend

  4. Interim reliability evaluation program, Browns Ferry fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    An abbreviated fault tree method is used to evaluate and model Browns Ferry systems in the Interim Reliability Evaluation programs, simplifying the recording and displaying of events, yet maintaining the system of identifying faults. The level of investigation is not changed. The analytical thought process inherent in the conventional method is not compromised. But the abbreviated method takes less time, and the fault modes are much more visible

  5. Prion protein (PrP) gene-knockout cell lines: insight into functions of the PrP

    OpenAIRE

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of prion protein (PrP) functions is crucial to fully understand prion diseases. A major approach to studying PrP functions is the use of PrP gene-knockout (Prnp ?/?) mice. So far, six types of Prnp ?/? mice have been generated, demonstrating the promiscuous functions of PrP. Recently, other PrP family members, such as Doppel and Shadoo, have been found. However, information obtained from comparative studies of structural and functional analyses of these PrP family proteins do not ...

  6. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs.

  7. Accident Sequence Evaluation Program: Human reliability analysis procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    This document presents a shortened version of the procedure, models, and data for human reliability analysis (HRA) which are presented in the Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis With emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications (NUREG/CR-1278, August 1983). This shortened version was prepared and tried out as part of the Accident Sequence Evaluation Program (ASEP) funded by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and managed by Sandia National Laboratories. The intent of this new HRA procedure, called the ''ASEP HRA Procedure,'' is to enable systems analysts, with minimal support from experts in human reliability analysis, to make estimates of human error probabilities and other human performance characteristics which are sufficiently accurate for many probabilistic risk assessments. The ASEP HRA Procedure consists of a Pre-Accident Screening HRA, a Pre-Accident Nominal HRA, a Post-Accident Screening HRA, and a Post-Accident Nominal HRA. The procedure in this document includes changes made after tryout and evaluation of the procedure in four nuclear power plants by four different systems analysts and related personnel, including human reliability specialists. The changes consist of some additional explanatory material (including examples), and more detailed definitions of some of the terms. 42 refs

  8. Fuzzy Goal Programming Approach in Selective Maintenance Reliability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Gupta

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 In the present paper, we have considered the allocation problem of repairable components for a parallel-series system as a multi-objective optimization problem and have discussed two different models. In first model the reliability of subsystems are considered as different objectives. In second model the cost and time spent on repairing the components are considered as two different objectives. These two models is formulated as multi-objective Nonlinear Programming Problem (MONLPP and a Fuzzy goal programming method is used to work out the compromise allocation in multi-objective selective maintenance reliability model in which we define the membership functions of each objective function and then transform membership functions into equivalent linear membership functions by first order Taylor series and finally by forming a fuzzy goal programming model obtain a desired compromise allocation of maintenance components. A numerical example is also worked out to illustrate the computational details of the method.  Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

  9. Reliability of an interactive computer program for advance care planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubart, Jane R; Levi, Benjamin H; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83-0.95, and 0.86-0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time.

  10. Reliability of an Interactive Computer Program for Advance Care Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Camacho, Fabian; Whitehead, Megan; Farace, Elana; Green, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Despite widespread efforts to promote advance directives (ADs), completion rates remain low. Making Your Wishes Known: Planning Your Medical Future (MYWK) is an interactive computer program that guides individuals through the process of advance care planning, explaining health conditions and interventions that commonly involve life or death decisions, helps them articulate their values/goals, and translates users' preferences into a detailed AD document. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that (in the absence of major life changes) the AD generated by MYWK reliably reflects an individual's values/preferences. English speakers ≥30 years old completed MYWK twice, 4 to 6 weeks apart. Reliability indices were assessed for three AD components: General Wishes; Specific Wishes for treatment; and Quality-of-Life values (QoL). Twenty-four participants completed the study. Both the Specific Wishes and QoL scales had high internal consistency in both time periods (Knuder Richardson formula 20 [KR-20]=0.83–0.95, and 0.86–0.89). Test-retest reliability was perfect for General Wishes (κ=1), high for QoL (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.83), but lower for Specific Wishes (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.57). MYWK generates an AD where General Wishes and QoL (but not Specific Wishes) statements remain consistent over time. PMID:22512830

  11. Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Condon, David; Revelle, William

    2017-01-01

    Separating the signal in a test from the irrelevant noise is a challenge for all measurement. Low test reliability limits test validity, attenuates important relationships, and can lead to regression artifacts. Multiple approaches to the assessment and improvement of reliability are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of several different approaches to reliability are considered. Practical advice on how to assess reliability using open source software is provided.

  12. Design-reliability assurance program application to ACP600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhichao, Huang; Bo, Zhao

    2012-01-01

    ACP600 is a newly nuclear power plant technology made by CNNC in China and it is based on the Generation III NPPs design experience and general safety goals. The ACP600 Design Reliability Assurance Program (D-RAP) is implemented as an integral part of the ACP600 design process. A RAP is a formal management system which assures the collection of important characteristic information about plant performance throughout each phase of its life and directs the use of this information in the implementation of analytical and management process which are specifically designed to meet two specific objects: confirm the plant goals and cost effective improvements. In general, typical reliability assurance program have 4 broad functional elements: 1) Goals and performance criteria; 2) Management system and implementing procedures; 3) Analytical tools and investigative methods; and 4) Information management. In this paper we will use the D-RAP technical and Risk-Informed requirements, and establish the RAM and PSA model to optimize the ACP600 design. Compared with previous design process, the D-RAP is more competent for the higher design targets and requirements, enjoying more creativity through an easier implementation of technical breakthroughs. By using D-RAP, the plants goals, system goals, performance criteria and safety criteria can be easier to realize, and the design can be optimized and more rational

  13. MPprimer: a program for reliable multiplex PCR primer design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xiaolei

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiplex PCR, defined as the simultaneous amplification of multiple regions of a DNA template or multiple DNA templates using more than one primer set (comprising a forward primer and a reverse primer in one tube, has been widely used in diagnostic applications of clinical and environmental microbiology studies. However, primer design for multiplex PCR is still a challenging problem and several factors need to be considered. These problems include mis-priming due to nonspecific binding to non-target DNA templates, primer dimerization, and the inability to separate and purify DNA amplicons with similar electrophoretic mobility. Results A program named MPprimer was developed to help users for reliable multiplex PCR primer design. It employs the widely used primer design program Primer3 and the primer specificity evaluation program MFEprimer to design and evaluate the candidate primers based on genomic or transcript DNA database, followed by careful examination to avoid primer dimerization. The graph-expanding algorithm derived from the greedy algorithm was used to determine the optimal primer set combinations (PSCs for multiplex PCR assay. In addition, MPprimer provides a virtual electrophotogram to help users choose the best PSC. The experimental validation from 2× to 5× plex PCR demonstrates the reliability of MPprimer. As another example, MPprimer is able to design the multiplex PCR primers for DMD (dystrophin gene which caused Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, which has 79 exons, for 20×, 20×, 20×, 14×, and 5× plex PCR reactions in five tubes to detect underlying exon deletions. Conclusions MPprimer is a valuable tool for designing specific, non-dimerizing primer set combinations with constrained amplicons size for multiplex PCR assays.

  14. Implementation of PATREC nuclear reliability program in PROLOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, B.V.; Koen, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    PROLOG, the de facto computer language for research in artificial intelligence in Japan, is a logical choice for research in the pattern recognition strategy for evaluating the reliability of complex systems expressed as fault trees. PROLOG's basic data type is the tree, and its basic control construct is pattern matching. It is also based on recursive programming and allows dynamic allocation of memory, both of which are essential for an efficient reduction of the input tree. Since the inference engine of PROLOG automatically examines the user-defined data base in a systematic order, an additional advantage of this language is that the largest known pattern will always be found first without coding complex tree searches of the pattern library as was required in other computer languages such as PL/1 and LISP

  15. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-10-20

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group.

  16. Periodontal tissue regeneration with PRP incorporated gelatin hydrogel sponges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Dai; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Sato, Soh

    2015-01-01

    Gelatin hydrogels have been designed and prepared for the controlled release of the transforming growth factor (TGF-b1) and the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB). PRP (Platelet rich plasma) contains many growth factors including the PDGF and TGF-b1. The objective of this study was to evaluate the regeneration of periodontal tissue following the controlled release of growth factors in PRP. For the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, PRP of different concentrations was added. The assessment of DNA, mitochondrial activity and ALP activity were measured. To evaluate the TGF-β1 release from PRP incorporated gelatin sponge, amounts of TGF-β1 in each supernatant sample were determined by the ELISA. Transplantation experiments to prepare a bone defect in a rat alveolar bone were an implanted gelatin sponge incorporated with different concentration PRP. In DNA assay and MTT assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells and osteoblast, the cell count and mitochondrial activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 5  ×  PRP. In the ALP assay, after the addition of PRP to the periodontal ligament cells, the cell activity had increased the most in the group with the addition of 3  ×  PRP. In the transplantation, the size of the bone regenerated in the defect with 3  ×  PRP incorporated gelatin sponge was larger than that of the other group. (paper)

  17. Prion protein (PrP) gene-knockout cell lines: insight into functions of the PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, Akikazu; Onodera, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Elucidation of prion protein (PrP) functions is crucial to fully understand prion diseases. A major approach to studying PrP functions is the use of PrP gene-knockout (Prnp−/−) mice. So far, six types of Prnp−/− mice have been generated, demonstrating the promiscuous functions of PrP. Recently, other PrP family members, such as Doppel and Shadoo, have been found. However, information obtained from comparative studies of structural and functional analyses of these PrP family proteins do not fully reveal PrP functions. Recently, varieties of Prnp−/− cell lines established from Prnp−/− mice have contributed to the analysis of PrP functions. In this mini-review, we focus on Prnp−/− cell lines and summarize currently available Prnp−/− cell lines and their characterizations. In addition, we introduce the recent advances in the methodology of cell line generation with knockout or knockdown of the PrP gene. We also discuss how these cell lines have provided valuable insights into PrP functions and show future perspectives. PMID:25642423

  18. Experimental Models of Inherited PrP Prion Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Joel C; Prusiner, Stanley B

    2017-11-01

    The inherited prion protein (PrP) prion disorders, which include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease, and fatal familial insomnia, constitute ∼10%-15% of all PrP prion disease cases in humans. Attempts to generate animal models of these disorders using transgenic mice expressing mutant PrP have produced variable results. Although many lines of mice develop spontaneous signs of neurological illness with accompanying prion disease-specific neuropathological changes, others do not. Furthermore, demonstrating the presence of protease-resistant PrP species and prion infectivity-two of the hallmarks of the PrP prion disorders-in the brains of spontaneously sick mice has proven particularly challenging. Here, we review the progress that has been made toward developing accurate mouse models of the inherited PrP prion disorders. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  19. PRP as an Adjunct to Rotator Cuff Tendon Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F Alan

    2018-06-01

    Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair is a commonly performed repair. Technical developments provide surgeons the tools to create biomechanically robust repairs. How can the biological response mirror the strong and stable surgery? Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a supraphysiological platelet concentration which may positively augment rotator cuff healing. Not all PRPs are the same. High leukocyte levels and thrombin activation may be detrimental to tendon healing. Thrombin activation triggers an immediate release of growth factors and may actually inhibit some parts of the healing response. Clear differences exist between liquid PRP (products released within hours after activation) and solid fibrin PRP which slowly releases factors over days. The heterogenicity data and grouping liquid and solid PRP together make systematic reviews confusing. Solid PRP fibrin constructs are often associated with increased tendon healing. PRP fibrin matrix offers the greatest promise for improving clinical success after rotator cuff tendon repair.

  20. PRP in OA knee - update, current confusions and future options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Mandeep S; Patel, Sandeep; John, Rakesh

    2017-01-01

    Positive results have been uniformly observed by various researchers for platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in early osteoarthritis (OA) knee in the past few years. PRP has clearly demonstrated its supremacy in comparison to hyaluronic acid (HA) and placebo in various clinical trials and is undoubtedly the best option available for symptomatic treatment in early OA. The release of growth factors from PRP occurs immediately and lasts for around three weeks and the clinical effect tends to wane down by the end of the year. Prolonged and sustained release of growth factors from platelets could possibly help in much better biological healing and sustained clinical effects. PRP in combination with biocompatible carriers could be one way of achieving this. Gelatin hydrogel PRP and chitosan PRP seem to be promising based on early in vitro studies and animal studies. PRP in combination with hyaluronic acid also seems to be additive. This article intends to discuss the present status of the PRP, confusions surrounding its use, upcoming trends and ideas for improvising PRP for use early OA knees based on available evidence. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  1. Implementing a Reliability Centered Maintenance Program at NASA's Kennedy Space Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tuttle, Raymond

    1998-01-01

    .... A reliability centered maintenance (RCM) program seeks to offer equal or greater reliability at decreased cost by insuring only applicable, effective maintenance is performed and by in large part replacing time based maintenance...

  2. Design reliability assurance program for Korean next generation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Beom-Su; Han, Jin-Kyu; Na, Jang Hwan; Yoo, Kyung Yeong

    1997-01-01

    The Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) project is to develop standardized nuclear power plant design for the construction of future nuclear power plants in Korea. The main purpose of the KNGR project is to develop the advanced nuclear power plants, which enhance safety and economics significantly through the incorporation of design concepts for severe accident prevention and mitigation, supplementary passive safety concept, simplification and application of modularization and so on. For those, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) and availability study will be performed at the early stage of the design, and the Design Reliability Assurance Program (D-RAP) is applied in the development of the KNGR to ensure that the safety and availability evaluated in the PSA and availability study at the early phase of the design is maintained through the detailed design, construction, procurement and operation of the plants. This paper presents the D-RAP concept that could be applied at the stage of the basic design of the nuclear power plants, based on the models for the reference plants and/or similar plants. 4 refs., 1 fig

  3. Immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid aluminum phosphate adjuvanted Haemophilus influenzae type b PRP-CRM197-conjugate vaccine in healthy Japanese children: A phase III, randomized, observer-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Takehiro; Mitsuya, Nodoka; Kogawara, Osamu; Sumino, Shuji; Takanami, Yohei; Sugizaki, Kayoko

    2016-08-31

    Broad use of monovalent Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines based on the capsular polysaccharide polyribosyl-ribitol phosphate (PRP), has significantly reduced invasive Hib disease burden in children worldwide, particularly in children aged vaccine has been widely used since the initiation of public funding programs followed by a routine vaccination designation in 2013. We compared the immunogenicity and safety of PRP conjugated to a non-toxic diphtheria toxin mutant (PRP-CRM197) vaccine with the PRP-T vaccine when administered subcutaneously to healthy Japanese children in a phase III study. Additionally, we evaluated the immunogenicity and safety profiles of a diphtheria-tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) combination vaccine when concomitantly administered with either PRP-CRM197 or PRP-T vaccines. The primary endpoint was the "long-term seroprotection rate", defined as the group proportion with anti-PRP antibody titers ⩾1.0μg/mL, after the primary series. Long-term seroprotection rates were 99.3% in the PRP-CRM197 group and 95.6% in the PRP-T group. The intergroup difference (PRP-CRM197 group - PRP-T group) was 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 0.099-7.336), demonstrating that PRP-CRM197 vaccine was non-inferior to PRP-T vaccine (pvaccination was higher in the PRP-CRM197 group than in PRP-T. Concomitant administration of PRP-CRM197 vaccine with DTaP vaccine showed no differences in terms of immunogenicity compared with concomitant vaccination with PRP-T vaccine and DTaP vaccine. Although CRM197 vaccine had higher local reactogenicity, overall, both Hib vaccines had acceptable safety and tolerability profiles. The immunogenicity of PRP-CRM197 vaccine administered subcutaneously as a three-dose primary series in children followed by a booster vaccination 1year after the primary series induced protective levels of Hib antibodies with no safety or tolerability concerns. Registered on ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01379846. Copyright © 2016 The Authors

  4. SIMON. A computer program for reliability and statistical analysis using Monte Carlo simulation. Program description and manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongsoe, H.E.; Lauridsen, K.

    1993-09-01

    SIMON is a program for calculation of reliability and statistical analysis. The program is of the Monte Carlo type, and it is designed with high flexibility, and has a large potential for application to complex problems like reliability analyses of very large systems and of systems, where complex modelling or knowledge of special details are required. Examples of application of the program, including input and output, for reliability and statistical analysis are presented. (au) (3 tabs., 3 ills., 5 refs.)

  5. Exploration of reliability assurance program (RAP) for advanced nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Fang; Xu Rongbin

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the new requirements in US SRP on Reliability Assurance Program, inquires into the evolution of the reliability assurance requirements, and investigates the regulatory requirements on reliability assurance program for advanced reactors, it's main contents, and evaluation review practices and related issues, with the aim of enabling staff to understand be familiar and pay attention to this engineering program. This article may be as a reference for related workers. (authors)

  6. Implementation of PATREC nuclear reliability program in LISP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson-Hine, F.A.; Koen, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The reliability of large systems can be represented by reliability fault trees that contain the failure probabilities for the individual elements in the original network and the logical connectives that describe the interdependence of those probabilities. The PATREC 1 computer code was written to demonstrate the feasibility of using list processing techniques for the resolution of a reliability fault tree by pattern recognition. PATREC 1 was written in PL/1 and is used widely in France. The fault tree is expressed as a linked data structure, oriented, mapped into an end-ordered traverse, and used to retrieve known patterns stored as a linked-tree library. The basic idea of pattern recognition is to prune the fault tree by identifying known patterns, retrieving the corresponding mathematical equation, and evaluating the replacement leaves. This process is repeated until the original tree is reduced to a single leaf - the system reliability

  7. Reliability program plan for the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) technology verification phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Ths document is an integral part of the Kilowatt Isotope Power System (KIPS) Program Plan. This document defines the KIPS Reliability Program Plan for the Technology Verification Phase. This document delineates the reliability assurance tasks that are to be accomplished by Sundstrand and its suppliers during the design, fabrication and testing of the KIPS

  8. Platlet Rich Plasma (PRP) Improves Fat Grafting Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarressi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Autologous fat transfer offers many qualities of a ideal soft tissue filler. Main advantages of fat grafting ensue from the fact that the lipoaspirate tissue is an abundant source of regenerative pluripotential cells. However, the reported rates of fat cell survival vary greatly in the medical literature (10-90%). Different techniques of harvesting, processing, and reinjecting the fat cells are so claimed to be responsible for these differences, without any agreement concerning the best way to process. To address this important disadvantage, we propose the addition of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) which is known as a natural reservoir of growth factors stimulating tissue repair and regeneration. This approach is completely autologous and immediately employed without any type of preconditioning. Platelets rich plasma (PRP) preparation included bleeding of 8 ml of blood from patient's peripheral vein in Regen Lab© tubes containing sodium citrate anticoagulant. The whole blood was centrifugated at 1500 g during 3 min. As Regen-tubes contained a special gel separator, 99 % of red blood cells were discarded from the plasma at the bottom of the gel, and >90% of platelets were harvested in 4 ml of plasma on the top of the gel, called the platelet-rich plasma (PRP). The purified fat prepared by Coleman technique was mixed with different amount of PRP for in vitro, in vivo (mice) and clinical experiments: >50% of PRP for skin rejuvenation, superficial scars correction, infraorbital region, ..., and for 20% of PRP with 80% of purified fat for deep filler indication (nasolabial folds, lips, or soft tissue defect). In vitro studies demonstrated that PRP increased fat cells survival rate and stem cells differentiation. Animal models showed that fat graft survival rate was significantly increased by addition of PRP. Several clinical cases confirmed the improvement of wound healing and fat grafting survival in facial reconstruction and aesthetic cases by association of

  9. DATMAN: A reliability data analysis program using Bayesian updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, M.; Feltus, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Preventive maintenance (PM) techniques focus on the prevention of failures, in particular, system components that are important to plant functions. Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) improves on the PM techniques by introducing a set of guidelines by which to evaluate the system functions. It also minimizes intrusive maintenance, labor, and equipment downtime without sacrificing system performance when its function is essential for plant safety. Both the PM and RCM approaches require that system reliability data be updated as more component failures and operation time are acquired. Systems reliability and the likelihood of component failures can be calculated by Bayesian statistical methods, which can update these data. The DATMAN computer code has been developed at Penn State to simplify the Bayesian analysis by performing tedious calculations needed for RCM reliability analysis. DATMAN reads data for updating, fits a distribution that best fits the data, and calculates component reliability. DATMAN provides a user-friendly interface menu that allows the user to choose from several common prior and posterior distributions, insert new failure data, and visually select the distribution that matches the data most accurately

  10. Small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis through negatively regulating pre-mRNA processing factor 19 (Prp19.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Lu

    Full Text Available Apoptosis is a regulated cellular suicide program that is critical for the development and maintenance of healthy tissues. Previous studies have shown that small kinetochore associated protein (SKAP cooperates with kinetochore and mitotic spindle proteins to regulate mitosis. However, the role of SKAP in apoptosis has not been investigated. We have identified a new interaction involving SKAP, and we propose a mechanism through which SKAP regulates cell apoptosis. Our experiments demonstrate that both overexpression and knockdown of SKAP sensitize cells to UV-induced apoptosis. Further study has revealed that SKAP interacts with Pre-mRNA processing Factor 19 (Prp19. We find that UV-induced apoptosis can be inhibited by ectopic expression of Prp19, whereas silencing Prp19 has the opposite effect. Additionally, SKAP negatively regulates the protein levels of Prp19, whereas Prp19 does not alter SKAP expression. Finally, rescue experiments demonstrate that the pro-apoptotic role of SKAP is executed through Prp19. Taken together, these findings suggest that SKAP promotes UV-induced cell apoptosis by negatively regulating the anti-apoptotic protein Prp19.

  11. Developing a system engineering program to improve performance and reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuter, D.

    1985-01-01

    After several maintenance, operational, and equipment problems last year, Trojan set out on a mission to improve plant performance and reliability by strengthening its on-site engineering organization. This paper presents Trojan's plans in developing an on-site system engineering organization

  12. EDF/EPRI collaborative program on operator reliability experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villemeur, A.; Meslin, T.; Mosneron, F.; Worledge, D.H.; Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Electricite de France (EDF) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have been involved in human reliability studies over the last few years, in the context of improvements in human reliability assessment (HRA) methodologies, and have been following a systematic process since 1982 which consists of addressing the following five ingredients: - First, classify human interactions into a limited number of classes. - Second, introduce an acceptable framework to organize the application of HRA to PRA studies. - Third, select approach(es) to quantification. - Fourth, test promising models. - Fifth, establish an appropriate data base for tested model(s) with regard to specific applications. EPRI has just recently completed Phase I of the fourth topic. This primarily focused on testing the fundamental hypotheses behing the human cognitive reliability (HCR) correlation, using power plant simulators. EDF has been carrying out simulator studies since 1980, both for man-machine interface validation and HRA data collection. This background of experience provided a stepping stone for the EPRI project. On the other hand, before 1986, EDF had mainly been concentrating on getting qualitative insights from the tests and lacked experience in quantitative analysis and modeling, while EPRI had made advances in this latter area. Before the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) project was initiated, it was abundantly clear to EPRI and EDF that cooperation between the two could be useful and that both parties could gain from the cooperation

  13. Reliability studies for the nuclear-powered artificial heart program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, M.; Zeigler, R.K.

    1976-04-01

    By assuming that the failures of an artificial heart system with a mean life of 10 y can be modeled by a particular probability distribution, both the probability of a failure in the system within t years and the reliability required of each subsystem and component were investigated

  14. Reliability program plan for the Isotope Brayton Ground Demonstration System (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The reliability and quality assurance organizational relationships, the methods to be used, the tasks to be completed, and the documentation to be published are presented. The total program is intended to provide the necessary reliability and quality assurance associated with the design, fabrication, and testing of the GDS. It is consistent with the general objectives of the ERDA Quality Assurance (QA) program requirements document ''SNS-1'' dated April 1972 and reliability program requirements document ''SNS-2'' dated 17 June 1974 but has been specifically modified for the GDS with the intent of establishing background data for the subsequent Phase II effort

  15. The Reliable Replacement Warhead Program: Background and Current Developments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medalia, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    ...), part of a larger Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP), replaces components. Modifying some components would require a nuclear test, but the United States has observed a test moratorium since 1992...

  16. Use of reliability data for QA program evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.B.

    1985-01-01

    Possible analytical approaches for evaluation of the effectiveness in the operation of US commercial nuclear power plants are discussed. These approaches may be based on key plant component performance comparisons, correlation models, or comprehensive cost-benefit evaluation frameworks. As plant availability and reliability data must be used to quantify the models, the quality of these data conditions the amount of information that can ultimately be extracted. The potential impact of uncertainties in the data must be considered carefully, especially before application of the more complex models. 10 refs., 4 tabs

  17. Development of reliability program for emergency diesel generators in domestic nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ho; Jung, Hyun Jong; Choi, Kwang Hee; Hong, Seoung Yeul

    2001-01-01

    Surveillance tests of Emergency Diesel Generators (EDGs) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) have been conducted periodically to verify the reliability and integrity of the EDGs, however, it was found that these surveillance methods were so conservative and severe as to accelerate the degradation of the EDGs. Hence, new regulatory guideline, Reg. Guide 1.9 Rev. 3, was established by the U.S. NRC to resolve these problems. But it requires the additional implementation of reliability program of the EDGs to improve the actual reliability of them. In Korea, the EDGs of Yonggwang nuclear units 3 and 4 were the first plant applying new Reg. guide 1.9 rev.3 and implementing EDG reliability program. Furthermore it is expected that new guideline for the EDGs will be applied to other EDGs of Korean NPPs. In this paper, this reliability program is described, and it can be used as a reference for other EDGs in Korean NPPs

  18. Flash Memory Reliability: Read, Program, and Erase Latency Versus Endurance Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidecker, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This report documents the efforts and results of the fiscal year (FY) 2010 NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging Program (NEPP) task for nonvolatile memory (NVM) reliability. This year's focus was to measure latency (read, program, and erase) of NAND Flash memories and determine how these parameters drift with erase/program/read endurance cycling.

  19. Intraobserver and intermethod reliability for using two different computer programs in preoperative lower limb alignment analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kenawey

    2016-12-01

    Conclusion: Computer assisted lower limb alignment analysis is reliable whether using graphics editing program or specialized planning software. However slight higher variability for angles away from the knee joint can be expected.

  20. Reliability-based maintenance evaluations and standard preventive maintenance programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varno, M.; McKinley, M.

    1993-01-01

    Due to recent issuance of 10CFR50.65, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission maintenance rule (Rule), and the open-quotes Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plantsclose quotes prepared by the Nuclear Management and Resources Council, many utilities are undertaking review or evaluation of current preventive maintenance (PM) programs. Although PM optimization and documentation are not specifically required by the Rule, an appropriate and effective PM program (PMP) will be the cornerstone of the successful and cost-effective implementation of the Rule. Currently, a project is being conducted at the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VYNPS) in conjunction with Quadrex Energy Services to evaluate, optimize, and document the PMP. The project began in March 1993 and is scheduled for completion in mid-1995. The initial scope for the project is the evaluation of those structures, systems, and components that are within the scope of the Rule. Because of the number of systems to be evaluated (∼50), the desired completion schedule, and cost considerations, a streamlined approach to PM optimization and documentation is being utilized

  1. Microgrid Reliability Modeling and Battery Scheduling Using Stochastic Linear Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; DeForest, Nicholas; Barbosa-Povoa, Ana; Ferrao, Paulo

    2013-05-23

    This paper describes the introduction of stochastic linear programming into Operations DER-CAM, a tool used to obtain optimal operating schedules for a given microgrid under local economic and environmental conditions. This application follows previous work on optimal scheduling of a lithium-iron-phosphate battery given the output uncertainty of a 1 MW molten carbonate fuel cell. Both are in the Santa Rita Jail microgrid, located in Dublin, California. This fuel cell has proven unreliable, partially justifying the consideration of storage options. Several stochastic DER-CAM runs are executed to compare different scenarios to values obtained by a deterministic approach. Results indicate that using a stochastic approach provides a conservative yet more lucrative battery schedule. Lower expected energy bills result, given fuel cell outages, in potential savings exceeding 6percent.

  2. RCM [reliability-centered maintenance] at Ginna: Preventive maintenance program optimization at year 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgar, E.C.

    1989-01-01

    The reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) program at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric Company's Ginna station is entering its second year. Of the 20 systems originally selected for evaluation, 10 are in various stages of completion, and recommendations resulting from the earliest systems studied are now being implemented. As expected, few major discoveries have been made in terms of preventive maintenance program failings or excesses. The performance of the now 20-yr-old plant has been excellent in recent years, and objectives focus more on ensuring continued high standards of safety, reliability, and economy than on maintenance program cost reduction

  3. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  4. Development of a Reliability Program approach to assuring operational nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, C.J.; Bezella, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    A Reliability Program (RP) model based on proven reliability techniques used in other high technology industries is being formulated for potential application in the nuclear power industry. Research findings are discussed. The reliability methods employed under NASA and military direction, commercial airline and related FAA programs were surveyed with several reliability concepts (e.g., quantitative reliability goals, reliability centered maintenance) appearing to be directly transferable. Other tasks in the RP development effort involved the benchmarking and evaluation of the existing nuclear regulations and practices relevant to safety/reliability integration. A review of current risk-dominant issues was also conducted using results from existing probabilistic risk assessment studies. The ongoing RP development tasks have concentrated on defining a RP for the operating phase of a nuclear plant's lifecycle. The RP approach incorporates safety systems risk/reliability analysis and performance monitoring activities with dedicated tasks that integrate these activities with operating, surveillance, and maintenance of the plant. The detection, root-cause evaluation and before-the-fact correction of incipient or actual systems failures as a mechanism for maintaining plant safety is a major objective of the RP

  5. Reliability and safety program plan outline for the operational phase of a waste isolation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammer, H.G.; Wood, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    A Reliability and Safety Program plan outline has been prepared for the operational phase of a Waste Isolation Facility. The program includes major functions of risk assessment, technical support activities, quality assurance, operational safety, configuration monitoring, reliability analysis and support and coordination meetings. Detailed activity or task descriptions are included for each function. Activities are time-phased and presented in the PERT format for scheduling and interactions. Task descriptions include manloading, travel, and computer time estimates to provide data for future costing. The program outlined here will be used to provide guidance from a reliability and safety standpoint to design, procurement, construction, and operation of repositories for nuclear waste. These repositories are to be constructed under the National Waste Terminal Storage program under the direction of the Office of Waste Isolation, Union Carbide Corp. Nuclear Division

  6. Long-term trends in invasive Haemophilus influenzae type B disease among indigenous Australian children following use of PRP-OMP and PRP-T vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Robert Ian; Bremner, Kyla Margaret; Wang, Han; Beard, Frank Hudson; McIntyre, Peter Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Among indigenous populations with high incidence and early onset of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease, PRP-OMP vaccines are used in the United States and PRP-T vaccines in Canada. In Australia, PRP-OMP vaccines were exclusively used in indigenous children from 1993 until they were replaced by PRP-T between late 2005 and 2009. Analytic descriptive study of 20 years of enhanced surveillance data (1993-2013) for invasive Hib disease in Australian children PRP-OMP period (1993-1996) to 6.2 (95% CI: 4.0, 9.2) and 4.7 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.3) in the later PRP-OMP (1996-2009) and PRP-T periods (2009-2013), respectively. The indigenous:nonindigenous incidence rate ratio increased to 43 (95% CI: 16, 145) and 58 (95% CI: 7, 2660) in the later PRP-OMP and PRP-T periods, respectively, more than 10-fold higher than in lesser-incidence Australian regions. We found no change in Hib incidence among indigenous Australian children living in high-incidence regions in the first 4 years following a change to PRP-T-containing combination vaccines. This may be of relevance to North American indigenous populations characterized by suboptimal living conditions and young age of onset for whom PRP-OMP continues to be recommended, such as Alaska Natives.

  7. John F. Kennedy Space Center, Safety, Reliability, Maintainability and Quality Assurance, Survey and Audit Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This document is the product of the KSC Survey and Audit Working Group composed of civil service and contractor Safety, Reliability, and Quality Assurance (SR&QA) personnel. The program described herein provides standardized terminology, uniformity of survey and audit operations, and emphasizes process assessments rather than a program based solely on compliance. The program establishes minimum training requirements, adopts an auditor certification methodology, and includes survey and audit metrics for the audited organizations as well as the auditing organization.

  8. Comparative reliability of structured versus unstructured interviews in the admission process of a residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle; Day, Andrew G; Pavlov, Andrey

    2011-12-01

    Although never directly compared, structured interviews are reported as being more reliable than unstructured interviews. This study compared the reliability of both types of interview when applied to a common pool of applicants for positions in an emergency medicine residency program. In 2008, one structured interview was added to the two unstructured interviews traditionally used in our resident selection process. A formal job analysis using the critical incident technique guided the development of the structured interview tool. This tool consisted of 7 scenarios assessing 4 of the domains deemed essential for success as a resident in this program. The traditional interview tool assessed 5 general criteria. In addition to these criteria, the unstructured panel members were asked to rate each candidate on the same 4 essential domains rated by the structured panel members. All 3 panels interviewed all candidates. Main outcomes were the overall, interitem, and interrater reliabilities, the correlations between interview panels, and the dimensionality of each interview tool. Thirty candidates were interviewed. The overall reliability reached 0.43 for the structured interview, and 0.81 and 0.71 for the unstructured interviews. Analyses of the variance components showed a high interrater, low interitem reliability for the structured interview, and a high interrater, high interitem reliability for the unstructured interviews. The summary measures from the 2 unstructured interviews were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with the structured interview. Only the structured interview was multidimensional. A structured interview did not yield a higher overall reliability than both unstructured interviews. The lower reliability is explained by a lower interitem reliability, which in turn is due to the multidimensionality of the interview tool. Both unstructured panels consistently rated a single dimension, even when prompted to assess the 4 specific domains

  9. PRP Comments for ICF Q1/Q2 FY17 Experiments 3/10/16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffman, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-14

    The PRP generally endorsed the Program plan during the short time for discussions. We agree that the strategy to develop a hohlraum that is symmetric and has low laser-plasma instabilities and to develop an alternative method for supporting the capsule is the best path forward for making progress in understanding ignition performance. The Program is oriented toward a milestone in 2020 for “determining the efficacy of NIF for ignition and credible physics-scaling to multi-megajoule yields for all ICF approaches.” We are concerned that the time and resources are not sufficient to vet all of the various approaches that are being pursued to make an informed decision by this date. For NIF to meet this goal, a process will be needed to to select the most promising paths forward. We recommend that the Program develop this process for selecting the path forward to optimize resources. We were glad to see that the direct drive program took our comments under consideration. We think that the proposed experiments have the program headed in a better direction. The PRP had only a short time to discuss the detailed experimental proposals. The following are comments on the detailed proposals. We did not have time to discuss them as a group. They represent individual opinions and provided to you as feedback to your proposals.

  10. The INEL Human Reliability Program: The first two years of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minner, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    This paper provides a review of the design, implementation, and operation of the INEL Human Reliability Program from January 1984 through June of 1986. Human Reliability Programs are defined in terms of the ''insider threat'' to security of nuclear facilities. The design of HRP's are discussed with special attention given the special challenge of the disgruntled employee. Each component of an HRP is reviewed noting pitfalls and opportunities with each: drug testing of applicants and incumbents, psychological evaluation by management, security clearance procedures and administration including the use of an Employee Review Board to recommend action prior to final management decision

  11. Reliability database development for use with an object-oriented fault tree evaluation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heger, A. Sharif; Harringtton, Robert J.; Koen, Billy V.; Patterson-Hine, F. Ann

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of the development of a fault-tree analysis method using object-oriented programming. In addition, the authors discuss the programs that have been developed or are under development to connect a fault-tree analysis routine to a reliability database. To assess the performance of the routines, a relational database simulating one of the nuclear power industry databases has been constructed. For a realistic assessment of the results of this project, the use of one of existing nuclear power reliability databases is planned.

  12. Intra-articular laser treatment plus Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) significantly reduces pain in many patients who had failed prior PRP treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodromos, Chadwick C.; Finkle, Susan; Dawes, Alexander; Dizon, Angelo

    2018-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: In our practice Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injections effectively reduce pain in most but not all arthritic patients. However, for patients who fail PRP treatment, no good alternative currently exists except total joint replacement surgery. Low level laser therapy (LLLT) on the surface of the skin has not been helpful for arthritis patients in our experience. However, we hypothesized that intra-articular laser treatment would be an effective augmentation to PRP injection and would increase its efficacy in patients who had failed prior PRP injection alone. METHODS: We offered Intra-articular Low Level Laser Therapy (IAL) treatment in conjunction with repeat PRP injection to patients who had received no benefit from PRP injection alone at our center. They were the treatment group. They were not charged for PRP or IAL. They also served as a historical control group since they had all had failed PRP treatment alone. 28 patients (30 joints) accepted treatment after informed consent. 22 knees, 4 hips, 2 shoulder glenohumeral joints and 1 first carpo-metacarpal (1st CMC) joint were treated RESULTS: All patients were followed up at 1 month and no adverse events were seen from the treatment. At 6 months post treatment 46% of patients had good outcomes, and at 1 year 17% still showed improvement after treatment. 11 patients failed treatment and went on to joint replacement. DISCUSSION: A single treatment of IAL with PRP salvaged 46% of patients who had failed PRP treatment alone, allowing avoidance of surgery and good pain control.

  13. Purification and Fibrillation of Full-Length Recombinant PrP

    OpenAIRE

    Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V.

    2012-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion protein (PrP) is related to several neurodegenerative diseases in humans such as Creutzfeldt–Jacob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and Gerstmann–Straussler–Sheinker disease. Certain applications in prion area require recombinant PrP of high purity and quality. Here, we report an experimental procedure for expression and purification of full-length mammalian PrP. This protocol has been proved to yield PrP of extremely high purity that lac...

  14. PRP: The Proven Solution for Cleaning Up Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The basic technology behind PRP is thousands of microcapsules, tiny balls of beeswax with hollow centers. Water cannot penetrate the microcapsule s cell, but oil is absorbed right into the beeswax spheres as they float on the water s surface. This way, the contaminants, chemical compounds that originally come from crude oil such as fuels, motor oils, or petroleum hydrocarbons, are caught before they settle. PRP works well as a loose powder for cleaning up contaminants in lakes and other ecologically fragile areas. The powder can be spread over a contaminated body of water or soil, and it will absorb contaminants, contain them in isolation, and dispose of them safely. In water, it is important that PRP floats and keeps the oil on the surface, because, even if oil exposure is not immediately lethal, it can cause long-term harm if allowed to settle. Bottom-dwelling fish exposed to compounds released after oil spills may develop liver disease, in addition to reproductive and growth problems. This use of PRP is especially effective for environmental cleanup in sensitive areas like coral reefs and mangroves.

  15. Reliability of a structured interview for admission to an emergency medicine residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Danielle

    2010-10-01

    Interviews are most important in resident selection. Structured interviews are more reliable than unstructured ones. We sought to measure the interrater reliability of a newly designed structured interview during the selection process to an Emergency Medicine residency program. The critical incident technique was used to extract the desired dimensions of performance. The interview tool consisted of 7 clinical scenarios and 1 global rating. Three trained interviewers marked each candidate on all scenarios without discussing candidates' responses. Interitem consistency and estimates of variance were computed. Twenty-eight candidates were interviewed. The generalizability coefficient was 0.67. Removing the central tendency ratings increased the coefficient to 0.74. Coefficients of interitem consistency ranged from 0.64 to 0.74. The structured interview tool provided good although suboptimal interrater reliability. Increasing the number of scenarios improves reliability as does applying differential weights to the rating scale anchors. The latter would also facilitate the identification of those candidates with extreme ratings.

  16. PrP Conformational Transitions Alter Species Preference of a PrP-specific antibody

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zou, W.Q.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Xiao, X.; Chen, S.; McGeer, P.L.; Yuan, J.; Payne, M.C.; Kang, H.E.; McGeehan, J.M.; Sy, M.S.; Greenspan, N.S.; Kaplan, D.; Wang, G.X.; Parchi, P.; Hoover, E.A.; Kneale, G.; Telling, G.; Surewicz, W.; Kong, Q.; Guo, J.

    2010-01-01

    The epitope of the 3F4 antibody most commonly used in human prion disease diagnosis is believed to consist of residues Met-Lys-His-Met (MKHM) corresponding to human PrP-(109–112). This assumption is based mainly on the observation that 3F4 reacts with human and hamster PrP but not with PrP from

  17. Quantitating PrP Polymorphisms Present in Prions from Heterozygous Scrapie-Infected Sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Christopher J; Erickson-Beltran, Melissa L; Hui, Colleen; Badiola, Juan José; Nicholson, Eric M; Requena, Jesús R; Bolea, Rosa

    2017-01-03

    Scrapie is a prion (PrP Sc ) disease of sheep. The incubation period of sheep scrapie is strongly influenced by polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of a sheep's normal cellular prion protein (PrP C ). Chymotrypsin was used to digest sheep recombinant PrP to identify a set of characteristic peptides [M 132 LGSXMSRPL 141 (X = A or V), Y 153 XENMY 158 (X,= H or R), and Y 166 RPVDXY 172 (X = H, K, Q, or R)] that could be used to detect and quantitate polymorphisms at positions 136, 154, and 171 of sheep PrP C or PrP Sc . These peptides were used to develop a multiple reaction monitoring method (MRM) to detect the amounts of a particular polymorphism in a sample of PrP Sc isolated from sheep heterozygous for their PrP C proteins. The limit of detection for these peptides was less than 50 attomole. Spinal cord tissue from heterozygous (ARQ/VRQ or ARH/ARQ) scrapie-infected Rasa Aragonesa sheep was analyzed using this MRM method. Both sets of heterozygotes show the presence of both polymorphisms in PrP Sc . This was true for samples containing both proteinase K (PK)-sensitive and PK-resistant PrP Sc and samples containing only the PK-resistant PrP Sc . These results show that heterozygous animals contain PrP Sc that is composed of significant amounts of both PrP polymorphisms.

  18. EPRI (Electric Power Research Institute) operator reliability experiments program - Training implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joksimovich, V.; Spurgin, A.J.; Orvis, D.D.; Moieni, P.; Worledge, D.H.

    1990-01-01

    The primary purpose of the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) Program is to collect data for use in reliability and safety studies of nuclear power plant operation to more realistically take credit for operator performance in preventing core damage. The two objectives for fulfilling this purpose are: (1) to obtain quantitative/qualitative performance data on operating crew responses in the control room for potential accident sequences by using plant simulators, and (2) to test the Human Cognitive Reliability (HCR) correlation. This paper briefly discusses the background to this program, data collection and analysis, the results and quantitative/qualitative insights stemming from phase one which might be of interest to simulator operators and trainers

  19. Reliability programs for nuclear power plants. Regulatory standard S-98 revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-07-01

    The purpose of this regulatory standard is to help assure, in accordance with the purpose of the Nuclear Safety and Control Act (NSCA), that a licensee who constructs or operates a nuclear power plant (NPP) develops and implements a reliability program that assures that the systems important to safety at the plant can and will meet their defined design and performance specifications at acceptable levels of reliability throughout the lifetime of the facility. This regulatory standard describes the requirements of a reliability program for a nuclear power plant. The licensee shall implement the requirements described in this regulatory standard when a condition of a licence or other legally enforceable instrument so requires.(author)

  20. 48 CFR 1852.246-70 - Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Mission Critical Space... CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 1852.246-70 Mission Critical Space System Personnel Reliability Program. As prescribed in 1846.370(a), insert the following clause: Mission Critical Space System...

  1. Value-Added Models for Teacher Preparation Programs: Validity and Reliability Threats, and a Manageable Alternative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Michael P.; Heiser, Lawrence A.; McCormick, Jazarae K.; Forgan, James

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes standardized student assessments are increasingly used in value-added evaluation models to connect teacher performance to P-12 student learning. These assessments are also being used to evaluate teacher preparation programs, despite validity and reliability threats. A more rational model linking student performance to candidates who…

  2. reliability reliability

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Corresponding author, Tel: +234-703. RELIABILITY .... V , , given by the code of practice. However, checks must .... an optimization procedure over the failure domain F corresponding .... of Concrete Members based on Utility Theory,. Technical ...

  3. Substation design improvement with a probabilistic reliability approach using the TOPASE program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulot, M.; Heroin, G.; Bergerot, J-L.; Le Du, M. [Electricite de France (France)

    1997-12-31

    TOPASE, (the French acronym for Probabilistic Tools and Data Processing for the Analysis of Electric Systems), developed by Electricite de France (EDF) to perform reliability studies on transmission substations, was described. TOPASE serves a dual objective of assisting in the automation of HV substation studies, as well as enabling electrical systems experts who are not necessarily specialists in reliability studies to perform such studies. The program is capable of quantifying the occurrence rate of undesirable events and of identifying critical equipment and the main incident scenarios. The program can be used to improve an existing substation, to choose an HV structure during the design stage, or to choose a system of protective devices. Data collected during 1996 and 1997 will be analyzed to identify useful experiences and to validate the basic concepts of the program. 4 figs.

  4. Planning and implementation of reliability/quality programs to energy plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quenon, J.

    1986-01-01

    Quality Assurance principles have long been applied in part to many varied industrial enterprises. The advent of commercial nuclear power brought the evolution of a more comprehensive approach to the applications of quality assurance programs in this industry. However, the application philosophy was almost totally aimed at assuring the safety of the worker and the public. Recently, there has been a strong movement by industries and business in the U.S. and Europe to apply quality assurance in a more general way to assure overall reliability as well as safety. This paper describes an approach to enable management to not only make initial determinations of how to apply the elements of a reliability/quality assurance program, but how to continuously adjust the program to optimize the benefits that can be obtained

  5. Analysis and recommendations for a reliable programming of software based safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunez McLeod, J.; Nunez McLeod, J.E.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    The present paper summarizes the results of several studies performed for the development of high software on i486 microprocessors, towards its utilization for control and safety systems for nuclear power plants. The work is based on software programmed in C language. Several recommendations oriented to high reliability software are analyzed, relating the requirements on high level language to its influence on assembler level. Several metrics are implemented, that allow for the quantification of the results achieved. New metrics were developed and other were adapted, in order to obtain more efficient indexes for the software description. Such metrics are helpful to visualize the adaptation of the software under development to the quality rules under use. A specific program developed to assist the reliability analyst on this quantification is also present in the paper. It performs the analysis of an executable program written in C language, disassembling it and evaluating its inter al structures. (author)

  6. Identification of PrP sequences essential for the interaction between the PrP polymers and Aβ peptide in a yeast-based assay

    OpenAIRE

    Rubel, Aleksandr A; Ryzhova, Tatyana A; Antonets, Kirill S; Chernoff, Yury O; Galkin, Alexey P

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is associated with the accumulation of oligomeric amyloid β peptide (Aβ), accompanied by synaptic dysfunction and neuronal death. Polymeric form of prion protein (PrP), PrPSc, is implicated in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Recently, it was shown that the monomeric cellular form of PrP (PrPC), located on the neuron surface, binds Aβ oligomers (and possibly other β-rich conformers) via the PrP23–27 and PrP90–110 segments, acting as Aβ receptor. On the other...

  7. Ubiquitin Ligase gp78 Targets Unglycosylated Prion Protein PrP for Ubiquitylation and Degradation

    OpenAIRE

    Shao, Jia; Choe, Vitnary; Cheng, Haili; Tsai, Yien Che; Weissman, Allan M.; Luo, Shiwen; Rao, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Prion protein PrP is a central player in several devastating neurodegenerative disorders, including mad cow disease and Creutzfeltd-Jacob disease. Conformational alteration of PrP into an aggregation-prone infectious form PrPSc can trigger pathogenic events. How levels of PrP are regulated is poorly understood. Human PrP is known to be degraded by the proteasome, but the specific proteolytic pathway responsible for PrP destruction remains elusive. Here, we demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligas...

  8. Reliability and integrity management program for PBMR helium pressure boundary components - HTR2008-58036

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, K. N.; Gamble, R.; Gosselin, S.; Fletcher, J.; Broom, N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a study to establish strategies for the reliability and integrity management (RIM) of passive metallic components for the PBMR. The RIM strategies investigated include design elements, leak detection and testing approaches, and non-destructive examinations. Specific combinations of strategies are determined to be necessary and sufficient to achieve target reliability goals for passive components. This study recommends a basis for the RIM program for the PBMR Demonstration Power Plant (DPP) and provides guidance for the development by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) of RIM requirements for Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors (MHRs). (authors)

  9. Reliability of an Automated High-Resolution Manometry Analysis Program across Expert Users, Novice Users, and Speech-Language Pathologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corinne A.; Hoffman, Matthew R.; Geng, Zhixian; Abdelhalim, Suzan M.; Jiang, Jack J.; McCulloch, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate inter- and intrarater reliability among expert users, novice users, and speech-language pathologists with a semiautomated high-resolution manometry analysis program. We hypothesized that all users would have high intrarater reliability and high interrater reliability. Method: Three expert…

  10. Department of Defense need for a micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability assessment program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunino, James L., III; Skelton, Donald

    2005-01-01

    As the United States (U.S.) Army transforms into a lighter, more lethal, and more agile force, the technologies that support both legacy and emerging weapon systems must decrease in size while increasing in intelligence. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) are one such technology that the Army as well as entire DOD will heavily rely on in achieving these objectives. Current and future military applications of MEMS devices include safety and arming devices, guidance systems, sensors/detectors, inertial measurement units, tracking devices, radio frequency devices, wireless radio frequency identification (RFID), etc. Even though the reliance on MEMS devices has been increasing, there have been no studies performed to determine their reliability and failure mechanisms. Furthermore, no standardized test protocols exist for assessing reliability. Accordingly, the U.S. Army Corrosion Office at Picatinny, NJ has initiated the MEMS Reliability Assessment Program to address this issue.

  11. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonglin Yuan

    Full Text Available Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1 βk ≥ 0 2 the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3 the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  12. Two New PRP Conjugate Gradient Algorithms for Minimization Optimization Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Duan, Xiabin; Liu, Wenjie; Wang, Xiaoliang; Cui, Zengru; Sheng, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Two new PRP conjugate Algorithms are proposed in this paper based on two modified PRP conjugate gradient methods: the first algorithm is proposed for solving unconstrained optimization problems, and the second algorithm is proposed for solving nonlinear equations. The first method contains two aspects of information: function value and gradient value. The two methods both possess some good properties, as follows: 1) βk ≥ 0 2) the search direction has the trust region property without the use of any line search method 3) the search direction has sufficient descent property without the use of any line search method. Under some suitable conditions, we establish the global convergence of the two algorithms. We conduct numerical experiments to evaluate our algorithms. The numerical results indicate that the first algorithm is effective and competitive for solving unconstrained optimization problems and that the second algorithm is effective for solving large-scale nonlinear equations.

  13. An efficient particle swarm approach for mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy optimization applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos

    2009-01-01

    The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature

  14. An efficient particle swarm approach for mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy optimization applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br

    2009-04-15

    The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature.

  15. A reliability program for emergency diesel generators at nuclear power plants: Maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lofgren, E.V.; Henderson, W.; Burghardt, D.; Kripps, L.; Rothleder, B.

    1988-12-01

    This report is a companion report on NUREG/CR-5078, Volume 1, ''A Reliability Program for Emergency Diesel Generators at Nuclear Power Plants: Program Structure.'' The purpose of this report is to provide technical findings and insights related to: failure evaluation, troubleshooting, maintenance, surveillance, and condition monitoring. Examples and recommendations are provided for each of these areas based on actual emergency diesel generator (EDG) operating experience and the opinions of diesel generator experts. This report expands the more general guidance provided in Volume 1. In addition, a discussion of EDG interactions with other plant systems (e.g., instrument, air, service water, dc power) is provided since experience has shown that these support systems and their operation can adversely affect EDG reliability. Portions of this report have been designed for use by onsite personnel for evaluating operational characteristics of EDGs. 5 refs., 8 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Indian program for development of technologies relevant to reliable, non-intrusive, concealed-contraband detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auluck, S.K.H.

    2007-01-01

    Generating capability for reliable, non-intrusive detection of concealed-contraband, particularly, organic contraband like explosives and narcotics, has become a national priority. This capability spans a spectrum of technologies. If a technology mission addressing the needs of a highly sophisticated technology like PFNA is set up, the capabilities acquired would be adequate to meet the requirements of many other sets of technologies. This forms the background of the Indian program for development of technologies relevant to reliable, non-intrusive, concealed contraband detection. One of the central themes of the technology development programs would be modularization of the neutron source and detector technologies, so that common elements can be combined in different ways for meeting a variety of application requirements. (author)

  17. Study of PrP - I heterogeneous equilibrium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasil'eva, I.G.; Mironov, K.E.; Tarasenko, A.D.

    1976-01-01

    Using static methods the authors have measured the equilibrium vapor pressure in the system PrP+I 2 at different temperatures and different initial iodine concentrations. The equilibrium reactions in the system have been determined. The reaction of PrP with iodine is irreversible. The content of PrI 3 and I 2 in the gas phase is negligible. The pressure in the system is determined by the partial pressure of phosphorus

  18. Evaluating the reliability of uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements via an interlaboratory comparison program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Junior, Olivio Pereira de; Oliveira, Inez Cristina de; Pereira, Marcia Regina; Tanabe, Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear fuel cycle is a strategic area for the Brazilian development because it is associated with the generation of electricity needed to boost the country economy. Uranium is one the chemical elements in this cycle and its concentration and isotope composition must be accurately known. In this present work, the reliability of the uranium concentration and isotope ratio measurements carried out at the CTMSP analytical laboratories is evaluated by the results obtained in an international interlaboratory comparison program. (author)

  19. Guide for monitoring effectiveness of utility Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midgett, W.D.; Wilson, J.F.; Krochmal, D.F.; Owsenek, L.W.

    1991-02-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) programs help utilities optimize preventive maintenance efforts while improving plant safety and economy through increased dependability of plant components. The project team developed this guide and accompanying methodology based on status updates from the Ginna and San Onofre demonstration projects. These updates addressed areas ranging from system selection to the effectiveness of RCM program implementation. In addition, the team incorporated information from a 12-utility survey soliciting opinions on the need for a methodology to monitor RCM cost-effectiveness. An analysis of the 12-utility survey showed that no techniques had been developed to measure RCM program cost-effectiveness. Thus, this guide addresses two key areas: Pros and cons of various monitoring techniques available to assess the overall effectiveness of RCM and a methodology for specifically evaluating the cost-effectiveness of RCM programs. 1 fig

  20. A DTAP–IPV//PRP~T VACCINE: A REVIEW OF 16 YEARS’ CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley A. Plotkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Owing to their low reactogenicity, confirmed efficacy and availability in combination vaccines, acellular pertussis (aP-inactivated poliovirus (IPV combined vaccines are now included in various national immunization programs worldwide. We provide an overview of 16 years of clinical experience with a diphtheria (D, tetanus (T, aP, IPV and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib polysaccharide conjugated to tetanus protein (PRP~T combined vaccine (DTaP–IPV//PRP~T — Pentaxim, Sanofi Pasteur, France. Good immunogenicity has been demonstrated after primary vaccination with Pentaxim, regardless of the population ethnicity and primary vaccination schedule. A booster vaccination in the second year of life also resulted in a high immune response for each antigen. Furthermore, 10 years of national surveillance in Sweden has demonstrated the effectiveness of Pentaxim in controlling pertussis. As is the case for other aP-containing combined vaccines, Pentaxim is well tolerated, with the safety profile being better than for whole-cell pertussiscontaining combination vaccines for primary and booster vaccinations.

  1. Designing time-of-use program based on stochastic security constrained unit commitment considering reliability index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Bashirvand, Mahdi; Solaymani, Soodabeh; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Recently in electricity markets, a massive focus has been made on setting up opportunities for participating demand side. Such opportunities, also known as demand response (DR) options, are triggered by either a grid reliability problem or high electricity prices. Two important challenges that market operators are facing are appropriate designing and reasonable pricing of DR options. In this paper, time-of-use program (TOU) as a prevalent time-varying program is modeled linearly based on own and cross elasticity definition. In order to decide on TOU rates, a stochastic model is proposed in which the optimum TOU rates are determined based on grid reliability index set by the operator. Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate reliability of the power system in each hour. The proposed stochastic model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (SMILP) problem and solved using CPLEX solver. The validity of the method is tested over the IEEE 24-bus test system. In this regard, the impact of the proposed pricing method on system load profile; operational costs and required capacity of up- and down-spinning reserve as well as improvement of load factor is demonstrated. Also the sensitivity of the results to elasticity coefficients is investigated. -- Highlights: ► Time-of-use demand response program is linearly modeled. ► A stochastic model is proposed to determine the optimum TOU rates based on ELNS index set by the operator. ► The model is formulated as a short-term two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem.

  2. Impact of local anaesthetics and needle calibres used for painless PRP injections on platelet functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausset, Olivier; Magalon, Jeremy; Giraudo, Laurent; Louis, Marie-Laure; Serratrice, Nicolas; Frere, Corrine; Magalon, Guy; Dignat-George, Françoise; Sabatier, Florence

    2014-01-01

    The platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous biotherapy commonly used for its healing properties. Once activated, platelets released a real "cocktail" of growth factor and cytokines implied in numerous regenerative processes. However the impact of medical practices associated to PRP therapeutic use on platelets functionality remains poorly known. we evaluated the in vitro effects of two commonly used local anesthetics (Xylocaine(*) and Naropin(*)) on PRP functionality. We also investigated the quantity and quality of PRP that passed through the smallest gauge needle commercialized. PRP from 9 healthy volunteers were prepared using our previously described home made purification protocol. Platelet aggregation capacity was evaluated by aggregometry assays and the growth factor release was determined by ELISA after platelet activation. We also evaluated the platelet activation status, reactivity and stability of platelets by flow cytometry using the P-selectin expression marker. the association of local anaesthetics with PRP injections resulted in a significant decrease of platelets functionality, assessed by their capacity of aggregating. Local anaesthetics did not interfere with the growth factor release. The different needle sizes and calibres tested for PRP injections did not influence the platelet functionality. the use of local anaesthetics to prevent pain during PRP injections could compromise the therapeutic potential of PRP. These results suggest using carefully local anaesthetics or limiting their use as often is possible. To minimize injection pain, we recommend using 30 G needles. These data will lead to clinical recommendations for painless and controlled PRP injections.

  3. Interaction between 14-3-3β and PrP influences the dimerization of 14-3-3 and fibrillization of PrP106-126.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jun; Song, Qin-Qin; Sun, Peng; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Xu; Song, Juan; Li, Gong-Qi; Liu, Ying-Hui; Mei, Guo-Yong; Shi, Qi; Tian, Chan; Chen, Cao; Gao, Chen; Zhao, Bo; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2014-02-01

    Proteins of the 14-3-3 family are universal participate in multiple cellular processes. However, their exact role in the pathogenesis of prion diseases remains unclear. In this study, we proposed that human PrP was able to form molecular complex with 14-3-3β. The domains responsible for the interactions between PrP and 14-3-3β were mapped at the segments of amino acid (aa) residues 106-126 within PrP and aa 1-38 within 14-3-3β. Homology modeling revealed that the key aa residues for molecular interaction were D22 and D23 in 14-3-3β as well as K110 in PrP. Mutations in these aa residues inhibited the interaction between the two proteins in vitro. Our results also showed that recombinant PrP encouraged 14-3-3β dimer formation, whereas PrP106-126 peptide inhibited it. Recombinant 14-3-3β disaggregated the mature PrP106-126 fibrils in vitro. Moreover, the PrP-14-3-3 protein complexes were observed in the brain tissues of normal and scrapie agent 263K infected hamsters. Colocalization of PrP and 14-3-3 was seen in the cytoplasm of human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y, as well as human cervical cancer cell line HeLa transiently expressing full-length human PrP. Our current data suggest the neuroprotection of PrPC and neuron damage caused by PrPSc may be associated with their functions of 14-3-3 dimerization regulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Status of the reliability centered maintenance program at Ontario Hydro's Bruce 'A' Nuclear Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.

    1995-01-01

    Bruce A started a preventive maintenance (PM) quality improvement program in August of 1991. This initiative was taken to address the concerns expressed by the AECB and the Peer Audits finding. The concerns were on the quality of the Bruce A PM Program and its execution in the field. Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) analysis was selected as the PM program quality improvement and optimization technique. Therefore, RCM became a key component of Bruce A's Integrated PM program and maintenance strategy. As a result of RCM implementation, and improvements in the work planning and scheduling process, Bruce A is seeing downward trends in the corrective maintenance work load, maintenance preventable forced outages, overdue/missed PM tasks and corrective maintenance backlog. Control Room Operators have reported observing an improvement in systems and equipment response to transients. Other benefits include a documented, controlled and traceable PM program. In addition, the team approach required by RCM has started to improve staff confidence in the PM program which, in turn, is improving the compliance with the PM program. (author)

  5. Reliability Analysis of RSG-GAS Primary Cooling System to Support Aging Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deswandri; Subekti, M.; Sunaryo, Geni Rina

    2018-02-01

    Multipurpose Research Reactor G.A. Siwabessy (RSG-GAS) which has been operating since 1987 is one of the main facilities on supporting research, development and application of nuclear energy programs in BATAN. Until now, the RSG-GAS research reactor has been successfully operated safely and securely. However, because it has been operating for nearly 30 years, the structures, systems and components (SSCs) from the reactor would have started experiencing an aging phase. The process of aging certainly causes a decrease in reliability and safe performances of the reactor, therefore the aging management program is needed to resolve the issues. One of the programs in the aging management is to evaluate the safety and reliability of the system and also screening the critical components to be managed.One method that can be used for such purposes is the Fault Tree Analysis (FTA). In this papers FTA method is used to screening the critical components in the RSG-GAS Primary Cooling System. The evaluation results showed that the primary isolation valves are the basic events which are dominant against the system failure.

  6. HGF Mediates the Anti-inflammatory Effects of PRP on Injured Tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianying; Middleton, Kellie K.; Fu, Freddie H.; Im, Hee-Jeong; Wang, James H-C.

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP) however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2. PMID:23840657

  7. HGF mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of PRP on injured tendons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Zhang

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP containing hepatocyte growth factor (HGF and other growth factors are widely used in orthopaedic/sports medicine to repair injured tendons. While PRP treatment is reported to decrease pain in patients with tendon injury, the mechanism of this effect is not clear. Tendon pain is often associated with tendon inflammation, and HGF is known to protect tissues from inflammatory damages. Therefore, we hypothesized that HGF in PRP causes the anti-inflammatory effects. To test this hypothesis, we performed in vitro experiments on rabbit tendon cells and in vivo experiments on a mouse Achilles tendon injury model. We found that addition of PRP or HGF decreased gene expression of COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1, induced by the treatment of tendon cells in vitro with IL-1β. Further, the treatment of tendon cell cultures with HGF antibodies reduced the suppressive effects of PRP or HGF on IL-1β-induced COX-1, COX-2, and mPGES-1 gene expressions. Treatment with PRP or HGF almost completely blocked the cellular production of PGE2 and the expression of COX proteins. Finally, injection of PRP or HGF into wounded mouse Achilles tendons in vivo decreased PGE2 production in the tendinous tissues. Injection of platelet-poor plasma (PPP however, did not reduce PGE2 levels in the wounded tendons, but the injection of HGF antibody inhibited the effects of PRP and HGF. Further, injection of PRP or HGF also decreased COX-1 and COX-2 proteins. These results indicate that PRP exerts anti-inflammatory effects on injured tendons through HGF. This study provides basic scientific evidence to support the use of PRP to treat injured tendons because PRP can reduce inflammation and thereby reduce the associated pain caused by high levels of PGE2.

  8. Enhanced healing of mitomycin C-treated healing-impaired wounds in rats with PRP-containing fragmin/protamine microparticles (PRP&F/P MPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Megumi; Ishihara, Masayuki; Takabayashi, Yuki; Sumi, Yuki; Takikawa, Makoto; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Nakamura, Shingo; Hattori, Hidemi; Yanagibayashi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Naoto; Kiyosawa, Tomoharu

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accelerating effects of platelet-rich plasma-containing (PRP&) fragmin/protamine microparticles (F/P MPs) for repairing mitomycin C-treated healing-impaired wounds. Staining with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL-staining) showed that apoptosis of dermal fibroblast cells (DFCs) and epidermal keratinocyte cells (EKCs) were significantly induced in the skin of the mitomycin C-treated rats. Full-thickness skin defects were made on the back of rats and mitomycin C was applied on the wounds to prepare a healing-impaired wound. After washing out the mitomycin C, saline (control), F/P MPs alone, PRP alone, and PRP&F/P MPs were injected around the wounds. The rats were later euthanised and histological sections of the wounds were then prepared at indicated time periods after the treatment. These results indicated the numbers of large, medium, and small capillary lumens 7 days after injection of PRP&F/P MPs were significantly higher than those after injection of PRP or F/P MPs alone. Furthermore, epithelium and granulation tissue formations were significantly stimulated in the healing-impaired wounds treated with PRP&F/P MPs 3, 7 and 14 days after injection of PRP&F/P MPs.

  9. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Quality Assurance Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; R. Nims; K. J. Kvarfordt; C. Wharton

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment using a personal computer running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The role of the INL in this project is that of software developer and tester. This development takes place using formal software development procedures and is subject to quality assurance (QA) processes. The purpose of this document is to describe how the SAPHIRE software QA is performed for Version 6 and 7, what constitutes its parts, and limitations of those processes.

  10. Cytosolic PrP Can Participate in Prion-Mediated Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M.; Zhang, Chang; Arndt, Tina

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Prion diseases are characterized by a conformational change in the normal host protein PrPC. While the majority of mature PrPC is tethered to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor, topological variants of this protein can arise during its biosynthesis. Here we have generated Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic ovine PrP in order to investigate its toxic potential in flies in the absence or presence of exogenous ovine prions. While cytosolic ovine PrP expressed in Drosophila was predominantly detergent insoluble and showed resistance to low concentrations of proteinase K, it was not overtly detrimental to the flies. However, Drosophila transgenic for cytosolic PrP expression exposed to classical or atypical scrapie prion inocula showed a faster decrease in locomotor activity than similar flies exposed to scrapie-free material. The susceptibility to classical scrapie inocula could be assessed in Drosophila transgenic for panneuronal expression of cytosolic PrP, whereas susceptibility to atypical scrapie required ubiquitous PrP expression. Significantly, the toxic phenotype induced by ovine scrapie in cytosolic PrP transgenic Drosophila was transmissible to recipient PrP transgenic flies. These data show that while cytosolic PrP expression does not adversely affect Drosophila, this topological PrP variant can participate in the generation of transmissible scrapie-induced toxicity. These observations also show that PrP transgenic Drosophila are susceptible to classical and atypical scrapie prion strains and highlight the utility of this invertebrate host as a model of mammalian prion disease. IMPORTANCE During prion diseases, the host protein PrPC converts into an abnormal conformer, PrPSc, a process coupled to the generation of transmissible prions and neurotoxicity. While PrPC is principally a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored membrane protein, the role of topological variants, such as cytosolic PrP, in prion-mediated toxicity and

  11. Glycan-deficient PrP stimulates VEGFR2 signaling via glycosaminoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhenxing; Zhang, Huixia; Hu, Fei; Yang, Liheng; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhu, Ying; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-06-01

    Whether the two N-linked glycans are important in prion, PrP, biology is unresolved. In Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, the two glycans are clearly not important in the cell surface expression of transfected human PrP. Compared to fully-glycosylated PrP, glycan-deficient PrP preferentially partitions to lipid raft. In CHO cells glycan-deficient PrP also interacts with glycosaminoglycan (GAG) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2), resulting in VEGFR2 activation and enhanced Akt phosphorylation. Accordingly, CHO cells expressing glycan-deficient PrP lacking the GAG binding motif or cells treated with heparinase to remove GAG show diminished Akt signaling. Being in lipid raft is critical, chimeric glycan-deficient PrP with CD4 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains is absent in lipid raft and does not activate Akt signaling. CHO cells bearing glycan-deficient PrP also exhibit enhanced cellular adhesion and migration. Based on these findings, we propose a model in which glycan-deficient PrP, GAG, and VEGFR2 interact, activating VEGFR2 and resulting in changes in cellular behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Purification and Fibrillation of Full-Length Recombinant PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarava, Natallia; Savtchenko, Regina; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2017-01-01

    Misfolding and aggregation of prion protein are related to several neurodegenerative diseases in humans such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, fatal familial insomnia, and Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease. A growing number of applications in the prion field including assays for detection of PrP Sc and methods for production of PrP Sc de novo require recombinant prion protein (PrP) of high purity and quality. Here, we report an experimental procedure for expression and purification of full-length mammalian prion protein. This protocol has been proved to yield PrP of extremely high purity that lacks PrP adducts, oxidative modifications, or truncation, which is typically generated as a result of spontaneous oxidation or degradation. We also describe methods for preparation of amyloid fibrils from recombinant PrP in vitro. Recombinant PrP fibrils can be used as a noninfectious synthetic surrogate of PrP Sc for development of prion diagnostics including generation of PrP Sc -specific antibody.

  13. Characterization of barley Prp1 gene and its expression during seed development and under abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian-Tao; Liu, Tao; Ma, Jian; Wei, Yu-Ming; Lu, Zhen-Xiang; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Dai, Shou-Fen; Zheng, You-Liang

    2011-10-01

    The pre-mRNA processing (Prp1) gene encodes a spliceosomal protein. It was firstly identified in fission yeast and plays a regular role during spliceosome activation and cell cycle. Plant Prp1 genes have only been identified from rice, Sorghum and Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we reported the identification and isolation of a novel Prp1 gene from barley, and further explored its expressional pattern by using real-time quantitative RTPCR, promoter prediction and analysis of microarray data. The putative barley Prp1 protein has a similar primary structure features to those of other known Prp1 protein in this family. The results of amino acid comparison indicated that Prp1 protein of barley and other plant species has a highly conserved 30 termnal region while their 50 sequences greatly varied. The results of expressional analysis revealed that the expression level of barley Prp1 gene is always stable in different vegetative tissues, except it is up-regulated at the mid- and late stages of seed development or under the condition of cold stress. This kind of expressional pattern for barley Prp1 is also supported by our results of comparison of microarray data from barley, rice and Arabidopsis. For the molecular mechanism of its expressional pattern, we conclude that the expression of Prp1 gene may be up-regulated by the increase of pre-mRNAs and not be constitutive or ubiquitous.

  14. An introduction to application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP in skin rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Banihashemi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is an autologous concentration of human platelets contained in a small volume of plasma characterized by haemostatic and tissue repairing effects. Tissue repairing effects and being enriched by various kind of growth factors, has made them the focus of attention for different procedures. PRP has been effective in bony defects, wound healing and recently for aesthetic procedures in plastic surgery. The purpose of this review is to evaluate and summarize the applications of PRP in the dermatology literature, with particular focus on rejuvenizaton process, advances and limitations of current PRP therapies. We studied literature related to PRP therapy, these include regeneration of soft tissue, skin aging mechanisms, as well as wound healing. Some studies have shown promising results, with favorable outcomes about PRP clinical application for skin rejuvenization. This article summarizes our current understanding regarding photoaging process and the role of PRP in the skin rejuvenization process. PRP has been shown to be useful in skin rejuvenization. Further studies are needed to elucidate both basic and clinical aspects of PRP therapies. In particular, platelet preparation methods, different application methods, platelet mechanism of action in rejuvenation field, interactions with the skin components, long-term efficacy and safety are necessary to be determined.

  15. Performance related pay (PRP) to social workers in Danish Job Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg Jensen, Maya; Rosdahl, Anders

    This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?......This paper discusses two issues: - Why has some Danish local employment administrations introduced performance related pay (PRP) for social workers while others have not? - Does PRP to social workers imply better efforts to bring long-term recipients of social assistance into employment?...

  16. Prion propagation in cells expressing PrP glycosylation mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-04-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrP(C)) to a disease-related isoform (PrP(Sc)). PrP(C) carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrP(C) glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrP(Sc) and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrP(Sc), while PrP(C) with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrP(C), were able to form infectious PrP(Sc). Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection.

  17. The Reliability of Multisource Feedback in Competency-Based Assessment Programs: The Effects of Multiple Occasions and Assessor Groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen-van Loon, J.M.; Overeem, K.; Govaerts, M.J.; Verhoeven, B.H.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Driessen, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Residency programs around the world use multisource feedback (MSF) to evaluate learners' performance. Studies of the reliability of MSF show mixed results. This study aimed to identify the reliability of MSF as practiced across occasions with varying numbers of assessors from different

  18. The United States nuclear plant reliability data program: Its description and status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, M.J.

    1975-01-01

    The American National Standards Institute Subcommittee N18-20 has developed and implemented the United States Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS). The NPRDS is designed to accumulate, store, analyse, and report reliability and failure statistics on systems and components of nuclear power plants related to nuclear safety. Input data to the NPRDS consist of engineering, operating, and failure information submitted on a voluntary basis by participating utilities. Prior to entry into the computerized data base, the data are thoroughly checked for accuracy by both the submitting organizations and the NPRDS operating contractor. The data base is the source of various periodic output reports to the nuclear power industry and is utilized to produce special reports upon request. The present data base represents data accumulated from about thirty nuclear units with additional units expected to begin submitting data immediately. The objective is to have essentially all operating nuclear units in the United States of America participating in the program by the end of 1975. The first NPRDS annual reports containing meaningful reliability and failure statistics are expected to be produced following the end of 1975. (author)

  19. Video training and certification program improves reliability of postischemic neurologic deficit measurement in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taninishi, Hideki; Pearlstein, Molly; Sheng, Huaxin; Izutsu, Miwa; Chaparro, Rafael E; Goldstein, Larry B; Warner, David S

    2016-12-01

    Scoring systems are used to measure behavioral deficits in stroke research. Video-assisted training is used to standardize stroke-related neurologic deficit scoring in humans. We hypothesized that a video-assisted training and certification program can improve inter-rater reliability in assessing neurologic function after middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Three expert raters scored neurologic deficits in post-middle cerebral artery occlusion rats using three published systems having different complexity levels (3, 18, or 48 points). The system having the highest point estimate for the correlation between neurologic score and infarct size was selected to create a video-assisted training and certification program. Eight trainee raters completed the video-assisted training and certification program. Inter-rater agreement ( Κ: score) and agreement with expert consensus scores were measured before and after video-assisted training and certification program completion. The 48-point system correlated best with infarct size. Video-assisted training and certification improved agreement with expert consensus scores (pretraining = 65 ± 10, posttraining = 87 ± 14, 112 possible scores, P  0.4 (pretraining = 4, posttraining = 9), and number of categories with an improvement in the Κ: score from pretraining to posttraining (n = 6). Video-assisted training and certification improved trainee inter-rater reliability and agreement with expert consensus behavioral scores in rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Video-assisted training and certification may be useful in multilaboratory preclinical studies. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Development of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment program RiskA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yican

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There are four parts in the structure of RiskA. User input part lets users input the PSA model and some necessary data by GUI or model transformation tool. In calculation engine part, fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, sensitivity analysis, importance analysis and failure mode and effects analysis are supplied. User output part outputs the analysis results, user customized reports and some other data. The last part includes reliability database, some other common tools and help documents. • RiskA has several advanced features. Extensible framework makes it easy to add any new functions, making RiskA to be a large platform of reliability and probabilistic safety assessment. It is very fast to analysis fault tree in RiskA because many advanced algorithm improvement were made. Many model formats can be imported and exported, which made the PSA model in the commercial software can be easily transformed to adapt RiskA platform. Web-based co-modeling let several users in different places work together whenever they are online. • The comparison between RiskA and other mature PSA codes (e.g. CAFTA, RiskSpectrum, XFTA) has demonstrated that the calculation and analysis of RiskA is correct and efficient. Based on the development of this code package, many applications of safety and reliability analysis of some research reactors and nuclear power plants were performed. The development of RiskA appears to be of realistic and potential value for academic research and practical operation safety management of nuclear power plants in China and abroad. - Abstract: PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) software, the indispensable tool in nuclear safety assessment, has been widely used. An integrated reliability and PSA program named RiskA has been developed by FDS Team. RiskA supplies several standard PSA modules including fault tree analysis, event tree analysis, uncertainty analysis, failure mode and effect analysis and reliability

  1. Enhanced Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Electrospun PES/PVA/PRP Nanofibrous Scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashef-Saberi, Mahshid Sadat; Roodbari, Nasim Hayati; Parivar, Kazem; Vakilian, Saeid; Hanee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2018-03-28

    Over the last few decades, great advancements have been achieved in the field of bone tissue engineering (BTE). Containing a great number of growth factors needed in the process of osteogenesis, platelet rich plasma (PRP) has gained a great deal of attention. However, due to the contradictory results achieved in different studies, its effectiveness remains a mystery. Therefore, in this study, we investigated in vitro performance of co-electrospun PRP/poly ether sulfone/poly(vinyl) alcohol (PRP/PES/PVA) composite scaffolds for the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells. The activated PRP was mixed with PVA solution to be used alongside PES solution for the electrospinning process. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile tests were performed to evaluate the scaffolds. After confirmation of sustained release of protein, osteogenic potential of the co-electrospun PRP/polymer scaffolds was evaluated by measuring relative gene expression, calcium content, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Alizarin red and Hematoxylin and Eosin staining were performed as well. The results of ALP activity and calcium content demonstrated the effectiveness of PRP when combined with PRP-incorporated scaffold in comparison with the other tested groups. In addition, the results of tensile mechanical testing indicated that addition of PRP improves the mechanical properties. Taking these results into account, it appears PES/PVA/PRP scaffold treated with PRP 5% enhances osteogenic differentiation most. In conclusion, incorporation of PRP into electrospun PES/PVA scaffold in this study had a positive influence on osteogenic differentiation of AdMSCs, and thus it may have great potential for BTE applications.

  2. Systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE), Version 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; Kvarfordt, K.J.; Hoffman, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM) is a special application tool designed for evaluation of operational occurrences using the Accident Sequence Precursor (ASP) program methods. GEM provides the capability for an analyst to quickly and easily perform conditional core damage probability (CCDP) calculations. The analyst can then use the CCDP calculations to determine if the occurrence of an initiating event or a condition adversely impacts safety. It uses models and data developed in the SAPHIRE specially for the ASP program. GEM requires more data than that normally provided in SAPHIRE and will not perform properly with other models or data bases. This is the first release of GEM and the developers of GEM welcome user comments and feedback that will generate ideas for improvements to future versions. GEM is designated as version 5.0 to track GEM codes along with the other SAPHIRE codes as the GEM relies on the same, shared database structure

  3. A study of adopting maintenance rule under the periodic safety review and reliability centered maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilyoo, Kim

    2001-01-01

    U.S Maintenance Rule (MR) has three main functions. One is to monitor the performance changes of SSCs (Structure, System, and Component) caused by risk informed applications. Periodic Safety Review (PSR) program is widely adopted in Europe while it is not adopted in U. S. A where MR and new oversight program are instead used. Recently, in Korea, it was determined to adopt PSR, and the first PSR program has started this year for Kori unit 1 as a pilot plant. Also, a traditional Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) has been performed for 4 systems of YGN unit 1 and 2 and it will be applied to the other nuclear power plants in Korea. However, since MR is adopting many useful concept of RCM, traditional RCM could not be further performed without being associated with MR. Thus, MR, RCM and PSR have recently become hot issue policies which should be well associated each other in Korea, and this paper suggests a desirable new maintenance process which would embrace the concepts of the three policies, and also discusses whether U.S. MR is necessary even though a PSR program is already adopted, and if necessary, then how cost-effectively it can be introduced to. (author)

  4. After reliability centred maintenance. Preventive maintenance living program implementation at Bruce Power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harazim, Michael L.; Ferguson, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Industrial preventive maintenance (PM) programs represent a large part of plant O and M costs. PM Optimization (PMO) projects represent an effective mechanism for identifying unnecessary PM, extending PM intervals and infusing predictive maintenance (PdM) methods. However, once optimized, what process prevents the PM program from returning to a state of disarray? This is the function of a PM living program (PMLP). In 1997, an independent performance assessment identified concerns with the applicability and effectiveness of all Ontario Power Generation, Inc. (OPGI) PM programs. In response, OPGI instituted an Integrated Maintenance Program (IMP) including Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) and a PMLP. It should be noted that the PMLP was developed for the 3 OPGI nuclear Sites (i.e. Bruce, Pickering, and Darlington). Effective 1 May 2001, the Bruce Site has been leased to a group of investors lead by British Energy. This paper is written in historical context and therefore refers to the Bruce Site as part of OPGI. The PMLP is made up of five elements: 1) process control, 2) change control, 3) worker feedback, 4) program performance metrics, and 5) deferral module. A PMLP software tool, originally applied to Duke Energy nuclear plants, was enhanced and customized specifically for the OPGI PMLP, and then implemented at all three of OPGI's nuclear sites. The objective of the OPGI PMLP was to: Provide processes/procedures for continual optimization of all site PM tasks, Ensure effective and timely revision of PM tasks in the work management system, Ensure PM tasks remain applicable/effective at all times, Maintain and enhance PM consistency on a component, system and Site basis, Ensure that new predictive maintenance techniques are applied and integrated with the PM program, Ensure that mandated PM tasks are identified and executed, Provide a mechanism for craft feedback, Meet regulatory requirements for PM program effectiveness, and Provide PM task deferral

  5. Redox induces diverse effects on recombinant human wild-type PrP and mutated PrP with inserted or deleted octarepeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qi; Chen, Cao; Zhang, Bao-Yun; Zhou, Wei; Xiao, Kang; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2018-04-01

    Normal prion protein (PrP) contains two cysteines at amino acids 179 and 214, which may form intra‑ and interpeptide disulfide bonds. To determine the possible effects of this disulfide bridge on the biochemical features of PrP, prokaryotic recombinant human wild‑type PrP (PG5), and mutated PrPs with seven extra octarepeats (PG12) or with all five octarepeats removed (PG0), were subjected to redox in vitro. Sedimentation assays revealed a large portion of aggregation in redox‑treated PG5, but not in PG0 and PG12. Circular dichroism analysis detected increased β‑sheet and decreased α‑helix in PG5 subjected to redox, increased random‑coil and decreased β‑sheet in PG0, and increased random‑coil, but limited changes to β‑sheet content, in PG12. Thioflavin T fluorescence tests indicated that fluorescent value was increased in PG5 subjected to redox. In addition, proteinase K (PK) digestions indicated that PK resistance was stronger in PG12 and PG0 compared with in PG5; redox enhanced the PK resistance of all three PrP constructs, particularly PG0 and PG12. These data indicated that formation of a disulfide bond induces marked alterations in the secondary structure and biochemical characteristics of PrP. In addition, the octarepeat region within the PrP peptide markedly influences the effects of redox on the biochemical phenotypes of PrP, thus highlighting the importance of the number of octarepeats in the biological functions of PrP.

  6. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE), Version 5.0: Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) reference manual. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; Kvarfordt, K.J.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) is a state-of-the-art, microcomputer-based probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) model development and analysis tool to address key nuclear plant safety issues. IRRAS is an integrated software tool that gives the use the ability to create and analyze fault trees and accident sequences using a microcomputer. This program provides functions that range from graphical fault tree construction to cut set generation and quantification to report generation. Version 1.0 of the IRRAS program was released in February of 1987. Since then, many user comments and enhancements have been incorporated into the program providing a much more powerful and user-friendly system. This version has been designated IRRAS 5.0 and is the subject of this Reference Manual. Version 5.0 of IRRAS provides the same capabilities as earlier versions and ads the ability to perform location transformations, seismic analysis, and provides enhancements to the user interface as well as improved algorithm performance. Additionally, version 5.0 contains new alphanumeric fault tree and event used for event tree rules, recovery rules, and end state partitioning

  7. Recommendations for the Involvement of Patient Research Partners (PRP) in OMERACT Working Groups. A Report from the OMERACT 2014 Working Group on PRP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Peter P; de Wit, Maarten; Bingham, Clifton O; Kirwan, John R; Leong, Amye; March, Lyn M; Montie, Pam; Scholte-Voshaar, Marieke; Gossec, Laure

    2016-01-01

    Patient participation in research is increasing; however, practical guidelines to enhance this participation are lacking. Specifically within the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) organization, although patients have participated in OMERACT meetings since 2002, consensus about the procedures for involving patients in working groups has not been formalized. The objective is to develop a set of recommendations regarding patient research partner (PRP) involvement in research working groups. We conducted a systematic literature review on recommendations/guidelines of PRP involvement in research; elaborated a structured consensus process involving multiple participants to develop a set of recommendations; and sought endorsement of recommendations by OMERACT. In the 18 articles included in the literature review, there was general agreement on the broad concepts for recommendations covering PRP involvement in research although they were heterogeneous in detail. Most considered PRP involvement in all phases of research with early engagement, training, and support important, but details on the content were scarce. This review informed a larger consensus-building process regarding PRP inclusion in OMERACT research. Three overarching principles and 8 recommendations were developed, discussed, and refined at OMERACT 2014. The guiding principles were endorsed during the OMERACT plenary session. These recommendations for PRP involvement in OMERACT research reinforce the importance of patient participation throughout the research process as integral members. Although the applicability of the recommendations in other research contexts should be assessed, the generalizability is expected to be high. Future research should evaluate their implementation and their effect on outcome development.

  8. Reliability and availability of redundant systems: Computational program and the use of nomograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signoret, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    A rigorous mathematical approach to determining the reliability and availability of repairable actively redundant systems - (r/m) systems - is considered for the case where the m units comprising the system are identical and the failure and repair rates, lambda and μ respectively, are constant. The method used involves the Markov processes, operator calculus and matrix calculus. All the results of the study are handled by the FIDIAS program, which is a practical tool for calculating with a high degree of precision the reliability or availability of such (r/m) systems whatever the values of m and r. In the FIDIAS-TC version of FIDIAS it is possible to plot curves with a Benson plotter, so that nomograms are produced for rapid and simple determination of the probabilities of failure or non-availability of the (r/m) systems considered. The practical application of nomograms is of interest because (2/3) and (2/4) actively redundant systems are very often used in the control circuits of power reactors. It is shown how easily one can compare these two systems using nomograms and how one can determine lambda or μ as a function of the anticipated result

  9. Improving reliability of state estimation programming and computing suite based on analyzing a fault tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolosok Irina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Reliable information on the current state parameters obtained as a result of processing the measurements from systems of the SCADA and WAMS data acquisition and processing through methods of state estimation (SE is a condition that enables to successfully manage an energy power system (EPS. SCADA and WAMS systems themselves, as any technical systems, are subject to failures and faults that lead to distortion and loss of information. The SE procedure enables to find erroneous measurements, therefore, it is a barrier for the distorted information to penetrate into control problems. At the same time, the programming and computing suite (PCS implementing the SE functions may itself provide a wrong decision due to imperfection of the software algorithms and errors. In this study, we propose to use a fault tree to analyze consequences of failures and faults in SCADA and WAMS and in the very SE procedure. Based on the analysis of the obtained measurement information and on the SE results, we determine the state estimation PCS fault tolerance level featuring its reliability.

  10. Interim reliability evaluation program: analysis of the Arkansas Nuclear One. Unit 1 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, G.J.; Kunsman, D.M.; Bell, B.J.

    1982-06-01

    This report represents the results of the analysis of Arkansas Nuclear One (ANO) Unit 1 nuclear power plant which was performed as part of the Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP). The IREP has several objectives, two of which are achieved by the analysis presented in this report. These objectives are: (1) the identification, in a preliminary way, of those accident sequences which are expected to dominate the public health and safety risks; and (2) the development of state-of-the-art plant system models which can be used as a foundation for subsequent, more intensive applications of probabilistic risk assessment. The primary methodological tools used in the analysis were event trees and fault trees. These tools were used to study core melt accidents initiated by loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) of six different break size ranges and eight different types of transients

  11. Improving human reliability through better nuclear power plant system design: Program for advanced nuclear power studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golay, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    The project on ''Development of a Theory of the Dependence of Human Reliability upon System Designs as a Means of Improving Nuclear Power Plant Performance'' was been undertaken in order to address the problem of human error in advanced nuclear power plant designs. Lack of a mature theory has retarded progress in reducing likely frequencies of human errors. Work being pursued in this project is to perform a set of experiments involving human subjects who are required to operate, diagnose and respond to changes in computer-simulated systems, relevant to those encountered in nuclear power plants, which are made to differ in complexity in a systematic manner. The computer program used to present the problems to be solved also records the response of the operator as it unfolds

  12. A dynamic programming algorithm for the buffer allocation problem in homogeneous asymptotically reliable serial production lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diamantidis A. C.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the buffer allocation problem (BAP in homogeneous, asymptotically reliable serial production lines is considered. A known aggregation method, given by Lim, Meerkov, and Top (1990, for the performance evaluation (i.e., estimation of throughput of this type of production lines when the buffer allocation is known, is used as an evaluative method in conjunction with a newly developed dynamic programming (DP algorithm for the BAP. The proposed algorithm is applied to production lines where the number of machines is varying from four up to a hundred machines. The proposed algorithm is fast because it reduces the volume of computations by rejecting allocations that do not lead to maximization of the line's throughput. Numerical results are also given for large production lines.

  13. Insights from the interim reliability evaluation program pertinent to reactor safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP) consisted of concurrent probabilistic analyses of four operating nuclear power plants. This paper presents and integrated view of the results of the analyses drawing insights pertinent to reactor safety. The importance to risk of accident sequences initiated by transients and small loss-of-coolant accidents was confirmed. Support systems were found to contribute significantly to the sets of dominant accident sequences, either due to single failures which could disable one or more mitigating systems or due to their initiating plant transients. Human errors in response to accidents also were important risk contributors. Consideration of operator recovery actions influences accident sequence frequency estimates, the list of accident sequences dominating core melt, and the set of dominant risk contributors. Accidents involving station blackout, reactor coolant pump seal leaks and ruptures, and loss-of-coolant accidents requiring manual initiation of coolant injection were found to be risk significant

  14. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 238 - General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS Pt. 238, App. E Appendix E to Part 238—General Principles of Reliability-Based Maintenance... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General Principles of Reliability-Based... the design level of safety and reliability of the equipment; (2) To restore safety and reliability to...

  15. Expressions of pathologic markers in PRP based chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakfar, Arezou; Irani, Shiva; Hanaee-Ahvaz, Hana

    2017-02-01

    Optimization of the differentiation medium through using autologous factors such as PRP is of great consideration, but due to the complex, variable and undefined composition of PRP on one hand and lack of control over the absolute regulatory mechanisms in in vitro conditions or disrupted and different mechanisms in diseased tissue microenvironments in in vivo conditions on the other hand, it is complicated and rather unpredictable to get the desired effects of PRP making it inevitable to monitor the possible pathologic or undesired differentiation pathways and therapeutic effects of PRP. Therefore, in this study the probable potential of PRP on inducing calcification, inflammation and angiogenesis in chondrogenically-differentiated cells was investigated. The expressions of chondrogenic, inflammatory, osteogenic and angiogenic markers from TGFβ or PRP-treated cells during chondrogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) was evaluated. Expressions of Collagen II (Col II), Aggrecan, Sox9 and Runx2 were quantified using q-RT PCR. Expression of Col II and X was investigated by immunocytochemistry as well. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) production was also determined by GAG assay. Possible angiogenic/inflammatory potential was determined by quantitatively measuring the secreted VEGF, TNFα and phosphorylated VEGFR2 via ELISA. In addition, the calcification of the construct was monitored by measuring ALP activity and calcium deposition. Our data showed that PRP positively induced chondrogenesis; meanwhile the secretion of angiogenic and inflammatory markers was decreased. VEGFR2 phosphorylation and ALP activity had a decreasing trend, but tissue mineralization was enhanced upon treating with PRP. Although reduction in inflammatory/angiogenic potential of the chondrogenically differentiated constructs highlights the superior effectiveness of PRP in comparison to TGFβ for chondrogenic differentiation, yet further improvement of the PRP

  16. Structural and functional analysis of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box helicase Prp28

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Möhlmann, Sina [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Mathew, Rebecca [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Neumann, Piotr; Schmitt, Andreas [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Lührmann, Reinhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Am Fassberg, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Ficner, Ralf, E-mail: rficner@uni-goettingen.de [Georg-August-University Göttingen, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 11, 37077 Göttingen (Germany)

    2014-06-01

    The crystal structure of the helicase domain of the human spliceosomal DEAD-box protein Prp28 was solved by SAD. The binding of ADP and ATP by Prp28 was studied biochemically and analysed with regard to the crystal structure. The DEAD-box protein Prp28 is essential for pre-mRNA splicing as it plays a key role in the formation of an active spliceosome. Prp28 participates in the release of the U1 snRNP from the 5′-splice site during association of the U5·U4/U6 tri-snRNP, which is a crucial step in the transition from a pre-catalytic spliceosome to an activated spliceosome. Here, it is demonstrated that the purified helicase domain of human Prp28 (hPrp28ΔN) binds ADP, whereas binding of ATP and ATPase activity could not be detected. ATP binding could not be observed for purified full-length hPrp28 either, but within an assembled spliceosomal complex hPrp28 gains ATP-binding activity. In order to understand the structural basis for the ATP-binding deficiency of isolated hPrp28, the crystal structure of hPrp28ΔN was determined at 2.0 Å resolution. In the crystal the helicase domain adopts a wide-open conformation, as the two RecA-like domains are extraordinarily displaced from the productive ATPase conformation. Binding of ATP is hindered by a closed conformation of the P-loop, which occupies the space required for the γ-phosphate of ATP.

  17. The composite of bone marrow concentrate and PRP as an alternative to autologous bone grafting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohssen Hakimi

    Full Text Available One possible alternative to the application of autologous bone grafts represents the use of autologous bone marrow concentrate (BMC. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the potency of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP in combination with BMC. In 32 mini-pigs a metaphyseal critical-size defect was surgically created at the proximal tibia. The animals were allocated to four treatment groups of eight animals each (1. BMC+CPG group, 2. BMC+CPG+PRP group, 3. autograft group, 4. CPG group. In the BMC+CPG group the defect was filled with autologous BMC in combination with calcium phosphate granules (CPG, whereas in the BMC+CPG+PRP group the defect was filled with the composite of autologous BMC, CPG and autologous PRP. In the autograft group the defect was filled with autologous cancellous graft, whereas in the CPG group the defect was filled with CPG solely. After 6 weeks radiological and histomorphometrical analysis showed significantly more new bone formation in the BMC+CPG+PRP group compared to the BMC+CPG group and the CPG group. There were no significant differences between the BMC+CPG+PRP group and the autograft group. In the PRP platelets were enriched significantly about 4.7-fold compared to native blood. In BMC the count of mononuclear cells increased significantly (3.5-fold compared to the bone marrow aspirate. This study demonstrates that the composite of BMC+CPG+PRP leads to a significantly higher bone regeneration of critical-size defects at the proximal tibia in mini-pigs than the use of BMC+CPG without PRP. Furthermore, within the limits of the present study the composite BMC+CPG+PRP represents a comparable alternative to autologous bone grafting.

  18. What About the Rheological Properties of PRP/Microfat Mixtures in Fat Grafting Procedure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazouane, R; Bertrand, B; Philandrianos, C; Veran, J; Abellan, M; Francois, P; Velier, M; Orneto, C; Piccerelle, P; Magalon, J

    2017-10-01

    Fat grafting has emerged as a reference procedure in daily plastic surgery practice. Unpredictable fat resorption is the main clinical problem. For this purpose, the addition of PRP to enhance fat revascularization is now an easy and popular procedure. However, no consensus exists regarding the respective volume of fat and PRP used to obtain the ideal mixture. This study investigated the rheological properties of microfat mixed with different proportions of PRP. Results obtained were compared with commercialized hyaluronic acid fillers. Microfat and PRP preparations were performed using standardized techniques. Lipoaspirate residue and blood were obtained from six patients undergoing aesthetic facial microlipofilling. Elastic modulus G' and tan δ (proportion of elasticity versus fluidity) were obtained for the following conditions: microfat alone and microfat mixed with 10, 30 or 50% of PRP. An expected decrease in elastic modulus was observed by adding increase volumes of PRP. Two groups of products with different rheological properties were considered based on statistical differences highlighted regarding the value of G'. Mean tan δ varied from 0.20 ± 0.04 (microfat alone) to 0.28 ± 0.08 (50% microfat/50% PRP). Microfat mixed with 10% of PRP presents consistency comparable to stiffer fillers, whereas microfat mixed with 30 or 50% corresponds to softer fillers. Rheological differences were highlighted given the proportion of PRP added to the microfat. Further studies assessing the impact of increased doses of platelets in microfat/PRP mixtures on clinical outcomes should also be investigated. Our findings will help clinicians to choose a mixture that meets their specific needs for a given indication. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  19. Reliability constrained decision model for energy service provider incorporating demand response programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboubi-Moghaddam, Esmaeil; Nayeripour, Majid; Aghaei, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The operation of Energy Service Providers (ESPs) in electricity markets is modeled. • Demand response as the cost-effective solution is used for energy service provider. • The market price uncertainty is modeled using the robust optimization technique. • The reliability of the distribution network is embedded into the framework. • The simulation results demonstrate the benefits of robust framework for ESPs. - Abstract: Demand response (DR) programs are becoming a critical concept for the efficiency of current electric power industries. Therefore, its various capabilities and barriers have to be investigated. In this paper, an effective decision model is presented for the strategic behavior of energy service providers (ESPs) to demonstrate how to participate in the day-ahead electricity market and how to allocate demand in the smart distribution network. Since market price affects DR and vice versa, a new two-step sequential framework is proposed, in which unit commitment problem (UC) is solved to forecast the expected locational marginal prices (LMPs), and successively DR program is applied to optimize the total cost of providing energy for the distribution network customers. This total cost includes the cost of purchased power from the market and distributed generation (DG) units, incentive cost paid to the customers, and compensation cost of power interruptions. To obtain compensation cost, the reliability evaluation of the distribution network is embedded into the framework using some innovative constraints. Furthermore, to consider the unexpected behaviors of the other market participants, the LMP prices are modeled as the uncertainty parameters using the robust optimization technique, which is more practical compared to the conventional stochastic approach. The simulation results demonstrate the significant benefits of the presented framework for the strategic performance of ESPs.

  20. Semisynthetic prion protein (PrP) variants carrying glycan mimics at position 181 and 197 do not form fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araman, Can; Thompson, Robert E; Wang, Siyao; Hackl, Stefanie; Payne, Richard J; Becker, Christian F W

    2017-09-01

    The prion protein (PrP) is an N -glycosylated protein attached to the outer leaflet of eukaryotic cell membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Different prion strains have distinct glycosylation patterns and the extent of glycosylation of potentially pathogenic misfolded prion protein (PrP Sc ) has a major impact on several prion-related diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs). Based on these findings it is hypothesized that posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of PrP influence conversion of cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into PrP Sc and, as such, modified PrP variants are critical tools needed to investigate the impact of PTMs on the pathogenesis of TSEs. Here we report a semisynthetic approach to generate PrP variants modified with monodisperse polyethyleneglycol (PEG) units as mimics of N-glycans. Incorporating PEG at glycosylation sites 181 and 197 in PrP induced only small changes to the secondary structure when compared to unmodified, wildtype PrP. More importantly, in vitro aggregation was abrogated for all PEGylated PrP variants under conditions at which wildtype PrP aggregated. Furthermore, the addition of PEGylated PrP as low as 10 mol% to wildtype PrP completely blocked aggregation. A similar effect was observed for synthetic PEGylated PrP segments comprising amino acids 179-231 alone if these were added to wildtype PrP in aggregation assays. This behavior raises the question if large N-glycans interfere with aggregation in vivo and if PEGylated PrP peptides could serve as potential therapeutics.

  1. The differential effects of leukocyte-containing and pure platelet-rich plasma (PRP) on tendon stem/progenitor cells - implications of PRP application for the clinical treatment of tendon injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Jianying; Wu, Haishan; Hogan, MaCalus V; Wang, James H-C

    2015-09-15

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used to treat tendon injuries in clinics. These PRP preparations often contain white blood cells or leukocytes, and the precise cellular effects of leukocyte-rich PRP (L-PRP) on tendons are not well defined. Therefore, in this study, we determined the effects of L-PRP on tendon stem/progenitor cells (TSCs), which play a key role in tendon homeostasis and repair. TSCs isolated from the patellar tendons of rabbits were treated with L-PRP or P-PRP (pure PRP without leukocytes) in vitro, followed by measuring cell proliferation, stem cell marker expression, inflammatory gene expression, and anabolic and catabolic protein expression by using immunostaining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Cell proliferation was induced by both L-PRP and P-PRP in a dose-dependent manner with maximum proliferation at a 10 % PRP dose. Both PRP treatments also induced differentiation of TSCs into active tenocytes. Nevertheless, the two types of PRP largely differed in several effects exerted on TSCs. L-PRP induced predominantly catabolic and inflammatory changes in differentiated tenocytes; its treatment increased the expression of catabolic marker genes, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), MMP-13, interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and their respective protein expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE 2) production. In contrast, P-PRP mainly induced anabolic changes; that is, P-PRP increased the gene expression of anabolic genes, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), collagen types I and III. These findings indicate that, while both L-PRP and P-PRP appear to be "safe" in inducing TSC differentiation into active tenocytes, L-PRP may be detrimental to the healing of injured tendons because it induces catabolic and inflammatory effects on tendon cells and may prolong the effects in healing tendons. On the other hand, when P-PRP is used to

  2. Systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) version 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; Kvarfordt, K.J.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. This volume is the reference manual for the Systems Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) System Version 5.0, a microcomputer-based system used to analyze the safety issues of a open-quotes familyclose quotes [i.e., a power plant, a manufacturing facility, any facility on which a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) might be performed]. The SARA database contains PRA data primarily for the dominant accident sequences of a family and descriptive information about the family including event trees, fault trees, and system model diagrams. The number of facility databases that can be accessed is limited only by the amount of disk storage available. To simulate changes to family systems, SARA users change the failure rates of initiating and basic events and/or modify the structure of the cut sets that make up the event trees, fault trees, and systems. The user then evaluates the effects of these changes through the recalculation of the resultant accident sequence probabilities and importance measures. The results are displayed in tables and graphs that may be printed for reports. A preliminary version of the SARA program was completed in August 1985 and has undergone several updates in response to user suggestions and to maintain compatibility with the other SAPHIRE programs. Version 5.0 of SARA provides the same capability as earlier versions and adds the ability to process unlimited cut sets; display fire, flood, and seismic data; and perform more powerful cut set editing

  3. Effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on human gingival fibroblast, osteoblast and periodontal ligament cell behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Eizaburo; Fujioka-Kobayashi, Masako; Sculean, Anton; Chappuis, Vivianne; Buser, Daniel; Schaller, Benoit; Dőri, Ferenc; Miron, Richard J

    2017-06-02

    The use of platelet rich plasma (PRP, GLO) has been used as an adjunct to various regenerative dental procedures. The aim of the present study was to characterize the influence of PRP on human gingival fibroblasts, periodontal ligament (PDL) cells and osteoblast cell behavior in vitro. Human gingival fibroblasts, PDL cells and osteoblasts were cultured with conditioned media from PRP and investigated for cell migration, proliferation and collagen1 (COL1) immunostaining. Furthermore, gingival fibroblasts were tested for genes encoding TGF-β, PDGF and COL1a whereas PDL cells and osteoblasts were additionally tested for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, alizarin red staining and mRNA levels of osteoblast differentiation markers including Runx2, COL1a2, ALP and osteocalcin (OCN). It was first found that PRP significantly increased cell migration of all cells up to 4 fold. Furthermore, PRP increased cell proliferation at 3 and 5 days of gingival fibroblasts, and at 3 days for PDL cells, whereas no effect was observed on osteoblasts. Gingival fibroblasts cultured with PRP increased TGF-β, PDGF-B and COL1 mRNA levels at 7 days and further increased over 3-fold COL1 staining at 14 days. PDL cells cultured with PRP increased Runx2 mRNA levels but significantly down-regulated OCN mRNA levels at 3 days. No differences in COL1 staining or ALP staining were observed in PDL cells. Furthermore, PRP decreased mineralization of PDL cells at 14 days post seeding as assessed by alizarin red staining. In osteoblasts, PRP increased COL1 staining at 14 days, increased COL1 and ALP at 3 days, as well as increased ALP staining at 14 days. No significant differences were observed for alizarin red staining of osteoblasts following culture with PRP. The results demonstrate that PRP promoted gingival fibroblast migration, proliferation and mRNA expression of pro-wound healing molecules. While PRP induced PDL cells and osteoblast migration and proliferation, it tended to have

  4. Comparison of the Efficacy of Homologous and Autologous Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) for Treating Androgenic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Bilsev; Yildirim, Mehmet Emin Cem; Dadaci, Mehmet; Avunduk, Mustafa Cihat; Savaci, Nedim

    2018-02-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), the most common cause of hair loss in both sexes, accounts for 95% of all cases of hair loss. Although the literature has suggested that both nonactivated (n-PRP) and activated autologous (a-PRP) PRP can be used to treat AGA, we did not find any study investigating the use of homologous PRP (h-PRP) for this purpose. Also, to the best of our knowledge, there are no studies comparing the efficacy of h-PRP, a-PRP, or n-PRP on AGA therapy. The aim of this study was to compare the increase in hair density, average number of platelets, complications, preparation, and duration of application in the treatment of AGA using a-PRP, n-PRP, and h-PRP. Between 2014 and 2015, we studied male patients who had experienced increased hair loss in the last year. Patients were divided into three groups: Group 1 received n-PRP, Group 2 received active PRP, and Group 3 received h-PRP. For Group 1, PRP was prepared by a single centrifugation prepared from the patient's own blood. For Group 2, the PRP was prepared from the patient's own blood, but a second centrifugation was applied for platelet activation with calcium chloride. For Group 3, the PRP was prepared from pooled platelets with the same blood group as the patient from the blood center. PRP was injected at 1, 2, and 6 months. The hair density (n/cm 2 ) of each patient before and after injection was calculated. Each patient was assigned a fixed evaluation point at the time of application to calculate hair density. At 2, 6, and 12 months after the first treatment, the increase in hair density was calculated as 11.2, 26.1, and 32.4%, respectively, in Group 1; 8.1, 12.5, and 20.8%, respectively, in Group 2; and 16.09, 36.41, and 41.76%, respectively, in Group 3. The increase in hair density was statistically significantly greater in Group 1 than in Group 2 and more so in Group 3 than in both groups among all controls (p PRP was greater than with autologous PRP groups. We believe that h-PRP therapy can

  5. QA support for TFTR reliability improvement program in preparation for DT operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsells, R.F.; Howard, H.P.

    1987-01-01

    As TFTR approaches experiments in the Q=1 regime, machine reliability becomes a major variable in achieving experimental objectives. This paper describes the methods used to quantify current reliability levels, levels required for D-T operations, proposed methods for reliability growth and improvement, and tracking of reliability performance in that growth. Included in this scope are data collection techniques and short comings, bounding current reliability on the upper end, and requirements for D-T operations. Problem characterization through Pareto diagrams provides insight into recurrent failure modes and the use of Duane plots for charting of reliability changes both cumulative and instantaneous, is explained and demonstrated

  6. SAPHIRE6.64, System Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SAPHIRE is a collection of programs developed for the purpose of performing those functions necessary to create and analyze a complete Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) primarily for nuclear power plants. The programs included in this suite are the Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS), the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system, the Models And Results Database (MAR-D) system, and the Fault tree, Event tree and P and ID (FEP) editors. Previously these programs were released as separate packages. These programs include functions to allow the user to create event trees and fault trees, to define accident sequences and basic event failure data, to solve system and accident sequence fault trees, to quantify cut sets, and to perform uncertainty analysis on the results. Also included in this program are features to allow the analyst to generate reports and displays that can be used to document the results of an analysis. Since this software is a very detailed technical tool, the user of this program should be familiar with PRA concepts and the methods used to perform these analyses. 2 - Methods: SAPHIRE is written in MODULA-2 and uses an integrated commercial graphics package to interactively construct and edit fault trees. The fault tree solving methods used are industry recognized top down algorithms. For quantification, the program uses standard methods to propagate the failure information through the generated cut sets. SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE which automates the process for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (that is, perform a Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 analysis for operational events) in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This on-line reference guide will

  7. Reliability and acceptability of a five-station multiple mini-interview model for residency program recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Diaz Fraga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Standard interviews are used by most residency programs in the United States for assessment of aptitude of the non-cognitive competencies, but variability of interviewer skill, interviewer bias, interviewer leniency or stringency, and context specificity limit reliability. Aim: To investigate reliability and acceptability of five-station multiple mini-interview (MMI model for resident selection into an internal medicine residency program in the United States. Setting: One independent academic medical center. Participants: Two hundred and thirty-seven applicants and 17 faculty interviewers. Program description: Five, 10-min MMI stations with five different interviewers blinded to the candidate's records and one traditional 20-min interview with the program director. Candidates were rated on two items: interpersonal and communication skills, and overall performance. Program evaluation: Generalizability data showed that the reliability of our process was high (>0.9. The results of anonymous surveys demonstrated that both applicants and interviewers consider the MMI as a fair and more effective tool to evaluate non-cognitive traits, and prefer the MMI to standard interviews. Discussion: The MMI process for residency interviews can generate reliable interview results using only five stations, and it is acceptable and preferred over standard interview modalities by the applicants and faculty members of one US residency program.

  8. PrP N-terminal domain triggers PrPSc-like aggregation of Dpl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlich, Paul; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Lemaire-Vieille, Catherine; Curt, Aurelie; Andrieu, Jean-Pierre; Schoehn, Guy; Jamin, Marc; Gagnon, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are fatal neurodegenerative disorders thought to be transmitted by self-perpetuating conformational conversion of a neuronal membrane glycoprotein (PrP C , for 'cellular prion protein') into an abnormal state (PrP Sc , for 'scrapie prion protein'). Doppel (Dpl) is a protein that shares significant biochemical and structural homology with PrP C . In contrast to its homologue PrP C , Dpl is unable to participate in prion disease progression or to achieve an abnormal PrP Sc -like state. We have constructed a chimeric mouse protein, composed of the N-terminal domain of PrP C (residues 23-125) and the C-terminal part of Dpl (residues 58-157). This chimeric protein displays PrP-like biochemical and structural features; when incubated in presence of NaCl, the α-helical monomer forms soluble β-sheet-rich oligomers which acquire partial resistance to pepsin proteolysis in vitro, as do PrP oligomers. Moreover, the presence of aggregates akin to protofibrils is observed in soluble oligomeric species by electron microscopy

  9. Space Shuttle Program Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) Success Legacy - Quality and Reliability Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, James K.; Peltier, Daryl

    2010-01-01

    Thsi slide presentation reviews the avionics software system on board the space shuttle, with particular emphasis on the quality and reliability. The Primary Avionics Software System (PASS) provides automatic and fly-by-wire control of critical shuttle systems which executes in redundant computers. Charts given show the number of space shuttle flights vs time, PASS's development history, and other charts that point to the reliability of the system's development. The reliability of the system is also compared to predicted reliability.

  10. PRP for Degenerative Cartilage Disease: A Systematic Review of Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laver, Lior; Marom, Niv; Dnyanesh, Lad; Mei-Dan, Omer; Espregueira-Mendes, João; Gobbi, Alberto

    2017-10-01

    To explore the utilization of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for degenerative cartilage processes and evaluate whether there is sufficient evidence to better define its potential effects. Systematic literature reviews were conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE and Cochrane electronic databases till May 2015, using the keywords "platelet-rich plasma OR PRP OR autologous conditioned plasma OR ACP AND cartilage OR chondrocyte OR chondrogenesis OR osteoarthritis (OA) OR arthritis." The final result yielded 29 articles. Twenty-six studies examined PRP administration for knee OA and 3 involved PRP administration for hip OA. The results included 9 prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (8 knee and 1 hip), 4 prospective comparative studies, 14 case series, and 2 retrospective comparative studies. Hyaluronic acid (HA) was used as a control in 11 studies (7 RCTs, 2 prospective comparative studies, and 2 retrospective cohort). Overall, all RCTs reported on improved symptoms compared to baseline scores. Only 2 RCTs-one for knee and one for hip-did not report significant superiority of PRP compared to the control group (HA). Nine out of 11 HA controlled studies showed significant better results in the PRP groups. A trend toward better results for PRP injections in patients with early knee OA and young age was observed; however, lack of uniformity was evident in terms of indications, inclusion criteria, and pathology definitions in the different studies. Current clinical evidence supports the benefit in PRP treatment for knee and hip OA, proven to temporarily relieve pain and improve function of the involved joint with superior results compared with several alternative treatments. Further research to establish the optimal preparation protocol and characteristics of PRP injections for OA is needed.

  11. Kartogenin with PRP promotes the formation of fibrocartilage zone in the tendon-bone interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiqin; Zhang, Jianying; Yang, Jinsong; Narava, Manoj; Zhao, Guangyi; Yuan, Ting; Wu, Haishan; Zheng, Nigel; Hogan, MaCalus V; Wang, James H-C

    2017-12-01

    Treatment of tendon-bone junction injuries is a challenge because tendon-bone interface often heals poorly and the fibrocartilage zone, which reduces stress concentration, at the interface is not formed. In this study, we used a compound called kartogenin (KGN) with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to induce the formation of fibrocartilage zone in a rat tendon graft-bone tunnel model. The experimental rats received KGN-PRP or PRP injections in the tendon graft-bone tunnel interface. The control group received saline. After 4, 8 and 12 weeks, Safranin O staining of the tendon graft-bone tunnels revealed abundant proteoglycans in the KGN-PRP group indicating the formation of cartilage-like transition zone. Immunohistochemical and immuno-fluorescence staining revealed collagen types I (Col-I) and II (Col-II) in the newly formed fibrocartilage zone. Both fibrocartilage zone formation and maturation were healing time dependent. In contrast, the PRP and saline control groups had no cartilage-like tissues and minimal Col-I and Col-II staining. Some gaps were also present in the saline control group. Finally, pull-out strength in the KGN-PRP-treated group at 8 weeks was 1.4-fold higher than the PRP-treated group and 1.6-fold higher than the saline control group. These findings indicate that KGN, with PRP as a carrier, promotes the formation of fibrocartilage zone between the tendon graft and bone interface. Thus, KGN-PRP may be used as a convenient cell-free therapy in clinics to promote fibrocartilage zone formation in rotator calf repair and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, thereby enhancing the mechanical strength of the tendon-bone interface and hence the clinical outcome of these procedures. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. CD36 participates in PrP(106-126-induced activation of microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kouadir

    Full Text Available Microglial activation is a characteristic feature of the pathogenesis of prion diseases. The molecular mechanisms that underlie prion-induced microglial activation are not very well understood. In the present study, we investigated the role of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 in microglial activation induced by neurotoxic prion protein (PrP fragment 106-126 (PrP(106-126. We first examined the time course of CD36 mRNA expression upon exposure to PrP(106-126 in BV2 microglia. We then analyzed different parameters of microglial activation in PrP(106-126-treated cells in the presence or not of anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody (mAb. The cells were first incubated for 1 h with CD36 monoclonal antibody to block the CD36 receptor, and were then treated with neurotoxic prion peptides PrP(106-126. The results showed that PrP(106-126 treatment led to a rapid yet transitory increase in the mRNA expression of CD36, upregulated mRNA and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, increased iNOS expression and nitric oxide (NO production, stimulated the activation of NF-κB and caspase-1, and elevated Fyn activity. The blockade of CD36 had no effect on PrP(106-126-stimulated NF-κB activation and TNF-α protein release, abrogated the PrP(106-126-induced iNOS stimulation, downregulated IL-1β and IL-6 expression at both mRNA and protein levels as well as TNF-α mRNA expression, decreased NO production and Fyn phosphorylation, reduced caspase-1 cleavage induced by moderate PrP(106-126-treatment, but had no effect on caspase-1 activation after treatment with a high concentration of PrP(106-126. Together, these results suggest that CD36 is involved in PrP(106-126-induced microglial activation and that the participation of CD36 in the interaction between PrP(106-126 and microglia may be mediated by Src tyrosine kinases. Our findings provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the activation of microglia by neurotoxic prion peptides

  13. Singlet ground-state fluctuations in praseodymium observed by muon spin relaxation in PrP and PrP0.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, D R; Waeppling, R; Kalvius, G M; Jr, M F White; Stronach, C E

    2005-01-01

    Muon spin relaxation (μSR) in the singlet ground-state compounds PrP and PrP 0.9 reveals the unusual situation of a Lorentzian local field distribution with fast-fluctuation-limit strong-collision dynamics, a case that does not show motional narrowing. Contrary to publications by others, where PrP 0.9 was asserted to have vacancy-induced spin-glass freezing, no spin-glass freezing is seen in PrP 0.9 or PrP down to ≤100mK. This was confirmed by magnetization measurements on these same samples. In both compounds, the muon spin relaxation rate does increase as temperature decreases, demonstrating increasing strength of the paramagnetic response. A Monte Carlo model of fluctuations of Pr ions out of their crystalline-electric-field singlet ground states into their magnetic excited states (and back down again) produces the strong-collision-dynamic Lorentzian relaxation functions observed at each individual temperature but not the observed temperature dependence. This model contains no exchange interaction, and so predicts decreasing paramagnetic response as the temperature decreases, contrary to the temperature dependence observed. Comparison of the simulations to the data suggests that the exchange interaction is causing the system to approach magnetic freezing (by mode softening), but fails to complete the process

  14. A call for a standard classification system for future biologic research: the rationale for new PRP nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mautner, Kenneth; Malanga, Gerard A; Smith, Jay; Shiple, Brian; Ibrahim, Victor; Sampson, Steven; Bowen, Jay E

    2015-04-01

    Autologous cell therapies including platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) are increasingly popular options for soft tissue and joint-related diseases. Despite increased clinical application, conflicting research has been published regarding the efficacy of PRP, and few clinical publications pertaining to BMC are available. Preparations of PRP (and BMC) can vary in many areas, including platelet concentration, number of white blood cells, presence or absence of red blood cells, and activation status of the preparation. The potential effect of PRP characteristics on PRP efficacy is often not well understood by the treating clinician, and PRP characteristics, as well as the volume of PRP delivered, are unfortunately not included in the methods of many published research articles. It is essential to establish a standard reporting system for PRP that facilitates communication and the interpretation and synthesis of scientific investigations. Herein, the authors propose a new PRP classification system reflecting important PRP characteristics based on contemporary literature and recommend adoption of minimal standards for PRP reporting in scientific investigations. Widespread adoption of these recommendations will facilitate interpretation and comparison of clinical studies and promote scientifically based progress in the field of regenerative medicine. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Results of the reliability benchmark exercise and the future CEC-JRC program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendola, A.

    1985-01-01

    As a contribution towards identifying problem areas and for assessing probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) methods and procedures of analysis, JRC has organized a wide-range Benchmark Exercise on systems reliability. This has been executed by ten different teams involving seventeen organizations from nine European countries. The exercise has been based on a real case (Auxiliary Feedwater System of EDF Paluel PWR 1300 MWe Unit), starting from analysis of technical specifications, logical and topological layout and operational procedures. Terms of references included both qualitative and quantitative analyses. The subdivision of the exercise into different phases and the rules adopted allowed assessment of the different components of the spread of the overall results. It appeared that modelling uncertainties may overwhelm data uncertainties and major efforts must be spent in order to improve consistency and completeness of qualitative analysis. After successful completion of the first exercise, CEC-JRC program has planned separate exercises on analysis of dependent failures and human factors before approaching the evaluation of a complete accident sequence

  16. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min; Liu, Zhaoqing; Qiao, Liyan

    2014-01-01

    While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it's critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB) pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB) pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme. PMID:25310473

  17. Asymmetric Programming: A Highly Reliable Metadata Allocation Strategy for MLC NAND Flash Memory-Based Sensor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Huang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While the NAND flash memory is widely used as the storage medium in modern sensor systems, the aggressive shrinking of process geometry and an increase in the number of bits stored in each memory cell will inevitably degrade the reliability of NAND flash memory. In particular, it’s critical to enhance metadata reliability, which occupies only a small portion of the storage space, but maintains the critical information of the file system and the address translations of the storage system. Metadata damage will cause the system to crash or a large amount of data to be lost. This paper presents Asymmetric Programming, a highly reliable metadata allocation strategy for MLC NAND flash memory storage systems. Our technique exploits for the first time the property of the multi-page architecture of MLC NAND flash memory to improve the reliability of metadata. The basic idea is to keep metadata in most significant bit (MSB pages which are more reliable than least significant bit (LSB pages. Thus, we can achieve relatively low bit error rates for metadata. Based on this idea, we propose two strategies to optimize address mapping and garbage collection. We have implemented Asymmetric Programming on a real hardware platform. The experimental results show that Asymmetric Programming can achieve a reduction in the number of page errors of up to 99.05% with the baseline error correction scheme.

  18. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with

  19. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for ansforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with

  20. Comparison of hyaluronic acid and PRP intra-articular injection with combined intra-articular and intraosseous PRP injections to treat patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ke; Bai, Yuming; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Haisen; Liu, Hao; Ma, Shiyun

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit provided by intraosseous infiltration combined with intra-articular injection of platelet-rich plasma to treat mild and moderate stages of knee joint degeneration (Kellgren-Lawrence score II-III) compared with other treatments, specifically intra-articular injection of PRP and of HA. Eighty-six patients with grade II to grade III knee OA according to the Kellgren-Lawrence classification were randomly assigned to intra-articular combined with intraosseous injection of PRP (group A), intra-articular PRP (group B), or intra-articular HA (group C). Patients in group A received intra-articular combined with intraosseous injection of PRP (administered twice, 2 weeks apart). Patients in group B received intra-articular injection of PRP every 14 days. Patients in group C received a series of five intra-articular injections of HA every 7 days. All patients were evaluated using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities (WOMAC) score before the treatment and at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after treatment. There were significant improvements at the end of the 1st month. Notably, group A patients had significantly superior VAS and WOMAC scores than were observed in groups B and C. The VAS scores were similar in groups B and group C after the 6th month. Regarding the WOMAC scores, groups B and C differed at the 1st, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months; however, no significant difference was observed at the 18th month. The combination of intraosseous with intra-articular injections of PRP resulted in a significantly superior clinical outcome, with sustained lower VAS and WOMAC scores and improvement in quality of life within 18 months.

  1. Experimental conditions and monitoring items of the prototype repository project (PRP). Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugita, Yutaka; Ito, Akira; Kawakami, Susumu

    2003-03-01

    Various experiments are ongoing in the underground research facility 'the Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL)' of SKB in Sweden for the geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste. International joint project Prototype Repository Project (PRP) is one of the experiments in the HRL which has some engineered barrier systems and to study the coupled behavior happening in and around the engineered barrier system. JNC has joined this international joint project PRP to obtain the information of the coupled behavior on such systematic engineered barrier system and to apply the JNC's coupled THMC analytical code to the prediction and back analysis of the PRP. The analytical code will be verified through these analyses in this project. JNC can apply the verified analytical code to assess the coupled behavior in Japan. This report summarizes the experimental conditions and monitoring items of the PRP. (author)

  2. Role of Ultrasound Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP Injection in Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enass M. Khattab

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: We concluded that US-guided platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection for treatment of lateral epicondylitis was a safe, minimally invasive and effective procedure in improving the sonographic and pathological changes of common extensor tendon (CET.

  3. Reliability of lower limb alignment measures using an established landmark-based method with a customized computer software program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sled, Elizabeth A.; Sheehy, Lisa M.; Felson, David T.; Costigan, Patrick A.; Lam, Miu; Cooke, T. Derek V.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the reliability of frontal plane lower limb alignment measures using a landmark-based method by (1) comparing inter- and intra-reader reliability between measurements of alignment obtained manually with those using a computer program, and (2) determining inter- and intra-reader reliability of computer-assisted alignment measures from full-limb radiographs. An established method for measuring alignment was used, involving selection of 10 femoral and tibial bone landmarks. 1) To compare manual and computer methods, we used digital images and matching paper copies of five alignment patterns simulating healthy and malaligned limbs drawn using AutoCAD. Seven readers were trained in each system. Paper copies were measured manually and repeat measurements were performed daily for 3 days, followed by a similar routine with the digital images using the computer. 2) To examine the reliability of computer-assisted measures from full-limb radiographs, 100 images (200 limbs) were selected as a random sample from 1,500 full-limb digital radiographs which were part of the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) Study. Three trained readers used the software program to measure alignment twice from the batch of 100 images, with two or more weeks between batch handling. Manual and computer measures of alignment showed excellent agreement (intraclass correlations [ICCs] 0.977 – 0.999 for computer analysis; 0.820 – 0.995 for manual measures). The computer program applied to full-limb radiographs produced alignment measurements with high inter- and intra-reader reliability (ICCs 0.839 – 0.998). In conclusion, alignment measures using a bone landmark-based approach and a computer program were highly reliable between multiple readers. PMID:19882339

  4. Reliability Calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kurt Erling

    1986-01-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety...... and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic...... approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very...

  5. PrP aggregation can be seeded by pre-formed recombinant PrP amyloid fibrils without the replication of infectious prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Rona M; King, Declan; Jeffrey, Martin; McGovern, Gillian; Agarwal, Sonya; Gill, Andrew C; Piccardo, Pedro

    2016-10-01

    Mammalian prions are unusual infectious agents, as they are thought to consist solely of aggregates of misfolded prion protein (PrP). Generation of synthetic prions, composed of recombinant PrP (recPrP) refolded into fibrils, has been utilised to address whether PrP aggregates are, indeed, infectious prions. In several reports, neurological disease similar to transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) has been described following inoculation and passage of various forms of fibrils in transgenic mice and hamsters. However, in studies described here, we show that inoculation of recPrP fibrils does not cause TSE disease, but, instead, seeds the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in PrP-P101L knock-in transgenic mice (101LL). Importantly, both WT-recPrP fibrils and 101L-recPrP fibrils can seed plaque formation, indicating that the fibrillar conformation, and not the primary sequence of PrP in the inoculum, is important in initiating seeding. No replication of infectious prions or TSE disease was observed following both primary inoculation and subsequent subpassage. These data, therefore, argue against recPrP fibrils being infectious prions and, instead, indicate that these pre-formed seeds are acting to accelerate the formation of PrP amyloid plaques in 101LL Tg mice. In addition, these data reproduce a phenotype which was previously observed in 101LL mice following inoculation with brain extract containing in vivo-generated PrP amyloid fibrils, which has not been shown for other synthetic prion models. These data are reminiscent of the "prion-like" spread of aggregated forms of the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ), α-synuclein and tau observed following inoculation of transgenic mice with pre-formed seeds of each misfolded protein. Hence, even when the protein is PrP, misfolding and aggregation do not reproduce the full clinicopathological phenotype of disease. The initiation and spread of protein aggregation in transgenic mouse lines following inoculation with pre

  6. Lumbar Intradiskal Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Injections: A Prospective, Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuakli-Wosornu, Yetsa A; Terry, Alon; Boachie-Adjei, Kwadwo; Harrison, Julian R; Gribbin, Caitlin K; LaSalle, Elizabeth E; Nguyen, Joseph T; Solomon, Jennifer L; Lutz, Gregory E

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether single injections of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) into symptomatic degenerative intervertebral disks will improve participant-reported pain and function. Prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled study. Outpatient physiatric spine practice. Adults with chronic (≥6 months), moderate-to-severe lumbar diskogenic pain that was unresponsive to conservative treatment. Participants were randomized to receive intradiskal PRP or contrast agent after provocative diskography. Data on pain, physical function, and participant satisfaction were collected at 1 week, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year. Participants in the control group who did not improve at 8 weeks were offered the option to receive PRP and subsequently followed. Functional Rating Index (FRI), Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) for pain, the pain and physical function domains of the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, and the modified North American Spine Society (NASS) Outcome Questionnaire were used. Forty-seven participants (29 in the treatment group, 18 in the control group) were analyzed by an independent observer with a 92% follow-up rate. Over 8 weeks of follow-up, there were statistically significant improvements in participants who received intradiskal PRP with regards to pain (NRS Best Pain) (P = .02), function (FRI) (P = .03), and patient satisfaction (NASS Outcome Questionnaire) (P = .01) compared with controls. No adverse events of disk space infection, neurologic injury, or progressive herniation were reported following the injection of PRP. Participants who received intradiskal PRP showed significant improvements in FRI, NRS Best Pain, and NASS patient satisfaction scores over 8 weeks compared with controls. Those who received PRP maintained significant improvements in FRI scores through at least 1 year of follow-up. Although these results are promising, further studies are needed to define the subset of participants most likely to respond to biologic intradiskal

  7. DEPA classification: a proposal for standardising PRP use and a retrospective application of available devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalon, J; Chateau, A L; Bertrand, B; Louis, M L; Silvestre, A; Giraudo, L; Veran, J; Sabatier, F

    2016-01-01

    Significant biological differences in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparations have been highlighted and could explain the large variability in the clinical benefit of PRP reported in the literature. The scientific community now recommends the use of classification for PRP injection; however, these classifications are focused on platelet and leucocyte concentrations. This presents the disadvantages of (1) not taking into account the final volume of the preparation; (2) omitting the presence of red blood cells in PRP and (3) not assessing the efficiency of production. On the basis of standards classically used in the Cell Therapy field, we propose the DEPA (Dose of injected platelets, Efficiency of production, Purity of the PRP, Activation of the PRP) classification to extend the characterisation of the injected PRP preparation. We retrospectively applied this classification on 20 PRP preparations for which biological characteristics were available in the literature. Dose of injected platelets varies from 0.21 to 5.43 billion, corresponding to a 25-fold increase. Only a Magellan device was able to obtain an A score for this parameter. Assessments of the efficiency of production reveal that no device is able to recover more than 90% of platelets from the blood. Purity of the preparation reveals that a majority of the preparations are contaminated by red blood cells as only three devices reach an A score for this parameter, corresponding to a percentage of platelets compared with red blood cells and leucocytes over 90%. These findings should provide significant help to clinicians in selecting a system that meets their specific needs for a given indication.

  8. Effectiveness of PRP Injection in Reducing Recovery Time of Acute Hamstring Injury: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manduca, Mary Lynn; Straub, Stephen J

    2017-07-17

    Clinical Scenario Hamstring strains are common athletic injuries, with a high recurrence rate (34%). 2 Recently, platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) injections have gained popularity as a potential treatment option to accelerate healing of hamstring injury. 3 Focused Clinical Question Does the combination of PRP injection and rehabilitation decrease recovery time of acute hamstring injury as compared to rehabilitation alone in collegiate athletes? Summary of Key Findings A literature search resulted in three randomized controlled trials (RCT). One study showed benefits in various outcome measures with PRP, compared to rehabilitation alone, while two showed no benefits. One study reported improved pain, ultrasonography regenerative indications, and recovery time with PRP injection following acute hamstring injury 1 , however, larger studies have shown no benefits. 7-9 The literature demonstrates conflicting evidence regarding benefits of PRP injections in hamstring injuries. Clinical Bottom Line At this time, PRP injections cannot be recommended as having value for hamstring injuries, compared to rehabilitation alone. Strength of Recommendation Due to inconsistent or limited quality patient-oriented evidence in existing literature, the strength of this recommendation is grade B, based on the Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy (SORT). 7 .

  9. Cytosolically expressed PrP GPI-signal peptide interacts with mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizzunti, Gianni; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported that PrP GPI-anchor signal peptide (GPI-SP) is specifically degraded by the proteasome. Additionally, we showed that the point mutation P238S, responsible for a genetic form of prion diseases, while not affecting the GPI-anchoring process, results in the accumulation of PrP GPI-SP, suggesting the possibility that PrP GPI-anchor signal peptide could play a role in neurodegenerative prion diseases. We now show that PrP GPI-SP, when expressed as a cytosolic peptide, is able to localize to the mitochondria and to induce mitochondrial fragmentation and vacuolarization, followed by loss in mitochondrial membrane potential, ultimately resulting in apoptosis. Our results identify the GPI-SP of PrP as a novel candidate responsible for the impairment in mitochondrial function involved in the synaptic pathology observed in prion diseases, establishing a link between PrP GPI-SP accumulation and neuronal death.

  10. Polymorphisms at Amino Acid Residues 141 and 154 Influence Conformational Variation in Ovine PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sujeong; Thackray, Alana M.; Hopkins, Lee; Monie, Tom P.; Burke, David F.; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphisms in ovine PrP at amino acid residues 141 and 154 are associated with susceptibility to ovine prion disease: Leu141Arg154 with classical scrapie and Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 with atypical scrapie. Classical scrapie is naturally transmissible between sheep, whereas this may not be the case with atypical scrapie. Critical amino acid residues will determine the range or stability of structural changes within the ovine prion protein or its functional interaction with potential cofactors, during conversion of PrPC to PrPSc in these different forms of scrapie disease. Here we computationally identified that regions of ovine PrP, including those near amino acid residues 141 and 154, displayed more conservation than expected based on local structural environment. Molecular dynamics simulations showed these conserved regions of ovine PrP displayed genotypic differences in conformational repertoire and amino acid side-chain interactions. Significantly, Leu141Arg154 PrP adopted an extended beta sheet arrangement in the N-terminal palindromic region more frequently than the Phe141Arg154 and Leu141His154 variants. We supported these computational observations experimentally using circular dichroism spectroscopy and immunobiochemical studies on ovine recombinant PrP. Collectively, our observations show amino acid residues 141 and 154 influence secondary structure and conformational change in ovine PrP that may correlate with different forms of scrapie. PMID:25126555

  11. Mechanical and Controlled PRP Injections in Patients Affected by Androgenetic Alopecia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Garcovich, Simone; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Bielli, Alessandra; Orlandi, Augusto; Cervelli, Valerio

    2018-01-27

    23 patients (18 male and 5 female) aged 21-70 years who displayed male pattern hair loss (MPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 5 as determined by the Norwood-Hamilton classification scale, and female pattern hair loss (FPHL) in Stage 1 to Stage 2 as determined by the Ludwig classification scale, were treated with non-activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (A-PRP). Autologous blood (55 mL) was harvested using sodium citrate as an anticoagulant. A-PRP (23 mL) was produced for all cases using a closed system according to the transfusion service protocol. Following centrifugation (260 x g for 10 min) the A-PRP was inserted in a laser light selector device, and after the centrifugation, 9 mL of A-PRP was collected. The scalp of the patients affected by androgenetic alopecia (AGA) was divided into four areas (frontal, parietal, vertex, and occipital); local anesthesia was not performed. Interfollicular A-PRP injections (0.2 mL x cm 2 ) were performed by controlled and mechanical injections scheduled at a depth of 5 mm using a medical injector gun. Treatment sessions were performed with a 30-day interval. For each patient, three treatment sessions were performed. PRP was injected in the androgen-related areas of scalp affected by hair loss. Placebo (normal saline solution) was loaded in another syringe (10 mL) and injected on the adjacent side in a similar fashion.

  12. Reliability of instruments in a cooperative, multisite study: employment intervention demonstration program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyers, M P; McHugo, G J; Cook, J A; Razzano, L A; Drake, R E; Mueser, K T

    2001-09-01

    Reliability of well-known instruments was examined in 202 people with severe mental illness participating in a multisite vocational study. We examined interrater reliability of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the PANSS, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 (SF-36), and the Quality of Life Interview. Most scales had good levels of reliability, with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and coefficient alphas above .70. However, the SF-36 scales were generally less stable over time, particularly Social Functioning (ICC = .55). Test-retest reliability was lower among less educated respondents and among ethnic minorities. We recommend close monitoring of psychometric issues in future multisite studies.

  13. Characterizing reliability in a product/process design-assurance program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerscher, W.J. III [Delphi Energy and Engine Management Systems, Flint, MI (United States); Booker, J.M.; Bement, T.R.; Meyer, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Over the years many advancing techniques in the area of reliability engineering have surfaced in the military sphere of influence, and one of these techniques is Reliability Growth Testing (RGT). Private industry has reviewed RGT as part of the solution to their reliability concerns, but many practical considerations have slowed its implementation. It`s objective is to demonstrate the reliability requirement of a new product with a specified confidence. This paper speaks directly to that objective but discusses a somewhat different approach to achieving it. Rather than conducting testing as a continuum and developing statistical confidence bands around the results, this Bayesian updating approach starts with a reliability estimate characterized by large uncertainty and then proceeds to reduce the uncertainty by folding in fresh information in a Bayesian framework.

  14. Mouse homologue of yeast Prp19 interacts with mouse SUG1, the regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sihn, Choong-Ryoul; Cho, Si Young; Lee, Jeong Ho; Lee, Tae Ryong; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2007-01-01

    Yeast Prp19 has been shown to involve in pre-mRNA splicing and DNA repair as well as being an ubiquitin ligase. Mammalian homologue of yeast Prp19 also plays on similar functional activities in cells. In the present study, we isolated mouse SUG1 (mSUG1) as binding partner of mouse Prp19 (mPrp19) by the yeast two-hybrid system. We confirmed the interaction of mPrp9 with mSUG1 by GST pull-down assay and co-immunoprecipitation assay. The N-terminus of mPrp19 including U-box domain was associated with the C-terminus of mSUG1. Although, mSUG1 is a regulatory subunit of 26S proteasome, mPrp19 was not degraded in the proteasome-dependent pathway. Interestingly, GFP-mPrp19 fusion protein was co-localized with mSUG1 protein in cytoplasm as the formation of the speckle-like structures in the presence of a proteasome inhibitor MG132. In addition, the activity of proteasome was increased in cells transfected with mPrp19. Taken together, these results suggest that mPrp19 involves the regulation of protein turnover and may transport its substrates to 26S proteasome through mSUG1 protein

  15. Exercise and the platelet activator calcium chloride both influence the growth factor content of platelet-rich plasma (PRP): overlooked biochemical factors that could influence PRP treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamilton, Bruce; Tol, Johannes L.; Knez, Wade; Chalabi, Hakim

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise affects platelet haemostasis factors, but this potential effect on growth factor concentrations in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has never been studied. In addition, there is a paucity of studies focusing on the effects of activating agents used in conjunction

  16. Military Personnel: DMDC Data on Officers' Commissioning Programs is Insufficiently Reliable and Needs to be Corrected

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stewart, Derek B

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this report is to bring to your attention reliability issues with DMDC data that we encountered while preparing our report and to provide you with our recommendations to address these issues...

  17. Korean round-robin result for new international program to assess the reliability of emerging nondestructive techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyung Cho; Kim, Jin Gyum; Kang, Sung Sik; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    The Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, as a representative organization of Korea, in February 2012 participated in an international Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques initiated by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The goal of the Program to Assess the Reliability of Emerging Nondestructive Techniques is to investigate the performance of emerging and prospective novel nondestructive techniques to find flaws in nickel-alloy welds and base materials. In this article, Korean round-robin test results were evaluated with respect to the test blocks and various nondestructive examination techniques. The test blocks were prepared to simulate large-bore dissimilar metal welds, small-bore dissimilar metal welds, and bottom-mounted instrumentation penetration welds in nuclear power plants. Also, lessons learned from the Korean round-robin test were summarized and discussed.

  18. An evaluation of the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant preventive maintenance program based on reliability centered maintenance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, C.L.; McCullough, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) techniques were used to support a preventative maintenance (PM) upgrade program (PMUP) performed at TVA Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant (BFNP). The purpose of the RCM analysis was to identify critical equipment based on risk and economic importance and to evaluate the PM activities applicable to that equipment. The analysis may be conveniently divided into three steps, which will be outlined in the Approach section of this paper. The net benefit of the RCM approach was a prioritization of the focus of the PM upgrade program so that plant components receive attention proportional to their importance, and assurance that PM activities properly address the most likely component failure causes

  19. The influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilies Anggarwati Astuti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP is a blood concentrate that has a thrombocytes concentration several time higher than normal concentration of thrombocytes in normal human blood. PRP is a promising alternative to surgery with a safe and natural healing. The standard protocol for PRP preparation must be determined to get the right quantity and quality of the matrix of fibrin, leukocytes, platelets and growth factors. It could not be separated from the number of PRP produced. The use of PRP in the success of periodontal treatment would not be separated from methods to obtain it. To detect the influence of using anticoagulants (EDTA and citrate acid 3.8% toward the quantity of PRP. There are 41 subjects studied by taking 21 ml of venous blood in each of the seven tubes. Centrifugation performed twice with different speed, duration, use of anticoagulants then analyzed. This quantity between the two groups differed significantly between the PRP in EDTA group is higher 322.2 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, then control group is higher 329.5 ml rather than citrate acid 3.8% group, while there is no difference between EDTA and control group. There is effect of the use of anticoagulants EDTA compared with citrate acid 3.8% in the quantity of PRP, and there was no effect using citrate acid 3.8% as anticoagulants in quantity of PRP.

  20. Systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) version 5.0, technical reference manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; Atwood, C.L.; Galyean, W.J.; Sattison, M.B.; Rasmuson, D.M.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. This volume provides information on the principles used in the construction and operation of Version 5.0 of the Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) and the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system. It summarizes the fundamental mathematical concepts of sets and logic, fault trees, and probability. This volume then describes the algorithms that these programs use to construct a fault tree and to obtain the minimal cut sets. It gives the formulas used to obtain the probability of the top event from the minimal cut sets, and the formulas for probabilities that are appropriate under various assumptions concerning repairability and mission time. It defines the measures of basic event importance that these programs can calculate. This volume gives an overview of uncertainty analysis using simple Monte Carlo sampling or Latin Hypercube sampling, and states the algorithms used by these programs to generate random basic event probabilities from various distributions. Further references are given, and a detailed example of the reduction and quantification of a simple fault tree is provided in an appendix

  1. Early Delivery of Misfolded PrP from ER to Lysosomes by Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Constanza J.; Qin, Kefeng; Norstrom, Eric M.; Green, William N.; Bindokas, Vytautas P.; Mastrianni, James A.

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases are linked to the accumulation of a misfolded isoform (PrPSc) of prion protein (PrP). Evidence suggests that lysosomes are degradation endpoints and sites of the accumulation of PrPSc. We questioned whether lysosomes participate in the early quality control of newly generated misfolded PrP. We found PrP carrying the disease-associated T182A mutation (Mut-PrP) was delivered to lysosomes in a Golgi-independent manner. Time-lapse live cell imaging revealed early formation and uptake of GFP-tagged Mut-PrP aggregates into LysoTracker labeled vesicles. Compared with Wt-PrP, Mut-PrP expression was associated with an elevation in several markers of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway, and it extensively colocalized with the autophagosome-specific marker, LC3B. In autophagy deficient (ATG5−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, or in normal cells treated with the autophagy-inhibitor 3-MA, Mut-PrP colocalization with lysosomes was reduced to a similar extent. Additionally, 3-MA selectively impaired the degradation of insoluble Mut-PrP, resulting in an increase in protease-resistant PrP, whereas the induction of autophagy by rapamycin reduced it. These findings suggest that autophagy might function as a quality control mechanism to limit the accumulation of misfolded PrP that normally leads to the generation of PrPSc. PMID:24454378

  2. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. L. Smith

    2006-01-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer (PC) running the Microsoft Windows operating system. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer and tester. However, INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users, who constitute a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system's response to initiating events and quantify associated consequential outcome frequencies. Specifically, for nuclear power plant applications, SAPHIRE can identify important contributors to core damage (Level 1 PRA) and containment failure during a severe accident which lead to releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA where the reactor is at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, it can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming an internal events model to a model for external events, such as flooding and fire analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to the public and environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE also includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM is a special user interface linked to SAPHIRE that automates the SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events (for example, to calculate a conditional core damage probability) very efficiently and expeditiously. This report provides an overview of the functions

  3. The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program 30-Day Challenge: Microsurgical Breast Reconstruction Outcomes Reporting Reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austin D. Chen

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion:. For immediate, free-tissue breast reconstruction, the ACS-NSQIP may be reliable for monitoring and comparing SSI, WD, URO, and URA rates. However, clinicians may find it useful to understand limitations of the ACS-NSQIP for complications and risk factors, as it may underreport complications occurring beyond 30 days.

  4. R&D program benefits estimation: DOE Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2006-12-04

    The overall mission of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) is to lead national efforts to modernize the electric grid, enhance the security and reliability of the energy infrastructure, and facilitate recovery from disruptions to the energy supply. In support of this mission, OE conducts a portfolio of research and development (R&D) activities to advance technologies to enhance electric power delivery. Multiple benefits are anticipated to result from the deployment of these technologies, including higher quality and more reliable power, energy savings, and lower cost electricity. In addition, OE engages State and local government decision-makers and the private sector to address issues related to the reliability and security of the grid, including responding to national emergencies that affect energy delivery. The OE R&D activities are comprised of four R&D lines: High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS), Visualization and Controls (V&C), Energy Storage and Power Electronics (ES&PE), and Distributed Systems Integration (DSI).

  5. Reliability and validity of a novel Kinect-based software program for measuring posture, balance and side-bending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooten, Wilhelmus Johannes Andreas; Sandberg, Lisa; Ressman, John; Diamantoglou, Nicolas; Johansson, Elin; Rasmussen-Barr, Eva

    2018-01-08

    Clinical examinations are subjective and often show a low validity and reliability. Objective and highly reliable quantitative assessments are available in laboratory settings using 3D motion analysis, but these systems are too expensive to use for simple clinical examinations. Qinematic™ is an interactive movement analyses system based on the Kinect camera and is an easy-to-use clinical measurement system for assessing posture, balance and side-bending. The aim of the study was to test the test-retest the reliability and construct validity of Qinematic™ in a healthy population, and to calculate the minimal clinical differences for the variables of interest. A further aim was to identify the discriminative validity of Qinematic™ in people with low-back pain (LBP). We performed a test-retest reliability study (n = 37) with around 1 week between the occasions, a construct validity study (n = 30) in which Qinematic™ was tested against a 3D motion capture system, and a discriminative validity study, in which a group of people with LBP (n = 20) was compared to healthy controls (n = 17). We tested a large range of psychometric properties of 18 variables in three sections: posture (head and pelvic position, weight distribution), balance (sway area and velocity in single- and double-leg stance), and side-bending. The majority of the variables in the posture and balance sections, showed poor/fair reliability (ICC validity (Spearman reliability (ICC =0.898), excellent validity (r = 0.943), and Qinematic™ could differentiate between LPB and healthy individuals (p = 0.012). This paper shows that a novel software program (Qinematic™) based on the Kinect camera for measuring balance, posture and side-bending has poor psychometric properties, indicating that the variables on balance and posture should not be used for monitoring individual changes over time or in research. Future research on the dynamic tasks of Qinematic™ is warranted.

  6. Successful treatment of radiation retinopathy with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) in a patient of orbital MALT lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Chikuda, Makoto; Kadoya, Kouji

    2012-01-01

    Report a case of satisfactory progress radiation retinopathy after radiation for mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. A 26-year-old male patient, referred to our department for lacrimal sac tumor. Biopsy was done by otolaryngology and radiation therapy was performed (total irradiation of 41.4 Gy) as pathological examination revealed MALT lymphoma. Soft exudates and macula edema appeared in posterior pole of the right fundus after radiotherapy. Right vision became 0.5 because of macula edema, and panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) was performed. After PRP, macula edema withdrew and right vision improved to 1.2. It is suggested that the fundus must be monitored after radiation therapy, and early treatment, such as PRP is effective in radiation retinopathy. (author)

  7. Characterization of PhPRP1, a histidine domain arabinogalactan protein from Petunia hybrida pistils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twomey, Megan C; Brooks, Jenna K; Corey, Jillaine M; Singh-Cundy, Anu

    2013-10-15

    An arabinogalactan protein, PhPRP1, was purified from Petunia hybrida pistils and shown to be orthologous to TTS-1 and TTS-2 from Nicotiana tabacum and NaTTS from Nicotiana alata. Sequence comparisons among these proteins, and CaPRP1 from Capsicum annuum, reveal a conserved histidine-rich domain and two hypervariable domains. Immunoblots show that TTS-1 and PhPRP1 are also expressed in vegetative tissues of tobacco and petunia respectively. In contrast to the molecular mass heterogeneity displayed by the pistil proteins, the different isoforms found in seedlings, roots, and leaves each has a discrete size (37, 80, 160, and 200 kDa) on SDS-PAGE gels. On the basis of their chemistry, distinctive domain architecture, and the unique pattern of expression, we have named this group of proteins HD-AGPs (histidine domain-arabinogalactan proteins). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Transmission Properties of Human PrP 102L Prions Challenge the Relevance of Mouse Models of GSS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asante, Emmanuel A; Grimshaw, Andrew; Smidak, Michelle; Jakubcova, Tatiana; Tomlinson, Andrew; Jeelani, Asif; Hamdan, Shyma; Powell, Caroline; Joiner, Susan; Linehan, Jacqueline M; Brandner, Sebastian; Wadsworth, Jonathan D F; Collinge, John

    2015-07-01

    Inherited prion disease (IPD) is caused by autosomal-dominant pathogenic mutations in the human prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP). A proline to leucine substitution at PrP residue 102 (P102L) is classically associated with Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) disease but shows marked clinical and neuropathological variability within kindreds that may be caused by variable propagation of distinct prion strains generated from either PrP 102L or wild type PrP. To-date the transmission properties of prions propagated in P102L patients remain ill-defined. Multiple mouse models of GSS have focused on mutating the corresponding residue of murine PrP (P101L), however murine PrP 101L, a novel PrP primary structure, may not have the repertoire of pathogenic prion conformations necessary to accurately model the human disease. Here we describe the transmission properties of prions generated in human PrP 102L expressing transgenic mice that were generated after primary challenge with ex vivo human GSS P102L or classical CJD prions. We show that distinct strains of prions were generated in these mice dependent upon source of the inoculum (either GSS P102L or CJD brain) and have designated these GSS-102L and CJD-102L prions, respectively. GSS-102L prions have transmission properties distinct from all prion strains seen in sporadic and acquired human prion disease. Significantly, GSS-102L prions appear incapable of transmitting disease to conventional mice expressing wild type mouse PrP, which contrasts strikingly with the reported transmission properties of prions generated in GSS P102L-challenged mice expressing mouse PrP 101L. We conclude that future transgenic modeling of IPDs should focus exclusively on expression of mutant human PrP, as other approaches may generate novel experimental prion strains that are unrelated to human disease.

  9. Validity and reliability of portfolio assessment of competency in a baccalaureate dental hygiene program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C.

    This study examined validity and reliability of portfolio assessment using Messick's (1996, 1995) unified framework of construct validity. Theoretical and empirical evidence was sought for six aspects of construct validity. The sample included twenty student portfolios. Each portfolio were evaluated by seven faculty raters using a primary trait analysis scoring rubric. There was a significant relationship (r = .81--.95; p Dental Hygiene Board Examination (r = .60; p Dental Testing Service examination was both weak and nonsignificant (r = .19; p > .05). An open-ended survey was used to elicit student feedback on portfolio development. A majority of the students (76%) perceived value in the development of programmatic portfolios. In conclusion, the pattern of findings from this study suggest that portfolios can serve as a valid and reliable measure for assessing student competency.

  10. Effect of Use of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Skin with Intrinsic Aging Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles-de-Sá, Luiz; Gontijo-de-Amorim, Natale Ferreira; Takiya, Christina Maeda; Borojevic, Radovan; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Sbarbati, Andrea; Rigotti, Gino

    2018-02-15

    In previous papers, we demonstrated that the treatment of human photoaged skin with stromal-vascular fraction-enriched fat or expanded adipose-derived stem cells showed a decrease of elastosis and the appearance of new oxytalan elastic fibers in dermis and an increase in the vascular network. The utilization of fat plus platelet-rich plasma (PRP) led to an increase in the vascular permeability and reactivity of the nervous component. The purpose of this study was to analyze the histologic and ultrastructural changes of human skin after the injection of only PRP in the retroauricular area that was not exposed to sun and did not present the photoaging process, in comparison with our previous results. This study was performed in 13 patients who were candidates for facelift and whose ages ranged between 45 and 65 years. The PRP injection was performed in the mastoidea area. Fragments of skin were removed before and 3 months after treatment and analyzed by optical and electron microscopy. After the injection of PRP, we observed an increase of reticular dermis thickness because of the deposition of elastic fibers and collagen, with a fibrotic aspect. A modified pattern of adipose tissue was also found at the dermohypodermal junction. Significative regenerative aspects were not found at histologic and ultrastructural analysis. The presence of foci of moderate inflammation and microangiopathy were observed. Treatment with PRP increased reticular dermis thickness with a fibrotic aspect. In the long term, the presence of inflammation and microangiopathy caused by PRP injection could lead to trophic alteration of the skin and the precocious aging process. © 2017 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com

  11. Genetic human prion disease modelled in PrP transgenic Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thackray, Alana M; Cardova, Alzbeta; Wolf, Hanna; Pradl, Lydia; Vorberg, Ina; Jackson, Walker S; Bujdoso, Raymond

    2017-09-20

    Inherited human prion diseases, such as fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), are associated with autosomal dominant mutations in the human prion protein gene PRNP and accumulation of PrP Sc , an abnormal isomer of the normal host protein PrP C , in the brain of affected individuals. PrP Sc is the principal component of the transmissible neurotoxic prion agent. It is important to identify molecular pathways and cellular processes that regulate prion formation and prion-induced neurotoxicity. This will allow identification of possible therapeutic interventions for individuals with, or at risk from, genetic human prion disease. Increasingly, Drosophila has been used to model human neurodegenerative disease. An important unanswered question is whether genetic prion disease with concomitant spontaneous prion formation can be modelled in Drosophila We have used pUAST/PhiC31-mediated site-directed mutagenesis to generate Drosophila transgenic for murine or hamster PrP (prion protein) that carry single-codon mutations associated with genetic human prion disease. Mouse or hamster PrP harbouring an FFI (D178N) or fCJD (E200K) mutation showed mild Proteinase K resistance when expressed in Drosophila Adult Drosophila transgenic for FFI or fCJD variants of mouse or hamster PrP displayed a spontaneous decline in locomotor ability that increased in severity as the flies aged. Significantly, this mutant PrP-mediated neurotoxic fly phenotype was transferable to recipient Drosophila that expressed the wild-type form of the transgene. Collectively, our novel data are indicative of the spontaneous formation of a PrP-dependent neurotoxic phenotype in FFI- or CJD-PrP transgenic Drosophila and show that inherited human prion disease can be modelled in this invertebrate host. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Recombinant PrP and Its Contribution to Research on Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charco, Jorge M; Eraña, Hasier; Venegas, Vanessa; García-Martínez, Sandra; López-Moreno, Rafael; González-Miranda, Ezequiel; Pérez-Castro, Miguel Ángel; Castilla, Joaquín

    2017-12-14

    The misfolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into the disease-associated isoform (PrP Sc ) and its accumulation as amyloid fibrils in the central nervous system is one of the central events in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Due to the proteinaceous nature of the causal agent the molecular mechanisms of misfolding, interspecies transmission, neurotoxicity and strain phenomenon remain mostly ill-defined or unknown. Significant advances were made using in vivo and in cellula models, but the limitations of these, primarily due to their inherent complexity and the small amounts of PrP Sc that can be obtained, gave rise to the necessity of new model systems. The production of recombinant PrP using E. coli and subsequent induction of misfolding to the aberrant isoform using different techniques paved the way for the development of cell-free systems that complement the previous models. The generation of the first infectious recombinant prion proteins with identical properties of brain-derived PrP Sc increased the value of cell-free systems for research on TSEs. The versatility and ease of implementation of these models have made them invaluable for the study of the molecular mechanisms of prion formation and propagation, and have enabled improvements in diagnosis, high-throughput screening of putative anti-prion compounds and the design of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, we provide an overview of the resultant advances in the prion field due to the development of recombinant PrP and its use in cell-free systems.

  13. Distribution, recovery and concentration of platelets and leukocytes in L-PRP prepared by centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Bruna Alice Gomes; Martins Shimojo, Andréa Arruda; Marcelino Perez, Amanda Gomes; Duarte Lana, José Fabio Santos; Andrade Santana, Maria Helena

    2018-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is an autologous product prepared from whole blood (WB) that is widely used in regenerative medicine. In clinical practice, discontinuous centrifugation is used for both hand- and machine-prepared PRP. However, separation of WB fractions via centrifugation is a complex process, and the lack of clear mechanisms limits the understanding and evaluation of PRP preparation methods This paper focuses on the distribution, recovery and concentration factor of platelets and leukocytes in L-PRP (leukocyte and platelet-rich plasma) to define a concentration pattern for these blood components due to centrifugation conditions. WB collected from three healthy donors was centrifuged for 10min at 50-800 xg in a first step and then at 400 xg in a second step. The results from the first centrifugation step showed most platelets to be distributed in the upper layer (UL) and the buffy coat (BC), with approximately 14.5±5.2% retained in the bottom layer (BL). Most leukocytes were present in the BL. The greatest platelet recoveries from L-PRP were obtained at up to 150 xg (88.5±16.9%). The cumulative concentration factors with respect to the WB from the second centrifugation step were 6 and 1.2 for platelets and leukocytes, respectively. Thus, the concentration patterns delineated three centrifugation ranges with platelet/leukocyte ratios of 205±18, 325±15 and 107±4 and lymphocyte/granulocyte ratios of 1.54±0.74, 0.90±0.08 and 0.42±0.07. These findings contribute to a scientifically based standardization of L-PRP preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0: Data loading manual. Volume 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanHorn, R.L.; Wolfram, L.M.; Fowler, R.D.; Beck, S.T.; Smith, C.L.

    1995-04-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) suite of programs can be used to organize and standardize in an electronic format information from probabilistic risk assessments or individual plant examinations. The Models and Results Database (MAR-D) program of the SAPHIRE suite serves as the repository for probabilistic risk assessment and individual plant examination data and information. This report demonstrates by examples the common electronic and manual methods used to load these types of data. It is not a stand alone document but references documents that contribute information relative to the data loading process. This document provides a more detailed discussion and instructions for using SAPHIRE 5.0 only when enough information on a specific topic is not provided by another available source

  15. Reliability calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, K.E.

    1986-03-01

    Risk and reliability analysis is increasingly being used in evaluations of plant safety and plant reliability. The analysis can be performed either during the design process or during the operation time, with the purpose to improve the safety or the reliability. Due to plant complexity and safety and availability requirements, sophisticated tools, which are flexible and efficient, are needed. Such tools have been developed in the last 20 years and they have to be continuously refined to meet the growing requirements. Two different areas of application were analysed. In structural reliability probabilistic approaches have been introduced in some cases for the calculation of the reliability of structures or components. A new computer program has been developed based upon numerical integration in several variables. In systems reliability Monte Carlo simulation programs are used especially in analysis of very complex systems. In order to increase the applicability of the programs variance reduction techniques can be applied to speed up the calculation process. Variance reduction techniques have been studied and procedures for implementation of importance sampling are suggested. (author)

  16. Measuring Program Quality, Part 2: Addressing Potential Cultural Bias in a Rater Reliability Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, Amanda; Charmaraman, Linda; Ceder, Ineke

    2018-01-01

    Like instruments used in afterschool programs to assess children's social and emotional growth or to evaluate staff members' performance, instruments used to evaluate program quality should be free from bias. Practitioners and researchers alike want to know that assessment instruments, whatever their type or intent, treat all people fairly and do…

  17. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  18. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  19. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  20. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  1. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  2. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  3. Site enforcement tracking system (SETS): PRP listing by site for region 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    When expending Superfund monies at a CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act) site, EPA must conduct a search to identify parties with potential financial responsibility for remediation of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. EPA regional Superfund Waste Management Staff issue a notice letter to the potentially responsible party (PRP). Data from the notice letter is used to form the Site Enforcement Tracking System (SETS). The data includes PRP name and address, a company contact person, the date the notice was issued, and the related CERCLA site name and identification number

  4. Probabilistic safety assessment of Tehran Research Reactor using systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, M.H.; Nematollahi, M.R.; Sepanloo, K.

    2004-01-01

    Probabilistic safety assessment application is found to be a practical tool for research reactor safety due to intense involvement of human interactions in an experimental facility. In this document the application of the probabilistic safety assessment to the Tehran Research Reactor is presented. The level 1 practicabilities safety assessment application involved: Familiarization with the plant, selection of accident initiators, mitigating functions and system definitions, event tree constructions and quantifications, fault tree constructions and quantification, human reliability, component failure data base development and dependent failure analysis. Each of the steps of the analysis given above is discussed with highlights from the selected results. Quantification of the constructed models is done using systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations software

  5. Superfund TIO videos. Set B. Basics of administrative law, and prp search process: PRP search, information exchange and access. Part 3. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into two sections. Section 1 identifies the various types of administrative hearings, including quasi-legislative, quasi-judicial, and hybrid types. Section 2 provides an overview of the PRP search process; explains how and when to issue Section 104(e) letters and administrative subpoenas; outlines the enforcement authorities available in cases of non-compliance; and describes the types of information that can be released to PRPs

  6. Can platelet-rich plasma (PRP) improve bone healing? A comparison between the theory and experimental outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Angad; Pelletier, Matthew H; Yu, Yan; Walsh, William R

    2013-02-01

    The increased concentration of platelets within platelet-rich plasma (PRP) provides a vehicle to deliver supra-physiologic concentrations of growth factors to an injury site, possibly accelerating or otherwise improving connective tissue regeneration. This potential benefit has led to the application of PRP in several applications; however, inconsistent results have limited widespread adoption in bone healing. This review provides a core understanding of the bone healing mechanisms, and corresponds this to the factors present in PRP. In addition, the current state of the art of PRP preparation, the key aspects that may influence its effectiveness, and treatment outcomes as they relate specifically to bone defect healing are presented. Although PRP does have a sound scientific basis, its use for bone healing appears only beneficial when used in combination with osteoconductive scaffolds; however, neither allograft nor autograft appear to be appropriate carriers. Aggressive processing techniques and very high concentrations of PRP may not improve healing outcomes. Moreover, many other variables exist in PRP preparation and use that influence its efficacy; the effect of these variables should be understood when considering PRP use. This review includes the essentials of what has been established, what is currently missing in the literature, and recommendations for future directions.

  7. Reliability and safety analysis methodology in the nuclear programs of ERDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Gavigan, F.X.; Emon, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    After discussing the general need for and advantages of risk analysis, including a summary of the previous application of risk concepts to reactor systems, descriptions are given of the existing and planned programs funded by the U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration for use in advanced nuclear reactor systems. Some of the results from existing programs are given, and future efforts are described. 32 refs

  8. A cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid using intelligent demand-response program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safamehr, Hossein; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Providing a cost-efficient and reliable energy is one of the main issues in human societies of the 21st century. In response to this demand, new features of micro grid technology have provided huge potentials, specifically by the capability of having an interactive coordination between energy suppliers and consumers. Accordingly, this paper offers an improved model for achieving an optimal Demand Response programing. To solve the proposed multi-objective optimization problem, Artificial Bee Colony algorithm and quasi-static technique are utilized. The considered objectives in this paper are minimizing the overall cost of energy consumption and also improving the technical parameters of micro grid over a time horizon. This optimization is subject to several constraints such as satisfying the energy balance and the operating constraints of each energy supply sources. Manageable load or load as source is another enabling feature existing in smart energy networks, which is considered in this paper and its effect on cost reduction and reliability improvement is studied. Trying to examine the performance of the proposed Demand Response Programing in real conditions, the uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods. The results show significant improvements which are obtained by applying just intelligent programming and management. - Highlights: • This paper presents a cost-efficient and reliable energy management of a micro-grid. • New models of battery and manageable loads are formulated. • Artificial Bee Colony algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. • Quasi-static technique is used to simplify the solving procedure. • The uncertainties are also analyzed by stochastic methods.

  9. Reliability of nine programs of topological predictions and their application to integral membrane channel and carrier proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Abhinay; Cho, Jaehoon; Ling, Sam; Reddy, Vamsee; Shlykov, Maksim; Saier, Milton H

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated topological predictions for nine different programs, HMMTOP, TMHMM, SVMTOP, DAS, SOSUI, TOPCONS, PHOBIUS, MEMSAT-SVM (hereinafter referred to as MEMSAT), and SPOCTOPUS. These programs were first evaluated using four large topologically well-defined families of secondary transporters, and the three best programs were further evaluated using topologically more diverse families of channels and carriers. In the initial studies, the order of accuracy was: SPOCTOPUS > MEMSAT > HMMTOP > TOPCONS > PHOBIUS > TMHMM > SVMTOP > DAS > SOSUI. Some families, such as the Sugar Porter Family (2.A.1.1) of the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS; TC #2.A.1) and the Amino Acid/Polyamine/Organocation (APC) Family (TC #2.A.3), were correctly predicted with high accuracy while others, such as the Mitochondrial Carrier (MC) (TC #2.A.29) and the K(+) transporter (Trk) families (TC #2.A.38), were predicted with much lower accuracy. For small, topologically homogeneous families, SPOCTOPUS and MEMSAT were generally most reliable, while with large, more diverse superfamilies, HMMTOP often proved to have the greatest prediction accuracy. We next developed a novel program, TM-STATS, that tabulates HMMTOP, SPOCTOPUS or MEMSAT-based topological predictions for any subdivision (class, subclass, superfamily, family, subfamily, or any combination of these) of the Transporter Classification Database (TCDB; www.tcdb.org) and examined the following subclasses: α-type channel proteins (TC subclasses 1.A and 1.E), secreted pore-forming toxins (TC subclass 1.C) and secondary carriers (subclass 2.A). Histograms were generated for each of these subclasses, and the results were analyzed according to subclass, family and protein. The results provide an update of topological predictions for integral membrane transport proteins as well as guides for the development of more reliable topological prediction programs, taking family-specific characteristics into account. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Reliability and Availability Analysis of Some Systems with Common-Cause Failures Using SPICE Circuit Simulation Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Taher Abuelma'atti

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of SPICE circuit simulation program in calculating probabilities, reliability, steady-state availability and mean-time to failure of repairable systems described by Markov models is demonstrated. Two examples are presented. The first example is a warm standby system with common-cause failures and human errors. The second example is a non-identical unit parallel system with common-cause failures. In both cases recourse to numerical solution is inevitable to obtain the Laplace transforms of the probabilities. Results obtained using SPICE are compared with previously published results obtained using the Laplace transform method. Full SPICE listings are included.

  11. An accelerated stress testing program for determining the reliability sensitivity of silicon solar cells to encapsulation and metallization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathrop, J. W.; Davis, C. W.; Royal, E.

    1982-01-01

    The use of accelerated testing methods in a program to determine the reliability attributes of terrestrial silicon solar cells is discussed. Different failure modes are to be expected when cells with and without encapsulation are subjected to accelerated testing and separate test schedules for each are described. Unencapsulated test cells having slight variations in metallization are used to illustrate how accelerated testing can highlight different diffusion related failure mechanisms. The usefulness of accelerated testing when applied to encapsulated cells is illustrated by results showing that moisture related degradation may be many times worse with some forms of encapsulation than with no encapsulation at all.

  12. A comparison between platelet-rich plasma (PRP and hyaluronate acid on the healing of cartilage defects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Liu

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has offered great promise for the treatment of cartilage degradation, and has been proved to have positive effects on the restoration of cartilage lesions. But no comparative work has been done between PRP and hyaluronate acid (HA concerning their restoring effect on cartilage defect, especially by means of animal experiments and histologic assessments. The purpose of the study was to compare the therapeutic effects of P-PRP and HA on osteoarthritis in rabbit knees. Thirty rabbits were used to establish the animal models by creating a cartilage defect of 5 mm in diameter on the condyles of the femurs, and were randomly divided into three groups: the P-PRP group, HA group and the control group. Then each group was treated with P-PRP, HA or saline solution, respectively. Six and twelve weeks later the rabbits were sacrificed and the samples were collected. The platelet number, the concentrations of growth factors of P-PRP and whole blood, and the IL-1β concentration in the joint fluid were investigated, and the histological assessment of the cartilage were performed according to Mankin's scoring system. Micro-CT was also used to evaluate the restoration of subchondral bone. The platelet concentration in P-PRP is 6.8 fold of that in the whole blood. The IL-1β level in the P-PRP group was lower than in the HA group (p<0.01 and in the control group (p<0.01. The restoration of the defected cartilage as well as the subchondral bone was better in the P-PRP group than in the HA group or the control group (P<0.05. Our data showed that P-PRP is better than HA in promoting the restoration of the cartilage and alleviating the arthritis caused by cartilage damage.

  13. Splicing Factor Prp8 Interacts With NES(AR) and Regulates Androgen Receptor in Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Nguyen, Minh M; Masoodi, Khalid Z; Singh, Prabhpreet; Jing, Yifeng; O'Malley, Katherine; Dar, Javid A; Dhir, Rajiv; Wang, Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) plays a pivotal role in the development of primary as well as advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Previous work in our lab identified a novel nuclear export signal (NES) (NES(AR)) in AR ligand-binding domain essential for AR nucleocytoplasmic trafficking. By characterizing the localization of green fluorescence protein (GFP)-tagged NES(AR), we designed and executed a yeast mutagenesis screen and isolated 7 yeast mutants that failed to display the NES(AR) export function. One of those mutants was identified as the splicing factor pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8). We further showed that Prp8 could regulate NES(AR) function using short hairpin RNA knockdown of Prp8 coupled with a rapamycin export assay in mammalian cells and knockdown of Prp8 could induce nuclear accumulation of GFP-tagged AR in PC3 cells. Prp8 expression was decreased in castration-resistant LuCaP35 xenograft tumors as compared with androgen-sensitive xenografts. Laser capture microdissection and quantitative PCR showed Prp8 mRNA levels were decreased in human prostate cancer specimens with high Gleason scores. In prostate cancer cells, coimmunoprecipitation and deletion mutagenesis revealed a physical interaction between Prp8 and AR mainly mediated by NES(AR). Luciferase assay with prostate specific antigen promoter-driven reporter demonstrated that Prp8 regulated AR transcription activity in prostate cancer cells. Interestingly, Prp8 knockdown also increased polyubiquitination of endogenous AR. This may be 1 possible mechanism by which it modulates AR activity. These results show that Prp8 is a novel AR cofactor that interacts with NES(AR) and regulates AR function in prostate cancer cells.

  14. Ionic mechanisms of action of prion protein fragment PrP(106-126) in rat basal forebrain neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alier, Kwai; Li, Zongming; Mactavish, David; Westaway, David; Jhamandas, Jack H

    2010-08-01

    Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by the presence of the misfolded prion protein (PrP). Neurotoxicity in these diseases may result from prion-induced modulation of ion channel function, changes in neuronal excitability, and consequent disruption of cellular homeostasis. We therefore examined PrP effects on a suite of potassium (K(+)) conductances that govern excitability of basal forebrain neurons. Our study examined the effects of a PrP fragment [PrP(106-126), 50 nM] on rat neurons using the patch clamp technique. In this paradigm, PrP(106-126) peptide, but not the "scrambled" sequence of PrP(106-126), evoked a reduction of whole-cell outward currents in a voltage range between -30 and +30 mV. Reduction of whole-cell outward currents was significantly attenuated in Ca(2+)-free external media and also in the presence of iberiotoxin, a blocker of calcium-activated potassium conductance. PrP(106-126) application also evoked a depression of the delayed rectifier (I(K)) and transient outward (I(A)) potassium currents. By using single cell RT-PCR, we identified the presence of two neuronal chemical phenotypes, GABAergic and cholinergic, in cells from which we recorded. Furthermore, cholinergic and GABAergic neurons were shown to express K(v)4.2 channels. Our data establish that the central region of PrP, defined by the PrP(106-126) peptide used at nanomolar concentrations, induces a reduction of specific K(+) channel conductances in basal forebrain neurons. These findings suggest novel links between PrP signalling partners inferred from genetic experiments, K(+) channels, and PrP-mediated neurotoxicity.

  15. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  16. In vitro study of the role of thrombin in platelet rich plasma (PRP) preparation: utility for gel formation and impact in growth factors release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Stephany Cares; Cunha Júnior, José Luiz Rosenberis; Montalvão, Silmara; da Silva, Letícia Queiroz; Paffaro, Aline Urban; da Silva, Francesca Aparecida Ramos; Rodrigues, Bruno Lima; Lana, José Fabio Santos Duarte; Annichino-Bizzacchi, Joyce Maria

    2016-01-01

    The use of PRP has been studied for different fields, with promising results in regenerative medicine. Until now, there is no study in the literature evaluating thrombin levels in serum, used as autologous thrombin preparation. Therefore, in the present study we evaluated the role played by different thrombin concentrations in PRP and the impact in the release of growth factors. Also, different activators for PRP gel formation were evaluated. Thrombin levels were measured in different autologous preparations: serum, L-PRP (PRP rich in leukocytes) and T-PRP (thrombin produced through PRP added calcium gluconate). L-PRP was prepared according to the literature, with platelets and leukocytes being quantified. The effect of autologous thrombin associated or not with calcium in PRP gel was determined by measuring the time of gel formation. The relationship between thrombin concentration and release of growth factors was determined by growth factors (PDGF-AA, VEGF and EGF) multiplex analysis. A similar concentration of thrombin was observed in serum, L-PRP and T-PRP (8.13 nM, 8.63 nM and 7.56 nM, respectively) with a high variation between individuals (CV%: 35.07, 43 and 58.42, respectively). T-PRP and serum with calcium chloride showed similar results in time to promote gel formation. The increase of thrombin concentrations (2.66, 8 and 24 nM) did not promote an increase in growth factor release. The technique of using serum as a thrombin source proved to be the most efficient and reproducible for promoting PRP gel formation, with some advantages when compared to other activation methods, as this technique is easier and quicker with no need of consuming part of PRP. Noteworthy, PRP activation using different thrombin concentrations did not promote a higher release of growth factors, appearing not to be necessary when PRP is used as a suspension.

  17. High-reliability logic system evaluation of a programmed multiprocessor solution. Application in the nuclear reactor safety field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lallement, Dominique.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear reactors are monitored by several systems combined. The hydraulic and mechanical limitations on the equipment and the heat transfer requirements in the core set a reliable working range for the boiler defined with certain safety margins. The control system tends to keep the power plant within this working range. The protection system covers all the electrical and mechanical equipment needed to safeguard the boiler in the event of abnormal transients or accidents accounted for in the design of the plant. On units in service protection is handled by cabled automatic systems. For better reliability and safety operation, greater flexibility of use (modularity, adaptability) and improved start-up criteria by data processing the tendency is to use digital programmed systems. Computers are already present in control systems but their introduction into protection systems meets with some reticence on the part of the nuclear safety authorities. A study on the replacement of conventional by digital protection systems is presented. From choices partly made on the principles which should govern the hardware and software of a protection system the reliability of different structures and elements was examined and an experimental model built with its simulator and test facilities. A prototype based on these options and studies is being built and is to be set up on one of the CEN-G reactors for tests [fr

  18. An enhanced reliability-oriented workforce planning model for process industry using combined fuzzy goal programming and differential evolution approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ighravwe, D. E.; Oke, S. A.; Adebiyi, K. A.

    2018-03-01

    This paper draws on the "human reliability" concept as a structure for gaining insight into the maintenance workforce assessment in a process industry. Human reliability hinges on developing the reliability of humans to a threshold that guides the maintenance workforce to execute accurate decisions within the limits of resources and time allocations. This concept offers a worthwhile point of deviation to encompass three elegant adjustments to literature model in terms of maintenance time, workforce performance and return-on-workforce investments. These fully explain the results of our influence. The presented structure breaks new grounds in maintenance workforce theory and practice from a number of perspectives. First, we have successfully implemented fuzzy goal programming (FGP) and differential evolution (DE) techniques for the solution of optimisation problem in maintenance of a process plant for the first time. The results obtained in this work showed better quality of solution from the DE algorithm compared with those of genetic algorithm and particle swarm optimisation algorithm, thus expressing superiority of the proposed procedure over them. Second, the analytical discourse, which was framed on stochastic theory, focusing on specific application to a process plant in Nigeria is a novelty. The work provides more insights into maintenance workforce planning during overhaul rework and overtime maintenance activities in manufacturing systems and demonstrated capacity in generating substantially helpful information for practice.

  19. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers,E.; deBoer,G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K.; Landers, J.

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former "Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security" at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that "good security is 20% equipment and 80% people." Although eliminating the "human factor" is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  20. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, E.; deBoer, G.; Crawford, C.; De Castro, K.; Landers, J.

    2009-01-01

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC and A). Though MPC and A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the 'human factor.' Gen. Eugene Habiger, a former 'Assistant Secretary for Safeguards and Security' at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear-weapons complex and a former commander of U.S. strategic nuclear forces, has observed that 'good security is 20% equipment and 80% people.' Although eliminating the 'human factor' is not possible, accounting for and mitigating the risk of the insider threat is an essential element in establishing an effective nuclear security culture. This paper will consider the organizational role in mitigating the risk associated with the malicious insider through monitoring and enhancing human reliability and motivation as well as enhancing the nuclear security culture.

  1. A multi-objective reliable programming model for disruption in supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emran Mohammadi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on supply chain management is to handle risk components, properly. There are various reasons for having risk in supply chain such as natural disasters, unexpected incidents, etc. When a series of facilities are built and deployed, one or a number of them could probably fail at any time due to bad weather conditions, labor strikes, economic crises, sabotage or terrorist attacks and changes in ownership of the system. The objective of risk management is to reduce the effects of different domains to an acceptable level. To overcome the risk, we propose a reliable capacitated supply chain network design (RSCND model by considering random disruptions risk in both distribution centers and suppliers. The proposed study of this paper considers three objective functions and the implementation is verified using some instance.

  2. Exceptions to the PRP Effect? A Comparison of Prepared and Unconditioned Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Markus; Pfister, Roland; Wallmeier, Gloria; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Psychological research has documented again and again marked performance decrements whenever humans perform 2 or more tasks at the same time. In fact, the available evidence seems to suggest that any type of behavior is subject to such limitations. The present experiments employed the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm to identify a…

  3. No effects of PRP on ultrasonographic tendon structure and neovascularisation in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vos, R. J.; Weir, A.; Tol, J. L.; Verhaar, J. A. N.; Weinans, H.; van Schie, H. T. M.

    2011-01-01

    To assess whether a platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection leads to an enhanced tendon structure and neovascularisation, measured with ultrasonographic techniques, in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Sports medical department of The

  4. Acetylcholinesterase triggers the aggregation of PrP 106-126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pera, M.; Roman, S.; Ratia, M.; Camps, P.; Munoz-Torrero, D.; Colombo, L.; Manzoni, C.; Salmona, M.; Badia, A.; Clos, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), a senile plaque component, promotes amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) fibril formation in vitro. The presence of prion protein (PrP) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) senile plaques prompted us to assess if AChE could trigger the PrP peptides aggregation as well. Consequently, the efficacy of AChE on the PrP peptide spanning-residues 106-126 aggregation containing a coumarin fluorescence probe (coumarin-PrP 106-126) was studied. Kinetics of coumarin-PrP 106-126 aggregation showed a significant increase of maximum size of aggregates (MSA), which was dependent on AChE concentration. AChE-PrP 106-126 aggregates showed the tinctorial and optical amyloid properties as determined by polarized light and electronic microscopy analysis. A remarkable inhibition of MSA was obtained with propidium iodide, suggesting that AChE triggers PrP 106-126 and Aβ aggregation through a similar mechanism. Huprines (AChE inhibitors) also significantly decreased MSA induced by AChE as well, unveiling the potential interest for some AChE inhibitors as a novel class of potential anti-prion drugs

  5. Risk programming and sparse data: how to get more reliable results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hardaker, J.B.; Lien, G.; Asseldonk, van M.A.P.M.; Richardson, W.; Hegrenes, A.

    2008-01-01

    Because relevant historical data for farms are inevitably sparse, most risk programming studies rely on few observations. We discuss how to use available information to derive an appropriate multivariate distribution function that can be sampled for a more complete representation of the possible

  6. High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety-reliability program plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this document is to present a safety plan as part of an overall program plan for the design and development of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). This plan is intended to establish a logical framework for identifying the technology necessary to demonstrate that the requisite degree of public risk safety can be achieved economically. This plan provides a coherent system safety approach together with goals and success criterion as part of a unifying strategy for licensing a lead reactor plant in the near term. It is intended to provide guidance to program participants involved in producing a technology base for the HTGR that is fully responsive to safety consideration in the design, evaluation, licensing, public acceptance, and economic optimization of reactor systems.

  7. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects. PMID:25904890

  8. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strobach, Tilo; Schütz, Anja; Schubert, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and Task 2) are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e., decreasing SOAs do not increase reaction times (RTs) and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates) show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/or error rates in Task 1). This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  9. On the importance of Task 1 and error performance measures in PRP dual-task studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eStrobach

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Psychological Refractory Period (PRP paradigm is a dominant research tool in the literature on dual-task performance. In this paradigm a first and second component task (i.e., Task 1 and 2 are presented with variable stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs and priority to perform Task 1. The main indicator of dual-task impairment in PRP situations is an increasing Task 2-RT with decreasing SOAs. This impairment is typically explained with some task components being processed strictly sequentially in the context of the prominent central bottleneck theory. This assumption could implicitly suggest that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing, i.e. decreasing SOAs do not increase RTs and error rates of the first task. The aim of the present review is to assess whether PRP dual-task studies included both RT and error data presentations and statistical analyses and whether studies including both data types (i.e., RTs and error rates show data consistent with this assumption (i.e., decreasing SOAs and unaffected RTs and/ or error rates in Task 1. This review demonstrates that, in contrast to RT presentations and analyses, error data is underrepresented in a substantial number of studies. Furthermore, a substantial number of studies with RT and error data showed a statistically significant impairment of Task 1 performance with decreasing SOA. Thus, these studies produced data that is not primarily consistent with the strong assumption that processes of Task 1 are unaffected by Task 2 and bottleneck processing in the context of PRP dual-task situations; this calls for a more careful report and analysis of Task 1 performance in PRP studies and for a more careful consideration of theories proposing additions to the bottleneck assumption, which are sufficiently general to explain Task 1 and Task 2 effects.

  10. Risk programming and sparse data: how to get more reliable results

    OpenAIRE

    Hardaker, J. Brian; Lien, Gudbrand D.; Van Asseldonk, Marcel A.P.M.; Richardson, James W.; Hegrenes, Agnar

    2008-01-01

    Because relevant historical data for farms are inevitably sparse, most risk programming studies rely on few observations. We discuss how to use available information to derive an appropriate multivariate distribution function that can be sampled for a more complete representation of the possible risks in riskbased models. For the particular example of a Norwegian mixed livestock and crop farm, the solution is shown to be unstable with few states, although the cost of picking a sub-optimal pla...

  11. Self-Reliability and Motivation in a Nuclear Security Culture Enhancement Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford,C.; de Boer,G.; De Castro, K; Landers, Ph.D., J; Rogers, E

    2009-10-19

    The threat of nuclear terrorism has become a global concern. Many countries continue to make efforts to strengthen nuclear security by enhancing systems of nuclear material protection, control, and accounting (MPC&A). Though MPC&A systems can significantly upgrade nuclear security, they do not eliminate the "human factor." This paper will describe some of the key elements of a comprehensive, sustainable nuclear security culture enhancement program and how implementation can mitigate the insider threat.

  12. Reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chi Woo; Kim, Sun Jin; Lee, Seung Woo; Jeong, Sang Yeong

    1993-08-01

    This book start what is reliability? such as origin of reliability problems, definition of reliability and reliability and use of reliability. It also deals with probability and calculation of reliability, reliability function and failure rate, probability distribution of reliability, assumption of MTBF, process of probability distribution, down time, maintainability and availability, break down maintenance and preventive maintenance design of reliability, design of reliability for prediction and statistics, reliability test, reliability data and design and management of reliability.

  13. Improvements in valve reliability due to implementation of effective condition monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Stan

    2003-01-01

    Modern diagnostic systems for motor-operated valves, pneumatic control valves and checkvalves have facilitated a shift in the maintenance philosophy for valves and actuators in nuclear power plants from schedule based to condition-based maintenance (CBM). This shift enables plant management to focus resources and schedule priority on the plant equipment that warrants attention thereby not wasting resources or increasing the human factors risk on equipment that has not degraded. The most recent initiatives combine condition monitoring with risk/safety insights to focus attention and resonances on the right equipment at the right time consistent with each component's safety-significance. The activities of the ASME working groups responsible for nuclear O and M codes have kept pace with the technology and process improvements necessary to maximize the technical and economic benefits of condition based and risk informed maintenance. This paper discusses adoption of valve condition monitoring in the nuclear power industry, changes to ASME codes and standards during the 90's to facilitate adoption of condition monitoring technology for in-service testing and recent efforts to combine risk insights with condition monitoring strategies to achieve the highest level of valve reliability and nuclear safety without over inflating maintenance cost. (author)

  14. Designing and Assessing the Validity and Reliability of the Hospital Readiness Assessment Tools to Conducting Quality Improvement Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Gholipoor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives : Identifying the readiness of hospital and its strengths and weaknesses can be useful in developing appropriate planning and situation analyses and management to getting effective in clinical audit programs. The aim of this study was to design and assess the validity of the Hospital Readiness Assessment Tools to conduct quality improvement and clinical audit programs. Material and Methods: In this study, based on the results of a systematic review of literature, an initial questionnaire with 77 items was designed. Questionnaire content validity was reviewed by experts in the field of hospital management and quality improvement in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. For this purpose, 20 questionnaires were sent to experts. Finally, 15 participants returned completed questionnaire. Questionnaire validity was reviewed and confirmed based on Content Validity Index and Content Validity Ratio. Questionnaire reliability was confirmed based on Cronbach's alpha index (α = 0.96 in a pilot study by participation of 30 hospital managers. Results: The results showed that the final questionnaire contains 54 questions as nine category as: data and information (9 items, teamwork (12 questions, resources (5 questions, patient and education (5, intervention design and implementation (5 questions, clinical audit management (4 questions, human resources (6 questions, evidence and standard (4 items and evaluation and feedback (4 items. The final questionnaire content validity index was 0.91 and final questionnaire Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.96. Conclusion: Considering the relative good validity and reliability of the designed tool in this study, it appears that the questionnaire can be used to identify and assess the readiness of hospitals for quality improvement and clinical audit program implementation

  15. Comparison of the effect of activated or non-activated PRP in various concentrations on osteoblast and fibroblast cell line proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahabi, Surena; Yadegari, Zahra; Mohammad-Rahimi, Hossein

    2017-09-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains growth factors which positively affect cell proliferation, cell differentiation, chemotaxis and intracellular matrix synthesis. All these processes are involved in wound healing and tissue regeneration; thus, PRP as a source of growth factors can be used in periodontal regenerative therapies. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of various concentrations of activated and non-activated PRP on proliferation of osteoblasts and fibroblasts in vitro. PRP was obtained from three healthy volunteers. 75, 50, 25, and 10% concentrations of f PRP were prepared by dilution in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium. In activated PRP groups, PRP concentrations were activated by adding calcium gluconate. Human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cell line and MG-63 (osteosarcoma) human osteoblast-like cell line were used in the study. The MTT proliferation assay was used to assess the effect of different types of PRP concentrates on proliferation of HGF and MG-63 cells, in 24, 48 and 72 h. After 24, 48, and 72 h, the proliferation rate of both cell lines was higher in the positive control group, except in 72 h in HGF cell lines, that 10% non-activated PRP group and 10 and 25% activated PRP groups has higher proliferation rate than the positive control group, which it was not significant. Proliferation rate in cells with 10% activated PRP was highest among samples containing PRP. The current study failed to show the significant effect of activated or non-activated PRP on proliferation of HGFs or MG-63 osteoblast-like cells. However, our results showed that activated PRP had a greater effect than non-activated PRP.

  16. Effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) concentration on proliferation, neurotrophic function and migration of Schwann cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Canbin; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Xijun; He, Caifeng; Jiang, Li; Quan, Daping; Zhou, Xiang; Zhu, Zhaowei

    2016-05-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) contains various growth factors and appears to have the potential to promote peripheral nerve regeneration, but evidence is lacking regarding its biological effect on Schwann cells (SCs). The present study was designed to investigate the effect of PRP concentration on SCs in order to determine the plausibility of using this plasma-derived therapy for peripheral nerve injury. PRP was obtained from rats by double-step centrifugation and was characterized by determining platelet numbers and growth factor concentrations. Primary cultures of rat SCs were exposed to various concentrations of PRP (40%, 20%, 10%, 5% and 2.5%). Cell proliferation assays and flow cytometry were performed to study to assess SC proliferation. Quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA analysis were performed to determine the ability of PRP to induce SCs to produce nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Microchemotaxis assay was used to analyse the cell migration capacity. The results obtained indicated that the platelet concentration and growth factors in our PRP preparations were significantly higher than in whole blood. Cell culture experiments showed that 2.5-20% PRP significantly stimulated SC proliferation and migration compared to untreated controls in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the expression and secretion of NGF and GDNF were significantly increased. However, the above effects of SCs were suppressed by high PRP concentrations (40%). In conclusion, the appropriate concentration of PRP had the potency to stimulate cell proliferation, induced the synthesis of neurotrophic factors and significantly increased migration of SCs dose-dependently. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification induces the conversion of recombinant prion protein to PrP oligomers causing neuronal apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Zhen; Yang, Lifeng; Chen, Baian; Zhu, Ting; Hassan, Mohammad Farooque; Yin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Xiangmei; Zhao, Deming

    2015-06-01

    The formation of neurotoxic prion protein (PrP) oligomers is thought to be a key step in the development of prion diseases. Recently, it was determined that the sonication and shaking of recombinant PrP can convert PrP monomers into β-state oligomers. Herein, we demonstrate that β-state oligomeric PrP can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP, and that these oligomers can be used for subsequent research into the mechanisms of PrP-induced neurotoxicity. We have characterized protein misfolding cyclic amplification-induced monomer-to-oligomer conversion of PrP from three species using western blotting, circular dichroism, size-exclusion chromatography, and resistance to proteinase K (PK) digestion. We have further shown that all of the resulting β-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, whereas the corresponding monomeric PrP were not toxic. In addition, we found that this toxicity is the result of oligomer-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 in both wild-type and PrP(-/-) cortical neurons. It is our hope that these results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. We found that β-state oligomeric PrPs can be generated through protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) from recombinant full-length hamster, human, rabbit, and mutated rabbit PrP. β-oligomers are toxic to primary mouse cortical neurons independent of the presence of PrP(C) in the neurons, while the corresponding monomeric PrPs were not toxic. This toxicity is the result of oligomers-induced apoptosis via regulation of Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3. These results may contribute to our understanding of prion transformation within the brain. © 2015 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  18. On the Reliability of Nonlinear Modeling using Enhanced Genetic Programming Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, S. M.; Affenzeller, M.; Wagner, S.

    The use of genetic programming (GP) in nonlinear system identification enables the automated search for mathematical models that are evolved by an evolutionary process using the principles of selection, crossover and mutation. Due to the stochastic element that is intrinsic to any evolutionary process, GP cannot guarantee the generation of similar or even equal models in each GP process execution; still, if there is a physical model underlying to the data that are analyzed, then GP is expected to find these structures and produce somehow similar results. In this paper we define a function for measuring the syntactic similarity of mathematical models represented as structure trees; using this similarity function we compare the results produced by GP techniques for a data set representing measurement data of a BMW Diesel engine.

  19. Na+/K+-ATPase is present in scrapie-associated fibrils, modulates PrP misfolding in vitro and links PrP function and dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James F Graham

    Full Text Available Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are characterised by widespread deposition of fibrillar and/or plaque-like forms of the prion protein. These aggregated forms are produced by misfolding of the normal prion protein, PrP(C, to the disease-associated form, PrP(Sc, through mechanisms that remain elusive but which require either direct or indirect interaction between PrP(C and PrP(Sc isoforms. A wealth of evidence implicates other non-PrP molecules as active participants in the misfolding process, to catalyse and direct the conformational conversion of PrP(C or to provide a scaffold ensuring correct alignment of PrP(C and PrP(Sc during conversion. Such molecules may be specific to different scrapie strains to facilitate differential prion protein misfolding. Since molecular cofactors may become integrated into the growing protein fibril during prion conversion, we have investigated the proteins contained in prion disease-specific deposits by shotgun proteomics of scrapie-associated fibrils (SAF from mice infected with 3 different strains of mouse-passaged scrapie. Concomitant use of negative control preparations allowed us to identify and discount proteins that are enriched non-specifically by the SAF isolation protocol. We found several proteins that co-purified specifically with SAF from infected brains but none of these were reproducibly and demonstrably specific for particular scrapie strains. The α-chain of Na(+/K(+-ATPase was common to SAF from all 3 strains and we tested the ability of this protein to modulate in vitro misfolding of recombinant PrP. Na(+/K(+-ATPase enhanced the efficiency of disease-specific conversion of recombinant PrP suggesting that it may act as a molecular cofactor. Consistent with previous results, the same protein inhibited fibrillisation kinetics of recombinant PrP. Since functional interactions between PrP(C and Na(+/K(+-ATPase have previously been reported in astrocytes, our data highlight this molecule as

  20. Interaction between Shadoo and PrP Affects the PrP-Folding Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciric, Danica; Richard, Charles-Adrien; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Sibille, Pierre; Daude, Nathalie; Westaway, David; Adrover, Miguel; Béringue, Vincent; Martin, Davy; Rezaei, Human

    2015-06-01

    Prion diseases are characterized by conformational changes of a cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) into a β-sheet-enriched and aggregated conformer (PrP(Sc)). Shadoo (Sho), a member of the prion protein family, is expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and is highly conserved among vertebrates. On the basis of histoanatomical colocalization and sequence similarities, it is suspected that Sho and PrP may be functionally related. The downregulation of Sho expression during prion pathology and the direct interaction between Sho and PrP, as revealed by two-hybrid analysis, suggest a relationship between Sho and prion replication. Using biochemical and biophysical approaches, we demonstrate that Sho forms a 1:1 complex with full-length PrP with a dissociation constant in the micromolar range, and this interaction consequently modifies the PrP-folding pathway. Using a truncated PrP that mimics the C-terminal C1 fragment, an allosteric binding behavior with a Hill number of 4 was observed, suggesting that at least a tetramerization state occurs. A cell-based prion titration assay performed with different concentrations of Sho revealed an increase in the PrP(Sc) conversion rate in the presence of Sho. Collectively, our observations suggest that Sho can affect the prion replication process by (i) acting as a holdase and (ii) interfering with the dominant-negative inhibitor effect of the C1 fragment. Since the inception of the prion theory, the search for a cofactor involved in the conversion process has been an active field of research. Although the PrP interactome presents a broad landscape, candidates corresponding to specific criteria for cofactors are currently missing. Here, we describe for the first time that Sho can affect PrP structural dynamics and therefore increase the prion conversion rate. A biochemical characterization of Sho-PrP indicates that Sho acts as an ATP-independent holdase. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights

  1. A reliability simulation language for reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deans, N.D.; Miller, A.J.; Mann, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The results of work being undertaken to develop a Reliability Description Language (RDL) which will enable reliability analysts to describe complex reliability problems in a simple, clear and unambiguous way are described. Component and system features can be stated in a formal manner and subsequently used, along with control statements to form a structured program. The program can be compiled and executed on a general-purpose computer or special-purpose simulator. (DG)

  2. Tendinopathies and platelet-rich plasma (PRP: from pre-clinical experiments to therapeutic use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaux JF

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The restorative properties of platelets, through the local release of growth factors, are used in various medical areas. This article reviews fundamental and clinical research relating to platelet-rich plasma applied to tendinous lesions. Materials and method: Articles in French and English, published between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2014. dealing with PRP and tendons were searched for using the Medline and Scopus data bases. Results: Forty-seven articles were identified which addressed pre-clinical and clinical studies: 27 relating to in vitro and in vivo animal studies and 20 relating to human studies. Of these, five addressed lateral epicondylitis, two addressed rotator cuff tendinopathies, ten dealt with patellar tendinopathies and three looked at Achilles tendinopathies. Conclusions: The majority of pre-clinical studies show that PRP stimulates the tendon's healing process. However, clinical series remain more controversial and level 1, controlled, randomised studies are still needed.

  3. Is PRP useful in alveolar cleft reconstruction? Platelet-rich plasma in secondary alveoloplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luaces-Rey, Ramon; Arenaz-Búa, Jorge; Lopez-Cedrún-Cembranos, José-Luis; Herrero-Patiño, Susana; Sironvalle-Soliva, Sheyla; Iglesias-Candal, Emma; Pombo-Castro, María

    2010-07-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a congenital facial malformation with an established treatment protocol. Mixed dentition period is the best moment for correct maxillary bone defect with an alveoloplasty. The aim of this surgical procedure is to facilitate dental eruption, re-establish maxillary arch, close any oro-nasal communication, give support to nasal ala, and in some cases allow dental rehabilitation with osteointegrated implants. Twenty cleft patients who underwent secondary alveoloplasty were included. In 10 of them autogenous bone graft were used and in other 10 autogenous bone and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained from autogenous blood. Bone formation was compared by digital orthopantomography made on immediate post-operatory and 3 and 6 months after the surgery. No significant differences were found between both therapeutic groups on bone regeneration. We do not find justified the use of PRP for alveoloplasty in cleft patients' treatment protocol.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of vulvar lichen sclerosus in a premenopausal woman: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franic

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP for the treatment of lichen sclerosus (LS in a 38-year-old premenopausal woman is reported. The diagnosis was confirmed histologically and the symptoms documented using the ICIQ Vaginal Symptoms Questionnaire (ICIQ-VS and the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI questionnaire. PRP was prepared from autologous blood using the Regen Cellular Matrix Kit. PRP was administered twice over two months. Histology at follow-up one month after the second administration showed the epidermis was nearly normal and upper dermal cellularity had been restored. The patient was symptom-free and both her ICIQ-VS and her FSFI scores had improved significantly. PRP is a potential new treatment option for LS which needs further assessment in randomized controlled trials. Keywords: Platelet-rich plasma, Vulvar lichen sclerosus, Premenopause, Treatment

  5. Using PRP and human amniotic fluid combination for osteogenesis in rabbit socket preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Moradi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP is used as an adjunct treatment during periodontal grafting surgery because of its capability of enhancing healing process. Amniotic fluid is a rich source of growth factors and hyaluronic acid (HA and a good point to study its properties of wound healing and bone formation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the osteogenic properties of a combination of amniotic fluid and PRP in rabbit′s dental socket preservation. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 24 healthy male laboratory rabbits (average weight 3,125 ± 185 gr that were randomly allocated into four groups. PRP for the first group, human amniotic fluid (HAF for the second group, a combination of PRP and HAF (PRHA for the third group was used. In the fourth (control group, no biomaterial was used. In each group, half of the rabbits were sacrificed at 4 weeks following surgery and the rest were sacrificed after 8 weeks. Histological analysis of biopsies of the sockets was performed using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E staining. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS software (version 16 and P-value <0.05 was considered significance. Results: All three experimental groups showed positive effect on bone formation in terms of area of trabecular bone and number of osteocytes and also vessel formation. Socket preservation using HAF and PRHA showed the highest impact on bone formation. Socket preservation using HAF also had the highest impact on vessel formation. Conclusion: PRHA and HAF appear to be useful for enhancing bone formation. Since there was no difference between HAF and PRHA, it seems beneficial to use HAF due to its simplicity of application.

  6. Oxidation of Helix-3 methionines precedes the formation of PK resistant PrP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Canello

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available While elucidating the peculiar epitope of the alpha-PrP mAb IPC2, we found that PrPSc exhibits the sulfoxidation of residue M213 as a covalent signature. Subsequent computational analysis predicted that the presence of sulfoxide groups at both Met residues 206 and 213 destabilize the alpha-fold, suggesting oxidation may facilitate the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc. To further study the effect of oxidation on prion formation, we generated pAbs to linear PrP peptides encompassing the Helix-3 region, as opposed to the non-linear complexed epitope of IPC2. We now show that pAbs, whose epitopes comprise Met residues, readily detected PrPC, but could not recognize most PrPSc bands unless they were vigorously reduced. Next, we showed that the alpha-Met pAbs did not recognize newly formed PrPSc, as is the case for the PK resistant PrP present in lines of prion infected cells. In addition, these reagents did not detect intermediate forms such as PK sensitive and partially aggregated PrPs present in infected brains. Finally, we show that PrP molecules harboring the pathogenic mutation E200K, which is linked to the most common form of familial CJD, may be spontaneously oxidized. We conclude that the oxidation of methionine residues in Helix-3 represents an early and important event in the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We believe that further investigation into the mechanism and role of PrP oxidation will be central in finally elucidating the mechanism by which a normal cell protein converts into a pathogenic entity that causes fatal brain degeneration.

  7. Efectividad del PRP en el tratamiento de la artrosis de rodilla: Estudio de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Valverde, Noelia; Fidalgo González, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    La artrosis es una enfermedad degenerativa de elevada prevalencia para la cual, en la actualidad, no hay tratamiento curativo. Una de las localizaciones más frecuentes es la rodilla. La utilización de infiltraciones de plasma rico en plaquetas constituye una alternativa en el tratamiento de esta patología. Objetivo: demostrar la efectividad y la seguridad de las infiltraciones con PRP en el tratamiento de pacientes con artrosis de rodilla. Resultado: este trabajo muestra una...

  8. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  9. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in dental and oral surgery: from the wound healing to bone regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Antonino; Licata, Maria E; Polizzi, Bianca; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2013-06-13

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a new approach to tissue regeneration and it is becoming a valuable adjunct to promote healing in many procedures in dental and oral surgery, especially in aging patients. PRP derives from the centrifugation of the patient's own blood and it contains growth factors that influence wound healing, thereby playing an important role in tissue repairing mechanisms. The use of PRP in surgical practice could have beneficial outcomes, reducing bleeding and enhancing soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. Studies conducted on humans have yielded promising results regarding the application of PRP to many dental and oral surgical procedures (i.e. tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery). The use of PRP has also been proposed in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) with the aim of enhancing wound healing and bone maturation. The aims of this narrative review are: i) to describe the different uses of PRP in dental surgery (tooth extractions and periodontal surgery) and oral surgery (soft tissues and bone tissue surgery, implant surgery and BRONJ surgery); and ii) to discuss its efficacy, efficiency and risk/benefit ratio. This review suggests that the use of PRP in the alveolar socket after tooth extractions is certainly capable of improving soft tissue healing and positively influencing bone regeneration but the latter effect seems to decrease a few days after the extraction. PRP has produced better results in periodontal therapy in association with other materials than when it is used alone. Promising results have also been obtained in implant surgery, when PRP was used in isolation as a coating material. The combination of necrotic bone curettage and PRP application seem to be encouraging for the treatment of refractory BRONJ, as it has proven successful outcomes with minimal invasivity. Since PRP is free from potential risks for patients, not difficult to obtain and use, it can be employed

  10. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-03-01

    Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1-2-3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The role of PRP and adipose tissue-derived keratinocytes on burn wound healing in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini Mansoub, Navid; Gürdal, Mehmet; Karadadaş, Elif; Kabadayi, Hilal; Vatansever, Seda; Ercan, Gulinnaz

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Diabetic burn wounds and ulcers are significant complications of diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of platelet rich-plasma (PRP) and/or keratinocyte-like cells (KLCs) in diabetic thermal wound rat model and to evaluate EGF, FGF-2, TGF-β1, COL1α2, MCP-1 and VEGF-α as wound healing markers at gene expression level. Method: In this study, we used adipose tissue as the source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and differentiated MSCs into KLCs. KLCs were characterized and transferred to the burn areas on the dorsum of streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. We prepared PRP from rat blood and evaluated its effect alone or in combination with KLCs. On 3 rd , 7 th , 10 th and 14 th days after treatment, wound areas were measured and biopsy samples were excised from the wound areas of the KLCs and/or PRP-treated and untreated diabetic rats to analyze gene expression levels of wound healing markers by qPCR. Results: We observed that, wound contraction started earlier in the PRP and/or KLCs-treated groups in comparison to the control group. However, PRP and KLCs when applied in combination showed additive affect in wound healing. In all groups treated with KLCs and/or PRP, the gene expression levels of evaluated growth factors and COL1α2 increased, while MCP-1 levels decreased when compared to the untreated diabetic rats. In addition, the most prominent difference in qPCR results belongs to combined PRP and KLCs-treated group. Conclusion: We demonstrated that applying PRP and KLCs in combination has a greater potential for treatment of diabetic burn wounds.

  12. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for acute muscle injury: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute muscle injury is one of the commonest injuries that often result in loss of training and competition time. The best management for muscle injury has not been identified. Sports medicine practitioners used several approaches in attempt to accelerate time to recovery from muscle injury. More recently growing interest focussed on autologous blood product injection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted systematically using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published until December 2012. Controlled trials and controlled laboratory studies comparing different strategies to promote early recovery of muscle injury were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. RESULTS: There are limited studies on the effects of PRP therapy for muscle injury. Three in vivo laboratory studies and one pilot human study were reviewed. The laboratory studies reported histological evidence on significant acceleration of muscle healing in animals treated with autologous conditioned serum (ACS, platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. A pilot human study found athletes treated with repeated ACS injection recovers significantly faster than retrospective controls. CONCLUSION: Several in vivo laboratory studies suggest beneficial effects of ACS, PRP and PRFM in accelerating muscle recovery. Evidence to suggest similar effects on humans is however limited, as valuable information from robust human controlled trials is still not available at this moment. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with platelet-rich plasma interventions on muscle injury are justified.

  13. Comparison between PRP, PRGF and PRF: lights and shadows in three similar but different protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, S; Cielo, A; Bonanome, L; Rastelli, C; Derla, C; Corpaci, F; Falisi, G

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of the modern surgery is to get a low invasiveness and a high rate of clinical healing: in the last years, it has been introduced the concept of a "regenerative surgery", and many techniques has been widely described in the literature. The most used are PRP, PRGF and PRF techniques. Aim of this research is to compare the three protocol of PRP, PRF and PRGF in their essential features, so to suggest to the practitioners the best blood product to use in the regenerative surgery. Among the advantages that shows the PRF, compared to PRP and PRGF, we can cite a greater simplicity of production for the absence of manipulation that leads to a reduced possibility of alteration of the protocol due to an error of the operator. The special texture of the PRF and its biological features shows clearly an interesting surgical versatility and all the characteristics that can support a faster tissues regeneration and high-quality clinical outcomes.

  14. In Vitro Studies on the Degradability, Bioactivity, and Cell Differentiation of PRP/AZ31B Mg Alloys Composite Scaffold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, more and more methods have been developed to improve the bioactivity of the biodegradable materials in bone tissue regeneration. In present study, we used rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs to evaluate the outcomes of Mg alloys (AZ31B, Magnesium, and Aluminum and Platelet-rich plasma (PRP/Mg alloys on rMSCs biocompatibility and osteogenic differentiation. Water absorption experiments indicated that both bare AZ31B and PRP/AZ31B were capable of absorbing large amounts of water. But the water absorption ratio for PRP/AZ31B was significantly higher than that for bare AZ31B. The degradability experiments implied that both samples degraded at same speed. rMSCs on the surface of AZ31B distributed more and better than those on the AZ31B scaffold. In ALP activity experiment, the activity of rMSCs on the PRP/AZ31B was markedly higher than that on the AZ31B scaffolds on the 7th day and 14th day. qRT-PCR also showed that OPN and OCN were expressed in both samples. OPN and OCN expression in PRP/AZ31B sample were higher than those in bare AZ31B samples. In summary, the in vitro study implied that AZ31B combined with PRP could remarkably improve cell seeding, attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

  15. Tratamiento de quemaduras mediante plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP: parte I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rossani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la eficacia clínica del plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Estudiamos el tiempo requerido en la reepitelización del tejido dañado, la estancia hospitalaria asociada a la curación de las lesiones y la satisfacción del paciente. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, observacional y longitudinal, en una muestra de 115 pacientes con quemaduras de segundo grado según la clasificación de Converse-Smith. Las lesiones fueron de menos de 48 horas de evolución, en diferentes zonas de cara y cuerpo. A todos los pacientes se les aplicó de forma ambulatoria PRP por goteo, completándose el tratamiento con la aplicación de gasas parafinadas. El estudio se realizó entre marzo de 2011 y agosto de 2013. Las quemaduras que evolucionaron mejor y de forma más rápida fueron las de cara, seguidas por las de abdomen y, por último, las de extremidades inferiores. En todas, el tiempo de epitelización fue un 30 % inferior que en quemaduras de similar extensión, profundidad y localización, en pacientes anteriormente tratados sin PRP. Los pacientes fueron atendidos ambulatoriamente cuando las lesiones lo permitieron, y si presentaban lesiones más extensas fueron hospitalizados. El tiempo de internamiento en estos casos se redujo como promedio 18 días con respecto al grupo no tratado con PRP. El tiempo de reepitelización, estancia hospitalaria y la satisfacción de los pacientes, alcanzaron significación estadística p< 0,05. En conclusión, creemos que el uso de PRP acorta el tiempo de recuperación en quemaduras de segundo grado, reduce el tiempo de hospitalización y conlleva un alto grado de satisfacción de los pacientes por los resultados obtenidos.

  16. JUPITER: Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability - An Application Programming Interface (API) for Model Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, Edward R.; Poeter, Eileen P.; Doherty, John E.; Hill, Mary C.

    2006-01-01

    he Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability Application Programming Interface (JUPITER API) improves the computer programming resources available to those developing applications (computer programs) for model analysis.The JUPITER API consists of eleven Fortran-90 modules that provide for encapsulation of data and operations on that data. Each module contains one or more entities: data, data types, subroutines, functions, and generic interfaces. The modules do not constitute computer programs themselves; instead, they are used to construct computer programs. Such computer programs are called applications of the API. The API provides common modeling operations for use by a variety of computer applications.The models being analyzed are referred to here as process models, and may, for example, represent the physics, chemistry, and(or) biology of a field or laboratory system. Process models commonly are constructed using published models such as MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000; Harbaugh, 2005), MT3DMS (Zheng and Wang, 1996), HSPF (Bicknell et al., 1997), PRMS (Leavesley and Stannard, 1995), and many others. The process model may be accessed by a JUPITER API application as an external program, or it may be implemented as a subroutine within a JUPITER API application . In either case, execution of the model takes place in a framework designed by the application programmer. This framework can be designed to take advantage of any parallel processing capabilities possessed by the process model, as well as the parallel-processing capabilities of the JUPITER API.Model analyses for which the JUPITER API could be useful include, for example: Compare model results to observed values to determine how well the model reproduces system processes and characteristics.Use sensitivity analysis to determine the information provided by observations to parameters and predictions of interest.Determine the additional data needed to improve selected model

  17. PrP P102L and Nearby Lysine Mutations Promote Spontaneous In Vitro Formation of Transmissible Prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Allison; Raymond, Gregory J; Race, Brent; Campbell, Katrina J; Hughson, Andrew G; Anson, Kelsie J; Raymond, Lynne D; Caughey, Byron

    2017-11-01

    Accumulation of fibrillar protein aggregates is a hallmark of many diseases. While numerous proteins form fibrils by prion-like seeded polymerization in vitro , only some are transmissible and pathogenic in vivo To probe the structural features that confer transmissibility to prion protein (PrP) fibrils, we have analyzed synthetic PrP amyloids with or without the human prion disease-associated P102L mutation. The formation of infectious prions from PrP molecules in vitro has required cofactors and/or unphysiological denaturing conditions. Here, we demonstrate that, under physiologically compatible conditions without cofactors, the P102L mutation in recombinant hamster PrP promoted prion formation when seeded by minute amounts of scrapie prions in vitro Surprisingly, combination of the P102L mutation with charge-neutralizing substitutions of four nearby lysines promoted spontaneous prion formation. When inoculated into hamsters, both of these types of synthetic prions initiated substantial accumulation of prion seeding activity and protease-resistant PrP without transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) clinical signs or notable glial activation. Our evidence suggests that PrP's centrally located proline and lysine residues act as conformational switches in the in vitro formation of transmissible PrP amyloids. IMPORTANCE Many diseases involve the damaging accumulation of specific misfolded proteins in thread-like aggregates. These threads (fibrils) are capable of growing on the ends by seeding the refolding and incorporation of the normal form of the given protein. In many cases such aggregates can be infectious and propagate like prions when transmitted from one individual host to another. Some transmitted aggregates can cause fatal disease, as with human iatrogenic prion diseases, while other aggregates appear to be relatively innocuous. The factors that distinguish infectious and pathogenic protein aggregates from more innocuous ones are poorly understood

  18. Is air-displacement plethysmography a reliable method of detecting ongoing changes in percent body fat within obese children involved in a weight management program?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewane, Cecile; McConkey, Stacy A; Kreiter, Clarence D

    2010-01-01

    (percent body fat) over time. The gold standard method, hydrodensitometry, has severe limitations for the pediatric population. OBJECTIVE: This study examines the reliability of air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in detecting percent body fat changes within obese children over time. METHODS: Percent...... body fat by ADP, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were measured for eight obese children aged 5-12 years enrolled in a weight management program over a 12-month period. These measurements were taken at initial evaluation, 1.5 months, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months to monitor the progress...... of the subjects and detect any changes in these measures over time. Statistical analysis was used to determine the reliability of the data collected. RESULTS: The reliability estimate for percent body fat by ADP was 0.78. This was much lower than the reliability of BMI, 0.98, and weight measurements, 0...

  19. Split face comparative study of microneedling with PRP versus microneedling with vitamin C in treating atrophic post acne scars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simran Chawla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne scars are largely preventable complications of acne. 95% of the scars occur over the face thus impacting the quality of life. Correction of scars is the priority for acne patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients with post acne atrophic facial scars attending the OPD during the period from April to October 2013 were offered four sittings of microneedling with PRP on one side and microneedling with vitamin C on other side of the face at an interval of 1 month. Results: Twenty-seven out of the total 30 patients completed the treatment schedule. Two patients were lost to follow up and one dropped out of the study due to severe PIH. Mean age of the patients was 27.5 years. Out of 30 patients, 23 achieved reduction in scarring by one or two grades. Excellent response was seen in five (18.5% patients with platelet-rich plasma (PRP as compared to two (7% patients who received treatment with vitamin C according to physician′s assessment. As far as up gradation by 1 score is considered, i.e., good response, it was similar in both cases. Vitamin C did not prove to be as efficacious as PRP since 10 (37% patients had poor response in vitamin C-treated area compared to only 6 (22.2% patients who underwent PRP therapy, but vitamin C proved to be efficacious in dealing with post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation secondary to acne. Patients were more satisfied with PRP as compared to vitamin C. The results were evaluated and statistical analysis was done using SPSS 16.0.2. Conclusions: Overall results were better with microneedling and PRP. Vitamin C combined with microneedling also showed improvement with respect to firmness and smoothness of skin; as well as post inflammatory hyper-pigmentation. Microneedling combined with PRP proved to be good in treating boxcar and rolling scars but had limited efficacy in dealing with ice pick scars.

  20. Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Yong

    1992-07-01

    This book is about reliability engineering, which describes definition and importance of reliability, development of reliability engineering, failure rate and failure probability density function about types of it, CFR and index distribution, IFR and normal distribution and Weibull distribution, maintainability and movability, reliability test and reliability assumption in index distribution type, normal distribution type and Weibull distribution type, reliability sampling test, reliability of system, design of reliability and functionality failure analysis by FTA.

  1. Users Guide on Scaled CMOS Reliability: NASA Electronic Parts and Packaging (NEPP) Program Office of Safety and Mission Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Mark; Cooper, Mark; Johnston, Allan

    2011-01-01

    Reliability of advanced CMOS technology is a complex problem that is usually addressed from the standpoint of specific failure mechanisms rather than overall reliability of a finished microcircuit. A detailed treatment of CMOS reliability in scaled devices can be found in Ref. 1; it should be consulted for a more thorough discussion. The present document provides a more concise treatment of the scaled CMOS reliability problem, emphasizing differences in the recommended approach for these advanced devices compared to that of less aggressively scaled devices. It includes specific recommendations that can be used by flight projects that use advanced CMOS. The primary emphasis is on conventional memories, microprocessors, and related devices.

  2. Prion Propagation in Cells Expressing PrP Glycosylation Mutants ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Muhammad K.; Dron, Michel; Chapuis, Jérôme; Langevin, Christelle; Laude, Hubert

    2011-01-01

    Infection by prions involves conversion of a host-encoded cell surface protein (PrPC) to a disease-related isoform (PrPSc). PrPC carries two glycosylation sites variably occupied by complex N-glycans, which have been suggested by previous studies to influence the susceptibility to these diseases and to determine characteristics of prion strains. We used the Rov cell system, which is susceptible to sheep prions, to generate a series of PrPC glycosylation mutants with mutations at one or both attachment sites. We examined their subcellular trafficking and ability to convert into PrPSc and to sustain stable prion propagation in the absence of wild-type PrP. The susceptibility to infection of mutants monoglycosylated at either site differed dramatically depending on the amino acid substitution. Aglycosylated double mutants showed overaccumulation in the Golgi compartment and failed to be infected. Introduction of an ectopic glycosylation site near the N terminus fully restored cell surface expression of PrP but not convertibility into PrPSc, while PrPC with three glycosylation sites conferred cell permissiveness to infection similarly to the wild type. In contrast, predominantly aglycosylated molecules with nonmutated N-glycosylation sequons, produced in cells expressing glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchorless PrPC, were able to form infectious PrPSc. Together our findings suggest that glycosylation is important for efficient trafficking of anchored PrP to the cell surface and sustained prion propagation. However, properly trafficked glycosylation mutants were not necessarily prone to conversion, thus making it difficult in such studies to discern whether the amino acid changes or glycan chain removal most influences the permissiveness to prion infection. PMID:21248032

  3. Tratamiento de quemaduras mediante plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP): parte I

    OpenAIRE

    G. Rossani; I. Hernández; J.M. Alcolea; R. Castro-Sierra; W. Pérez-Soto; M.A. Trelles

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es determinar la eficacia clínica del plasma rico en plaquetas (PRP) en las quemaduras de segundo grado. Estudiamos el tiempo requerido en la reepitelización del tejido dañado, la estancia hospitalaria asociada a la curación de las lesiones y la satisfacción del paciente. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo, observacional y longitudinal, en una muestra de 115 pacientes con quemaduras de segundo grado según la clasificación de Converse-Smith. Las lesiones fueron ...

  4. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  5. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Rinses for the Treatment of Non-Responding Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merigo, Elisabetta; Oppici, Aldo; Parlatore, Anna; Cella, Luigi; Clini, Fabio; Fontana, Matteo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2018-02-06

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects. The aim of this work is to describe the use of PRP used as an oral rinse for the treatment of a patient diagnosed as affected by OLP at the Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza. PRP protocol was started after the failure of conventional therapies based on the use of topical and systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and low-level laser therapy applications.

  6. Truncated forms of the prion protein PrP demonstrate the need for complexity in prion structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, William; Stöhr, Jan; Kendall, Amy; Stubbs, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    Self-propagation of aberrant protein folds is the defining characteristic of prions. Knowing the structural basis of self-propagation is essential to understanding prions and their related diseases. Prion rods are amyloid fibrils, but not all amyloids are prions. Prions have been remarkably intractable to structural studies, so many investigators have preferred to work with peptide fragments, particularly in the case of the mammalian prion protein PrP. We compared the structures of a number of fragments of PrP by X-ray fiber diffraction, and found that although all of the peptides adopted amyloid conformations, only the larger fragments adopted conformations that modeled the complexity of self-propagating prions, and even these fragments did not always adopt the PrP structure. It appears that the relatively complex structure of the prion form of PrP is not accessible to short model peptides, and that self-propagation may be tied to a level of structural complexity unobtainable in simple model systems. The larger fragments of PrP, however, are useful to illustrate the phenomenon of deformed templating (heterogeneous seeding), which has important biological consequences.

  7. Truncated forms of the prion protein PrP demonstrate the need for complexity in prion structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, William; Stöhr, Jan; Kendall, Amy; Stubbs, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Self-propagation of aberrant protein folds is the defining characteristic of prions. Knowing the structural basis of self-propagation is essential to understanding prions and their related diseases. Prion rods are amyloid fibrils, but not all amyloids are prions. Prions have been remarkably intractable to structural studies, so many investigators have preferred to work with peptide fragments, particularly in the case of the mammalian prion protein PrP. We compared the structures of a number of fragments of PrP by X-ray fiber diffraction, and found that although all of the peptides adopted amyloid conformations, only the larger fragments adopted conformations that modeled the complexity of self-propagating prions, and even these fragments did not always adopt the PrP structure. It appears that the relatively complex structure of the prion form of PrP is not accessible to short model peptides, and that self-propagation may be tied to a level of structural complexity unobtainable in simple model systems. The larger fragments of PrP, however, are useful to illustrate the phenomenon of deformed templating (heterogeneous seeding), which has important biological consequences.

  8. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP Rinses for the Treatment of Non-Responding Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Merigo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF, fibroblast growth factor (FGF, and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF. Oral lichen planus (OLP is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects. The aim of this work is to describe the use of PRP used as an oral rinse for the treatment of a patient diagnosed as affected by OLP at the Dentistry, Special Needs and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Unit of the Hospital of Piacenza. PRP protocol was started after the failure of conventional therapies based on the use of topical and systemic corticosteroids, hydroxychloroquine, and low-level laser therapy applications.

  9. Suncor maintenance and reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, S. [Suncor Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Fleet maintenance and reliability at Suncor Energy was discussed in this presentation, with reference to Suncor Energy's primary and support equipment fleets. This paper also discussed Suncor Energy's maintenance and reliability standard involving people, processes and technology. An organizational maturity chart that graphed organizational learning against organizational performance was illustrated. The presentation also reviewed the maintenance and reliability framework; maintenance reliability model; the process overview of the maintenance and reliability standard; a process flow chart of maintenance strategies and programs; and an asset reliability improvement process flow chart. An example of an improvement initiative was included, with reference to a shovel reliability review; a dipper trip reliability investigation; bucket related failures by type and frequency; root cause analysis of the reliability process; and additional actions taken. Last, the presentation provided a graph of the results of the improvement initiative and presented the key lessons learned. tabs., figs.

  10. Prediction and optimization of the recovery rate in centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Linfeng; Park, Hyungmin; Jo, Chris

    2016-11-01

    We present a theoretical model of the recovery rate of platelet and white blood cell in the process of centrifugal separation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). For the practically used conditions in the field, the separation process is modeled as a one-dimensional particle sedimentation; a quasi-linear partial differential equation is derived based on the kinematic-wave theory. This is solved to determine the interface positions between supernatant-suspension and suspension-sediment, used to estimate the recovery rate of the plasma. While correcting the Brown's hypothesis (1989) claiming that the platelet recovery is linearly proportional to that of plasma, we propose a new correlation model for prediction of the platelet recovery, which is a function of the volume of whole blood, centrifugal acceleration and time. For a range of practical parameters, such as hematocrit, volume of whole blood and centrifugation (time and acceleration), the predicted recovery rate shows a good agreement with available clinical data. We propose that this model is further used to optimize the preparation method of PRP that satisfies the customized case. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.

  11. CLINICAL RESULTS FROM THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC SKIN WOUNDS WITH PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kossev

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To show platelet rich plasma (PRP application of chronic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 14 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2009 to December 2014 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients - 5 and female patients - 9. Average age - 48,5 (30-76. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes - 4, with decubitus ulcers - 6, traumatic - 8, with infection - 5. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 - 6 months (4,5 on average. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score - 12 p.; Total anatomic score - 10 p., Total score - 17 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  12. A modified three-term PRP conjugate gradient algorithm for optimization models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanlin

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinear conjugate gradient (CG) algorithm is a very effective method for optimization, especially for large-scale problems, because of its low memory requirement and simplicity. Zhang et al. (IMA J. Numer. Anal. 26:629-649, 2006) firstly propose a three-term CG algorithm based on the well known Polak-Ribière-Polyak (PRP) formula for unconstrained optimization, where their method has the sufficient descent property without any line search technique. They proved the global convergence of the Armijo line search but this fails for the Wolfe line search technique. Inspired by their method, we will make a further study and give a modified three-term PRP CG algorithm. The presented method possesses the following features: (1) The sufficient descent property also holds without any line search technique; (2) the trust region property of the search direction is automatically satisfied; (3) the steplengh is bounded from below; (4) the global convergence will be established under the Wolfe line search. Numerical results show that the new algorithm is more effective than that of the normal method.

  13. Knee Osteoarthritis Injection Choices: Platelet- Rich Plasma (PRP versus Hyaluronic Acid (A one-year randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Knee osteoarthritis (OA is the most common articular disease. Different methods are used to alleviate the symptoms of patients with knee OA, including analgesics, physical therapy, exercise prescription, and intra-articular injections (glucocorticoids, hyaluronic acid [HA], etc. New studies have focused on modern therapeutic methods that stimulate cartilage healing process and improve the damage, including the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP as a complex of growth factors. Due to the high incidence of OA and its consequences, we decided to study the long-term effect of intraarticular injection of PRP and HA on clinical outcome and quality of life of patients with knee OA. Method This non-placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial involved 160 patients affected by knee OA, grade 1–4 of Kellgren–Lawrence scale. In the PRP group ( n = 87, two intra-articular injections at 4-week interval were applied, and in the HA group ( n = 73, three doses of intra-articular injection at 1-week interval were applied. All patients were prospectively evaluated before and at 12 months after the treatment by Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires. The results were analyzed using SPSS 16.1 software (RCT code: IRCT2014012113442N5. Results At the 12-month follow-up, WOMAC pain score and bodily pain significantly improved in both groups; however, better results were determined in the PRP group compared to the HA group ( P < 0.001. Other WOMAC and SF-36 parameters improved only in the PRP group. More improvement (but not statistically significant was achieved in patients with grade 2 OA in both the groups. Conclusion This study suggests that PRP injection is more efficacious than HA injection in reducing symptoms and improving quality of life and is a therapeutic option in select patients with knee OA who have not responded to conventional treatment.

  14. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Reliability handbook for ground support equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Kallmeyer, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Field failure rates and confidence factors are presented for 88 identifiable components of the ground support equipment at the John F. Kennedy Space Center. For most of these, supplementary information regarding failure mode and cause is tabulated. Complete reliability assessments are included for three systems, eight subsystems, and nine generic piece-part classifications. Procedures for updating or augmenting the reliability results are also included.

  15. On the extent of homogeneity region of PrP phase in the system praseodymium-phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mironov, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    For constructed by ion type compounds in the metal or metalloid systems homogeneity region boundary position can be observed at different compositions depending on which side the approximation to it occurs: on the metal or compound side. As an example the PrP homogeneity region in the praseodymium-phosphorus system is considered. An assumption is made on the prevalence of this phenomenon among rare earth monopnictides and monochalcogenides. For the PrP phase it is indicated that the monophopshide cell parameter depends on content of impurities in the initial metal, oxygen, in particular

  16. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, Mayssam, E-mail: Moussa-mayssam@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Lajeunesse, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.lajeunesse@umontreal.ca [Research Centre in Osteoarthritis, Research Centre in Monteral University (Canada); Hilal, George, E-mail: George2266@gmail.com [Cancer and metabolism Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); El Atat, Oula, E-mail: oulaatat@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Haykal, Gaby, E-mail: Gaby.haykal@hdf.usj.edu.lb [Hotel Dieu de France, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Serhal, Rim, E-mail: rim.basbous@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Chalhoub, Antonio, E-mail: Mava.o@hotmail.com [Carantina Hospital, Beirut (Lebanon); Khalil, Charbel, E-mail: charbelk3@hotmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon); Alaaeddine, Nada, E-mail: Nada.aladdin@gmail.com [Regenerative medicine and inflammation Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2017-03-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  17. Oxidation reduces the fibrillation but not the neurotoxicity of the prion peptide PrP106-126

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm, Linda Alice; Chabry, J.; Bastholm, L.

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that soluble oligomers of misfolded protein may play a role in the pathogenesis of protein misfolding diseases including the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) where the protein involved is the prion protein, PrP. The effect of oxidation on fibrillation...... tendency and neurotoxicity of different molecular variants of the prion peptide PrP106-126 was investigated. It was found that methionine oxidation significantly reduced amyloid fibril formation and proteinase K resistance, but it did not reduce (but rather increase slightly) the neurotoxicity...

  18. Platelet rich plasma (PRP) induces chondroprotection via increasing autophagy, anti-inflammatory markers, and decreasing apoptosis in human osteoarthritic cartilage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moussa, Mayssam; Lajeunesse, Daniel; Hilal, George; El Atat, Oula; Haykal, Gaby; Serhal, Rim; Chalhoub, Antonio; Khalil, Charbel; Alaaeddine, Nada

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Autophagy constitutes a defense mechanism to overcome aging and apoptosis in osteoarthritic cartilage. Several cytokines and transcription factors are linked to autophagy and play an important role in the degradative cascade in osteoarthritis (OA). Cell therapy such as platelet rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a promising therapeutic tool for many diseases including OA. However, its mechanism of action on improving cartilage repair remains to be determined. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of PRP on osteoarthritic chondrocytes and to elucidate the mechanism by which PRP contributes to cartilage regeneration. Methods: Osteoarthritic chondrocytes were co-cultured with an increasing concentration of PRP obtained from healthy donors. The effect of PRP on the proliferation of chondrocytes was performed using cell counting and WST8 proliferation assays. Autophagy, apoptosis and intracellular level of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were determined using flow cytometry analyses. Autophagy markers BECLIN and LC3II were also determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR and ELISA were used to measure the expression of ADAMDTS-5, MMP3, MMP13, TIMP-1–2–3, aggregan, Collagen type 2, TGF-β, Cox-2, Il-6, FOXO1, FOXO3, and HIF-1 in tissues and co-cultured media. Results: PRP increased significantly the proliferation of chondrocytes, decreased apoptosis and increased autophagy and its markers along with its regulators FOXO1, FOXO3 and HIF-1 in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Furthermore, PRP caused a dose-dependent significant decrease in MMP3, MMP13, and ADAMTS-5, IL-6 and COX-2 while increasing TGF-β, aggregan, and collagen type 2, TIMPs and intracellular IL-4, IL-10, IL-13. Conclusion: These results suggest that PRP could be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of OA. - Highlights: • Platelet Rich Plasma is suggested as a new treatment for osteoarthritis. • The proposed therapeutic effect is

  19. Operational safety reliability research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Boccio, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Operating reactor events such as the TMI accident and the Salem automatic-trip failures raised the concern that during a plant's operating lifetime the reliability of systems could degrade from the design level that was considered in the licensing process. To address this concern, NRC is sponsoring the Operational Safety Reliability Research project. The objectives of this project are to identify the essential tasks of a reliability program and to evaluate the effectiveness and attributes of such a reliability program applicable to maintaining an acceptable level of safety during the operating lifetime at the plant

  20. PRP19 transforms into a sensor of RPA-ssDNA after DNA damage and drives ATR activation via a ubiquitin-mediated circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maréchal, Alexandre; Li, Ju-Mei; Ji, Xiao Ye; Wu, Ching-Shyi; Yazinski, Stephanie A; Nguyen, Hai Dang; Liu, Shizhou; Jiménez, Amanda E; Jin, Jianping; Zou, Lee

    2014-01-23

    PRP19 is a ubiquitin ligase involved in pre-mRNA splicing and the DNA damage response (DDR). Although the role for PRP19 in splicing is well characterized, its role in the DDR remains elusive. Through a proteomic screen for proteins that interact with RPA-coated single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA), we identified PRP19 as a sensor of DNA damage. PRP19 directly binds RPA and localizes to DNA damage sites via RPA, promoting RPA ubiquitylation in a DNA-damage-induced manner. PRP19 facilitates the accumulation of ATRIP, the regulatory partner of the ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3-related (ATR) kinase, at DNA damage sites. Depletion of PRP19 compromised the phosphorylation of ATR substrates, recovery of stalled replication forks, and progression of replication forks on damaged DNA. Importantly, PRP19 mutants that cannot bind RPA or function as an E3 ligase failed to support the ATR response, revealing that PRP19 drives ATR activation by acting as an RPA-ssDNA-sensing ubiquitin ligase during the DDR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Comparison of Platelet Count and Enrichment Percentages in the Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) Obtained Following Preparation by Three Different Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarish, Ram; Lavu, Vamsi; Rao, Suresh Ranga

    2015-02-01

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) represents an easily accessible and rich source of autologous growth factors. Different manual methods for the preparation of PRP have been suggested. Lacuna in knowledge exists about the efficacy of PRP preparation by these different manual methods. This study was performed to determine the effects of centrifugation rate revolutions per minute (RPM) and time on the platelet count and enrichment percentages in the concentrates obtained following the three different manual methods of PRP preparation. In vitro experimental study. This was an experimental study in which platelet concentration was assessed in the PRP prepared by three different protocols as suggested by Marx R (method 1), Okuda K (method 2) and Landesberg R (method 3). A total of 60 peripheral blood samples, (n=20 per method) were obtained from healthy volunteers. Baseline platelet count was assessed for all the subjects following which PRP was prepared. The platelet count in the PRP was determined using coulter counter (Sysmex XT 2000i). The mean of the platelet count obtained and their enrichment percentage were calculated and intergroup comparison was done (Tukey's HSD test). The number of platelets and enrichment percentage in PRP prepared by method 1 was higher compared to method 2 and method 3; this difference in platelet concentrates was found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05). The centrifugation rate and time appear to be important parameters, which influence the platelet yield. Method 1 which had lower centrifugation rate and time yielded a greater platelet count and enrichment percentage.

  2. The application of PRP combined with TCP in repairing avascular necrosis of the femoral head after femoral neck fracture in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-L; Wang, Y-M; Chu, K; Wang, Z-H; Liu, Y-H; Jiang, L-H; Chen, X; Zhou, Z-Y; Yin, G

    2018-02-01

    In view of the high occurrence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (ANFH) after femoral neck fracture and the difficulties in the treatment, our work aimed to explore the effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) combined with tri-calcium phosphate (TCP) on the repair of ANFH after femoral neck fracture and to provide reference for clinical treatment. Thirty New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control group, TCP group, and PRP+TCP group. The rabbit ANFH model was established and femoral head tissues were collected. HE staining was used for histological observation. Image analysis and statistical analysis were used to calculate the New Bone Area fraction (NBA %). The levels of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-7, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a in serum were detected by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The new bone area of TCP group was significantly lower than that of PRP+TCP group (pPRP+TCP groups (pPRP+TCP group was higher than that in TCP group. TCP and PRP+TCP can both significantly reduce the content of IL-6 and TNF-a (pPRP+TCP group compared with the TCP group at 8 weeks after injection. PRP combined with TCP, which can promote new bone formation and inhibit inflammatory response, showed higher efficiency in repairing ANFH than internal fixation alone.

  3. PrP protein is associated with follicular dendritic cells of spleens and lymph nodes in uninfected and scrapie-infected mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McBride, P. A.; Eikelenboom, P.; Kraal, G.; Fraser, H.; Bruce, M. E.

    1992-01-01

    Abnormal forms of a host protein, PrP, accumulate in the central nervous system in scrapie-affected animals. Here, PrP protein was detected immunocytochemically in tissue sections of spleen, lymph node, Peyer's patches, thymus, and pancreas from uninfected mice and from mice infected with a range of

  4. Investigation of modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp stem cells from deciduous teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs have great potential to treat various dental-related diseases in regenerative medicine. They are usually maintained with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS in vitro. Modified platelet-rich plasma (mPRP would be a safe alternative to 10% FBS during SHEDs culture. Therefore, our study aimed to compare the proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs cultured in mPRP and FBS medium to explore an optimal concentration of mPRP for SHEDs maintenance. Platelets were harvested by automatic blood cell analyzer and activated by repeated liquid nitrogen freezing and thawing. The platelet-related cytokines were examined and analyzed by ELISA. SHEDs were extracted and cultured with different concentrations of mPRP or 10% FBS medium. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity was measured. Mineralization factors, RUNX2 and OCN, were measured by real-time PCR. SHEDs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs markers including vimentin, CD44, and CD105. mPRP at different concentrations (2, 5, 10, and 20% enhanced the growth of SHEDs. Moreover, mPRP significantly stimulated ALP activity and promoted expression of RUNX2 and OCN compared with 10% FBS. mPRP could efficiently facilitate proliferation and differentiation of SHEDs, and 2% mPRP would be an optimal substitute for 10% FBS during SHEDs expansion and differentiation in clinical scale manufacturing.

  5. Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES): A Framework for Developing Performance Measures for Behavioral Health Crisis and Psychiatric Emergency Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, Margaret E; Tanner, Kathleen; Jurica, Paul J; Rhoads, Richard; Carson, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Crisis and emergency psychiatric services are an integral part of the healthcare system, yet there are no standardized measures for programs providing these services. We developed the Crisis Reliability Indicators Supporting Emergency Services (CRISES) framework to create measures that inform internal performance improvement initiatives and allow comparison across programs. The framework consists of two components-the CRISES domains (timely, safe, accessible, least-restrictive, effective, consumer/family centered, and partnership) and the measures supporting each domain. The CRISES framework provides a foundation for development of standardized measures for the crisis field. This will become increasingly important as pay-for-performance initiatives expand with healthcare reform.

  6. Energy efficiency and demand respond programs play vital roles in short- and long-term system reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitola, J. P.

    2003-12-01

    The effects of deregulation of the electric power industry on the reliability of the power grid in the United States are examined. Three major factors -- customer load, utility infrastructure, and demand response -- together are suggested as being most important; the ability of the industry to maintain the equilibrium among these three factors will determine the success or failure of deregulation. Each of these factors are examined in turn, followed by recommendations encouraging demand response or energy efficiency innovations, particularly new demand response technologies that are reliable, measurable, competitive to end-users, and fully dispatchable to utilities.

  7. Protecting effect of PrP codons M142 and K222 in goats orally challenged with bovine spongiform encephalopathy prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fast, C; Goldmann, W; Berthon, P; Tauscher, K; Andréoletti, O; Lantier, I; Rossignol, C; Bossers, A; Jacobs, J G; Hunter, N; Groschup, M H; Lantier, F; Langeveld, J P M

    2017-09-19

    Breeding towards genetic resistance to prion disease is effective in eliminating scrapie. In sheep, classical forms of scrapie have been eradicated almost completely in several countries by breeding programs using a prion protein (PrP) gene (PRNP) amino acid polymorphism. For goats, field and experimental studies have provided evidence for several amino acid polymorphisms that are associated with resistance to scrapie, but only limited data are available concerning the susceptibility of caprine PRNP genotypes to BSE. In this study, goat kids representing five PRNP genotypes based on three polymorphisms (M142, Q211 and K222 and the wild type I142, R211 and Q222) were orally challenged with bovine or goat BSE. Wild type goats were killed with clinical signs between 24-28 months post inoculation (mpi) to both challenges, and goats with genotype R/Q211 succumbed between 29-36 mpi. I/M142 goats developed clinical signs at 44-45 mpi and M/M142 goats remained healthy until euthanasia at 48 mpi. None of the Q/K222 goats showed definite clinical signs. Taken together the highest attack ratios were seen in wild type and R/Q211 goats, and the lowest in I/M142, M/M142 and Q/K222. In all genotype groups, one or more goats remained healthy within the incubation period in both challenges and without detectable PrP deposition in the tissues. Our data show that both the K222 and M142 polymorphisms lengthen the incubation period significantly compared to wild type animals, but only K222 was associated with a significant increase in resistance to BSE infection after oral exposure to both BSE sources.

  8. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Pietro; Cole, John P; Cole, Megan A; Garcovich, Simone; Bielli, Alessandra; Scioli, Maria Giovanna; Orlandi, Augusto; Insalaco, Chiara; Cervelli, Valerio

    2017-02-14

    Platelet rich plasma (PRP) was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants) received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP) produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy) and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group) received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP) produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System). For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs) and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2), whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs) and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2) were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex). Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  9. Evaluation of Not-Activated and Activated PRP in Hair Loss Treatment: Role of Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations Obtained by Different Collection Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Gentile

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Platelet rich plasma (PRP was tested as a potential therapy for androgenetic alopecia (AGA through two different clinical protocols in which one population (18 participants received half-head treatment with autologous non-activated PRP (A-PRP produced by CPunT Preparation System (Biomed Device, Modena, Italy and the other half-head with placebo, and a second separated population in which all participants (n = 6, 3 participants per group received treatment with calcium-activated PRP (AA-PRP produced from one of two different PRP collection devices (Regen Blood Cell Therapy or Arthrex Angel System. For the A-PRP study, three treatments were administered over 30-day intervals. Trichoscan analysis of patients, three months post-treatment, showed a clinical improvement in the number of hairs in the target area (36 ± 3 hairs and in total hair density (65±  5 hair cm2, whereas negligible improvements in hair count (1.1±  1.4 hairs and density (1.9 ± 10.2 hair cm2 were seen in the region of the scalp that received placebo. Microscopic evaluation conducted two weeks after treatment showed also an increase in epidermal thickness, Ki67+ keratinocytes, and in the number of follicles. The AA-PRP treatment groups received a singular set of injections, and six months after the treatments were administered, notable differences in clinical outcomes were obtained from the two PRP collection devices (+90 ± 6 hair cm2 versus -73 ± 30 hair cm2 hair densities, Regen versus Arthrex. Growth factor concentrations in AA-PRP prepared from the two collection devices did not differ significantly upon calcium activation.

  10. A Randomized, Controlled Study of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T, a Fully Liquid Hexavalent Vaccine, Administered in a 3-, 5- and 11- to 12-month Schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Silfverdal, Sven-Arne; Jordanov, Emilia; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-01-01

    To assess the immunogenicity and safety of a fully liquid, ready-to-use hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine when administered in a 2 + 1 schedule at 3, 5 and 11-12 months of age. Phase III, randomized, active-controlled, observer-blind, multicenter study. Infants were randomized to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 275) or a licensed control hexavalent vaccine (DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T: N = 275), both given in coadministration with Prevenar 13. Serum was analyzed for immune responses to all vaccine antigens. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was tested at completion of the primary series using predefined seroprotection (SP) rate and vaccine response (VR) rates. Safety was assessed using parental reports. Noninferiority of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T to the control vaccine was demonstrated postdose 3 for each antigen, and the SP (for D, T, poliovirus 1, 2 and 3, hepatitis B and polyribosylribitol phosphate) and VR rates (for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin) were high in each group. SP rates for D, T, polio 1, 2, 3 and VR rates for pertussis toxin and filamentous hemagglutinin were similar in each group. For hepatitis B, SP rate was slightly higher for DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (99.6%) than DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (96.4%), and for PRP, SP rate was higher for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (93.5%) than DTaP-IPV-HB//PRP~T (85.2%). For Prevenar 13, the SP rate was high for each serotype and similar for both groups. All vaccines were well tolerated. These study findings confirm the safety and immunogenicity and thus the suitability of this fully liquid hexavalent vaccine for administration in a 2 + 1 schedule.

  11. Microbicidal properties of Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma/Fibrin (L-PRP/L-PRF): new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslik-Bielecka, A; Dohan Ehrenfest, D M; Lubkowska, A; Bielecki, T

    2012-01-01

    Platelets, as main actors of the first stage of the healing process, play an important role in tissue repair. Their granules contain many active substances, particularly over 30 growth factors with significant effects on the resident cells at the site of injury, such as mesenchymal stem cells, chondrocytes, fibroblasts, osteoblasts. This potential may be increased by the concentration of the platelets, using platelet-rich plasma/fibrin products. In the four families of platelet concentrates, 2 families contain also significant concentrations of leukocytes: L-PRP (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Plasma) and L-PRF (Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin). Inductive properties of platelet concentrates were widely described. However, they present also antimicrobial effects. The antibacterial effects of L-PRP were highlighted in only a few in vitro studies. Strong activity comparable to gentamicin and oxacillin for L-PRP against methicillin susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) was already demonstrated. L-PRP also inhibited the growth of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli. Some authors also reported clinical observations about the reduction of infections and the induction of healing processes after the use of platelet concentrates in cardiac, orthopaedic, oral and maxillofacial surgery. However, very little is yet known about the antibacterial effects of these concentrates. In this manuscript, the current data about the antimicrobial agents and cells present in the platelet-rich plasma/fibrin are highlighted and discussed, in order to introduce this new key chapter of the platelet concentrate technology history.

  12. Ovine recombinant PrP as an inhibitor of ruminant prion propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Rob G; Maddison, Ben C; Gough, Kevin C

    2017-07-04

    Prion diseases are fatal and incurable neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. Despite years of research, no therapeutic agents have been developed that can effectively manage or reverse disease progression. Recently it has been identified that recombinant prion proteins (rPrP) expressed in bacteria can act as inhibitors of prion replication within the in vitro prion replication system protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA). Here, within PMCA reactions amplifying a range of ruminant prions including distinct Prnp genotypes/host species and distinct prion strains, recombinant ovine VRQ PrP displayed consistent inhibition of prion replication and produced IC50 values of 122 and 171 nM for ovine scrapie and bovine BSE replication, respectively. These findings illustrate the therapeutic potential of rPrPs with distinct TSE diseases.

  13. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP FOR THE TREATMENT OF PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To show platelet-rich plasma (PRP application of problematic skin wounds and to evaluate the results from the treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 31 patients with problematic skin wounds had been treated at the clinic for a period of five years (from May 2010 to September 2015 with the following patient sex ratio: male patients– 13 and female patients– 18. Average age– 46,5 (22-82. Patients with Type 2 Diabetes– 10, with decubitus ulcers– 2, traumatic– 29, with infection– 12, acute– 15, chronic– 16. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: The results have been evaluated based on the following functional scoring systems - Total wound score, Total anatomic score and Total score (20. The baseline values at the very beginning of the follow-up period were as follows: Total wound score – 10 p.; Total anatomic score – 8 p., Total score – 15 p. By the end of the treatment period the score was 0 p., which means excellent results, i.e. complete healing of the wounds. CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of difficult to heal wounds around joints, bone, subject tendons, plantar surface of the foot, etc., as it opens new perspectives in the field of human tissue regeneration.

  14. Systems analysis programs for Hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0: Verification and validation (V ampersand V) manual. Volume 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.L.; Calley, M.B.; Capps, E.L.; Zeigler, S.L.; Galyean, W.J.; Novack, S.D.; Smith, C.L.; Wolfram, L.M.

    1995-03-01

    A verification and validation (V ampersand V) process has been performed for the System Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluation (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0. SAPHIRE is a set of four computer programs that NRC developed for performing probabilistic risk assessments. They allow an analyst to perform many of the functions necessary to create, quantify, and evaluate the risk associated with a facility or process being analyzed. The programs are Integrated Reliability and Risk Analysis System (IRRAS) System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA), Models And Results Database (MAR-D), and Fault tree, Event tree, and Piping and instrumentation diagram (FEP) graphical editor. Intent of this program is to perform a V ampersand V of successive versions of SAPHIRE. Previous efforts have been the V ampersand V of SAPHIRE Version 4.0. The SAPHIRE 5.0 V ampersand V plan is based on the SAPHIRE 4.0 V ampersand V plan with revisions to incorporate lessons learned from the previous effort. Also, the SAPHIRE 5.0 vital and nonvital test procedures are based on the test procedures from SAPHIRE 4.0 with revisions to include the new SAPHIRE 5.0 features as well as to incorporate lessons learned from the previous effort. Most results from the testing were acceptable; however, some discrepancies between expected code operation and actual code operation were identified. Modifications made to SAPHIRE are identified

  15. The Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP on Improvement in Pain and Symptoms of Shoulder Subacromial Impingement Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Nejati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Subacromial impingement is one of the most common complaints of shoulder. Treatments include avoiding of painful activities, oral anti-pain drugs, physical therapy modalities, corticosteroid injection and exercise therapy. Some studies have shown that platelet- rich plasma(PRP is effective on tendinitis and tearing of tendons, ligaments and muscles, but evidence that has proved PRP as a conservative treatment in shoulder pathologies is very limited. This study aims to investigate the effect of PRP injection on relieving pain and improving daily function of patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Materials and Methods: In this clinical trial study, patients older than 40 with pain more than three months were included. If they had three of four positive diagnostic clinical tests of shoulder impingement that were confirmed by shoulder MRI, could be injected PRP twice. The time between injections was 1 month. Pain was measured by visual analog scale (VAS and function was measured by two questionnaires named disabilities of the arm, shoulder and hand (DASH and western Ontario rotator cuff index (WORC. Range of motion (ROM of shoulder was measured in five directions by goniometry . All of these parameters were evaluated before intervention and in 1, 3, 6 months later. Results: with due attention to a six-month folloe-up, PRR injection was effective in pain reduction and improvement of patient's function (p<0.05. Shoulder Rom increased in all directions except external rotation and the power of shoulder muscles was evidently improved statistically in flexion, abduction and internal toration. Conclusion: PRP injection could effectively reduce pain and improve daily activities in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome.

  16. Adjunctive Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP in Infrabony Regenerative Treatment: A Systematic Review and RCT’s Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mubashir Saleem

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. The purpose of this study was to highlight the clinical performance of platelet-rich plasma (PRP used as an adjunctive tool for regeneration in infrabony periodontal defects using different biomaterials or performing different surgical flap approaches. Comparative evaluation of main clinical outcomes as probing pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment gain, and recession reduction with and without the use of PRP has been analysed. Materials and Methods. According to the focused question, an electronic and hand searching has been performed up to December 2016. From a batch of 73 articles, the selection strategy and Jadad quality assessment led us to include 15 studies for the meta-analysis. Results. Despite the high heterogeneity found and the lack of complete data regarding the selected clinical outcomes, a comparative analysis has been possible by the categorization of used biomaterials and surgical flap approaches. This method led us to observe the best performance of grafts with the use of adjunctive PRP in CAL gain and PPD reduction. No difference has been outlined with a specific surgical flap. Conclusions. Although PRP is considered a cheap and patient’s derived growth factor, the not conclusive data reported would suggest that its use in addition to bone substitutes could be of some clinical benefit in the regenerative treatment of infrabony defects. Clinical Relevance. This systematic review was intended to sort out the huge controversial debate in the field about the possible use of PRP in regenerative surgery in infrabony defect. The clinical relevance of using blood-borne growth factors to conventional procedures is effective as these could determine a better performance and outcomes despite the surgical approach adopted and limit the use of additional biomaterials for the blood clot stabilization.

  17. CONTAMINATED PROBLEMATIC SKIN WOUNDS IN DIABETIC PATIENTS TREATED WITH AUTOLOGOUS PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP: A case series study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP on contaminated problematic skin ulcers in patients with diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 6 patients had been treated within the period from 2012 to 2014; they had various types of problematic wounds and diabetes type 2. Patients’ distribution by sex was as follows: 1 man and 5 women; mean age- 68 years. Ulcer types: acute (2 patients, hard-to-heal (2 patients and chronic (2 patients ulcers. The mean size of the skin and soft tissue defect was 9,5 cm2. Pathogenic microflora was isolated in 4 patients - S. aureus in three and Е. Coli in one. Based on a scheme developed by us, all cases were treated by administering platelet-rich plasma, derived by PRGF Endoret system. Follow-up period was within 4 – 6 months (4,5 on average. We used platelet rich plasma derived by PRGF Endoret system, applied on the wound bed on a weekly basis. RESULTS: Application of PRP allowed successful closure of all wounds. There were no complications associated with treatment of PRP. Epithelialization of the wound took 15 weeks on average for all patients. One patient presented with hyperkeratosis. Initial score of followed wounds, based on the scales are as follows: Total wound score – 10 p. Total anatomic score – 8 p. Total score – 15 p. at the initial stage. At the end of the treatment period scores were as follows - 0 p., which means excellent results CONCLUSION: We believe that the application of PRP may become optimal therapy in the treatment of contaminated problematic wounds in diabetic patients. PRP not only stimulates wound healing, but also has antimicrobial properties, which may contribute to the prevention of infections.

  18. Does a web-based feedback training program result in improved reliability in clinicians' ratings of the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støre-Valen, Jakob; Ryum, Truls; Pedersen, Geir A F; Pripp, Are H; Jose, Paul E; Karterud, Sigmund

    2015-09-01

    The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) Scale is used in routine clinical practice and research to estimate symptom and functional severity and longitudinal change. Concerns about poor interrater reliability have been raised, and the present study evaluated the effect of a Web-based GAF training program designed to improve interrater reliability in routine clinical practice. Clinicians rated up to 20 vignettes online, and received deviation scores as immediate feedback (i.e., own scores compared with expert raters) after each rating. Growth curves of absolute SD scores across the vignettes were modeled. A linear mixed effects model, using the clinician's deviation scores from expert raters as the dependent variable, indicated an improvement in reliability during training. Moderation by content of scale (symptoms; functioning), scale range (average; extreme), previous experience with GAF rating, profession, and postgraduate training were assessed. Training reduced deviation scores for inexperienced GAF raters, for individuals in clinical professions other than nursing and medicine, and for individuals with no postgraduate specialization. In addition, training was most beneficial for cases with average severity of symptoms compared with cases with extreme severity. The results support the use of Web-based training with feedback routines as a means to improve the reliability of GAF ratings performed by clinicians in mental health practice. These results especially pertain to clinicians in mental health practice who do not have a masters or doctoral degree. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Description of the TREBIL, CRESSEX and STREUSL computer programs, that belongs to RALLY computer code pack for the analysis of reliability systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Filho, T.L.

    1982-11-01

    The RALLY computer code pack (RALLY pack) is a set of computer codes destinate to the reliability of complex systems, aiming to a risk analysis. Three of the six codes, are commented, presenting their purpose, input description, calculation methods and results obtained with each one of those computer codes. The computer codes are: TREBIL, to obtain the fault tree logical equivalent; CRESSEX, to obtain the minimal cut and the punctual values of the non-reliability and non-availability of the system; and STREUSL, for the dispersion calculation of those values around the media. In spite of the CRESSEX, in its version available at CNEN, uses a little long method to obtain the minimal cut in an HB-CNEN system, the three computer programs show good results, mainly the STREUSL, which permits the simulation of various components. (E.G.) [pt

  20. Improvement of the reliability of the emergency diesel generators and their protections as a part of the modernization program for units 5 and 6 of the Kozloduy NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanov, D.

    2003-01-01

    The measure 'Improvement of the reliability of the emergency diesel generators and their protections' 28411 is part of the modernization program for Units 5 and 6 of Kozloduy NPP. The scope of the measure includes complete change of the I and C system, the local control panels, the technological and electrical protections of the DG set, the excitation system and some of the power distribution switchboards. The new I and C system will be Teleperm XS type, produced by Framatome ANP, the power distribution switchboards type Sivacon, the excitation system Thyripart, and the electrical protection and synchronization system will be provided by Siemens. The purpose of the measure is to increase the availability, maintainability and to improve the reliability of the DG sets

  1. Comparison between Conventional Mechanical Fixation and Use of Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in Wound Beds Prior to Resurfacing with Split Thickness Skin Graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    P Waiker, Veena; Shivalingappa, Shanthakumar

    2015-01-01

    Platelet rich plasma is known for its hemostatic, adhesive and healing properties in view of the multiple growth factors released from the platelets to the site of wound. The primary objective of this study was to use autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in wound beds for anchorage of skin grafts instead of conventional methods like sutures, staplers or glue. In a single center based randomized controlled prospective study of nine months duration, 200 patients with wounds were divided into two equal groups. Autologous PRP was applied on wound beds in PRP group and conventional methods like staples/sutures used to anchor the skin grafts in a control group. Instant graft adherence to wound bed was statistically significant in the PRP group. Time of first post-graft inspection was delayed, and hematoma, graft edema, discharge from graft site, frequency of dressings and duration of stay in plastic surgery unit were significantly less in the PRP group. Autologous PRP ensured instant skin graft adherence to wound bed in comparison to conventional methods of anchorage. Hence, we recommend the use of autologous PRP routinely on wounds prior to resurfacing to ensure the benefits of early healing.

  2. Autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in chronic penile lichen sclerosus: the impact on tissue repair and patient quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casabona, Francesco; Gambelli, Ilaria; Casabona, Federica; Santi, Pierluigi; Santori, Gregorio; Baldelli, Ilaria

    2017-04-01

    Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a chronic inflammatory skin condition that frequently involves the anogenital region. Ongoing research is focused on finding more effective treatments for tissue repair and reducing symptoms. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) local injections in penile LS. Forty-five male patients affected by penile LS underwent injections of autologous PRP in the affected skin areas. Age at diagnosis and at first treatment, number of treatments, clinical conditions (phimosis, splitting, inflammation, synechiae, meatus stenosis), symptoms (pain, burning, itching), and functional impairment were considered. Treatment efficacy was also evaluated through the Investigator's Global Assessment (IGA) on a six-point Likert scale and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The patient age at LS diagnosis was 36.20 ± 9.19 years, while the mean age at the first PRP treatment was 42.96 ± 11.32 years (p PRP injections, it was observed in all patients a significant improvement in clinical conditions, with reduction/disappearance of symptoms. Topical steroid therapy, interrupted before PRP treatment, was not restarted by any patient. Only one patient underwent a later circumcision procedure. Both IGA scale and DLQI score showed a significant difference (p PRP treatment. PRP treatment in penile LS seems to be helpful to regenerate scarring, reduce symptoms, and improve patient quality of life. Further studies are necessary to evaluate long-term results.

  3. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Turkish infants and toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyhan, Mehmet; Yıldırım, İnci; Tezer, Hasan; Devrim, İlker; Feroldi, Emmanuel

    2017-08-23

    Background/aim: Immunogenicity and safety of a primary series of a fully liquid, hexavalent DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine given at 2, 3, and 4 months of age compared to licensed comparators and a DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster at 15?18 months were evaluated. Materials and methods: This was a Phase III, randomized, open-label trial. Primary series (no hepatitis B [HB] at birth) of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T (N = 155) (group 1) or licensed control vaccines (DTaP-IPV//PRP-T and standalone HB: N = 155) (group 2) and DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster were administered. Noninferiority was evaluated 1 month postprimary series for anti-HB seroprotection (SP). All other analyses were descriptive. Safety was assessed from parental reports. Results: Postprimary series noninferiority of anti-HB ≥ 10 mIU/mL was demonstrated for the DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine (94.0%) compared to the licensed control (96.1%). Postprimary series primary SP and seroconversion (SC) rates were high and similar for both groups. Antibody persistence (prebooster) was high for each antigen and similar between groups except for HB, which was lower for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T than for standalone HB. For each antigen except HB, DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T booster responses were high and similar in each group. Safety was good for primary and booster series and similar between groups. Conclusion: The DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine is immunogenic and safe when administered in a challenging primary series schedule without HB vaccination at birth.

  4. The rating reliability calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon David J

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rating scales form an important means of gathering evaluation data. Since important decisions are often based on these evaluations, determining the reliability of rating data can be critical. Most commonly used methods of estimating reliability require a complete set of ratings i.e. every subject being rated must be rated by each judge. Over fifty years ago Ebel described an algorithm for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data. While his article has been widely cited over the years, software based on the algorithm is not readily available. This paper describes an easy-to-use Web-based utility for estimating the reliability of ratings based on incomplete data using Ebel's algorithm. Methods The program is available public use on our server and the source code is freely available under GNU General Public License. The utility is written in PHP, a common open source imbedded scripting language. The rating data can be entered in a convenient format on the user's personal computer that the program will upload to the server for calculating the reliability and other statistics describing the ratings. Results When the program is run it displays the reliability, number of subject rated, harmonic mean number of judges rating each subject, the mean and standard deviation of the averaged ratings per subject. The program also displays the mean, standard deviation and number of ratings for each subject rated. Additionally the program will estimate the reliability of an average of a number of ratings for each subject via the Spearman-Brown prophecy formula. Conclusion This simple web-based program provides a convenient means of estimating the reliability of rating data without the need to conduct special studies in order to provide complete rating data. I would welcome other researchers revising and enhancing the program.

  5. Software reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bendell, A

    1986-01-01

    Software Reliability reviews some fundamental issues of software reliability as well as the techniques, models, and metrics used to predict the reliability of software. Topics covered include fault avoidance, fault removal, and fault tolerance, along with statistical methods for the objective assessment of predictive accuracy. Development cost models and life-cycle cost models are also discussed. This book is divided into eight sections and begins with a chapter on adaptive modeling used to predict software reliability, followed by a discussion on failure rate in software reliability growth mo

  6. Interim reliability-evaluation program: analysis of the Browns Ferry, Unit 1, nuclear plant. Appendix B - system descriptions and fault trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, S.E.; Poloski, J.P.; Sullivan, W.H.; Trainer, J.E.; Bertucio, R.C.; Leahy, T.J.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes a risk study of the Browns Ferry, Unit 1, nuclear plant. The study is one of four such studies sponsored by the NRC Office of Research, Division of Risk Assessment, as part of its Interim Reliability Evaluation Program (IREP), Phase II. This report is contained in four volumes: a main report and three appendixes. Appendix B provides a description of Browns Ferry, Unit 1, plant systems and the failure evaluation of those systems as they apply to accidents at Browns Ferry. Information is presented concerning front-line system fault analysis; support system fault analysis; human error models and probabilities; and generic control circuit analyses

  7. Standard Hardware Acquisition and Reliability Program's (SHARP's) efforts in incorporating fiber optic interconnects into standard electronic module (SEM) connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, William R.

    1994-05-01

    SHARP is a Navy wide logistics technology development effort aimed at reducing the acquisition costs, support costs, and risks of military electronic weapon systems while increasing the performance capability, reliability, maintainability, and readiness of these systems. Lower life cycle costs for electronic hardware are achieved through technology transition, standardization, and reliability enhancement to improve system affordability and availability as well as enhancing fleet modernization. Advanced technology is transferred into the fleet through hardware specifications for weapon system building blocks of standard electronic modules, standard power systems, and standard electronic systems. The product lines are all defined with respect to their size, weight, I/O, environmental performance, and operational performance. This method of defining the standard is very conducive to inserting new technologies into systems using the standard hardware. This is the approach taken thus far in inserting photonic technologies into SHARP hardware. All of the efforts have been related to module packaging; i.e. interconnects, component packaging, and module developments. Fiber optic interconnects are discussed in this paper.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase content and activity in low-platelet, low-leukocyte and high-platelet, high-leukocyte platelet rich plasma (PRP) and the biologic response to PRP by human ligament fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pifer, Matthew A; Maerz, Tristan; Baker, Kevin C; Anderson, Kyle

    2014-05-01

    Recent work has shown the presence of catabolic cytokines in platelet-rich plasma (PRP), but little is known about endogenous catabolic proteases such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Hypothesis/ To quantify MMP content in 2 commercially available PRP preparation systems: Arthrex Double Syringe System autologous conditioned plasma (ACP) and Biomet GPS (GPS). The hypothesis was that MMPs are actively secreted from PRP immediately after preparation. Controlled laboratory study. PRP was prepared using either ACP (low platelet, low leukocyte) or GPS (high platelet, high leukocyte). MMP-2, MMP-3, and MMP-9 concentrations were measured using multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for up to 6 days in 2 donors, and MMP activity was measured in 3 donors using kinetic activity kits able to detect the enzymatic cleavage of a fluorogenic peptide. Human ligament fibroblasts were cultured and exposed to both ACP and GPS from 1 donor each. MMP-2, -3, and -9 concentrations were assayed in culture media at 24 and 48 hours after exposure. GPS exhibited higher total MMP-2, -3, and -9 concentrations for up to 144 hours of release, while ACP had higher platelet-normalized MMP-2 and MMP-3 concentrations. GPS had significantly higher total and endogenous MMP-2 activity (P = .004 and .014, respectively), MMP-3 activity (P = .020 and .015, respectively), and MMP-9 activity (P = .004 and .002, respectively) compared with ACP. Once normalized to platelet count, differences in MMP activity were not significant between ACP and GPS. Compared with controls, cells stimulated with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and treated with ACP showed significantly higher fold changes of MMP-2 (P = .001) and MMP-3 (P = .003) concentrations at 24 hours than did cells treated with GPS. Total MMP-9 content was higher in the media of GPS-treated, IL-1β-stimulated cells compared with ACP-treated cells (P = .001). At 48 hours, IL-1β-stimulated cells treated with GPS exhibited higher fold changes of MMP-2

  9. Dynamic Contacts of U2, RES, Cwc25, Prp8 and Prp45 Proteins with the Pre-mRNA Branch-Site and 3' Splice Site during Catalytic Activation and Step 1 Catalysis in Yeast Spliceosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Schneider

    Full Text Available Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.

  10. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE), Version 5.0. Volume 5, Systems Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) tutorial manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattison, M.B.; Russell, K.D.; Skinner, N.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) primarily for nuclear power plants. This volume is the tutorial manual for the Systems Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) System Version 5.0, a microcomputer-based system used to analyze the safety issues of a open-quotes familyclose quotes [i.e., a power plant, a manufacturing facility, any facility on which a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) might be performed]. A series of lessons is provided that guides the user through some basic steps common to most analyses performed with SARA. The example problems presented in the lessons build on one another, and in combination, lead the user through all aspects of SARA sensitivity analysis capabilities

  11. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE), Version 5.0: Models and Results Database (MAR-D) reference manual. Volume 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, K.D.; Skinner, N.L.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The primary function of MAR-D is to create a data repository for completed PRAs and Individual Plant Examinations (IPEs) by providing input, conversion, and output capabilities for data used by IRRAS, SARA, SETS, and FRANTIC software. As probabilistic risk assessments and individual plant examinations are submitted to the NRC for review, MAR-D can be used to convert the models and results from the study for use with IRRAS and SARA. Then, these data can be easily accessed by future studies and will be in a form that will enhance the analysis process. This reference manual provides an overview of the functions available within MAR-D and step-by-step operating instructions

  12. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embrey, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    Concepts and techniques of human reliability have been developed and are used mostly in probabilistic risk assessment. For this, the major application of human reliability assessment has been to identify the human errors which have a significant effect on the overall safety of the system and to quantify the probability of their occurrence. Some of the major issues within human reliability studies are reviewed and it is shown how these are applied to the assessment of human failures in systems. This is done under the following headings; models of human performance used in human reliability assessment, the nature of human error, classification of errors in man-machine systems, practical aspects, human reliability modelling in complex situations, quantification and examination of human reliability, judgement based approaches, holistic techniques and decision analytic approaches. (UK)

  13. Simplified Asset Indices to Measure Wealth and Equity in Health Programs: A Reliability and Validity Analysis Using Survey Data From 16 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Fry, Kenzo; Behl, Rasika; Longfield, Kim

    2016-03-01

    Social franchising programs in low- and middle-income countries have tried using the standard wealth index, based on the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) questionnaire, in client exit interviews to assess clients' relative wealth compared with the national wealth distribution to ensure equity in service delivery. The large number of survey questions required to capture the wealth index variables have proved cumbersome for programs. Using an adaptation of the Delphi method, we developed shortened wealth indices and in February 2015 consulted 15 stakeholders in equity measurement. Together, we selected the best of 5 alternative indices, accompanied by 2 measures of agreement (percent agreement and Cohen's kappa statistic) comparing wealth quintile assignment in the new indices to the full DHS index. The panel agreed that reducing the number of assets was more important than standardization across countries because a short index would provide strong indication of client wealth and be easier to collect and use in the field. Additionally, the panel agreed that the simplified index should be highly correlated with the DHS for each country (kappa ≥ 0.75) for both national and urban-specific samples. We then revised indices for 16 countries and selected the minimum number of questions and question options required to achieve a kappa statistic ≥ 0.75 for both national and urban populations. After combining the 5 wealth quintiles into 3 groups, which the expert panel deemed more programmatically meaningful, reliability between the standard DHS wealth index and each of 3 simplified indices was high (median kappa = 0.81, 086, and 0.77, respectively, for index B that included only the common questions from the DHS VI questionnaire, index D that included the common questions plus country-specific questions, and index E that found the shortest list of common and country-specific questions that met the minimum reliability criteria of kappa ≥ 0.75). Index E was the

  14. Simplified Asset Indices to Measure Wealth and Equity in Health Programs: A Reliability and Validity Analysis Using Survey Data From 16 Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nirali M; Fry, Kenzo; Behl, Rasika; Longfield, Kim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Social franchising programs in low- and middle-income countries have tried using the standard wealth index, based on the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) questionnaire, in client exit interviews to assess clients’ relative wealth compared with the national wealth distribution to ensure equity in service delivery. The large number of survey questions required to capture the wealth index variables have proved cumbersome for programs. Methods: Using an adaptation of the Delphi method, we developed shortened wealth indices and in February 2015 consulted 15 stakeholders in equity measurement. Together, we selected the best of 5 alternative indices, accompanied by 2 measures of agreement (percent agreement and Cohen’s kappa statistic) comparing wealth quintile assignment in the new indices to the full DHS index. The panel agreed that reducing the number of assets was more important than standardization across countries because a short index would provide strong indication of client wealth and be easier to collect and use in the field. Additionally, the panel agreed that the simplified index should be highly correlated with the DHS for each country (kappa ≥ 0.75) for both national and urban-specific samples. We then revised indices for 16 countries and selected the minimum number of questions and question options required to achieve a kappa statistic ≥ 0.75 for both national and urban populations. Findings: After combining the 5 wealth quintiles into 3 groups, which the expert panel deemed more programmatically meaningful, reliability between the standard DHS wealth index and each of 3 simplified indices was high (median kappa = 0.81, 086, and 0.77, respectively, for index B that included only the common questions from the DHS VI questionnaire, index D that included the common questions plus country-specific questions, and index E that found the shortest list of common and country-specific questions that met the minimum reliability

  15. Methodological efficiency of reactor pressure vessel control samples programs and reliability of WWER vessels at the Ukraine NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovbasenko, S.N.; Brednev, V.I.; Zinchenko, O.Ya.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is made for the programs with the use of check specimens (CS) for reactor vessel (RV) control which is considered as the only method for estimating embrittlement in RV material and its operational capability. Advantages and disadvantages of the programs are noted. Other methods are developed and improved to estimate properties of RV metal and welded joints. It is shown that the most valid information about RV metal state can be obtained only by testing specimens prepared from templets cut directly from a RV wall in the region of reactor core. Ukrainian researchers designed the equipment and performed successful tests on templet cutting from the surface of the metal to study mechanical properties of critical pipelines [ru

  16. Substitutions of PrP N-terminal histidine residues modulate scrapie disease pathogenesis and incubation time in transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenbrod, Sabina; Frick, Petra; Bertsch, Uwe; Mitteregger-Kretzschmar, Gerda; Mielke, Janina; Maringer, Marko; Piening, Niklas; Hepp, Alexander; Daude, Nathalie; Windl, Otto; Levin, Johannes; Giese, Armin; Sakthivelu, Vignesh; Tatzelt, Jörg; Kretzschmar, Hans; Westaway, David

    2017-01-01

    Prion diseases have been linked to impaired copper homeostasis and copper induced-oxidative damage to the brain. Divalent metal ions, such as Cu2+ and Zn2+, bind to cellular prion protein (PrPC) at octapeptide repeat (OR) and non-OR sites within the N-terminal half of the protein but information on the impact of such binding on conversion to the misfolded isoform often derives from studies using either OR and non-OR peptides or bacterially-expressed recombinant PrP. Here we created new transgenic mouse lines expressing PrP with disrupted copper binding sites within all four histidine-containing OR's (sites 1-4, H60G, H68G, H76G, H84G, "TetraH>G" allele) or at site 5 (composed of residues His-95 and His-110; "H95G" allele) and monitored the formation of misfolded PrP in vivo. Novel transgenic mice expressing PrP(TetraH>G) at levels comparable to wild-type (wt) controls were susceptible to mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML but showed significantly prolonged incubation times. In contrast, amino acid replacement at residue 95 accelerated disease progression in corresponding PrP(H95G) mice. Neuropathological lesions in terminally ill transgenic mice were similar to scrapie-infected wt controls, but less severe. The pattern of PrPSc deposition, however, was not synaptic as seen in wt animals, but instead dense globular plaque-like accumulations of PrPSc in TgPrP(TetraH>G) mice and diffuse PrPSc deposition in (TgPrP(H95G) mice), were observed throughout all brain sections. We conclude that OR and site 5 histidine substitutions have divergent phenotypic impacts and that cis interactions between the OR region and the site 5 region modulate pathogenic outcomes by affecting the PrP globular domain.

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Rinses for the Treatment of Non-Responding Oral Lichen Planus: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Merigo; Aldo Oppici; Anna Parlatore; Luigi Cella; Fabio Clini; Matteo Fontana; Carlo Fornaini

    2018-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulce...

  18. Effect of intralesional platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters in equine naturally occurring superficial digital flexor tendinopathies - a randomized prospective controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, Florian; Gaus, Moritz; van Schie, Hans T M; Rohn, Karl; Stadler, Peter M

    2016-09-07

    Regenerative and anti-inflammatory effects on tendinopathies have been attributed to blood-derived biologicals. To date the evidence for the efficacy of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) treatment of naturally occurring equine tendinopathies is limited. The purpose of this placebo-controlled clinical trial was to describe the effect of a single treatment of equine superficial digital flexor tendon (SDFT) disease with PRP on clinical and ultrasonographic parameters. Twenty horses with naturally occurring tendinopathies of forelimb SDFTs were randomly assigned to the PRP-treated group (n = 10) or control group (n = 10) after clinical and ultrasonographic examination. The SDFTs received an intralesional treatment with autologous PRP or were injected with saline, respectively (day 0). All horses participated in a standardized exercise programme and were re-examined clinically, with B-mode ultrasonography (5 times at regular intervals) and ultrasound tissue characterization (week 12 and 24 after treatment) until week 24. Long-term performance was estimated via telephone inquiry. Compared to day 0, lameness decreased significantly by week 8 after treatment with PRP and by week 12 in the control group. Ultrasonographically there was no difference in the summarized cross sectional area between the groups at any time point. Ultrasound tissue characterization showed that echo types representing disorganized matrix decreased significantly throughout the observation period in the PRP-treated group. Echo type II, representing discontinuous fascicles, not yet aligned into lines of stress was significantly higher 24 weeks after PRP treatment. Eighty percent of the PRP treated horses reached their previous or a higher level of performance after 12 months compared to 50 % in the CG. After 24 months these proportions were 60 % and 50 %, respectively. A single intralesional treatment with PRP up to 8 weeks after onset of clinical signs of tendinopathy contributes

  19. Interactive reliability assessment using an integrated reliability data bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allan, R.N.; Whitehead, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The logical structure, techniques and practical application of a computer-aided technique based on a microcomputer using floppy disc Random Access Files is described. This interactive computational technique is efficient if the reliability prediction program is coupled directly to a relevant source of data to create an integrated reliability assessment/reliability data bank system. (DG)

  20. A computer program for calculation of reliable pair distribution functions of non-crystalline materials from limited diffraction data. III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.Y.

    1978-01-01

    This program calculates the final pair distribution functions of non-crystalline materials on the basis of the experimental structure factor as calculated in part I and the parameters of the small distance part of the pair distribution function as calculated in part II. In this way, truncation error may be eliminated from the final pair distribution function. The calculations with this program depend on the results of calculations with the programs described in parts I and II. The final pair distribution function is calculated by a Fourier transform of a combination of an experimental structure factor and a model structure factor. The storage requirement depends on the number of data points in the structure factor, the number of data points in the final pair distribution function and the number of peaks necessary to resolve the small distance part of the pair distribution function. In the present set-up a storage requirement is set to 8860 words which is estimated to be satisfactory for a large number of cases. (Auth.)

  1. Multiple PRP injections are more effective than single injections and hyaluronic acid in knees with early osteoarthritis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görmeli, Gökay; Görmeli, Cemile Ayşe; Ataoglu, Baybars; Çolak, Cemil; Aslantürk, Okan; Ertem, Kadir

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effectiveness of intraarticular (IA) multiple and single platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections as well as hyaluronic acid (HA) injections in different stages of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee. A total of 162 patients with different stages of knee OA were randomly divided into four groups receiving 3 IA doses of PRP, one dose of PRP, one dose of HA or a saline injection (control). Then, each group was subdivided into two groups: early OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0 with cartilage degeneration or grade I-III) and advanced OA (Kellgren-Lawrence grade IV). The patients were evaluated before the injection and at the 6-month follow-ups using the EuroQol visual analogue scale (EQ-VAS) and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective scores. Adverse events and patient satisfaction were recorded. There was a statistically significant improvement in the IKDC and EQ-VAS scores in all the treatment groups compared with the control group. The knee scores of patients treated with three PRP injections were significantly better than those patients of the other groups. There was no significant difference in the scores of patients injected with one dose of PRP or HA. In the early OA subgroups, significantly better clinical results were achieved in the patients treated with three PRP injections, but there was no significant difference in the clinical results of patients with advanced OA among the treatment groups. The clinical results of this study suggest IA PRP and HA treatment for all stages of knee OA. For patients with early OA, multiple (3) PRP injections are useful in achieving better clinical results. For patients with advanced OA, multiple injections do not significantly improve the results of patients in any group. I.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma: why intra-articular? A systematic review of preclinical studies and clinical evidence on PRP for joint degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filardo, G; Kon, E; Roffi, A; Di Matteo, B; Merli, M L; Marcacci, M

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the available evidence on the clinical application of this biological approach for the injective treatment of cartilage lesions and joint degeneration, together with preclinical studies to support the rationale for the use of platelet concentrates, to shed some light and give indications on what to treat and what to expect from intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). All in vitro, in vivo preclinical and clinical studies on PRP injective treatment in the English language concerning the effect of PRP on cartilage, synovial tissue, menisci, and mesenchymal stem cells were considered. A systematic review on the PubMed database was performed using the following words: (platelet-rich plasma or PRP or platelet concentrate or platelet lysate or platelet supernatant) and (cartilage or chondrocytes or synoviocytes or menisci or mesenchymal stem cells). Fifty-nine articles met the inclusion criteria: 26 were in vitro, 9 were in vivo, 2 were both in vivo and in vitro, and 22 were clinical studies. The analysis showed an increasing number of published studies over time. Preclinical evidence supports the use of PRP injections that might promote a favourable environment for joint tissues healing. Only a few high-quality clinical trials have been published, which showed a clinical improvement limited over time and mainly documented in younger patients not affected by advanced knee degeneration. Besides the limits and sometimes controversial findings, the preclinical literature shows an overall support toward this PRP application. An intra-articular injection does not just target cartilage; instead, PRP might influence the entire joint environment, leading to a short-term clinical improvement. Many biological variables might influence the clinical outcome and have to be studied to optimize PRP injective treatment of cartilage degeneration and osteoarthritis.

  3. A fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy Mexican children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Amalia Guadalupe Becerra; Brito, Maricruz Gutiérrez; Doniz, Carlos E Aranza; Herrera, Juan Francisco Galán; Macias, Mercedes; Zambrano, Betzana; Plennevaux, Eric; Santos-Lima, Eduardo

    2012-10-05

    To evaluate an investigational, fully liquid hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T: Hexaxim™) vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of healthy children in Mexico. Infants (N=1189) were randomized to receive one of three lots of the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine or a licensed hexavalent control vaccine (Infanrix™ hexa) for primary vaccination at 2, 4 and 6 months. All participants who completed the primary series and agreed to participate in the booster part of the study received a dose of the investigational vaccine at 15-18 months of age. Validated serological assays and parental reports were used to assess immunogenicity and safety, respectively. Post-primary vaccination, ≥95.8% of participants in both the DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T and control groups were seroprotected (SP) against diphtheria, tetanus, poliovirus, hepatitis B and PRP, or had seroconverted (SC) to the pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) pertussis antigens. The SP/SC rates induced by the three DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T lots were equivalent. No differences in SP/SC rates were observed between the pooled lots of investigational vaccine and the control vaccine. Antibody persistence at 15-18 months was comparable between groups, with strong increases in all antibody concentrations post-DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T booster. Both vaccines were well tolerated for primary vaccination, as was the booster dose of DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T. These study findings confirm the suitability of the combined, fully liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T vaccine for inclusion in routine childhood vaccination schedules. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evidence for a central role of PrP helix 2 in the nucleation of amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Ryo; Kuwata, Kazuo

    2018-02-01

    Amyloid fibrils are filamentous protein aggregates associated with the pathogenesis of a wide variety of human diseases. The formation of such aggregates typically follows nucleation-dependent kinetics, wherein the assembly and structural conversion of amyloidogenic proteins into oligomeric aggregates (nuclei) is the rate-limiting step of the overall reaction. In this study, we sought to gain structural insights into the oligomeric nuclei of the human prion protein (PrP) by preparing a series of deletion mutants lacking 14-44 of the C-terminal 107 residues of PrP and examined the kinetics and thermodynamics of these mutants in amyloid formation. An analysis of the experimental data using the concepts of the Φ-value analysis indicated that the helix 2 region (residues 168-196) acquires an amyloid-like β-sheet during nucleation, whereas the other regions preserves a relatively disordered structure in the nuclei. This finding suggests that the helix 2 region serves as the nucleation site for the assembly of amyloid fibrils.-Honda, R., Kuwata, K. Evidence for a central role of PrP helix 2 in the nucleation of amyloid fibrils.

  5. Behavior of Gingival Fibroblasts on Titanium Implant Surfaces in Combination with either Injectable-PRF or PRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuzhu Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Various strategies have been employed to speed tissue regeneration using bioactive molecules. Interestingly, platelet concentrates derived from a patient’s own blood have been utilized as a regenerative strategy in recent years. In the present study, a novel liquid platelet formulation prepared without the use of anti-coagulants (injectable-platelet-rich fibrin, i-PRF was compared to standard platelet-rich plasma (PRP with gingival fibroblasts cultured on smooth and roughened titanium implant surfaces. Standard PRP and i-PRF (centrifuged at 700 rpm (60× g for 3 min were compared by assays for fibroblast biocompatibility, migration, adhesion, proliferation, as well as expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β, collagen1 (COL1 and fibronectin (FN. The results demonstrate that i-PRF induced significantly higher cell migration, as well as higher messenger RNA (mRNA levels of PDGF, TGF-β, collagen1 and fibronectin when compared to PRP. Furthermore, collagen1 synthesis was highest in the i-PRF group. These findings demonstrate that liquid platelet concentrates can be formulated without the use of anticoagulants and present much translational potential for future research. Future animal and clinical trials are now necessary to further investigate the potential of utilizing i-PRF for soft tissue regenerative protocols in combination with various biomaterials.

  6. The Effect of Autologous Activated Platelet Rich Plasma (AA-PRP Injection on Pattern Hair Loss: Clinical and Histomorphometric Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Cervelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the safety and clinical efficacy of AA-PRP injections for pattern hair loss. AA-PRP, prepared from a small volume of blood, was injected on half of the selected patients’ scalps with pattern hair loss. The other half was treated with placebo. Three treatments were given for each patient, with intervals of 1 month. The endpoints were hair re-growth, hair dystrophy as measured by dermoscopy, burning or itching sensation, and cell proliferation as measured by Ki-67 evaluation. At the end of the 3 cycles of treatment, the patients presented clinical improvement in the mean number of hairs, with a mean increase of 18.0 hairs in the target area, and a mean increase in total hair density of 27.7 ( number of hairs/cm2 compared with baseline values. Microscopic evaluation showed the increase of epidermis thickness and of the number of hair follicles two weeks after the last AA-PRP treatment compared to baseline value (P<0.05. We also observed an increase of Ki67+ keratinocytes of epidermis and of hair follicular bulge cells and a slight increase of small blood vessels around hair follicles in the treated skin compared to baseline (P<0.05.

  7. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P>0.05. At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  8. Mutant PrP Suppresses Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in Cerebellar Granule Neurons by Impairing Membrane Delivery of VGCC α2δ-1 Subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, Assunta; Colleoni, Simona; Verderio, Claudia; Restelli, Elena; Morini, Raffaella; Condliffe, Steven B.; Bertani, Ilaria; Mantovani, Susanna; Canovi, Mara; Micotti, Edoardo; Forloni, Gianluigi; Dolphin, Annette C.; Matteoli, Michela; Gobbi, Marco; Chiesa, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Summary How mutant prion protein (PrP) leads to neurological dysfunction in genetic prion diseases is unknown. Tg(PG14) mice synthesize a misfolded mutant PrP which is partially retained in the neuronal endoplasmic reticulum (ER). As these mice age, they develop ataxia and massive degeneration of cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). Here, we report that motor behavioral deficits in Tg(PG14) mice emerge before neurodegeneration and are associated with defective glutamate exocytosis from granule neurons due to impaired calcium dynamics. We found that mutant PrP interacts with the voltage-gated calcium channel α2δ-1 subunit, which promotes the anterograde trafficking of the channel. Owing to ER retention of mutant PrP, α2δ-1 accumulates intracellularly, impairing delivery of the channel complex to the cell surface. Thus, mutant PrP disrupts cerebellar glutamatergic neurotransmission by reducing the number of functional channels in CGNs. These results link intracellular PrP retention to synaptic dysfunction, indicating new modalities of neurotoxicity and potential therapeutic strategies. PMID:22542184

  9. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells: stimulatory effects on proliferation and migration of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stessuk, Talita; Puzzi, Maria Beatriz; Chaim, Elinton Adami; Alves, Paulo César Martins; de Paula, Erich Vinicius; Forte, Andresa; Izumizawa, Juliana Massae; Oliveira, Carolina Caliári; Frei, Fernando; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    The clinical use of tissue engineering associated with cell therapy is considered a new alternative therapy for the repair of chronic lesions with potential application in different medical areas, mostly in orthopedic and dermatological diseases. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a rich source of growth factors and cytokines important for wound healing. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) have shown potential to accelerate the resolution of ulcers, to stimulate cell proliferation, and to benefit the quality of skin repair. This study aims to determine the effect of PRP and conditioned medium (CM) from ADSC on fibroblast and keratinocyte proliferation in vitro. Migration and proliferation assays were performed to evaluate the growth of fibroblasts and keratinocytes in the presence of PRP, CM, and CM + PRP. Significant proliferative stimulation was observed after 48 h of culture (p PRP, 100 % CM, and 25 % PRP + 25 % CM, if compared with control. Keratinocyte proliferation was stimulated after 48 h in cultures with 25, 50, and 100 % CM, and growth was compared with controls. The migration assay detected a significant migratory stimulus in fibroblasts cultured with 10 % PRP + 10 % CM after 48 h. These in vitro results suggest that PRP and ADSC have therapeutic potential for healing and re-epithelialization of chronic wounds in vivo.

  10. Comparative assessment of prophylactic transfusions of platelet concentrates obtained by the PRP or buffy-coat methods, in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Muñoz, Hermógenes; Plaza, Eva M; Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Candela, María José; Romera, Marta; De Arriba, Felipe; Lozano, María L; Vicente, Vicente; Heras, Inmaculada; Castilla-Llorente, Cristina; Rivera, José

    2018-03-27

    Whole blood-derived platelet concentrates can be obtained by the platelet-rich plasma (PRP-PCs) or the buffy-coat (BC-PCs) method. Few studies have shown that BC-PCs display lower in vitro platelet activation, but scarce information exists regarding transfusion efficacy. We have performed a retrospective study assessing platelet transfusion in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) in our clinic, before and after the implementation of BC-PCs. We reviewed clinical records corresponding to 70 PRP-PCs and 86 BC-PCs prophylactic transfusions, which were performed to 55 AHCT patients. Transfusion efficacy was assessed by the 24-h post-transfusion corrected count increment (24-h CCI) and bleeding events. Clinical factors affecting transfusion outcome were also investigated. Clinical characteristics and the total number of platelet transfusions were similar among groups. Mean donor exposure was 5.8 and 5.0 in each single PRP-PCs and BC-PCs transfusion, respectively (p PRP-PCs (8.3[2.7-13.4] vs. 4.7[1.3-8.1]; p PRP-PCs transfusion (HR 4.54; 95% CI 1.72-12.01; p = 0.002). There were no differences between both groups regarding the bleeding events. In the AHCT setting, we hypothesize that BC-PCs transfusion, when compared to PRP-PCs, results in higher CCI and reduced donor exposure, but provides no significant benefit regarding bleeding outcome.

  11. Clinical-grade quality platelet-rich plasma releasate (PRP-R/SRGF) from CaCl2 -activated platelet concentrates promoted expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghese, C; Agostini, F; Durante, C; Colombatti, A; Mazzucato, M; Aldinucci, D

    2016-08-01

    The aim of our study was to test a platelet-rich plasma releasate (PRP-R/SRGF) from CaCl2 -activated platelets as a source of growth factors for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). PRP-R/SRGF, obtained with a low-cost procedure, is characterized by a reduced variability of growth factor release. PRP-R/SRGF is a clinical-grade quality solution obtained from CaCl2 -activated platelets. Its activity was evaluated by measuring the proliferation, the phenotype, the differentiation potential and the immunosuppressive properties of MSCs derived from bone marrow (BM) and adipose tissue (AT). PRP-R/SRGF was more active than FBS to expand BM- and AT-derived MSCs. PRP-R/SRGF treatment did not affect the expression of typical MSCs surface markers, neither MSCs differentiation potential nor their capability to inhibit activated T-cell proliferation. The clinical-grade PRP-R/SRGF may be used in the clinical setting for the expansion of MSCs. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by β-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R.; Pai, Emil F.; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-01-01

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrPSc). Exposure to PrPSc from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer–octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease. PMID:21041683

  13. Prion disease susceptibility is affected by beta-structure folding propensity and local side-chain interactions in PrP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Qasim; Sweeting, Braden; Mulligan, Vikram Khipple; Arslan, Pharhad Eli; Cashman, Neil R; Pai, Emil F; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2010-11-16

    Prion diseases occur when the normally α-helical prion protein (PrP) converts to a pathological β-structured state with prion infectivity (PrP(Sc)). Exposure to PrP(Sc) from other mammals can catalyze this conversion. Evidence from experimental and accidental transmission of prions suggests that mammals vary in their prion disease susceptibility: Hamsters and mice show relatively high susceptibility, whereas rabbits, horses, and dogs show low susceptibility. Using a novel approach to quantify conformational states of PrP by circular dichroism (CD), we find that prion susceptibility tracks with the intrinsic propensity of mammalian PrP to convert from the native, α-helical state to a cytotoxic β-structured state, which exists in a monomer-octamer equilibrium. It has been controversial whether β-structured monomers exist at acidic pH; sedimentation equilibrium and dual-wavelength CD evidence is presented for an equilibrium between a β-structured monomer and octamer in some acidic pH conditions. Our X-ray crystallographic structure of rabbit PrP has identified a key helix-capping motif implicated in the low prion disease susceptibility of rabbits. Removal of this capping motif increases the β-structure folding propensity of rabbit PrP to match that of PrP from mouse, a species more susceptible to prion disease.

  14. A Cognitive Behavioral Depression Prevention Program for Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloseva, Lence

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…

  15. Application of reliability methods in Ontario Hydro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeppesen, R.; Ravishankar, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Ontario Hydro have established a reliability program in support of its substantial nuclear program. Application of the reliability program to achieve both production and safety goals is described. The value of such a reliability program is evident in the record of Ontario Hydro's operating nuclear stations. The factors which have contributed to the success of the reliability program are identified as line management's commitment to reliability; selective and judicious application of reliability methods; establishing performance goals and monitoring the in-service performance; and collection, distribution, review and utilization of performance information to facilitate cost-effective achievement of goals and improvements. (orig.)

  16. Preventing adolescents’ externalizing and internalizing symptoms: Effects of the Penn Resiliency Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. Cutuli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study reports secondary outcome analyses from a past study of the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP, a cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for middle-school aged children. Middle school students (N = 697 were randomly assigned to PRP, PEP (an alternate intervention, or control conditions. Gillham et al., (2007 reported analyses examining PRP’s effects on average and clinical levels of depression symptoms. We examine PRP’s effects on parent-, teacher-, and self-reports of adolescents’ externalizing and broader internalizing (depression/anxiety, somatic complaints, and social withdrawal symptoms over three years of follow-up. Relative to no intervention control, PRP reduced parent-reports of adolescents’ internalizing symptoms beginning at the first assessment after the intervention and persisting for most of the follow-up assessments. PRP also reduced parent-reported conduct problems relative to no-intervention. There was no evidence that the PRP program produced an effect on teacher- or self-report of adolescents’ symptoms. Overall, PRP did not reduce symptoms relative to the alternate intervention, although there is a suggestion of a delayed effect for conduct problems. These findings are discussed with attention to developmental trajectories and the importance of interventions that address common risk factors for diverse forms of negative outcomes.

  17. Reliability Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Lazzaroni, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a practical guide for designers and users in Information and Communication Technology context. In particular, in the first Section, the definition of the fundamental terms according to the international standards are given. Then, some theoretical concepts and reliability models are presented in Chapters 2 and 3: the aim is to evaluate performance for components and systems and reliability growth. Chapter 4, by introducing the laboratory tests, puts in evidence the reliability concept from the experimental point of view. In ICT context, the failure rate for a given system can be

  18. Reliability training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  19. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  20. The folding mechanism and key metastable state identification of the PrP127-147 monomer studied by molecular dynamics simulations and Markov state model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuangyan; Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Yuwei; Yao, Xiaojun; Han, Wei; Liu, Huanxiang

    2017-05-10

    The structural transition of prion proteins from a native α-helix (PrP C ) to a misfolded β-sheet-rich conformation (PrP Sc ) is believed to be the main cause of a number of prion diseases in humans and animals. Understanding the molecular basis of misfolding and aggregation of prion proteins will be valuable for unveiling the etiology of prion diseases. However, due to the limitation of conventional experimental techniques and the heterogeneous property of oligomers, little is known about the molecular architecture of misfolded PrP Sc and the mechanism of structural transition from PrP C to PrP Sc . The prion fragment 127-147 (PrP127-147) has been reported to be a critical region for PrP Sc formation in Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome and thus has been used as a model for the study of prion aggregation. In the present study, we employ molecular dynamics (MD) simulation techniques to study the conformational change of this fragment that could be relevant to the PrP C -PrP Sc transition. Employing extensive replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) and conventional MD simulations, we sample a huge number of conformations of PrP127-147. Using the Markov state model (MSM), we identify the metastable conformational states of this fragment and the kinetic network of transitions between the states. The resulting MSM reveals that disordered random-coiled conformations are the dominant structures. A key metastable folded state with typical extended β-sheet structures is identified with Pro137 being located in a turn region, consistent with a previous experimental report. Conformational analysis reveals that intrapeptide hydrophobic interaction and two key residue interactions, including Arg136-His140 and Pro137-His140, contribute a lot to the formation of ordered extended β-sheet states. However, network pathway analysis from the most populated disordered state indicates that the formation of extended β-sheet states is quite slow (at the millisecond

  1. Journey Toward High Reliability: A Comprehensive Safety Program to Improve Quality of Care and Safety Culture in a Large, Multisite Radiation Oncology Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina Demas; Volz, Edna; Maity, Amit; Gabriel, Peter E; Solberg, Timothy D; Bergendahl, Howard W; Hahn, Stephen M

    2016-05-01

    High-reliability organizations (HROs) focus on continuous identification and improvement of safety issues. We sought to advance a large, multisite radiation oncology department toward high reliability through the implementation of a comprehensive safety culture (SC) program at the University of Pennsylvania Department of Radiation Oncology. In 2011, with guidance from safety literature and experts in HROs, we designed an SC framework to reduce radiation errors. All state-reported medical events (SRMEs) from 2009 to 2016 were retrospectively reviewed and plotted on a control chart. Changes in SC grade were assessed using the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Hospital Survey. Outcomes measured included the number of radiation treatment fractions and days between SRMEs, as well as SC grade. Multifaceted safety initiatives were implemented at our main academic center and across all network sites. Postintervention results demonstrate increased staff fundamental safety knowledge, enhanced peer review with an electronic system, and special cause variation of SRMEs on control chart analysis. From 2009 to 2016, the number of days and fractions between SRMEs significantly increased, from a mean of 174 to 541 days (P safety framework. Our multifaceted initiatives, focusing on culture and system changes, can be successfully implemented in a large academic radiation oncology department to yield measurable improvements in SC and outcomes. Copyright © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  2. Systems reliability/structural reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The question of reliability technology using quantified techniques is considered for systems and structures. Systems reliability analysis has progressed to a viable and proven methodology whereas this has yet to be fully achieved for large scale structures. Structural loading variants over the half-time of the plant are considered to be more difficult to analyse than for systems, even though a relatively crude model may be a necessary starting point. Various reliability characteristics and environmental conditions are considered which enter this problem. The rare event situation is briefly mentioned together with aspects of proof testing and normal and upset loading conditions. (orig.)

  3. The α-helical C-terminal domain of full-length recombinant PrP converts to an in-register parallel β-sheet structure in PrP fibrils: evidence from solid state nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tycko, Robert; Savtchenko, Regina; Ostapchenko, Valeriy G; Makarava, Natallia; Baskakov, Ilia V

    2010-11-09

    We report the results of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements on amyloid fibrils formed by the full-length prion protein PrP (residues 23−231, Syrian hamster sequence). Measurements of intermolecular 13C−13C dipole−dipole couplings in selectively carbonyl-labeled samples indicate that β-sheets in these fibrils have an in-register parallel structure, as previously observed in amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes and in yeast prion fibrils. Two-dimensional 13C−13C and 15N−13C solid state NMR spectra of a uniformly 15N- and 13C-labeled sample indicate that a relatively small fraction of the full sequence, localized to the C-terminal end, forms the structurally ordered, immobilized core. Although unique site-specific assignments of the solid state NMR signals cannot be obtained from these spectra, analysis with a Monte Carlo/simulated annealing algorithm suggests that the core is comprised primarily of residues in the 173−224 range. These results are consistent with earlier electron paramagnetic resonance studies of fibrils formed by residues 90−231 of the human PrP sequence, formed under somewhat different conditions [Cobb, N. J., Sonnichsen, F. D., McHaourab, H., and Surewicz, W. K. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104, 18946−18951], suggesting that an in-register parallel β-sheet structure formed by the C-terminal end may be a general feature of PrP fibrils prepared in vitro.

  4. Human reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bubb, H.

    1992-01-01

    This book resulted from the activity of Task Force 4.2 - 'Human Reliability'. This group was established on February 27th, 1986, at the plenary meeting of the Technical Reliability Committee of VDI, within the framework of the joint committee of VDI on industrial systems technology - GIS. It is composed of representatives of industry, representatives of research institutes, of technical control boards and universities, whose job it is to study how man fits into the technical side of the world of work and to optimize this interaction. In a total of 17 sessions, information from the part of ergonomy dealing with human reliability in using technical systems at work was exchanged, and different methods for its evaluation were examined and analyzed. The outcome of this work was systematized and compiled in this book. (orig.) [de

  5. Microelectronics Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-17

    inverters  connected in a chain. ................................................. 5  Figure 3  Typical graph showing frequency versus square root of...developing an experimental  reliability estimating methodology that could both illuminate the  lifetime  reliability of advanced devices,  circuits and...or  FIT of the device. In other words an accurate estimate of the device  lifetime  was found and thus the  reliability  that  can  be  conveniently

  6. In search of a consensus terminology in the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use: platelet-rich plasma (PRP), platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), fibrin gel polymerization and leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan Ehrenfest, David M; Bielecki, Tomasz; Mishra, Allan; Borzini, Piero; Inchingolo, Francesco; Sammartino, Gilberto; Rasmusson, Lars; Everts, Peter A

    2012-06-01

    In the field of platelet concentrates for surgical use, most products are termed Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP). Unfortunately, this term is very general and incomplete, leading to many confusions in the scientific database. In this article, a panel of experts discusses this issue and proposes an accurate and simple terminology system for platelet concentrates for surgical use. Four main categories of products can be easily defined, depending on their leukocyte content and fibrin architecture: Pure Platelet-Rich Plasma (P-PRP), such as cell separator PRP, Vivostat PRF or Anitua's PRGF; Leukocyteand Platelet-Rich Plasma (L-PRP), such as Curasan, Regen, Plateltex, SmartPReP, PCCS, Magellan, Angel or GPS PRP; Pure Plaletet-Rich Fibrin (P-PRF), such as Fibrinet; and Leukocyte- and Platelet-Rich Fibrin (L-PRF), such as Choukroun's PRF. P-PRP and L-PRP refer to the unactivated liquid form of these products, their activated versions being respectively named P-PRP gels and L-PRP gels. The purpose of this search for a terminology consensus is to plead for a more serious characterization of these products. Researchers have to be aware of the complex nature of these living biomaterials, in order to avoid misunderstandings and erroneous conclusions. Understanding the biomaterials or believing in the magic of growth factors ? From this choice depends the future of the field.

  7. Integrity of Helix 2-Helix 3 Domain of the PrP Protein Is Not Mandatory for Prion Replication*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrPSc. We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrPSc and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation. PMID:22511770

  8. Integrity of helix 2-helix 3 domain of the PrP protein is not mandatory for prion replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamat, Khalid; Moudjou, Mohammed; Chapuis, Jérôme; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Béringue, Vincent; Rezaei, Human; Pastore, Annalisa; Laude, Hubert; Dron, Michel

    2012-06-01

    The process of prion conversion is not yet well understood at the molecular level. The regions critical for the conformational change of PrP remain mostly debated and the extent of sequence change acceptable for prion conversion is poorly documented. To achieve progress on these issues, we applied a reverse genetic approach using the Rov cell system. This allowed us to test the susceptibility of a number of insertion mutants to conversion into prion in the absence of wild-type PrP molecules. We were able to propagate several prions with 8 to 16 extra amino acids, including a polyglycine stretch and His or FLAG tags, inserted in the middle of the protease-resistant fragment. These results demonstrate the possibility to increase the length of the loop between helices H2 and H3 up to 4-fold, without preventing prion replication. They also indicate that this loop probably remains unstructured in PrP(Sc). We also showed that bona fide prions can be produced following insertion of octapeptides in the two C-terminal turns of H2. These insertions do not interfere with the overall fold of the H2-H3 domain indicating that the highly conserved sequence of the terminal part of H2 is not critical for the conversion. Altogether these data showed that the amplitude of modifications acceptable for prion conversion in the core of the globular domain of PrP is much greater than one might have assumed. These observations should help to refine structural models of PrP(Sc) and elucidate the conformational changes underlying prions generation.

  9. PLATELET-RICH PLASMA (PRP AND ITS APPLICATION IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC AND HARD-TO-HEAL SKIN WOUNDS. A Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsvetan Sokolov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years various methods are being applied in the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP during treatment in different orthopedic disease. They allow improvement of local biological condition and regeneration of different types of tissues. PRP is a modern treatment strategy with worldwide recognition. There is a high concentration of platelet growth factors in small amounts of plasma. PRP and its various forms have become one of the best methods to support the healing process of various tissues. PRP is used in regenerative medicine, because it provides two of three components (growth factors and scaffolds necessary for complete tissue regeneration. The particular reason for the appearance of lesions is important in order to select an appropriate treatment method and technical application. PRP may be used for treatment of various chronic and hard-to-heal cutaneous wounds, especially when standard conventional therapy is not good enough and surgical treatment is not possible. It reduces the duration, cost of treatment and the hospital stay. There is reduction of wound pain after starting the treatment, reduced risk of blood-borne disease transmission, wound healing is restored, and local immunity is activated.

  10. Relative Validity and Reliability of a 1-Week, Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire for Women Participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjeevi, Namrata; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne; George, Goldy Chacko

    2017-12-01

    The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) plays a critical role in reducing food insecurity by distribution of benefits at a monthly interval to participants. Households that receive assistance from SNAP spend at least three-quarters of benefits within the first 2 weeks of receipt. Because this expenditure pattern may be associated with lower food intake toward the end of the month, it is important to develop a tool that can assess the weekly diets of SNAP participants. The goal of this study was to develop and assess the relative validity and reliability of a semiquantitative 1-week food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) tailored to a population of women participating in SNAP. The FFQ was derived from an existing 195-item FFQ that was based on a reference period of 1 month. This 195-item FFQ has been validated in a population of low-income postpartum women who were recruited from central Texas during 2004. Mean daily servings of each food item in the 195-item FFQ completed by women who took part in the 2004 validation study were calculated to determine the most frequently consumed food items. Emphasis on these items led to the creation of a shorter, 1-week FFQ of only 95 items. This new 1-week instrument was compared with 3-day diet records to evaluate relative validity in a sample of women participating in SNAP. For reliability, the FFQ was administered a second time, separated by a 1-month time interval. The validity study included 70 female SNAP participants who were recruited from the partner agencies of the Central Texas Food Bank from March to June 2015. A subsample of 40 women participated in the reliability study. Outcome measures were mean nutrient intake values obtained from the two tests of the 95-item FFQ and 3-day diet records. Deattenuated Pearson correlation coefficients examined relationships in nutrient intake between the 95-item FFQ and 3-day diet records, and a paired samples t test determined differences in mean nutrient intake. Weighted

  11. Psychometric validation and reliability analysis of a Spanish version of the patient satisfaction with cancer-related care measure: a patient navigation research program study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fiscella, Kevin; Winters, Paul C; Paskett, Electra; Wells, Kristen; Battaglia, Tracy

    2012-09-01

    Patient satisfaction (PS), a key measure of quality of cancer care, is a core study outcome of the multi-site National Cancer Institute-funded Patient Navigation Research Program. Despite large numbers of underserved monolingual Spanish speakers (MSS) residing in USA, there is no validated Spanish measure of PS that spans the whole spectrum of cancer-related care. The present study reports on the validation of the Patient Satisfaction with Cancer Care (PSCC) measure for Spanish (PSCC-Sp) speakers receiving diagnostic and therapeutic cancer-related care. Original PSCC items were professionally translated and back translated to ensure cultural appropriateness, meaningfulness, and equivalence. Then, the resulting 18-item PSCC-Sp measure was administered to 285 MSS. We evaluated latent structure and internal consistency of the PSCC-Sp using principal components analysis (PCA) and Cronbach coefficient alpha (α). We used correlation analyses to demonstrate divergence and convergence of the PSCC-Sp with a Spanish version of the Patient Satisfaction with Interpersonal Relationship with Navigator (PSN-I-Sp) measure and patients' demographics. The PCA revealed a coherent set of items that explicates 47% of the variance in PS. Reliability assessment demonstrated that the PSCC-Sp had high internal consistency (α = 0.92). The PSCC-Sp demonstrated good face validity and convergent and divergent validities as indicated by moderate correlations with the PSN-I-Sp (p = 0.003) and nonsignificant correlations with marital status and household income (all p(s) > 0.05). The PSCC-Sp is a valid and reliable measure of PS and should be tested in other MSS populations.

  12. Can local staff reliably assess their own programs? A confirmatory test-retest study of Lot Quality Assurance Sampling data collectors in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckworth, Colin A; Anguyo, Robert; Kyakulaga, Francis Cranmer; Lwanga, Stephen K; Valadez, Joseph J

    2016-08-17

    Data collection techniques that routinely provide health system information at the local level are in demand and needed. LQAS is intended for use by local health teams to collect data at the district and sub-district levels. Our question is whether local health staff produce biased results as they are responsible for implementing the programs they also assess. This test-retest study replicates on a larger scale an earlier LQAS reliability assessment in Uganda. We conducted in two districts an LQAS survey using 15 local health staff as data collectors. A week later, the data collectors swapped districts, where they acted as disinterested non-local data collectors, repeating the LQAS survey with the same respondents. We analysed the resulting two data sets for agreement using Cohens' Kappa. The average Kappa score for the knowledge indicators was k = 0.43 (SD = 0.16) and for practice indicators k = 0.63 (SD = 0.17). These scores show moderate agreement for knowledge indicators and substantial agreement for practice indicators. Analyses confirm that respondents were more knowledgeable on retest; no evidence of bias was found for practice indicators. The findings of this study are remarkably similar to those produced in the first reliability study. There is no evidence that using local healthcare staff to collect LQAS data biases data collection in an LQAS study. The bias observed in the knowledge indicators was most likely due to a 'practice effect', whereby respondents increased their knowledge as a result of completing the first survey; no corresponding effect was seen in the practice indicators.

  13. Reliability of techniques used in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis by the national control program in Brazil: A survey in an area of recent transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Vinícius Silva; Gregório, Eliana Aparecida; Teixeira-Neto, Rafael Gonçalves; da Rocha Lima, Ana Cristina Vianna Mariano; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Paz, Gustavo Fontes; da Silva, Eduardo Sérgio

    2017-10-01

    One of the key components of the Brazilian Program for the Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis (PCLV) is the euthanasia of Leishmania-infected canine reservoirs, the detection of which depends on a screening procedure involving a Dual Path Platform ® (DPP) immunoassay and a confirmatory enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The aims of the present study were to evaluate the reliability of these techniques in a region of recent transmission of canine VL, to follow up the seroconversion 3-4 months after the initial diagnosis of DPP reactive but ELISA indeterminate or non-reactive dogs, and to identify the species of Leishmania in circulation in the area. Each animal was submitted to DPP under field conditions, performed by municipal health workers using peripheral blood (DPP-field), to DPP under laboratory conditions using serum (DPP-lab) and to ELISA using serum. The agreements between the tests were determined using McNemar's χ 2 test, Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) at the 95% confidence interval and prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK). Of the 1130 dogs examined, 74.2% were non-reactive in all three tests applied. Based on the PCLV positive-infection criterion, seroprevalence was 8.9% (101/1130) with 83.2% (84/101) of infected animals showing reactivity in all three tests while 7.8% (8/101) were reactive in DPP-field and ELISA and 8.9% (9/101) in DPP-lab and ELISA. The proportions of disagreements were substantial in all comparisons. Inter-rater reliability between DPP-field and ELISA (k=0.55; PABAK=0.78) and DPP-lab and ELISA (k=0.59; PABAK=0.81) were considered moderate, while that between DPP-field and DPP-lab (k=0.61; PABAK=0.79) was classified as marginally good. The proportion of seroconversions in DPP reactive animals that were initially ELISA indeterminate was significantly higher than in those that were DPP reactive but initially ELISA non-reactive. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis revealed the presence of Leishmania

  14. Redefining reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, S.L.

    1995-01-01

    Want to buy some reliability? The question would have been unthinkable in some markets served by the natural gas business even a few years ago, but in the new gas marketplace, industrial, commercial and even some residential customers have the opportunity to choose from among an array of options about the kind of natural gas service they need--and are willing to pay for. The complexities of this brave new world of restructuring and competition have sent the industry scrambling to find ways to educate and inform its customers about the increased responsibility they will have in determining the level of gas reliability they choose. This article discusses the new options and the new responsibilities of customers, the needed for continuous education, and MidAmerican Energy Company's experiment in direct marketing of natural gas

  15. Structural and reliability analysis of a patient satisfaction with cancer-related care measure: a multisite patient navigation research program study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean-Pierre, Pascal; Fiscella, Kevin; Freund, Karen M; Clark, Jack; Darnell, Julie; Holden, Alan; Post, Douglas; Patierno, Steven R; Winters, Paul C

    2011-02-15

    Patient satisfaction is an important outcome measure of quality of cancer care and 1 of the 4 core study outcomes of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored Patient Navigation Research Program to reduce race/ethnicity-based disparities in cancer care. There is no existing patient satisfaction measure that spans the spectrum of cancer-related care. The objective of this study was to develop a Patient Satisfaction With Cancer Care measure that is relevant to patients receiving diagnostic/therapeutic cancer-related care. The authors developed a conceptual framework, an operational definition of Patient Satisfaction With Cancer Care, and an item pool based on literature review, expert feedback, group discussion, and consensus. The 35-item Patient Satisfaction With Cancer Care measure was administered to 891 participants from the multisite NCI-sponsored Patient Navigation Research Program. Principal components analysis (PCA) was conducted for latent structure analysis. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach coefficient alpha (α). Divergent analysis was performed using correlation analyses between the Patient Satisfaction With Cancer Care, the Communication and Attitudinal Self-Efficacy-Cancer, and demographic variables. The PCA revealed a 1-dimensional measure with items forming a coherent set explaining 62% of the variance in patient satisfaction. Reliability assessment revealed high internal consistency (α ranging from 0.95 to 0.96). The Patient Satisfaction With Cancer Care demonstrated good face validity, convergent validity, and divergent validity, as indicated by moderate correlations with subscales of the Communication and Attitudinal Self-Efficacy-Cancer (all P .05). The Patient Satisfaction With Cancer Care is a valid tool for assessing satisfaction with cancer-related care for this sample. Copyright © 2010 American Cancer Society.

  16. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.

  17. PrPST, a Soluble, Protease Resistant and Truncated PrP Form Features in the Pathogenesis of a Genetic Prion Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Kati; Binyamin, Orli; Gabizon, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    While the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrPSc seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrPST), a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrPST as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and “classical” PrPSc as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition. PMID:23922744

  18. PrP(ST), a soluble, protease resistant and truncated PrP form features in the pathogenesis of a genetic prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman-Levi, Yael; Mizrahi, Michal; Frid, Kati; Binyamin, Orli; Gabizon, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    While the conversion of PrP(C) into PrP(Sc) in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrP(Sc) seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrP(ST)), a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrP(ST) as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and "classical" PrP(Sc) as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition.

  19. PrP(ST, a soluble, protease resistant and truncated PrP form features in the pathogenesis of a genetic prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Friedman-Levi

    Full Text Available While the conversion of PrP(C into PrP(Sc in the transmissible form of prion disease requires a preexisting PrP(Sc seed, in genetic prion disease accumulation of disease related PrP could be associated with biochemical and metabolic modifications resulting from the designated PrP mutation. To investigate this possibility, we looked into the time related changes of PrP proteins in the brains of TgMHu2ME199K/wt mice, a line modeling for heterozygous genetic prion disease linked to the E200K PrP mutation. We found that while oligomeric entities of mutant E199KPrP exist at all ages, aggregates of wt PrP in the same brains presented only in advanced disease, indicating a late onset conversion process. We also show that most PK resistant PrP in TgMHu2ME199K mice is soluble and truncated (PrP(ST, a pathogenic form never before associated with prion disease. We next looked into brain samples from E200K patients and found that both PK resistant PrPs, PrP(ST as in TgMHu2ME199K mice, and "classical" PrP(Sc as in infectious prion diseases, coincide in the patient's post mortem brains. We hypothesize that aberrant metabolism of mutant PrPs may result in the formation of previously unknown forms of the prion protein and that these may be central for the fatal outcome of the genetic prion condition.

  20. Heat tracing with flexible metal hoses. New calculation program for reliable and economic design; Begleitheizung mit flexiblen Metallschlaeuchen. Neues Berechnungsprogramm fuer zuverlaessige und wirtschaftliche Auslegung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, B. [Witzenmann GmbH, Pforzheim (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Heat tracing does not only allow the transport of chocolate through pipe systems; particularly in chemical plants it ensures a stable viscosity of the transported media or protects it from freezing. By using flexible metal hoses instead of rigid copper or stainless steel pipes, the installation costs can be reduced considerably. Until now, no verified fundamental design principles or calculation programs for heat tracing with metal hoses were available. However, these are essential for a reliable and economical operation, as well as for a minimisation of the investment costs. Based on extensive field and laboratory measurements, a dedicated calculation model has now been established and verified. (orig.) [German] Begleitheizungen ermoeglichen nicht nur bei Schokolade den Transport durch Rohrleitungen. Vor allem in chemischen Anlagen erhalten sie die Viskositaet der transportierten Medien oder schuetzen gegen Einfrieren. Durch Verwendung von flexiblen Metallschlaeuchen anstelle von Glattrohren aus Kupfer oder Edelstahl laesst sich der Montageaufwand betraechtlich reduzieren. Fuer diese Metallschlauch-Begleitheizungen gab es bisher keine verifizierten Auslegungsgrundlagen oder Berechnungsprogramme. Fuer eine zuverlaessigen und wirtschaftlichen Betrieb sowie eine Minimierung der Investitionskosten sind diese jedoch unerlaesslich. Nun wurde auf der Basis umfangreicher Betriebs- und Labormessungen ein Berechnungsmodell erstellt und verifiziert. (orig.)

  1. Reliability issues in PACS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taira, Ricky K.; Chan, Kelby K.; Stewart, Brent K.; Weinberg, Wolfram S.

    1991-07-01

    Reliability is an increasing concern when moving PACS from the experimental laboratory to the clinical environment. Any system downtime may seriously affect patient care. The authors report on the several classes of errors encountered during the pre-clinical release of the PACS during the past several months and present the solutions implemented to handle them. The reliability issues discussed include: (1) environmental precautions, (2) database backups, (3) monitor routines of critical resources and processes, (4) hardware redundancy (networks, archives), and (5) development of a PACS quality control program.

  2. Nuclear and Chemical Weapons and Materiel: Chemical Surety

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... It has been revised to update responsibilities, Personnel Reliability Program (PRP) procedures, transportation policies, chemical event notification, chemical accident or incident response and assistance (CAIRA...

  3. Evaluation of the effect of platelet rich plasma (PRP) on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects by radiography and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özak, Ahmet; Yardimci, Cenk; Nİsbet, Özlem H.; Bayrak, İlkay Koray; Nİsbet, Cevat

    2010-01-01

    The effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) with autogenous cancellous bone graft on enhancement of bone healing in diaphyseal bone defects was evaluated. A 4-mm defect was created in the middiaphysis of the tibias of 20 rabbits. Rabbits were divided into two groups of ten animals each: only autogenous cancellous graft, PRP and autogenous cancellous graft. In animals of group 1, only autogenous cancellous grafts, and to those in group 2, PRP and autogenous cancellous grafts, were applied to the defect. Radiographical and computed tomography (CT) views were taken and evaluated on postoperative days 0, 15, 30, 60, and 90. According to the bone formation, union, and remodeling scores, group 1 had better scores than group 2 on days 30, 60, and 90. The density was significantly increased on day 60 than on days 0, 15, and 30 in group 1. In conclusion, it was evaluated that PRP could not enhance the bone regeneration in diaphyseal defects when used with autogenous cancellous bone graft

  4. Impact of strong selection for the PrP major gene on genetic variability of four French sheep breeds (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantano Thais

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Effective selection on the PrP gene has been implemented since October 2001 in all French sheep breeds. After four years, the ARR "resistant" allele frequency increased by about 35% in young males. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of this strong selection on genetic variability. It is focussed on four French sheep breeds and based on the comparison of two groups of 94 animals within each breed: the first group of animals was born before the selection began, and the second, 3–4 years later. Genetic variability was assessed using genealogical and molecular data (29 microsatellite markers. The expected loss of genetic variability on the PrP gene was confirmed. Moreover, among the five markers located in the PrP region, only the three closest ones were affected. The evolution of the number of alleles, heterozygote deficiency within population, expected heterozygosity and the Reynolds distances agreed with the criteria from pedigree and pointed out that neutral genetic variability was not much affected. This trend depended on breed, i.e. on their initial states (population size, PrP frequencies and on the selection strategies for improving scrapie resistance while carrying out selection for production traits.

  5. Amidation and structure relaxation abolish the neurotoxicity of the prion peptide PrP106-126 in vivo and in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm, Linda Alice; Hvass, Henriette Cordes; Zsurger, N.

    2005-01-01

    One of the major pathological hallmarks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) is the accumulation of a pathogenic (scrapie) isoform (PrPSc) of the cellular prion protein (PrPC) primarily in the central nervous system. The synthetic prion peptide PrP106-126 shares many characteristics...

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the C-terminal domain of the human spliceosomal DExD/H-box protein hPrp22

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudlinzki, Denis; Nagel, Christian; Ficner, Ralf

    2009-01-01

    The cloning, purification and crystallization of the C-terminal domain of human hPrp22 are reported. This communication also contains data for the preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis. The Homo sapiens DExD/H-box protein hPrp22 is a crucial component of the eukaryotic pre-mRNA splicing machinery. Within the splicing cycle, it is involved in the ligation of exons and generation of the lariat and it additionally catalyzes the release of mature mRNA from the spliceosomal U5 snRNP. The yeast homologue of this protein, yPrp22, shows ATP-dependent RNA-helicase activity and is capable of unwinding RNA/RNA duplex molecules. A truncated construct coding for residues 950–1183 of human Prp22, comprising the structurally and functionally uncharacterized C-terminal domain, was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector. The protein was subsequently overproduced, purified and crystallized. The crystals obtained diffracted to 2.1 Å resolution, belonged to the tetragonal space group P4 1 2 1 2 or P4 3 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 78.2, c = 88.4 Å, and contained one molecule in the asymmetric unit

  7. PrP0\\0 mice show behavioral abnormalities that suggest PrPC has a role in maintaining the cytoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Introduction. PrPC is highly conserved among mammals, but its natural function is unclear. Prnp ablated mice (PrP0/0) appear to develop normally and are able to reproduce. These observations seem to indicate that the gene is not essential for viability, in spite of it being highly conse...

  8. Evaluation of a group cognitive-behavioral depression prevention program for young adolescents: a randomized effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Jane E; Reivich, Karen J; Brunwasser, Steven M; Freres, Derek R; Chajon, Norma D; Kash-Macdonald, V Megan; Chaplin, Tara M; Abenavoli, Rachel M; Matlin, Samantha L; Gallop, Robert J; Seligman, Martin E P

    2012-01-01

    Depression is a common psychological problem in adolescence. Recent research suggests that group cognitive-behavioral interventions can reduce and prevent symptoms of depression in youth. Few studies have tested the effectiveness of such interventions when delivered by school teachers and counselors (as opposed to research team staff). We evaluated the effectiveness of the Penn Resiliency Program for adolescents (PRP-A), a school-based group intervention that targets cognitive behavioral risk factors for depression. We randomly assigned 408 middle school students (ages 10-15) to one of three conditions: PRP-A, PRP-AP (in which adolescents participated in PRP-A and parents were invited to attend a parent intervention component), or a school-as-usual control. Adolescents completed measures of depression and anxiety symptoms, cognitive style, and coping at baseline, immediately after the intervention, and at 6-month follow-up. PRP-A reduced depression symptoms relative to the school as usual control. Baseline levels of hopelessness moderated intervention effects. Among participants with average and high levels of hopelessness, PRP (A and AP) significantly improved depression symptoms, anxiety symptoms, hopelessness, and active coping relative to control. Among participants with low baseline hopelessness, we found no intervention effects. PRP-AP was not more effective than PRP-A alone. We found no intervention effects on clinical levels of depression or anxiety. These findings suggest that cognitive-behavioral interventions can be beneficial when delivered by school teachers and counselors. These interventions may be most helpful to students with elevated hopelessness.

  9. Robust nonlinear PID-like fuzzy logic control of a planar parallel (2PRP-PPR) manipulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londhe, P S; Singh, Yogesh; Santhakumar, M; Patre, B M; Waghmare, L M

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a robust nonlinear proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-like fuzzy control scheme is presented and applied to complex trajectory tracking control of a 2PRP-PPR (P-prismatic, R-revolute) planar parallel manipulator (motion platform) with three degrees-of-freedom (DOF) in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances. The proposed control law consists of mainly two parts: first part uses a feed forward term to enhance the control activity and estimated perturbed term to compensate for the unknown effects namely external disturbances and unmodeled dynamics, and the second part uses a PID-like fuzzy logic control as a feedback portion to enhance the overall closed-loop stability of the system. Experimental results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Introduction To Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kyoung Su

    1993-08-01

    This book introduces reliability with definition of reliability, requirement of reliability, system of life cycle and reliability, reliability and failure rate such as summary, reliability characteristic, chance failure, failure rate which changes over time, failure mode, replacement, reliability in engineering design, reliability test over assumption of failure rate, and drawing of reliability data, prediction of system reliability, conservation of system, failure such as summary and failure relay and analysis of system safety.

  11. Is Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) Effective in the Treatment of Acute Muscle Injuries? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Alberto; Napoli, Francesca; Romandini, Iacopo; Samuelsson, Kristian; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Candrian, Christian; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2018-04-01

    Muscle lesions account for one-third of sport-related injuries, thus representing a substantial problem for both players and their teams. The use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections is rapidly growing in clinical practice, prompted by an unmet clinical need with a large commercial market. However, after early reports of positive preliminary experience, higher quality studies recently questioned the real benefit provided by PRP injections to promote muscle healing and return to sport. To evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections on outcomes following acute muscle injuries. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs), Level I. PubMed (MEDLINE), Cochrane (CENTRAL), Web of Science, clinicaltrials.gov, who.int, isrctn.com, greylit.org, opengrey.eu. RCTs investigating the effect of PRP for the treatment of acute muscle injuries against at least one control group including patients treated with placebo injection or physical therapy. The outcomes evaluated were time to return to sport, re-injuries, complications, pain, muscle strength, range of motion (ROM)/flexibility, muscle function, and imaging. Six studies, involving 374 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The time to return to sport evaluated in all six studies was significantly shorter in patients treated with PRP (mean difference = - 7.17 days). However, if only the double-blind studies (n = 2) or studies including only hamstring injuries (n = 3) were considered, non-significant differences were found. Re-injuries (relative risk = - 0.03) and complications (relative risk = 0.01) were also similar between the two groups (p > 0.05), nor were any substantial differences found regarding pain, muscle strength, ROM/flexibility, muscle function, and imaging. The performance bias was high risk due to the lack of patient blinding in four studies. The quality of evidence according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) was

  12. PrP expression, PrPSc accumulation and innervation of splenic compartments in sheep experimentally infected with scrapie.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi Sørby

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In prion disease, the peripheral expression of PrP(C is necessary for the transfer of infectivity to the central nervous system. The spleen is involved in neuroinvasion and neural dissemination in prion diseases but the nature of this involvement is not known. The present study undertook the investigation of the spatial relationship between sites of PrP(Sc accumulation, localisation of nerve fibres and PrP(C expression in the tissue compartments of the spleen of scrapie-inoculated and control sheep. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Laser microdissection and quantitative PCR were used to determine PrP mRNA levels and results were compared with immunohistochemical protocols to distinguish PrP(C and PrP(Sc in tissue compartments of the spleen. In sheep experimentally infected with scrapie, the major sites of accumulation of PrP(Sc in the spleen, namely the lymphoid nodules and the marginal zone, expressed low levels of PrP mRNA. Double immunohistochemical labelling for PrP(Sc and the pan-nerve fibre marker, PGP, was used to evaluate the density of innervation of splenic tissue compartments and the intimacy of association between PrP(Sc and nerves. Some nerve fibres were observed to accompany blood vessels into the PrP(Sc-laden germinal centres. However, the close association between nerves and PrP(Sc was most apparent in the marginal zone. Other sites of close association were adjacent to the wall of the central artery of PALS and the outer rim of germinal centres. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that the degree of PrP(Sc accumulation does not depend on the expression level of PrP(C. Though several splenic compartments may contribute to neuroinvasion, the marginal zone may play a central role in being the compartment with most apparent association between nerves and PrP(Sc.

  13. Familial CJD Associated PrP Mutants within Transmembrane Region Induced Ctm-PrP Retention in ER and Triggered Apoptosis by ER Stress in SH-SY5Y Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Shi, Qi; Xu, Kun; Gao, Chen; Chen, Cao; Li, Xiao-Li; Wang, Gui-Rong; Tian, Chan; Han, Jun; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Background Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP) gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrPC) to the pathogenic one (PrPSc). The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K) into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. Methodology/Principal Findings To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL) and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV) were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP) were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and capase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V) induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K) failed. Conclusions/Significance The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them the mutants

  14. Familial CJD associated PrP mutants within transmembrane region induced Ctm-PrP retention in ER and triggered apoptosis by ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Genetic prion diseases are linked to point and inserted mutations in the prion protein (PrP gene that are presumed to favor conversion of the cellular isoform of PrP (PrP(C to the pathogenic one (PrP(Sc. The pathogenic mechanisms and the subcellular sites of the conversion are not completely understood. Here we introduce several PRNP gene mutations (such as, PrP-KDEL, PrP-3AV, PrP-A117V, PrP-G114V, PrP-P102L and PrP-E200K into the cultured cells in order to explore the pathogenic mechanism of familial prion disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the roles of aberrant retention of PrP in endoplasmic reticulum (ER, the recombinant plasmids expressing full-length human PrP tailed with an ER signal peptide at the COOH-terminal (PrP-KDEL and PrP with three amino acids exchange in transmembrane region (PrP-3AV were constructed. In the preparations of transient transfections, 18-kD COOH-terminal proteolytic resistant fragments (Ctm-PrP were detected in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV. Analyses of the cell viabilities in the presences of tunicamycin and brefeldin A revealed that expressions of PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV sensitized the transfected cells to ER stress stimuli. Western blots and RT-PCR identified the clear alternations of ER stress associated events in the cells expressing PrP-KDEL and PrP-3AV that induced ER mediated apoptosis by CHOP and caspase-12 apoptosis pathway. Moreover, several familial CJD related PrP mutants were transiently introduced into the cultured cells. Only the mutants within the transmembrane region (G114V and A117V induced the formation of Ctm-PrP and caused the ER stress, while the mutants outside the transmembrane region (P102L and E200K failed. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The data indicate that the retention of PrP in ER through formation of Ctm-PrP results in ER stress and cell apoptosis. The cytopathic activities caused by different familial CJD associated PrP mutants may vary, among them

  15. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986 and be replaced in January 1987 by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue the emphasis on reliability and life extension that was carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems, such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation (NDE). These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and solve small problems before they become large problems

  16. Steam generator reliability improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomgren, J.C.; Green, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    Upon successful completion of its research and development technology transfer program, the Electric Power Research Institute's (EPRI's) Steam Generator Owners Group (SGOG II) will disband in December 1986, and be replaced in January 1987, by a successor project, the Steam Generator Reliability Project (SGRP). The new project, funded in the EPRI base program, will continue to emphasize reliability and life extension, which were carried forward by SGOG II. The objectives of SGOG II have been met. Causes and remedies have been identified for tubing corrosion problems such as stress corrosion cracking and pitting, and steam generator technology has been improved in areas such as tube wear prediction and nondestructive evaluation. These actions have led to improved reliability of steam generators. Now the owners want to continue with a centrally managed program that builds on what has been learned. The goal is to continue to improve steam generator reliability and to solve small problems before they become large problems

  17. Superior integrin activating capacity and higher adhesion to fibrinogen matrix in buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs) compared to PRP-PCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshkar, Pezhman; Hosseini, Ehteramolsadat; Ghasemzadeh, Mehran

    2018-02-01

    Regardless of different sources, methods or devices which are applied for preparation of therapeutic platelets, these products are generally isolated from whole blood by the sedimentation techniques which are based on PRP or buffy coat (BC) separation. As a general fact, platelet preparation and storage are also associated with some deleterious changes that known as platelet storage lesion (PSL). Although these alternations in platelet functional activity are aggravated during storage, whether technical issues within preparation can affect integrin activation and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen were investigated in this study. PRP- and BC-platelet concentrates (PCs) were subjected to flowcytometry analysis to examine the expression of platelet activation marker, P-selectin as well as active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa (α IIb β 3 ) on day 0, 1, 3 and 5 post-storage. Platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy. Glucose concentration and LDH activity were also measured by colorimetric methods. The increasing P-selectin expression during storage was in a reverse correlation with PAC-1 binding (r = -0.67; p = .001). PRP-PCs showed the higher level of P-selectin expression than BC-PCs, whereas the levels of PAC-1 binding and platelet adhesion to fibrinogen matrix were significantly lower in PRP-PCs. Higher levels of active confirmation of the GPIIb/IIIa in BC-PCs were also associated with greater concentration of glucose in these products. We demonstrated the superior capacities of integrin activation and adhesion to fibrinogen for BC-PCs compared to those of PRP-PCs. These findings may provide more advantages for BC method of platelet preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional assessment of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) after long-term storage at -20 °C without any preservation agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosnuter, Mubin; Aslan, Cem; Isik, Daghan; Caliskan, Gorkem; Arslan, Banu; Durgun, Mustafa

    2017-08-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is increasingly being used in the treatment of chronic wounds, pathologies of the musculoskeletal system, and in cosmetic medicine; however, the preparation of platelet-rich plasma is both time-consuming and requires invasive intervention. Additional costs are introduced if special equipment is used during preparation. The aim of the present study is to test whether autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preserves the feature of growth factor release when stored at -20 °C after preparation. Autologous PRP concentrates were prepared using whole blood samples obtained from 20 healthy subjects and divided into three parts to form three groups. Epidermal growth factor (EGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor-AB (PDGF-AB), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and P-Selectin levels were immediately analysed in the control group. The other groups were defined as the experimental groups and were stored at -20 °C and analysed on the 7th and the 14th days. The same growth factors were tested in the experimental groups. The growth factors (EGF, VEGF, PDGF-AB, IGF-1, TGF-β) and P-selectin levels were significantly decreased in the autologous PRP samples stored at -20 °C compared to the control group. The growth factor levels on days 7 and 14 suggest that autologous PRP can be stored at -20 °C without preservative agents, although in vivo studies are required in order to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the detected growth factor levels.

  19. Quantification of platelets and platelet derived growth factors from platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) prepared at different centrifugal force (g) and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Satyam; Doda, Veena; Kotwal, Urvershi; Dogra, Mitu

    2016-02-01

    Platelet derived biomaterials represent a key source of cytokines and growth factors extensively used for tissue regeneration; wound healing and tissue repair. Our study was to quantify platelets and growth factors released by PRP when prepared at different centrifugal force (g) and time. Our study was approved by the institutional ethical committee. One hundred millilitres of whole blood (WB) was collected in bag with CPDA as the anticoagulant(AC); (14 mL for 100 mL WB ratio). Nine aliquots of 10 mL each were made from the bag and set of three aliquots were made a group. PRP was prepared at varying centrifugal force (group A: -110 g, group B: -208 g & group C: -440 g) & time (1: -5 min, 2: -10 min & 3: -20 min). Contents of each PRP prepared were analysed. Commercial sandwich ELISA kits were used to quantify the concentrations of CD62P (Diaclone SAS; France), Platelet derived growth factors-AB (Qayee-Bio; China), transforming growth factor-β1 (DRG; Germany) and vascular endothelial growth factor (Boster Immuno Leader; USA) released in each PRP prepared. Eight volunteers were enrolled in the study (24-30 years). The baseline blood counts of all the volunteers were comparable (p ≥ 0.05). Mean ± SD of platelet yield of all nine groups ranged from 17.2 ± 4.2% to 78.7 ± 5.7%. Each PRP was activated with calcified thromboplastin to quantify the growth factors released by them. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were released compared to the baseline. Our study highlights the variation in both force (g) and time results in changes at cellular level and growth factor concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of KSC program for investigating and generating field failure rates. Volume 2: Recommended format for reliability handbook for ground support equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Kallmeyer, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    Field failure rates and confidence factors are presented for 88 identifiable components of the ground support equipment at the John F. Kennedy Space Center. For most of these, supplementary information regarding failure mode and cause is tabulated. Complete reliability assessments are included for three systems, eight subsystems, and nine generic piece-part classifications. Procedures for updating or augmenting the reliability results presented in this handbook are also included.

  1. Preliminary testing of the reliability and feasibility of SAGE: a system to measure and score engagement with and use of research in health policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkar, Steve R; Williamson, Anna; D'Este, Catherine; Redman, Sally

    2017-12-19

    Few measures of research use in health policymaking are available, and the reliability of such measures has yet to be evaluated. A new measure called the Staff Assessment of Engagement with Evidence (SAGE) incorporates an interview that explores policymakers' research use within discrete policy documents and a scoring tool that quantifies the extent of policymakers' research use based on the interview transcript and analysis of the policy document itself. We aimed to conduct a preliminary investigation of the usability, sensitivity, and reliability of the scoring tool in measuring research use by policymakers. Nine experts in health policy research and two independent coders were recruited. Each expert used the scoring tool to rate a random selection of 20 interview transcripts, and each independent coder rated 60 transcripts. The distribution of scores among experts was examined, and then, interrater reliability was tested within and between the experts and independent coders. Average- and single-measure reliability coefficients were computed for each SAGE subscales. Experts' scores ranged from the limited to extensive scoring bracket for all subscales. Experts as a group also exhibited at least a fair level of interrater agreement across all subscales. Single-measure reliability was at least fair except for three subscales: Relevance Appraisal, Conceptual Use, and Instrumental Use. Average- and single-measure reliability among independent coders was good to excellent for all subscales. Finally, reliability between experts and independent coders was fair to excellent for all subscales. Among experts, the scoring tool was comprehensible, usable, and sensitive to discriminate between documents with varying degrees of research use. Secondly, the scoring tool yielded scores with good reliability among the independent coders. There was greater variability among experts, although as a group, the tool was fairly reliable. The alignment between experts' and independent

  2. An interprofessional palliative care oncology rehabilitation program: effects on function and predictors of program completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasen, M R; Feldstain, A; Gravelle, D; Macdonald, N; Pereira, J

    2013-12-01

    After treatment, patients with active cancer face a considerable burden from the effects of both the disease and its treatment. The Palliative Rehabilitation Program (prp) is designed to ameliorate disease effects and to improve the patient's functioning. The present study evaluated predictors of program completion and changes in functioning, symptoms, and well-being after the program. The program received referrals for 173 patients who had finished anticancer therapy. Of those 173 patients, 116 with advanced cancer were eligible and enrolled in the 8-week interprofessional prp; 67 completed it. Measures of physical, nutritional, social, and psychological functioning were evaluated at entry to the program and at completion. Participants experienced significant improvements in physical performance (p program not challenging enough), death, and personal or unknown reasons. A normal level of C-reactive protein (program completion. Patients living with advanced cancers who underwent the interprofessional prp experienced significant improvement in functioning across several domains. Program completion can be predicted by a normal level of C-reactive protein.

  3. Combined use of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) and platelet rich plasma (PRP) stimulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts in vitro: new therapeutic perspectives for skeletal muscle repair/regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassoli, Chiara; Vallone, Larissa; Tani, Alessia; Chellini, Flaminia; Nosi, Daniele; Zecchi-Orlandini, Sandra

    2018-02-05

    Satellite cell-mediated skeletal muscle repair/regeneration is compromised in cases of extended damage. Bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) hold promise for muscle healing but some criticisms hamper their clinical application, including the need to avoid animal serum contamination for expansion and the scarce survival after transplant. In this context, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) could offer advantages. Here, we compare the effects of PRP or standard culture media on C2C12 myoblast, satellite cell and BM-MSC viability, survival, proliferation and myogenic differentiation and evaluate PRP/BM-MSC combination effects in promoting myogenic differentiation. PRP induced an increase of mitochondrial activity and Ki67 expression comparable or even greater than that elicited by standard media and promoted AKT signaling activation in myoblasts and BM-MSCs and Notch-1 pathway activation in BM-MSCs. It stimulated MyoD, myogenin, α-sarcomeric actin and MMP-2 expression in myoblasts and satellite cell activation. Notably, PRP/BM-MSC combination was more effective than PRP alone. We found that BM-MSCs influenced myoblast responses through a paracrine activation of AKT signaling, contributing to shed light on BM-MSC action mechanisms. Our results suggest that PRP represents a good serum substitute for BM-MSC manipulation in vitro and could be beneficial towards transplanted cells in vivo. Moreover, it might influence muscle resident progenitors' fate, thus favoring the endogenous repair/regeneration mechanisms. Finally, within the limitations of an in vitro experimentation, this study provides an experimental background for considering the PRP/BM-MSC combination as a potential therapeutic tool for skeletal muscle damage, combining the beneficial effects of BM-MSCs and PRP on muscle tissue, while potentiating BM-MSC functionality.

  4. Systems analysis programs for hands-on integrated reliability evaluations (SAPHIRE) Version 5.0. Fault tree, event tree, and piping ampersand instrumentation diagram (FEP) editors reference manual: Volume 7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, M.K.; Skinner, N.L.; Wood, S.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) refers to a set of several microcomputer programs that were developed to create and analyze probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), primarily for nuclear power plants. The Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (FEP) editors allow the user to graphically build and edit fault trees, and event trees, and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P and IDs). The software is designed to enable the independent use of the graphical-based editors found in the Integrated Reliability and Risk Assessment System (IRRAS). FEP is comprised of three separate editors (Fault Tree, Event Tree, and Piping and Instrumentation Diagram) and a utility module. This reference manual provides a screen-by-screen guide of the entire FEP System

  5. Frontiers of reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Asit P; Basu, Sujit K

    1998-01-01

    This volume presents recent results in reliability theory by leading experts in the world. It will prove valuable for researchers, and users of reliability theory. It consists of refereed invited papers on a broad spectrum of topics in reliability. The subjects covered include Bayesian reliability, Bayesian reliability modeling, confounding in a series system, DF tests, Edgeworth approximation to reliability, estimation under random censoring, fault tree reduction for reliability, inference about changes in hazard rates, information theory and reliability, mixture experiment, mixture of Weibul

  6. Safety and reliability of automatization software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, K; Daum, R [Karlsruhe Univ. (TH) (Germany, F.R.). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Informatik, Transport- und Verkehrssysteme

    1979-02-01

    Automated technical systems have to meet very high requirements concerning safety, security and reliability. Today, modern computers, especially microcomputers, are used as integral parts of those systems. In consequence computer programs must work in a safe and reliable mannter. Methods are discussed which allow to construct safe and reliable software for automatic systems such as reactor protection systems and to prove that the safety requirements are met. As a result it is shown that only the method of total software diversification can satisfy all safety requirements at tolerable cost. In order to achieve a high degree of reliability, structured and modular programming in context with high level programming languages are recommended.

  7. A general method for the purification of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides containing strong secondary structure by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography on PRP-1 resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germann, M W; Pon, R T; van de Sande, J H

    1987-09-01

    Synthetic 5'-dimethoxytritylated oligodeoxyribonucleotides, which contained strong secondary structure, were satisfactorily denatured and purified by reversed-phase HPLC on PRP-1 columns when strongly alkaline conditions (0.05 M NaOH) were employed. This procedure was suitable for the purification of hairpin structures, e.g., d(CG)nT4(CG)n (n = 4, 5, 6), and oligo(dG) sequences, e.g., d(G)24, as well as oligodeoxyribonucleotide probes which contained degenerate base sites. Oligodeoxyribonucleotides as long as 50 bases in length were purified. Recovery of injected oligonucleotides was typically 90% or better. The high capacity of the PRP-1 resin also allowed purification to be performed on a preparative scale (2-8 mg per injection). Enzymatic degradation and HPLC analysis indicated that no modification of the heterocyclic bases occurred under the alkaline conditions described.

  8. Reduced response of splenocytes after mitogen-stimulation in the prion protein (PrP) gene-deficient mouse: PrPLP/Doppel production and cerebral degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chi-Kyeong; Hirose, Yuko; Sakudo, Akikazu; Takeyama, Natsumi; Kang, Chung-Boo; Taniuchi, Yojiro; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Itohara, Shigeyoshi; Sakaguchi, Suehiro; Onodera, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Splenocytes of wild-type (Prnp +/+ ) and prion protein gene-deficient (Prnp -/- ) mice were treated with various activation stimuli such as T cell mitogen concanavalin A (ConA), phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) + ionomycin (Io), or B cell mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Cellular prion protein (PrP C ) expression was enhanced following ConA stimulation, but not PMA + Io or LPS in Prnp +/+ splenocytes. Rikn Prnp -/- splenocytes elicited lower cell proliferations than Prnp +/+ or Zrch I Prnp -/- splenocytes after LPS stimulation and showed sporadic nerve cells in the cerebral cortex and deeper structure. Around the degenerated nerve cells, mild vacuolation in the neuropil was observed. This neural alteration correlated well to the suppressed response of B cells in the spleen. The finding that discrete lesions within the central nervous systems induced marked modulation of immune function probably indicates the existence of a delicately balanced neural-endocrine network by PrP C and PrPLP/Doppel

  9. Low fraction of the 222K PrP variant in the protease-resistant moiety of PrPres in heterozygous scrapie positive goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Maria; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Ingravalle, Francesco; Brusadore, Sonia; Langeveld, Jan P M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Andréoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-07-01

    The presence of lysine (K) at codon 222 has been associated with resistance to classical scrapie in goats, but few scrapie cases have been identified in 222Q/K animals. To investigate the contribution of the 222K variant to PrPres formation in natural and experimental Q/K scrapie cases, we applied an immunoblotting method based on the use of two different monoclonal antibodies, F99/97.6.1 and SAF84, chosen for their different affinities to 222K and 222Q PrP variants. Our finding that PrPres seems to be formed nearly totally by the 222Q variant provides evidence that the 222K PrP variant confers resistance to conversion to PrPres formation and reinforces the view that this mutation has a protective role against classical scrapie in goats.

  10. PrP mRNA and protein expression in brain and PrP(c) in CSF in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease MM1 and VV2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorens, Franc; Ansoleaga, Belén; Garcia-Esparcia, Paula; Zafar, Saima; Grau-Rivera, Oriol; López-González, Irene; Blanco, Rosi; Carmona, Margarita; Yagüe, Jordi; Nos, Carlos; Del Río, José Antonio; Gelpí, Ellen; Zerr, Inga; Ferrer, Isidre

    2013-01-01

    Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a heterogenic neurodegenerative disorder associated with abnormal post-translational processing of cellular prion protein (PrP(c)). CJD displays distinctive clinical and pathological features which correlate with the genotype at the codon 129 (methionine or valine: M or V respectively) in the prion protein gene and with size of the protease-resistant core of the abnormal prion protein PrP(sc) (type 1: 20/21 kDa and type 2: 19 kDa). MM1 and VV2 are the most common sporadic CJD (sCJD) subtypes. PrP mRNA expression levels in the frontal cortex and cerebellum are reduced in sCJD in a form subtype-dependent. Total PrP protein levels and PrP(sc) levels in the frontal cortex and cerebellum accumulate differentially in sCJD MM1 and sCJD VV2 with no relation between PrP(sc) deposition and spongiform degeneration and neuron loss, but with microgliosis, and IL6 and TNF-α response. In the CSF, reduced PrP(c), the only form present in this compartment, occurs in sCJD MM1 and VV2. PrP mRNA expression is also reduced in the frontal cortex in advanced stages of Alzheimer disease, Lewy body disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, and frontotemporal lobe degeneration, but PrP(c) levels in brain varies from one disease to another. Reduced PrP(c) levels in CSF correlate with PrP mRNA expression in brain, which in turn reflects severity of degeneration in sCJD.

  11. A Randomized Controlled Study of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T Hexavalent Vaccine for Primary and Booster Vaccinations of Healthy Infants and Toddlers in Latin America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pío; Arguedas Mohs, Adriano; Abdelnour Vásquez, Arturo; Consuelo-Miranda, Maria; Feroldi, Emmanuel; Noriega, Fernando; Jordanov, Emilia; B Chir, Siham; Zambrano, Betzana

    2017-11-01

    Hexavalent diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-hepatitis B-Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T)-containing vaccines are increasingly the standard of care. This study evaluated the primary series (NCT01177722) and booster (NCT01444781) of a fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine in Latin America. Infants (N = 1375) received hepatitis B vaccine at birth and were randomized to one of 3 batches of the investigational DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or licensed control vaccine (DTaP-HB-IPV//PRP-T) at 2-4 to 6 months of age, coadministered with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) (2-4-6 months) and rotavirus vaccine (2-4 months). A booster of either DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or control was given at 12-24 months, coadministered with PCV7. Immunogenicity was assessed by validated assays and safety from parental reports. Primary series seroprotection and vaccine response rates were equivalent for DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T batches. For pooled batches, noninferiority to the control vaccine was demonstrated for each antigen. There were no descriptive differences in antibody persistence or booster response between DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and the control. The booster responses to either vaccine following DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T primary series or to DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T following a control vaccine primary series were similar. The anti-aP component (filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA] and pertussis toxin [PT]) vaccine response and anti-Haemophilus influenzae type b (PRP) series seroprotection (≥0.15 µg/mL) rates were ≥73.0% after 2 primary series doses. Antipyretics had no effect on the immune response, and an extra (oral) polio vaccination had no effect on the antipolio booster response. Responses to PCV7 and rotavirus vaccine were similar for each coadministration. There were no safety concerns observed with any vaccine. These results confirm the suitability of the fully liquid DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine for primary and booster vaccination of infants.

  12. Reduced Hyperpolarization-Activated Current Contributes to Enhanced Intrinsic Excitability in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons from PrP(-/-) Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jing; Stemkowski, Patrick L; Gandini, Maria A; Black, Stefanie A; Zhang, Zizhen; Souza, Ivana A; Chen, Lina; Zamponi, Gerald W

    2016-01-01

    Genetic ablation of cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) has been linked to increased neuronal excitability and synaptic activity in the hippocampus. We have previously shown that synaptic activity in hippocampi of PrP-null mice is increased due to enhanced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) function. Here, we focused on the effect of PRNP gene knock-out (KO) on intrinsic neuronal excitability, and in particular, the underlying ionic mechanism in hippocampal neurons cultured from P0 mouse pups. We found that the absence of PrP(C) profoundly affected the firing properties of cultured hippocampal neurons in the presence of synaptic blockers. The membrane impedance was greater in PrP-null neurons, and this difference was abolished by the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channel blocker ZD7288 (100 μM). HCN channel activity appeared to be functionally regulated by PrP(C). The amplitude of voltage sag, a characteristic of activating HCN channel current (I h), was decreased in null mice. Moreover, I h peak current was reduced, along with a hyperpolarizing shift in activation gating and slower kinetics. However, neither HCN1 nor HCN2 formed a biochemical complex with PrP(C). These results suggest that the absence of PrP downregulates the activity of HCN channels through activation of a cell signaling pathway rather than through direct interactions. This in turn contributes to an increase in membrane impedance to potentiate neuronal excitability.

  13. Peroxiredoxin 6 promotes upregulation of the prion protein (PrP in neuronal cells of prion-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Wibke

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been widely established that the conversion of the cellular prion protein (PrPC into its abnormal isoform (PrPSc is responsible for the development of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs. However, the knowledge of the detailed molecular mechanisms and direct functional consequences within the cell is rare. In this study, we aimed at the identification of deregulated proteins which might be involved in prion pathogenesis. Findings Apolipoprotein E and peroxiredoxin 6 (PRDX6 were identified as upregulated proteins in brains of scrapie-infected mice and cultured neuronal cell lines. Downregulation of PrP gene expression using specific siRNA did not result in a decrease of PRDX6 amounts. Interestingly, selective siRNA targeting PRDX6 or overexpression of PRDX6 controlled PrPC and PrPSc protein amounts in neuronal cells. Conclusions Besides its possible function as a novel marker protein in the diagnosis of TSEs, PDRX6 represents an attractive target molecule in putative pharmacological intervention strategies in the future.

  14. Reliability in the design phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H.; Majumdar, D.

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs

  15. System Reliability Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Tae Jin

    2005-02-01

    This book tells of reliability engineering, which includes quality and reliability, reliability data, importance of reliability engineering, reliability and measure, the poisson process like goodness of fit test and the poisson arrival model, reliability estimation like exponential distribution, reliability of systems, availability, preventive maintenance such as replacement policies, minimal repair policy, shock models, spares, group maintenance and periodic inspection, analysis of common cause failure, and analysis model of repair effect.

  16. Cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase disrupts the intracellular splicing machinery by entering the nucleus and interfering with Prp8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chin Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary role of cytoplasmic viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp is viral genome replication in the cellular cytoplasm. However, picornaviral RdRp denoted 3D polymerase (3D(pol also enters the host nucleus, where its function remains unclear. In this study, we describe a novel mechanism of viral attack in which 3D(pol enters the nucleus through the nuclear localization signal (NLS and targets the pre-mRNA processing factor 8 (Prp8 to block pre-mRNA splicing and mRNA synthesis. The fingers domain of 3D(pol associates with the C-terminal region of Prp8, which contains the Jab1/MPN domain, and interferes in the second catalytic step, resulting in the accumulation of the lariat form of the splicing intermediate. Endogenous pre-mRNAs trapped by the Prp8-3D(pol complex in enterovirus-infected cells were identified and classed into groups associated with cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Our results suggest that picornaviral RdRp disrupts pre-mRNA splicing processes, that differs from viral protease shutting off cellular transcription and translation which contributes to the pathogenesis of viral infection.

  17. Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for treating knee pain associated with osteoarthritis of the knee in the Japanese population: a phase I and IIa clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Yu; Yoshioka, Tomokazu; Kanamori, Akihiro; Aoto, Katsuya; Sugaya, Hisashi; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2018-02-01

    Intra-articular platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection has been found to be effective for treating osteoarthritis in patients from Western countries; however, the safety and efficacy of PRP have not been sufficiently investigated in Japanese patients. The present study aimed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of intra-articular PRP injection in Japanese patients with knee osteoarthritis. PRP without white blood cells was prepared using a single-spin centrifuge (PRGF-Endoret; BTI Biotechnology Institute, Vitoria, Spain). A 6-mL PRP volume was injected in the knee joint three times at 1 week intervals. All patients were prospectively evaluated before intervention and at 1, 3, and 6 months after the treatment. Adverse events, the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score, Japanese Knee Osteoarthritis Measure (JKOM) score and Japanese Orthopedic Association score were evaluated. Ten patients (all women; average age, 60.6 years) were treated. Only minor adverse events after injection were noted, and symptoms resolved within 48 hours after the injection. The average VAS pain scores were 71.6 mm and 18.4 mm at baseline and the 6-month follow-up, respectively (P PRP injection likely represents a safe treatment option for Japanese patients with mild-to-moderate knee osteoarthritis, and has the potential to relieve pain for up to 6 months, but further study is needed to verify the efficacy.

  18. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA) and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA) injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA): A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturveithan, C; Premganesh, G; Fakhrizzaki, S; Mahathir, M; Karuna, K; Rauf, K; William, H; Akmal, H; Sivapathasundaram, N; Jaspreet, K

    2016-07-01

    Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA) is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP) enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees) which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS) in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  19. Intra-articular Hyaluronic Acid (HA and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP injection versus Hyaluronic acid (HA injection alone in Patients with Grade III and IV Knee Osteoarthritis (OA: A Retrospective Study on Functional Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturveithan C

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (HA is widely utilized in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis whereas platelet rich plasma (PRP enhances the regeneration of articular cartilage. This study analyses the efficacy of HA and PRP in grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study with retrospective review of 64 patients (101 knees which includes 56 knees injected with HA+ PRP, and 45 knees with HA only. Results: During the post six months International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC evaluation, HA+PRP group showed marked improvement of 24.33 compared to 12.15 in HA group. Decrement in visual analogue score (VAS in HA+PRP was 1.9 compared to 0.8 in HA group. Conclusion: We propose intra-articular HA and PRP injections as an optional treatment modality in Grade III and IV knee osteoarthritis in terms of functional outcome and pain control for up to six months when arthroplasty is not an option.

  20. Semisynthetic prion protein (PrP) variants carrying glycan mimics at position 181 and 197 do not form fibrils† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c7sc02719b Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araman, Can; Thompson, Robert E.; Wang, Siyao; Hackl, Stefanie; Payne, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The prion protein (PrP) is an N-glycosylated protein attached to the outer leaflet of eukaryotic cell membranes via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. Different prion strains have distinct glycosylation patterns and the extent of glycosylation of potentially pathogenic misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) has a major impact on several prion-related diseases (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, TSEs). Based on these findings it is hypothesized that posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of PrP influence conversion of cellular prion protein (PrPC) into PrPSc and, as such, modified PrP variants are critical tools needed to investigate the impact of PTMs on the pathogenesis of TSEs. Here we report a semisynthetic approach to generate PrP variants modified with monodisperse polyethyleneglycol (PEG) units as mimics of N-glycans. Incorporating PEG at glycosylation sites 181 and 197 in PrP induced only small changes to the secondary structure when compared to unmodified, wildtype PrP. More importantly, in vitro aggregation was abrogated for all PEGylated PrP variants under conditions at which wildtype PrP aggregated. Furthermore, the addition of PEGylated PrP as low as 10 mol% to wildtype PrP completely blocked aggregation. A similar effect was observed for synthetic PEGylated PrP segments comprising amino acids 179–231 alone if these were added to wildtype PrP in aggregation assays. This behavior raises the question if large N-glycans interfere with aggregation in vivo and if PEGylated PrP peptides could serve as potential therapeutics. PMID:28989689

  1. Concomitant administration of a fully liquid, ready-to-use DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T hexavalent vaccine with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesikari, Timo; Borrow, Ray; Da Costa, Xavier; Richard, Patrick; Eymin, Cécile; Boisnard, Florence; Lockhart, Stephen

    2017-01-11

    DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T or hexavalent vaccines are indicated for primary and booster vaccination of infants and toddlers against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, poliomyelitis and invasive diseases caused by Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib). The present study evaluates the safety and immunogenicity of a ready-to-use hexavalent vaccine when co-administered with a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate (MenC) vaccine in infants. This was a phase III, open-label, randomised, multicentre study conducted in Finland. Healthy infants, aged 46-74days (n=350), were randomised in a ratio of 1:1 to receive DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine at two, three and four months, either with a MenC vaccine co-administered at two and four months (Group 1; n=175) or without MenC vaccine (Group 2; n=175). All infants also received routine rotavirus and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. The proportion of participants with an anti-HBs concentration ⩾10mIU/mL assessed one month after the third dose of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was 97.5% [95%CI: 93.1-99.3] in the coadministration group and 96.1% [95%CI: 91.8-98.6] in the group without MenC vaccine. The proportion of participants with an anti-MenC SBA titre ⩾8 assessed one month after the second dose of MenC vaccine was 100% in the coadministration group. Both primary objectives were achieved. Secondary immunogenicity and safety analyses showed that co-administration of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T and MenC vaccines did not impact the immune response to the antigens of each of the two vaccines. All vaccines were well tolerated and the safety profile of DTaP-IPV-HB-PRP-T vaccine was similar in both groups. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01839175; EudraCT number: 2012-005547-24. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Use of autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in stopping massive hemoptysis at the Lung Center of the Philippines: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento, Armand Gregorio C; Danguilan, Jose Luis J; Mariano, Zenaida M; Barzaga, Maria Teresa A

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of using autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) in patients having massive hemoptysis within a period of one week. This is a prospective cohort study involving 20 consecutive patients admitted who met the criteria for massive hemoptysis from July to October 2011. After stabilizing the patient, fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) was performed for localization of bleeding within 6 hours from diagnosis. A 50mL of blood was extracted from the patient whom was to be used for autologous PRP concentrate. After identifying the anatomic site of bleeding, autologous PRP concentrate was instilled on the affected bronchus and was allowed to stay for 5 minutes after instillation. Patients were then monitored from the time the bleeding stopped in the first 24 hours, 2 days and 7 days respectively. Mean age of the study population with massive hemoptysis was 47 years old (SD 17.3). Majority of cases were male 18 out of 20 (90%) and smokers 14 (70%) with a normal BMI (75%). Identification of bleeding site was more commonly seen on the right upper lobe 9 out of 20 (45%). Overall, 14 out of 20 patients (70%) were reported to have stopped bleeding immediately. Subsequent hospital days showed that 8 out of 20 patients (40%) had no hemoptysis. However, one [1] post-tuberculosis (TB) bronchiectatic patient had recurrence of massive hemoptysis, approximately 250 mL per expectorate, expired within the 7 days observation and one patient had lobectomy on the 2nd day. The rest had non-massive hemoptysis wherein their expectorations were only streaks of blood. Moreover, there was one [1] patient who had recurrence of massive hemoptysis 1 week after autologous PRP infusion and was eventually intubated. Majority of the subjects, eleven [11] were diagnosed to have post-TB bronchiectasis. The rest of the patients were worked-up prior to operation. Overall, it was observed that the use of autologous PRP was able to stop bleeding in 40% of the study

  3. Functions for fission yeast splicing factors SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 in alternative splice-site choice and stress-specific regulated splicing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Melangath

    Full Text Available Budding yeast spliceosomal factors ScSlu7 and ScPrp18 interact and mediate intron 3'ss choice during second step pre-mRNA splicing. The fission yeast genome with abundant multi-intronic transcripts, degenerate splice signals and SR proteins is an apt unicellular fungal model to deduce roles for core spliceosomal factors in alternative splice-site choice, intron retention and to study the cellular implications of regulated splicing. From our custom microarray data we deduce a stringent reproducible subset of S. pombe alternative events. We examined the role of factors SpSlu7 or SpPrp18 for these splice events and investigated the relationship to growth phase and stress. Wild-type log and stationary phase cells showed ats1+ exon 3 skipped and intron 3 retained transcripts. Interestingly the non-consensus 5'ss in ats1+ intron 3 caused SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent intron retention. We validated the use of an alternative 5'ss in dtd1+ intron 1 and of an upstream alternative 3'ss in DUF3074 intron 1. The dtd1+ intron 1 non-canonical 5'ss yielded an alternative mRNA whose levels increased in stationary phase. Utilization of dtd1+ intron 1 sub-optimal 5' ss required functional SpPrp18 and SpSlu7 while compromise in SpSlu7 function alone hampered the selection of the DUF3074 intron 1 non canonical 3'ss. We analysed the relative abundance of these splice isoforms during mild thermal, oxidative and heavy metal stress and found stress-specific splice patterns for ats1+ and DUF3074 intron 1 some of which were SpSlu7 and SpPrp18 dependent. By studying ats1+ splice isoforms during compromised transcription elongation rates in wild-type, spslu7-2 and spprp18-5 mutant cells we found dynamic and intron context-specific effects in splice-site choice. Our work thus shows the combinatorial effects of splice site strength, core splicing factor functions and transcription elongation kinetics to dictate alternative splice patterns which in turn serve as an additional

  4. Emergence of two prion subtypes in ovine PrP transgenic mice infected with human MM2-cortical Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease prions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, Jérôme; Moudjou, Mohammed; Reine, Fabienne; Herzog, Laetitia; Jaumain, Emilie; Chapuis, Céline; Quadrio, Isabelle; Boulliat, Jacques; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Dron, Michel; Laude, Hubert; Rezaei, Human; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-02-05

    Mammalian prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for a broad range of fatal neurodegenerative diseases in humans and animals. These diseases can occur spontaneously, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, or be acquired or inherited. Prions are primarily formed of macromolecular assemblies of the disease-associated prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded isoform of the host-encoded prion protein PrP(C). Within defined host-species, prions can exist as conformational variants or strains. Based on both the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of PrP and the electrophoretic signature of PrP(Sc) in the brain, sporadic CJD is classified in different subtypes, which may encode different strains. A transmission barrier, the mechanism of which remains unknown, limits prion cross-species propagation. To adapt to the new host, prions have the capacity to 'mutate' conformationally, leading to the emergence of a variant with new biological properties. Here, we transmitted experimentally one rare subtype of human CJD, designated cortical MM2 (129 MM with type 2 PrP(Sc)), to transgenic mice overexpressing either human or the VRQ allele of ovine PrP(C). In marked contrast with the reported absence of transmission to knock-in mice expressing physiological levels of human PrP, this subtype transmitted faithfully to mice overexpressing human PrP, and exhibited unique strain features. Onto the ovine PrP sequence, the cortical MM2 subtype abruptly evolved on second passage, thereby allowing emergence of a pair of strain variants with distinct PrP(Sc) biochemical characteristics and differing tropism for the central and lymphoid tissues. These two strain components exhibited remarkably distinct replicative properties in cell-free amplification assay, allowing the 'physical' cloning of the minor, lymphotropic component, and subsequent isolation in ovine PrP mice and RK13 cells. Here, we provide in-depth assessment of the transmissibility and evolution of one rare subtype of

  5. Software reliability models for critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG&G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Software reliability models for critical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, H.; Pham, M.

    1991-12-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of the ongoing EG G Idaho, Inc. Software Reliability Research Program. The program is studying the existing software reliability models and proposes a state-of-the-art software reliability model that is relevant to the nuclear reactor control environment. This report consists of three parts: (1) summaries of the literature review of existing software reliability and fault tolerant software reliability models and their related issues, (2) proposed technique for software reliability enhancement, and (3) general discussion and future research. The development of this proposed state-of-the-art software reliability model will be performed in the second place. 407 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Reliability considerations of NDT by probability of detection (POD). Determination using ultrasound phased array. Results from a project in frame of the German nuclear safety research program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurz, Jochen H.; Dugan, Sandra; Juengert, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Reliable assessment procedures are an important aspect of maintenance concepts. Non-destructive testing (NDT) methods are an essential part of a variety of maintenance plans. Fracture mechanical assessments require knowledge of flaw dimensions, loads and material parameters. NDT methods are able to acquire information on all of these areas. However, it has to be considered that the level of detail information depends on the case investigated and therefore on the applicable methods. Reliability aspects of NDT methods are of importance if quantitative information is required. Different design concepts e.g. the damage tolerance approach in aerospace already include reliability criteria of NDT methods applied in maintenance plans. NDT is also an essential part during construction and maintenance of nuclear power plants. In Germany, type and extent of inspection are specified in Safety Standards of the Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA). Only certified inspections are allowed in the nuclear industry. The qualification of NDT is carried out in form of performance demonstrations of the inspection teams and the equipment, witnessed by an authorized inspector. The results of these tests are mainly statements regarding the detection capabilities of certain artificial flaws. In other countries, e.g. the U.S., additional blind tests on test blocks with hidden and unknown flaws may be required, in which a certain percentage of these flaws has to be detected. The knowledge of the probability of detection (POD) curves of specific flaws in specific testing conditions is often not present. This paper shows the results of a research project designed for POD determination of ultrasound phased array inspections of real and artificial cracks. The continuative objective of this project was to generate quantitative POD results. The distribution of the crack sizes of the specimens and the inspection planning is discussed, and results of the ultrasound inspections are presented. In

  8. Use of reliability in the LMFBR industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penland, J.R.; Smith, A.M.; Goeser, D.K.

    1977-01-01

    This mission of a Reliability Program for an LMFBR should be to enhance the design and operational characteristics relative to safety and to plant availability. Successful accomplishment of this mission requires proper integration of several reliability engineering tasks--analysis, testing, parts controls and program controls. Such integration requires, in turn, that the program be structured, planned and managed. This paper describes the technical integration necessary and the management activities required to achieve mission success for LMFBR's

  9. AMSAA Reliability Growth Guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Broemm, William

    2000-01-01

    ... has developed reliability growth methodology for all phases of the process, from planning to tracking to projection. The report presents this methodology and associated reliability growth concepts.

  10. Recommended safety, reliability, quality assurance and management aerospace techniques with possible application by the DOE to the high-level radioactive waste repository program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, W.M. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    Aerospace SRQA and management techniques, principally those developed and used by the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center on the manned space flight programs, have been assessed for possible application by the DOE and the DOE-contractors to the high level radioactive waste repository program that results from the implementation of the NWPA of 1982. Those techniques believed to have the greatest potential for usefulness to the DOE and the DOE-contractors have been discussed in detail and are recommended to the DOE for adoption; discussion is provided for the manner in which this transfer of technology can be implemented. Six SRQA techniques and two management techniques are recommended for adoption by the DOE; included with the management techniques is a recommendation for the DOE to include a licensing interface with the NRC in the application of the milestone reviews technique. Three other techniques are recommended for study by the DOE for possible adaptation to the DOE program

  11. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  12. Autologous US-guided PRP injection versus US-guided focal extracorporeal shock wave therapy for chronic lateral epicondylitis: A minimum of 2-year follow-up retrospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessio-Mazzola, Mattia; Repetto, Ilaria; Biti, Besmir; Trentini, Roberto; Formica, Matteo; Felli, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two independent groups of patients treated with ultrasound (US)-guided extracorporeal shock wave (ESW) therapy and with US-guided injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for chronic lateral epicondylitis (LE) with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. We retrospectively evaluated 63 patients treated for chronic LE (31 patients with autologous US-guided PRP injection and 32 patients with US-guided focal ESW therapy) from 2009 to 2014. All the patients were evaluated by means of Roles-Maudsley (RM) score, quick Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH) score, visual analogic scale (VAS) and patient-rated tennis elbow evaluation (PRTEE) to retrospectively assess the pain relief, level of activity, the self-reported function and subjective satisfaction at minimum of 2-year follow-up. Both US-guided autologous PRP injection and US-guided focal ESW administration proved effective in chronic LE with significant improvement in the QuickDASH, VAS, RM and PRTEE scores ( p 0.05). The mean time between treatment and symptom resolution was significantly shorter for the PRP treatment ( p = 0.0212); furthermore, the mean time to return to the normal activities was quicker for PRP group ( p = 0.0119). Both PRP injection and ESW therapy are feasible and safe options for the treatment of chronic LE with low risk of complications and with good long-term follow-up results. US-guided PRP injection has quick efficacy when compared with US-guided focal ESW therapy.

  13. Supply chain reliability modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Zaitsev

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today it is virtually impossible to operate alone on the international level in the logistics business. This promotes the establishment and development of new integrated business entities - logistic operators. However, such cooperation within a supply chain creates also many problems related to the supply chain reliability as well as the optimization of the supplies planning. The aim of this paper was to develop and formulate the mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Methods: The mathematical model and algorithms to find the optimum plan of supplies were developed and formulated by using economic criterion and the model for the probability evaluating of non-failure operation of supply chain. Results and conclusions: The problem of ensuring failure-free performance of goods supply channel analyzed in the paper is characteristic of distributed network systems that make active use of business process outsourcing technologies. The complex planning problem occurring in such systems that requires taking into account the consumer's requirements for failure-free performance in terms of supply volumes and correctness can be reduced to a relatively simple linear programming problem through logical analysis of the structures. The sequence of the operations, which should be taken into account during the process of the supply planning with the supplier's functional reliability, was presented.

  14. Efficacy of Platelet-Rich-Plasma (PRP and Highly Purified Bovine Xenograft (Laddec® Combination in Bone Regeneration after Cyst Enucleation: Radiological and Histological Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Pappalardo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding platelet-rich plasma (PRP to a new highly purified bovine allograft (Laddec® in the bone regeneration of cystic bony defects augmented following cystectomy.Material and Methods: Study sample included 20 patients undergoing cystectomy in which the bone defect was filled with PRP and Laddec®. All patients were examined with periapical radiographs before operation and at follow-up. After 3 months, at re-entry surgery for implant placement, bone core was taken for histological and histomorphometric analysis.Results: The postoperative successive radiographs showed a good regeneration of bone in the height of bony defects with application of PRP to bone graft. By the first postoperative month, about 48% of the defect was filled, which gradually increased in each month and showed about 90% of defect-fill by 6 months. Histological and histomorphometric analysis, showed a significant presence of bone tissue and vessels, with newly formed bone in contact with anorganic bone particles. The mean volume of vital bone was 68 ± 1.6% and the mean percentage of vital bone was 48 ± 2.4%. The mean percentage of inorganic particles in tissues was 20 ± 1.2% of the total volume. All the samples analyzed did not evidence the presence of inflammatory cells.Conclusions: The results of this study showed how the use of Laddec® in association with platelet-rich plasma allows bone regeneration and has a potential for routine clinical use for regeneration of cystic bony defects.

  15. The right maintenance on the right components, at the right time, with the right parts: maintaining high plant reliability through an effective maintenance program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Hatten, P.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the maintenance program at a Nuclear Power Plant is to be proactive and prevent unexpected failures of equipment that can impact on Nuclear or Conventional Safety and Plant Production. This does not mean that all equipment failures will be prevented; in a number of cases the most cost effective solution is to allow equipment to run to failure. Deciding what components are critical to the plant is the first step. The industry uses guidance from INPO Advanced Process, AP913, to classify components as Critical, Non Critical or Run to Failure based on the consequence of the failure. Once this is complete, then the right maintenance program needs to be specified. This is done through utilization of experience from the industry based on the type of component. Maintenance strategies and templates have been produced for most power plant components. Each station or fleet needs then to apply the criteria, with exceptions as required, to determine the maintenance requirements and frequency for their components. This includes predictive and preventative maintenance. The more critical the component is the more rigorous the maintenance requirements. Once the maintenance program is defined it can be implemented. This requires that the Preventative Maintenance (PM's) are updated to ensure the correct tasks are in place and the frequency is correct. Work Management will group the PM's so they can scheduled efficiently and to minimize equipment down time. The last element is to ensure that the required parts are specified and are stocked or readily available for the maintenance when it is scheduled. This is an ongoing effort since components become obsolete or suppliers go out of business or change hands. (author)

  16. Low fraction of the 222K PrP variant in the protease-resistant moiety of PrPres in heterozygous scrapie positive goats

    OpenAIRE

    Mazza, Maria; Guglielmetti, Chiara; Ingravalle, Francesco; Brusadore, Sonia; Langeveld, Jan P. M.; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V.; Andréoletti, Olivier; Casalone, Cristina; Acutis, Pier Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The presence of lysine (K) at codon 222 has been associated with resistance to classical scrapie in goats, but few scrapie cases have been identified in 222Q/K animals. To investigate the contribution of the 222K variant to PrPres formation in natural and experimental Q/K scrapie cases, we applied an immunoblotting method based on the use of two different monoclonal antibodies, F99/97.6.1 and SAF84, chosen for their different affinities to 222K and 222Q PrP variants. Our finding that PrPres s...

  17. Reliability tasks from prediction to field use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guyot, Christian.

    1975-01-01

    This tutorial paper is part of a series intended to sensitive on reliability prolems. Reliability probabilistic concept, is an important parameter of availability. Reliability prediction is an estimation process for evaluating design progress. It is only by the application of a reliability program that reliability objectives can be attained through the different stages of work: conception, fabrication, field use. The user is mainly interested in operational reliability. Indication are given on the support and the treatment of data in the case of electronic equipment at C.E.A. Reliability engineering requires a special state of mind which must be formed and developed in a company in the same way as it may be done for example for safety [fr

  18. Reliability data banks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, A.G.; Bendell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Following an introductory chapter on Reliability, what is it, why it is needed, how it is achieved and measured, the principles of reliability data bases and analysis methodologies are the subject of the next two chapters. Achievements due to the development of data banks are mentioned for different industries in the next chapter, FACTS, a comprehensive information system for industrial safety and reliability data collection in process plants are covered next. CREDO, the Central Reliability Data Organization is described in the next chapter and is indexed separately, as is the chapter on DANTE, the fabrication reliability Data analysis system. Reliability data banks at Electricite de France and IAEA's experience in compiling a generic component reliability data base are also separately indexed. The European reliability data system, ERDS, and the development of a large data bank come next. The last three chapters look at 'Reliability data banks, - friend foe or a waste of time'? and future developments. (UK)

  19. NDE reliability and advanced NDE technology validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, S.R.; Deffenbaugh, J.D.; Good, M.S.; Green, E.R.; Heasler, P.G.; Hutton, P.H.; Reid, L.D.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on progress for three programs: (1) evaluation and improvement in nondestructive examination reliability for inservice inspection of light water reactors (LWR) (NDE Reliability Program), (2) field validation acceptance, and training for advanced NDE technology, and (3) evaluation of computer-based NDE techniques and regional support of inspection activities. The NDE Reliability Program objectives are to quantify the reliability of inservice inspection techniques for LWR primary system components through independent research and establish means for obtaining improvements in the reliability of inservice inspections. The areas of significant progress will be described concerning ASME Code activities, re-analysis of the PISC-II data, the equipment interaction matrix study, new inspection criteria, and PISC-III. The objectives of the second program are to develop field procedures for the AE and SAFT-UT techniques, perform field validation testing of these techniques, provide training in the techniques for NRC headquarters and regional staff, and work with the ASME Code for the use of these advanced technologies. The final program's objective is to evaluate the reliability and accuracy of interpretation of results from computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection systems, and to develop guidelines for NRC staff to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of inservice inspections conducted on nuclear power reactors. This program started in the last quarter of FY89, and the extent of the program was to prepare a work plan for presentation to and approval from a technical advisory group of NRC staff

  20. Equipment Reliability Process in Krsko NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluhak, M.

    2016-01-01

    To ensure long-term safe and reliable plant operation, equipment operability and availability must also be ensured by setting a group of processes to be established within the nuclear power plant. Equipment reliability process represents the integration and coordination of important equipment reliability activities into one process, which enables equipment performance and condition monitoring, preventive maintenance activities development, implementation and optimization, continuous improvement of the processes and long term planning. The initiative for introducing systematic approach for equipment reliability assuring came from US nuclear industry guided by INPO (Institute of Nuclear Power Operations) and by participation of several US nuclear utilities. As a result of the initiative, first edition of INPO document AP-913, 'Equipment Reliability Process Description' was issued and it became a basic document for implementation of equipment reliability process for the whole nuclear industry. The scope of equipment reliability process in Krsko NPP consists of following programs: equipment criticality classification, preventive maintenance program, corrective action program, system health reports and long-term investment plan. By implementation, supervision and continuous improvement of those programs, guided by more than thirty years of operating experience, Krsko NPP will continue to be on a track of safe and reliable operation until the end of prolonged life time. (author).

  1. The Accelerator Reliability Forum

    CERN Document Server

    Lüdeke, Andreas; Giachino, R

    2014-01-01

    A high reliability is a very important goal for most particle accelerators. The biennial Accelerator Reliability Workshop covers topics related to the design and operation of particle accelerators with a high reliability. In order to optimize the over-all reliability of an accelerator one needs to gather information on the reliability of many different subsystems. While a biennial workshop can serve as a platform for the exchange of such information, the authors aimed to provide a further channel to allow for a more timely communication: the Particle Accelerator Reliability Forum [1]. This contribution will describe the forum and advertise it’s usage in the community.

  2. Design for reliability: NASA reliability preferred practices for design and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalli, Vincent R.

    1994-01-01

    This tutorial summarizes reliability experience from both NASA and industry and reflects engineering practices that support current and future civil space programs. These practices were collected from various NASA field centers and were reviewed by a committee of senior technical representatives from the participating centers (members are listed at the end). The material for this tutorial was taken from the publication issued by the NASA Reliability and Maintainability Steering Committee (NASA Reliability Preferred Practices for Design and Test. NASA TM-4322, 1991). Reliability must be an integral part of the systems engineering process. Although both disciplines must be weighed equally with other technical and programmatic demands, the application of sound reliability principles will be the key to the effectiveness and affordability of America's space program. Our space programs have shown that reliability efforts must focus on the design characteristics that affect the frequency of failure. Herein, we emphasize that these identified design characteristics must be controlled by applying conservative engineering principles.

  3. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  4. Reliability of software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopetz, H.

    1980-01-01

    Common factors and differences in the reliability of hardware and software; reliability increase by means of methods of software redundancy. Maintenance of software for long term operating behavior. (HP) [de

  5. Reliable Design Versus Trust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Melanie; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This presentation focuses on reliability and trust for the users portion of the FPGA design flow. It is assumed that the manufacturer prior to hand-off to the user tests FPGA internal components. The objective is to present the challenges of creating reliable and trusted designs. The following will be addressed: What makes a design vulnerable to functional flaws (reliability) or attackers (trust)? What are the challenges for verifying a reliable design versus a trusted design?

  6. Pocket Handbook on Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-09-01

    exponencial distributions Weibull distribution, -xtimating reliability, confidence intervals, relia- bility growth, 0. P- curves, Bayesian analysis. 20 A S...introduction for those not familiar with reliability and a good refresher for those who are currently working in the area. LEWIS NERI, CHIEF...includes one or both of the following objectives: a) prediction of the current system reliability, b) projection on the system reliability for someI future

  7. A computer program for calculation of parameters necessary for the computation of reliable pair distribution functions of non-crystalline materials from limited diffraction data. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, F.Y.

    1978-01-01

    The pair distribution function of non-crystalline materials may be obtained by a Fourier transform of the structure factor as calculated in part I of this series. The structure factor is often limited in the sense that it shows significant oscillations at the maximal wave vector transfers obtainable. The Fourier transform of such functions, therefore, introduces truncation errors in the transformed function. With this program a parametrization of the small distance part of the pair distribution function is obtained according to a method described which enables one to eliminate truncation error from the final pair distribution function. It is based on a least squares fit calculation of the small distance part of the pair distribution function obtained by a direct transform of the experimental structure factor and a model pair distribution function obtained from a model structure factor truncated at the same wave vector transfers as the experimental factor. The storage requirement depends on the number of structure factor data and the number of peaks used to resolve the small distance part of the pair distribution function. In the present set-up storage requirement is set to 15083 words, which is estimated to be satisfactory for a large number of cases. (Auth.)

  8. Principles of Bridge Reliability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Nowak, Andrzej S.

    The paper gives a brief introduction to the basic principles of structural reliability theory and its application to bridge engineering. Fundamental concepts like failure probability and reliability index are introduced. Ultimate as well as serviceability limit states for bridges are formulated......, and as an example the reliability profile and a sensitivity analyses for a corroded reinforced concrete bridge is shown....

  9. Reliability in engineering '87

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuma, M.

    1987-01-01

    The participants heard 51 papers dealing with the reliability of engineering products. Two of the papers were incorporated in INIS, namely ''Reliability comparison of two designs of low pressure regeneration of the 1000 MW unit at the Temelin nuclear power plant'' and ''Use of probability analysis of reliability in designing nuclear power facilities.''(J.B.)

  10. PWR system reliability improvement activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Yuichiro

    1985-01-01

    In Japan lacking in energy resources, it is our basic energy policy to accelerate the development program of nuclear power, thereby reducing our dependence. As referred to in the foregoing, every effort has been exerted on our part to improve the PWR system reliability by dint of the so-called 'HOMEMADE' TQC activities, which is our brain-child as a result of applying to the energy industry the quality control philosophy developed in the field of manufacturing industry

  11. Effects of the Pathogenic Mutation A117V and the Protective Mutation H111S on the Folding and Aggregation of PrP106-126: Insights from Replica Exchange Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Ning

    Full Text Available The fragment 106-126 of prion protein exhibits similar properties to full-length prion. Experiments have shown that the A117V mutation enhances the aggregation of PrP106-126, while the H111S mutation abolishes the assembly. However, the mechanism of the change in the aggregation behavior of PrP106-126 upon the two mutations is not fully understood. In this study, replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the conformational ensemble of the WT PrP106-126 and its two mutants A117V and H111S. The obtained results indicate that the three species are all intrinsically disordered but they have distinct morphological differences. The A117V mutant has a higher propensity to form β-hairpin structures than the WT, while the H111S mutant has a higher population of helical structures. Furthermore, the A117V mutation increases the hydrophobic solvent accessible surface areas of PrP106-126 and the H111S mutation reduces the exposure of hydrophobic residues. It can be concluded that the difference in populations of β-hairpin structures and the change of hydrophobic solvent accessible areas may induce the different aggregation behaviors of the A117V and the H111S mutated PrP106-126. Understanding why the two mutations have contrary effects on the aggregation of PrP106-126 is very meaningful for further elucidation of the mechanism underlying aggregation and design of inhibitor against aggregation process.

  12. Absence of Evidence for a Causal Link between Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Strain Variant L-BSE and Known Forms of Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease in Human PrP Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumain, Emilie; Quadrio, Isabelle; Herzog, Laetitia; Reine, Fabienne; Rezaei, Human; Andréoletti, Olivier; Laude, Hubert; Perret-Liaudet, Armand; Haïk, Stéphane; Béringue, Vincent

    2016-12-01

    Prions are proteinaceous pathogens responsible for subacute spongiform encephalopathies in animals and humans. The prions responsible for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) are zoonotic agents, causing variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The transfer of prions between species is limited by a species barrier, which is thought to reflect structural incompatibilities between the host cellular prion protein (PrP C ) and the infecting pathological PrP assemblies (PrP Sc ) constituting the prion. A BSE strain variant, designated L-BSE and responsible for atypical, supposedly spontaneous forms of prion diseases in aged cattle, demonstrates zoonotic potential, as evidenced by its capacity to propagate more easily than classical BSE in transgenic mice expressing human PrP C and in nonhuman primates. In humanized mice, L-BSE propagates without any apparent species barrier and shares similar biochemical PrP Sc signatures with the CJD subtype designated MM2-cortical, thus opening the possibility that certain CJD cases classified as sporadic may actually originate from L-type BSE cross-transmission. To address this issue, we compared the biological properties of L-BSE and those of a panel of CJD subtypes representative of the human prion strain diversity using standard strain-typing criteria in human PrP transgenic mice. We found no evidence that L-BSE causes a known form of sporadic CJD. Since the quasi-extinction of classical BSE, atypical BSE forms are the sole BSE variants circulating in cattle worldwide. They are observed in rare cases of old cattle, making them difficult to detect. Extrapolation of our results suggests that L-BSE may propagate in humans as an unrecognized form of CJD, and we urge both the continued utilization of precautionary measures to eliminate these agents from the human food chain and active surveillance for CJD phenotypes in the general population. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Modification Machinery Deficiency Is Responsible for the Formation of Pro-Prion Protein (PrP) in BxPC-3 Protein and Increases Cancer Cell Motility*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liheng; Gao, Zhenxing; Hu, Lipeng; Wu, Guiru; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Wong, Boon-Seng; Xin, Wei; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-01-01

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface glycoprotein. However, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, such as BxPC-3, PrP exists as a pro-PrP retaining its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) peptide signaling sequence. Here, we report the identification of another pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, AsPC-1, which expresses a mature GPI-anchored PrP. Comparison of the 24 genes involved in the GPI anchor modification pathway between AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 revealed 15 of the 24 genes, including PGAP1 and PIG-F, were down-regulated in the latter cells. We also identified six missense mutations in DPM2, PIG-C, PIG-N, and PIG-P alongside eight silent mutations. When BxPC-3 cells were fused with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which lack endogenous PrP, pro-PrP was successfully converted into mature GPI-anchored PrP. Expression of the individual gene, such as PGAP1, PIG-F, or PIG-C, into BxPC-3 cells does not result in phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C sensitivity of PrP. However, when PIG-F but not PIG-P is expressed in PGAP1-expressing BxPC-3 cells, PrP on the surface of the cells becomes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-sensitive. Thus, low expression of PIG-F and PGAP1 is the major factor contributing to the accumulation of pro-PrP. More importantly, BxPC-3 cells expressing GPI-anchored PrP migrate much slower than BxPC-3 cells bearing pro-PrP. In addition, GPI-anchored PrP-bearing AsPC-1 cells also migrate slower than pro-PrP bearing BxPC-3 cells, although both cells express filamin A. “Knocking out” PRNP in BxPC-3 cell drastically reduces its migration. Collectively, these results show that multiple gene irregularity in BxPC-3 cells is responsible for the formation of pro-PrP, and binding of pro-PrP to filamin A contributes to enhanced tumor cell motility. PMID:26683373

  14. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol Anchor Modification Machinery Deficiency Is Responsible for the Formation of Pro-Prion Protein (PrP) in BxPC-3 Protein and Increases Cancer Cell Motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liheng; Gao, Zhenxing; Hu, Lipeng; Wu, Guiru; Yang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhu, Ying; Wong, Boon-Seng; Xin, Wei; Sy, Man-Sun; Li, Chaoyang

    2016-02-19

    The normal cellular prion protein (PrP) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored cell surface glycoprotein. However, in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, such as BxPC-3, PrP exists as a pro-PrP retaining its glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) peptide signaling sequence. Here, we report the identification of another pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell line, AsPC-1, which expresses a mature GPI-anchored PrP. Comparison of the 24 genes involved in the GPI anchor modification pathway between AsPC-1 and BxPC-3 revealed 15 of the 24 genes, including PGAP1 and PIG-F, were down-regulated in the latter cells. We also identified six missense mutations in DPM2, PIG-C, PIG-N, and PIG-P alongside eight silent mutations. When BxPC-3 cells were fused with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, which lack endogenous PrP, pro-PrP was successfully converted into mature GPI-anchored PrP. Expression of the individual gene, such as PGAP1, PIG-F, or PIG-C, into BxPC-3 cells does not result in phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C sensitivity of PrP. However, when PIG-F but not PIG-P is expressed in PGAP1-expressing BxPC-3 cells, PrP on the surface of the cells becomes phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-sensitive. Thus, low expression of PIG-F and PGAP1 is the major factor contributing to the accumulation of pro-PrP. More importantly, BxPC-3 cells expressing GPI-anchored PrP migrate much slower than BxPC-3 cells bearing pro-PrP. In addition, GPI-anchored PrP-bearing AsPC-1 cells also migrate slower than pro-PrP bearing BxPC-3 cells, although both cells express filamin A. "Knocking out" PRNP in BxPC-3 cell drastically reduces its migration. Collectively, these results show that multiple gene irregularity in BxPC-3 cells is responsible for the formation of pro-PrP, and binding of pro-PrP to filamin A contributes to enhanced tumor cell motility. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Introduction to quality and reliability engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Renyan

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in quality and reliability engineering from a product life cycle standpoint. Topics in reliability include reliability models, life data analysis and modeling, design for reliability and accelerated life testing, while topics in quality include design for quality, acceptance sampling and supplier selection, statistical process control, production tests such as screening and burn-in, warranty and maintenance. The book provides comprehensive insights into two closely related subjects, and includes a wealth of examples and problems to enhance reader comprehension and link theory and practice. All numerical examples can be easily solved using Microsoft Excel. The book is intended for senior undergraduate and post-graduate students in related engineering and management programs such as mechanical engineering, manufacturing engineering, industrial engineering and engineering management programs, as well as for researchers and engineers in the quality and reliability fields. D...

  16. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  17. Programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)

  18. Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, M A

    1982-01-01

    The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...

  19. Reliability engineering for nuclear and other high technology systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakner, A.A.; Anderson, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    This book is written for the reliability instructor, program manager, system engineer, design engineer, reliability engineer, nuclear regulator, probability risk assessment (PRA) analyst, general manager and others who are involved in system hardware acquisition, design and operation and are concerned with plant safety and operational cost-effectiveness. It provides criteria, guidelines and comprehensive engineering data affecting reliability; it covers the key aspects of system reliability as it relates to conceptual planning, cost tradeoff decisions, specification, contractor selection, design, test and plant acceptance and operation. It treats reliability as an integrated methodology, explicitly describing life cycle management techniques as well as the basic elements of a total hardware development program, including: reliability parameters and design improvement attributes, reliability testing, reliability engineering and control. It describes how these elements can be defined during procurement, and implemented during design and development to yield reliable equipment. (author)

  20. Reliability and safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, Ajit Kumar; Karanki, Durga Rao

    2016-01-01

    Reliability and safety are core issues that must be addressed throughout the life cycle of engineering systems. Reliability and Safety Engineering presents an overview of the basic concepts, together with simple and practical illustrations. The authors present reliability terminology in various engineering fields, viz.,electronics engineering, software engineering, mechanical engineering, structural engineering and power systems engineering. The book describes the latest applications in the area of probabilistic safety assessment, such as technical specification optimization, risk monitoring and risk informed in-service inspection. Reliability and safety studies must, inevitably, deal with uncertainty, so the book includes uncertainty propagation methods: Monte Carlo simulation, fuzzy arithmetic, Dempster-Shafer theory and probability bounds. Reliability and Safety Engineering also highlights advances in system reliability and safety assessment including dynamic system modeling and uncertainty management. Cas...

  1. TIGER reliability analysis in the DSN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    The TIGER algorithm, the inputs to the program and the output are described. TIGER is a computer program designed to simulate a system over a period of time to evaluate system reliability and availability. Results can be used in the Deep Space Network for initial spares provisioning and system evaluation.

  2. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  3. Reliability of electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca, Jose L.

    2001-01-01

    Reliability techniques have been developed subsequently as a need of the diverse engineering disciplines, nevertheless they are not few those that think they have been work a lot on reliability before the same word was used in the current context. Military, space and nuclear industries were the first ones that have been involved in this topic, however not only in these environments it is that it has been carried out this small great revolution in benefit of the increase of the reliability figures of the products of those industries, but rather it has extended to the whole industry. The fact of the massive production, characteristic of the current industries, drove four decades ago, to the fall of the reliability of its products, on one hand, because the massively itself and, for other, to the recently discovered and even not stabilized industrial techniques. Industry should be changed according to those two new requirements, creating products of medium complexity and assuring an enough reliability appropriated to production costs and controls. Reliability began to be integral part of the manufactured product. Facing this philosophy, the book describes reliability techniques applied to electronics systems and provides a coherent and rigorous framework for these diverse activities providing a unifying scientific basis for the entire subject. It consists of eight chapters plus a lot of statistical tables and an extensive annotated bibliography. Chapters embrace the following topics: 1- Introduction to Reliability; 2- Basic Mathematical Concepts; 3- Catastrophic Failure Models; 4-Parametric Failure Models; 5- Systems Reliability; 6- Reliability in Design and Project; 7- Reliability Tests; 8- Software Reliability. This book is in Spanish language and has a potentially diverse audience as a text book from academic to industrial courses. (author)

  4. Circuit design for reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Yu; Wirth, Gilson

    2015-01-01

    This book presents physical understanding, modeling and simulation, on-chip characterization, layout solutions, and design techniques that are effective to enhance the reliability of various circuit units.  The authors provide readers with techniques for state of the art and future technologies, ranging from technology modeling, fault detection and analysis, circuit hardening, and reliability management. Provides comprehensive review on various reliability mechanisms at sub-45nm nodes; Describes practical modeling and characterization techniques for reliability; Includes thorough presentation of robust design techniques for major VLSI design units; Promotes physical understanding with first-principle simulations.

  5. TFTR CAMAC power supplies reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camp, R.A.; Bergin, W.

    1989-01-01

    Since the expected life of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) has been extended into the early 1990's, the issues of equipment wear-out, when to refurbish/replace, and the costs associated with these decisions, must be faced. The management of the maintenance of the TFTR Central Instrumentation, Control and Data Acquisition System (CICADA) power supplies within the CAMAC network is a case study of a set of systems to monitor repairable systems reliability, costs, and results of action. The CAMAC network is composed of approximately 500 racks, each with its own power supply. By using a simple reliability estimator on a coarse time interval, in conjunction with determining the root cause of individual failures, a cost effective repair and maintenance program has been realized. This paper describes the estimator, some of the specific causes for recurring failures and their correction, and the subsequent effects on the reliability estimator. By extension of this program the authors can assess the continued viability of CAMAC power supplies into the future, predicting wear-out and developing cost effective refurbishment/replacement policies. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Reliability in individual monitoring service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mod Ali, N

    2011-03-01

    As a laboratory certified to ISO 9001:2008 and accredited to ISO/IEC 17025, the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL)-Nuclear Malaysia has incorporated an overall comprehensive system for technical and quality management in promoting a reliable individual monitoring service (IMS). Faster identification and resolution of issues regarding dosemeter preparation and issuing of reports, personnel enhancement, improved customer satisfaction and overall efficiency of laboratory activities are all results of the implementation of an effective quality system. Review of these measures and responses to observed trends provide continuous improvement of the system. By having these mechanisms, reliability of the IMS can be assured in the promotion of safe behaviour at all levels of the workforce utilising ionising radiation facilities. Upgradation of in the reporting program through a web-based e-SSDL marks a major improvement in Nuclear Malaysia's IMS reliability on the whole. The system is a vital step in providing a user friendly and effective occupational exposure evaluation program in the country. It provides a higher level of confidence in the results generated for occupational dose monitoring of the IMS, thus, enhances the status of the radiation protection framework of the country.

  7. Training benefits of research on operator reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worledge, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the EPRI Operator Reliability Experiments (ORE) Program is to collect data for use in reliability and safety studies of nuclear power plant operation which more realistically take credit for operator performance in preventing core damage. The three objectives in fulfilling this purpose are: to obtain quantitative/qualitative performance data on operating crew responses in the control room for potential accident sequences by using plant simulators; to test the human cognitive reliability (HCR) correlation; and to develop a data collection analysis procedure. This paper discusses the background to this program, data collection and analysis, and the results of quantitative/qualitative insights stemming from initial work. Special attention is paid to how this program impacts upon simulator use and assessment of simulator fidelity. Attention is also paid to the use of data collection procedures to assist training departments in assessing the quality of their training programs

  8. Dodecylphosphocholine Micelles Induce Amyloid Formation of the PrP(110-136 Peptide via an α-Helical Metastable Conformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Sauvé

    Full Text Available A peptide encompassing the conserved hydrophobic region and the first β-strand of the prion protein (PrP(110-136 shown to interact with the surface of dodecylphosphocholine micelles adopts an α-helical conformation that is localized below the head-group layer. This surface-bound peptide has a half-life of one day, and readily initiates the formation of amyloid fibrils. The presence of the latter was confirmed using birefringence microscopy upon Congo red binding and thioflavin T-binding induced fluorescence. The observation of this metastable α-helical conformer provides a unique snapshot of the early steps of the inter-conversion pathway. These findings together with the body of evidence from the prion literature allowed us to propose a mechanism for the conversion of PrPC to amyloid material.

  9. Effects of FlAsH/Tetracysteine (TC) tag on PrP proteolysis and PrPres formation by TC-scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Yuzuru; Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Hollister, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    The FlAsH/tetracysteine (FlAsH/TC) tag is a powerful tool for fluorescent labeling of proteins. However, even small tags such as FlAsH/TC could alter the behavior of the tagged proteins, especially if the insertion occurs at internal sites. Defining the influence of FlAsH/TC on nearby protein-protein interactions might aid in selecting appropriate positions for internal TC insertions and allow the exploitation of serial FlAsH/TC insertions (TC-scanning) as a probe to characterize sites of protein-protein interaction. To explore this application in the context of substrate-protease interactions, we analyzed the effect of FlAsH/TC insertions on proteolysis of cellular prion protein (PrPsen) in in vitro reactions and generation of the C1 metabolic fragment of PrPsen in live neuroblastoma cells. The influence of FlAsH/TC insertion was evaluated by TC-scanning across the cleavage sites of each protease. The results showed that FlAsH/TC inhibited protease cleavage only within limited ranges of the cleavage sites that varied from about 1 to 6 residues-wide depending on the protease, providing an estimate of the PrP residues interacting with each protease. TC-scanning was also used to probe a different type of protein-protein interaction, the conformational conversion of FlAsH-PrPsen to the prion disease-associated isoform, PrPres. PrP constructs with FlAsH/TC insertions at residues 90–96 but not 97–101 were converted to FlAsH-PrPres, identifying a boundary separating loosely versus compactly folded regions of PrPres. Our observations demonstrate that TC-scanning with the FlAsH/TC tag can be a versatile method for probing protein-protein interactions and folding processes. PMID:23943295

  10. Hawaii Electric System Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers’ views of reliability “worth” and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers’ views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  11. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  12. Improving machinery reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Heinz P

    1998-01-01

    This totally revised, updated and expanded edition provides proven techniques and procedures that extend machinery life, reduce maintenance costs, and achieve optimum machinery reliability. This essential text clearly describes the reliability improvement and failure avoidance steps practiced by best-of-class process plants in the U.S. and Europe.

  13. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  14. Integrated system reliability analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gintautas, Tomas; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Specific targets: 1) The report shall describe the state of the art of reliability and risk-based assessment of wind turbine components. 2) Development of methodology for reliability and risk-based assessment of the wind turbine at system level. 3) Describe quantitative and qualitative measures...

  15. Reliability of neural encoding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrøm, Preben; Beierholm, Ulrik; Nielsen, Carsten Dahl

    2002-01-01

    The reliability with which a neuron is able to create the same firing pattern when presented with the same stimulus is of critical importance to the understanding of neuronal information processing. We show that reliability is closely related to the process of phaselocking. Experimental results f...

  16. Design reliability engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buden, D.; Hunt, R.N.M.

    1989-01-01

    Improved design techniques are needed to achieve high reliability at minimum cost. This is especially true of space systems where lifetimes of many years without maintenance are needed and severe mass limitations exist. Reliability must be designed into these systems from the start. Techniques are now being explored to structure a formal design process that will be more complete and less expensive. The intent is to integrate the best features of design, reliability analysis, and expert systems to design highly reliable systems to meet stressing needs. Taken into account are the large uncertainties that exist in materials, design models, and fabrication techniques. Expert systems are a convenient method to integrate into the design process a complete definition of all elements that should be considered and an opportunity to integrate the design process with reliability, safety, test engineering, maintenance and operator training. 1 fig

  17. Bayesian methods in reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, P.; Badoux, R.

    1991-11-01

    The present proceedings from a course on Bayesian methods in reliability encompasses Bayesian statistical methods and their computational implementation, models for analyzing censored data from nonrepairable systems, the traits of repairable systems and growth models, the use of expert judgment, and a review of the problem of forecasting software reliability. Specific issues addressed include the use of Bayesian methods to estimate the leak rate of a gas pipeline, approximate analyses under great prior uncertainty, reliability estimation techniques, and a nonhomogeneous Poisson process. Also addressed are the calibration sets and seed variables of expert judgment systems for risk assessment, experimental illustrations of the use of expert judgment for reliability testing, and analyses of the predictive quality of software-reliability growth models such as the Weibull order statistics.

  18. A novel Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker disease mutation defines a precursor for amyloidogenic 8 kDa PrP fragments and reveals N-terminal structural changes shared by other GSS alleles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, Robert C. C.; Fu, Ze-Lin; Mays, Charles E.; Gapeshina, Hristina; Wohlgemuth, Serene L.; Acevedo-Morantes, Claudia Y.; Cashman, Neil R.; Coulthart, Michael B.; Jansen, Gerard H.; Stepanova, Maria

    2018-01-01

    To explore pathogenesis in a young Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker Disease (GSS) patient, the corresponding mutation, an eight-residue duplication in the hydrophobic region (HR), was inserted into the wild type mouse PrP gene. Transgenic (Tg) mouse lines expressing this mutation (Tg.HRdup) developed spontaneous neurologic syndromes and brain extracts hastened disease in low-expressor Tg.HRdup mice, suggesting de novo formation of prions. While Tg.HRdup mice exhibited spongiform change, PrP aggregates and the anticipated GSS hallmark of a proteinase K (PK)-resistant 8 kDa fragment deriving from the center of PrP, the LGGLGGYV insertion also imparted alterations in PrP's unstructured N-terminus, resulting in a 16 kDa species following thermolysin exposure. This species comprises a plausible precursor to the 8 kDa PK-resistant fragment and its detection in adolescent Tg.HRdup mice suggests that an early start to accumulation could account for early disease of the index case. A 16 kDa thermolysin-resistant signature was also found in GSS patients with P102L, A117V, H187R and F198S alleles and has coordinates similar to GSS stop codon mutations. Our data suggest a novel shared pathway of GSS pathogenesis that is fundamentally distinct from that producing structural alterations in the C-terminus of PrP, as observed in other prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and scrapie. PMID:29338055

  19. Telecommunications system reliability engineering theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Ayers, Mark L

    2012-01-01

    "Increasing system complexity require new, more sophisticated tools for system modeling and metric calculation. Bringing the field up to date, this book provides telecommunications engineers with practical tools for analyzing, calculating, and reporting availability, reliability, and maintainability metrics. It gives the background in system reliability theory and covers in-depth applications in fiber optic networks, microwave networks, satellite networks, power systems, and facilities management. Computer programming tools for simulating the approaches presented, using the Matlab software suite, are also provided"

  20. Computer-aided reliability and risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leicht, R.; Wingender, H.J.

    1989-01-01

    Activities in the fields of reliability and risk analyses have led to the development of particular software tools which now are combined in the PC-based integrated CARARA system. The options available in this system cover a wide range of reliability-oriented tasks, like organizing raw failure data in the component/event data bank FDB, performing statistical analysis of those data with the program FDA, managing the resulting parameters in the reliability data bank RDB, and performing fault tree analysis with the fault tree code FTL or evaluating the risk of toxic or radioactive material release with the STAR code. (orig.)

  1. Quantized hopfield networks for reliability optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nourelfath, Mustapha; Nahas, Nabil

    2003-01-01

    The use of neural networks in the reliability optimization field is rare. This paper presents an application of a recent kind of neural networks in a reliability optimization problem for a series system with multiple-choice constraints incorporated at each subsystem, to maximize the system reliability subject to the system budget. The problem is formulated as a nonlinear binary integer programming problem and characterized as an NP-hard problem. Our design of neural network to solve efficiently this problem is based on a quantized Hopfield network. This network allows us to obtain optimal design solutions very frequently and much more quickly than others Hopfield networks

  2. Effectiveness of different approaches to disseminating traveler information on travel time reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The second Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Reliability program aims to improve trip time reliability by reducing the frequency and effects of events that cause travel times to fluctuate unpredictably. Congestion caused by unreliable, or n...

  3. Reliability of construction materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merz, H.

    1976-01-01

    One can also speak of reliability with respect to materials. While for reliability of components the MTBF (mean time between failures) is regarded as the main criterium, this is replaced with regard to materials by possible failure mechanisms like physical/chemical reaction mechanisms, disturbances of physical or chemical equilibrium, or other interactions or changes of system. The main tasks of the reliability analysis of materials therefore is the prediction of the various failure reasons, the identification of interactions, and the development of nondestructive testing methods. (RW) [de

  4. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...... of the uncertainties and their interplay is the developed, step-by-step. The concepts presented are illustrated by numerous examples throughout the text....

  5. Reliability and mechanical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, Maurice

    1997-01-01

    A lot of results in mechanical design are obtained from a modelisation of physical reality and from a numerical solution which would lead to the evaluation of needs and resources. The goal of the reliability analysis is to evaluate the confidence which it is possible to grant to the chosen design through the calculation of a probability of failure linked to the retained scenario. Two types of analysis are proposed: the sensitivity analysis and the reliability analysis. Approximate methods are applicable to problems related to reliability, availability, maintainability and safety (RAMS)

  6. RTE - 2013 Reliability Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denis, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    RTE publishes a yearly reliability report based on a standard model to facilitate comparisons and highlight long-term trends. The 2013 report is not only stating the facts of the Significant System Events (ESS), but it moreover underlines the main elements dealing with the reliability of the electrical power system. It highlights the various elements which contribute to present and future reliability and provides an overview of the interaction between the various stakeholders of the Electrical Power System on the scale of the European Interconnected Network. (author)

  7. Prion Protein Does Not Confer Resistance to Hippocampus-Derived Zpl Cells against the Toxic Effects of Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ and Co2+ Not Supporting a General Protective Role for PrP in Transition Metal Induced Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingaram, Pradeep Kumar Reddy; Nyeste, Antal; Dondapati, Divya Teja; Fodor, Elfrieda; Welker, Ervin

    2015-01-01

    The interactions of transition metals with the prion protein (PrP) are well-documented and characterized, however, there is no consensus on their role in either the physiology of PrP or PrP-related neurodegenerative disorders. PrP has been reported to protect cells from the toxic stimuli of metals. By employing a cell viability assay, we examined the effects of various concentrations of Cu2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, and Co2+ on Zpl (Prnp-/-) and ZW (Prnp+/+) hippocampus-derived mouse neuronal cells. Prnp-/- Zpl cells were more sensitive to all four metals than PrP-expressing Zw cells. However, when we introduced PrP or only the empty vector into Zpl cells, we could not discern any protective effect associated with the presence of PrP. This observation was further corroborated when assessing the toxic effect of metals by propidium-iodide staining and fluorescence activated cell sorting analysis. Thus, our results on this mouse cell culture model do not seem to support a strong protective role for PrP against transition metal toxicity and also emphasize the necessity of extreme care when comparing cells derived from PrP knock-out and wild type mice.

  8. CADRIGS--computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwik, R.J.; Polizzi, L.M.; Sticco, S.; Gerrard, P.B.; Yeater, M.L.; Hockenbury, R.W.; Phillips, M.A.

    1982-01-01

    An integrated reliability analysis program combining graphic representation of fault trees, automated data base loadings and reference, and automated construction of reliability code input files was developed. The functional specifications for CADRIGS, the computer aided design reliability interactive graphics system, are presented. Previously developed fault tree segments used in auxiliary feedwater system safety analysis were constructed on CADRIGS and, when combined, yielded results identical to those resulting from manual input to the same reliability codes

  9. Approach to reliability assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, A.E.; Bourne, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Experience has shown that reliability assessments can play an important role in the early design and subsequent operation of technological systems where reliability is at a premium. The approaches to and techniques for such assessments, which have been outlined in the paper, have been successfully applied in variety of applications ranging from individual equipments to large and complex systems. The general approach involves the logical and systematic establishment of the purpose, performance requirements and reliability criteria of systems. This is followed by an appraisal of likely system achievment based on the understanding of different types of variational behavior. A fundamental reliability model emerges from the correlation between the appropriate Q and H functions for performance requirement and achievement. This model may cover the complete spectrum of performance behavior in all the system dimensions

  10. The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chung H.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this program is to develop innovative DNA detection technologies to achieve fast microbial community assessment. The specific approaches are (1) to develop inexpensive and reliable sequence-proof hybridization DNA detection technology (2) to develop quantitative DNA hybridization technology for microbial community assessment and (3) to study the microbes which have demonstrated the potential to have nuclear waste bioremediation

  11. Structural systems reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, D.

    1975-01-01

    For an exact evaluation of the reliability of a structure it appears necessary to determine the distribution densities of the loads and resistances and to calculate the correlation coefficients between loads and between resistances. These statistical characteristics can be obtained only on the basis of a long activity period. In case that such studies are missing the statistical properties formulated here give upper and lower bounds of the reliability. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Reliability and maintainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Several communications in this conference are concerned with nuclear plant reliability and maintainability; their titles are: maintenance optimization of stand-by Diesels of 900 MW nuclear power plants; CLAIRE: an event-based simulation tool for software testing; reliability as one important issue within the periodic safety review of nuclear power plants; design of nuclear building ventilation by the means of functional analysis; operation characteristic analysis for a power industry plant park, as a function of influence parameters

  13. Reliability data book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, J.P.; Boerje, S.; Ericsson, G.; Hasler, A.; Lyden, C.O.; Wallin, L.; Poern, K.; Aakerlund, O.

    1985-01-01

    The main objective for the report is to improve failure data for reliability calculations as parts of safety analyses for Swedish nuclear power plants. The work is based primarily on evaluations of failure reports as well as information provided by the operation and maintenance staff of each plant. In the report are presented charts of reliability data for: pumps, valves, control rods/rod drives, electrical components, and instruments. (L.E.)

  14. A general software reliability process simulation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausworthe, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    The structure and rationale of the generalized software reliability process, together with the design and implementation of a computer program that simulates this process are described. Given assumed parameters of a particular project, the users of this program are able to generate simulated status timelines of work products, numbers of injected anomalies, and the progress of testing, fault isolation, repair, validation, and retest. Such timelines are useful in comparison with actual timeline data, for validating the project input parameters, and for providing data for researchers in reliability prediction modeling.

  15. Analysis and Application of Reliability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Seong; Park, Dong Ho; Kim, Jae Ju

    1999-05-01

    This book tells of analysis and application of reliability, which includes definition, importance and historical background of reliability, function of reliability and failure rate, life distribution and assumption of reliability, reliability of unrepaired system, reliability of repairable system, sampling test of reliability, failure analysis like failure analysis by FEMA and FTA, and cases, accelerated life testing such as basic conception, acceleration and acceleration factor, and analysis of accelerated life testing data, maintenance policy about alternation and inspection.

  16. Demonstration of reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwan, C.A.; Morgan, T.A.

    1991-04-01

    Reliability centered maintenance (RCM) is an approach to preventive maintenance planning and evaluation that has been used successfully by other industries, most notably the airlines and military. Now EPRI is demonstrating RCM in the commercial nuclear power industry. Just completed are large-scale, two-year demonstrations at Rochester Gas ampersand Electric (Ginna Nuclear Power Station) and Southern California Edison (San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station). Both demonstrations were begun in the spring of 1988. At each plant, RCM was performed on 12 to 21 major systems. Both demonstrations determined that RCM is an appropriate means to optimize a PM program and improve nuclear plant preventive maintenance on a large scale. Such favorable results had been suggested by three earlier EPRI pilot studies at Florida Power ampersand Light, Duke Power, and Southern California Edison. EPRI selected the Ginna and San Onofre sites because, together, they represent a broad range of utility and plant size, plant organization, plant age, and histories of availability and reliability. Significant steps in each demonstration included: selecting and prioritizing plant systems for RCM evaluation; performing the RCM evaluation steps on selected systems; evaluating the RCM recommendations by a multi-disciplinary task force; implementing the RCM recommendations; establishing a system to track and verify the RCM benefits; and establishing procedures to update the RCM bases and recommendations with time (a living program). 7 refs., 1 tab

  17. Safety and reliability criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants and, in particular, reactor pressure boundary components have unique reliability requirements, in that usually no significant redundancy is possible, and a single failure can give rise to possible widespread core damage and fission product release. Reliability may be required for availability or safety reasons, but in the case of the pressure boundary and certain other systems safety may dominate. Possible Safety and Reliability (S and R) criteria are proposed which would produce acceptable reactor design. Without some S and R requirement the designer has no way of knowing how far he must go in analysing his system or component, or whether his proposed solution is likely to gain acceptance. The paper shows how reliability targets for given components and systems can be individually considered against the derived S and R criteria at the design and construction stage. Since in the case of nuclear pressure boundary components there is often very little direct experience on which to base reliability studies, relevant non-nuclear experience is examined. (author)

  18. Proposed reliability cost model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delionback, L. M.

    1973-01-01

    The research investigations which were involved in the study include: cost analysis/allocation, reliability and product assurance, forecasting methodology, systems analysis, and model-building. This is a classic example of an interdisciplinary problem, since the model-building requirements include the need for understanding and communication between technical disciplines on one hand, and the financial/accounting skill categories on the other. The systems approach is utilized within this context to establish a clearer and more objective relationship between reliability assurance and the subcategories (or subelements) that provide, or reenforce, the reliability assurance for a system. Subcategories are further subdivided as illustrated by a tree diagram. The reliability assurance elements can be seen to be potential alternative strategies, or approaches, depending on the specific goals/objectives of the trade studies. The scope was limited to the establishment of a proposed reliability cost-model format. The model format/approach is dependent upon the use of a series of subsystem-oriented CER's and sometimes possible CTR's, in devising a suitable cost-effective policy.

  19. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karadeniz, Halil; Togan, Vedat; Vrouwenvelder, Ton

    2009-01-01

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.

  20. An integrated reliability-based design optimization of offshore towers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karadeniz, Halil [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)], E-mail: h.karadeniz@tudelft.nl; Togan, Vedat [Department of Civil Engineering, Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey); Vrouwenvelder, Ton [Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    After recognizing the uncertainty in the parameters such as material, loading, geometry and so on in contrast with the conventional optimization, the reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) concept has become more meaningful to perform an economical design implementation, which includes a reliability analysis and an optimization algorithm. RBDO procedures include structural analysis, reliability analysis and sensitivity analysis both for optimization and for reliability. The efficiency of the RBDO system depends on the mentioned numerical algorithms. In this work, an integrated algorithms system is proposed to implement the RBDO of the offshore towers, which are subjected to the extreme wave loading. The numerical strategies interacting with each other to fulfill the RBDO of towers are as follows: (a) a structural analysis program, SAPOS, (b) an optimization program, SQP and (c) a reliability analysis program based on FORM. A demonstration of an example tripod tower under the reliability constraints based on limit states of the critical stress, buckling and the natural frequency is presented.